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APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

NDICE
Pronombres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Partculas Interrogativas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Los Artculos (The / A-An) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjetivos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

~1~

Pg.
2
3
4

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

PRONOMBRES
PERSONAL
REFLEXIVE
POSSESSIVE
(Personales)
(Reflexivos)
(Posesivos)
NUMBER SUBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE
DETERM.
PRONOM.
PERSON
AND
CASE
CASE
Aparecen en POSESIVOS POSESIVOS
(Adj. Poses.)
GENDER (Caso Sujeto) (Caso Objeto)
oraciones
reflexivas con
Siempre
verbos
como:
Siempre
sustituye al
Siempre va
wash, cut,
nombre y al
(Nmero y funcionan como
seguido de
CD/CI
(Persona)
buy, comb,
Sujeto de la
Gnero)
un nombre determinante,
hurt
oracin
si lleva a
este.
Mine
I
Me
Myself
My
1ST
Sing.
(mo, ma,
(Yo)
(me, m)
(Yo mismo)
(mi)
mos, mas)
Yours
You
You
Yourself
Your
ND
2
Sing.
(tuyo/a,
(T)
(te, ti)
(T mismo)
(tu)
tuyos/as)
His
He
Him
Himself
His
(suyo/a,
Sing-Masc.
(l)
(lo, le, a l)
(l mismo)
(su-de l) suyos/as-de
l)
Hers
3RD
She
Her
Herself
Her
(suyo/a,
Sing-Fem.
(Ella)
(la, le, a ella) (Ella misma) (su-de ella) suyos/as-de
ella)
It
(Its)
SingIt
Itself
Its
(l, ella, ello,
(suyo/a-de
Neutro
(Ello)
(Ello mismo) (su-de ello)
lo, la, le)
ello)
Ourselves
Ours
We
Us
Our
1ST
Plural
(Nosotros/as
(el nuestro, la
(Nosotros/as)
(nos)
(nuestro/a)
mismos/as)
nuestra)
Yourselves
Yours
You
You
Your
2ND
Plural
(Vosotros/as
(el vuestro, la
(Vosotros/as)
(vos, os)
(vuestro/a)
mismos/as)
vuestra)
Theirs
Themselves
Their
They
Them
(suyo/a,
3RD
Plural
(Ellos/as
(su-de
(Ellos/as)
(les)
suyos/as-de
mismos/as)
ellos/as)
ellos/as)
*La preposicin with ms el caso objeto dan como resultado: with me: conmigo,
with you contigo, with him: con l, with her: con ella, with it: con ello, with
us: con nosotros/as, with you: con vosotros/as, with them: con ellos/as.
PRONOMBRES Y DETERMINANTES DEMOSTRATIVOS
SINGULAR

PLURAL

THIS (Este/o/a)

THESE (Estos/as)
THOSE (Esos/as, Aquellos/as)

THAT (Ese/a/o, Aquel, Aquella/o)

~2~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

PARTCULAS INTERROGATIVAS
1. WHAT: Qu/Cul.
Exs: What is your name? (Cal es tu nombre?) / What is the time? (Qu hora es?)
2. WHERE: Dnde.
Exs: Where are you from? (De dnde eres t/ sois vosotros?) /
Where is my bag? (Dnde esta mi bolsa?)
3. WHEN: Cundo.
Ex: When is your birthday? (Cando es t cumpleaos?)
4. WHY: Por qu.
Ex: Why are you sad? (Por qu ests t triste?) [Respuesta: Because Im alone]
5. WHO: Quin/Quines.
Exs: Who are you? (Quin eres t?/Quines sois vosotros?)
Who is your mother? (Quin es tu madre?)
Who are they? (Quienes son ellos?)
6. WHOSE: De quin/De quines.
Exs: Whose is this house? (De quin es esta casa?)
Whose are those presents? (De quin/quines son esos regalos?)
7. WHOM: A quin?
Ex: Whom are you loyal? (A quin eres t leal?)
8. HOW: Cmo [Excepto: How old are you? (Cuntos aos tienes?)]
Ex: How are you? (Cmo ests t? / Cmo estis vosotros?)
9. HOW OFTEN: Con qu frecuencia.
Exs: How often have you got headache? (Con qu frecuencia tienes t dolor de cabeza?)
How often is he at home? (Con qu frecuencia est l en casa?)
10. HOW MUCH: Cunto/a/os/as Con Incontables.
Ex: How much money have you got? (Cunto dinero tienes t / tenis vosotros?)
11. HOW MANY: Cunto/a/os/as Con Contables.
Ex: How many children have you got? (Cuntos nios tienes t / tenis vosotros?)

~3~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

LOS ARTCULOS
ARTCULO DETERMINADO Y DEFINIDO:

the

el, la, los, las

El ingls tiene una sola forma de artculo determinado: the man, el hombre; the girls,
las chicas.
1. Este artculo no se contrae con ninguna preposicin: The door of the hall, la puerta del
vestbulo.
2. Su pronunciacin presenta diferencias:
a) Antes de consonante se pronuncia de: the lamp, la lmpara (de lmp)
b) Antes de vocal se pronuncia di: the enemy, el enemigo (di nemi)
3. Se omite:
a) Con sustantivos contables en plural cuando se habla en sentido general: I love flowers
and birds, amo las flores y los pjaros; Elephants can't fly, los elefantes no vuelan.
b) Con sustantivos incontables cuando se refieren a una sustancia o a una idea en general: I
like cheese (pop music, etc.), me gusta el queso (la msica popular, etc.).
c) Con las partes del cuerpo y los objetos de uso personal. En su lugar se utilizan los
adjetivos posesivos (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their): Give me your hand, dame la
mano; He put his tie on, se puso la corbata; He lost his glasses, perdi los anteojos.
d) Delante de plurales: Boys like to play soccer, a los muchachos les gusta jugar ftbol.
e) Delante de nombres de materia: Glass is transparent, el cristal es transparente.
f) Delante de nombres de juegos y comidas: Soccer is very popular, el ftbol es muy
popular; We have tea at 5 o'clock, tomamos el t a las 5.
g) Delante de los nombres de las estaciones del ao y los das de la semana: Winter in
Bariloche is wonderful, el invierno en Bariloche es fantstico; I am giving a party next
Sunday, doy una fiesta el domingo prximo.
h) Delante de nombres abstractos: Life is beautiful, la vida es hermosa (pero, en cambio:
The life of Napoleon, la vida de Napolen).
i) Con nombres propios y ttulos seguidos de nombres: King Louis, el rey Luis; Queen
Elizabeth II, La Reina Isabel II.
j) Cuando un sustantivo propio se presenta precedido por el artculo the, indica que el
mismo se usa con carcter de sustantivo comn: He is the Leonardo of today, es el
Leonardo de hoy.

~4~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

k) No llevan artculo tampoco los nombres de las estaciones, idiomas, fiestas (tomados en
sentido general) y deportes: I like Spring, me gusta la primavera; I speak Spanish, hablo el
castellano; I like Christmas, me gusta la Navidad; Can you play tennis? Sabes jugar al
tenis?
ARTICULO INDETERMINADO O INDEFINIDO:

a - an

uno, una

El ingls tiene una sola forma de artculo indeterminado: a book, un libro; a table, una
mesa.
1. Adopta la forma an delante de palabras que empiezan con sonido voclico: an apple, una
manzana; an orange, una naranja.
2. Existen, no obstante, palabras que empezando con vocal piden el artculo a por
presentar esa vocal un sonido semivoclico /iu/: a University (una universidad); a European
magazine (una revista europea); a Uniform (un uniforme); a Union (una unin)
3. Existen 4 palabras que comienzan con h muda y llevan el artculo an: an hour (una
hora); an heir (un heredero); an honour (un honor); an honest boy (un muchacho honesto).
Para los derivados de estas cuatro palabras se aplica la misma regla.
4. El plural o, si se quiere, la idea de varios, se expresa con los indefinidos some y any: I see
some books, veo unos libros.
5. En general, se corresponde el uso del artculo indeterminado en ingls y en castellano.
Sin embargo, hay casos en que el castellano lo omite y el ingls no, como en nombres de
religin, nacionalidad y profesin: Helen is a catholic, Elena es catlica; George is an
Englishman, Jorge es ingls; Charles is a doctor, Carlos es doctor.

~5~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

ADJETIVOS
Orden de los adjetivos:
Cuando ponemos ms de un adjetivo junto a otro, tenemos que seguir la siguiente
regla para poder escribir de manera correcta.
Determ. + Opinin + Dimensin + Edad + Forma + Color + Origen + Diseo + Material + Propsito + Objeto
Primero se ponen los adjetivos de Opinin, o tambin llamados de impresin
general, (beautiful, expensive, nice, amazing, great, silly). Despus, los de
Dimensin, dentro de los cuales encontramos los de tamao y peso, (big, small, tall,
high, thin, fat, plump, long, heavy, light). Ms tarde, los de Edad (ancient, modern,
20th century, classical, colonial, traditional, Victorian, Art Deco). Luego, aparecen
los de Forma (round, rectangular, square, oval, triangular, octagonal ). En quinto
lugar, le siguen los de Color (black, white, blue, red, brown, green, purple ).
Detrs van los de Origen o estilo (American, Spanish, British, Italian, Indian ).
Despus aparecen los adjetivos que expresan Diseo o decoracin (striped, carved,
illustrated, painted, straps). Luego van los de Material (plastic, crystal, paper,
polythene, cork). Por ltimo, nos encontramos a los adjetivos de Propsito o que
tienen un rango distintivo (stickers pieza que se adhiere-, polka-dot hecho de punto-,
handmade).
Examples: An interesting old French painting / beautiful long fair hair / A
beautiful round wooden table / A good-looking young man / black leather gloves / A
big fat black cat

Otros puntos a tener en cuenta de los adjetivos:


1) Los adjetivos que describen medidas vienen despus de la medida.
Example: He is 1 metre 83 centimetres tall.
2) Algunos adjetivos (e.g. Alone, Afraid, Alive, Awake) vienen despus del verbo,
nunca antes de un nombre.
Examples: I dont like living alone / Im afraid
NOTA:

TO BE AFRAID OF = (persona) tener miedo a, (cosa) tener miedo de.


TO BE AFRAID TO = tener miedo de, temer.
I AM AFRAID THAT = me temo que

3) Los adjetivos a menudo estn seguidos por un infinitivo con TO.


Example: Its difficult to read / The instructions are easy to follow.
4) Los adjetivos terminados en -ED van despus de un verbo como To be, To
seem o antes de un nombre. Adems, estos adjetivos describen los sentimientos
de las personas.
Examples: She was worried about him / Hes a worried man.
5) Los adjetivos acabados en -ING van despus de un verbo o antes de un
nombre y describen la persona o la cosa que produce esos sentimientos.
Examples: Its all very worrying / Its a worrying time for us all.

~6~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

Adjetivos Comparativos y Superlativos:


COMPARATIVOS
De inferioridad

Less + adjetivo + Than (Menos + adjetivo + que)

Examples:
- Tim is less tall than his brother (Tim es menos alto que su hermano)
- Suits are less expensive than ice-creams (Las caramelos son menos caros
que los helados)
De igualdad

As + adjetivo + As (Tan + adjetivo + como)

Examples:
- You are as handsome as your father (T eres tan apuesto como tu padre)
- He is as intelligent as Einstein ( les tan inteligente como Einstein)
De superioridad

Adjetivo + ER Than / More + adjetivo + Than (Ms + adjetivo + que)


TIPO DE COMPARATIVO
Adjetivo + ER THAN

Los adjetivos de una slaba

EJEMPLOS
Tall Taller
Clean - Cleaner

You are taller than my brother


(T eres ms alto que mi hermano)
Fat Fatter
Los adjetivos de una slaba
Big Bigger
acabados en consonante y Adjetivo + ER THAN
Thin Thinner
con una vocal antes. Se
aplica la regla de doblar la
That lion is fatter than that leopard
ltima consonante al aadirle
(Ese len est ms gordo que ese leopardo)
-er
Dry Drier
Los adjetivos de una o dos
Dirty- Dirtier
Adjetivo + ER THAN
slabas acabados en -y
Ugly - Uglier
cambian la -y por -i ms
Godzilla is uglier than a witch
-er.
(Godzilla es ms feo que una bruja)
Los adjetivos de dos slabas
Adjetivo + ER THAN
generalmente se pueden
MORE + Adjetivo + THAN...
formar de las dos maneras

Clever Cleverer
Clever - More clever than

Los adjetivos terminados en


Tired More tired than
MORE + Adjetivo + THAN...
-ed toman habitualmente
more, incluso los de una
Algunos ejemplos: tired, bored, amused (divertido), annoyed
slaba
(enfadado), surprised
Los adjetivos de tres o ms
slabas

MORE + Adjetivo + THAN...

