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INSTRUCTOR’S
SOLUTIONS
MANUAL
INTRODUCTION to
ELECTRODYNAMICS
Third Edition
David J. GriffithsChapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
‘Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Vector Analysis
Electrostatics
Special Techniques
Electrostatic Fields in Matter
Magnetostatics
Magnetostatic Fields in Matter
Electrodynamics
Conservation Laws
Electromagnetic Waves
Potentials and Fields
Radiation
Electrodynamics and Relativity
73
89)
113
125Chapter 1
Vector Analysis
Problem 1.1
(2) From the diagram, |B + C|cos6 = [B| cos + |C}cosd,. Multiply by |A\.
AIIB + C]cosés = |Al|B| cos: + |Al|C] cos 6, Clsines
So: A(B+C) = A-B+A.C. (Dot product is distributive.)
Similarly: |B + C|sin y = [B|sin 0) + {C|sin@,. Mulitply by |Al a.
JAIIB + C|sin dy 8 = [Al)B| sin, f+ [Al|C|sin & 8 (Bisine,
If fis the unit vector pointing out of the page, it follows that,
Ax(B +) = (AxB) +(AXC). (Cross product is distributive.) (Bicone (Clomes
(b) For the general case, see G. E. Hay’s Vector and Tensor Analysis, Chapter 1, Section 7 (dot product) and
Section 8 (cross product).
Problem 1.2
The triple cross-produet is not in general associative, For example, i
suppose A = B and C is perpendicular to A, as in the diagram.
Then (BXC) points out-of-the-page, and Ax(BxC) points down, A=B
and has magnitude ABC. But (AXB) = 0, so (AxB)xC = 04
Ax(BxC), BxC jAax(BxC)
Problem 13 =
A=+1R+19- 18; A= V3; B=1k+19 +14; B= V3.
AB = 4141-121 = AB cosd = V3VEc080 = con® =}
Jy
[6 = cos"! (}) = 70.524
K
Problem 14
‘The eross-produet of any two vectors in the plane will give a vector perpendicular to the plane. For example,
wwe might pick the base (A) and the left side (B).
A
18429 +08; B=-12409-+38.2 CHAPTER !, VECTOR ANALYSIS
This has the right direction, but the wrong magnitude, ‘To make a unit vector out of it; simply divide by its
length:
|AxB) = VBFOF4 = 7,
Problem 15
& 5 2 |
Ax(BxC) = | A: Ay As |
| (ByC.-B.C,) (BsCe-BeC,) (BeC, ~ B,C.) |
= 8[Ay(BeCy ~ ByCx) ~ As(BsCz - BeCz)] +90) + 81)
(I just check the x-component; the others go the same way.)
= 8(4yBzC, — AyByCz ~ A:B,C, + ArBzC.) + 9() +2).
B(A-C) - C(A-B) = [Bz(AzCz + AyCy + AsC.) ~ Cz(ArBe + AyBy + ArB.)|+ (H+ ()%
(AyBsCy + A,ByCz ~ AyByCz ~ AzB,Ce) +9() +2(). They agree.
Problem 1.6
Ax(BXC)4Bx(CxA)+Cx(AXB) = B(A-C)~C(A-B)+C(A-B)-A(C-B)+A(B-C)-B(C-A) = 0
§0: Ax(BXC) ~ (AxB)xC = ~Bx(CxA) = A(B-C) ~ C(A-B)
If this is zero, then either A is parallel to C (including the case in which they point in opposite directions, or
one is zero), or else B-C = B+A = 0, in which case B is perpendicular to A and C (including the case B = 0).
Conclusion: [Ax(BXC) = (AXB)xC <= either A is parallel to C, or B is perpendicular to A and C.]
Problem 1.7
a= (48465482) ~ (28489478) = [DR-2H 42
=vivtri =[3]
Problem 18
(a) A,B, + ALB, = (cos dy + sin pA,)(cos pBy + sin dB.) + (~sin dA, + cos dA,)(— sin 6B, + cos 6B:)
= cos? GAyBy + sin dcos (A,B, + AzB,) + sin? GA,Bz + sin? 34,By — sindcos¢(AyBs + AzBy) +
cos GA Bs
cos? } + sin? 4)A,B, + (sin? d+ cos? @)AsBs = AyBy + Axe. ¥
(b) He)? + (Gy)? + Ay? = DAA = Dh, (Bhar RisAj) (Bhar Rade) = Dje (DiRy Rie) Aye.
‘This equals A2 + A? + A? provided] DL, Ry Rix ={ A y jst }
Moreover, if R is to preserve lengths for all vectors A, then this condition is not only sufficient but also
necessary. For suppose A = (1,0,0). Then Bx (Bi Ri Ria) Aye = Bi Ra Rey and this must equa 1 (since we
want A, +4/-+A: = 1), Likewise, DL, RigRia = EL, Rig Rea = 1. To check the case j £ k, choose A = (1,1,0).
Then we want 2= Zjx (Bi Raju) As = Di Ria + Es Rahs +E; Raa + ¥; RigRa- But we already
know that the first two sums are both 1; the third and fourth are equal, so Di Ry: Ry = Ej Ri2Ra = 0, and so
on for other tiequal combinations of jv In matrix notation: AR — 1, where iis the transpose of R.3
Problem 1.9 y | y
2 Looking down the asi: R
2, aw
‘A 120° rotation carries the z axis into the y (= 2) axis, y into z (=), and 2 into z (= 7). So Ae =
By= dn A= 4,
ool
R=(100
o10
Problem 1.10
(a) (No change. | (A, = Ae, Ay = Ay, Ae = As)
(b) [A 9 =A, ]in the sense (A, = ~Ay, Ay = As)
(6) (AxB) —> (~A)x(—B) = (AB), That is, if C = AxB, [E—)C] No minus sign, in contrast to
behavior of an “ordinary” vector, as given by (b). If A and B are pseudovectors, then (A xB) + (A)x(B) =
(Ax:B). So the cross-product of two pscudovectors is again a pseudovector. In the cross-product of a vector
and a pscudovector, one changes sign, the other doesn’t, and therefore the cross-product is itself a vector.
Angular momentum (L = tXp) and torque (N = rxF) are pseudovectors.
(@) ABxC) S (-A)((-B)x(-C)) = ~A(BXC), So, fa = A-(BXC), then [a —> may] pecudoscalar
changes sign under inversion of coordinates.
Problem 111
VS = 2x4 By Ft 4re
yy Ar
VS = Qayrat + 3a2y?2t G4 srtyte a
(OVS = eFsinyln2% + eFcosylnz +e siny(I/2)
Problem 112
(a) VA = 10,(2y - 62 — 18) & + (22 ~ 8y +28)9]. VA = O at summit, co
2y — 62 =I 2 .
m+ be Day + 84 Jays Dy +84 =0.
22y = 66 —p y= 35 22-4 2B= 092
‘Top is [3 miles north, 2 miles west, of South Hadley
(b) Potting in 2 = -2,
f= 10(-12 ~ 12-36 + 36 +84 + 12)
(@) Putting in 2 = 1, y = 1: Vh= 10[(2~6~ 18) + (2-8 + 28) 9] = 10(-22% + 224) = 220(-% +9).
[Val = 22073 = [311 f/mile} direction: [northwest]4 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS
Problem 1.38
a= (2-284 -V)FHE-
() Ver
(b) VQ)
@~2P FU vF ey.
Rle-2'P + y-vP + e- eed GIF EO (a — a2!) + Ay —y')F+2%z-2')B= 2a,
Sle-2) +y-v)P + (e-zyyrtxs Zo-by+ Borde
40-¥afe - 2") - 1-F yy) 9 - 07H - V8
= OMe 2) 8+ Y—Y)FeE- =a]
(©) Ber) =n = nh d2e,) =
Probiem Lid
++y cos += sing; multiply by sing: Jsing = +y sin écosd + sin®¢.
=y sing +2 cos; multiply by cos: Fe0sd = ~y sin gcos $+ z cos".
Add: Gsing + Zeos 9 = z(sin? $ + cos? g) = 2. Likewise, Fos — Fsin = y.
So Boot 2 —sin gs §} = sind; 35 = cos. Therefore
wa,-% + HG = +c0s6(V iv + sin OV A)« \ 5. yr trangforms as a ve
we Pe he HEE gona somes, { 90.0 tansin ctor. qed
Problem 1.16
()V-va = gel
a) + B(Gas") + P(-2es) 2240-22 =0.
WV = Lev) + Seve) + RGze) = y+ 22432,
(OV-ve = lv?) + B(Cav + 2) + Lvs) = 0+ (22) + (Cv) = Ae +0).
