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vn

LI M U
Trc s pht trin v cng mnh m ca cc dch v s liu, trc xu hng tch
hp v IP ho t ra cc yu cu mi i vi cng nghip Vin Thng di ng. Mng
thng tin di ng th h ba ra i khc phc c cc nhc im ca cc mng thng
tin di ng th h trc . Tuy nhin, mng di ng ny cng c mt s nhc im nh:
Tc truyn d liu ln nht l 2Mbps, vn cha p ng c yu cu ngy cng cao
ca ngi dng, kh nng p ng cc dch v thi gian thc nh hi ngh truyn hnh l
cha cao, rt kh trong vic download cc file d liu ln,cha p ng c cc yu
cu nh: kh nng tch hp vi cc mng khc (V d: WLAN, WiMAX,) cha tt, tnh
m ca mng cha cao, khi a mt dch v mi vo mng s gp rt nhiu vn do tc
mng thp, ti nguyn bng tn t,
Trong bi cnh ngi ta chuyn hng sang nghin cu h thng thng tin di
ng mi c tn gi l 4G. S ra i ca h thng ny m ra kh nng tch hp tt c cc
dch v, cung cp bng thng rng, dung lng ln, truyn dn d liu tc cao, cung cp
cho ngi s dng nhng hnh nh video mu cht lng cao, cc tr chi ho 3D linh
hot, cc dich v m thanh s. Vic pht trin cng ngh giao thc u cui dung lng
ln, cc dich v gi d liu tc cao, cng ngh da trn nn tng phn mm cng cng
mang n cc chng trnh ng dng download, cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn a mode, v
cng ngh m ho media cht lng cao trn nn cc mng di ng.
Hin nay th trng di ng Vit Nam c nh gi l tng trng ng th 2 trn
th gii sau Trung Quc, s thu bao khng ngng tng, nhu cu v vic s dng cc dch
v v cc dch v a phng tin ngy cng cao v cng i hi cao hn trong tng lai.
Do vic nghin cu mt cng ngh mi p ng cc nhu cu th trng trong tng
lai l rt cn thit.
Hin nay Viettel a vo s dng GPRS p ng nhu cu s dng cc dch v
d liu ngy cng cao ca cc thu bao. Cc dch v ch yu ca GPRS nh: WAP, truy
nhp Internet c hai phng thc l truy nhp gin tip v truy nhp trc tip, dch v nhn
tin a phng tin, video, xem cc on phim ti v, xem video trc tuyn. Ngoi ra cn c
dch v thng mi in t di ng, dch v ngn hng, qung co trn in thoi di
ngdo gi cc cn cao nn cc loi bao c thu nhp trung bnh v cao. Da trn nhu
cu th trng Vit Nam, hin ti chng ta thy rng nhu cu chnh trong thng tin di ng
vn l dch v thoi truyn thng, dch v d liu cng bt u tng trng, theo d on

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tng s thu bao c nhu cu dch v d liu chim khong 50% vo nm 2010. Vi i
sng thu nhp ngy cng cao ca ngi dn, nhu cu cc dch v cht lng tt ngy cng
ln, th mng di ng Viettel ngy cng phi nng cp p ng c cc nhu cu ny.
Mt khc, xu hng chung trn th gii l hi t tt c cc mng vin thng li vi nhau.
Do , yu cu pht trin mng thng tin di ng ln th h 4G c tc cao, s dng all
IP c kh nng tch hp vi cc mng khc l yu cu tt yu ca mng di ng Viettel.
ti Nghin cu ng dng cng ngh 4G cho mng di ng di ng Viettel
Mobile c a ra khng ch nhm mc ch tm hiu, nghin cu cc dch v m n p
ng m cn c gng a vo p dng Vit Nam c th l trn mng di ng ca
Viettel.Vi mc ch ti nghin cu ca chng ti dc chia lm 4 chng:
Chng 1: Xu hng pht trin cng ngh v dch v ca cc mng di ng
Chng 2: M hnh cu trc mng 4G
Chng 3: Dch v v cht lng dch v trong mng 4G
Chng 4: L trnh tin ln mng thng tin di ng 4G cho Viettel Mobile
Vi vic trin khai ti Nghin cu ng dng cng ngh 4G cho mng di ng di
ng Viettel Mobile , Viettel m ra mt c hi mi, ng lc mi cho s pht trin
cng ngh mng cng nh thng mi in t trong thi i kinh t s hin nay, khng ch
cho cng ty m cn mong mun s ng gp mt phn vo s pht trin trong lnh vc
vin thng cng ngh thng tin ca nc nh. cng l mong mun ln nht ca nhng
ngi thc hin ti ny.

