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America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

1950-1960

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 1: Domestic Politics and Policies


Theme 2: Social Impact of War
Theme 3: Post War Economy
The Mood of the 1950s
Theme 4: The Arms Race
The Koran War

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 1
Government and the People

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

Domestic Politics and Policy


Chapter 20, Section 3

What were Trumans domestic policies as outlined in


his Fair Deal?
How did Truman win the election of 1948?
What was the Republican approach to government
during the Eisenhower presidency?

Trumans Domestic Policies


Chapter 20, Section 3

The Peacetime Economy Reconversion, the social and


economic transition from wartime to peacetime, resulted in
discrepancies between wages and prices. The Taft-Hartley
Act of 1947 required a cooling-off period during which
workers on strike from industries affecting the national
interest had to return to work.
The Fair Deal Modeled on Roosevelts New Deal,
Trumans Fair Deal was a set of proposals for postwar
economic improvement. Although some measures passed,
many were rejected by Congress.
Truman on Civil Rights Truman formed the biracial
Committee on Civil Rights in 1946 to address concerns of
African Americans; opposition in Congress meant that
change came slowly.

The Election of 1948


Chapter 20, Section 3

Although Trumans Democratic Party was splitting


and support for him was disintegrating, Truman chose
to seek another term as President in 1948.
With a blunt but effective campaign style, Truman won
the election despite polls predictions against him.
In response to Roosevelts unprecedented four terms
as President, the Twenty-second Amendment was
passed in 1951. This amendment specified that no
President could serve more than two elected terms.

Eisenhower and the Republican Approach


Chapter 20, Section 3

Although the language of the Twenty-second Amendment


allowed Truman to run for President again in 1952, he
chose not to do so.
Republican Dwight Eisenhower and his running mate,
Richard Nixon, were able to turn accusations about illegal
campaign funding into support for their campaign.
As President, Eisenhower advocated Modern
Republicanism, an approach to government involving
conservative economic policies but liberal social policies.
Eisenhowers administration favored big business and
ending government competition for offshore oil lands.
However, his presidency was marked by several economic
recessions.

Meeting the Technology Challenge


Chapter 20, Section 3

NASA
In response to Americans
fears that Soviet technology
was superior to their own, the
United States formed the
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA)
in 1958.
NASA was created as an
independent agency
dedicated to space
exploration.

National Defense Education Act


To meet the scientific and
technical challenge from the
Soviet Union, the National
Defense Education Act was
passed in 1958.
This act provided low-cost
loans to college students,
incentives for teaching math
and science, and money for
building science and foreign
language facilities in schools.

Domestic Politics and PolicyAssessment


Chapter 20, Section 3

What did the Taft-Hartley Act require?


(A) Economic improvements provided by the Fair Deal
(B) Civil rights for all Americans
(C) Reporting of all campaign funding
(D) A cooling-off period for workers striking from certain industries
Why did civil rights reforms come slowly during Trumans presidency?
(A) Truman campaigned against them.
(B) A majority in Congress disagreed with them.
(C) They were not realistically formulated.
(D) They interfered with Modern Republicanism.

Domestic Politics and PolicyAssessment


Chapter 20, Section 3

What did the Taft-Hartley Act require?


(A) Economic improvements provided by the Fair Deal
(B) Civil rights for all Americans
(C) Reporting of all campaign funding
(D) A cooling-off period for workers striking from certain industries
Why did civil rights reforms come slowly during Trumans presidency?
(A) Truman campaigned against them.
(B) A majority in Congress disagreed with them.
(C) They were not realistically formulated.
(D) They interfered with Modern Republicanism.

The Continuing Cold War


Chapter 19, Section 4

What were the characteristics of the McCarthy era?

The McCarthy Era


Chapter 19, Section 4

McCarthys Rise to Power


Wisconsin Senator Joseph
McCarthy, up for reelection raised
the specter of Communist
conspiracies within the United
States.
McCarthy produced a list of 250
names of presumed Communistsupporting government
employees. Later, when
scrutinized, this list was reduced
to 57.
Although McCarthys accusations
were usually baseless and
unprovable, few were willing to
risk their reputations by speaking
out against him.

