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UNIVERSIDAD POLITCNICA DE MADRID

ESCUELA TCNICA SUPERIOR DE INGENIEROS DE


CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS

DEPARTAMENTO DE MECNICA DE MEDIOS


CONTINUOS Y TEORA DE ESTRUCTURAS

ANLISIS DINMICO DE ESTRUCTURAS EN EL


DOMINIO DE LA FRECUENCIA

Trabajo de Investigacin Tutelado

Alejandro de Miguel Tejada


Ingeniero de Caminos, Canales y Puertos

Tutor:
Pablo de la Fuente Martn
Doctor Ingeniero de Caminos, Canales y Puertos

Madrid, Junio de 2011

Resumen
La aparicin de estructuras cada vez ms esbeltas en el panorama de la
ingeniera civil, hace que los periodos propios de oscilacin sean ms largos. Este
factor hace que cargas que en otra poca podan considerarse estticas, adquieran un
carcter dinmico y por tanto cambien por completo la forma de analizar y calcular
la estructura.
Tradicionalmente se ha abordado el clculo dinmico, mayorando las cargas
dinmicas a las que se vea sometida una estructura. A partir de aqu el mtodo
seguido para obtener la respuesta, era similar al empleado en el campo de la esttica.
Diversas exigencias; crecientes en nuestros das, como el confort, conocimiento de
los coeficientes de seguridad..., hacen del anlisis dinmico una herramienta
fundamental para abordar el problema.
Se centrar este Trabajo de Investigacin, en el anlisis dinmico de estructuras
desde el punto de vista del dominio de la frecuencia, mtodo que ha cobrado una
gran importancia por dos motivos fundamentales:
De un lado, est la llegada de los ordenadores, capaces de reducir los tiempo de
anlisis hasta lmites inimaginados hace no muchos aos.
Por el otro, es el mtodo ms eficaz de anlisis cuando en el sistema a analizar,
existan circunstancias que hagan inabordable el problema desde otro punto de vista,
como en el caso de amortiguamientos no proporcionales, o parmetros
dependientes de la frecuencia excitadora.
Por ltimo se incluye en este Trabajo de Investigacin, una aplicacin experimental
que ayuda a entender parte de las aplicaciones de un algoritmo tan importante, en
lo que a dominio de la frecuencia se refiere, la transformada de Fourier.

k
c

'
'

A
0

0
A

T
f
T =
u
A
2A

1
f

60km/h

T
f

f =

1
2

k
m

H = 0
(t1 , t2 )

H =

t2

(Ep

Ec )dt +

t1

t2

Ed dt

t1

Ep

Ec

Ed

m
u + cu + ku = p(t)

m
c
k
u
u
u

m
u
cu
ku
p(t)

F (t)I + F (t)D + F (t)K = p(t)

m c

{M }
u + {C}u + {K}u = p(t)

u u

p(x, t)

@2u
@2
@2u
+
(EI
) = p(x, t)
@t2
@x2
@x2
u

@2
@2v
@3v
@2v
@v
(EI
+
c
I
)
+
m
+c
= p(x, t)
2
2
2
2
@x
@x
@t@x
@t
@t

u(y, t)
i (y)

u(y, t) =

1
X

i (y) i (t)

i=1

i (y)
i (t)

i (t)

F (t)I + F (t)D + F (t)K = {p(t)}

{u}

{a}i

{u} = [a] {Y }i
[a]

{u}
M {
u} + C {u}
+ K {u} = {p(t)}

Pi (t)
Yi + 2Di !i Y i + !i2 Yi =
Mi
Pi (t) = {a}Ti {p(t)}
Mi
!i
Di

{a}Ti M {a}i

{u} = {a}1 Y1 + {a}2 Y2 + ... + {a}n Yn

Yi (t)

t
t
T

1
10

x(t)
p(t)
H()
P ()

H()P ()

X()
x2 (t)

x1 (t)
p2 (t)

X1 ()
X2 ()
Xn ()
=
= .........
= H()
P1 ()
P2 ()
n()
X1 ()
H()
p(t)

P1 ()

p1 (t)

g(t)
g(t) = g(t + nTp )