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CHNG 1
XU HNG PHT TRIN CNG NGH V DCH V CA CC MNG
DI NG

1.1. GII THIU H THNG THNG TIN DI NG 4G


Vic nghin cu chuyn hng sang cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 4 (4G)
gii quyt cc vn tn ti trong h thng di ng th h 3 (3G). l vic cung cp cc
loi hnh dch v ngy cng a dng hn, t tn hiu thoi cht lng cao sang tn hiu
video phn gii cao, cc knh v tuyn c tc d liu cao. Khi nim 4G c s
dng rng ri khng ch c cc h thng in thoi t bo m cn bao gm cc kiu h
thng vin thng truy nhp v tuyn bng thng rng. Mt trong s cc thut ng dng
m t 4G l MAGIC: Mobile multimedia (a phng tin di ng), Anytime anywhere
(Bt c khi no, bt c ni u), Global mobility support (H tr di ng ton cu),
Integrated wireless solution (Gii php v tuyn tch hp) v Customized personal service
(Dch v theo yu cu c nhn). Nh l mt li ha cho tng lai, h thng 4G l h thng
truy nhp v tuyn t bo bng thng rng, v ang l mi quan tm ln ca lnh vc
thng tin di ng. 4G khng ch h tr cho cc dch v thng tin di ng th h tip theo
m cn h tr cho c cc mng v tuyn c nh.
Chng ta xem xt trn c s ci nhn tng quan v cc c trng ca 4G, cch t
chc v tch hp h thng di ng. c trng ca 4G c th c ng li bng t tch hp.
Cc h thng 4G l mt s tch hp gn kt khng tch ri ca cc thnh phn thit b u
cui, mng li v cc ng dng nhm tho mn i hi khng ngng v ngy cng cao
ca

ngi

dng.

1.2. LCH S V XU HNG PHT TRIN


Lch s ra i v s pht trin ca dch v di ng t th h u tin 1G ti th h
4G tri qua nhiu giai on khc nhau. Bng 1.1 cho thy tm lc qu trnh tin trin ca
cng ngh thng tin di ng thoi.
Qu trnh bt u vi cc thit k u tin c bit n nh l 1G trong nhng nm
70 ca th k trc! Cc h thng ra i sm nht c thc hin da trn cng ngh tng
t v cu trc t bo c bn ca thng tin di ng. Nhiu vn c tnh nguyn tc c bn
c gii quyt trong nhng h thng ny. V c nhiu cc h thng khng tng thch
c a ra cung cp dch v trong nhng nm 80.

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Cc h thng th h th 2 (2G) c xy dng trong nhng nm 80 vn c s


dng ch yu cho thoi nhng c thc hin trn c s cng ngh s, bao gm cc k
thut x l tn hiu s. Cc h thng 2G ny cung cp cc dch v thng tin d liu chuyn
mch knh tc thp. Tnh cnh tranh li mt ln na dn ti vic thit k v thc hin
cc h thng b phn ho thnh cc chun khc nhau khng tng thch nh: GSM (h
thng di ng ton cu) ch yu chu u, TDMA (a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian)
IS-54/IS-136 M, PDC (h thng di ng t bo s c nhn) Nht v CDMA (a truy
nhp phn chia theo m) IS95, mt h thng khc ti M. Cc h thng ny hot ng rng
khp trn lnh th quc gia hoc quc t v hin nay chng vn chim vai tr l cc h
thng ch o, mc d tc d liu ca cc thu bao trong h thng b gii hn nhiu.
Bc chuyn tip gia 2G v 3G l 2.5G. Th h 2,5G c pht trin t 2G vi
dch v d liu v cc phng thc chuyn mch gi, v n cng ch trng ti cc dch v
3G cho cc mng 2G. V c bn n l s pht trin ca cng ngh 2G tng dung lng
trn cc knh tn s v tuyn ca 2G v bc u a cc dch v d liu dung lng cao
hn vo, c th nng ti 384 Kbps. Mt kha cnh rt quan trng ca 2.5G l cc knh d
liu c ti u ho cho d liu gi truy nhp vo Internet t cc thit b di ng nh in
thoi, PDA hoc my tnh xch tay. Trn cng mt mng li vi 2G, th h 2.5G a
internet vo th gii thng tin di ng c nhn. y thc s l mt khi nim mang tnh
cch mng cho h thng vin thng lai ghp hybrid.
Trong thp k 90, cc nh nghin cu nh ngha ra h thng di ng th h k
tip, th h th 3, loi tr c nhng s khng tng thch ca cc h thng trc y
v thc s tr thnh h thng ton cu. H thng 3G c cc knh thoi cht lng cao cng
nh cc kh nng v d liu bng rng, c th t ti 2Mbps.
Cc h thng 3G ha hn cung cp nhng dch v vin thng tc cao hn, bao
gm thoi, fax v internet bt c thi gian no, bt c ni u vi s chuyn vng
roaming ton cu khng gin on. Chun 3G ton cu ca ITU m ng cho cc ng
dng v dch v sng to (v d loi hnh gii tr a phng tin, cc dch v da trn v
tr,). Mng 3G u tin c thit lp ti Nht bn nm 2001. Cc mng 2.5G, nh l
GPRS (dch v v tuyn gi chung) sn sng Chu u. Cng ngh 3G h tr bng
thng 144 Kbps vi tc di chuyn ln (trn xe hi), 384 Kbps (trong mt khu vc), v 2
Mbps (i vi trng hp trong nh).

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Hnh 1.1 Cc th h di ng

Bng 1.1 Bng so snh tham s cng ngh c bn


Tuy nhin i hi ca vin thng a phng tin truy nhp tc cao i vi x hi
ngy nay, ph thuc rt ln vo cng ngh thng tin s. Theo cc con s lch s ca cuc
cch mng v cng ngh din ra trong 1 thp k th thi im hin ti chnh l thi im

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thch hp nghin cu h thng thng tin di ng 4G.


Hin nay tc download ch d liu ang b gii hn 9.6 Kbps, thp hn
khong 6 ln so vi 1 ng kt ni c nh ISDN (Mng s tch hp dch v). Gn y,
vi cc thit b cm tay 504i tc download d liu c tng ln 3 ln t 28.8 Kbps.
Tuy nhin trong thc t s dng tc d liu thng thp hn, c bit l nhng khu
vc ng c, hoc l khi mng b nghn. Tc d liu di ng th h 3 l ti a 384
Kbps download, in hnh l xp x 200 kbps, v upload t 64 kbps t nm 2001. Thng
tin di ng th h 4 s c tc truyn d liu cao hn, d kin c th t ti 20 Mbps.
3G c cc nh sn xut xut u tin m khng phi l t cc nh khai thc.
Nm 1996 n c trin khai nh NTT (Hng in thoi v in bo Nht bn) cng
Ericsson, nm 1997 Hip hi cng nghip Vin thng TIA M chn CDMA nh l 1
cng ngh cho 3G, nm 1998 CDMA bng rng (W-CDMA) v CDMA2000 c thng
qua cho H thng thng tin di ng chung UMTS. Trong W-CDMA v CDMA2000 l 2
xut chnh ca 3G. Tuy nhin 3G vn tn ti mt s vn khim khuyt nhng im
sau:
Rt kh cho vic tng bng thng lin tc v tc d liu cao p ng c yu
cu ca cc dch v a phng tin, cng vi s tn ti song song ca cc dch v
khc nhau cn c bng thng v QoS khc nhau.
Gii hn ph v phn b ph
Kh roaming qua cc mi trng dch v khc nhau cc bng tn khc nhau.
Thiu c ch vn chuyn lin tc t u cui n u cui lin kt m rng mt
mng di ng nh vi mt mng c nh nh khc. Trong cc lnh vc thng tin di ng,
dch v di ng 4G l s pht trin ca cc dch v thng tin di ng 3G. Cc dch v di
ng 4G c cho n bi kh nng cung cp bng thng rng, dung lng ln, truyn
dn d liu tc cao, cung cp cho ngi s dng nhng hnh nh video mu cht lng
cao, cc tr chi ho 3D linh hot, cc dich v m thanh s. Vic pht trin cng ngh
giao thc u cui dung lng ln, cc dich v gi d liu tc cao, cng ngh da trn
nn tng phn mm cng cng mang n cc chng trnh ng dng download, cng ngh
truy nhp v tuyn a mode, v cng ngh m ho media cht lng cao trn
nn cc mng di ng.
Vi s xut hin ca mng 4G, n s gii quyt c:
1.
dy,
2.
3.
4.

1. H tr cc dch v tng tc a phng tin: truyn hnh hi ngh, Internet khng


2. Bng thng rng hn, tc bit ln hn
3. Tinh di ng ton cu v tnh di chuyn dch v
4. Gi thnh h

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5.

5. Tng kh dng ca h thng thng tin di ng

Cc nh nghin cu v nh cung cp pht trin cc mi quan tm vo mng v tuyn 4G


h tr a roaming cc mng di ng v v tuyn ton cu, v d t mt mng di ng t
bo sang mt mng cng ngh v tinh cng nh sang ti mng LAN khng dy bng rng.
Vi c trng ny, ngi dng s c th truy nhp vo cc dch v khc nhau, tng
vng ph, thun tin cho cc thit b n l, mt ho n cho vic gim ti a tng cng
cc chi ph v rt nhiu truy nhp khng dy ng tin cy khc, thm ch ngay c khi c s
h hng hay li ca 1 hay nhiu mng ng thi. Cc mng 4G cng c c trng lin h
IP cho truy nhp Internet di ng khng ngt qung v tc bit c th t 50 Mbps hay
cao hn.
Do vic trin khai 4G trn thc t ch c th thc hin c t sau nm 2006 hoc thm
ch cn lu hn na nn cc nh pht trin hy vng c thi gian gii quyt nhiu
vn lin quan ti cc mng hn hp, c th l:
Truy nhp
Chuyn giao
nh v ng thi
nh ngun ti nguyn mng ng thi cung cp cho ngi s dng mi
H tr multicasting
H tr cht lng dch v QoS
Xc thc v bo mt v tuyn
Li mng v backup
Tnh cc Cu trc mng s ng vai tr quan trng trong vic p ng c tt
c nhng i hi trn. H tr QoS trong mng 4G l mt th thch chnh v tc
bit, c trng knh, gn bng thng, mc li v h tr chuyn giao gia cc mng v
tuyn hn hp. H tr QoS c th thc hin i vi gi, chuyn dch tc v, knh,
ngi dng v cc cp mng.
Mc QoS gi ng dng cho jitter, thng lng, v t l li. Cc ngun ti nguyn
mng nh khong m v giao thc truy nhp l nhng nh hng c kh nng.
Mc QoS chuyn giao tc v m t c 2 yu t: thi gian cn thit hon thnh
transaction v t l mt gi. Cc chuyn giao chc chn c th rt nhy v thi gian,
trong khi mt s chuyn giao khc th khng c php mt gi.
Mc QoS knh bao gm block cuc gi mi cng nh cc cuc gi ang thc hin.
N ph thuc ngay vo kh nng ca mng thit lp v duy tr knh thng tin t thit
b u cui n thit b u cui. nh tuyn cuc gi v qun l nh v l 2 thuc
tnh quan trng ca mc knh.

