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TRAVERSE SURVEY
Mohd Effendi Daud (Dr. Sc)
B.Surv (UTM, Malaysia) Msc (UTM, Malaysia), Dr.Sc, (Nagoya Univ.,
Japan)

(Geomatic Division)
Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat,
Johor, MALAYSIA.
Phone : +6074537363; +60197853740; Fax :
+6074537060
E-mail : effendi@uthm.edu.my
Web: http://www.fkass.uthm.edu.my/
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OVERVIEW
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Learning outcomes
By the end of this topic you should be to:
Outline the basic components of a Total
Station,
Carry out temporary adjustments of a TS,
Compute and adjust a TS traverse,
Compute coordinates for traversing, and
Determine the nature of errors affecting the
traverse work.
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INTRODUCTION
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## Traversing is a form of a control survey that

requires the establishment of a series of
stations that are linked together by angles and
distances.
The angles and distances are measured by
Total Station.
The use of traversing surveys is very
fundamental and has become one of the most
common methods in geomatic engineering
work such as:
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INTRODUCTION
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## General purpose angle measurement,

Provision of control surveys,
Contour and detail mapping, and
Setting out and construction work.

This topic will describe: The construction and use of the Total
Station in traversing,

INTRODUCTION
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## The traverse design and the procedures

of computing and adjusting a traverse,
The application of coordinates for point
will also be covered in this topic which
will be very useful in Civil Engineering
project.

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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## A total station is an electronic/optical

instrument used in modern surveying.
The total station is an electronic theodolite
integrated with an electronic distance
meter (EDM) to read distances from the
instrument to a particular point.
A theodolite is an instrument for measuring
both horizontal and vertical angles. It is key
tool in surveying and engineering work.
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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## Vertical angles are required for the

calculation of elevation of points for
example the reduction of slope
distance to the horizontal.
Horizontal angles are required to
obtain the relative direction to a
survey control station or points of
detail.
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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## Construction of a Total Station

All total station have the same common
features which is can be described as
follows.

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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## Temporary Adjustment of Total

Station
The temporary adjustments are steps that
must be carried out every time a total station
used.
It is a procedure of setting up a theodolite
that involves the following process
Centering
Leveling, and
Removing parallax.
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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## (a) Centering the total station

The instrument must be vertically above
the survey station to ensure that
horizontal angle observation are correct.
The steps are as follow:
Start with a optical plummet to get it
approximately right above the survey station.
Using the foot screws, move the optical
plummet cross hairs on the survey station.

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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## (a) Centering the total

stationcont.
Roughly level the
instrument using legs of
the tripod the total station
should stay almost on
target.
Level with foot screws.
Move instrument above
target; repeat level and
move until done.
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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## (b) Leveling the Total Station

Turn bubble parallel to two foot screws A
and B, to bring the horizontal bubble to
the centre.
Turn the instrument through 90 and
bring the bubble to the centre by
adjusting the third foot screw C only.
Turn the instrument through a further 90
to check the adjustment of the plate
bubble.
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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## (b) Leveling the Total Station

cont.
If the bubble remains in centre, then it is
adjusted.
If not, repeat the whole procedure.

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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## Permanent Adjustment of Total

Station
These adjustment are carried out once
and will not alter unless it is being
roughly handled or tampered with.
There are certain basic requirements for a
total station that must be established
particularly when using it.
The basic requirements re as follows:
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TOTAL STATION
PRINCIPLES & APPL

## The vertical axis of a total station should be truly

vertical,
The line of sight should be perpendicular to the
horizontal axis,
The horizontal axis should be truly horizontal,
The cross hair should be truly vertical and
horizontal, and
The vertical circle should be at zero when the line
of sight is horizontal.
** The steps in carrying out the adjustments should
be handled by the qualified person at the
laboratory **
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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## Horizontal Angle Measurement

