Está en la página 1de 25

FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA ELECTRNICA Y

ELCTRICA

Laboratorio de Sistemas de Control I

PROFESOR:
Ing. NUEZ VILLACORTA, HILDA
TEMA:
RESPUESTA TRANSITORIA Y ESTABILIDAD
DE
SISTEMAS CONTINUOS EN CIRCUITOS RLC
TIPO DE INFORME:
PREVIO

ALUMNO

CDIGO

IBAEZ SILVA, KELVIN AVELINO

12190156

Ciudad Universitaria, 20 de Mayo del 2015

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS


FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA ELECTRONICA Y ELECTRICA
CURSO: LABORATORIO SISTEMAS DE CONTROL I

I.

INFORME PREVIO
Anlisis de la respuesta en Frecuencia del circuito RLC.

1. Diagrama de bloques implementado en simulink.

2. Funcin de transferencia.
e i=Ri ( t )+ L

e o=

di(t) 1
+ i (t) dt
dt C

1
i(t )dt
C

Aplicando Laplace a la ecuacin tendremos:

Ei ( s )= R+ LS+

Eo ( s )=

1
I (s )
CS

I ( s)
CS

I ( s )=Eo (S)CS

Reemplazando tenemos:

Ei ( s )= R+ LS+

1
Eo( s)CS
CS

Eo( s)
1
=
Ei (s ) LC S 2 + RCS+ 1
1
LC
G(S )=
R 1
S 2 +S +
L LC

1
Uc ( S )
LC
G(S )
R
1
U (S )
2
S S
L
LC

G ( s)

wn2
S 2 2wn S wn2

3. Hallar el rango de la resistencia para hacer al sistema


Sobreamortiguado, Crticamente Amortiguado, Subamortiguado y
Oscilante en lazo abierto
La ecuacin caracterstica es:

S +S

R 1
+
=0
L LC

Aplicando el criterio de Routh Hurwitz

S2

1/LC

S1

R/L

S0

1/LC

Por lo tanto el sistema es estable para R>0


Donde 2 W n =R/ L

W n= 1/ LC

R C
entonces = 2 L

Sobreamortiguado: ( >1 )

R C
>1
2 L

R>2

L
C

Considerando L=10mH y C=47uF. Entonces


>> R=50;
>> L=10*10^-3;
>> C=47*10^-6;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g1=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
---------------------------4.7e-007 s^2 + 0.00235 s + 1
>> step(g1)

R>29.17

Step Response

System: g1
Peak amplitude >= 0.998
Overshoot (%): 0
At time (sec) > 0.014

System: g1
Settling Time (sec): 0.00856

0.9

System: g1
Rise Time (sec): 0.00472

0.8
0.7

A m p litu d e

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

Time (sec)

Crticamente amortiguado: ( =1 )

R C
=1
2 L

R=2

L
C

Considerando L=10mH y C=47uF. Entonces


>> L=10*10^-3;
>> C=47*10^-6;
>> R=2*sqrt(L/C);
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g2=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
----------------------------4.7e-007 s^2 + 0.001371 s + 1
>> step(g2)

R=29.17

0.014

Step Response

System: g2
Peak amplitude >= 1
Overshoot (%): 0
At time (sec) > 0.007

System: g2
Settling Time (sec): 0.004

0.9

System: g2
Rise Time (sec): 0.0023

0.8
0.7

A m p litu d e

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

6
x 10

Subamortiguado: ( 0< <1 )

0<=

R C
<1
2 L

0< R<2

Considerando L=10mH y C=47uF. Entonces


>> R=10;
>> L=10*10^-3;
>> C=47*10^-6;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g3=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
---------------------------4.7e-007 s^2 + 0.00047 s + 1
>> step(g3)

7
-3

Time (sec)

L
C
0< R<29.17

Step Response

1.4
System: g3
Peak amplitude: 1.32
Overshoot (%): 31.7
At time (sec): 0.00233

1.2

System: g3
Final Value: 1

A m p litu d e

System: g3
Settling Time (sec): 0.00757
System: g3
Rise Time (sec): 0.000959

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.005

0.01
Time (sec)

Oscilante: ( =0 )
=

R C
=0
2 L

R=0

Considerando L=10mH y C=47uF.


