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English Connectors

ADITTION
also:
also tambin
too:
too tambin
as well (as): tambin

besides:
besides adems (y encima)
furthermore:
furthermore adems
moreover:
moreover adems

in addition (to):
(to) adems
what is more:
more lo que es ms
and:
and y

CAUSE
as: ya que, puesto que
because: porque
because of: a causa de
due to:
to debido a
for that reason: por esa razn /motivo

since: ya que
sothat (+adj): tan que
such athat (+SN): tanque
the reason for (+SN): la razn de
the reason why (+sent): la razn por la cual

CONDITION
if:
if: si
unless:
unless: a menos que
whether:
whether: si (opcin)

just in case: por si acaso


in case of: en caso de
only if: solo si

CONTRAST
although/though:
although/though aunque
but:
but pero
despite:
despite a pesar de
in spite of:
of a pesar de
instead (of):
(of) en lugar de eso
otherwise:
otherwise en caso contrario

however:
while:
however sin embargo
while mientras que
nevertheless:
nevertheless sin embargo
whereas:
whereas mientras que
still:
even if: incluso si
still sin embargo
yet:
even though: aunque
yet sin embargo
on the contrary:
contrary por el contrario
on the one hand/ on the other hand:
hand
por una parte/ por otra parte

EMPHASIS
above all:
all: sobre todo
actually:
actually : en realidad
after all:
all: despus de todo
especially: especialmente
indeed:
indeed de hecho
in fact: de hecho

in particular:
particular: en particular
it is true:
true : es verdad
naturally:
naturally naturalmente
of course: por supuesto
truly: en verdad
completely and utterly: completamente

ENUMERATION
to begin/start with:
with: para empezar
in the first place:
place : en primer lugar
first of all:
all: primero que todo
firstly, secondly, etc: en primer lugar

next: a continuacin
then: luego
finally:
finally: finalmente
lastly: finalmente

EXAMPLES
for example:
example : por ejemplo
for instance: por ejemplo
let us take the case of:
of: tomemos el caso de

such as: tales como


thus: as pues, por ejemplo

PURPOSE
in order to: para
so as (not) to:
to : para

(not) to:
to : para
so that (+sentence
(+sentence):
sentence ): para que

RESULT
accordingly:
accordingly como consecuencia, as pues, por tanto
as a result:
result como consecuencia, as pues, por tanto
hence: de ah
therefore: por lo tanto
thus: por consiguiente

in consequence: por lo tanto


consequently: por lo tanto
so: as
then: entonces
thats why: esto es por lo que

SIMILARITY
similarly: de manera similar
like:: como
like
compared with /to: comparado con

likewise: igualmente
in the same way: del mismo modo
in comparison with/to:
with/to: en comparacin con

SUMMARY
all in all:
all : en total
in brief: en resumen
in short: en resumen

in conclusion:
conclusion: en conclusin
on the whole: en su conjunto
to sum up:
up en resumen

TIME
at first: al principio
after (that): despus de
afterwards: despus
as long as: mientras
as soon as: tan pronto como
at that time: en ese momento, poca
at the moment: en este momento
for the moment:
moment por el momento
before: antes (de)
since (then): desde (entonces)
soon: pronto
while:
while mientras
when:
when cuando
next: a continuacin, luego
then:
then entonces, despus
lately: recientemente, ltimamente

by the time:
time para cuando
until: hasta
during:
during durante
thereafter:a
thereafter partir de entonces
formerly:
formerly anteriormente
in the meantime:
meantime mientras tanto
meanwhile:
meanwhile mientras tanto
at this time: ahora, en la actualidad
nowadays: actualmente
now:
now ahora
so far:
far hasta ahora
subsequently:a
subsequently continuacin
finally:
finally finalmente
at last: al final
in the end:
end al final, a la larga
eventually:
eventually finalmente

ADITTION
also:
also tambin
too:
too tambin
as well (as): tambin

besides:
besides adems (y encima)
furthermore:
furthermore adems
moreover:
moreover adems

in addi
addition
ddition (to):
(to) adems
what is more:
more lo que es ms
and:
and y

He wants the whole heritance and he also wants to fall in love.


She would like to climb mountains, too.
too
They preferred to avoid risks, as well.
well / As well as caffeine, tea contains various tannins.
I was late and, besides,
besides my boss had been waiting for 2 hours.
We cant wait any more. Furthermore,
Furthermore its our turn.
Forget everything you lost. Moreover,
Moreover its not worth worrying about the accident.
He didnt come back. In addition to that, he was seen at several parties.
Natives speak with natural flow. What is more,
more they dont need to think too much.
We were reading and they were using the computer.

CAUSE
as: ya que, puesto que
because: porque
because of: a causa de
due to:
to debido a
for that reason: por esa razn /motivo

since: ya que
sothat (+adj): tan que
such athat (+SN): tanque
the reason for (+SN): la razn de
the reason why (+sent): la razn por la cual

As he had been up since 4 p.m., he was now very tired.