The concept of measuring the
horizontal and vertical angle is
simple.
The following procedures should be
used to measure the horizontal
angles between three stations A, B,
and C
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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## Setup the total station

on station B. the total
station instrument
has two faces; Face
left & Face right.
Starting from the face
left, the telescope is
pointed at station A.
The horizontal
reading is then noted,
i.e. 253000
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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## The instrument is then

turned in a clockwise
direction to point at
station C. Again the
horizontal reading is
noted, i.e. 1455000
The horizontal angle
can be calculated, by
finding the difference
between the two
i.e., C A = 1455000 25o3000
= 1202000
horizontal reading.
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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## Change the face of the

total station. Whilst
pointing at station C the
horizontal reading is
again recorded, i.e.
3255000
Turn the instrument in a
clockwise manner and
point at station A.
Record the horizontali.e., C A = 3255000 2053000
reading, i.e. 2053000. = 1202000
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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## Note that changing the face will

change the reading by 180. This
gives a check on the observations
and ensures that reading errors
can be eliminated. If there is a
great difference in two readings,
the observations are repeated
until readings agree.
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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## Vertical Angle Measurement

A vertical angle is the angle
measured vertically from a horizontal
plane of reference.
When the telescope is pointed in the
horizontal plane (level), the reading of
the vertical angle is zero (0).

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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## When the telescope is

pointed up, then the
vertical angle increases
from zero and the
reading is a positive
(+ve) vertical angle.
The reading increase
from 0 to +90 when
the telescope is pointed
straight up.
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ANGLE
MEASUREMENT

## If the telescope is depressed

(pointed down), then the
angle reading will increase in
numerical value. The
depressed telescope reading
indicates that it is below the
horizontal plane and the
reading is a negative (-ve)
vertical angle. These
numerical value increase
from 0 to -90 when the
telescope is pointed straight
down.
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Traverse Definition
A traverse is a series of straight lines that
are used to connect a series of selected
points. This selected points are called
traverse stations where distance and
angle measurements are made. The
relative positions of the traverse stations
are then computed using some
coordinate systems.
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## For a better understanding, the

definition of traverse survey can be
summarized as follows;
A measurement of straight lines and the
horizontal angle from one point to
another using Total Station.
The sides can be expressed as either
polar coordinates (,d) or as rectangular
coordinates (N, E).
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## A traverse framework comprising of a

series of connected lines where the
lengths and directions are observed and
measured.
The traverse framework can be OPEN or
CLOSED traverse i.e., start at known
point and ends at another known point
or the same start point.

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Type of Traverses
Closed Traverse

Control station

Traverse station

Closed traverse
(polygon)

A
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Type of Traverses
Closed Traverse
D

B
A

Control station
Traverse station

E
F
G
H

Closed traverse
(geometrically open)
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Type of Traverses
Open Traverse

Control station
Traverse station

B
A

F
G

Open traverse
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Coordinates System
Points on the surface of the earth or on a
plan can be accurately positioned by
taking measurements to a known, stable
point of reference.
Assume that the axes of the graph are
referred to as North, South, East and West
as shown in Figure.
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## In above Figure, Point A is at (1,2) and Point B is at (9,5).

The referencing used that the x-axis is known as EASTINGS
and the y-axis is known as NORTHINGS.
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## There are two methods of referring

the point;
Rectangular coordinates, or
Polar coordinates

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## Rectangular Coordinates (Grid)

Rectangular coordinates are a
system of locating points by means
of the measurement of two
perpendicular distances from the
principal axes to that point. These
two perpendicular distances are the
easting and northing
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Rectangular Coordinates

North

Point B
(EB,NB)

N
B

N=NB-NA
NA

Point A
(EA,NA)

EA

E=EB-EA

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East

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Polar Coordinates
If R is the origin and P is
the reference object, the
point P can be located by
its polar coordinates of
angle and distance i.e.
and D, where D is the
distance from the origin
and is a clockwise
angle between R and P.