McCarthys Fall
In early 1954, McCarthyism, the
name given to McCarthys
crusade, reached the army.
Democrats asked that the
hearings between McCarthy and
the army be televised, hoping to
swing popular opinion against
McCarthy.
By mid-June 1954, McCarthy had
lost even his strongest
supporters. The Senate formally
condemned him for his actions.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 2
Who are the Americans

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

The Social Impact of the War


Chapter 18, Section 5

How did African Americans, Mexican Americans, and


Native Americans experience the war at home?
What difficulties did Japanese Americans face?
In what ways did the war change conditions for
working women?

Demands for Civil Rights


Chapter 21, Section 1

What events and cultural trends led to a rise in African


American influence in the twentieth century?
How did Americans respond to the Supreme Courts
decision in Brown v. Board of Education?
How did the Montgomery bus boycott affect the civil
rights movement?
How did other minorities begin to demand civil rights
in the 1950s?

The Rise of African American Influence


Chapter 21, Section 1

Migration and the New Deal


In the years between the Civil War
and the 1940s, many African
Americans migrated from the
South to northern cities.
During the Depression, Roosevelt
and others courted black votes to
support New Deal initiatives.
Under Roosevelt, the number of
African Americans working for
the federal government rose
significantly.

World War II and the NAACP


A shortage of labor during World
War II led many more African
Americans to the North.
As Americans fought a war
against discrimination in Europe,
many began to think about the
discrimination taking place at
home.
The National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) worked hard in the
courts to challenge segregation
laws.

Brown v. Board of Education


Chapter 21, Section 1

In 1951, Oliver Brown wanted his 8-year-old daughter to


attend a Topeka, Kansas school, which only white children
were permitted to attend.
Brown sued the Topeka Board of Education, and his case
reached the Supreme Court. Thurgood Marshall of the
NAACP argued Browns case.
On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court issued its ruling in the
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case. In
this ruling, the court supported Browns case for
desegregation, stating that, Separate educational facilities
are inherently unequal.
A year later, the Court ruled that local school boards should
move to desegregate with all deliberate speed.

Reaction to Brown v. Board of Education


Chapter 21, Section 1

Many Americans, both white and African American,


rejoiced at the Brown ruling. Others accepted the
decision although they did not agree with it, hoping
that desegregation could take place peacefully.
Many southern whites, especially in the Deep South,
vehemently opposed the ruling. Congressional
representatives of states in the Deep South joined
together to protest the decision, claiming that it
violated states rights.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott


Chapter 21, Section 1

The Montgomery Bus Boycott


Background of the Boycott In December 1955, an African
American seamstress named Rosa Parks was seized by the police in
Montgomery, Alabama when she refused to give up her seat on a bus
to a white man.
Organization of the Boycott In response, civil rights leaders,
including Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a boycott of the
Montgomery bus system.
The Bus Boycott Over the next year, 50,000 African Americans
boycotted the city bus system, choosing to walk, ride bicycles, or
carpool instead.
Results of the Bus Boycott Despite losing money, the bus
company refused to change its policies. Finally, in 1956, the Supreme
Court ruled that bus segregation was unconstitutional.

Resistance in Little Rock


Chapter 21, Section 1

Opposition to Integration
In the fall of 1957, Arkansas
Governor Orval Faubus felt that
enforcing integration, or the
bringing together of different
races, would create chaos.
Faubus therefore posted
Arkansas National Guard troops
at Central High School in Little
Rock, instructing them to turn
away the nine African American
students who were supposed to
attend that school.
Mobs of angry protesters joined
the National Guard in intimidating
the African American students.

Government Response
Faubuss actions defied the
Brown decision. President
Eisenhower viewed these actions
as a challenge to the Constitution
and to his authority as President.
Eisenhower placed the National
Guard under federal command
and sent soldiers to Arkansas to
protect the nine students.

Other Voices of Protest


Chapter 21, Section 1

Like African Americans, other minority groups


demanded equal rights after World War II.
Mexican Americans found that peaceful protest could
slowly bring about some of their goals. Groups such
as the Community Service Organization and the
Asociacin Nacional Mxico-Americana worked
toward these goals.
Native Americans faced problems of poverty,
discrimination, and little real political representation.
The 1953 government policy of termination, or
elimination of reservations, met with resistance and
was eventually discarded.

Demands for Civil RightsAssessment


Chapter 21, Section 1

Which of these was a result of the Montgomery bus boycott?


(A) National Guard soldiers were posted in Montgomery.
(B) The bus company voluntarily changed its policies.
(C) Thousands of African Americans stopped riding buses.
(D) Rosa Parks was allowed to keep her seat on the bus.
Why was the Brown v. Board of Education ruling considered important?
(A) It stated that separate educational facilities were unequal.
(B) It banned segregation on buses.
(C) It demanded that school districts move toward desegregation.
(D) It provided military protection for African American students.