Shes going to have her house painted because its in terrible condition.
Because of your bad temper, Ill have to dismiss you as soon as possible.
The game was delayed due to bad weather.
The results are getting worse. For that reason,
reason we must work harder.
Since you cant go to the disco, would you mind if we put our date off?
The hotel was so cosy that I stayed five more weeks.
Your sister is such a friendly person that I sometimes think she deserves a better life.
That was the reason for his late arrival.
That was the reason why he arrived late.

CONDITION
if:
if: si
unless:
unless: a menos que
whether:
whether: si (opcin)

just in case: por si acaso


in case of: en caso de
only if: solo si

He qualifies this year if he gets through his exams.

There might be a problem finding a house, unless you can somehow build your own.
I wasnt sure whether I liked him or not.
You should take an umbrella just in case it rains.
In case of emergency, walk in an orderly fashion to the assembly point.
I'll go, but only if you go with me.

CONTRAST
although/though
lthough/though:
/though aunque
but:
but pero
despite:
despite a pesar de
in spite of:
of a pesar de
instead (of):
(of) en lugar de eso
otherwise:
otherwise en caso contrario

however:
while:
however sin embargo
while mientras que
nevertheless:
whereas:
nevertheless sin embargo
whereas mientras que
still:
even if: incluso si
still sin embargo
yet:
even though: aunque
yet sin embargo
on the contrary:
contrary por el contrario
o n the one hand/ on the other hand:
hand
por una parte/ por otra parte

 despite, ins spite of, instead of van siempre seguido de un nombre, frase nominal o de

gerundio.
 whereas no sirve para indicar tiempo, mientras que while s.
He lost her job, although you dont believe me.
We can earn a lot of money but we dont have the necessary facilities to do it.
Despite the rain, the match started at the expected hour.
In spite of his rude behavior, I still love him./ In spite of selling my house, were broke yet.
Despite the fact that the president wanted me to pay attention, it was impossible.
In spite of the fact that I was deaf, everybody received me very kindly.
I watched TV instead of doing my homework./ I had to study but I watched TV, instead.
You have to come back home at eight o clock. Otherwise,
Otherwise mum will tell you off.
Samantha was tired and exhausted. However,
However she got to finish her task.
I cant accept. Nevertheless,
Nevertheless I appreciate your offer.
Its not perfect yet. Still,
Still Its an improvement.
Everything around him went off. Yet,
Yet he got away without a scratch
Do you think people cant change? On the contrary,
contrary they can!
On the one hand there is the blue team and on the other hand there is the red team.
While hes not my cup of tea, hes quite handsome.
Whereas the defendant is now dead, there is little reason to proceed with the case.
Even if we never see each other again, I'll always remember you.
Even though it was raining, I decided to walk to the library.
EMPHASIS
above all:
all: sobre todo
actually:
actually : en realidad

in particular:
particular: en particular
it is true:
true : es verdad

after all:
all: despus de todo
especially: especialmente
indeed:
indeed de hecho
in fact: de hecho

naturally:
naturally naturalmente
of course: por supuesto
truly: en verdad
completely and utterly: completamente

He is clever and bright but, above all hes a good student.


My last name looks German, but actually,
actually it's Dutch.
After all, we all want to live to old age.
Often, my family would have to help me, especially when I had a cold or didn't feel well.
Yes, indeed,
indeed I do plan to eat out tonight.
In fact, this is not as contradictory as it may seem.
More women have been elected, in particular at the local level.
It's true
true that our candidate comes from an odd country.
Its a dangerous situation. Naturally, well take every precaution.
We havent decided yet. Of course, well let you know the results.
And truly,
truly coming home was the best part of the evening.
We completely and utterly agree with this, but we want the resources to fund them.

ENUMERATION
to begin/start with:
with: para empezar
in the first place:
place: en primer lugar
first of all:
all: primero que todo
firstly,
firstly, secondly, etc: en primer lugar

next: a continuacin
then: luego
finally:
finally: finalmente
lastly: finalmente

To begin with, I would like to thank Mr Sonik for his well-prepared report.
In the first place I agreed with my doctor not to push it too hard.
First of all, there will be a set of minimum requirements for all types of content.
Firstly, we can observe an accumulated deficit.
In the first place, Im going to introduce a new concept. Next, youll have to make a
hypothesis; and last of all,
all youll have to guess the result.
We went to the village school, then to the grammar school, and then to the university.
Finally, you can see high mountains over there.
Lastly, a visual arts exhibition on a poetry-related theme will be held in connection with
these poetry days.

EXAMPLES
for example:
example : por ejemplo
for instance: por ejemplo
let us take the case of:
of: tomemos el caso de

such as: tales como


thus: as pues, por ejemplo

He is always being thoughtful. For example,


example he bought her flowers as a surprise.

Germany, for instance, launched a program on retrofitting existing housing stocks to


improve energy efficiency.
Let's take the case of adulterated butter.
Roman State suppressed new and suspect groups in society, such as Christianity.
Most people are superstitious in some way. Thus,
Thus a lot of people believe that the number 13
is unlucky.