Problem 1.16
Vv Pat R SHEE Py? ea Neg [vle? ty? +2) H ag (ale? tv? + 2)-A]
+ 2t-8/2)0- Hae 4 OF 4 -3/2)0- day" # + 2(-3/2)()H2e
= Br“8(a7 +g? + 22) = 3-8 Br
‘This conclusion is surprising, because, from the cae this vector field is obviously diverging away from the
origin. How, then, can V-v = 0? The answer is that V-v = D everywhere except at the origin, but at the
origin our esleulation is no good, since r = 0, and the expression for v blows up. Ia fact, V-v is infinite at
that one point, and zero elsewhere, as we shall seein Sect, 1.5,
Problem 117
B= cosdey Hsing vs; Be = ~sindyy +cos$us.
= Be cosh + By sind = (98 + FEB) cond + (HSE + BF) sind. Use result in Prob. 1.14
a coag-+ 3 sind) cos + ($4 0086+ 92 sind) sing
— 53 sind + Opp cond = ~ (Se 8 + S$) sind + (S598 + GABE) cass
~ (- 3 sing + 3 cos) ae Be sing + B+ cos)
2
Bie + Be = Se cos? 6+ Gp sin cosh + By sin gcosd + BE sin? + Se sin!
cos. So
6 $F sin peosg— 8 sin cos p+ 9 cos? 6
= Ge (cos? 6+ sin? ¢) + Bi (sin? g + 00s? g) =
Problem 1.18
zy 2
Oy von=| & & & | =H (0~ Gee) + 9(0+22) + 0182? - 0) = [Hore 4 Dep 4 Hh
2? 3a27 222
gy 2
eo vx0-| & & & |=x0-2w) +5 0-32) +200 - x) = [yk 329-2,
ity Que Sze
RF @
©@vx.=|£ & & | = R22 -22) +90 - 0) + 2(2y- 2) = [0]
y? (2ey+27) Qyz
Problem 1.10
v=y8+429; or v= yek+ 22 +298; oF v= (B2%2— 28) R439 + (2? — 322") B;
oF v = (sin2)(coshy) &— (cos.2)(sinh y) $3 ete.
Probient 1.20
©) Vg) = Ya dy + Yoram (p54 off) a (198 +08) 9+ (188+ 996) 2
=S(BR+ HS + He) +0(Sx+Hs+ He) = KV) +10). aed
&(AyBs ~ A,By) + & (AeBe ~ AgBz) + $ (AeBy ~ AyBs)
1 OB + BSA — A, Be — BO + A, OBe + Be Ope ~ Ay WB — Behe
+An Sp + By Ge ~ Ay he — Be Ge
= Ba (hp ~ St) + By (he ~ he) +B, (Fe — He) ~ As (Be
Ay (8B ~ 9B) ~ A, (Be ~ OB) = B(VXA)—A(VXB). ged
(0) Vx (FA) = (240) — Mh) + (Reed — Sipe) 9 + (Bigs — 2660) g
= (s2ft + Ath — 1582 — A,B) + (74 + AGE $88 - ASL) 9
+ (s9 + Ay Fe — AL)
= 5 (4 - Bt) e+ (He - 9+ (Be - )a
~ [(Avik ~ A08h) 8 (4096 ~ AnBh) 9 + (4085 - 4n 88) 8]
=L(VXA)SAX (VS). aed
Problem 137
() (AV) B= (4598 + ApS + A.B) 8-4 (Age + Aye + AGP) 9
+ (eSBs + Ay Be + As OB) 8
= sfiuf824, Let's just do the z component.
#8 +0848) Ties6 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANAL
= 3 fe [eet ght tue [bay] +2 [>
=hE-A (e+ ay? +22)}=
Same goes for the other components. Henet
(©) (ver¥) vo = (22 +302 — tae f.) (ayk + ByeH +3222)
=a? (yR +09 + 328) + 3x2? (2¥4 22H +04) — 2x2 (OR 4 WH +302)
= (vty + 8072?) + (622%
82) 84 Bz (G2? — 2y) 9 — BaPen
Problem 122
(i) [V(AB)], = B(AeBe + A,By + A.B.) = eee + AED, + Aye 4 BB, + ALB
lane Bin EXE 4B Ay (2B — 98a) ~ Ay (Be ~ Be)
[Bx(VxA)], = By(28e ~ SA) ~ 2a)
fhe Ath
= Ay Ge Ay fe ~ eB + Ate + BO = Byte — DO + Be
Ae bBe + y We ABB + Bef fe + Bike + Bip
= pe ~ Se + 9h ) + A, (Ge - yp of)
B,(— Ble +2 4 Ae) AO + Be 4 Oe)
= vas B)], (same for y and z)
(i) [Vx(AxB)], = 2(AXB), ~ 2(AxB), = £(AsB, ~ AyBz) ~ §(AzBz ~ AeBz)
= Bee, Atk Se, — Aye Boy Ase 4 Bs + Ae
[(B-V)A = (A-V)B + A(V-B) - B(V-A)]e
Fhe + Bip s Bus Aalhe— Aalbe — Aethe s AalBe +
1B 4 An (— Ope 4 Of 4 Ba + OPs) + By (Mpa — Spe Sty — Ba)
+ Ay(~B5) + A.(-82) yet)
=[Vx(AxB)), (same for y and 2)
Problem 1.23
Visa) = RUN e+ Hsia + Hsia)
sit s Sf ny HIE 9 4 HIE g
fo (Yas BF + Be) — (Gee B+ Bes)] = A get
VAla) = de(Aa/9)+ By(Ay/9) + Be(Aa/a)
Sea Aedt oR CAGRE 4 Stated
= epee OTR oli Adt
= plo (He + ee Me) ~ (els + Aye +A QE)] = AAG, ged
+8) ~ Be e+ Bhs + Me)
8(Vx(A/gl, = Rao) =/0) — EG/o
= Maa
= alee 2) (1-4)
= MPKAL SANTIS (same for y and z). ged
Problem 124
a
zy Bs
by ~22 0
V(AXB) =
(@) AXB=
= 262) + 9(92y) + 2(-22" ~ 6y?)
£ (6x2) + Z(G2y) + $(—2e? — Gy?) = 62 +92 40= 152
Vxa =% (£62) - £@y)) +9 (A) - £062) +2(£@)- £@) =
VxB = & ($(0) - B(-22)) +9 ($(3u) - BO) +2 (¥(-22) ~ HGv)) =
V-(AxB) 4 B-(VxA) — A(V xB) =0— (a= =
(b) A-B = 32y — 4zy = —zy ; V(A-B) =
BVxA) =
54; A(VXB) = -152
= V(-2y) = 8 (20) + 98-20) =v R29
ee
Ax(VxB)=| 2 2y 32 (—10y) +.9(52); Bx(VxA) =
ons
(A-V)B = (2f +208 +328) (Gy 209) = X(6y) + 9(-22)
B-v)A= (vk - 2a) (@R+ 2G + 328) = R(By) + 9(—42)
Ax(VXxB) + Bx (Vx A) +(A-V)B + (BVA,
= lyk +509 + 6yX~ 2x h + ByK— 42H = -yR—2¥ = V-(A-B).
(©) Vx(AxB) = 8 ($(-22" ~ Gy") - $029) +9 (F622)
= (-12y ~ 9) + 9(G2 + 42) + 4(0) = “21yR + 1029
He) + $(2u) + BGs) = 1424
(BV)A- i we paces
=x
Preble 5% =
(e) Sh =2; FB = $% =0 = [VT =2.
ws
aa
© &%
®
~ £(-22? - Gy) +8 (1) - $(622))
VA
i) VB = (Gu) + H(-22) =
B(V-A) = Sy X~ 429 — GyR + 2eF ~ 18yR+ 22H = -yR+ Ory
= 9) = 9% --7, = [Ph zsinysine
= 261. Be = -167, 1 3 = -8 CHAPTER I, VECTOR ANALYSIS
Problem 1.26
Problem 1.37
2a oe
2)
oxo =| g
| Be by Be
= 0, by equality of croae-derivatives.
In Prob. 1,11(b), Vf = 22y224&-+ 3222249 + 42°42? 2, 50
z y 2
VX(VA=| ow
2ayszt Sztytzt 4zty*28
2 8(3- du y?28 — 4 BatyPe?) + 94 Deyte® — 2- day's?) + 6(2- Bays! — 3. 2ey?2t) = 0.0
Problem 1.28
(2) (0,0,0) > (1,0,0). 2:0-+ Ly ==
(1,0,0) — (1,1,0). 2 = 1,y:0-9 1,2 =05
(1,0) 9 (1,0). 2104 kdl = dzaiv
Total: f-v-dl = (1/3) +0+1=[4/3.