Tp

Tp
g(t) = a0 +

1
X

an cos(2nf1 t) +

n=1

f1 =

1
Tp

an =

2
Tp

bn =

2
Tp

a0 =

1
Tp

1
X

bn sin2(nf1 t)

n=1

Tp
2
Tp
2

g(t)cos(n1 t)dt

Tp
2
Tp
2

g(t)sin(n1 t)dt

Tp
2
Tp
2

g(t)dt

1 = 2f1
g(t) = a0 +

1
X

an cos(n1 t) +

n=1

1
X

bn sin(n1 t)

n=1

g(t)
(

g(t)

Tp Tp
2 , 2 )

g( + 0)

t=0
p0
u(t) =

p0
k

g(

0)

g(t)

(p0 sin1 t)
p0 1
k 1

u(t) =

sin(1 t)
(p0 cos1 t)

p0 1
k 1

u(t) =
=

cos(1 t)

1
!

!:
1 :

(p0 sin1 t)

u(t) =

1
(1
+ (2 )2

p0
k (1

2 )2

)sin(1 t)

2 cos(1 t)

(p0 cos1 t)
u(t) =

1
2 sin(1 t) + (1
+ (2 )2

p0
k (1

g(t) = a0 +

1
X

an cos(n1 t) +

n=1

u(t) =

a0 X an 1
+
k
k 1

u(t) =

k (1

2 2
n)

2 2
n)

1
+ (2

a0 X 1
+
k
k (1
n=1

an (1

cos(n1 t) +
2

a0 X an
+
k
k (1

1
X
bn

n=1

bn sin(n1 t)

1
X
bn

n=1

k 1

2
n

sin(n1 t)

n1
!

n=1

1
X

)cos(1 t)

n=1

n=1

2 )2

2
n)

2 2
n)

bn 2

1
+ (2

2
n)

1
+ (2

(1

2
n)

2
n)

n sin(n1 t)

2
n )sin(n1 t)

[ an 2

+ bn (1

+ (1

2
n )cos(n1 t)

n cos(n1 t

2
n)

sin(n1 t)+

cos(n1 t)]

c
cc

sin(n1 t) =
cos(n1 t) =

g(t) =

1
X

ein1 t

e
2i

in1 t

ein1 t + e
2

in1 t

cn ein1 t

n= 1

p = ei1 t
m
u + cu + ku = ei1 t

u=e

(Acos(!d dt) + Bsin(!d t))


p
!d = ! 1 2
!
!t

u = Hei1 t
u
u

( m21 + ic1 + k)Hei1 t = ei1 t

u=e

!t

(Acos(!d t) + Bsin(!d t)) +

m21

1
ei1 t
+ ic1 + k

ei1 t
H(1
H(1 ) =

m21

)ei1 t

1
=
k(
+ ic1 + k

1
+ 2i + 1)

1
!

H(1 )
1
X

g(t) =

cn ein1 t

n= 1

u(t) =

1
X

cn H(n1 )ein1 t

1
cn =
Tp

g(t) =

1
X

Tp
2
Tp
2

g(t)e

in1 t

dt

in1 t

dt

cn ein1 t

1
cn =
Tp

Tp
2
Tp
2

g(t)e

Tp

1 =

2
Tp

n1 = n = n
cn

g(t) =

1
X

cn ein1 t =

cn Tp =

Tp
2
Tp
2

1
1
1 X
1 X
(cn Tp )ein t =
(cn Tp )ein t
Tp 1
2 1

in1 t

g(t)e

dt =

Tp
2
Tp
2

Tp
cn Tp = G() =
g(t) =

1
2

g(t)e

in t

dt

n1 = n = n

g(t)e

it

dt

G()eit d

G()

g(t)
G()

1
X

cn ein t

u(t) =

1
1
1 X
1 X
(cn Tp )H(n )ein t =
(cn Tp )H(n )ein t 4
Tp 1
2 1

Tp
1
u(t) =
2

G()H()eit d

(t)
(t) = 0
(t)

t 6= 0
t=0

(t)dt = 1

1
h(t) =
2

G() =

G()H()eit d

1 f (z)

(t)e

it

(z

t0 )dt = f (t0 )

dt = 1

G()

h(t)

h(t) , H()