Northing
P

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Polar Coordinates

North

Point B
d

Point A
~ whole-circle bearing
d ~ distance
East
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Coordinate Conversions
Rectangular to polar

Polar to rectangular

E
tan1

E dsin

d E2 N2

N dcos

E
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Northing
There are three (3) reference
directions (or datum meridian) that
are used as traverse reference we
should be associated with. They are:
Magnetic North,
Grid North, and
True North
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Meridian
A meridian (or line of longitude) is
an imaginary arc on the Earths
surface from the North Pole to the
South Pole that connects all locations
running along it with a given
longitude.
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Meridian
The meridian that
passes through
Greenwich, England
establishes the
meaning of zero
degrees of longitude,
or the Prime Meridian
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Bearing Calculation
There are two types of bearing that
are commonly used in geomatic
engineering are:
Whole Circle Bearings (WCB), and
Quadrant Bearings (QB) or Reduced
Bearing (RB).

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## Whole Circle Bearing

The Whole Circle Bearing
(WCB) of a line AB is defined
as the clockwise angle from 0
to 360 at A between the
direction to North and the
direction to B.
This is the standard way of
defining a bearing in surveying
Bearing of AB = & BA =
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

bearin
g

bearin
g

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COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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Quadrant Bearing
A quadrant bearing can
be defined as the angle
lying between 0 and 90,
between the direction to
the north or south and
the direction of the line.
East and West directions
are never used as
reference lines.

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM
Quadrant Bearing

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WCB & QB

North
0o

TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## Bearing are measured

clockwise from NORTH
and must lie in the range
0o 360o

West
270o

## 3rd quadrant 2nd quadrant

East
90o

South
180o
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## Angular Observation and Booking

Two most common methods in
making angular observation in total
station traversing are:
Internal angle method, and
Bearing method (commonly used in total
station traversing)

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

## The Bearing Method

The procedure and bookings to be followed
are as follows [Refer to Figure]:
Instrument is set up at station B and station A is
sighted in face left. A known bearing i.e.
452020 is set on station A.
Station C is sighted and the reading is recorded.
The telescope is then transit to change to the
face right.
With the face right setting, bearing to C and A
are recorded.
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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

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From

To

Station

Station

FaceLeft

FaceRight

Mean

000'00"

18000'00"

3026'30"

3026'20"

21026'40"

## For improved precision the angle measurement

can be repeated any number of times.
The number of face left observations must be
Equal the number of face right observations.
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LINEAR
MEASUREMENT

## Tripod with prism targets is set up at Station A and C.

Total station is set up on station B. Linear measurement
or distance to BA and BC are taken and recorded.
Bearing to BA and BC are taken on face left and
recorded.

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Classes of Traverses
o Generally, four classes;
o Standard traverse,
o Fist class traverse,
o Second class traverse, and
o Third class traverse
Why divided by four classes

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TRAVERSE &
COORDINATE
SYSTEM

Classes of Traverses
o Main characteristics differ
o Precision,
o Bearing closure
o Measured distance,
o Observed bearing, and
o Definite bearing

EXERCISE 1
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## Explain in detail how to set up a total

station over a station mark.
Describe in detail the five permanent
total station adjustments that should
be tested from time to time.

EXERCISE 2
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## The horizontal angles read at station A and

station C are 733000 and 1452000
respectively. If the total station is set up at
station B. What will be the internal angle ABC?
If the face left reading of the horizontal angle
is 2252000, what is the most probable
reading that you will obtain if the total station
is transit and read in the face right?
The vertical angle reading of a total station is
10530 indicating that it is above the
horizontal plane. What will be the true vertical
angle?
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EXERCISE 3
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## What are the characteristics of a

traverse?
Explain the significant difference
between the methods of coordinate
referencing in traverse?

EXERCISE 4
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## Name the FOUR quadrant bearings

by referring to the North and South
directions.
The whole circle bearing (WCB) of a
traverse line is 11530. What will be
the value if it is described in
quadrant bearing?