(b) (0,0,0) + (0,0,1). 02:01;
(0,0,1) > (0,1,1).2=0,y:041,2=
1,1) G1). 220-41,
Total: [vd = 041+ (1/3)
(e) 2S y = 2:03 Ide = dy = dz;v-dl
Sv-dl= ff 4x? dx = (40°/3))Q,
(@) fv-al= (4/3) ~ (4/3) = (0)
Problem 1.29
ay :0 + Lz = Oda = dedya;v-da = y(z? - 3)dedy = ~3ydedy;fv-da = ~3f2dz f2ydy =
~3(a8)(G18) = —32)@)_ = [12] In Ex. 1.7 we got 20, for the same boundary line (the square in the 2y-
plane), so the answer is [n6:] the surface integral does not depend only on the boundary line. The total Aux
for the cube is 20 + 12
Probiem 1.30
JT dr = J 24dedydz. You can do the integrals in any order—here itis simplest to save = for last:
ff (e)a«
| sothe z integral is {(0-*-" de
1 2)y- F/B?
| = (Bb - Bh) +908
deX,v-dl= 22de; fv-dl= [2 2%de = («°/3))} = 1/3.
= dy§iv dl = tyzdy = 0;fV-dl =0.
paz = de, fved= fide =a
1 fv edd = 0.
2ydy; [v-dl = fy 2udy =v"
= fiztdz = (x*/3))h = 1/3.
ppv dh = ytd
dl = dy 95v-dl = 2y2 dy
Rvedl= 2? de; fv.
dl
a2 de + 2yz dy + y? dz = 22 de + 20 de +23 de = 42" de
-y~2, For a given z, y ranges from 0 to
(i-2? -(- 27/2) =~ 2)7/5
‘The sloping surface is 2+y-+2 =
1-2, 80 the y integral is ff""(1—y~ 2) dyaya)- pa Finally, the z integral is ff 2°(}— 24 )de= M(B - 8+ 8) ar = (8-44 Hb =
-+4 /60.
Spite 1.31
T(b) =14+44+2=7; Tle) =0. > [T(b)—Ta)=7.
= (On + 4y)R+ (de + 22°)9 + (6y2")85 VTodl = (26 + Ay)de + (A + 22 )dy + (6y2")de
(@) Segment 1: 2: 0-41, y= 2= dy = de =0.[VT-al= fo(22)de = 2*[) = 1.
Segment 2: y:0-1, 1. SVT adh = fi (4) dy 4p PVT =7.0
Segment 3: 2:01, . UT -dl = fo (622) dz = 225),
(b) Segment 1: 2:01, eta Lids =0.
Segment 2: y:0-+1, 2=0, 2 OSVTA = [(2)dy = 9h =2 | wong
Segment 3: 2:01, y=z=1, dy=de=0.fUT«dl = fii2z+4) ae LTA a7 ¢
= (et +42), ;
(2:01, yaa, 222%, dy =dede = dds.
VIdl = (22 + dz)de + (Az + 22°)de + (G22")2zde = (102 + 142°)dx.
SE VT dl = ff (102 + 142*)de = (52? + 227)|)
Problem 1.32
Vv sy +224 32
u
SiVevdr = fly +22 +32) de dy de = Jf {elu + 2e + 32) de} dy de
> [ut 22)2 + $27]9 = 2y +22) +6
I{Ietu+ 42+ 6)dy} ae
SS [+ e+ Ou] = 4 +2(42 +6) = 82 + 16
0
AR(Ge + 16)de = (42? + 162) [2 = 16+ 32 = [FE]
Numbering the surfaces as in Fig. 1.29:
dy dz. [veda = ffydyde = 2422 = 8.
(i) da = dyde3,2
(ii) da = ~dy dz, 2
(iii) da
Gv) da
(v) da
dzdrds. fueda = [fd4zdedz = 16.
da = 0, veda = 0.
veda = 62 de dy. fveda = 24.
—dedya,z =
(vi) da = veda = 0. fveda =0.
= [veda =8+ 16424 = 48 ¥
Problem 1.33
Vxv = 8(0—2y) +9(0— 32) + 2(0—2) = -2y%- 329-28.
dz, if we agree that the path integral shall.run counterclockwise, So
(Vxv)-da = ~2y dy de.10 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS
Serxvjda = f{o-*(-2u)dy} de
vp? = -(2-2)
-Ra- fet 2)ds =~ (42 ~ 242)
-(8-8+)=[4]
By Corollary 1, 1 Oda should equal $. Vxv = (42? ~ 22) +223.
5 20 1, (Wxv)eda = (422 — 2)dyde; JV xv)eda = f(42? - 2)d2
4
ny 091. (Vxv)-da=0; f(Vxv)-da = 0.
1; 2,210 1. (Vxv)w 1s {CV xv)-da = 0.
82:04 1 (Wxvida =O; [(Vxv)-d
5 2,y 2091. (Vxv)-da = 2dedy; f(V xv)-da = 2.
2 [iV xvpda =} +2= 4.0
Problem 1.35
(s) Use the product rule Vx(fA) = (VA) ~ Ax (Wf):
[t0rxay-aa= fvxcray da firs cwp)-dam f saas fin xcopy) da. ed.
(used Stokes’ theorem in the last step.)
(b) Use the product rule V-(A x B) = B-(VxA)—-A-(VxB):
[B-Coxaydr= [ornare [aC xB)ar
(L used the divergence theorem in the last step.)
(Ax B)-dat [A (VxB)dr. ged.un
Problem 1.36|/r= 24747; 0
Problem 1.37
- (==): @= tan" (2)
‘There are many ways to do this one—probably the most illuminating way is to work it out by trigonometry
from Fig. 1.36. The most systematic approach is to study the expression:
F=sk+y9 +20 =rsindcosp+rsindsin 9 +r cos0a.
ET only vty slightly, then dr = 2(e)dr is a shor vetor pointing in the direction of increase in r. "To make
it a unit vector, I must divide by its length. Thus:
BE = sindcosdk + sinOsin dy + cosa; | 2}
95 = rcosd cos pk -+ r cosOsin gy — sind a;
$ = -rsinsing + rsindcos99; ||
= sin? Ocos? g + sin? @ sin? $ + cos? @ = 1.
1 cos? 8 cos? $ +1? cos? Osin® g +r? sin? 6 =
7? gin? @sin® $ +r? sin? @cos? ¢ = r?sin? 4,
F = sind cos ph + sinOsin 69 + cos03.
16 = 038 cos % + cosdsing 9 —sin#z.
G =~ sings + cosy.
Check: FF = sin? 6(cos? $ + sin® 4) + cos? @ = sin? @ + cos@ = 1, ¥
6.6 = —cosdsing cos + cosBsingcosd =0, ¥ ete.
sin f = sin? 9 cos + sin? sin 49 + sin cos 02.
0546 = cos? 8.05 6% + cos? Asin} 7 ~ sin8.cos0 2.
Add these:
(1) sind# +0050 = +cose2+ sings:
@) in dR + cosd9
Multiply (1) by cos¢, (2) by sin g, and subtract:
Multiply (1) by sing, (2) by cos,
$= sind sin g# + cos@sin ¢6 + cosdd.
cos8 = sin 8 cos 6 cos $% + sind cos6 sin PF + cos? 4a.
sin 96 = sin 6 cos® cos + sind cos sin dy — sin? 82.
Subtract these:
—sing6.
=
8we CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS
Problem 1.38
@) Ve = A Pr)
S0Vovs)dr = f(4r)(0? sin 8 cdr ad dd) = (8) Jj Pdr Sy sin 848 f3rdH = (4) (HE) (2y(2m) =[ae RE
Svreda = f(r?t)-(r? sin 8 a0 dg) = r4 J sin a8 [2 dp = 4 R4 / (Note: at surface of sphere r = R.)
(0) Vove = bg (2) =0 = []lVevnar =0
Lveeda = [(4f) (r*sin8 d0 8), 0 (if a ** 36 = 62, s0.€ is outside Y, so the integral is [Z=rO1]
(@) (e- @+29 +28)? = (18409 + (-1)8)? =141=2< (15)
and hence the integral is e-(d — e) = (3,2, 1)+(-2,0,2) = -6-+0+2=
Problem 1.48
First method: use Eq. 1.99 to write J= fe~* (4n6%x)) dr = 4ne~
Second method: integrating by parts (use Eq. 1.59).
25, 60 ¢ is inside V,
w
4
-[# vernars fe Fda, But V(e~"
= f Reva ars fer$ rainoandse tn ferrarser® [smoavas
cates =o)
= dn (ery tre ® =
i (ne pe
Problem 1.49 (a) V-F; =
+20 +2 (@) =) VFs= e+ H+ Ha1s1t1
o
:
UxP2=
8 ew
= ape
eRe
ogee
VxFi |— [Fa is a grad
i Fyisacurl] [t=3 (2? +y?+22)] would do (Fa = U2)
For Ai, we want (2 ~ S44) = (Sf — %) <0, Sh Ot oat 2) A, = A, = 0 would do it.
[i= SF] (Ps = VAD). ut tee ae nat unique)
ey 2]
(b) V-Fs = £(u2)+ Zlex) + Ploy) &E - a) +9 (yy) +2(2-2)=0
ve ote oy
So Fa can be written as the gradient of a scalar (Fs = VU) and as the curl of a vector (F's = VxAa). In
tact [Us = sz does the jb. For the vector potential, we have
fu — 84x < ys, which suggests A, = ty2z + fle,2); Ay = —dye? + (9)
Soe Ge 2s, suggesting Ay = f2%x + le,y)s Av = ~$22" + J(u?)
fe - Se = ay, 50 Ay = het + Aye); A, = —hay? + ltevy)
(again, not unique).