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Mc QoS ngi s dng ph thuc vo tnh di ng v loi ng dng ca ngi


dng. V tr mi c th h tr nhu cu QoS cc tiu, thm ch vi cc ng dng thch
nghi.
Trong mt gii php v tuyn hon thin, thng tin t im cui n im cui gia hai
ngi s dng cng c kh nng lin quan ti nhiu mng v tuyn. V QoS s thay i qua
cc mng khc nhau, nn QoS cho nhng thu bao ny c kh nng l mc ti thiu m
nhng mng ny h tr.
* Xu hng v cng ngh
C ba xu hng c th tip cn. Th nht l hng tp trung quanh 3G, trong a
truy cp phn chia theo m (CDMA) s c y dn ti im ti cc nh sn xut thit
b u cui s t b. Khi t ti thi im , cn c cng ngh khc p ng c i
hi tng ln v dung lng v tc d liu.
Xu hng th hai l xu hng v mng LAN v tuyn. S pht trin rng khp ca
WiFi c bt u t nm 2005 cho cc PC, my tnh xch tay, v PDA. Trong cc doanh
nghip, tn hiu thoi c truyn i bi cng ngh Voice qua mng LAN v tuyn
(VoWLAN). Tuy nhin cha ai thy r c cng ngh thnh cng tip theo l cng ngh
no. t ti s thng nht v cng ngh 200 Mbps (v cao hn na) vn cn l mt
chng ng lu di v c qu nhiu gii php cn xut.
Xu hng th 3 l IEEE 802.16e v 802.20 thc hin n gin hn 3G. S pht
trin ca mng li hng ti th h NGN bng rng s h tr cho vic p dng cc cng
ngh mng truy nhp mi thng qua cc gateway truy nhp tiu chun, da trn cc chun
ETSI-TISPAN,
thng
Mt

Trung
s

cng

ITU-T,3GPP,
Quc
ngh

quan

hip
(CCSA)
trng

hi

tiu

v
ca

4G

chun

cc
c

chun
m

vin
khc.

nh

sau:

OFDMA
Ghp knh phn chia tn s trc giao OFDM khng ch to nn li ch r rng cho thc thi
lp vt l, m cn hp nht vic ci thin hiu nng lp 2 nh vic a ra thm mt mc
t do. Nh vic s dng OFDM c th khai thc min thi gian, min khng gian, min tn
s v thm ch c min m ti u ho vic s dng knh v tuyn. Chc chn rng n c
u th ln vi truyn dn trong mi trng a ng vi vic lm gim thiu s phc tp
ca b thu.
Tn hiu c chia thnh cc sng mang nh trc giao, trn mi sng mang tn
hiu l bng hp (vi KHz) v v vy trnh c hiu ng a ng, to nn mt khong
bo v chn vo gia mi tn hiu OFDM. OFDM cng to nn mt li v phn tp tn
s, ci thin hiu nng ca lp vt l. N cng tng thch vi nhng cng ngh m rng

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nng cao khc, nh l cc anten thng minh v MIMO.


iu ch OFDM cng c th tn dng nh l mt cng ngh a truy nhp (a truy
nhp phn chia tn s trc giao, OFDMA). Trong trng hp ny mi tn hiu OFDM c
th truyn thng tin t/ti mt vi thu bao s dng mt b cc sng mang nh khc nhau
(subcarrier, subchannel). iu ny khng ch cung cp thm linh hot cho vic cp
ngun ti nguyn (tng dung lng), m cn c th ti u ho cc lp cho ca vic s
dng link v tuyn. V tuyn c nh ngha bng phn mm - SDR
Li ch ca v tuyn c nh ngha bng phn mm SDR mang li hiu sut x l
cao pht trin cc trm gc v thit b u cui a bng, a chun. Mc d trong tng
lai cc u cui s thch ng vi giao din v tuyn sn sng cho cng ngh truy nhp v
tuyn, thi im hin nay iu ny c thc hin nh c c s h tng. SDR mang li
nhiu li ch cho mt s c s h tng. V d tng dung lng mng ti thi im nht
nh (v d nh 1 s kin th thao), nh khai thc s cu hnh li mng ca h nh vic lp
thm vo trm gc vi thit b modem. SDR khin cho vic cu hnh li ny rt d dng.
Trong bi cnh cc h thng 4G, SDR s to iu kin d dng cho mt tp hp rt
nhiu cc picocell v microcell a chun. i vi nh sn xut, vic ny c th l mt s h
tr ln trong vic cung cp cc thit b a chun, a bng v gim i nhng n lc pht
trin v h gi thnh thng qua vic x l a knh mt cch ng thi.
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output
MIMO s dng ghp knh tn hiu gia rt nhiu cc anten pht (a thnh phn
khng gian) trn min thi gian hoc min tn s. iu ny rt ph hp vi OFDM, bi v
c th x l cc tn hiu thi gian c lp ngay khi dng sng OFDM c thit lp chnh
xc cho knh. c im ny ca OFDM gip cho cng on x l c n gin ho i rt
nhiu. Tn hiu pht i bi m anten c n anten thu li. Vic x l cc tn hiu thu c
c th mang li mt vi ci thin hiu nng: phm vi, cht lng ca tn hiu thu v hiu
sut ph. Trin khai hiu nng trong mng t bo vn ang cn l i tng cho nhiu
nghin cu v m phng (hnh 1.2). Tuy nhin, ni chung c th tha nhn rng nhng g
nhn c t vic s dng hiu qu ph lin quan trc tip ti s lng anten cc tiu trong
tuyn kt ni.