Comfortable More comfortable

Algunos ejemplos:
expensive

interesting,

intelligent,

~7~

beautiful,

difficult,

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

SUPERLATIVOS
TIPO DE SUPERLATIVO
THE + Adjetivo + EST
Los adjetivos de una slaba

EJEMPLOS
Tall The tallest
Clean The cleanest

Pau Gasol is the tallest player in his team


(Pau Gasol es el ms alto jugador de su equipo)
Fat The fattest
Los adjetivos de una slaba THE + Adjetivo + EST
Big The biggest
acabados en consonante y
Thin The thinnest
con una vocal antes. Se
aplica la regla de doblar la
That lion is the fattest in the jungle
ltima consonante al aadirle
(Ese len es el ms gordo de la selva)
-est
Dry The driest
Los adjetivos de una o dos
Dirty- The dirtiest
THE + Adjetivo + EST
slabas acabados en -y
Ugly The ugliest
cambian la -y por -i ms
Godzilla is the ugliest monster in the World
-est.
(Godzilla es el monstruo ms feo del mundo)
Los adjetivos de dos slabas
THE + Adjetivo + EST
generalmente se pueden
formar de las dos maneras
THE MOST + Adjetivo ...

Clever The cleverest


Clever The most clever

Los adjetivos terminados en


Tired The most tired
THE MOST + Adjetivo...
-ed toman habitualmente
more, incluso los de una
Algunos ejemplos: tired, bored, amused (divertido), annoyed (enfadado),
slaba
surprised
Los adjetivos de tres o ms
slabas

THE MOST + Adjetivo


Algunos ejemplos:
expensive

intelligent,

Comfortable The most comfortable


interesting,

beautiful,

difficult,

COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS IRREGULARES


FORMA POSITIVA
FORMA COMPARATIVA FORMA SUPERLATIVA
Good
Better than
The Best
Bad
Worse than
The Worst
Little (amount)
Less than
The Least
Little (size)
Smaller than
The Smallest
Far (place + time)
Further than
The Furthest
Far (place)
Farther than
The Farthest
Late (time)
Later than
The Latest
Late (order)
Latter than
The Last
Near (place)
Nearer than
The Nearest
Near (order)
---The Next
Old (people and things)
Older than
The Oldest
Old (people)
Elder than
The Eldest
NOTA: Older y Oldest son los nicos que se usan detrs de un verbo.

~8~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 1
TO BE (Ser o estar)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Sujeto+ Verbo + Compl.)
Sin contraer
I am
(Yo soy/estoy)
You are
(T eres/ests)
He is
(l es/est)
She is
(Ella es/est)
It is
(Ello es/est)
We are
(Nosotros/as
somos/estamos)
You are
(Vosotros/as
sis/estis)
They are
(Ellos/as
son/estn)

Contrada
Im
Youre
Hes
Shes
Its
Were
Youre
Theyre

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Sujeto + Verbo + Not + C)
Sin contraer
I am not
(Yo no soy/estoy)
You are not
(T no eres/ests)
He is not
(l no es/est)
She is not
(Ella no es/est)
It is not
(Ello no es/est)
We are not
(Nosotros/as no
somos/estamos)
You are not
(Vosotros/as no
sois/estis)
They are not
(Ellos/as no
son/estn)

RESPUESTA:
CORTA:(Se contesta con YES/NO)
Example:
Are you a boy?
Yes, I am / No, I am not
LARGA:(Las preguntas se forman
con partculas interrogativas)
Example:
Where are you from?
(De dnde eres t?)
I am from Seville (Soy de Sevilla)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Verb + Suj + C + ?)

Contrada
Im not
You arent
He isnt
She isnt
It isnt
We arent
You arent
They
arent

Am I?
(Soy/Estoy yo?)
Are you?
(Eres/Ests t?)
Is He?
(Es/Est l?)
Is She?
(Es/Est Ella?)
Is It?
(Es/Est Ello?)
Are We?
(Somos/Estamos
Nosotros/as?)
Are You?
(Sis/Estis
vosotros/as?)
Are They?
(Son/Estn
Ellos/as?)

THERE IS / THERE ARE


El verbo To Be con el Adverbio There
forma lo que en espaol conocemos como
Hay.
Detrs de There + Be nunca ponemos un
sustantivo con el artculo The.
Ex: *There is the house (Mal)
There is a house (Bien)
THERE IS (singular) THERE ARE (plural)
Afirmativa:
Afirmativa:
There is a bird there.
There are some cats.
There is some sugar.
There are some girls.
Negativa:
Negativa:
There isnt any milk.
There arent any cats.
There isnt a bird there. There arent any trees.
Interrogativa:
Interrogativa:
Is there any milk?
Are there any cats?
Is there a bird there?
Yes, there are
Yes, there is.
No, there arent
No, there is not / isnt.

~9~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

A-AN / SOME / ANY


3 puntos de vista los cuales estn interrelacionados (los tres aparecen juntos siempre):
1) SIGNIFICADO
SINGULAR

PLURAL

A - AN
SOME

SOME
SOME

ANY

ANY

(Un/a/o)
(Algn/a/o)
(Ningn/a/o
Algn/a/o)

(Unos/as)
(Algunos/as)
(Ningunos/as
Algunos/as)

2) CONTABLE VS. INCONTABLE


SINGULAR

PLURAL

A - AN
SOME
ANY

SOME
SOME
ANY

Contable
Incontable

Contable

3) FORMA (Afirmativa / Negativa / Interrogativa)

(AFIR./NEG./INT.)
(AFIR.)
(NEG./INT.)

SINGULAR

PLURAL

A - AN
SOME
ANY

SOME
SOME
ANY

(AFIR.)
(NEG./INT.)

Examples:
-

There is a house over the hill.


There isnt a car in the parking.
Is there a bird singing in that tree? Yes, there is / No, there isnt.
There are some pupils in the classroom.
There is some milk in the fridge.
There are some people in the party.
There isnt any sugar for my coffee.
There arent any dogs barking in the street.
Is there any money in the bank account? Yes, there is / No, there isnt.
Are there any tomatoes for making a salad? Yes, there are / No, there arent.

Nombres Contables e Incontables


Nombres Contables: (los que se pueden contar) car, house, brother, chair
Nombres Incontables: (los que no se pueden contar) faith (fe), water, sugar, milk,
Money, people (cuando se traduce como gente no como personas), hope (esperanza)

~10~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 2
TO HAVE (Tener)
El verbo To Have tiene dos funciones:
1- Cuando va con Got funciona como principal.
Ex: I have got a car. (Tengo un coche)
2- Cuando no lleva Got y va con un verbo principal, funciona como auxiliar
(slo en oraciones de tipo perfecto Presente Perfecto-).
Ex: I have bought a new car. (Me he comprado un coche nuevo)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Sujeto+ Verbo + Compl.)

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + Verbo + Not + Got + C)

Sin contraer
I have (got)
(Yo tengo)

Contrada
Ive (got)

Sin contraer
I have not (got)
(Yo no tengo)

You have (got)


(T tienes)

Youve
(got)

You have not (got)


(T no tienes)

He has (got)
(l tiene)
She has (got)
(Ella tiene)
It has (got)
(Ello tiene)

Shes (got)

We have (got)

Weve
(got)

We have not (got)

Youve
(got)

You have not (got)

(Vosotros/as tenis)

They have (got)


(Ellos/as tienen)

Theyve
(got)

They have not (got)

(Nosotros/as tenemos)

You have (got)

Hes (got)

Its (got)

He has not (got)


(l no tiene)
She has not (got)
(Ella no tiene)
It has not (got)
(Ello no tiene)
(Nosotros/as no tenemos)

(Vosotros/as no tenis)

(Ellos/as no tienen)

Contrada
I havent
(got)
You
havent
(got)
He hasnt
(got)
She hasnt
(got)
It hasnt
(got)
We
havent
(got)
You
havent
(got)
They
havent
(got)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Verb + Suj + C + ?)
Have I got?
(Tengo yo?)
Have you got?
(Tienes t?)
Has He got?
(Tiene l?)
Has She got?
(Tiene Ella?)
Has It got?
(Tiene Ello?)
Have We got?
(Tenemos Nosotros/as?)

Have You got?


(Tenis vosotros/as?)

Have They got?


(Tienen Ellos/as?)

RESPUESTA:
A) CORTA: Ex: Have you got a pencil? Yes, I have / No, I havent.
B) LARGA: Ex: What have you got in your pocket? (Qu tienes en tu bolsillo?)

~11~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 3
Formacin del plural de los nombres:
1) Plural del tipo normal:
Se forma aadindole s al singular.
Exs: Car Cars / House Houses / Place Places.
2) Plural del tipo -es:
Se forma aadindole -es al singular. Este sufijo se le aade a palabras que
terminen en: -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o y -z.
Terminacin
de la palabra
-s
-ss

-sh

-ch

-x

-o
-z

EJEMPLOS
Bus-Buses (autobs) / Lens-Lenses (lente)
Kiss-Kisses (beso) / Ass-Asses (asno) / Bass-Basses (bajo) / GlassGlasses (vaso) / Press-Presses (prensa) / Mass-Masses (misa, masa) /
Class-Classes (clase) / Boss-Bosses (jefe/a)
Wish-Wishes(deseo)/Fish-Fishes(pez)/Dish-Dishes
(plato)/PenishPenishes (penique)/Ash-Ashes (ceniza)/Trash-Trashes & RubbishRubbishes (basura)
Watch-Watches (reloj de pulsera) / Match-Matches (partido, cerilla) /
Witch-Witches (bruja) / Beach-Beaches (playa) / Leech-Leeches
(sanguijuela) / Touch-Touches (tacto) / Coach-Coaches (entrenador) /
Pitch-Pitches (tono) / Peach-Peaches (melocotn) / Hitch-Hitches
(complicacin)
Box-Boxes (caja) / Tax-taxes (impuesto, tasa) / Fox-Foxes (zorro/a) /
Wax-Waxes (cera)
Tomato-Tomatoes (tomate) / Potato-Potatoes (patata) / DominoDominoes (Domin) / Echo-Echoes (eco) / Hero-Heroes (hroe)
Excepcines: Hippo-Hippos (hipoptamo) / Taboo-Taboos (tab) /
Radio-Radios (radio).
Buzz-Buzzes (zumbido)

3) Plural del tipo -y ies:


Cuando una palabra termina en -y y anterior a ella hay una consonante, sta
ltima cambia a -i y se le aade -es, para formar su plural. Por el contrario, si a la
-y le antecede una vocal slo se le aade -s.
EJEMPLOS
Family-Families / City-Cities / Country-Countries /Lady-Ladies /
Cons. + y > -ies Baby-Babies / Story-Stories / history-histories / Sky-Skies / StySties (pocilga) / Study-Studies
Vocal + y > -ys PlayPlays / Boy-Boys / Toy-Toys / Key-Keys / Day-Days

~12~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

4) Plural del tipo -f/-fe -ves:


Cuando una palabra termina en -f o -fe, su plural lo hace cambiando estos
anteriores por -ves.
Exs: Wolf-Wolves / Loaf-Loaves / Leaf-Leaves / Wife-Wives / Knife-Knives /
Penknife-Penknives / Shelf-Shelves / Life-Lives / Thief-Thieves
Excepciones: Chief (jefe/jefa), Cliff (precipicio/acantilado), Roof (tejado/techo) y
Handcuffs (esposas de polica).
5) Plurales del tipo irregular:
SINGULAR- PLURAL
Man- Men
Woman- Women
Child- Children
Person- People
Foot- Feet
Tooth- Teeth

SINGULAR- PLURAL
Ox (buey)-Oxen
Brother-Brothers or Brethren
Louse (piojo)- Lice
Goose- Geese
Mouse- Mice

6) Plurales que son iguales que el singular (Zero plural):


Estos plurales tienen la caracterstica de que se escriben igual que el singular. El
verbo y el contexto es el nico que nos puede indicar de que nmero son.
SINGULAR
Sheep
Fish
Deer (ciervo)
Cod (bacalao)
Reindeer (reno)
Pheasant (faisn)
Herring (arenque)
Trout (trucha)
Salmon
Chassis

PLURAL
Sheep
Fish or Fishes
Deer
Cod or Cods
Reindeer
Pheasant or Pheasants
Herring or Herrings
Trout or Trouts
Salmon
Chassis

Examples:
The sheep is a beautiful animal vs. Those sheep are very beautiful
I want fish for eating vs. I want to have some fishes in my fish tank (pecera)

~13~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

7) Plurales extranjeros (foreign plurals):


Son plurales que provienen de otras lenguas, tales como el Griego, Latn, Francs o
Italiano.
(a) Nombres en -us con plural en -i:
Ex: Stimulus-Stimuli, Focus-Foci, Alumnus-Alumni, Bacillus-Bacilli.
(b) Nombres en -us con plural en -a (slo en un uso tcnico):
Ex: Corpus-Corpora, Genus-Genera.
(c) Nombres en -a con plural en -ae:
Ex: Antenna-Antennae, Formula-Formulae, Nebula-Nebulae, Vertebra-Vertebrae.
(d) Nombres en -um con plural en -a:
Ex: Curriculum-Curricula, Erratum-Errata, Stratum-Strata, Ovum (vulo)-Ova.
(e) Nombres en -ex o -ix con plural en -ices:
Ex: Appendix-Appendices, Index-Indices, Matrix-Matrices.
(f) Nombres en -is con plural en -es:
Ex: Analysis-Analyses, Basis-Bases, Crisis-Crises, Thesis-Theses
(g) Nombres en -on con plural en -a:
Ex: Automaton-Automata, Criterion-Criteria, Phenomenon-Phenomena.
(h) Nombres del Italiano en -o con plural en -i: (campo de la msica)
Ex: Libretto-Libretti, Tempo-Tempi, Virtuoso-Virtuosi.
(i) Nombres Franceses:
Ex: Bureau-Bureaux o Bureaus (oficina), Plateau (meseta)-Plateaux o Plateaus,
Tableau (retablo)- Tableaux o Tableaus.