Protlem 180 7
(@) + (a): UXP = Vx(-VU) =0 (Eq. 144 ~ curl of gradient is always zero).
(a) = (o): $F dl = f(VxF) “da = 0 (Eq. 1.57-Stokes’ theorem)
(3 Q): [OF edt - JP Fed = [2,F dl + fe, ,F-dl= $F -@=0, 50
[ras [ ra
(0) = (€}: same as (c) => (b), only in reverse; (c) = (a): same as (a)=+ (6).
Problem 1.51 7
(d) > (a): VF = V-(VXW) =0 (Fa 1.46—divergence of curl is always zero)
(a) + (e): $F da = [(V-F) dr = 0 (Bq. 1.56—divergence theorem).
(c) 3 (b): J, F-da~ fj, P-da = $F -da = 0, 0
es
(Note: sign change because for # F da, da is outward, whereas for surface II it is inward.)
(0) = (e}: same as (c) = (b), in reverse; (c)-> (a): same as (a) (c}
Problem 1.52 ~
In Prob. 1.15 we found that, V-v, 2
in be written aa the gradient of a scalar; vq can be written as
0; in Prob. 1.18 we found that Vxve = 0. $
¢ curl of a vector |
(a) To find ¢
Q) HP stave 1,2)
(2) § = (xy +24)
(3) f= uz16 CHAPTER 1, VECTOR ANALYSIS
os From (1) & (3) we get $f = 2yz => f = v2? + ol) + t= y2e + y2? + aly), 50 $F = Qzy +2? + =
2ey-+ 2? (from (2)) => 92 = 0. We may as well pick g = 0; then
(&) Tofind Ws SH —
Pick W = 0; then
Oe = 52%, Ma. OM
— ate = gata; Bt Ot
FE = whet We = 382 + Hla)
8H, aesee Wye et ain)
omy, — 20 2 0. May as well pick f =
w
Cheek 2 |-2¢ ) + ¥ (Baz*) + 8( 2x2)
tz fet. |
You can add any gradient (Vt) to W without changing its curl, so this answer is far from unique. Some
other solutions:
W = 28% 2729;
W = (Qeyz 4 x29) & 4 27y a;
W = nyzh— Sate 9 + 24 (y— 32%) &
Probeim 1.53
1
Fund ag (7? eosdsing)
ww = 42 (10080) +
2a © (sind r* cose) =
et
sind 38
1 _
2 ai c050 + —=—5 cos? cs 6+ == (—1?cos0 cos)
= TE acing + om ~ cos] = drome
2 fp p
[ovr = [arcoseyr?sinadr diag = i feetena ae
(2) (2) GE
= 9G) @)-2E)
Surface consists of four parts:
(1) Curved: da = Rsinodd dpi; r= R. v-da= (RP cos0) (i? sind d0 46)
[v-co=nt fcstanse fone Q@-*.)
y
1
(2) Lefts da = —rdr dO §;
3) Back: da=rdrd0d;
v-da= (r¥cos@sing) (rdrd8) = 0. fv-da=0.
2. v-da = (—r?cos@ sin 9) (r dr d8) = —r* cos 8 dr 8.
a =p
Iv aan [rte | tan—- (Ger) can dns
(8) Bottom: da = rsin dr dba; 6 = 7/2. v-da= (r¥cos¢) (rdrdé)
Total: §v-da=7R/440- LR + ER =
(0). So J(Wxv)-da = (b~ alah,
= (ay +b29)- (de +dy9 + de8) = ayde + be dy, 2? +42 = R= dads + 2ydy =O,
s0 dy = —(x/y) dz. So v-dl = aydz + ba(~z/y) dz = } (ay? - ba?) dz.
For the “upper” semicircle, y = VT =a, so v- dl = Se ae.
[va = [EGR ee fontsin (2) (ery [SVR e+ Bann (Z
a
1 nt(a— ayant) RY
gRi(a~ d)sin“*(2/R)
1 1-1) —sin“ 2
GP @—B) (sin"(-1) ~ sin (41) = dR (0-0) (
lin
= FrR-0).
‘And the same for the lower semicircle (y changes sign, but the limits on the integral are reversed) so
fv-d=1Rb—a). ¥
Problem 1.55
()2=2=0; de=
=O; y:0-41. vedl=(y+3z) dy = yay,
fras fra}
3 a
dy; ys 1-40. v-dh= (y+ 8x) dy + Bde = dy ~ 12dy = (y ~ 12) dy
or
(t-2) =o
(Q)2=0;2
@r=18 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS
Total: fv-dl=4—4412-12
Meanwhile, Stokes" thereom says fv-dl= f(xy) da. Here da = dy dz, so all we need is
(Vxve= BO) — Ply +32) =O. Theretore f(V Xv) da = 0.0
Probiem 1.56 ; -
| Start at the origin,
| () =F, 6=0; r:0-91. vedl=(reo#6) (dr) =0. fv-al=0,
(2) r21, 0=F; $:0-94/2 ved =(r)(rsinddg) = 349. fv-di=3 f dp = %.
1,801 = hy, dr = gat condo, 0:5 4%
(3) d= Hi rsind =y
veal = (rete) ~(rensnair a) = 228 (S288) gata ~ 208 wy
sind Sin sin?
cos cos 086 (cos? 8 + sin? 8 cos
(eee eee ag eee (cee nae Ege owes
(Sa See) #= Se (Mae) #= Ss
Pherefore ),
cos alge eet 1
Gee feo
fear [B68 meal, ra Tw
a
ri VE-00, v-dl= (reos*6) (dr) = dr dr.
Total:
Stokes’ theorem says this should equal {(V xv) da
1
Fsind
a [Scratmn-f rare é
Vxv =
[Fptsinear) ~ Fe c-rsingcoss)] #+
= pL plbreosale + 2-6r}6+ 4-2rcosdsind + 2rc0s8 sing]
= 3cot8#~66.
(1) Back face: da = —rdr dd g; (V xv) -da =
in dr db, (Vw) da
[vw in= fort fare 2%. «
JV xy) -da = 0.
sin @dr dp. 8 = ¥, 50 (V xv) -da = 6rdrdp
(2) Bottom: da =19
Problem 1.57
wedl= ydz.
(1) Left sides = a2; dz=—dr; y=0. Therefore fv -dl = 0.
(2) Bottom: dz
0. ‘Therefore f vd
(3) Back: 220~ $y; dz =-1/2dy; y:20-40. fv-dl= fiy(-Hdy) =
la
Meanwhile, Vv =
so {(V Xv) -da is the projection of this surface on the ty plane = }-a-2a=02, ¥
Problem 1.58
= d2 es 2 note? cosd) + — eg ® (rt
Ver = FF letrsind) + 59g (6nd a? 008) + 5 (tan)
Lar sin tr? (cos? 9 — sin®) = *°. (ain + cos? 8 — sin?
= pat sind + gt (cos! ie eatceraeeeemt ate)
as
foomae = | (2) ranoerou = fader Ponto as (09 ff
= ant (3,89) = (40) «fer raa]
Surface consists of two parts:
(1) ‘The ice cream: r= R; $:0 + 2x; 8:0 1/6; da = R?sin@ dé dét; vida = (R*sin#) (R? sin@d9 dé) =
Ro sin? @ dO dé.
sing) = (-
(2) The cone: 8 = %, $0 ~» 2x; r:0-¥ R; da =rsin@dpdr6 = Srdrdgb; v-da = V3r° drdp
_ arsfea fons
m8 ay
[vaaa nt [ snroai [ 46= (A) (25) cE ~ isin
Therefore f'v-da =
E(g- Gavia af ertav9.
Problem 1.59 .
(a) Corollary 2 says f(VT)-dl = 0. Stokes’ theorem says $(VT)-dl = [[Wx(VT)]}-da. So [[Vx(VT)}-da =
and since this is true for any surface, the integrand must vanish: VX(VT) = 0, confirming Eq. 1.44.20 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS
(b) Corollary 2 says §(V xv)-da = 0. Divergence theorem says §(V xv)-da = f V-(Vxv) dr. Sof V-(Vxv) dr
= 0, and since this is true for any volume, the integrand must vanish: V(V Xv) = 0, confirming Eq. 1.46.