U ()

u(t) =

u(t)
1
2

U ()eit d

U () = G()H()

g(t)
u(t) = g(t) h(t) =

g(t) h(t)

h(t)

g( )h(t

)d

h( )
g( )
g( )
U () =

1
1

g( )h(t

t =y
1 1
U () =
[
h(y)e
1

)d ]e

it

dy]e

U ()
u(t) =

1
2

1
1

G()H()eit d

it

dt =

g( )d =

1
1

h(t

)e

it

dt]g( )d

H()e

u(t)

g( )d = H()G()

Tp

G() =

1
1

g(t)e

it

dt

1 =
Tp

2
Tp
t,

tm = m t.
1

X
g(t) =
G()ein t
2 1
n = n1

ein t = ein

g(tm ) =

m t

2
in T
m t

=e

= ein N

m t

= e2in N

N 1
m
X
G()e2in N
2
n=0

(N 1)
g(t), G()

G() = Tp cn =

G(n ) =

Tp
2

N
X1

Tp
2

g(t)e

in t

g(m t)e

dt

2in m
N

m=0

Tp = N t

u(n t) =

N
X1
n=0

g(t)

g(n t)h {(m

n) t}

h(t)

g(m t)
h(m t)

G(n ) =

N
X1

g(m t)e

n
2im N

m=0

h(t)
h(t)
T0
G(n )

H(n )

U (n ) = G(n )H(n )
N 1
n
1 X
u(m t) =
U (n )e2im N
2

m=0

h(t)
H()
H()

Tp = 1,6
Tp
m t

t = 0,1

G(n ) =

N
X1
m=0

g(m t)e

im tn

t=

N
X1
m=0

g(m t)e

n
2im N

n
n f

f
f=

1
=
2
Tp
Tp =

1
f

= 1, 6

= 1,25

f = 0,625

n=

N
2

n=

N
2.

k
G(k ) =

N
X1

k
2im N

g(m t)e

m=0

k) } =

G {(N
=

N
X1

N
X1

g(m t)e

2im

(N k)
N

l=

N
2

+ ( N2

k) = N

t=

m=0
k

g(m t)e2im N

m=0

n=
G {( k) } =

N
X1

g(m t)e2im N

m=0

N
N

G() =

t1

t1

it

dt

G() =

cos(t)dt

t1

sin(t)dt =

sin(t1 )
cos(t1 )
+i

N
N
N

t
Tp

H()

H()
h(t)

G() =

t1

it

dt =

sin(t1 )
cos(t1 )
+i

N
N

2
N
2

N
2

N 1
n
1 X
g(m t) =
G(n )e2im N
2

n=0

H() =

N = 16

1
m(! 2

2 )

!
h(t)
H()

= 0,15625
Tp = 64 0,15625 = 10
H(n )
H(n ) =

1
m(! 2

2 )

= 1,25.

H().

g(m t) =

N 1
n
1 X
G(n )e2im N
2

n=0

h(m t) =

N 1
n
1 X
H(n )e2im N
2

n=0

H()
h(t)

h(t) =

1
m sin(t)

t>0
t<0
h(t)

H()

h(t)

h(t)

h(t)

Tp =

h(t)
1

h(t) =

1
e
m!d

!(t

2
m)sin!d (t

2
m)

2r

h(t)

h(t)
h(t) =

0
1 X
e
m!d r= 1

!(t rTp )

sin(!d (t

rTp ))

sin = 12 (ei
1
h(t) =
e
m!d

!t

1 e !t
=
m!d 2i

0
X

0
X

ei!d t

i!d (t rTp )

e
2i

rTp ( !+i!d )

i!d t

0
X

rTp ( ! i!d )

r= 1

r
(

1 e !t
h(t) =
m!d 2i

i!d t

1
X

rTp ( !+i!d )

i!d t

r=0

rTp ( ! i!d )

eTp (

sin(!d t) e !Tp sin(!d (t


1 2e !Tp cos(!d Tp ) + e

Tp )
2!Tp

!+i!d )

i!d t

eTp (

1
X
r=0

ei!d t

h(t)
Tp
h(t)

i )

r= 1

1 e !t
h(t) =
m!d 2i

rTp )

r= 1

e !t
h(t) =
m!d

ei!d (t

e!rTp

! i!d )

h(t)
Tp

h(t)

Tp
=0

h(t) =

cos(!t)sin(!Tp )
1
(sin(!t) +
2m!
1 cos(!Tp )

h(t)

h(t)

h(t)

Tp

h(t)

g(t)

Tp

Th ,
h

g
Tp = p t

Th = q t

T0 = N t = (p + q + 1) t

T0

Th

Th
Th
h

Th
Tp + Th

tp

g
tp
Th

g
0 t0
p

th

Tp

Tp

T0 = Tp +

T0 .

T
2

h(t),
0 < t < T0

t = 0, T0 , 2T0 ...

e !t
h(t) =
m!d

h(t)

sin(!d t) e !T0 sin(!d (t


1 2e !T0 cos(!d T0 ) + e

T0 ))
2!T0
u(k t)

g(t)
u(m t) =

N
X1
j=0

u(m t) =

g(j t)h {(m

j) t}

N 1
n
1 X
G(n )H(n )e2im N
2

n=0

G(n )

g(m t)
h(m t)
u(m t)

u(m t)

H(n )

t=0

u(m t)

u(m t)
0 < t < T0

T0
u(m t)

u(m t)
u(m t)

t=0

u(0)

t = 0

u(0)

u(m t)

u(0)
u(0) u(0)

t=0

u(0)

N 1
n
1 X
u(m t) =
G(n )H(n )e2im N
2

n=0

H(n )

h(t) =

1 e !t
m!d 2i

h(t)

ei!d t
1

eT0 (

!+i!d )

e i!d t
eT0 ( !

i!d )

u(0)

U ().

U ().

U (n ) = G(n )H(n )
U (n )
N
2

N
2,

2
1 X
2in Tt
0
u(m t) =
U (n )e
T0
N

n=

t=m t
T0 = N t
=

2
T0

t=0

t=0

2
2
2i X
2i X

u(0)
= 2
nU (n ) = 2
nRe {U (n )} + inIm {U (n )}
T0
T0
N
N

n=

n=

Re {U (n )} )
Im {U (n )} )
Re {U (n )}

U (n )
U (n )
nRe {U (n )}

Im {U (n )}

nIm {U (n )}

2
4 X

u(0)
= 2
nIm {U (n )}
T0 n=0

u(0) = u(0)

u(0)

u(0)

= u(0)

u(0)
u(k t)
u(0)

u(0)

t=0
r(t) = e

!t

(cos(!d t) +

!
sin(!d t))
!d
t=0

s(t) =

!t

!d

sin(!d t)

1 (t) =

u(0)r(t)

2 (t) =

u(0)s(t)

u(m t) = u(m t) + 1 (m t) + 2 (m t)

(t)
(t)

u
1

u
2
(t)
u
2

u
1
R1

(N
R2

u(m t) = u
(m t) + R1 u
1 (m t) + R2 u
2 (m t)

h
1) t

N 2
N 1
(N

2) t

R1 u
1 (0) + R2 u
2 (0) = u(0)
R1 u
1 (0) + R2 u
2 (0) = u(0)

u(0)

u
(0)
u
(0)

u(0)

u
(0)
N 1
n
1 X

G(n )H(n
)e2im N
2

u
(m t) =

n=0

u
(0)
N

u
(0) =

2
4 X
nIm {U (n )}
(T0 )2

n=0

u
1 (0)

h(t)
=

=1

1
e
m!d

2e

!t

!T0

u
1 (t)

h(t)

u
2 (0)
n
!d cos!d t

cos!d T0 + e

!d e

!T0

cos!d (t

o
T0 )

! h(t)

2!T0

h(t)

u
2 (t)

h(t)

(N
(N 1) t

u
1 (0) = h(2
t) u
1 (0) = h(2
t)

t) u
t)
u
2 (0) = h(
2 (0) = h(
R1

u(n t) =

N
X1
n=0

g(n t)h {(m

n) t}

R2

2) t

G(n ) =

N
X1

g(m t)e

N
X1

h(k t)e

2in m
N

m=0

G(n )
H(n ) =

g(t).
k
2in N

k=0

H(n )
h(t).