>> R=0;
>> L=10*10^-3;
>> C=47*10^-6;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g4=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
---------------4.7e-007 s^2 + 1
>> step(g4)
>> axis([0 0.09 -0.1 2.1])
>> grid

0.015

Step Response
2
1.8
1.6

A m p litu d e

1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

Time (sec)

4. Considerar L = 76 mH, C= 110 nF, Determinar los valores de R, para


los casos antes indicados., escoger dentro del rango de R obtenido para
los casos Sobreamortiguado, Crticamente Amortiguado,
Subamortiguado y Oscilante un valor para cada caso.
Como en la pregunta numero 3 (R>0).
Sobreamortiguado: ( >1 )
=

R C
>1
2 L

R>2

L
C

Considerando L=76mH y C=110nF. Entonces


>> R=1000;
>> L=76*10^-3;
>> C=110*10^-9;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g5=tf(num,den)

Transfer function:
1
----------------------------8.36e-009 s^2 + 0.00011 s + 1

R>52.57

>> step(g5)

Step Response

1.4

System: g5
Peak amplitude: 1.09
Overshoot (%): 9.39
At time (seconds): 0.000357

1.2

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

7
x 10

Crticamente amortiguado: ( =1 )

R C
=1
2 L

R=2

L
C

Considerando L=76mH y C=110nF. Entonces


>> L=76*10^-3;
>> C=110*10^-9;
>> R=2*sqrt(L/C);
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g6=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
------------------------------8.36e-009 s^2 + 0.0001829 s + 1
>> step(g6)

8
-4

Time (seconds)

R=52.57

Step Response

System: g6
Peak amplitude >= 0.999
Overshoot (%): 0
At time (sec) > 0.0009

System: g6
Settling Time (sec): 0.000533

0.9

System: g6
Rise Time (sec): 0.000307

0.8
0.7

A m p litu d e

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

R C
<1
2 L

9
x 10

Subamortiguado: ( 0< <1 )

0<=

-4

Time (sec)

0< R<2

Considerando L=76mH y C=110nF. Entonces


>> R=40;
>> L=76*10^-3;
>> C=110*10^-9;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
-----------------------------8.36e-009 s^2 + 4.4e-006 s + 1
>> step(g)

L
C
0< R<52.57

Step Response

2
System: g
Peak amplitude: 1.93
Overshoot (%): 92.7
At time (sec): 0.000287

1.8
1.6
1.4

Am plitude

1.2

System: g
Settling Time (sec): 0.0147

1
System: g
Final Value: 1

System: g
Rise Time (sec): 9.71e-005

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

Time (sec)

Oscilante: ( =0 )

R C
=0
2 L

R=0

Considerando L=76mH y C=110nF.


>> R=0;
>> L=76*10^-3;
>> C=110*10^-9;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> g9=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
----------------8.36e-009 s^2 + 1
>> step(g9)
>> axis([0 0.01 -0.1 2.1])

0.014

0.016

0.018

0.02

Step Response
2
1.8
1.6
1.4

Am plitude

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.01

Time (sec)

5. Para los valores de R escogido en el paso 4. Ponerlos en lazo cerrado,


obtener Td, Tr,, Tp, Mp, Ts. de Matlab y tericamente, simular del
circuito a implementar en proteus, u otro simulador.
Sobreamortiguado: ( >1 )

R C
>1
2 L

R>2

L
C

Considerando L=100uH y C=100nF. Entonces

R>63.24

R=1k

Step Response

Sobreamortiguado

0.5
0.45
System: glc
Td
Rise Time (sec): 0.00011

0.4

3.47x10-5 seg

Tr

0.00011 seg

Tp

>0.0003

0.3

Mp

0.25

Ts

0.000195 seg

0.35

Am plitude

System: glc
Peak amplitude >= 0.499
Overshoot (%): 0
At time (sec) > 0.0003

System: glc

Hallado
por
matlab
Settling Time
(sec):
0.000195

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

2
Time (sec)

SIMULACION EN PROTEUS

3
-4

x 10

Crticamente amortiguado: ( =1 )
=

R C
=1
2 L

R=2

L
C

Considerando L=100uH y C=100nF. Entonces

Crticamente Amortiguado
Hallado por matlab
Td
Tr
Tp
Mp
Ts

0.3x10-5 seg
4.81x10-6 seg
1.01x10-5 seg
4.32%
1.33x10-5 seg

R=63.24

Step Response

0.7

System: glc
Peak amplitude: 0.522
Overshoot (%): 4.32
At time (sec): 1.01e-005

0.6

System: glc
Settling Time (sec): 1.33e-005

A m p litu d e

0.5
System: glc
Final Value: 0.5

System: glc
Rise Time (sec): 4.81e-006

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
Time (sec)

SIMULACION EN PROTEUS

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2
-5

x 10

Subamortiguado: ( 0< <1 )


0<=

R C
<1
2 L

0< R<2

L
C

Considerando L=100uH y C=100nF. Entonces

0< R<63.24

Sub amortiguado
Td
Tr
Tp
Mp
Ts

Hallado por matlab


2.56x10-6 seg
2.81x10-6 seg
7.02x10-6 seg
48.5%
3.78x10-5 seg

SIMULACION EN PROTEUS

Hallado tericamente
2.12x10-5
6.4x10-6
1.06x10-5
34.6%
4x10-5

Step Response

0.8

System: glc
Peak amplitude: 0.742
Overshoot (%): 48.5
At time (sec): 7.02e-006

0.7

0.6

System: glc
Final Value: 0.5

Am plitud e

0.5

System: glc
Settling Time (sec): 3.78e-005
System: glc
Rise Time (sec): 2.81e-006