Problem 1.60 a ~
(a) Divergence theorem: fv -da = f(V-v)dr. Let v = cP’, where ¢ is a constant vector. Using product,
rule #5 in front cover: V-v = V-(eT) = 1(V-e) +e-(VT). But e is constant so V-e = 0. Therefore we have:
Je-(WP) dr = fTe~ da. Since e is constant, take it outside the integrals: ¢- f VI dr = e-[T da. But
is any constant vector—in particular, it could be be %, or ¥, or —S0 each component of the integral on left
equals corresponding component on the right, and hence
aed
(b) Let v > (v xe) in divergence theorem. Then f V-(v x e)dr = fv x ¢)- da, Product rule #6 >
V.(v x @) = (Vv) —v-(Vxe) =e: (VXY). (Note: Vxe = 0, since e is constant.) Meanwhile vector
Identity (2) says da (v x e) = 6 (da x v) = ~e- (v x da). Thus fe-(Vxv) dr =~ fe-(v xa). Take ©
outside, and again let be &, §, # then:
forsee
[ord ood
(0) Let v = TVU in divergence theorem: f V-('WU) dr
TV(VU) +(VU)- (VT) = TVU + (VU) (VT). Therefore
[TVU-da. Product rule #(5) = V(TVU) =
fave +(VU)-(VT)) ar= fervuy da. qed
(a) Rewrite (¢) with T 4 U: f (UVT + (VT) -(WU)) dr= SUV:
that the (VU). (VT) terms cance:
da, Subtract this from (¢), noting
/ (rv?u -Uv?r) dr = f (VU -UVT)-da. ged
(©) Stoke's theorem: [(V xv) da = fv-dl. Let v = ef. By Product Rule #(7): Vx(eT) = T(V xe)
ex (VT) =e x (VT) (since © is constant). Therefore, ~ [(e x (WT)) -da = f Te~dl. Use vector indentity
#1 to rewrite the first term (c x (VT) -da = e-(WI' x da). So ~ fe-(WT x da) = $e-Tdh. Pull e outside,
and let ¢ ~> &, §, and @ to prove
[ornd=- fra oot
Problem Li
(a) da = R? sin dd dp. Let the surface be the northern hemisphere. ‘The and ¥ components clearly integrate
to 2er0, and the & component of Fis cos8, s0
x2
aents [
{b) Let T = 1 in Prob. 1.60(a). Then VT =0, 50 fda=0. qed.
(c) This follows from (b). For suppose a; # a2; then if you put them together to make a closed surface,
fda =a; ~ a £0.
(@) For one such triangle, da = }(r x al) (since r x dLis the area of the parallelogram, and the direction is
perpendicular to the surface), so for the entire conical surface, a =} fr x dl.
ax [ Rsindcosodoayea1 i
(©) Let T = c-r, and use product rule #4: VT = V(e+r) = © x (Vxx) + (e+ V)r. But Vxr = 0, and
VE = (ek bey Her Bek + US = 28) = re + 6,9 +e, 8 =e. So Prob. 1.60() says
fra = fee naa
form nta=-fords=-cx fin=-exazexe oad
Problem 1.62
a)
1
‘=a
)
Por a sphere of radius Ri
fv-da = J (4f)-(RPsinod9 dbz) = R fsinododd = 4nR. |
FE So divergence
[(Vvjdr = () (r*sinodraods) ({+) (fsinododg) = amr.
‘theorem checks.
Evidently there is no delta function at the origin.
10 pam 18
on "= Fa,
(except for n = 2, for which we already know (Eq, 1.99) that the divergence is 48%).
Aloe aye fara
Vx ("= (?)
(2) Geometrically, it should be zero. Likewise, the curl in the spherical coordinates obviously gives
To be certain there is no lurking delta function here, we integrate over a sphere of radius R,
Prob. 1.60(b): If Vx(r"#) = 0, then [(Vxv)dr = 0 2 -$v x da. But v = r"F and da =
— A? sin 8 dé d@# are both in the # directions, so v x da = 0, / 5Chapter 2
Electrostatics
Problem 2.1
(a) [Zero,
1 |
rer
Explanation: by superposition, this is equivalent to (a), with an extra —g at 6 o'clack—since the force of all
twelve is zero, the net force is that of ~g only.
(©) [Zero.)
(€)| 2-29 | pointing toward the missing g. Same reason as (b). Note, however, that if you explained (b) as
ofr where ris the distance from center to each numeral, F points towsnd the mising ¢
| fre ©
ancellation in pairs of opposite charges (1 o'clock against 7 o'clock; 2 against 8, etc.), with one unpaired q
then you'll need a different explanation for (d).
cs
(a) “Horizontal” components cancel, Net vertical field is: B = giz8 cosé.
Qgz iS 2
EHO | :
When z > d you're so far away it just looks like a single charge 2g; the field agleg
should reduce to B= 2-48. And it does (just set d 0 in the formula).
(}) his time the “vertical” components cancel, leaving
= sighs sind, or
1 ad
ee Or (Dy
A. % %, which, as we shall see, is the field of a-dipole. (If we
From far away, (z > d), the field goes like B= 7%
set d+ 0, we get E = 0, as is appropriate; to the extent that this configuration looks lke a single point charge
from far away, the net charge is zer0, 60 E+ 0.)
223
Problem 2.3
Be = gy [Ef con6; (0? = 2? + 2%; cond =f
Satins
. wal
lA
pet Al(a+
For 2 L you expett it to look like @ point charge q™= AL: B+ zi; %48. It checks, for with 2 >> L the &
term -» 0, and the Z term -» 71-24
Problem 2.4 - ~ 7
From Ex. 2.1, with L + $ and z+ y/z? + (8)° (distance from center of edge to P), field of one edge is:
BR a
reo fate eft ea
‘There are 4 sides, and we want vertical components only, so multiply by 4 cos@ = 4—t—
ae
‘ahaz
- Pa) e+
Problem 2.5
“Horizontal” components cancel, leaving: B= z- { [4 cos6} &
Here, 2? =r? + 2, cos = £ (both constants), while fal = 2nr. So
a
a (aan __ Abas |
BS ee
[Po eae
Problem 2.6 : 7 ~
Break it into rings of radius r, and thickness dr, and use Prob. 2.5 to express the fielé of each ring. ‘Total
charge of a ring is o- 2nr dr = + 2nr, so A= odr is the “line charge” of each ring.
1 (odr)2nrz 1 #
Fine = Fre ty k= Bega | faa
1
araz |} ~~
2 Ve4 CHAPTER 2. ELECTROSTATICS
For R > z the second term + 0, 80 Epiane = 75208
Fors > Ry ge = 2 (1+ BY wt
and B= Gh Re = 3, where Q
Problem 2.7
Ro.
Bis clearly in the = direction. From the diagram,
oda = oR sin9d0 dp,
R +2? —2Rzcosd,
1 [oR sind db dglz ~ Reosd)
Greg | (P+ OR cos”
= (orrtay [” (= Rens) sind
+ Fg rh of (RE +2? — Rez cos)?
7 z-Ru
jy (R? $2? = 2Rzu)s?
= errtay fb R__)’ __1_ 2xRo ((z—R)_ (-z- A)
ana sz). Treg 2? {€ RY PR}
For : > R (outside the sphere), E, = shri = gh &, so Gh 4
For z < R (inside), E; = 0, so (B=0.]
Problem 2.8
According to Prob. 2.7, all shells interior to the point ({.e. at smaller r) contribute as though their charge
were concentrated at the center, while all exterior shells contribute nothing. Therefore:
Jap = on
8.
= geet) au ner can dn y pt ator kok up
1 Qine
EO= aa
where Qigs is the total charge interior to the point. Outside the sphere, all the charge is interior, 90
1a,
B= 70 S+
Inside the sphere, only that fraction of the total which is interior to the point counts:
Led 1@
neg
Qint
Problem 2.9
(0) p= @ V-E= aed (r?-~ (b) By Gauss’s law: Qeae = 0 § E-da
_By direct integration: Qune = dh
Problem 2.10
‘Think of this cube as one of 8 surrounding the charge. Each of the 24 squares which make up the surface
of this larger cube gets the same flux as every other one, so:
1
[oaueh [ve
‘o(RR®)(4eR?) = [4ncok R®.]
Af Seghr®) (Arde) = 20rc0k f
hdr = dnegk Ro.
‘The latter is L9, by Gauss’s law. Therefore. LE da = 5h
Problem 2.11
Probiem 2.12
r~ ‘Gaussian surface
Problem 2.13 = eee = =
Gaussian surface
ae $B-da=E-2ns-1=1LQme= LN. So
= a ipo
—— B= 548 | (ame as Bx. 2.1)
r [P= Grees' ae
Problem 2.14 —_
Gaussian surface $d
=26 CHAPTER 2. ELECTROSTATICS
Problem 2.15
() Qene = 0, s0 [B= 0.)
Ij? sin aradd phi
iE)
Problem 2.16
pst;
0 CQ) Gaussian surface
Gaussian surface
Oo) $B-da=B2ns-1= 3Qene = Lpra’l;
(i) fE-da=E-2r8-1= 2
(B=0]
a aT
On the zz plane B = 0 by symmetry. Set up a Gaussian “pillbox” with one face in this plane and the
other at y.
Pi
Gaussian pillbox f E+ da'
27
Problem 2.18
From Prob, 2.12, the field inside the positive sphere is By = r+, where ry is the vector from the positive
center to the point in question. Likewise, the ld of the negative sphere is ~ 32. So the total field is
2
Beg ht FD
But (see diagram) ry —
Problem 2.19
ava dtr hf fox($)]odr ance pdm on #02)
ed Arco
=0. (since Vx (3) =o, fom Prob. 1.62).