U (n ) = G(n )H(n )
U (n )
u(m t) =

N 1
m
1 X
U (n )e2in N
2
n=0

u(m t)

N2
N2
N2

N =2

X(n) =

N
X1

x(m)e

2in m
N

m=0

t.
= 3.
W =e

2 Ni

n = 4n2 + 2n1 + n0
m = 4m2 + 2m1 + m0
n0 n1 n2

X(n2 , n1 , n0 ) =

m0 m1 m2

1
1
1
X
X
X

x(m2 , m1 , m0 )W nm

m0 =0 m1 =0 m2 =0

W nm

W nm = W (4n2 +2n1 +n0 )(4m2 +2m1 +m0 ) = W (4n2 +2n1 +n0 )4m2 W (4n2 +2n1 +n0 )2m1 W (4n2 +2n1 +n0 )m0

W mN = e

2im N
N

= cos(2m)

isin(2m) = 1

W 16n2 m2

= W 8n1 m2 = W 8n2 m1 = 1

W nm = W 4n0 m2 W (2n1 +n0 )2m1 W (4n2 +2n1 +n0 )m0

X(n2 , n1 , n0 ) =

1
1
X
X

m0 =0 m1 =0

x1 (n0 , m1 , m0 ) =

1
X

1
X

x(m2 , m1 , m0 )W

4n0 m2

m2 =0

x(m2 , m1 , m0 )W 4n0 m2

m2 =0

m1 m0

n0

x1 (n0 , m1 , m0 ) = x(0, m1 , m0 )W 0 + x(1, m1 , m0 )W 4n0

W (2n1 +n0 )2m1 W (4n2 +2n1 +n0 )m0

x1

x
n0 = 1 m1 = 0

m0 = 1

x1 (1, 0, 1) = x1 (5) =
x(0, 0, 1)W 410 + x(1, 0, 1)W 411 = x(1) + x(5)
x

x(1)
x1 (5)

x(5)

x(5)
4n0 m2

m2 = 0

x
(N

x1
W4
4n0 m2 = 1
W 4n0 ,

n0 = 0,
W0

x1

1)

x1
x1 (0)

x1 (4)

x1 (0) = x(0) + x(4)W 0


x1 (4) = x(0) + x(4)W 4
x1
m1
n0 = m2 = 1.

m0

Ws
N

W s+( 2 ) = e(2 N )( 2 +s) = ei e2i N =

N
2
N
s+( 2 )

n0 = m2 = 0
=4

Ws

x1 (j) = x(j) + x( N2 + j)W s


x1 ( N2 + j) = x(j) x( N2 + j)W s
x
N
2

x2 (n0 , n1 , m0 ) =

1
X

x1

x1 (n0 , m1 , m0 )W (2n1 +n0 )2m1

m1 =0

n0 n1

x2 (n0 , n1 , m0 )

m0
x2

x1

x2

N
2

W (2n1 +n0 )2m1

x1

x3 (n0 , n1 , n2 ) =

1
X

x2 (n0 , n1 , m0 )W (4n2 +2n1 +n0 )m0

m0 =0

x3

X(n2 , n1 , n0 ) = x3 (n0 , n1 , n2 )
X

x1 x2

= log2 N

N2

( N2 )log2 N.

m = 0,25
t1 = 0,6
= 0,06.
2

x3

x3

! = 2
2
p = sin( 1,2
t)

!d = !

p
1

m
u + cu + ku = p(t)

m
u + cu + ku = 0

u=e

0,2423

!t

[C1 sin!d t + C2 cos!d t] +

C1
0,097

C2

2
2
p0 (1 (
! ) )sint
! cost

2
k
[1 ( ! )2 ]2 + 4 2 (
!)

u=e

0,377t

0,2423sin(6,2718t) + e

u=e

0,377t

0,377t

0,097cos(6,2718t) + 0,299sin(5,235t)

( 0,040sin(6,2718t) + 0,1475cos(6,2718t).

t
2,9s
0,1s

0,097cos(5,235t).

2,9s

h(t)

g(t)

H()

G()
U ()

u(t)

2,9

h(t)


h(t)

5s

h(t)

10s

30s

15s


h(t)

u(m t) = u
(m t) + 1 (m t) + 2 (m t)

2,9

{u}

{u} =

M
X

n (t)

n yn

n=1

[ ]
M
n
yn + 2n !n y n + !n2 yn = pn

y0n =
y 0n =

T Mu
0
n
T Mv
0
n

+ C{u}
M {u}
+ K{u} = f g(t)
f
g(t)
H()
eit
{u} = Heit

( 2 M + iC + K)H = f

HR + iHI

H
2N

Hj

2N
j
(u)

g(t)
u
j (m t) =

L 1
l
1 X
Hj (l )G(l )e2im L
2
l=0

G Hj,

L t
t
u
j

G(l )
u
j

j
H

u
j

u
j
Hj

j
H

j () =
H

1
X

Hj

Hj ( + s

s= 1

2
)
t

j ()
H

2
t

s
H()