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Hnh 1.2: L trnh hiu nng do Alcatel th nghim


Ti u gia cc lp
Hin nhin c s nh hng qua li gia MIMO v lp MAC. Cc mi nh hng qua li
khc c th hin trn hnh 1.3.

Hnh1.3: nh hng qua li gia cc lp v ti u lin quan

Chuyn giao v tnh di ng


Cc cng ngh chuyn giao da trn cng ngh IP di ng cn c s xem xt c v d liu
v thoi. Cc k thut IP di ng thng chm nhng c th c tng tc vi cc phng
php c in (IP di ng nhanh, phn cp). Cc phng php ny c th p dng c cho
d liu v cng c th cho c thoi. Trong nhng mng n tn, c th xem xt cc phng

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php chuyn giao. Mt s k thut c th s dng khi t s sng mang/nhiu c gi tr m


(v d VSFOFDM), nhng iu tr ngi ca nhng k thut ny chnh l dung lng.
Trong OFDM, cng mt la chn c th thay th c trong CDMA, c th s dng phn tp
macro. Trong trng hp OFDM, MIMO cho php x l phn tp macro vi cc li v
hiu nng. Tuy nhin, thc hin phn tp macro dn n vic x l MIMO c tp trung
v truyn dn c ng b. iu ny khng phc tp nh trong CDMA, nhng nhng k
thut

ny

ch

dng

trong

cc

tnh

hung

ph

rt

khan

him.

1.3. CC NG DNG V DCH V TRONG 4G


Phn ny s nh gi v ch ra c cc dch v v tuyn ang ni ln, cc cng ngh
tim nng cho tnh an ton chung c s dng trong tng lai gn v xa hn. N s a ra
mt chui cc nghin cu tip theo cho cc cng ngh v tuyn khng dy ang xut hin.
S nghin cu ny tp chung chnh vo cc ng dng (cc dch v v cc thch thc) ang
hoch nh cho s pht trin ca mng v tuyn khng dy th h th t 4G.
Phn ny s trnh by nhiu hn v cung cp chi tit hn cc dch v thy c trong
mng 4G. Trn thc t s thc y mnh m ch yu cho cc cng ngh 4G l cung cp
thng tin d liu gi ha, rng bng ln, tc cao. Thm ch ngi ta mong mun rng
lu lng thoi c truyn i ti cc thit b cm tay trong cc gi (tri ngc vi vic
phn pht thng qua knh chuyn mch dnh ring). Chuyn mch knh lin quan ti k
thut trong cc knh dnh ring c s dng pht v nhn tn hiu thoi hay d liu.
S thng tin d liu gi ha lin quan ti k thut bo hiu s trong thng tin (thoi hay
d liu) c chuyn thnh m nh phn v c chia ct thnh cc on ngn (segments).
Cc on ny sau s c gii ng gi theo th t sp xp chnh xc v c chuyn
i ngc li thnh cc thng tin ban u pha thu. Trong chuyn mch gi ch c tn hiu
thai c ni dung thc s c ng gi v gi ti h thng. iu ny l c th nh s tin
b trong cc k thut a truy cp v cng ngh. Tht ng tic l cc k thut truy nhp v
tuyn khng dy ngy nay khng h tr vic truyn bng rng v truyn tc cao. S hn
ch ny chnh l s thc y cho qu trnh pht trin thng tin v tuyn khng dy. Trong
th trng v tuyn khng dy ngy nay, nhng ngi s dng yu cu cc dch v gi tr
gia tng. Cng vi s gii thiu rm r cc dch v th h 3, nhng ngi s dng mong
mun cng ngh v tuyn th h k tip s khng ch l phng tin thng tin thoi m
cn s c chc nng ha ging nh Internet. Cc nh cung cp dch v v cc nh pht trin
ng dng ang trn con ng nhn ra cc nhu cu ca ngi s dng nhng vn l con
ng di pha trc. Thc t, trong trin khai 3G, vic mong mun vic chc nng ha

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c im Internet theo ng thng tin v tuyn khng dy chng ta c th khng nhn


thc y c. Cc k thut a truy nhp hoch nh cho 3G s khng h tr cc tc
truyn d liu v bng thng c yu cu cho cc ng dng ci tin m ngi s dng
mong mun. Cc cng ngh 3G s thc s c cc chc nng mnh hn cc h thng v
tuyn khng dy ngy nay, tuy nhin khng mnh bng khi chng ta trin khai 4G.
Nhng ngi s dng v tuyn khng khng dy hm nay mong i nhiu th ln
t cc mng v tuyn khng dy ngy mai. H ch i rng cc mng v tuyn khng dy
th h tip theo nht l 4G s mang li g. Cc nh cung cp dch v cc pht trin ng dng
ang ch hn na ti s mong i ca ngi s dng quyt nh hng pht trin v
a ra cc loi hnh dch v. T cc nh cung cp phn chia nhng ngi s dng v
tuyn ra thnh cc mng chung. Cc nghnh kinh doanh v tuyn phi hiu c cc mng
ny, s mong ch v cc nhu cu ca mng (segment) s i theo hng no trong cng
ngh v tuyn khng dy th h tip theo ln 4G. Nhng ngi s dng c phn mng
theo nhiu cch. Theo nh cch trnh by hi tho gn y ca Lucent Technologies ti
Supercomm, Lucent ang xem xt phn chia cc ngi s dng thnh 5 mng nh sau:
 .-Mng Gender.
 .-Mng theo tui (Age).
 . -Mng theo cch s dng Internet (Internet Usage).
 .-Mng theo mc thu nhp (Income Brackets).
 .-Mng nhng ngi chuyn s dng Mobile (Mobile Profesional).
 . Mng Gender: Tm n cc ngi s dng l ph n. Nhng ngi s dng ny in
hnh l nhng c nhn thu nhp trung bnh. Cc kiu ng dng ang pht trin cho mng
ny l cc ng dng gii tr v x hi nh dch v chat v nhn tin nhanh.
 . Mng Age: c bao gm th trng gii tr cc i tng 18 tui hoc tr hn. H
khng phi tr tin cho dch v do chnh h dng m vic tr tin l do b m hay ngi
c lin quan thc hin. Cc kiu ng dng ang c pht trin cho on ny l cc ng
dng gii tr v x hi nh cc dch v m nhc.
 . Mng Internet Usage : Bao gm in hnh l cc c nhn s dng nhiu hn so vi
mc trung bnh (nhiu hn 30 pht trn mt phin) trnh duyt Internet. Nhng ngi s
dng trong mng ny c hi t cng ngh. Cc kiu ng dng ang pht trin l cc ng
dng thng tin nh cc dch v tin tc c nhn v cc dng tin tc chnh (c truyn i vi
m thanh, hnh nh, vn bn, hoc bt k s kt hp no th h th 3). Cc nh cung cp
dch c bit kh khn trong vic p ng nhu cu ca cc khch hng ny bi h quen
vi vic tnh tin kiu Internet.
 . Mng ngi s dng Income Bracket: Bao gm nhng c nhn tui trung lu
nhng c nhn bit hiu r gi tr dch v. Cc loi ng dng ang pht trin trong mng
ny l cc dch v thng tin nh dch v thi gian ngn (up-to-the-minute), personalized
stock tickers. Nhng ngi s dng ny cng c nh hng tnh an ton chung; v th
cc thng tin d liu v thoi c tin cy c nng cao.
 . Mng Mobile Profesional: Hng ti nhng ngi s dng tin tng vo cc thit b
v tuyn khng dy qun l cng vic kinh doanh hng ngy. Mng ny bao gm nhng
ngi s dng chuyn nghip. Nhng ngi s dng ny hu ht rt quan trng i vi cc

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nh cung cp dch v bi h thng xuyn s dng nhiu hn cc dch v m h yu cu.


Cc kiu ng dng ang pht trin cho mng ny l fax di ng, th in t, nhn tin
nhanh. tng s tin cy cc ng dng, cc nh cung cp cng ang pht trin thit b thu
bao c th chuyn vng vo cc mng v tuyn khng dy khc nhau trn ton th gii
s dng mt thit b thng tin n. Ging nh mng Income Brackets, Mobile Professional
yu cu cc phng tin thng tin d liu v thoi phi tin cy v lin tc. Tnh an ton
chung s c quan tm v hiu chnh hp l trong mng ny. Ton b chc nng s c
thm vo m bo tnh bo mt thng tin cho ngi s dng.
.

Hnh 1.4. Cc dch v v ng dng trong 4G


- Cc trnh ng dng v cc dch chung:
Mc ch ca phn ny l nh ngha cc dch v cng nh chc nng m nh cung cp a
ra cho khch hng. Cc trnh ng dng c nh ngha nh cc phn mm, chng trnh
hoc cc tnh nng mang li li th cho cc dch v cung cp bi nh khai thc. Nhn chung
c bn loi dch v hoc trnh ng dng c pht trin v a vo s dng thng tin v
tuyn th h tip theo. l dch v thng tin c nhn/khoanh vng, cc phng tin lin
lc, t chc, gii tr. Cc ng dng v cc dch v thng tin c nhn/ khoanh vng hng
ti phc v hu ht ngi s dng cc mng cp trc y n ni n nhiu hn cc
mng Inernet Usage, Income Brackets, v Mobile Professional. Cc ng dng v cc dch
v thng tin ny s cung cp cho ngi s dng cc bn tin chung, cc bn tin ti chnh,
hng dn v tr, thng mi di ng, v cc dch v du lch. Cc dch v ny cho php
ngi s dng xc minh cc thng tin n l lin quan ti ngi s dng d h trong
vng phc v hay chuyn vng sang cc h thng khc. Cc quc gia Chu c cc ng
dng theo di phng tin giao thng cng cng. T cc thng tin gim st ny ngi s
dng c th xc nh thi gian xe but hay tu in dng li bn. Kiu dch v thng tin
c nhn/khoanh vng ny c trin khai gii hn trong cc quc gia. Dch v ny c
th l push-based hoc pull-based, ph thuc vo v tr thu bao mun thng tin pht tp
trung t ng gi ti thit b v tuyn khng giy hoc nu mun thng tin pht tp trung
trn mt im c nhu cu. Cc dch v push v pull s c tho lun chi tit sau phn

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ny. Cc dch v v cc ng dng c mt tm quan trng i vi tt c cc mng ngi s


dng c bit l mng Mobile Professional.
 .-Cc dch v thng tin (Communication) bao gm c dch v nhn tin ngn (SMS), th
in t, hi tho truyn hnh, fax, v cc bulletin board. Mc d mt s cc dch v c
sn sng trong cc h thng khng dy ngy nay, nhng cc dch v ny s tip tc c
nng cao hn trong th h tng lai. Trong cc dch v ny: thoi v tin cy c ch
nht trong k hoch pht trin.
 .-Cc dch v Organizational bao gm cc kh nng h tr s c nhn (PDA Personal
digital assistant), trao i tin t da trn c s xc nh ngi s dng, v cc trnh ng
dng qun l c nhn khc (v d: lch cng tc, qun l cuc gi, s lu a ch). Cc dch
v v cch trnh ng dng Organizational c lin quan ti tt c cc mng ngi s dng
nhng n c hng ti phc v cho cc mng ngi s dng l Income Brackets v
Mobile Professional.

- Cc dch v gii tr (Entertainment) c a vo tm ngm ca cc nh cung cp


dch v v cc nh cung cp quay tr li u t vo n khi nhn thy n c mt tim nng
ln. Cc dch v gii tr c th gm c on m thanh, on video, chat, trao i hnh nh,
v chi game. Trong th trng v tuyn khng giy Chu 3G ang c pht trin, cc
dch v gi tr ang to ra li nhun ng k. Mng m cc dch v gii tr hng ti l
mng Age. Mt dch v khc ang to ra rt nhiu s si ng trong nghnh kinh doanh
l thng mi di ng (M-Commerce). Thng mi di ng a ra kh nng cho thu bao
ng k mua cc mn hng ( v d: mua gas, thc n t cc my bn hng t ng.v.v) s
dung mt thit b v tuyn khng dy. V d ng k mua mt mn hng t my bn
hng t ng, mi ngi s dng s quay s in thoi hoc m truy nhp lin quan ti
mn hng v mn hng s c phn phi ti ngi mua. Trong s phi hp ny,
my bn hng t ng s c kt ni ti mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng (PSTN)
thng qua mt modem hoc mt thit b kiu gateway. Cc nh cung cp dch v v tuyn
khng dy s gi thng tin ti cng ty bn hng v cng ty ny s gi thng tin ti my bn
hng t ng ch th cho my bn hng phn phi mn hng. Ti khon ca ngi s
dng dch v khng dy s c tnh vo cc mn hng m h ng k, ging nh mt th
tn dng. Kiu dch v thng mi di ng ny hin thi ang c th nghim v c
thc hin (trn c s cn nhiu hn ch) trong cc quc gia Chu u v Chu v thc
s ang tin xa. Thng mi di ng c th c xem nh l mt kiu dch v Information
hoc Organzation.
- Cc dch v da trn c s xc nh v tr Push, Pull.
Cc dch v Push v Pull a ra tin cy cho mng v kh nng xc nh v tr cc thu
bao. Trong mng 4G, iu c th nhn thy, mng c kh nng xc nh v tr chnh xc

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ca cc thu bao c trong nh v ngoi nh. Kh nng ny c thc hin t cc chc


nng c thm vo t cc nh cung cp dch v. Cc thng tin c nhn ngi dng c
thit lp v cp nht bi cc thu bao, m bo thng tin ti mi ngi s dng ng yu
cu. Thng tin c nhn cha ng cc s thch ca thu bao (v d., thch/khng thch, k
hoch lm vic, khun kh) v s cho php cc thu bao ( v d: ngi no c php bit
hin ti h ang u). Nh cung cp dch v s duy tr v lu d thng tin c nhn ngi
s dng trong c s d liu. Mng phc v s s dng cc thng tin ny y cc dch v
cho cc thu bao. V d: nu mt thu bao thch mt kiu thc n ring, mng s xem trong
thng tin c nhn ca thu bao v s y (push) cc thng tin c lin quan ti nhiu nh
hng m phc v ki mn n v tr ca thu bao. Tng t, ngi s dng c th yu
cu cc thng tin ging nh vy xut pht t mng (pull) nu c ta hay anh ta khng la
chn c thng tin ny v thng tin ny c y ti (push) thit b khng dy. S thch
thc vi cc dch v da trn c s xc nh v tr l n khng c trong cc trnh ng dng
nhng c trong s b sung. cho cc dch v nh v tn ti bt k gi tr thc no,
mng phi c kh nng ch ta v tr ca cc thu bao vi chnh xc cao c th trong
khong vi Feet. Cc mng khng dy hin thi khng c kh nng ny. Cc mng ngy
nay nhn vo cc cell ang phc v v ang thng tin vi thit b cm tay xc nh v tr
ca thu bao. K thut ny c th chnh xc cao nht mt vi khi nh trong thnh ph
nhng i vi cc trnh ng dng ca 4G s chnh xc ny gn nh l khng cn thit. Cc
k hoch hin thi cho mng 4G bao gm s dng giao thc Internet phin bn 6 (IPv6)
nh tuyn cc gi d liu ti my in thoi cm tay. IPv6 gn lin vi vic theo di
nh v v iu ny s lm tng kh nng xc nh mt cch chnh xc v tr ca thu bao
trong mng. Mt s c xut p dng cc kh nng ca h thng nh v ton cu
(GPS) vo cc my cm tay gip cho vic xc nh v tr ca cc thu bao. Tuy nhin GPS
s ch hu ch i vi phm vi nh. GPS tin vo kh nng my thu bt c tn hiu t cc
v tinh quay quanh tri t. Nu my thu khng truy cp bn ngoi ( trong nh), cc
thng tin v v tr khng c cung cp. Ngoi v tr ra, mng phi c kh nng xc nh
cc s liu thng k khc.

-Kt lun:
Cc dch v v cc trnh ng dng cho 4G vn ang c nh ngha, n pht trin v
dch chuyn theo nhu cu ngi s dng. Cc ng dng 4G hng ti phc v cho th
trng khch hng c nhu cu ln v cht lng dch v cng nh s a dng ca dch v.
Vi kh nng ca mnh, 4G thc s p ng c cc nhu cu v a dch v ca khch
hng hin ti v trong tng lai. Chng ny mi ch gii thiu v a ra mt s loi hnh

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dch v in hnh v mt s v d v cc ng dng trong 4G theo mt kha quan im


chung. Phn dch v v m hnh c th ca n s c gii thiu k hn trong chng 3.
nh hng pht trin cc dch v cho 4G da trn nn tng ca 3G nhng vi tin cy
v tnh an ton cao hn, m hnh di y c th l cc dch v c th cho 4G :

Hnh 1.5. M hnh cc dch v trong mng 4G

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CHNG 2
M HNH CU TRC MNG 4G

2.1. CC YU CU V CU TRC MNG MI


Mng 4G ra i l cuc cch mng v tc truyn d liu, kh nng tng tc,
giao tip gia cc mng khc nhau. N l s kt hp gia cc mng khc nhau da trn nn
IP. Mc ch chnh ca mng l cho php ngi dng c th truy nhp v khai thc cc dch
v trong mng vi tc cao, cht lng tt, an ton, bo mt. V vy, p ng c
cc nhu cu v cc dch v , mng 4G phi p ng c cc yu cu sau:
a. Mng 4G phi p ng c yu cu tch hp c cc mng khc nh cc mng
di ng th h 2, th h 3, th h 3,5G, v WLAN, WiMAX, v cc mng khng dy
khc.

Hnh 2.1: S pht trin ca cc mng khc nhau dn n 4G


Mng 4G c kh nng kt hp vi cc mng khc nhau da trn nn giao thc IP,
vi tc cao, n cung cp cc dch v a dng thi gian thc, cc ng dng cht lng
cao, y l yu t rt quan trng gip cho mt mng, cng ngh mi t c thnh
cng. Vi s kt hp ny, ngi s dng c kh nng kt ni ti nhiu mng, c th s

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dng nhiu dng dch v khc nhau nh PSTN, ISDN, internet, WLAN, WiMAX,vv, m
khng cn quan tm ti dng thit b ang s dng cng nh vic h ang u.

Hnh 2.2: S kt hp cc mng khc nhau


b. Mng c tnh m
Xem xt cc ng dng, dch v mng hin nay, chng ta thy rng cc h thng
mng hin nay vn ang pht trin nh l cc h thng ng. Trong mng th h hai, dch
v cung cp ch l nhng dch v n gin nh tin nhn SMS, MMS, Cc mng di ng
th h ba bt u cung cp mt s ng dng, dch v nhng cn rt t, cht lng cha
cao. Cc nh cung cp dch v cng ch trong phm vi l third-party trong mng. iu
ny c th c khc phc trong mng 4G. Cu trc m ca mng 4G cho php ci t cc
thnh phn mi vi cc giao din mi gia cc cu trc khc nhau trn cc lp. y l iu
rt quan trng, c bit cho cc dch v ti u trong mng di ng vi lin kt khng dy v
cc c tnh di ng. M hnh c xy dng ra phi c tnh m. iu ny gip cho h
thng tr nn linh hot trong qu trnh pht trin. Yu cu v m rng, nng cp h thng
hay thm vo cc ng dng, dch v mi lun l mt i hi i vi cc mng vin thng
hin nay. Do mng phi m bo cho kh nng p ng cc nhu cu ny ngay t thi
im hin ti cho n tng lai.

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Hnh 2.3: Ngi dng cc mng khc nhau c th truy nhp vo h thng
c. m bo cht lng dch v cho cc ng dng a phng tin trn nn IP:
m bo cht lng dch v, cn s kt hp cht ch gia cc lp truy nhp,
truyn ti v cc dch v Internet. c bit i vi cc vn v tr mng, bng thng
dch vvv. Mng 4G yu cu tc truyn d liu cao, tr nh, dch v thi gian
thc,

cht

lng

cao.

d. m bo tnh an ton, bo mt thng tin


y l yu cu quan trng hng u ca h thng. H thng thng tin cng pht
trin, cng c nhiu ngi dng cc mng khc nhau cung truy nhp vo h thng th
thng tin b mt ca ngi dng cng khng m bo an ton. Tnh an ton ca h thng
c nh gi qua kh nng bo mt trong truyn thng, tnh ng n v ring t ca cc
d liu ngi s dng cng nh kh nng qun l, gim st h thng. Bo mt l yu cu
chung

vi

tt

cc

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thng

vin

thng.