Problem 2.20
zy 2
QQ YxEL =hlés gy Be | = RRO ~2v) + 90-32) +200 - 2)) £0,
zy ye 322]
so E; is an impossible electrostatic field.
@) VxE, K[&(2z ~ 22) +90 - 0) + 82y ~ 25)
50 Ey is a possible electrostatic field. :
Let's go by the indicated path:
Bs d = (y? de + (22y + 2")dy + 2yzds)k (20, 0 20)
yt de = 0. Fi28 CHAPTER 2, ELECTROSTATICS
E+ dl = 2hyz dz = 2kyo2 dz.
Sur B+ dl = 2yok f° 2 dz = kyoxs.
esap zo)
V(z0,Y0) 20) = ae el = —K(zoug + ¥oz$), or |V (zy,
Check: ove feles4ys?) 84 & lav" tycth 94 de (eateve)
Problem 2.21 ~~
Vo) =- JL Bea. {
2 a4 aaytst)942y28)=8.
Outside the sphere (r > R): B= FL Se.
Inside the sphere (r < R) oir?
Soforr> #: V(r) =~ fz, (ast) = aaa (Hl, =| go>
and for < Ri V(r) =~ [2 (aks) oF - Ja (agar) ar = ah
When r > R, WV = aig & (LF
a
VV = go hrty
Jaf 50
= zig 28s (Prob. 2.13). In this case we cannot set the reference point at oo, since the charge itself
extends to o6."Let’s set it at ¢= a. Then
Vos) = =f (sag) a= Fan)
(In this form it is clear why a = co would be no good—likewise the other “natural” point, a = 0.)
VY = ~ ag ?Ads (in (5)) 8
Problem 2.23
V(0) = ~fQ Bed = ~ [L(A P)ar ~ (ALS ar — PPO)ar = EES
=£{1~$-in(g)-149) = Kin() Po
Problem 2.24
Using Eq. 2.22 and the fields from Prob, 2.16:
V0)-V(0)=-B-al=- RE -a- pte.
Seeds — 9% f' ds
Problem 2.25,
L2
Oe Eewag les VPFP)
+t
(OV = a It Bets = gino (VF FRE =
In each case, by symmetry $Y = $f = 0.
(a) B= ~ ara (~4)
(*
eta) a 1 | (agrees with Ex. 21)
© [Steg VF EE i
() B= as {arpybemy ete
Gi
B= a5 {hype - [Eb seal oo —a
If the right-hand charge in (a) ic ~q, then [V = 0], which, naively, suggests E = VV = 0, in contradiction
with the answer to Prob. 2.2b. ‘The point is that we only kaww Von the 2 azis, and from this we cannot
hope to compute E, = ~9¥ or E, = ~¥. That was OK in part (a), because we knew from symmetry that
By = E, = 0. But now E points in the 2 direction, so knowing V of the 2 axis is inslficient to determine E.
—/> Problem 2.26 VN odar no
Vo) = f (=) em ean = ie
(where ¢ = 2/3)
vo) = a) dh, wheres = yh? +? Ve
ano 1
wa,
-mal yo
wag [Vinnie Ste is vin sv
h
+ in(an+2v2h—v3n) — h—
Ge eme
vm
Jo
i o_hp ]
Finan VBn)| = =F ncn vBh) — (2h VI]
a
=a lt
= (54) a ohay ¢ o) oh inc + v3).
2- Va} * Xe 2030 CHAPTER 2. ELECTROSTATICS
Problem 2.27
E L
Cut the eylinder into slabs, as shown in the Bigure, and —
use result of Prob, 2.25c, with 2 2 and o + pdr: #55
un a) -
ved, J (VR 4s -2)dr J
ue l=
=i} EVES ene + VER) — my =e
Woncenon
= late (onvincrr c
(Wote: — (2 + §)?
Problem 2.28
Orient axes so P is on 2 axis,
aa Here p is constant, dr = 1? sin 0dr d@ de,
= gh seer
V= are Sia Cees
Vm gli SPenagtetele | Pag = 2
vars
SS perch cmeg = (VESTA Der cOO)y = (VEER Drs ~ VFR TR)
sherpa (ese: R
an off rears Pier) =
But p= prss0 V(e)= dhathe (0-4) = sta 0 8):[¥
a1
Problem 2.29
VV = aS VYY(E)dr = abe fole’)(V*E)dr (since p is a function of r’, not r)
= ag Sole’) [-40 dr ~ var = ~ ole).
Problem 2.30.
(a) Ex. 2
Babove = 38; Byetow = — 265 (ft always pointing up); Esbove ~ Evetow =
Ex. 2.5: At each surface, = 0 one side and E =
t ather side, so AE = £.¥
Prob. 2.11: Egy = 2836 = £F; Big =0;80 AE = 26.4
(b) Outside: fE-da = E(218)l = LQene
Inside: Que = 0, 50 B= 0. «SE
(6) Vest
(at surface); Vin = 8% ; 80 Vou = Vine ¥
Yow = — Bg = —E (at surface}; Oia = 0 ; so You - Ha =~
(at surface).
Problem 2.31
@V = ae Lam
Wy = qv =|
(b) Wy = 0, Ws = £); Wa = (ee (a).
Wore gf {14 gp- 1-24 ep = wet (+5):32 CHAPTER 2. ELECTROSTATICS
Problem. 2.32
(a) W =} foVar. From Prob. 2.21 (or Prob. 2.28): V = ¢
lq “(0
$) = ok (3- )
rear °
i Si -&(-F)
a
(0) W = $ SE%dr, Outside (x > RY B=
5 Inside (7 < R) B= ger
amet {If Het {C5} ore}
(Mra Ol) -
(c) W = #{ f,VE-da+ f, B’dr}, where V is large enough to enclose all the charge, but otherwise
arbitrary. Let's use a sphere of radius a > R. Here V = pi;
ao la oe
5) sin 5
west f( a!) \(S) avdo~ [
~$ (aoe att
Le (La wil se)
nae lata ita} Fro 5 RY
As a + 00, the contribution from the surface integral (3
(ae ECG - D) picks up the slack
Problem 2.33,
£2) goes to 220, while the volume intgel
av cay =a5(<2) 4 (ncn heretoProblem 2.34
was Ba B= ghd (a ** 0). So
By Ex = (gig) 3h, (7 > 8) and hence [x -Badr = ~ (hz) ofp? Seter2dr = ~ yi
Woo = Wi + Wo +0 JB, Brdr = poe (E+$-9) =e (E-PY
Problem 2.35 :
(lox
() VQ) =~ f,B-d
Sool ates B)4r ~ Jo Ode ~ £3 (aaeg te) ar ~ Syd = mG+s a
live G+ %- 2)
(0 BY te care “enn of); 10) = = 2d — Later — fe = (2-2) ]
Problem 2.36
@|o0 ea as Bai [n= SP ate
(0) [Bow =
| where r= vector from center of large sphere.
* ine
in fis, | where ra (rp) is the vector from center of cavity « (Q).
e
(6) an changes (but not ge oF a); Eyussde changes (but not Bs or Es); force on ga and g, still zero.
Problem 2.37
Between the plates, E = 0; outside the plates = o/ey = Q/eod. So
= Opi 2 |e
et cre br
Problem 2.38
Inside, E = 0; outside, E = <4 i
Exe = bgle BA fe = 0(Bwelsi o = aha.
Fee Sfeda = flqSq) (che) cos R sind a ag
=i (a ‘on fo!” sin cos do = 3-9)? (4sin?9) |<” =M4 CHAPTER 2. ELECTROSTATICS
Problem 2.39
‘Say the charge on th
JE-da=E-2ns-L= 2
er cylinders Q, for a length L. The field is given by Gauss's law:
QE = 52718. Potential difference between the cylinders is
[v-a=-s&; [ ta=-Sp9(2).
[As sot up here, ais at the higher potential, so V = V(a) ~ V(8) = 5,2 In(2).
V(b) - V(a) =
C= $= BE, so capacitance per unit ength is
Problem 2.40
(2) W = (Force) (distance) = (pressure) (area) x distance)
(b) W = (energy per unit volume)x (decrease in volume)
energy lost is equal to the work done.