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

3
Time (sec)

6
-5

x 10

6. Hallar el Lugar Geomtrico de las Races.

Sobreamortiguado: ( >1 )
>> R=1000;
>> L=100*10^-6;
>> C=100*10^-9;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> rlocus(num,den)

x 10

Root Locus

Im a g in a r y A x is

0
System: sys
Gain: 0
Pole: -9.99e+006
Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0
Frequency (rad/sec): 9.99e+006

-1

-2

-3
-12

-10

-8

-6

-4
Real Axis

Crticamente amortiguado: ( =1 )
>> L=100*10^-6;
>> C=100*10^-9;
>> R=2*sqrt(L/C);
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> rlocus(num,den)

-2

2
6

x 10

Root Locus

x 10

1.5

Im a g in a r y A x is

0.5

-0.5

System: sys
Gain: 0
Pole: -3.16e+005
Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0
Frequency (rad/sec): 3.16e+005

-1

-1.5

-2
-3.5

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5
Real Axis

Subamortiguado: ( 0< <1 )


>> R=20;
>> L=100*10^-6;
>> C=100*10^-9;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> rlocus(num,den)

-1

-0.5

0.5
5

x 10

1.5

0.5

Im aginary Ax is

Root Locus

x 10

System: sys
Gain: 0.03
Pole: -1e+005 + 3.05e+005i
Damping: 0.312
Overshoot (%): 35.7
Frequency (rad/sec): 3.21e+005

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-2.5

System: sys
Gain: 0.03
Pole: -1e+005 - 3.05e+005i
Damping: 0.312
Overshoot (%): 35.7
Frequency (rad/sec): 3.21e+005

-2

-1.5

-1
Real Axis

Oscilante: ( =0 )
>> R=0;
>> L=100*10^-6;
>> C=100*10^-9;
>> num=1;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1];
>> rlocus(num,den)

-0.5

0.5
5

x 10

1.5

Root Locus

x 10

Im a g in a ry A x is

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5
5

Real Axis

x 10

7. Para un valor de R del sistema en lazo abierto tal que sea


sobreamortiguado, implementar el sistema en lazo cerrado colocndole
un bloque de ganancia K, obtener la salida variando K.
Sea R=50, L=10mH y C=47uF
Funcin de transferencia en lazo cerrado con ganancia K:

T (s) =

k
LC S + RCS +k +1
2

Analizando los valores de k con el criterio de Routh Hurwitz


S2

LC

K+1

RC

K+1
De donde:
K>-1, el sistema es estable
K=-1, el sistema es marginalmente estable u oscilante
K<-1, el sistema es inestable
SISTEMA ESTABLE
>> R=50;
>> L=10*10^-3;
>> C=47*10^-6;
>> k=10;
>> num=k;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1+k];
>> g=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
10
----------------------------4.7e-007 s^2 + 0.00235 s + 11
>> gt=tf(num,den)
>> step(gt)
Step Response

1.4

System: gt
Peak amplitude: 1.05
Overshoot (%): 15
At time (sec): 0.000763

1.2

System: gt
Final Value: 0.909

A m p litu d e

0.8

System: gt
Settling Time (sec): 0.00162

System: gt
Rise Time (sec): 0.000348

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5
Time (sec)

2.5
-3

x 10

SISTEMA MARGINALMENTE ESTABLE


>> R=50;
>> L=10*10^-3;
>> C=47*10^-6;
>> k=-1;
>> num=k;
>> den=[L*C R*C 1+k];
>> gt=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
-1
-----------------------4.7e-007 s^2 + 0.00235 s
>> step(gt)

Step Response

x 10

-1

A m p litu d e

-2

-3

-4

-5

System: gt
Peak amplitude <= -6.38e+005
Overshoot (%): NaN
At time (sec) > 1.5e+003

-6

-7
0

500

1000
Time (sec)

SISTEMA INESTABLE
>> R=50;
>> L=10*10^-3;
>> C=47*10^-6;
>> k=-8;
>> num=k;

1500

>> den=[L*C R*C 1+k];


>> gt=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
-8
---------------------------4.7e-007 s^2 + 0.00235 s - 7
>> step(gt)

Step Response

x 10

A m p litu d e

-0.5

-1

-1.5
System: gt
Peak amplitude <= -2.11e+006
Overshoot (%): NaN
At time (sec) > 0.007

-2

-2.5

4
Time (sec)

7
-3

x 10