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GEOMATIC - Geomatics Concept

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TRAVERSE SURVEY

Mohd Effendi Daud (Dr. Sc)

B.Surv (UTM, Malaysia) Msc (UTM, Malaysia), Dr.Sc, (Nagoya Univ.,

Japan)

(Geomatic Division)

Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering,

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat,

Johor, MALAYSIA.

Phone : +6074537363; +60197853740; Fax :

+6074537060

E-mail : effendi@uthm.edu.my

Web: http://www.fkass.uthm.edu.my/

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OVERVIEW

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this topic you should be to:

Outline the basic components of a Total

Station,

Carry out temporary adjustments of a TS,

Compute and adjust a TS traverse,

Compute coordinates for traversing, and

Determine the nature of errors affecting the

traverse work.

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INTRODUCTION

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requires the establishment of a series of

stations that are linked together by angles and

distances.

The angles and distances are measured by

Total Station.

The use of traversing surveys is very

fundamental and has become one of the most

common methods in geomatic engineering

work such as:

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INTRODUCTION

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Provision of control surveys,

Contour and detail mapping, and

Setting out and construction work.

This topic will describe: The construction and use of the Total

Station in traversing,

INTRODUCTION

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of computing and adjusting a traverse,

The application of coordinates for point

will also be covered in this topic which

will be very useful in Civil Engineering

project.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

instrument used in modern surveying.

The total station is an electronic theodolite

integrated with an electronic distance

meter (EDM) to read distances from the

instrument to a particular point.

A theodolite is an instrument for measuring

both horizontal and vertical angles. It is key

tool in surveying and engineering work.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

calculation of elevation of points for

example the reduction of slope

distance to the horizontal.

Horizontal angles are required to

obtain the relative direction to a

survey control station or points of

detail.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

All total station have the same common

features which is can be described as

follows.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

Station

The temporary adjustments are steps that

must be carried out every time a total station

used.

It is a procedure of setting up a theodolite

that involves the following process

Centering

Leveling, and

Removing parallax.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

The instrument must be vertically above

the survey station to ensure that

horizontal angle observation are correct.

The steps are as follow:

Start with a optical plummet to get it

approximately right above the survey station.

Using the foot screws, move the optical

plummet cross hairs on the survey station.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

stationcont.

Roughly level the

instrument using legs of

the tripod the total station

should stay almost on

target.

Level with foot screws.

Move instrument above

target; repeat level and

move until done.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

Turn bubble parallel to two foot screws A

and B, to bring the horizontal bubble to

the centre.

Turn the instrument through 90 and

bring the bubble to the centre by

adjusting the third foot screw C only.

Turn the instrument through a further 90

to check the adjustment of the plate

bubble.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

cont.

If the bubble remains in centre, then it is

adjusted.

If not, repeat the whole procedure.

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

Station

These adjustment are carried out once

and will not alter unless it is being

roughly handled or tampered with.

There are certain basic requirements for a

total station that must be established

particularly when using it.

The basic requirements re as follows:

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TOTAL STATION

PRINCIPLES & APPL

vertical,

The line of sight should be perpendicular to the

horizontal axis,

The horizontal axis should be truly horizontal,

The cross hair should be truly vertical and

horizontal, and

The vertical circle should be at zero when the line

of sight is horizontal.

** The steps in carrying out the adjustments should

be handled by the qualified person at the

laboratory **

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

The concept of measuring the

horizontal and vertical angle is

simple.

The following procedures should be

used to measure the horizontal

angles between three stations A, B,

and C

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

on station B. the total

station instrument

has two faces; Face

left & Face right.

Starting from the face

left, the telescope is

pointed at station A.

The horizontal

reading is then noted,

i.e. 253000

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

turned in a clockwise

direction to point at

station C. Again the

horizontal reading is

noted, i.e. 1455000

The horizontal angle

can be calculated, by

finding the difference

between the two

i.e., C A = 1455000 25o3000

= 1202000

horizontal reading.

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

total station. Whilst

pointing at station C the

horizontal reading is

again recorded, i.e.

3255000

Turn the instrument in a

clockwise manner and

point at station A.

Record the horizontali.e., C A = 3255000 2053000

reading, i.e. 2053000. = 1202000

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

change the reading by 180. This

gives a check on the observations

and ensures that reading errors

can be eliminated. If there is a

great difference in two readings,

the observations are repeated

until readings agree.

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

A vertical angle is the angle

measured vertically from a horizontal

plane of reference.

When the telescope is pointed in the

horizontal plane (level), the reading of

the vertical angle is zero (0).

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

pointed up, then the

vertical angle increases

from zero and the

reading is a positive

(+ve) vertical angle.

The reading increase

from 0 to +90 when

the telescope is pointed

straight up.

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ANGLE

MEASUREMENT

(pointed down), then the

angle reading will increase in

numerical value. The

depressed telescope reading

indicates that it is below the

horizontal plane and the

reading is a negative (-ve)

vertical angle. These

numerical value increase

from 0 to -90 when the

telescope is pointed straight

down.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Traverse Definition

A traverse is a series of straight lines that

are used to connect a series of selected

points. This selected points are called

traverse stations where distance and

angle measurements are made. The

relative positions of the traverse stations

are then computed using some

coordinate systems.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

definition of traverse survey can be

summarized as follows;

A measurement of straight lines and the

horizontal angle from one point to

another using Total Station.

The sides can be expressed as either

polar coordinates (,d) or as rectangular

coordinates (N, E).

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

series of connected lines where the

lengths and directions are observed and

measured.

The traverse framework can be OPEN or

CLOSED traverse i.e., start at known

point and ends at another known point

or the same start point.

TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Type of Traverses

Closed Traverse

Control station

Traverse station

Closed traverse

(polygon)

A

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Type of Traverses

Closed Traverse

D

B

A

Control station

Traverse station

E

F

G

H

Closed traverse

(geometrically open)

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Type of Traverses

Open Traverse

Control station

Traverse station

B

A

F

G

Open traverse

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Coordinates System

Points on the surface of the earth or on a

plan can be accurately positioned by

taking measurements to a known, stable

point of reference.

Assume that the axes of the graph are

referred to as North, South, East and West

as shown in Figure.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

The referencing used that the x-axis is known as EASTINGS

and the y-axis is known as NORTHINGS.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

the point;

Rectangular coordinates, or

Polar coordinates

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Rectangular coordinates are a

system of locating points by means

of the measurement of two

perpendicular distances from the

principal axes to that point. These

two perpendicular distances are the

easting and northing

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Rectangular Coordinates

North

Point B

(EB,NB)

N

B

N=NB-NA

NA

Point A

(EA,NA)

EA

E=EB-EA

East

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Polar Coordinates

If R is the origin and P is

the reference object, the

point P can be located by

its polar coordinates of

angle and distance i.e.

and D, where D is the

distance from the origin

and is a clockwise

angle between R and P.

Northing

P

TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Polar Coordinates

North

Point B

d

Point A

~ whole-circle bearing

d ~ distance

East

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Coordinate Conversions

Rectangular to polar

Polar to rectangular

E

tan1

E dsin

d E2 N2

N dcos

E

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Northing

There are three (3) reference

directions (or datum meridian) that

are used as traverse reference we

should be associated with. They are:

Magnetic North,

Grid North, and

True North

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Meridian

A meridian (or line of longitude) is

an imaginary arc on the Earths

surface from the North Pole to the

South Pole that connects all locations

running along it with a given

longitude.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Meridian

The meridian that

passes through

Greenwich, England

establishes the

meaning of zero

degrees of longitude,

or the Prime Meridian

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Bearing Calculation

There are two types of bearing that

are commonly used in geomatic

engineering are:

Whole Circle Bearings (WCB), and

Quadrant Bearings (QB) or Reduced

Bearing (RB).

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

The Whole Circle Bearing

(WCB) of a line AB is defined

as the clockwise angle from 0

to 360 at A between the

direction to North and the

direction to B.

This is the standard way of

defining a bearing in surveying

Bearing of AB = & BA =

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

bearin

g

bearin

g

TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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Quadrant Bearing

A quadrant bearing can

be defined as the angle

lying between 0 and 90,

between the direction to

the north or south and

the direction of the line.

East and West directions

are never used as

reference lines.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Quadrant Bearing

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WCB & QB

North

0o

TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

clockwise from NORTH

and must lie in the range

0o 360o

West

270o

East

90o

South

180o

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Two most common methods in

making angular observation in total

station traversing are:

Internal angle method, and

Bearing method (commonly used in total

station traversing)

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

The procedure and bookings to be followed

are as follows [Refer to Figure]:

Instrument is set up at station B and station A is

sighted in face left. A known bearing i.e.

452020 is set on station A.

Station C is sighted and the reading is recorded.

The telescope is then transit to change to the

face right.

With the face right setting, bearing to C and A

are recorded.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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From

To

Station

Station

FaceLeft

FaceRight

Mean

000'00"

18000'00"

3026'30"

3026'20"

21026'40"

can be repeated any number of times.

The number of face left observations must be

Equal the number of face right observations.

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LINEAR

MEASUREMENT

Total station is set up on station B. Linear measurement

or distance to BA and BC are taken and recorded.

Bearing to BA and BC are taken on face left and

recorded.

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Classes of Traverses

o Generally, four classes;

o Standard traverse,

o Fist class traverse,

o Second class traverse, and

o Third class traverse

Why divided by four classes

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TRAVERSE &

COORDINATE

SYSTEM

Classes of Traverses

o Main characteristics differ

o Precision,

o Bearing closure

o Measured distance,

o Observed bearing, and

o Definite bearing

EXERCISE 1

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station over a station mark.

Describe in detail the five permanent

total station adjustments that should

be tested from time to time.

EXERCISE 2

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station C are 733000 and 1452000

respectively. If the total station is set up at

station B. What will be the internal angle ABC?

If the face left reading of the horizontal angle

is 2252000, what is the most probable

reading that you will obtain if the total station

is transit and read in the face right?

The vertical angle reading of a total station is

10530 indicating that it is above the

horizontal plane. What will be the true vertical

angle?

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EXERCISE 3

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traverse?

Explain the significant difference

between the methods of coordinate

referencing in traverse?

EXERCISE 4

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by referring to the North and South

directions.

The whole circle bearing (WCB) of a

traverse line is 11530. What will be

the value if it is described in

quadrant bearing?

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