Problem 2.41
From Prob. 24, the field at height 2 above the center ofa square loop (side a) is
1 Adar
haere (are
Here A+ of (see figure), and we integrate over a from 0 to a
ug Let u =", s0 ada = 2du
ow :
ede ote ed
1 ay oz : 5
tan
a4
get [ Gre Vinee ~ reo
) =e}
4 60 (infinite plane): B= 24 [tan (00)
2 >a (point charge): Let f(z) = tan“! VIF ~ §, and expand as a Taylor sesies:
f@)= JO) +2/'O+ 5 2 f"(0) ++_~Here f(0) = tan(1) - $= F- F =; S'(e
vise = apse 9° S'0) =
1 2 3
fet Os? + Os
‘Thus (since gy =2 <1), Be 28 (Ih) = hg
Problem 2.42
cavepeg{ ho (24), 1 2 (Bsindeose
ramets 7) as rt}
7 Being)
Problem 2.43
From Prob. 2.12, the field inside a uniformly charged sphere is: E = ;- rr. So the force per unit. volume
is £= pB = (7S) (geSar)t = 2 (g9n)"t, and the force in the = diretion on dri
3 qa) 2
r= 2 (jp) reste sna dean
‘The total force on the “northern” hemisphere is:
= [item 2 (Qa) [eu ff” croanoa [a
2 “3G@e) (A)(S :
1 o da = 2nR? sin 6 8,
se [devin {t= Pa ;
Treo aR +R eee g
L sexe "8 sindd _ oR =
plas Ve OMT awa”
oR
Vpote ~ Veenser =] 57-(V2 ~ 1).
Problem 2.45
First let's determine the electric field inside and outside the sphere, using Gauss's law:
akrt (F< R),36 CHAPTER 2. ELECTROSTATICS
Sob=Brt(r R).
Method
wa [ear cea.206)= 9 [" (M2) area [° (ME) eee
9 (6) [flomen ae] Fee (DL) (Ee)
Method tt
wel [over (x22)
mrsneoe Loan fie Lord (eC)
ear
Pal
al fool
att aoe a
Problem 2.46
af Neal =faorarane|
V (eG An) }. But V: (4)
= 4n6%(r) (Bo. 1.99), and
= [pdr= oa {u/Poe = 8 [Pantin = soa (ta atte freer)
But [p°re"*dr = sh, 90 Q = Anco (1%) = ao]
Problem 2.47
(a) Potential of +A is Vp = — 54
Potential of ~A is
here 54 is distance from Ay, (Prob. 2.22).
here 8 is distance from 2.37
(i
‘The equation for a circle, with center at (yo,0) and radius R, is
aoe += R, ee a
Byidently the equipotentials are circles, with yp = a (£4) and
Bop Hayat =o? (f8h)* ot = pattem
ann tems ot
ee ener
Senter [on (ES) ]
Rete t wera cea * coun (2228)
Problem 2.48
(a) VV =
£ (Ba. 2.24), 90| SY
(0) QV = bm? +
(0) dq = Apde ; 4 = apt T] (constant). (Note: p, hence also I, is negative.)a
38 CHAPTER 2, ELECTROSTATICS
() &¥ = -d0= 24 = ~Lay/ae 3 | Ge = OV °2 |, where 8 = ~ a fF «
(Note: is nepoive,s0 8 3s postive; qi postive]
(e) Mattiply by v=
ye
movin [vray p [vay BV = 250°" conta
bin ¥(0)= V0) = 0 (aod i a potential zero, and el at ahd i zr), ste constant 0 an
2150.8 a fAvis ag vhay = aye
fv MA ay = vB fac = 49H = 2/Be + constant.
But V(0) = 0, s0 this constant is also zero.
(va)"“2, or V(2) = (30)
Interms of Vo (instead of 1): | V(x) (3) Geert)
‘Without space-charge, V would increase linearly: V(z) = Vo (
vve
3 7
5 B2, 80 V(
81m)" 43
2A
ole = Forjere|
(b) [Wes.] The field of a point charge at the origin is radial and symmetric, so Vx = 0, and hence this is also
true (by superposition) for any collection of charges.
© ee [ea af Eset
reread (hemes [2
vo (eee) ail = Vg
14 fear
a}39
~ £ [Par — exactly right to kill the last term. Therefore
vo {= [} -
fra (7
@ fb-a me (fe oP gg pe =
Now Jare""/¥ar
an R
Vera Pe gedp = Lf re-eldr
ia ares elo.
orden (ue 8) aa)
(c) Does the result in (4) hold for a nonspherical surface? Suppose we x
make a “dent” in the sphere—pushing a patch (arca R?sin @d8 dé)
from radius R out to radius 5 (area S? sin 4 dé dg) q
afe dam {s (+ Se eI(S? sind adds) — #0 ae f) eee sinoanas)}
- = [Ge gle (1+ fa] sneaoas,
Snr? sind dr dp
cs
ie snedodg is rea
as inadbae (“ (145))f
= [lem (Dem anoaas
So the change in 3 {V dr exactly compensates for the change in fE-da, and we get q for the total using
the dented sphere, just as we did with the perfect sphere. Any closed surface ean be built up by successive
distortions of the sphere, so the result holds for all shapes. By superposition, if there are many charges inside,
‘the total is 2Qune- Charges outside do not contribute (in the argument above we found that © for this
volume fB-da+ 3; fV dr = 0—and, again, the sum is not changed by distortions of the surface, as long as q
remains outside). So the new “Gauss’s Law” holds for any charge configuration.
(0) tn differential form, “Gauss law” reads: | V-E+ 557 =

0, “squashing” the ellipsoid down to an ellipse in the zy plane:
1
o(z, a ea,
1) = Fab Flay = GF
(I multiplied by 2 to count both surfaces.)
and let r= VFFF [ot pos
(a) For the circular disk, set a
and then take the limit b -> co:
(b) For the ribbon, let Q/
(@) Let b= 6,7 = Vy? FH, making an ellipsoid of revolution:
a(z) =
‘The charge on a ring of width da is
dq =o2nrds, where ds = Vda? + dh? = de/1+ (dr/dzy.
a br dr ir er Age
Now 228 , 2dr sods = dey SE ae ATE TFTA, Ths
eneerc. ar
a _—__
ay @ g i]
Mz) = Fh a oer 2 tS ata ‘onstant!
(=a eee Fre FRIe = -[g tant!)
i oy
r / ! :
« : oF
Na
® .Chapter 3
Special Techniques
Problem 3.1
‘The argument is exactly the same as in Sect. 3.4, except that since 2 < R, V7 FRI=UER
i fence Vive = Iie 4-H) = (R-2
Instead of (2 R). Hence Vie = gosto [le +f) ~ (R= 2)
R-2),
If there is more than one charge
inside the sphere, the average potential due to interior charges is and the average due to exterior
charges 15 Veemer, 80 Vave = Vownter + it.
Problem 3.2
‘A stable equilibrium is a point of local minimum in the potential energy. Here the potential energy is gV.
But we know that Laplace's equation allows no local minima for V. What looks like a minimum, in the figure,
must in fact be a saddle poin., and the box “lesks” through the center of each face.
Problem 3.3
Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates, for V dependent only on r, reads:
oa nt
oe =e (constant) =
Brample: potential ofa uniformly charged sphere
In linda coordinates: V'v = 12 (s57) <0 of
Brample: potential of a long wire. _
Problem 3.4
Same a8 proof of second uniqueness theorem, up to the equation J VaEs + da
cach surface, either Vj = 0 (if V is specified on the surface), or else Ba, = 0 (if 9%
Jy(Es)? =0, and hence Ey = Ey. ged
Problem 5.5
Putting U = T= Vp into Green's identity:
_ V+ UHV) dr= J WOH da Bu VV = VY — vs
y fs
80 ff Bide =~ f Yok, da, andthe tests the same as before,
5 A
— fy(Es)? dr. But on
~E, is specified). So
2 =o, and Vi = Bs.
2/-~Problem 3.6
Place image charges +29 at
—dand ~q at z = ~3d, Total force on +4 is,
ig 313: 2 = VP Ea a Traces,
= [2
= Greg (Gay? * Gaye * Gaye
1 (20),
Treo (72a) *
= VP+E RFCs. Therefore:
Problem 3.7
(a) From
- =z (Eg. 318), white b= = (Ba, 3.16).
4
[(ag)? + Re — 2racose
‘Therefore:
=-1(9,¢ 1
Von) = aa (248) = a Traced area}
Clearly, when r = R, V +0.
(0) o= co (Bq, 249). In this case, 9% = $Y at the point r = R. Therefore,
o(@) = (as) {Hoe +0? arecase)-*”*(2r ~ 2acosé)
r + £08 (apn? —2oca)** (Sar—toeut)}
= “tf (R? + a? — 2Ra.c088)-*/?(R - ac0s6) + (R? + a? —2Racos6)*? (G -acoee) }
= Lee +08 — aRacosey*? [r-ecora- + acon]
= [at eyes
toca =f oda= 4 vi a? ~ 2Racos6)-¥*R? sin db de
= 2Racos6)"*/?