~14~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 4
PRESENTE SIMPLE (de cualquier verbo)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA

FORMA NEGATIVA

(SUJ + V-INF/V-INF+S/ES + COMPL.)

(SUJ + DO/DOES + NOT + V-INF + COMPL.)

Nota1: A las 3as


Sin contraer
pers. del sing. del
(slo se contrae el
Presente Simple,
auxiliar con el Not)
siempre se les aade
I do not eat
I eat (Yo como)
-S o -ES.
(Yo no como)
Nota2: A los verbos
You do not eat
You eat (T comes) que acaban en -s,
(T no comes)
-ss, -sh, -ch,
He does not eat
He eats (l come) -x,-o,se les
(l no come)
aade -ES.
She does not eat
She eats (Ella come) Nota3: A los verbos
(Ella no come)
que terminan en -y
It does not eat
It eats (Ello come) y delante de ella
(Ello no come)
llevan una
We do not eat
We eat
consonante, la y
(Nosotros no
(Nosotros comemos) se cambia por -i y
comemos)
se
le
aade
-ES
You eat
You do not eat
(Vosotros comis) (Ex: studies). Si
(Vosotros no comis)
delante va una
vocal, la y se
They eat
They do not eat
mantiene y se aade
(Ellos comen)
(Ellos no comen)
-S (Ex: Plays).
NO HAY
CONTRACCIN

Contrada
I dont eat
You dont eat
He doesnt eat
She doesnt eat
It doesnt eat
We dont eat
You dont eat
They dont eat

Nota2: A los verbos que acaban en -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x,-o,se les aade -ES.
Terminacin
del verbo
-s
-ss

-sh

-ch
-x
-o
-z

EJEMPLOS
Bus-Buses (transporter en autobus)
Kiss-Kisses (besar) / Pass-Passes (pasar, aprobar) / Assess-Assesses (calcular,
evaluar) / Piss off-Pisses off (cabrear) / Mass-Masses (concentrarse) / Mess-Messes
(hacer travesuras) / Press-Presses (presionar) / Bless-Blesses (bendecir)

Wish-Wishes (desear) / Fish-Fishes (pescar) / Push-Pushes (pulsar) / WashWashes (lavar) / Blush-Blushes (ponerse colorado) / Finish-Finishes (acabar,
terminar) / Flash-Flashes (destellar, brillar) / Punish-Punishes (castigar) /
Furnish-Furnishes (amueblar)
Watch-Watches (ver la TV) / Match-Matches (elegir) / Bewitch-Bewitches
(embrujar) / Teach-Teaches (ensear) / Attach-Attaches (unir) / SearchSearches (buscar) / Research-Researches (investigar)
Box-Boxes (encajar) / Tax-taxes (gravar) / Wax-Waxes (depilar con cera) /
Mix-Mixes (mezclar)
Go-Goes (ir) / Do-Does (hacer) / Undergo-Undergoes (sufrir)
Buzz-Buzzes (zumbar)

~15~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

Nota3: Cuando un verbo termina en -y y anterior a ella hay una consonante, sta ltima
cambia a -i y se le aade -es, para formar la 3 persona del singular del Presente Simple. Por
el contrario, si a la -y le antecede una vocal slo se le aade -s.
EJEMPLOS
Fly-Flies / Cry-Cries / Try-Tries / Spy-Spies / Envy-Envies / Fry-Fries / DenyCons. + y > -ies Denies / Tidy-Tidies / Bury-Buries / Carry-Carries / Marry-Marries / HurryHurries
Pay-Pays / Buy-Buys / Say-Says / Pray-Prays / Betray-Betrays / ConveyVocal + y > -ys Conveys / Stay-Stays / Obey-Obeys / Play-Plays / Enjoy-Enjoys
Excepcin: May (es un verbo modal)
FORMA INTERROGATIVA
(DO/DOES + SUJ + V-INF + COMPLEMENTOS + ?)

PREGUNTA
Do I eat an apple?
(Como yo una manzana?)
Do you eat an apple?
(Comes t una manzana?)
Does he eat an apple?
(Come l una manzana?)
Does she eat an apple?
(Come ella una manzana?)
Does it eat an apple?
(Come ello una manzana?)
Do we eat (any) apples?
(Comemos nosotros manzanas?)
Do you eat (any) apples?
(Comis vosotros manzanas?)
Do they eat (any) apples?
(Comen ellos manzanas?)

RESPUESTA
A) CORTA:
Ex: Do you like football?
Yes, I do / No, I dont
Does she love him?
Yes, she does / No, she doesnt
B) LARGA:
Ex: Where do you live? (Dnde vives?)
I live in Jan
MARCADORES DE PRESENTE
Adverbios: (de tiempo)
Always, every (Ex: everyday),
never, normally, often, seldom,
sometimes, usually.
Construcciones:
Con la construccin de 1 Condicional:
Ex: If I study hard, I will pass my exam.

Adverbios de frecuencia

Never (nunca), Hardly ever (casi nunca), Seldom (rara vez / casi nunca),
Scarcely (apenas), Rarely (raramente), Occasionally (ocasionalmente), Ever
(alguna vez), Sometimes (a veces / algunas veces), Often (a menudo), Normally
(normalmente), Usually (normalmente), Frequently (frecuentemente), Always
(siempre)

~16~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 5
PRESENTE CONTINUO (de cualquier verbo)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Suj + To Be + V-ing + C.)
Sin contraer
I am writing
(Estoy
escribiendo)
You are writing
(T ests
escribiendo)
He is writing
(l est
escribiendo)
She is writing
(Ella est
escribiendo)
It is writing
(Ello est
escribiendo)
We are writing
(Nosotros/as estamos
escribiendo)

You are writing


(Vosotros/as estis
escribiendo)

They are writing

(Ellos/as estn
escribiendo)

Contrada
Im writing
Youre
writing
Hes
writing
Shes
writing
Its writing
Were
writing

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + To Be + Not + V-ing + C)

Sin contraer
I am not writing
(Yo no estoy
escribiendo)
You are not writing

(T no ests
escribiendo)
He is not writing
(l no est
escribiendo)
She is not writing
(Ella no est
escribiendo)
It is not writing
(Ello no est
escribiendo)
We are not writing
(Nosotros/as no estamos
escribiendo)

Youre
writing

You are not writing

Theyre
writing

They are not writing

(Vosotros/as no estis
escribiendo)

(Ellos/as no estn
escribiendo)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(To Be + Suj + V-ing
+ Compl. + ?)

Contrada
Im not
writing
You arent
writing
He isnt
writing
She isnt
writing
It isnt
writing
We arent
writing

Am I writing?
(Estoy
escribiendo?)
Are you writing?
(Ests t
escribiendo?)
Is he writing?
(Est l
escribiendo?)
Is she writing?
(Est ella
escribiendo?)
Is it writing?
(Est ello
escribiendo?)
Are we writing?
(Estamos Nosotros/as
escribiendo?)

You arent
writing

Are you writing?

They
arent
writing

Are they writing?

(Estis vosotros/as
escribiendo?)

(Estn Ellos/as
escribiendo?)

RESPUESTA
A) CORTA:
B) LARGA:
Ex: Are you reading a book? Yes, I am / Ex: What are you mending? (Qu ests
No, Im not.
arreglando?) Im mending the Cd Player.
Examples:
I am watching a TV Programme. (Yo estoy viendo un programa de la tele)
Peter is smiling because he is happy with his life. (Pedro est sonriendo porque l est
feliz con su vida)
Susie and Wendy are singing in a karaoke. (Susie y Wendy estn cantando en un
karaoke)
It is biting its bone and playing with its ball. (Est mordiendo su hueso y jugando con
su pelota)

~17~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

REGLAS DE CUANDO UN VERBO DOBLA LA CONSONANTE


FINAL AL AADIRLE -ING:
Las reglas para poder doblar la consonante final en los verbos son las siguientes:
1) Cuando el verbo es monoslabo y cumple la regla de Cons.-Voc.-Cons. Para que
se doble tiene que cumplirse ambas reglas. Examples:
Swim (nadar) Swim + ing = Swimming (nadando)
Cut (cortar) Cut + ing = Cutting (cortando)
Bet (apostar) Bet + ing = Betting (apostando)
Get (Obtener, conseguir) Get + ing = Getting (obteniendo, consiguiendo)
Cast (emitir un voto) Cast + ing = Casting (emitiendo) [tiene dos consonantes seguidas]
Cost (costar) Cost + ing = Costing (costando) [tiene dos Consonantes seguidas]
2) Cuando el verbo es bislabo (2 slabas) o mayor (trislabo o tetraslabo) y es la
ltima slaba la que va acentuada, y adems cumple la regla de Cons.-Voc.Cons. Tambin tiene que cumplir las dos reglas, sino no es vlida. Examples:
Travel (viajar) /trvl/
Begin (comenzar) /bgn/
Open (abrir) /pn/

Travelling (se dobla porque el acento recae en la


ltima slaba y adems cumple la regla de Cons.Voc.-Cons.)
Beginning (se dobla porque el acento recae en la
ltima slaba y adems cumple la regla de Cons.Voc.-Cons.)
Opening (el golpe de voz recae en la primera
slaba, por ese motivo no se dobla la -n aunque
si cumpla la regla de Cons.-Voc.-Cons.

3) Los verbos acabados en -e. sta ltima desaparece por ser muda (que no se
pronuncia). Examples:
Write /rat/ Writing

Decide /dsad/Deciding

Have /hv/ Having

Excepcines:
-

El verbo To Be Being (porque la -e de be si se pronuncia /bi:/)


Los verbos acabados en -ee: Agree /gri:/ (acordar) Agreeing.
Los verbos acabados en -oe: Shoe /u:/ (herrar, poner herraduras) Shoeing
Los verbos acabados en -ie, cambian -ie por -y al aadirle -ing.
Examples:
Die /da/ (morir) Dying / Lie (mentir) Lying / Tie (atar, amarrar) Tying

4) Los verbos acabados en -y, sta no desaparece como ocurra en el Presente


simple, indiferentemente si delante lleva una vocal o una consonante.
Examples: Study Studying / Play Playing.
5) Los verbos acabados en -w o -j, no se doblan porque son semivocales.
Examples: Blow Blows / Flow Flows (fluir)
6) Si el verbo termina en -c, esta se convertir en -ck. Ex: Panic Panicking

~18~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 6
PRESENTE SIMPLE VS. PRESENTE CONTINUO
PRESENTE SIMPLE

PRESENTE CONTINUO

USOS:
1) Acciones habituales (normalmente
acompaadas
por
adverbios
de
frecuencia).
Ex: I go to the gym everyday.
2) Estados permanentes. Son Hechos
que no cambian nunca (Verdades
universales).
Ex: The Sun rises in the morning.
3) Con verbos que expresan estados,
posesin, sentidos, emociones y
actividad mental. Todos estos no aceptan
el progresivo (la forma continua): be,
belong, believe, hate, hear,
like, love, mean, prefer,
remain (seguir, quedarse), realize
(dares cuenta de), see, seem,
smell,
think,
understand,
want, and wish.
4) Acciones fijadas por un horario.
Ex: The train leaves at 9 PM.
MARCADORES DE PRESENTE
Adverbios: (de tiempo)
Always, every (Ex: everyday),
never,
normally,
often,
seldom, sometimes, usually.
Construcciones:
Con la construccin de 1 Condicional:
Ex: If I study hard, I will pass my exam.