Demands for Civil RightsAssessment


Chapter 21, Section 1

Which of these was a result of the Montgomery bus boycott?


(A) National Guard soldiers were posted in Montgomery.
(B) The bus company voluntarily changed its policies.
(C) Thousands of African Americans stopped riding buses.
(D) Rosa Parks was allowed to keep her seat on the bus.
Why was the Brown v. Board of Education ruling considered important?
(A) It stated that separate educational facilities were unequal.
(B) It banned segregation on buses.
(C) It demanded that school districts move toward desegregation.
(D) It provided military protection for African American students.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 3
Economic and Social Change

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

The Postwar Economy


Chapter 20, Section 1

How did businesses reorganize after World War II?


How did technology transform life after World War II?
In what ways did the nations work force change
following World War II?
Why did suburbs and highway systems grow after
World War II?
How did postwar conditions affect consumer credit?

Businesses Reorganize
Chapter 20, Section 1

The postwar years were a time of great economic growth in


America. Between 1945 and 1960, the per capita income, or
average annual income per person, rose considerably.
American businesses switched from providing war needs
to meeting increasing demand for consumer products. In
order to protect against economic downturns, many formed
conglomerates, corporations made up of three or more
unrelated businesses.
The franchise system, in which small businesses contract
with larger parent companies for goods and services,
flourished.

Technology Transforms Life


Chapter 20, Section 1

Developments in Technology During the 1950s


Television Television becomes a popular and powerful
medium.
Computers and Electronics The invention of the transistor,
a tiny circuit device that amplifies, controls, and generates
electrical signals, revolutionizes computers and radios.
Nuclear Power Wartime nuclear research is put to
peacetime use in nuclear power plants and nuclear-powered
submarines.
Advances in Medicine Dr. Jonas Salk develops a vaccine
against polio; advances in antibiotics and surgical techniques
save countless lives.

Changes in the Work force


Chapter 20, Section 1

White Collar Workers


Corporate expansion
created more white-collar
jobs.
Office work was less
dangerous and exhausting
than factory work, and
provided more opportunity
for advancement.
White collar workers often
had little connection to
their companies products,
and often felt pressure to
dress, think, and act alike.

Blue Collar Workers


New machines reduced
the number of manual
labor-intensive jobs.
Working conditions and
wages improved.
Labor unions won
important gains; the
American Federation of
Labor and Congress of
Industrial Organizations
merged to form the
powerful AFL-CIO.

The Baby Boom


Chapter 20, Section 1

The baby boom, or rise in birth rates, that had begun in the 1940s continued into
the 1950s.

Suburbs, Cars, and Highways


Chapter 20, Section 1

Suburban Growth
The GI Bill of Rights gave
returning soldiers low-income
mortgages, enabling many to buy
homes in newly built suburbs.
Developers such as William J.
Levitt built entire communities
quickly and on one mold, using
preassembled materials.
Although most Americans
enjoyed living in communities
such as Levitts, others
complained that the new
developments lacked variety.

Cars and Highways


The growth of suburbs led more
Americans to rely on cars for
everyday transportation.
More and better roads were
needed to support the increase
in cars. The 1956 Federal-Aid
Highway Act provided billions of
dollars to build an interstate
highway system.
Cars became part of American
culture as new businesses such
as drive-in movies emerged.

The Growth of Consumer Credit


Chapter 20, Section 1

Gasoline companies began offering credit cards with


which consumers could purchase their product. Soon,
lending agencies began to offer credit cards as well.
Consumer debt rose as Americans used their credit
cards to purchase washing machines, vacuum
cleaners, television sets, and other consumer
products.

The Postwar EconomyAssessment


Chapter 20, Section 1

Which of the following was a characteristic of white collar jobs in the 1950s?
(A) work that was less dangerous than factory jobs
(B) lack of opportunity for advancement
(C) minimal pressure to conform to standards of dress
(D) close connection with a companys product
How did the GI Bill of Rights contribute to suburban growth?
(A) It inspired Levitt to build suburban communities.
(B) It provided former soldiers with low-income mortgages.
(C) It established an interstate highway system.
(D) It led to rising credit card debt.

