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The Roaring

Twenties
(19181929)

PostWWI,(returntoisolation)Americansare
readytomakemoneyandenjoythemselves.

Whywerethe1920sso
Prosperous?..
Prosperous (definition) Having
success,flourishing,beingwelloff

Reasons for Prosperity in the 1920s

Reason#1--ImpactoftheAutomobile
HenryForddevelopedtheassemblyline(partscanbe
madefasterandcanbemadebyunskilledworkers)
WhatimpactdidFordsassemblylinehaveontheU.S.?
*Fordsassemblylinemakescarproductioncheaper
*Carsaremuchmoreaffordablenolongerjust
toysforthewealthy
*gasstation,restaurant,andtourismbusinessesboom
anditbecomeseasytoliveinruralareas

FordandhisModelT

ReasonsforProsperityinthe1920s

Reason #2 The Development of New


Industries
*widespreaduseofelectricityallowsformanynew
industries,jobs,andprofits
Whataresomeofthenewindustriesinthe1920s?
1.TheAutomobileIndustry
2.TheElectricalIndustry
3.RadioandMotionPictureIndustries

Reasons for Prosperity in the 1920s

Reasons #3 More Efficient


Production Techniques
Newtechniquesinmanufacturingandindustrial
production(suchastheassemblyline)allowindustryto
bemoreefficient
Whatisanassemblyline?
Workers stay in one place
doing the same job, as products
come to them on a conveyor belt

*EfficientProductionTechniquesmakehugequantities
ofgoodsavailableandpeoplehavemoneytospendon
themItisatimeof

Mass Consumption (definition)


Alargeamountofitemsare
beingproduced,purchased,
andused.

During the 1920s, there are


many changes within the
United States
We will examine 3 forms of changes in
American Society:
1.Whatweresomepoliticalchanges?

2.Whatweresomeeconomicchanges?
3.Whatweresomesocialchanges?

Political Changes during the 1920


Politically,theU.S.wasledbetween1920-1930by
threeRepublicanpresidents:

Warren Harding (1921-1923)--Republ


Calvin

Coolidge (1923-1929) -- Repub

Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)-- Repub

President Warren Harding (1920-1923)


WhatdoyouknowaboutHarding?
A Return to NormalcyHardingscampaignmottowhenhe
wonthe1920election:promisestogetAmericabacktonormal
afterthewarandtorunagovernmentlessinvolvedinbusiness
andforeignaffairs(wantstoendthepostwarrecession)
HardingsPresidencyismostrememberedforitsscandals:
Whatwasthemostfamousscandal?
TeapotDomeScandal:Governmentofficialsacceptedbribesfrom
businessmen(moneyinexchangeforgovernmentoilfieldsin
TeapotDome,Wyoming)

President Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)


"StayCoolwithCoolidge!"
TookoverafterHarding'sdeath
Committedtobusiness
LaissezFaireapproachtotheeconomy
"CoolidgeProsperity"--theeconomy
improvesunderCoolidge
TheKellogg-BriandPact--passedin1928duringCoolidge's
presidency.Thiswasanagreementamongnationstooutlawwar
exceptinself-defense.Nationsagreetosettledisputesthrough
peacefulmeansandnotthroughwar.
(Problem:therewasnowaytoenforcethepact)

President Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)


Promisedtohelpendpovertyandunequal
distributionofwealthintheU.S.
Laissezfairegovernment
Wantedto"helppeoplehelpthemselves"

PROBLEM
WhatmajoreconomicdownfallwasHooverPresidentfor?
HooverwasPresidentduringtheStockmarket
Crash in October of 1929 (Black
Tuesday)---leadingtothestartofthe

Depression

Great

Economic Changes during th


Republicanpresidentsarepro-business
andfollowalaissez-faire policy
Manypeopleexperienceeconomicprosperity

An Economic Boom
Dideveryoneexperienceeconomicprosperity?WhoDIDNOT?
Farmers
Native Americans
African Americans