USOS:
1) Acciones que estn ocurriendo en este
momento. Pueden ir con adverbios.
Ex: Im watching a horror film.
2) Acciones que estn ocurriendo en el
presente, aunque no necesariamente en este
momento. Suelen acompaarles adverbios
del tipo: This year, these days
Ex: Im studying English at the academy this
year.
3) Planes futuros cercanos.
Ex: I am having a birthday party next week.
4) Acciones habituales pero con un sentido
negativo. Van con el adverbio de frecuencia
always.
Ex: My little brother is always crying.
5) Procesos de desarrollo, situaciones
cambiantes.
Ex: The population of China is rising very
fast.
MARCADORES DE PRES. CONTINUO
Adverbios:
at the moment, just, just now, right
now, Listen!, Look!, in the morning,
in the afternoon, at noon, tonight,
tomorrow, next, this week, this
month, this year, always, more and
more

~19~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 7
PASADO SIMPLE (de cualquier verbo)
CARACTERSTICAS:
- Es una accin acabada, terminada, finita. Ex: I ate an apple (Com una manzana).
- Hay que distinguir si el verbo es regular o irregular. As, sabremos como debe ser
su pasado, si de forma regular (aadindole el sufijo -ED) o de forma irregular
(lista de verbos irregulares).
USOS:
- Acciones que comenzaron y terminaron en el pasado (normalmente se indica cundo
ocurri, es decir, hay un adverbio de tiempo que lo indica).
Ex: I didnt go to the beach last Sunday.
- Acciones que suceden una detrs de otra en el pasado, como sucede cuando contamos
una historia.
Ex: I went into the disco and I saw my favourite girl, then I asked her to dance
- Con el Pasado Continuo para referirnos a una accin corta que interrumpe a otra
ms larga.
Ex: The TV broke when she was watching the football match.
VERBOS REGULARES
VERBOS IRREGULARES
(Al verbo en infinitivo hay que aadirle el
(Lista de verbos irregulars: 256)
sufijo -ED. Es la lista ms grande)
Exs: Go Went Gone
Ex: Study Studied - Studied
Get Got Got / Gotten
AFIRMATIVA: (V-inf + ED)
AFIRMATIVA: (Ex: Burn-Burnt-Burnt)
I / You opened the window.
I / You burnt the house.
He / She / It opened the window.
He / She / It burnt the house.
We / You / They opened the window.
We / You / They burnt the house.
NEGATIVA: (Suj+Did+Not+V-inf+C)
NEGATIVA: (Suj+Did+Not+V-inf+C)
I / You didnt open the window.
I / You didnt burn the house.
He / She / It didnt open the window.
He / She / It didnt burn the house.
We / You / They didnt open the window. We / You / They didnt burn the house.
INTERROGATIVA: (Did+Suj+V-inf+C+?) INTERROGATIVA: (Did+Suj+V-inf+C+?)
Did I / You open the window?
Did I / You burn the house?
Did He / She / It open the window?
Did He / She / It burn the house?
Did We / You / They open the window?
Did We / You / They burn the house?
RESPUESTA:
RESPUESTA:
A) CORTA:
A) CORTA:
Did you cook? Yes, I did/No, I didnt
Did you go there? Yes, I did/No, I didnt.
B) LARGA:
B) LARGA:
Where did you live last year? I lived in Where did you go last summer? I went to
Rome.
Brazil.
MARCADORES DE PASADO
EXCEPCIONES
Adverbios:
- -e final: Ex: Love - Loved
Yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the - Consonante final:
other day, last Friday
Ex: Admit Admitted / Travel Travelled
Construcciones:
- -y final despus de una consonante,
Con la construccin de 2 Condicional:
ser -i(igual que en Presente Simple):
Ex: If I had a car, I would drive it.
Ex: Hurry - Hurried

~20~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 8
PASADO DEL VERBO TO BE (WAS / WERE)
FORMA
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
FORMA NEGATIVA
INTERROGATIVA
(Sujeto+ Was/Were + Comp.) (Sujeto + Was/Were + Not + C)
(Verb + Suj + C + ?)
Sin contraer
Sin contraer
Contrada
I was
I was not
Was I?
I wasnt
(Yo no era/estaba/fui)
(Era/Estaba/Fui yo?)
(Yo era/estaba/fu)
You were not
Were you?
You were
You
(T eras/estabas/fuiste)

(T no
eras/estabas/fuiste)

He was
(l era/estaba/fue)

(l no era/estaba/fue)

She was
(Ella era/estaba/fue)

He was not
She was not
(Ella no
era/estaba/fue)

It was not

It was
(Ello era/estaba/fue)

(Ello no
era/estaba/fue)

We were
(Nosotros/as
ramos/estbamos/fuimos)

(Nosotros/as no
ramos/estbamos/
fuimos)

You were
(Vosotros/as
erais/estabais/fuistes)
They were
(Ellos/as eran/estaban/fueron)
RESPUESTA
A) CORTA:
Ex: Were you a nice person?
(Eras t una maravillosa
persona?) Yes, I was/No, I
wasnt.
B) LARGA:
Ex: How was the meal?
(Cmo fue la comida?) It
was very good.

We were not

You were not


(Vosotros/as no
erais/estabais
/fuisteis)
They were not
(Ellos/as no
eran/estaban
/fueron)

werent
He wasnt
She
wasnt
It wasnt
We
werent

(Eras/Estabas/Fuiste
t?)

Was He?
(Era/Estaba/Fue l?)

Was She?
(Era/Estaba/Fue
Ella?)

Was It?
(Era/Estaba/Fue
Ello?)

Were We?
(ramos/Estbamos/Fui
mos Nosotros/as?)

You
werent

Were You?
(Erais/Estabais
/Fuisteis
vosotros/as?)

They
werent

Were They?
(Eran/Estaban
/Fueron Ellos/as?)

THERE WAS/THERE WERE (HABA)


THERE WAS (singular)
Afirmativa:
There was a bird there.
There was some sugar.
Negativa:
There wasnt any milk.
There wasnt a bird there.
Interrogativa:
Was there any milk?
Was there a bird there?
Yes, there was.
No, there was not / wasnt

~21~

THERE WERE (plural)


Afirmativa:
There were some cats.
There were some girls.
Negativa:
There werent any cats.
There werent any trees.
Interrogativa:
Were there any cats?
Yes, there were
No, there werent

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 9
PASADO CONTINUO (de cualquier verbo)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Suj + Was/Were + V-ing +
Compl.)

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + Was/Were + Not + V-ing +
Compl.)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Was/Were + Suj +
V-ing + Compl. + ?)

Contrada
Sin contraer
I was writing
(Estaba
escribiendo)
You were
writing
(T estabas
escribiendo)
He was writing
(l estaba
escribiendo)
She was writing
(Ella estaba
escribiendo)
It was writing
(Ello estaba
escribiendo)
We were writing
(Nosotros/as estbamos
escribiendo)

You were writing


(Vosotros/as estabais
escribiendo)

They were writing

(Ellos/as estaban
escribiendo)

(es mejor no
contraer)

I was
writing
Youre
writing
Hes
writing
Shes
writing
Its writing
Were
writing
Youre
writing
Theyre
writing

Sin contraer

Contrada

I was not writing


(Yo no estaba
escribiendo)

I wasnt
writing

Was I writing?
(Estaba
escribiendo?)

You
werent
writing

Were you writing?


(Estabas t
escribiendo?)

You were not writing

(T no estabas
escribiendo)
He was not writing

(l no estaba
escribiendo)
She was not writing

(Ella no estaba
escribiendo)
It was not writing
(Ello no estaba
escribiendo)
We were not writing
(Nosotros/as no estbamos
escribiendo)

You were not


writing
(Vosotros/as no estabais
escribiendo)

They were not


writing
(Ellos/as no estaban
escribiendo)

He wasnt
writing
She
wasnt
writing
It wasnt
writing
We
werent
writing
You
werent
writing
They
werent
writing

Was he writing?
(Estaba l
escribiendo?)
Was she writing?
(Est ella
escribiendo?)
Was it writing?
(Estaba ello
escribiendo?)
Were we writing?
(Estbamos Nosotros/as
escribiendo?)

Were you writing?


(Estabais vosotros/as
escribiendo?)

Were they writing?


(Estaban Ellos/as
escribiendo?)

RESPUESTA
B) LARGA:
A) CORTA:
Ex: What were you cooking? (Qu
Ex: Were you buying a book? Yes, I was / No,
estabas cocinando?) I was cooking
I wasnt.
brownies.
- En este tiempo verbal tambin aplicaremos las reglas de DOBLAR la ltima
consonante. Al igual que hicimos en el Presente Continuo.

~22~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 10
PASADO SIMPLE VS. PASADO CONTINUO
PASADO SIMPLE

PASADO CONTINUO

USOS:
1) Acciones que comenzaron y
terminaron en el pasado. Normalmente
se indica cuando ocurri, es decir, hay
un adverbio de tiempo que lo indica.
Ex: I didnt go to the beach last
Sunday.
2) Acciones que suceden una detrs de
otra en el pasado, como sucede cuando
contamos una historia.
Ex: I went into the disco and I saw my
favourite girl, then I asked her to
dance
3) Con el Pasado Continuo para
referirnos a una accin corta que
interrumpe a otra ms larga.
Ex: The TV broke when she was
watching the football match.
4) Con verbos que expresan estados,
posesin, sentidos, emociones y
actividad mental. Todos estos no
aceptan el progresivo (la forma
continua): be, belong, believe,
hate, hear, like, love,
mean,
prefer,
remain,
realize, see, seem, smell,
think, understand, want, and
wish.

USOS:
1) Acciones en el pasado que ocurren en un
momento determinado que normalmente
especificamos.
Ex: What were you doing last evening at 8:45? I
was watching a Tv program.
2) Con el Pasado Simple para referirnos a una
accin larga que se ve interrumpida por otra ms
corta. When y while son las conjunciones
habituales.
Ex: We were talking about our last holidays
when the boss came into the office and got angry.
3) Dos acciones que se desarrollan a la vez en el
pasado. While es la conjuncin habitual.
Ex: While my boss was talking to me, I was
dreaming of my last holidays in Cancn.
4) Usamos el pasado continuo para decir que
alguien estaba en la mitad de haciendo algo en un
cierto tiempo. La accin o situacin ya haba
empezado antes de este tiempo, pero no haba
acabado.
Ex: (La lnea temporal expresa muy bien este
uso).

MARCADORES DE PASADO
SIMPLE

Adverbios:
Yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the
other day, last Friday
Construcciones:
Con la construccin de 2 Condicional:
Ex: If I had a car, I would drive it.

MARCADORES DE PASADO CONTINUO

Adverbios:
When, while, as long as.

~23~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 11
PASADO DEL VERBO TO HAVE (GOT) [HAD (GOT)]

FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Sujeto+ Had (got) + Compl.)
Sin contraer
I had (got)
(Yo tena/tuve)

Contrada

You had (got)

Youd
(got)

(T tenas/tuviste)

He had (got)
(l tena/tuvo)

Id (got)

Hed (got)

She had (got)


Shed (got)
(Ella tena/tuvo)
It had (got)
(Ello tena/tuvo)

We had (got)
(Nosotros/as
tenamos/tuvimos)

You had (got)


(Vosotros/as
tenais/tuvisteis)

They had (got)


(Ellos/as
tenan/tuvieron)

Itd (got)
Wed (got)

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + Had (got) + Not + Got +
compl..)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Had + Suj + Got +
Compl. + ?)

Sin contraer
I had not (got)
(Yo no tena/tuve)
You had not (got)
(T no
tenas/tuviste)
He had not (got)
(l no tena/tuvo)
She had not (got)
(Ella no
tena/tuvo)
It had not (got)
(Ello no
tena/tuvo)
We had not (got)

Had I got?
(Tena/tuve yo?)
Had you got?
(Tenas/tuviste
t?)
Had He got?
(Tena/tuvo l?)
Had She got?
(Tena/tuvo
Ella?)
Had It got?
(Tena/tuvo
Ello?)
Had We got?

(Nosotros/as no
tenamos/tuvimos)

Youd
(got)

You had not (got)

Theyd
(got)

They had not (got)

(Vosotros/as no
tenais/tuvisteis)

(Ellos/as no
tenan/tuvieron)

Contrada
I hadnt
(got)
You
hadnt
(got)
He hadnt
(got)
She hadnt
(got)
It hadnt
(got)
We hadnt
(got)
You
hadnt
(got)
They
hadnt
(got)

(Tenamos/tuvimos
Nosotros/as?)