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The Postwar EconomyAssessment


Chapter 20, Section 1

Which of the following was a characteristic of white collar jobs in the 1950s?
(A) work that was less dangerous than factory jobs
(B) lack of opportunity for advancement
(C) minimal pressure to conform to standards of dress
(D) close connection with a companys product
How did the GI Bill of Rights contribute to suburban growth?
(A) It inspired Levitt to build suburban communities.
(B) It provided former soldiers with low-income mortgages.
(C) It established an interstate highway system.
(D) It led to rising credit card debt.

Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

The Mood of the 1950s


Chapter 20, Section 2

Why were comfort and security so important to


Americans in the 1950s?
What were the accepted roles of men and women
during the 1950s?
How did some people challenge conformity during the
1950s?

Comfort and Security


Chapter 20, Section 2

Enjoying prosperity and recovering from war and


economic depression, most Americans in the 1950s
valued security over adventure.
Youth in the 1950s enjoyed more time for school, and
for recreation, than youth in earlier generations.
Businesses marketed products such as movies and
magazines to youths, reinforcing images of what it
meant to be a teenager.
Partially in response to the threats of communism and
nuclear war, many Americans renewed their interest in
religion. References to God were added to the Pledge
of Allegiance and imprinted on U.S. currency.

Mens and Womens Roles


Chapter 20, Section 2

Men and women were expected to play strictly defined


roles in the 1950s. While men were expected to hold
jobs and support their families, women were expected
to perform domestic duties.
Nevertheless, more and more married women began
working outside the home, some to support their
families and others for the sense of satisfaction they
derived from holding jobs.
Some women, notably Betty Friedan, desired more
freedom in choosing social roles than the 1950s
cultural climate allowed.

Youthful Rebellions
Chapter 20, Section 2

Rock-and-Roll
Rock-and-roll, a style of
music based on black rhythm
and blues, became popular
among teenagers in the
1950s.
Many adults disliked rockand-roll music, claiming that
it encouraged immorality.
Popular with both black and
white teenagers, rock-and-roll
threatened those who were
comfortable with racial
segregation.

Beatniks
Beatniks, many of whom were
artists and writers, launched
a movement that stressed
spontaneity and rejected
money and power.
Beatniks shocked many
Americans with their open
sexuality and use of illegal
drugs.
Author Jack Kerouac
embodied the Beatnik spirit
for many Americans.

The Mood of the 1950sAssessment


Chapter 20, Section 2

Which of these trends was a reason for the resurgence in religion during the
1950s?
(A) Increasing popularity of rock-and-roll music
(B) Rise of media targeted at teenagers
(C) Fear of nuclear war
(D) Frustration with traditional womens roles
Why did many adults oppose rock-and-roll music?
(A) They did not have the money to buy records.
(B) They felt it encouraged immorality.
(C) They disliked the philosophy of the Beatniks.
(D) They preferred music with more complicated melodies.

The Mood of the 1950sAssessment


Chapter 20, Section 2

Which of these trends was a reason for the resurgence in religion during the
1950s?
(A) Increasing popularity of rock-and-roll music
(B) Rise of media targeted at teenagers
(C) Fear of nuclear war
(D) Frustration with traditional womens roles
Why did many adults oppose rock-and-roll music?
(A) They did not have the money to buy records.
(B) They felt it encouraged immorality.
(C) They disliked the philosophy of the Beatniks.
(D) They preferred music with more complicated melodies.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 4
The U.S.A. and the World

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

The Cold War in the 1950s


Chapter 19, Section 4

United States involvement around the world, 19471956


Eastern Europe Wary of war with the Soviets, America
did not support uprisings in East Germany, Poland, and
Hungary.
Southeast Asia Korean War ends; former French colony
of Vietnam is divided into Communist North and antiCommunist South.
Middle East United States supports Israel, backs groups
that restore a pro-American Shah in Iran; the Suez Crisis in
Egypt erupts.
Latin America Organization of American States (OAS) is
created; American aid helps anti-Communist leaders gain
and retain power.

The Arms Race


Chapter 19, Section 4

Throughout the 1950s, the United States and the


Soviet Union competed in an arms race, a struggle to
gain weapons superiority.
Deterrence, the policy of maintaining a military
arsenal so strong that no enemy will attack for fear of
retaliation, resulted in the escalating development of
powerful nuclear weapons.
The American policy of brinkmanship involved
bringing the United States to the brink of war without
actually entering into war.