PURPOSE
in order to: para
so as (not) to:
to : para

(not) to:
to : para
so that (+sentence
(+sentence):
sentence ): para que

In order to save time, well start right after lunch.


They set off early so as to get good seats.
Im going to the beach just to see her.
She said it slowly so that we could all understand.

RESULT
accordingly:
accordingly como consecuencia, as pues, por tanto
as a result:
result como consecuencia, as pues, por tanto
hence: de ah
therefore: por lo tanto
thus: por consiguiente

in consequence: por lo tanto


consequently: por lo tanto
so: as
then: entonces
thats why: esto es por lo que

Most people were opposed to the plan because it was too expensive. Accordingly,
Accordingly its now
being re-examined to see if the costs can be reduced.
Seven inches of snow fell during the night, blocking most main roads. As a result,
result traffic
conditions have been chaotic.
In the past, no one has taken his advice very seriously. Hence,
Hence its very probable that he
wont be very inclined to help on this occasion.
He had spent three years in Peru and therefore spoke Spanish quite well.
I wasnt invited to his wedding. Thus
Thus,
us Im still very upset at him.
The improvement in our department is evident. In consequence,
consequence our work is getting much
easier.
Absolute secrecy is essential. Consequently,
Consequently the fewer who are aware of the plan, the
better.
He speaks very little German, so I talked to him through an interpreter.
If you dont work, then you wont pass.
I lost my tickets. Thats why I couldnt attend the concert.

SIMILARITY
similarly: de manera similar
like:
like : como
compared with /to: comparado con

likewise: igualmente
in the same way: del mismo modo
in comparison with/to:
with/to: en comparacin con

The doctor advised him to give up smoking. Similarly, he recommended him to eat less.
It was hot again today, like summer should be.
This novel is rather bad. Compared with his first novel, this is rubbish.
In Greece there was a special way of cooking it, likewise in Italy.
He offered us his help. In the same way, he warned us about the possible troubles.
I used to work fifteen hours a day. In comparison with that, my current job is more like a
holiday!

SUMMARY
all in all:
all : en total
in brief: en resumen
in short: en resumen

in conclusion:
conclusion: en conclusin
on the whole: en su conjunto
to sum up:
up en resumen

All in all,
all I think you did a fine job.
In brief, its a modern city with a high quality of life.
In short, our efforts are much too fragmented.
And in conclusion to this introduction, I would like to thank you for your attention.
On the whole,
whole presidential briefings have worked well.
To sum up,
up we want to fully shoulder the responsibilities we have as a budgetary authority.

TIME
at first: al principio
after (that):
(that) : despus de
afterwards:
afterwards: despus
as long as: mientras
as soon as: tan pronto como
at that time: en ese momento, poca
at the moment: en este momento
for the moment:
moment por el momento
before:
before : antes (de)
since (then): desde (entonces)
soon: pronto
while:
while mientras
when:
when cuando
next: a continuacin, luego
then:
then entonces, despus
lately: recientemente, ltimamente

by the time:
time para cuando
until: hasta
during:
during durante
thereafter:a
thereafter partir de entonces
formerly:
formerly anteriormente
in the meantime:
meantime mientras tanto
meanwhile:
meanwhile mientras tanto
at this time: ahora, en la actualidad
nowadays: actualmente
now:
now ahora
so far:
far hasta ahora
subsequently:a
subsequently continuacin
finally:
finally finalmente
at last: al final
in the end:
end al final, a la larga
eventually:
eventually finalmente

At first I was reluctant, but at last I gave my consent to their proposal.


He spoke to the boss and after that he resigned.
Afterwards,
Afterwards we all helped with the washing up.
You couldnt turn the heat off as long as the system was operating.
I will pay for your ticket as soon as you make the reservation.
At that time,
time she wore blue jeans.
Theyre working hard at the moment.
moment
You should finish your homework before dinner.
He's been depressed ever since the death of his brother.
How soon can you get here?
She wrote an email while watching TV.
What are you doing in Madrid when you are supposed to be in Paris?
Next we will go to the beach.
If you eat all your food, then you will have pie as a reward.
Have I told you lately,
lately that I love you?
You'd better have your chores done by the time I get home or you're in big trouble.
She didn't arrive until the party was nearly over.
We will be absent during the holidays.
Thereafter
Thereafter they may be elected for one-year terms.
Formerly, this was possible only through a judicial procedure.
In the meantime, he appealed for more time for deliberation.
That car model is not available at this time.
Thanks to the simple recipe, many families make these cakes at home nowadays.
Steve does not have a job now.
How do I like retirement? So far so good. But ask me again in six months.
It is remarkable, however, how small a proportion of the reports subsequently
subsequently lead to
guilty verdicts.
We finally made it home after midnight.
At last the UN has appointed someone who knows what she's talking about!
What does it mean if we cannot have a constitution in the end?
end
He eventually decided to buy the green car.