Who didn't prosper from the economy during


1.Farmers--Smallfarmersarehurtbytheeconomy.PostWWIwhenEuropean
farmersbeginproducingagain,Americanfarmersare producingtoomuch

andpricesfall.
Farmerscan'taffordalloftheluxuryconsumergoods
andtechnology

2.NativeAmericans--Mostliveonreservationsandhavefewluxury
goods
highunemploymentrateandshortlifespan
3.AfricanAmericans--faceddiscrimination,
segregationisSTILLLEGAL
TheKKKbecomesactiveagain(againstAfricanAmericans)

Big corporations and the wealthy benefited the most from the
economy.

Social Changes during the 1920


1.) 18th Amendment --passedin1919,madethesale
andconsumptionofalcoholillegal
Whywerepeopleforprohibition?
Peopleblamehighcrimeratesonalcohol
Peoplebelievealcoholisevil
Traditional,Rural,andreligiouspeoplemostoften
supportedprohibition

Famousgangster:AlCapone
(NOTabaseballplayer.)

What was the problem with prohibition?


Prohibitionwasveryhardtoenforce,illegaldrinkingcreateda
billiondollarindustry(bootlegging),andspeakeasiesopenedup.
WhichAmendmentmadealcoholconsumptionlegalagain?
The21stAmendment,whichwasratifiedin1933,
repealedthe18thAmendmentmakingalcohol
consumptionlegalagain.

Social Changes in the 1920s


2.) Lives of Women
In1919the19thAmendmentispassed,
givingwomengaintherighttovote.

Manymorewomenjointheworkforce(although
manystillbelievedawoman'splacewasinthe
home,andwomenhadahardtimefindingjobs
outsideoftraditionalrolessuchasteachingand
clericalwork)
facediscriminationandlowwages
Rebellious,independentwomenweregiventhenameflappers.
Whatdidflapperslooklike?

FlapperThenicknamegivento
modernandrebelliouswomenduring
the1920s,theyoften:
-hadshorthaircuts
-shortskirts
-visitedspeakeasies
-danced
-wantedthesamefreedomasmen

MostwomenWERENOTflappersandstillwerevery
restrictedbyeconomic,politicalandsociallimits.

Social Changes during the 1920s


Clash between Science and Religion

WhatwastheScopesTrial?

JohnScopes

In1925--AbiologyteacherJohnScopes,wasillegally
teachingabouthetheoryofevolutioninhisclassroom.
AmericaisdominatedbystrongChristianpeoplewhodonot
wantDarwiniantheoryofevolutiontaughtintheclassroom.
Scopesisconvictedandcharged$100

Trialsymbolizestensioninthe1920sbetween
thoseforchangeandthoseinfavoroftraditional,
olderbeliefsandvalues

Social Changes during the 1920s


Threats to Civil Liberties
Duringthe1920s,Americansweredividedbetweenmodernand
traditionalbeliefsandvalues.Thisdifferinginopinionsaswellas
theRed Scare andriseoftheKKKresultedinthethreateningof
someAmericanscivilliberties.RacismandNativismincreased
duringthe1920s.
WhatisNativism?
Believingthatthewayoflifeinyourcountryissuperiortoothercountriesand
people.Distrustinganddislikingforeigners,ledtoadesiretolimitimmigration
intheU.S.

WhatwastheRedScare?
AfearthatcommunistswouldtakeoverAmerica(astheyhadinRussia),people
thoughttobecommunistswerearrested.Communistswantprivateproperty
abolished,wantcollectiveownershipofproperty.

Nativism and Racism effect everyday life in the U.S.


1.RiseintheactivitiesoftheKuKlux
Klan(againstAfricanAmericnas,Jews,
Catholics,andImmigrants.Many
peoplearevictimsofmob-lynchings
andracialpredjudiceatthehandsofthe
KKK.
2.ImmigrationLawsarepassed--

TheNationalOriginsActand
andEmergencyQuotaActare
passedtolimitimmigrationintothe
U.S.Thesequotaskeptimmigration
numbersfromEasternandSouthern
EuropeandAsialow.
3.FeelingsofNativismmaketheSaccoandVenzetticaseveryfamous.
Whatwasthecaseabout?Whywasitimportant?