Had You got?


(Tenais/tuvisteis
vosotros/as?)

Had They got?


(Tenan/tuvieron
Ellos/as?)

RESPUESTA
B) LARGA:
A) CORTA:
Ex: Had you got an umbrella with you?
Ex: Where had you got your first accident?
Yes, I had / No, I hadnt
I had got it close to that road.
- Las formas negativas e interrogativas se pueden construir con had got, con had o
con did.
Ex: Had you got a boat? / Had you a boyfriend? / Did you have a blue car?
- Si hacemos la forma interrogativa o negativa con did la estaremos haciendo de
forma Americana, mientras que la Britnica es had got.

~24~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 12
FUTURO SIMPLE (WILL / GOING TO)
FUTURO SIMPLE
WILL
(50% de posibilidad Yes/No)
AFIRMATIVA: (Suj+Will+V-inf+C.)
I / You will buy some rice.
He / She / It will buy some rice.
We / You / They will buy some rice.
NEGATIVA:(Suj+Will+Not+V-inf+C)
I / You will not/wont buy any rice.
He/She/It will not/wont buy any rice.
We/You/They will not/wont buy any
rice.
INTERROGATIVA:

(Will+Suj+V-inf+C+?)
Will I / You buy any rice?
Will He / She / It buy any rice?
Will We / You / They buy any rice?
RESPUESTA:
A) CORTA:
Will you study hard? Yes, I will/No, I
wont
B) LARGA:
Where will you go next week? I will
go to Madrid.
NOTA:
A menudo en lugar de will y
wont se usa shall y shant (shall
not) para referirnos al futuro, pero tan
slo en la primera persona del singular
y del plural. Pero es muy formal.
Exs:
I shall be ready in about half an hour.
We shall get wet in this rain.
I shant be here next week.
We shant stay long.

GOING TO
(casi un 100% de posibilidad)
AFIRMATIVA: (Suj+To Be+Going to+V-inf+C.)
I am going to pray for your soul.
You are going to pray for your soul.
He is going to pray for his soul.
She is going to pray for her soul.
It is going to pray for its soul.
We are going to pray for our souls.
You are going to pray for your souls.
They are going to pray for their souls.
NEGATIVA: (Suj+To Be+Not+Going to+V-inf+C.)
Im not going to buy that car.
You arent going to buy that car.
He / She / It isnt going to buy that car.
We / You / They arent going to buy that car.
INTERROGATIVA:
(To Be+Suj+Going to+V-inf+Compl.+?)
Am I going to clean my bedroom?
Are you going to clean your bedroom?
Is He/She/It going to clean His/Her/Its bedroom?
Are
We/You/They
going
to
clean
Our/Your/Their bedrooms?
RESPUESTA:
A) CORTA:
Are you going to be good?Yes, I am/No, Im not.
B) LARGA:
Where are you going to be later? Im going to be
at home.

MARCADORES DE WILL
MARCADORES DE GOING TO
Adverbios:
Adverbios:
in a year, (the) next , tomorrow, in one year, next week, tomorrow
probably, perhaps
Construcciones:
Con la construccin de 1 Condicional:
Ex: If I study hard, I will pass my
exam.
Con construcciones del tipo:
I think, We might

~25~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 13
FUTURO SIMPLE (WILL / GOING TO)
FUTURO SIMPLE
WILL
GOING TO
(50% de posibilidad Yes/No)
(casi un 100% de posibilidad)
USOS:
USOS:
1) Se usa will para referirse a algo 1) Be going to se utiliza para referirnos a las
que ocurrir en el futuro (a menudo un intenciones de la gente, a aquello que ya se ha
futuro muy lejano). Esto no significa decidido hacer en el futuro.
que alguien vaya a realizar una accin Ex: Were going to walk up to the hill this
afternoon.
determinada.
Ex: Life will be very different in a Are you going to take a picnic? Yes, we are.
hundred years time. Yes, it will, but I 2) Be going to se utiliza tambin para hacer
wont be here. Ill be dead.
predicciones cuando hay algo en el presente que
2) Usamos will para referirnos a nos permite inferir el futuro (a menudo un futuro
hechos que el hablante no puede prximo).
Ex: Look at those balck clouds up there. Its
controlar (caso de predicciones).
Ex: I think England will win on going to rain. It isnt going to be nice for a
Saturday. No, they wont. They wont picnic.
3) Se emplea el pasado de be going to para
beat Italy.
3) Se puede utilizar will cuando nos referirnos a intenciones o predicciones ya
referimos a acciones que, en el pasadas.
momento de hablar, an no hemos Ex: We were going to go for a walk, but the
weather made us change our minds.
decidido efectuar.
Ex: I think Ill read a book this It was obviously going to rain at any moment, so
evening. Or perhaps Ill watch they began to carry the food back into the house.
television.
WILL O BE GOING TO?
Utilizamos will:
Utilizamos be going to:
1) Para referirnos a hechos en el futuro que 3) Para referirnos a intenciones, a aquello
no podemos controlar (no a aquello que
que ya hemos decidido hacer.
hemos decidido hacer).
Ex: Im going to read this book. I bought it
Ex: Trains will be much master in the
last week.
future.
4) Cuando hay algo en el presente que nos
2) Cuando en el momento de hablar estamos permite inferir el futuro.
decidiendo
Ex: That boats full of water. Its going to
Ex: Just a minute, Ill buy a newspaper.
sink!

~26~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 14
PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE (de cualquier verbo)
El present perfect simple conecta o une el pasado y el presente de una manera
parecida al pretrito perfecto en espaol. Si decimos que algo ha ocurrido ('has
happened'), pensamos en el pasado y en el presente a la vez como si hicisemos un
puente del pasado al presente.
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Sujeto+ Have/Has + V-ED1
+ Compl.)

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + Have/Has + Not + V-ED
+ compl.)

Sin contraer
I have bought
(Yo he
comprado)

Contrada

You have
bought

Youve
bought

Sin contraer
I have not bought
(Yo no he
comprado)
You have not
bought
(T no has
comprado)
He has not bought
(l no ha
comprado)

(T has comprado)

He has bought
(l ha
comprado)
She has bought
(Ella ha
comprado)
It has bought
(Ello ha
comprado)

We have
bought
(Nosotros/as hemos
comprado)

You have
bought
(Vosotros/as habis
comprado)

They have
bought
(Ellos/as han
comprado)

Ive
bought

Hes
bought
Shes
bought
Its bought
Weve
bought
Youve
bought
Theyve
bought

A) CORTA:
Ex: Have you read that book?
Yes, I have / No, I havent

She has not bought

(Ella no ha
comprado)
It has not bought
(Ello no ha
comprado)
We have not bought
(Nosotros/as no hemos
comprado)

You have not


bought
(Vosotros/as no habis
comprado)

They have not


bought
(Ellos/as no han
comprado)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Have/Has + Suj +
V-ED + Compl. + ?)

Contrada
I havent
bought

Have I bought?
(He comprado?)

You
havent
bought

Have you bought?


(Has comprado?)

He hasnt
bought
She hasnt
bought
It hasnt
bought

Has He bought?
(Ha comprado
l?)
Has She bought?
(Ha comprado
Ella?)
Has It bought?
(Ha comprado
Ello?)

We
havent
bought

Have We bought?

You
havent
bought

Have You bought?

They
havent
bought

Have They bought?


(Han comprado
Ellos/as?)

(Hemos comprado
Nosotros/as?)

(Habis comprado
vosotros/as?)

RESPUESTA
B) LARGA:
Ex: Where have you hidden my wallet? I
have hidden it in one drawer.

V-ED hace referencia a los verbos de la tercera columna, tanto irregulares como regulares.
Exs: spend spent spent / travel travelled - travelled

~27~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

MARCADORES DE PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE


El present perfect simple es usado frecuentemente con las siguientes expresiones
de tiempo:

EVER AND NEVER


- EVER: alguna vez (dont + ever: nunca).
Exs: Have you ever been to Scotland? (Has estado alguna vez en Escocia?)
I dont ever want to see you again (No quiero verte de nuevo)
- NEVER: nunca.
Ex: Ive never eaten paella. (Nunca he comido paella)

JUST
TYPES OF STRUCTURE
(tipos de estructura)
SPANISH STRUCTURE
(estructura espaola)
ENGLISH STRUCTURE
(estructura inglesa)
POSITION
(posicin)
EXAMPLE

AFIRMATIVA, NEGATIVA E
INTERROGATIVA
Acabo/-as/-a/etc. de + infinitive
just + presente perfecto simple
Antes del participio de pasado.
Ive just heard about the concert.

Exs: Ive just made tea, would you like a cup? (Acabo de hacer t. Quieres una taza?)
Ana and Jess have just had a baby. (Ana y Jess acaban de tener un nio)

RECENTLY AND LATELY


- RECENTLY: recientemente.
Ex: Ive recently passed the F.C.E. exam and Im studying for the C.A.E.
(Recientemente acabo de aprobar el examen de FCE y estoy estudiando para el CAE)
- LATELY: ltimamente, recientemente.
Ex: Have you seen John lately? (Has visto a John ltimamente?)

SO FAR
- SO FAR: hasta ahora, hasta este momento, por el momento.
Ex: Ive had three beers so far this evening and its only eight oclock!
(He tomado hasta ahora tres cervezas esta tarde y slo son las ocho)

~28~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

YET
TYPES OF STRUCTURE
(tipos de estructura)
SPANISH STRUCTURE
(estructura espaola)
ENGLISH STRUCTURE
(estructura inglesa)
POSITION
(posicin)
EXAMPLE

INTERROGATIVA
Ya + presente perfecto en la interrogativa

Yet + presente perfecto en la interrogativa


Al final de la pregunta
Have you bought a ticket yet?2

- 'YET': normalmente se utiliza en frases interrogativas y va al final de la oracin, pero


como veremos abajo tambin puede aparecer en oraciones negativas. Se usa cuando
esperamos que algo vaya a pasar en el futuro, no en el pasado ni en el presente.
TYPES OF STRUCTURE
(tipos de estructura)
SPANISH STRUCTURE
(estructura espaola)
ENGLISH STRUCTURE
(estructura inglesa)
POSITION
(posicin)
EXAMPLE

NEGATIVA
Todava o an + presente perfecto en
la negativa.3
Yet + presente perfecto en la negativa
Al final de la oracin y entre medias del
auxiliar y el verbo principal.4
Its eleven oclock and you havent
finished breakfast yet.

Exs: Have you done your homework yet? (Has terminado ya los deberes?)
I dont think Manoli has done the shopping yet. (Creo que Manoli todava no ha hecho la compra)

ALREADY
TYPES OF STRUCTURE
(tipos de estructura)
SPANISH STRUCTURE
(estructura espaola)
ENGLISH STRUCTURE
(estructura inglesa)
POSITION
(posicin)
EXAMPLE

AFIRMATIVA
Ya + presente perfecto en la afirmativa
Already + presente perfecto en la interrogativa

Antes del participio de pasado


Theyve already sold all the tickets.5

Si nosotros esperamos como respuesta a la pregunta yes. Nosotros usamos already en vez de yet en
la misma posicin que en el ejemplo: Have you bought a ticket already? (Esperamos que la respuesta
sea yes).
3
En espaol nosotros no usamos ya con declaraciones negativas. El trmino correspondiente entonces
es todava.
4
En una declaracin negativa, yet puede ir antes del participio. Ex: Britain hasnt had a communist
government yet / Britain hasnt yet had a communist government
5
Already puede ir al final de las frases para dar nfasis. Ex: Theyve sold all the tickets already.

~29~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

- 'ALREADY': se usa en frases afirmativas e interrogativas y normalmente va detrs de


los verbos auxiliares o modales y delante de los dems verbos. Con 'already' decimos
que algo est en el presente o el pasado, no en el futuro.
Ex: Yes, Ive already finished my homework (S, ya he terminado mis deberes)
En ingls britnico yet y already acompaa habitualmente a los tiempos perfectos.
En ingls americano prefieren usar los tiempos pasados.
Compara ambos ejemplos:
Have you phoned your mother yet? (UK)
Did you phone your mother yet? (USA)
Ive already phoned her (UK)
I already phoned her (USA)

SINCE and FOR


- 'FOR': Se usa para decir cunto tiempo ha durado una accin. En espaol suele
decirse desde hace.
Ex: Weve had this computer for about six months. (Tenemos este ordenador desde
hace unos seis meses)
- 'SINCE': Se usa como una referencia a un punto de tiempo cuando algo empez. En
espaol suele decirse desde o desde que.
Ex: Weve had this car since January (Tenemos este coche desde enero)
Comparar:
Ive known Eric since 1989.