The Arms Race in the Skies


Chapter 19, Section 4

To carry bombs to their targets, the Soviet Union


developed long-range rockets known as
intercontinental ballistic missiles, or ICBMs.
In 1957, one of these rockets was used to launch the
Soviet satellite Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to
orbit Earth.
When a Soviet guided missile shot down an American
U-2 spy plane, the resulting U-2 incident shattered
American confidence and prompted a desire to match
and surpassSoviet weapons technology.

The Continuing Cold WarAssessment


Chapter 19, Section 4

Why did the United States choose not to support uprisings in Eastern Europe?
(A) It appeared that these uprisings would succeed on their own.
(B) The Soviet Union supported the uprisings.
(C) Senator McCarthy was against such support.
(D) Eisenhower felt that doing so would risk war with the Soviets.
What was the significance of the U-2 incident?
(A) It motivated the United States to increase the technological
development of its military.
(B) It provided the first test of Soviet ICBMs.
(C) It led to the development of the hydrogen bomb.
(D) It began the Cold War.

Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

The Continuing Cold WarAssessment


Chapter 19, Section 4

Why did the United States choose not to support uprisings in Eastern Europe?
(A) It appeared that these uprisings would succeed on their own.
(B) The Soviet Union supported the uprisings.
(C) Senator McCarthy was against such support.
(D) Eisenhower felt that doing so would risk war with the Soviets.
What was the significance of the U-2 incident?
(A) It motivated the United States to increase the technological
development of its military.
(B) It provided the first test of Soviet ICBMs.
(C) It led to the development of the hydrogen bomb.
(D) It began the Cold War.

Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

The Korean War


Chapter 19, Section 3

How did Communist expansion in Asia set the stage


for the Korean War?
Who fought in the Korean War, and what were the
three stages of the war?
What were the effects of the Korean War?

Communist Expansion in Asia


Chapter 19, Section 3

The Chinese Civil War


Civil war began in the mid-1920s
and intensified after World War II.
Mao Zedong won support for the
Communists by redistributing
land and offering schooling and
healthcare.
Jiang Jieshis Nationalist Party
lost support because of harsh
treatment of the population, high
taxes, and corruption.
When the Communists took
power in 1949, the Nationalists
fled to Taiwan.

The Division of Korea


World War II ended before a plan
could be made for Korean
independence from Japan.
Korea was temporarily divided at
the thirty-eighth parallel, the
latitude line running through
approximately the midpoint of the
peninsula.
A pro-American government
formed in South Korea, while a
Communist government formed
in North Korea.

The Korean Conflict


Chapter 19, Section 3

In June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean
troops invaded South Korea, aiming to reunite the nation by
force.
A UN resolution, which passed because the Soviets were
not there to veto it, called on member states to defend
South Korea and restore peace. Roughly 80 percent of the
troops who served in the resulting UN police action were
American.
By attacking North Korean supply lines, General Douglas
MacArthur was able to gain an advantage and push north.
However, a stalemate developed after China helped the
North Koreans push the UN forces back into South Korea.
A truce signed in 1953 left Korea again divided near the
thirty eighth parallel.

The Effects of the Korean War


Chapter 19, Section 3

Post-Korean War Changes in America


Warfare Limited war, limited victory
Integration of the Military First war in which white
Americans and African Americans served in the same
units
Increased Power of the Military A military-industrial
complex developed as the military established links
with the corporate and scientific communities.
Foreign Policy in Asia September 1951 peace treaty
signed with Japan; relations worsen with Communist
China

The Korean WarAssessment


Chapter 19, Section 3

What was the significance of the thirty-eighth parallel?


(A) It formed Koreas border with China.
(B) It was the place to which Chinese Nationalists fled.
(C) It divided Korea into two halves, North and South.
(D) It was the location of Korean War peace talks.
Why did the United Nations send troops to Korea?
(A) To support South Korea and restore peace
(B) To install a Communist government in South Korea
(C) To help China defend its border
(D) To put an end to Japanese rule of Korea

The Korean WarAssessment


Chapter 19, Section 3

What was the significance of the thirty-eighth parallel?


(A) It formed Koreas border with China.
(B) It was the place to which Chinese Nationalists fled.
(C) It divided Korea into two halves, North and South.
(D) It was the location of Korean War peace talks.
Why did the United Nations send troops to Korea?
(A) To support South Korea and restore peace
(B) To install a Communist government in South Korea
(C) To help China defend its border
(D) To put an end to Japanese rule of Korea