Sacco and Venzetti


Theissue:TwoItalianimmigrants,NicolaSaccoand
BartolomeoVanzettiwereaccusedorrobberyandmurder.The
menwereconvictedandexcecutedin1927.

SaccoandVenzetti

Theproblem:Thetwomenwereconvictedwithlittleevidence.
Manybelievetheywereconvictedbecauseoftheirbeliefsand
becausetheywereimmigrants.Thiscourtcasecontributedtothe
riseofnativism(distrustofforeigners)

Social Changes of the 1920s


What was the Harlem Renaissance?
Harlem Renaissance -- A rebirth in African American
culture and pride that began in Harlem, NY.
African Americans express their views
Poetry and Literature become an important
form of expression (Langston Hughes is a
famous poet)
Jazz music becomes very popular, (developed
from African American spirituals) and the 20s
is sometimes called the "Jazz Age"
Langston Hughes

Social Changes during the 1920s

New Technology and Consumer Habits


Peoplewhohavewealtharespendingtheirmoneyonmanynew
products
Manyofthefirstdepartmentstoresopen(ie:JCPenny's)
Peoplebegininstallmentbuying(buyingoncredit)
Theadvertisingindustrygrows

PopularItemstoBuy:cars,radios,washingmachines,
stoves,vacuumcleaners...

Let's go to the Movies!


Films really blossomed in the 1920s, expanding upon the foundations of film from earlier
years. Most US film production at the start of the decade occurred in or near Hollywood on the West
Coast. By the mid-20s, movies were big business (with a capital investment totaling over $2 billion) .
By the end of the decade, there were 20 Hollywood studios, and the demand for films was greater
than ever.
Throughout most of the decade, silent films were the predominant product of the film
industry, having evolved from vaudevillian roots. But the films were becoming bigger, costlier, and
more polished. They were being manufactured, assembly-line style, in Hollywood's 'entertainment
factories', in which production was broken down and organized into its various components
(writing, costuming, makeup, directing, etc.).
Charlie Chaplin is a famous actor during the 1920s

Leisure Activities during the 1920s


Anincreaseinwealth,varietyandfreetimeallowsforleisureactivities,
especiallysportsandmoviestobecomepopularduringthe1920s.

Sports
Tennis, boxing, collegiate football and
especially baseball become very popular
during the 1920s.
Sports become a part of public education
Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig are some of the
most popular baseball players ever.
(Note, there is no Al Capone here as he was
a famous mobster. Not a baseball player.)

LouGerhigandBabeRuth

The 1920's.....Why was there a


conflict in cultural values during
the 1920's?
Somepeopletookfulladvantageofthenewmusic,
freedoms,clothing,technologyandbeliefs.
Othersdidnot.
Theyareupsetbythechangesinthe1920sand
feelthattraditionalvaluesandbeliefsarebeing
threatened.

The End of the 1920s


InOctober1929--TheNYStockMarketCrashed(marking
thebeginningoftheGreat
endtotheRoaringTwenties)

Depression

Why did it crash?

andan

Everyonewantedtosellstocksandnoone
wantedtobuythem(investorspanicked)
Peoplespent too much during the 1920s and

couldn'tpayoffdebtsandloans(sotheysold
theirstocks).

What were some weaknesses of the economy durin


pooragricultureduringthe1920s--overproduction=dropinprices
Highunemploymentinsomeindustries
slowinautomobilesales
Insomecases,toomuchisbeingproducedandnotenoughisbeingconsumed!

Theprosperityofthe1920sdidnotincludeeveryone,therewasa
veryunequaldistributionofwealth

SILENT FILM PROJECTS


COMING SOON!