Ive known Eric for 15 years (si estamos en 2004)

STILL
(CON PRESENTE PERFECTO)
TYPES OF STRUCTURE
(tipos de estructura)
SPANISH STRUCTURE
(estructura espaola)
ENGLISH STRUCTURE
(estructura inglesa)
POSITION
(posicin)
EXAMPLE

NEGATIVA (para enfatizar)


Todava / an + presente perfecto simple
en la negativa (con un matiz de sorpresa,
molestia o desaprobacin, el cual es
expresado mediante la entonacin).
Still + presente perfecto en la negativa
(con nfasis, connotando sorpresa, molestia
o desaprobacin).
Antes del verbo auxiliar
(have/has/havent/hasnt)
Its eleven oclock and you still havent
finished breakfast.

(CON PRESENTE SIMPLE O PRESENTE CONTINUO)


Tan diferente del presente perfecto, en el presente continuo (y en todas las
formas compuestas con BE) still sigue a BE como auxiliar o como principal.
Ex: My father is still working.

~30~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

Si la oracin es negativa y el verbo auxiliar o principal es BE, still puede ser


colocado antes o despus de la palabra negativa.
Exs: Surely hes not still working / Im still not sure what you mean.
PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE
El present perfect simple conecta /
une el pasado y el presente de una
manera parecida al pretrito perfecto
en espaol. Si decimos que algo ha
ocurrido ('has happened'), pensamos
en el pasado y en el presente a la vez
como si hicisemos un puente del
El presente perfecto simple expresa una accin
pasado al presente.
que todava o an est ocurriendo o que ha
Ex:I cant do my homework because
parado recientemente, pero que tiene una
Ive lost my book.
influencia en el presente. Pone nfasis en el
(No puedo hacer mis deberes porque
resultado.
he perdido mi libro)
USOS:
1) Acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y continan ocurriendo en el presente.
Ex: I have lived in Mlaga since 1991 ( y continuo viviendo aqu)
2) Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado pero sus consecuencias son importantes para el
presente.
Ex: I have lost my English book (consecuencia: que no tengo libro ahora)
3) Acciones que acaban de ocurrir. Usamos just.
Ex: My grandmother has just passed her driving license exam.
4) Con adverbios como ever, never, yet, already para indicar el tiempo
indefinido o incompleto.
Exs: Have you ever seen a ghost? / We havent eaten yet, Im very hungry.
5) Pone nfasis en el resultado.
Ex: She has written five letters.
MARCADORES DE PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE
Already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now (y
los anteriores tambin)

~31~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 15
PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (de cualquier verbo)

FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Sujeto+ Have/Has + Been +
V-ing + Compl.)

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + Have/Has + Not + Been
+ V-ing + Compl.)

Sin contraer
I have been
studying
(Yo he estado
estudiando)
You have been
studying

Sin contraer
I have not been
studying
(Yo no he estado
estudiando)
You have not been
studying
(T no has estado
estudiando)
He has not been
studying
(l no ha estado
estudiando)

(T has estado
estudiando)

He has been
studying
(l ha estado
estudiando)
She has been
studying
(Ella ha estado
estudiando)
It has been
studying
(Ello ha estado
estudiando)

We have been
studying
(Nosotros/as hemos
estado estudiando)

You have been


studying
(Vosotros/as habis
estado estudiando)

They have been


studying
(Ellos/as han
estado estudiando)

Contrada
Ive been
studying
Youve
been
studying
Hes been
studying
Shes been
studying
Its been
studying

She has not been


studying

(Ella no ha estado
estudiando)
It has not been
studying
(Ello no ha estado
estudiando)

Weve
been
studying

We have not been


studying

Youve
been
studying

You have not been


studying

Theyve
been
studying

They have not


been studying

(Nosotros/as no hemos
estado estudiando)

(Vosotros/as no habis
estado estudiando)

(Ellos/as no han
estado estudiando)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Have/Has + Suj +
Been + V-ing +
Compl. + ?)

Contrada
I havent
been
studying
You
havent
been
studying
He hasnt
been
studying
She hasnt
been
studying
It hasnt
been
studying
We
havent
been
studying
You
havent
been
studying
They
havent
been
studying

Have I been
studying?
(He estado
estudiando?)
Have you been
studying?
(Has estado
estudiando?)
Has he been
studying?
(Ha estado l
estudiando?)
Has she been
studying?
(Ha estado ella
estudiando?)
Has it been
studying?
(Ha estado ello
estudiando?)
Have we been
studying?
(Hemos estado nosotros/as
estudiando?)

Have you been


studying?
(Habis estado
vosotros/as
estudiando?)

Have they been


studying?
(Han estado ellos/as
estudiando?)

RESPUESTA
B) LARGA:
A) CORTA:
Ex: Have you been waiting for the bus?
Ex: Where have you been sleeping? I have
Yes, I have / No, I havent
been sleeping at a hotel.

~32~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO


(Pretrito Perfecto Continuo o Progresivo)
El presente perfecto continuo Se usa
cuando se quiere expresar el sentido
de la continuidad de una accin que
ha comenzado en el pasado, que dura
todava en el presente y que incluso
puede continuar en el futuro.
Ex: I have been studying English for
two years.
[Estudio ingls desde hace dos aos
(y contino estudindolo en la
actualidad)]
USOS:
1) Pone nfasis en la duracin o curso de una accin, no en el resultado.
Ex: She has been writing for two hours.
2) Acciones que recientemente pararon o que todava continan.
Ex: I have been living here since 2001.
3) Una accin acabada que tiene influencia en el presente.
Ex: I have been working all afternoon.
MARCADORES DE PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO
all day, for four years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

UNIT 16
PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE VS. PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO
PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE
(Pretrito Perfecto)
Examples:
I have studied English.

PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO


(Pretrito Perfecto Continuo)
Pone nfasis en la duracin o curso
de una accin en el tiempo [3]
Example:
I have been studying English for a year.

The lawn looks nice because Ive cut the


grass. (La hierba ahora est cortada) [1]
Ive owned this bicycle since I was fifteen.
(se ha mantenido sin cambio alguno) [2]
Mrs Dobson has lived in Bristol for twenty
years and has worked at the bookshop for ten
years. [3]

Im tired because Ive been cutting the grass.


(El cortar la hierba dur un tiempo) [1]
Ive been riding this bicycle since I was 15.
(Algo que ha estado ocurriendo) [2]
Mrs Dobson has been living in Bristol for
twenty years and has been working at the
bookshop for ten years. [3]

Pone nfasis en el resultado [3]

USOS:
1) Ambos tiempos se utilizan para referirse a una accin ultimada recientemente. El
presente perfecto incide sobre el resultado actual de una accin, mientras que el
presente perfecto continuo seala que una accin ha durado un cierto tiempo. [1]
2) Ambos tiempos se utilizan para referirse a hechos que comenzaron en el pasado y
han continuado hasta el presente. El presente perfecto indica que algo ha
permanecido inmutable, mientras que el presente perfecto continuo seala que algo
ha estado ocurriendo. [2]

~33~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 17
PASADO PERFECTO SIMPLE (de cualquier verbo)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Sujeto+ Had + V-ED6 +
Compl.)
Sin contraer
I had written
(Yo haba
escrito)

Id written

You had written

Youd
written

(T habas escrito)

He had written
(l haba
escrito)
She had written
(Ella haba
escrito)
It had written

Contrada

Hed
written
Shed
written

(Ello haba
escrito)

Itd written

We had written

Wed
written

(Nosotros/as habamos
escrito)

You had written


(Vosotros/as habais
escrito)

They had
written
(Ellos/as haban
escrito)

Youd
written
Theyd
written

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + Had + Not + V-ED +
compl.)
Sin contraer
I had not written
(Yo no haba
escrito)
You had not
written
(T no habas
escrito)
He had not written
(l no haba
escrito)
She had not written
(Ella no haba
escrito)
It had not written
(Ello no haba
escrito)
We had not written
(Nosotros/as no habamos
escrito)

You had not


written
(Vosotros/as no habais
escrito)

They had not


written
(Ellos/as no haban
escrito)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Had + Suj + V-ED +
Compl. + ?)

Contrada
I hadnt
written

Had I written ?
(Haba escrito
yo?)

You
hadnt
written

Had you written ?


(Habas escrito
t?)

He hadnt
written
She hadnt
written
It hadnt
written
We hadnt
written

Had he written ?
(Haba escrito
l?)
Had she written?
(Haba escrito
ella?)
Had it written ?
(Haba escrito
ello?)
Had we written?
(Habamos escrito
Nosotros/as?)

You
hadnt
written

Had you written?

They
hadnt
written

Had they written?


(Haban escrito
ellos/as?)

(Habais escrito
vosotros/as?)

RESPUESTA
B) LARGA:
A) CORTA:
Ex: Had you become President of your class?
Ex: Where had you parked my car? I had
Yes, I had / No, I hadnt
parked your car in the parking.
Adverbios:
Already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
Construcciones:
Con la construccin de 3 Condicional:
Ex: If I had talked with Mary, I would have solved the problem.

V-ED hace referencia a los verbos de la tercera columna, tanto irregulares como regulares.
Exs: spend spent spent / travel travelled - travelled

~34~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 18
PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (de cualquier verbo)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
(Sujeto+ Had + Been + V-ing
+ Compl.)
Sin contraer
I had been
singing
(Yo haba estado
cantando)
You had been
singing
(T habas estado
cantando)

He had been
singing
(l haba estado
cantando)
She had been
singing
(Ella haba estado
cantando)

It had been
singing
(Ello haba estado
cantando)

We had been
singing
(Nosotros/as habamos
estado cantando)

You had been


singing
(Vosotros/as habais
estado cantando)

They had been


singing
(Ellos/as haban
estado
cantando)

Contrada
Id been
singing
Youd
been
singing
Hed been
singing
Shed been
singing
Itd been
singing
Wed been
singing

FORMA NEGATIVA
(Suj + Had + Not + Been + Ving + Compl.)
Sin contraer
I had not been
singing
(Yo no haba
estado cantando)
You had not been
singing
(T no habas
estado cantando)
He had not been
singing
(l no haba
estado cantando)
She had not been
singing

(Ella no haba
estado cantando)
It had not been
singing
(Ello no haba
estado cantando)
We had not been
singing
(Nosotros/as no habamos
estado cantando)

Youd
been
singing

You had not been


singing

Theyd
been
singing

They had not been


singing

A) CORTA:
Ex: Had you been playing poker?
Yes, I had / No, I hadnt

(Vosotros/as no habais
estado cantando)

(Ellos/as no haban
estado cantando)

FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
(Had + Suj + Been +
V-ing + Compl. + ?)

Contrada
I hadnt
been
singing
You
hadnt
been
singing
He hadnt
been
singing
She hadnt
been
singing
It hadnt
been
singing
We hadnt
been
singing
You
hadnt
been
singing
They
hadnt
been
singing

Had I been
singing?
(Haba estado
cantando yo?)
Had you been
singing?
(Habas estado
cantando t?)
Had he been
singing?
(Haba estado
cantando l?)
Had she been
singing?
(Haba estado
cantando ella?)
Had it been
singing?
(Haba estado
cantando ello?)
Had we been
singing?
(Habamos estado cantando
nosotros/as?)

Had you been


singing?
(Habais estado
cantando vosotros/as?)

Had they been


singing?
(Haban estado
cantando ellos/as?)

RESPUESTA
B) LARGA:
Ex: Where had you been running? I had
been running in a race.

~35~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 19
PASADO PERFECTO SIMPLE VS. PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO
PASADO PERFECTO SIMPLE
(Pretrito Pluscuamperfecto)

PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO


(Pretrito Pluscuamperfecto Continuo)

USOS:
1) Cuando hablamos del pasado a
menudo nos referimos a una accin que
ocurri con anterioridad a otra. En este
caso
se
utiliza
el
pretrito
pluscuamperfecto (pasado perfecto
simple) para el hecho que ocurri en
primer lugar t el pasado simple para el
que ocurri posteriormente.
Cuando nos referimos a dos acciones
que ocurrieron en el pasado y queremos
sealar la inmediatez con que
sucedieron, se puede utilizar just con
la
oracin
en
pretrito
pluscuamperfecto.
Ex: Sarah had just sat down when the
doorbell rang.
2) Accin que toma lugar antes de un
cierto tiempo en el pasado.
Ex: Alan had no Money last Sunday.
Hed spent it all.
3) Algunas veces es intercambiable con
el pasado simple.
Ex: After we had looked round the
museum, we went to a restaurant.
We looked round the museum, and then
we went to a restaurant.
4) Pone nfasis slo en el hecho, no en
la duracin.