>

Hj ()
j ()
H

L 1
l
1 X
u
j (m t) =
Hj (l )G(l )e2im L
2
l=0

j () w Hj
H

Rp

tp

T0
Rp
j (tp )
u
p (tp ) = Rp h
j
h
hj =

j
H

L 1
1 X
Hj (l )
2
l=0

uj (0) = u
j (0) +

2N
X

j (tp )
Rp h

p=1

2N
X

j (tp ) = uj (0)
Rp h

u
j (0)

j (tp ) = u j (0)
Rp h

u
j (0)

p=1

2N
X
p=1

uj (m t) = u
j (m t) +

2N
X

j (tp + m t)
Rp h

p=1

j (t)
h

j (t)
h
j
h

j (l )
H

j (t)
h
p

j (tp ) = hj (tp +
h

j (tp
t) h
2 t

t)

h(t)

p1
p2

1,00
0,75

m2 = 2

m1 = 3
k1 = 100

k2 = 150

t1 = 1,00
= 0,00.
p = 20
t = 0,05
t

M {
u} + K {u} = {p(t)}
i
yi + !i2 yi = pi

K=

250
100

100
100

M=

3 0
0 2

|K

!i2 M | = 0

!1 = 4,75rad/s !2 = 10,52rad/s

(K
a1 =

!i M ) {ai } = 0

1,00
1,82

a2 =

1,00
0,82

y1 + !12 y1 = p1
y2 + !22 y2 = p2
!1 = 4,75

i (t) =
h

!2 = 10,52

1
cos!i tsin!i T0
(sin!i t +
)
2Mi !i
1 cos!i T0

Mi

Mi = {ai }T M {ai }

T0 = 3s.

( 2 M + K)H = f

f=

f
1
0,75

M K

250

32
100
100
100 22

H=

1
0,75

H()

H()
t = 0,05s.

=
N
2

60
2 2,09

= 62,70rad/s

2
T0

= 2,09
H()

H1 ()

H()

H2 ()

1 () H2 () w H
2 ()
H1 () w H
1 ()
H
g(k t)
G(k )

2 ()
H

(k )} = {G(k )}
{U

1 (k )
H
2 (k )
H

1 (0,40) + R2 h
1 (0,30) + R3 h
1 (0,40) + R4 h
1 (0,40) = u
R1 h
1 (0)
2 (0,40) + R2 h
2 (0,30) + R3 h
2 (0,40) + R4 h
2 (0,40) = u
R1 h
2 (0)

1 (0.40) + R2 h
1 (0.30) + R3 h
1 (0.20) + R4 h
1 (0.40) = u
R1 h
1 (0)
2 (0.40) + R2 h
2 (0.30) + R3 h
2 (0.20) + R4 h
2 (0.40) = u
R1 h
2 (0)
u
1 (0) =
R1 R 2 R3
R1 = 458,952 R2 =

uj (m t) = u
j (m t) +

0,049 u
2 (0) = 0,084 u
1 (0) = 2,8228
R4

972,150 R3 = 994,566 R4 =

2N
X
p=1

j (tp + m t)
Rp h

444,381

u
2 (0) = 0,463.

fn1

Ea
I
m

=
2

Ea I
mL
4

Rx ( )
Rx ( )
DEP () =

Rx ( ) =

1
2

+1

+1

Rx ( )e

DEP ()ei d

DEP =

1
A()A ()
2 f

f
A()

a(t)

A ()

A()

N
Ea = 210000 mm
2

Ixx = 450,10

8 m4

m
= 20,4 kg
m

30g.

N = 2632
2400Hz
2400
1200Hz.

DEP =

1
A()A ()
2 f

357,4Hz

fn1

=
2

fn1

=
2

Ea I
mL
4

2,1E 11 450E
20,4 0,904

R = ku

=p

4 2 +

= 417,39Hz

(ti , ai ),
yi = L(ai ).

i = ti f

(i , yi )
y = a + b
=

= 0,070
= p 0,070
2

4 +0,0702

0,070
6,283

= 0,011

= 1,1 %