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Chapter 2: Ratios, Rates and

Proportional Reasoning

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This chapter covers learning about:

Expressing ratios using different notations

Using ratios and rates in real-life examples

Solving problems involving rates, ratios and


proportional reasoning

2.1 Two Term and


Three Term Ratios

A ratio is a statement of how two numbers compare. It


is a relationship between numbers of the same unit.
people, objects etc.
Write the relationship of
Stars to moons

to

6 to 11 can also be written as


6:11
Referred to Ratio Notation
Use a colon : instead of the word to.
It can also be expressed as a fraction:

6/11

Write the ratio of bees to flowers

Write the ratio of snakes to gophers

Part

to part ratios:

3 red rectangles to 5 green circles


Part

to whole ratios:

4 oranges triangles to 12 shapes in total


orange = 4 = 4:12
total

12

Heres an example from the text book: We have a bag containing 20


marbles.

Part to part ratio

Compare

the number of red marbles to the total


number of marbles: Part to whole ratio

But

what about the blue marbles?

We can use a three term ratio to describe all the


marbles 4 Red to 6 Blue to10 Black or 4:6:10

Part to part ratios:


Part-to-part

ratios provide the relationship between


two distinct groups.

For

example the ratio of men to women is 3 to 5, or


the juice contains 3 parts water for every 2 parts
juice concentrate.

Part to Whole Ratios:


Part

to whole ratios provide the relationship between


a particular group and the whole populations
(including the particular group).

Mr. Bores favourite convenience store is 7-11. There are four stores in the
City of Lethbridge.
The population of Lethbridge is ~95000.

What is the ratio of 7-11 stores to people in Lethbridge. Put another


way- what is the ratio of people in Lethbridge to 7-11 stores?

2 of the stores are on the north side, and the other 2 stores are on the
south side.

Calculate the ratio if the west side had two 7-11 stores
in addition to the other 4 stores.

Another example:
Some animal feed has an amount of oats and an amount of barley.
If the ratio is 4 kilograms of oats for every 11 kilograms of barley,
how many kilograms of oats are there in a 150 kilogram bag?
4:11 ______:________ = 150 kg
4 + 11 = 15
15 x 10 = 150
4 x 10 = 40
11 x 10 = 110 40+ 110 = 150
150 kg bag of feed

The question to ask


yourself: How did I get
there?
What are the steps?
How do I show my
work?
There are
40 kg of oats in a

Example:

A paint mixture has 6L of blue paint, 2 L of yellow paint and


3 L of white paint.

What ratio represents blue to yellow to white if the white


paint is increased to 18L?

As you may be aware, there is a federal election coming up next month on Monday, October 19.
The last election was on May 2, 2011.
At that time, according to Elections Canada, the Canadian population was 31,612,897. There were 24,
257, 592 people listed on the official election voter list i.e. all the people eligible to vote. Of the total
amount of people that were eligible to vote, 14, 823, 408 people cast a ballot, or voted.
How can we look at the election turnout from a ratio perspective?
Voter turnout is usually expressed as a percentage.
For 2011 this would be 14,823,408 (turn out) divided by 24,257,592 (total eligible voters)
= .6110832 or 61.10%.
But this does number mean anything?
How about we estimate: 14,823,408 can be rounded up to 15,000,000, while 24,257,592 can be rounded
down to 24,000,000. If we take away the zeros, we see a 15:24 ratio. 15/24 = .625 or 62.5% which is
reasonably close to 61.1% It may be easier to understand if we say the 15 people voted for every 24
people eligible. Not perfect, but a fairly reasonable estimation.

Homework:
Page 51: Questions 5-13, 15, 17
Due on Friday Oct. 2