USOS:
1) Accin que toma lugar antes de un cierto
tiempo en el pasado.
Ex: Hed been delivering furniture for three
years.
2) Pone nfasis en la duracin o curso de una
accin.
Examples:
At that time we had been living in the
caravan for about six months.
When I found Mary, I could see that she had
been crying.
I went to the doctor because I had been
sleeping badly. (Earlier Past: I had been
sleeping badly / Past: I went to the doctor).

MARCADORES DE PASADO SIMPLE

MARCADORES DE PASADO CONTINUO

Adverbios:
Adverbios:
Already, just, never, not yet, once, until For, since, the whole day, all day
that day
Construcciones:
Con la construccin de 3 Condicional:
Ex: If I had talked with Mary, I would
have solved the problem.

~36~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 20
VERBOS MODALES
Son verbos que no tienen conjugacin como los dems, y requieren llevar un
infinitivo sin to detrs de ellos para que la frase adquiera un significado completo. Los
verbos modales son: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall,
should, must, ought to.
Need y dare, al igual que used to, se pueden usar tambin como modales en
bastantes ocasiones.
CARACTERSTICAS:
-

Al no conjugarse, no toman la desinencia de tercera persona singular (-s/-es)


en el tiempo presente de los verbos.
Ex: He can cook.

Por la misma razn, para hacer la forma interrogativa y la negativa, no


utilizamos verbo auxiliar. Se produce una inversin para formar la
interrogativa y se le aade not o nt al verbo modal para la negativa.
Ex: He can not/cant cook. // Can he cook?

El infinitivo que sigue a los verbos modales no lleva to.


Ex: You must work harder.

Como no se conjugan, para expresar otros tiempos verbales (pasado o futuro)


se tienen que utilizar perfrasis verbales equivalentes. As, utilizaremos be
able to con el sentido de can y have to para sustituir a must.

Must expresa la autoridad o disposicin del hablante, y have to se refiere a


la autoridad de una tercera persona, o algo que el hablante no puede controlar.
Resumen:
1) Have to expresa una obligacin externa a ti. Por ejemplo, algo que te
obliga a hacer una ley; una norma, un poder externo.
Ex: (tu madre te dice) You have to study hard for your exams.
2) Must expresa una obligacin interna; un deber autoimpuesto por el
sujeto. Ex: (tu mismo piensas) I must study hard for my exams.

Sin embargo, algunas formas son equivalents a otras, pero expresando un


matiz de pasado; sobre todo, a la hora de utilizar el estilo indirecto.
Ex: can-could, will-would, may-might, shall-should.

Con los verbos modales se pueden expresar:


a) Certeza (will, must, cant). Ex: It must be true (Debe de ser verdad).
b) Probabilidad o Posibilidad (should, ought to, may, might, could).
Ex: It could happen tomorrow (Podra ocurrir maana).
c) Algo cierto, segn en qu condiciones (can, will, wouldnt). Ex: Naples can
be a very dangerous city (Npoles puede ser una ciudad muy peligrosa).
d) Obligacin (must, will, need). Ex: You must punch your card every morning
(Tienes que fichar cada maana).

~37~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

e) Prohibicin (must, may, cant). Ex: You cant talk to the driver (No puedes
hablar con el conductor).
f) Ausencia de obligacin (neednt). Ex: You neednt finish it by today, take
your time (No tienes que acabarlo hoy, tmate el tiempo que necesites).
g) Permiso (can, may [es ms formal], be allowed to). Ex: May I borrow this
chair? (Puedo coger esta silla?).
h) Recomendaciones (should, ought to, might, shall). Ex: You should drive
slowly (Deberas conducir despacito).
i) Ofrecimientos (would, will, shall). Ex: Will you come with me? (Quieres
venir conmigo?).
j) Habilidad o Capacidad (can, could, couldnt, be able to). Ex: Can you play
the piano? (Sabes tocar el piano?).
k) Comportamiento habitual (ll, would, used to). Ex: Hell sleep all day long
(Se pasa el da durmiendo).
l) Necesidad (must, have (got) to, neednt, mustnt). Ex: Im late. I must hurry
(Llego tarde. Debo darme prisa).
ESCALA DE MODALIDAD:
Factual: (de hecho)
1) He is not in the library [declaracin de hecho negativo] (0%)
Logical possibility:
2) He cant be in the library [Imposibilidad] (1-5%)
3) He might be in the library [Aunque no lo creo as] (25%)
4) He could be in the library [Aunque no es probable. l rara vez va all por la
tardes] (25%)
5) He may be in the library [No lo s, quizs] (50%)
6) He can be in the library [Es una conclusin posible porque l est haciendo
una investigacin] (50%)
Logical necessity: (para predicciones, inferencias)
7) He would be in the library [Quizs. Es razonable pensarlo, porque l va all
algunas tardes] (60%)
8) He should be in the library [Es muy probable. Le vi all hace tiempo] (60%)
9) He will be in the library [As lo creo. Es probable que lo encuentres all] // He
shall be in the library [As lo creo. Es probable que lo encuentres all] (75%)
10) He must be in the library [Estoy seguro de que est (dada la evidencia no hay
otra conclusin)] (80-90%)
11) He has (got) to be in the library [No hay otra posiblidad] (80-90%)
12) He is going to be in the library [He mirado en otrs partes, pero no est
(inevitable)] (92-95%)
13) He is to be in the library [l debe de estar all con total seguridad] (96-99%)
Factual: (de hecho)
14) He is in the library [declaracin de hecho firme] (100%)

~38~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

FORMA

CAN
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + can + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + can + not + V-inf. + complementos. [Can + Not = Cant/Cannot]
Interrogativa: Can + sujeto + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + can / No, sujeto + can't
Ejemplos
I can speak English (Yo s hablar ingls)
The doctor can see you at 3.00 (El doctor le puede ver a las tres)
Can you speak German? (Sabes hablar Alemn?)

COULD
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + could + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + could + not + V-inf. + complementos. [Could + Not = Couldn't]
Interrogativa: Could + sujeto + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + could / No, sujeto + couldn't
Ejemplos
Could you speak Japanese before you went to Japan? (Sabas hablar japons antes
de que fueras a Japn?)
Tony could swim when he was six. (Toni saba nadar cuando tena seis aos)
Could you help me, please? (Podra ayudarme, por favor?)

MAY
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + may + V-inf. + complementos
Negativa: Sujeto + may + not + V-inf. + complementos. [May + Not = Maynt]
Interrogativa: May + sujeto + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + may / No, sujeto + mayn't
Ejemplos
I may stay at home or I may go to a disco (Puede que me quede en casa o puede que
vaya a una discoteca)
May I use your dictionary? (Podra usar su / t diccionario?)

~39~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

MIGHT
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + might + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + might + not + V-inf. + complementos. [Might + Not = mightn't]
Interrogativa: Might + sujeto + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + might / No, sujeto + mightnt
Ejemplos
Be careful. You might burn yourself (Ten cuidado. Te podras quemar)

MUST
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + must + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + must + not + V-inf. + complementos. [Must + Not = mustnt]
Interrogativa: Must + sujeto + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + must / No, sujeto + mustn't
Ejemplos
I am really tired. I must go home now (Estoy realmente cansado. Debo irme a casa
ahora)
You must keep your room tidy (Debes mantener tu habitacin ordenada)

HAVE TO
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + have/has to + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + have/has + not + to + V-inf. + complementos. [Have/has + Not + to
= havent/hasnt to]
Interrogativa: Do/Does + sujeto + have to + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + do/does // No, sujeto + don't/doesn't
Ejemplos
You have to drive on the right in the USA (Tienes que conducir por la derecha en
los EEUU)
I don't have to wear an uniform at school (No tengo que llevar uniforme en la
escuela)
Did you have to work yesterday? (Tuviste que trabajar ayer?)

~40~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

SHOULD
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + should + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + should + not + V-inf. + complementos. [Should + Not = Shouldnt]
Interrogativa: Should + sujeto + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + should / No, sujeto + shouldn't
Ejemplos
You should have (got) holidays (Deberas tener vacaciones)
You shouldn't work so hard (No deberas trabajar tanto)
What do you think I should do? (Qu crees que debera hacer?)

OUGHT TO
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + ought to + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + ought + not + to+ V-inf. + complementos. [Ought + Not = Oughtnt]
Interrogativa: Ought + sujeto + to + V-inf. + complementos? (lo mismo que should)
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + ought (to)/ No, sujeto + oughtn't (to)
Ejemplos
I think I ought to tell him (Creo que debera contrselo)
She ought to pass the exam (Ella debera aprobar el examen)

WOULD
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: Sujeto + would + V-inf. + complementos.
Afirmativa contraida: Sujeto+ 'd + V-inf. + complementos.
Negativa: Sujeto + would + not + V-inf. + complementos. [Would + Not = Wouldnt]
Interrogativa: Would + sujeto + V-inf. + complementos?
Respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + would / No, sujeto + wouldn't
Ejemplos
I would like to go to London (Me gustara ir a Londres)
Peter was working very hard. He would be tired at the end (Peter estuvo trabajando
duro. Estara cansado al final)
Would you like a cup of coffee? (Le gustara tomar una taza de caf?)

~41~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

DIFERENTES FORMAS CON LOS MODALES:


Examples

Form

Time
Reference

Present

He can answer your question.


They should leave early tomorrow.

MODAL + Simple Verb

He had to leave at 7 this morning.

Future
Past

He might be joking!

Modal + Continuous Form

Present

Modal Verbs + Present Perfect

Past

Modal + Present Perfect +


Continuous Verb

Past

She can't have been serious!


They might have gone to the
country.
They might have been working at that
time

UNIT 21
CONDICIONALES
1ST CONDITIONAL
IF + SUJETO + PRESENTE , + SUJETO + WILL/WONT + INFINITIVO.
Example: If I go to the cinema, I will call you.
2ND CONDITIONAL
IF + SUJETO + PASADO SIMPLE , + SUJETO + COULD/MAY/WOULD/MIGHT +
INFINITIVO
Example: If I had a car, I World drive it.
3RD CONDITIONAL
IF + SUJETO + HAD + PASADO PARTICIPIO, + SUJETO + WOULD + HAVE +
PASADO PARTICIPIO.
Example: If I had gone to Canarias, I would have bought some bananas

~42~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 22
VERB PATTERNS
VERBS + -ING
LIKE (gustar)
LOVE (amar)
ADORE (adorar)
ENJOY (disfrutar)
PREFER (preferir)
HATE (odiar)
CANT STAND (no soporto)
DONT MIND (no me importa)
FINISH (terminar de)
LOOK FORWARD TO (tener ganas de)

DOING
COOKING
SIGHTSEEING (hacer turismo)

NOTE: LIKE, LOVE, ADORE, PREFER, HATE son algunas veces


usados con to pero -ing es ms usual y ms general en significado.
Ex: I like cooking / I like to cook beef on Sundays.
VERBS + TO + INFINITIVE
AGREE (acordar, comprometerse)
CHOOSE (elegir)
DARE (desafiar, atreverse a hacer algo)
DECIDE (decidir)
EXPECT (imaginar, suponer)
FORGET (olvidar)
HELP (ayudar)
HOPE (esperar de)
TO DO
LEARN (aprender)
MANAGE (lograr)
TO COME
NEED (necesitar)
OFFER (ofrecer)
TO COOK
PROMISE (prometer)
REFUSE (negarse a hacer algo)
SEEM (parecer)
WANT (querer)
WOULD LIKE (te gustara)
WOULD LOVE (te encantara)
WOULD PREFER (preferira)
WOULD HATE (odiara)
NOTES:
1- HELP y DARE pueden ser usados sin to.
Exs: We helped tidy the kitchen / I didnt dare disagree with him.
2- HAVE TO para obligacin. Ex: I have to wear an uniform.
3- UESD TO para hbitos pasados. Ex: I used to smoke but I gave up last year.

~43~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

VERBS + SOMEBODY + TO + INFINITIVE


ADVISE (aconsejar)
ALLOW (permitir)
ASK (preguntar)
BEG (suplicar)
DARE (atreverse)
ENCOURAGE (animar a alguien)
EXPECT (imaginar, suponer)
HELP (ayudar)
NEED (necesitar)
INVITE (invitar)
ORDER (ordenar)
REMIND (recordar)
TELL (decir)
WANT (querer)
WARN (+ not) (avisar)
WOULD LIKE (te gustara)
WOULD LOVE (te encantara)
WOULD PREFER (preferira)
WOULD HATE (odiara)

ME
HIM
THEM

TO DO
TO GO
TO COME

SOMEONE

VERBS + SOMEBODY + INFINITIVE (NO TO)


LET (dejar, permitir)
HER
MAKE (obligar)
DO
US
HELP (ayudar)
NOTES:
1- To es usado con MAKE en la pasiva. Ex: We were made to work hard.
2- LET no puede ser usado en la pasiva. Allowed to es usado en lugar de let.
Ex: She was allowed to leave.
VERBS + -ING OR TO + INFINITIVE
(sin cambio en el significado)
BEGIN (comenzar)
RAINING
START (empezar)
TO RAIN
CONTINUE (continuar)
VERBS + -ING OR TO + INFINITIVE
(con un cambio en el significado)
REMEMBER (recordar)
DOING
STOP (parar)
TO DO
TRY (intentar)
NOTES:
1- I remember posting the letter (= Ahora tengo el recuerdo de una accin pasada:
echar la carta al buzn). I remembered to post the letter (= Me record a m
mismo el echar la carta al buzn).
2- I stopped smoking (= Dej el hbito). I stopped to smoke (= Par de hacer algo
para fumarme un cigarrillo).
3- I tried to sleep (= Quera dormir pero era difcil). I tried counting sheep and
taking sleeping pills (= Haba posibles maneras/formas de conseguir dormir).

~44~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 23
VOZ ACTIVA Y PASIVA
Se utiliza la voz pasiva con objeto de dar mayor importancia al complemento de un
verbo activo.
Se dice que una oracin est en voz activa cuando la significacin del verbo es
producida por la persona gramatical a quien aqul se refiere.
Ex: Pedro de Mendoza founded Buenos Aires. (Pedro de Mendoza fund Buenos
Aires).
Se dice que una oracin est en voz pasiva cuando la significacin del verbo es
recibida por la persona gramatical a quien aqul se refiere.
Ex: Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza. (Buenos Aires fue fundada
por Pedro de Mendoza).
La voz pasiva se forma con el verbo to be conjugado ms el participio del verbo
principal (3 columna). En ingls es mucho ms frecuente que en espaol y,
normalmente, aparece cuando no es importante quien realiza una accin sino el hecho
en s. Por eso, no siempre que veamos una pasiva, tenemos que traducirlo literalmente,
puesto que en espaol suena ms forzado.

USOS
1) Slo es posible el uso de la voz pasiva con verbos transitivos (verbos que
llevan complemento directo).
Ex: They sent the letter the letter was sent (by them)
They arrived late (esta oracin no tiene pasiva)
2) Los verbos con complemento directo e indirecto pueden hacer la pasiva de dos
maneras.
Ex: They sent me the letter I was sent the letter / The letter was sent to me.
3) Algunos verbos transitivos no pueden hacer la pasiva en algunos usos, por
ejemplo like y love.
Ex: I like this place (una forma pasiva de esta oracin no es posible)
4) Al centrarse en informacin importante. Al poner el objeto o complemento al
principio de la frase, la pasiva puede cambiar el foco de inters en una frase.
El complemento de la oracin activa pasa a sujeto de la pasiva y el sujeto de la
activa se puede conservar como sujeto agente.
Ex: United were beaten by Arsenal (estamos ms interesados en el United)
5) La pasiva es usada en una variedad de contextos. En estos casos el agente puede
ser no importante, desconocido o claro para la situacin.
- Estado impersonal. Ex: Students are asked not to smoke.
- Cuando el agente es desconocido. Ex: My bike has been stolen!
- Cuando el agente es obvio. Ex: Mr Jones will be arrested.
- Como algo fue hecho. Ex: The box was oponed with a knife.

~45~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

6) La pasiva a menudo se usa con say, think, feel, expect, believe,


understand, know, suppose, report, consider, agree, decide,
arrange y verbos similares usados en el discurso informativo (reporting speech) para
evitar un impersonal they o people.
Ex: People say that John Wilson lives in New York John Wilson is said to live in
New York // It is said that John Wilson lives in New York.
Delante de un infinitivo. Se pueden estos verbos agree, decide y arrange
(arreglar, disponer, ordenar, organizar, fijar, concertar).
Ex: They decided to appoint a new manager It was decided to appoint a new
manager.
IT + VERBO EN VOZ PASIVA + ORACIN SUBORDINADA
7) Cuando alguien hace un trabajo para nosotros, podemos usar la construccin
have something done
HAVE + COMPLEMENTO DIRECTO + PARTICIPIO DE PASADO
Exs: Last year I had new tiles put on the roof (El pasado ao me pusieron tejas
nuevas en el tejado).
Im having my hair cut this afternoon (Me cortan el pelo esta tarde).
We had this room decorated last year (Nos decoraron esta habitacin el pasado
ao).
Did you have your suit cleaned? (Te limpiaron el traje?).
La misma construccin puede describer mala suerte causada por una persona no
especificada.
Ex: Peter had his car stolen last week (Le robaron el coche a Peter la semana
pasada).
And then he had his leg broken playing football (y luego le rompieron la pierna
jugando al ftbol).
8) En la voz pasiva se utiliza get en lugar de be:
A veces en ingls coloquial, sobre todo al referirnos a lago que ocurre por accidente.
Exs: The cake got burnt in the oven / How did this clock get broken?
En ciertas expresiones, por ejemplo get dressed, get washed, get lost, get
married. Exs: Without a map we soon got lost / When did they get married?
Usando get en vez de have en los ejemplos del punto 7 seran ms informales.
GET + COMPLEMENTO DIRECTO + PARTICIPIO DE PASADO
Usando get tambin podemos sugerir el haber logrado hacer algo difcil.
Exs: It was difficult but we got the painting done in the end
We got this room decorated last year.
Im getting my hair cut tomorrow.
Did you get your suit cleaned?

~46~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

9) En la voz pasiva se puede utilizar la construccin needsing. Esta es una


manera idiomtica de expresar una oracin pasiva, donde una cosa o persona necesita
alguna clase de accin.
Ex: The floor is filthy (mugriento). It needs to be cleaned.
The floor is filthy. It needs cleaning.
NOTA: La preposicin permanece con el verbo en una oracin pasiva.
Ex: People shouted at the Prime Minister during his speech.
The Prime Minister was shouted at during his speech.

FORMA
VOZ ACTIVA
Tom writes a letter
Tom is writing a letter
Tom was writing a letter
Tom wrote a letter
Tom has written a letter
Tom had written a letter
Tom will write a letter
Tom is going to write a letter
Tom can write a letter
Tom could write a letter
Tom must write a letter
Tom may write a letter
Tom might write a letter

VOZ PASIVA
A letter is written by Tom
A letter is being written by Tom
A letter was being written by Tom
A letter was written by Tom
A letter has been written by Tom
A letter had been written by Tom
A letter will be written by Tom
A letter is going to be written by Tom
A letter can be written by Tom
A letter could be written by Tom
A letter must be written by Tom
A letter may be written by Tom
A letter might be written by Tom

~47~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

UNIT 24
ESTILO INDIRECTO (Reported Speech)
Se llama Estilo Indirecto a la interpretacin que haces cn tus propias palabras de lo
que dice otra persona. Para introducir el Estilo Indirecto empleamos frecuentemente
say o tell + (that). Say y Tell son los verbos que introducen la oracin
subordinada sustantiva en la cual se reproducen palabras o pensamientos. Tambin se
utilizan otros verbos como explain, answer, agree, write, think, know,
be sure, suggest (+ forma ing), offer (+ forma infinitiva) y remind (+ objeto
+ infinitivo).

TRANSFORMACIONES
DIRECT SPEECH
REPORTED SPEECH
PRESENTE SIMPLE
PASADO SIMPLE
Ex: We need Stephen Barbara said they needed him
PRESENTE CONTINUO
PASADO CONTINUO
Ex: Im starting a pop group She told me she was starting a pop group
PRESENTE PERFECTO
PASADO PERFECTO
Ex: I havent found anyone She said she hadnt found anyone
FUTURO SIMPLE (WILL)
CONDICIONAL SIMPLE (WOULD)
Ex: Ill be at the club She told me she would be at the club
FUTURO (BE GOING TO)
WAS/WERE GOING TO
Ex: The group is going to meet there She said that the group was going to meet there
MUST/CAN
HAD TO/COULD
Ex: I must talk to Stephen She said she had to talk to him
Ex: I can play the violin She said she could play the violin
PASADO SIMPLE
PASADO PERFECTO
Ex: He played in a group once She mentioned that he had played in a group once
PASADO SIMPLE
PASADO SIMPLE
Ex: He played in a group once She mentioned that he played in a group once
SHALL
SHOULD
Ex: You shall accept the invitation She said you should accept the invitation
WOULD/COULD/SHOULD/
WOULD/COULD/SHOULD/
MIGHT/OUGHT TO/MAY
MIGHT/OUGHT TO/MAY
Ex: It would be great if he could play in our group She said it would be great if he could
play in our group.
PASADO PERFECTO
PASADO PERFECTO
Ex: I had bought a new car She said she had bought a new car
PASADO CONTINUO
PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO
Ex: I was lying She admitted she had been lying.

~48~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

DIRECT SPEECH
THIS
THAT
THESE
NOW
AGO
HERE
THERE
TODAY
TONIGHT
TOMORROW
YESTERDAY
NEXT WEEK
NEXT YEAR
LAST WEEK
I
THIS/THESE/THAT/THOSE (as adjectives)
THIS/THESE/THAT/THOSE (as pronouns)
Some words like please and now
disappear. Ex: Please come in. Now what do
you want to talk to me about?
THE

REPORTED SPEECH
THAT
THAT
THOSE
THEN
BEFORE
THERE
THERE
THAT DAY
THAT NIGHT
THE NEXT DAY
THE FOLLOWING DAY
AFTER DAY
THE DAY BEFORE
THE PREVIOUS DAY
THE FOLLOWING WEEK
THE FOLLOWING YEAR
THE WEEK BEFORE
THE PREVIOUS WEEK
HE/SHE
THE
IT/THEY/THEM
He asked her to come in.
She asked him what he wanted
to talk to her about.
THE

EL ESTILO INDIRECTO EN RDENES Y PETICIONES:


DIRECT SPEECH
REPORTED SPEECH
Las rdenes se reproducen en estilo indirecto con tell + DO + Infinitivo
Ex: The doctor told me to take the
Ex: Take the pills before meals
pills before meals
Ex: You mustnt smoke
Ex: He told me not to smoke
Las peticiones se reproducen en estilo indirecto con ask + DO + Infinitivo
Ex: Would you mind not leaving your
Ex: Someone asked me not to leave
car here?
the car there.
El verbo introductor puede estar en voz pasiva
Ex: I was told to take the pills before
Ex: You were asked not to leave the
meals
car there
Tambin podemos reproducir rdenes en estilo indirecto con una forma de must
o be to
Ex: The doctor said I must take/ I had to take/ I was to take the pills befote meals.
Una peticin se reproduce en estilo indirecto con ask for
Ex: A motorist asked me for/asked for
Ex: Can I have some water please?
some water
Tambin se pueden reproducir en estilo indirecto peticiones expresadas en forma
interrogativa (por ej. Can I?), se hace del mismo modo que otras yes-no questions
Ex: He asked if he could have some water

~49~

APUNTES DE INGLS / CSG

EL ESTILO INDIRECTO EN LAS FRASES INTERROGATIVAS:


Las yes-no questions se reproducen
en estilo indirecto con if o whether.
Ex: Is your husband in? He asked if you were in
Has he gone to London? He wanted to know whether youd gone to London
En las wh- questions utilizamos
partculas interrogativas (Ex: which,
when, what, who y how) tanto en el estilo
directo como en el indirecto.
En las preguntas en estilo indirecto los
verbos experimentan los mismos cambios
WH- QUESTIONS
que en las frases en estilo indirecto.
El orden de las palabras en una
pregunta en estilo indirecto es el mismo
que el de una frase en estilo directo, por
ej. You were in, youd gone to London,
youd taken, you usually got home.
Ex: Which train did he take? He asked me which train youd taken
When does he usually get home? He asked when you usually got home
YES-NO QUESTIONS

SUGERENCIAS, CONSEJOS EN ESTILO INDIRECTO:


SUGERENCIAS
Lets go out

Tony suggested going out


CONSEJOS
Mrs Dell advised me to phone the
Youd better phone the police
police
ADVERTENCIAS
Dont be late
I warned you not to be late
AMENAZAS
If you dont go, Ill call the police
I threatened to call the police
INSISTIENDO
Mr and Mrs Beal insisted on taking a
We simply must take a taxi
taxi
RECHAZANDO
Im not going to wait any longer
Mrs Janner refused to wait any longer
PROMESAS
Ill send you a postcard
He promised to send us a postcard
OFRECEMIENTOS
Can I get you a taxi?
Eric offered to get the visitors a taxi
INVITACIONES
Would you like to have lunch with us?
The Updikes invited us to lunch

~50~