= yt ote [Fee +e ~ aRacosey-*™)
= t@-R) pero . aeoal
2a VECO Re” Tie ae
But a > R (else q would be inside), so VP ya! — 2Ra =a~R.
q 21 1 1 =i
= dem [ta- wal-2 Hullo W)~ (0+ R= 3-20)| “4 CHAPTER 3. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
(@) The force on g, due to the sphere, is the same as the force of the image charge q to wit:
a i(k ‘) 1 eRe
ines (a Bt = neg \~ a ) (a RBJay? ~~ Greg (a? = RAF
‘To bring q in from infinity to a, then, we do work:
° wares
Fro He? —
a-fe aesml
Problem 3.8
Place a second image charge, q", at the center of the sphere;
this will not alter the fact that: the sphere is an equipotential, a=
rel
wat merely inerease that potential from zero to Vo = zh-2 ——
but merely P eae rF 3
For a neutral sphere, q! +4" = 0.
PF
fe -t)\- mw (141,
wat (+ wp) & Cota)
qq’ (20-8) _ g(~Rgla) (R?/a)(2a~ R? fa)
qe ara @(a— Maye
2 ny ee R)
ir a) (=P
(Drop the minus sign, because the problem asks for the force of attraction.)
- Problem 5.9
(a) Image problem: A above, ~A below. Potential was found in Prob, 2.47
2» Rape
ve ese fa= apg
— ae Aon (Ets)
ira" FFG
stom OV
(b)a= ORT Here ‘oni aes evaluated at z
i
ow) = -og: (Sy
=
ae
Check: Total charge induced on a strip of width U parallel to the y ais
_ nd Fa Dd PL Hy]?
fms = w= (|
A. Therefore Aing = —A, as it should be.45
‘roblem 3.10
‘The image configuration is as shown. 4
ae)
1
Cee aes eae pan Verare@ ree
aes
For this to work, [@ must be and integer divisor of 180°.] Thus 180°, 90°,'60", 45°, etc., are OK, but no
others. It works for 45°, say, with the charges as shown,
(Note the strategy: to make the 2 axis an equipotential (V = 0),
you place the image charge (1) in the reflection point. To make the
445° line an equipotential, you place charge (2) at the image point.
But that screws up the z axis, so you must now insert image (3) to
balance (2). Moreover, to make the 45° line V = 0 you also need (4),
to balance (1). But now, to restore the © axis to V = 0 you need (5)
to balance (4), and s0 on.
‘The reason this doesn’t work for arbitrary angles is that you are even-
tually forced to place an image charge within the original region of
interest, and that’s not allowed—all images must go outside the re- A
gion, or you're no longer dealing with the same problem at all.) me
sia)
hy 8 docan't work for @= 195"
("Sroblem 3.11
ope [eter] ea
in| EAE AL | | where a? = yo? — R* > [a
0! [ena ty w
wo Gaon (2), [i ES]
From Prob. 2.47 (with yo ~+ 4)
and
acoth(2neoVo/§) =a
{ acsch(2neaVo/d) = }+ (ai
Problem 3.12
View) = oe e-™/* sin(nry/a) (Bq. 3.30), where Cy = 2 2 frsensnoraros (Ea. 3.34)
4M, for 0~~ a), subject to
the boundary conditions
@) Ye
(i) He
ii) Val > EgScosd for s >a
From Prob. 3.23 (invoking boundary condition (ii)
Vials) = So s*(an coskd-+ businkd), Vour(s.6) =80 CHAPTER 4. ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS IN MATTER
(eliminated the constant terms by setting V = 0 on the y plane.) Condition (i) says
Laker cosh + besin kg) =
Fyscosd-+ J a-*(e,cosko + de sin kp),
while (i) says
6 Xo ha (a, c05 kG + busin kd) = —By 008 6 ~ J ka“**(o, cos ke + de sine)
Evidently by = dy = 0 for all k, ax = ¢k =O unless k= 1, whereas for k= 1
am =-Rata'e, €-0, =—-Fy—a 7,
Solving for a,
B eae .
eterna reap tetera)
and hence Eia(s,¢) = ~ 5 aH | 8 te spherical case (Ex. 4.7), the fel inside is uniform
Problem 4.23,
Po = corel: Bi = -gePo = -SEo; Pr = oxeBs =
2 = (-X2)" By
Evidently Ey = ( %)" Bo, 80
nensn snr [E
‘The geomettic series can be summed explicitly
which agrees with Eq. 4.49, (Curiously, this method formally requires that ye < 3 (else the infinite series
diverges), yet the resul is subject to no such restriction, since we can also get it by the method of Ex. 4.7]
Problem 4.24 pana)
Potentials
Voue(r.8) = —Korcos6 +52 Bir Pi(cos®), (>);
Vnoa(rs8) = Y(Aut + Bir) P(cose), — (a~~__R) HO Iacoade + sind], (7 > R)
Trot?
(orhete m = nM); = eo(B > B) = = ta SBF x B)sind, and (#6) = 6,50
rx p= Ho single x
bare e= Me anata x8)
sin?
(P?sin8 dr d0a) [arm wou a4
3
avon (8) (3)- ewer)
(b) Apply Faraday’s law to the ring shown:
@ 2 (2, aM
fe A= Be2ar sind) =~ = —a(r sind) (dott) A
> Ho dM (rsin8) 6.
poo dM. (=%
‘The free ona patch of surface (dn) ie dP = oR da = - 24H (rsind)dad (= =a)
“The torque on the patch is dN = r x dF = meat ("2 sind) da(e x 3). But (@ x 3) = ~6, and we want
only the z component (6, = ~ sind):
nae [2a (+? sind dO d9)
=-meiM an(§ ) ny =
ifaw 7 Manis (same as (a)151
is ait) The charge below
© ake
(c) Let the charge on the sphere at time ¢ be q(t); the charge density is o =
r
(“south of") the ring in the figure is
2 yoy = sa
1p = 0 (2k ) [sing a = 5 (—cosd)Ig = F(1 + e038).
pa + c036), and hence
So the total current crossing the ring (Rowing “north”) is I(t)
1_dg (1+ 0086)
BACs") §. The force on 2 patch of area da is dF = (KK x B)da.
1
Ki) =
a and
ny {2PM ;
Ho §2ROM 09 ose + sin88) [24 + 2cos0# +sin8d);
6
2 oars
[ucara + fader
Baw =
K x B= Atwell Os 2088) 96g x) + 2e080(0 x)
an = Rexar= 0M (¥) GHD Fx (dx 8) —cosa(tx di] Rising ad de
G(e-2) — 208-0)
= aM (FB) ar omeyrtfcosed + ose danas Me (Gf) a reostrenoanass,
‘The 2 and y components integrate to zero; (6). = — sind, s0 (using f dg = 2n)
~ 3
dg ‘sin? 1@\ |"
N= we ( ) 2m) fr + cose)cosd sins = pe oe)
MoM RE (da) (2) _ uo yy pada
= 8S" (8) G) = pers
‘Therefore
2H 4 RQ | (same as (a)
us fra
(Lused the average field at the discontinuity—which is the correct thing to do—but in this case you'd get the
same answer using either the inside field or the autside field.)
Problem 8.9
a .
(0) 6 =—9, 2 rab, B= ponlys €= TR. So
a at,
wy fe d= ~S & Ena) = -pona?n Ft + B=152 CHAPTER 8. CONSERVATION LAWS
Cc Power:
fs are fesiory ten font [ let
f Lia
The integral is <= —["_ = 2 - (-4) =2
a BVA TE B ( 5) #
ante) p,m (peje EAR. ao
= = (svootnit) 1 = (Rice = HR. ged
Problem 8.10
According to Eqs. 3.104, 4.14, 5.87, and 6.16, the fields are
1 2
= ( Rh, (alm AF -m), (> A),
= (4/3)eR°P, and m = (4/9)1RM. Now p= {(B x B)dr, and there are two contetbutions, one
from inside the sphere and one from outside.
Inside
1 2 8 eho
-« | (-+r)» § yx RO(M x
Po I( P) ( Swox R9(M x P)
- Outside:
bs
Pan ogee te
Now Fx(pxm) = p(-m)~m(#-p),s07
p)~(é-p)(F xm), whereas using the BAC-
CAB rule directly gives # x{# x (px m)] = #[#-(pxm)]=-(pxm)(F-E). So {(3(p-#) F ~ p] x [3(m-#)# — m]} =
~3(p-F)(¢xm) +3(m-F)(F xp) +(pxm) = 3 {FF -(p x m)) - (p x m)}+(p=m) = ~2(pxm) +3[F-(pxm)]
Poor = B25 f 4 {-2(p x m) + 94fF (px m)]) sin Bara ae,
‘To evaluate the integral, set the z axis along (p x m); then #-(p x m) = |p x m|cos@. Meanwhile,
sin oos-+sinBsin 7 -rc0808. But sing and os¢ integrate to er, 80 the X and 9 terns drop out, leaving
por = hts ([” Sar) {-2tp xm fsinoaoce-+ ain «sia [cot esineav a}
= (-#)/7 [20m myers te my E] = al xm)
=~ hip (Jeer) « (Gee) = Brox)
“Tae
R°(M x P)
4
na = (S48) nttoree)153
Problem 8.11
(a) From Eq, 5.68 and Prob. 5.36,
aR
Ho 2 2cos8# + sind), with m= drow
r__

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