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UCI Extension

Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop

Sentences with
More Than One Clause
Structure and Written Expression Skills 6-8
Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test
Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida

Review: What is a clause?


A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb.
Every sentence has at least one clause. Some have more.
These sentences have one clause:
[Kittens are cute.]
[The students have been studying in the library.]
These sentences have more than one clause:
[Kittens are cute,] [but spiders arent.] (2 clauses)
[The students [who have been studying] are tired]
[because studying is hard work.] (3 clauses)
Now lets look at several different ways to join two clauses.

Coordinate connectors (conjunctions)


One way to join two clauses is by using a coordinate
connector (also called a coordinating conjunction).
You can remember these connectors by thinking of the word
FANBOYS. (Their first letters spell out this word.)
For*
And
Nor*
But
Or
Yet
So

We will remember you, for you have helped us greatly.


The sun is shining, and the birds are singing.
He never smiled, nor did he laugh.
I was looking for my book, but I couldnt find it.
Did you do your homework, or did you forget?
You look familiar, yet I cant remember your name.
I dont have any money, so I cant buy anything.

*For sounds rather formal or poetic. In everyday speech, we dont use it often as a
coordinate connector. (Of course, we often us it as a preposition: This is for you.)
*Notice the inverted order of subject and verb in a clause that begins with nor.

Coordinate connectors (conjunctions)


When you join two sentences with a coordinate connector,
put a comma after the first clause, before the connector.
[Its chilly today] , [so Ill wear a jacket].
commas

[The boy was tired ] , [but he had fun].


With coordinate connectors, you cant move the second
clause to the beginning of the sentence:
[Its chilly today ] , [so Ill wear a jacket]. OK
[So Ill wear a jacket] , [its chilly today].

No!

Subordinating conjunctions
We can also join two clauses by using a subordinating
conjunction, such as after, because, if, although, and many
others. For example:
Ill do my homework after I watch TV.
No, you need to do your homework before you watch TV.
Whenever I do my homework, I watch TV.
If you watch TV, you wont be able to concentrate.
I can concentrate even though Im watching TV!
Unless you turn off the TV, youll get a bad grade on your test
because you wont remember anything.
OK. Ill turn off the TV since you think its important.
Good. Now that youve turned off the TV, youll be able to study.

Subordinating conjunctions
A clause that begins with a word like before, after, or because
is called an adverb clause. It often answers one of these
questions: When? Why? How? Where?
Adverb clauses are also subordinate clauses.* An adverb clause
cannot be a sentence by itself. It needs an independent clause
to go along with it to be a complete sentence.
[Im going to take a break] [because Ive been studying hard.]
Independent clause

Dependent clause = Complete sentence

[Because Ive been studying hard.]


Just a dependent clause

Not a complete sentence

*There are also other kinds of subordinate clauses: adjective clauses, noun
clauses, etc.

Subordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions can have several types of
meanings:
Time

after
as
as long as
as soon as

Cause

as
because

before
by the time
once
since

until
when
whenever
while

inasmuch as
now that

since

Subordinating conjunctions
Condition

if
in case

provided
providing

unless
whether

though
while

whereas

Contrast

although
even though
Manner

as

in that

Place

where

wherever
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Subordinating conjunctions
A few conjunctions can be used with more than one
meaning:
Since Im here, I might as well help you. (Cause)
Since I was ten years old, Ive enjoyed soccer. (Time)
As I told you before, soccer is fun. (Manner)
As I was going home, I saw my friend. (Time)

Subordinating conjunctions
With subordinating conjunctions, you can move the
subordinate clause to the beginning of the sentence:
[Ill wear a jacket] [because its cold]. OK
[Because its cold] , [Ill wear a jacket]. OK
[I get sleepy] [whenever I listen to music]. OK
[Whenever I listen to music] , [I get sleepy]. OK
[Id buy a new car] [if I were rich]. OK
[If I were rich] , [Id buy a new car]. OK

Subordinating conjunctions
Punctuation: If the independent clause comes first, dont
use a comma between the clauses.
[Ill wear a jacket] [because its cold].
[Id buy a new car] [if I were rich].
no commas

If the dependent clause comes first, put a comma between


the clauses:
[Because its cold] , [Ill wear a jacket].
[If I were rich] , [Id buy a new car].
commas

Conjunctive adverbs
We can also join two clauses with a conjunctive adverb. These
are words like however, therefore, or consequently. These
words are sometimes called transitions. For example:
Bob says he speaks ten languages; however, I dont
believe him.
Bob says he speaks ten languages. However, I dont
believe him.
Homework is important; therefore, Ill do it carefully.
Homework is important. Therefore, Ill do it carefully.
The bus was late; consequently, I was late for class.
The bus was late. Consequently, I was late for class.
1

Conjunctive adverbs
Here are some common conjunctive adverbs:
accordingly
additionally
also
anyway
besides
consequently
conversely
finally
further
furthermore

hence
however
in addition
in any case
in comparison
in contrast
indeed
instead
likewise
meanwhile

moreover
nevertheless
nonetheless
otherwise
rather
similarly
still
then
therefore
thus

Conjunctive adverbs
A conjunctive adverb goes between the two clauses it
connects.
Homework is important; therefore, Ill do it carefully. OK
Therefore, Ill do it carefully; homework is important. No!
Think about the meaning of the conjunctive adverb and make
sure you attach it to the right clause. It has to make sense.
Its raining; therefore, Ill take an umbrella.
This makes sense, and the grammar is correct too.
Ill take an umbrella; therefore, its raining.
The grammar is fine, but this doesnt make sense. The
umbrella didnt cause the rain.
1

Conjunctive adverbs
Punctuation: There are three possibilities:
1. Put a semicolon after the first clause and a comma after the
conjunctive adverb:
semicolon

comma

Bob says hes a millionaire; however, I dont believe him.

Conjunctive adverbs
Punctuation: There are three possibilities:
2. Or you can put a period after the first clause and a comma
after the conjuctive adverb:
period capital letter

comma

Bob says hes a millionaire. However, I dont believe him.

Conjunctive adverbs
Punctuation: There are three possibilities:
3. Sometimes a conjunctive adverb comes in the middle of a
clause. Then it has commas before and after it.
Bob says hes a millionaire. I, however, dont believe him.
The cost of gas has increased. Many drivers, therefore,
will use their cars less often.
commas

Summary
In this section, you have learned how to make these
kinds of clauses:
Two clauses joined by a coordinate
connector
Adverb clauses with subordinating
conjunctions
Clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs