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Electromagnetic Theory

For

Electrical Engineering

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Syllabus

Syllabus for Electromagnetic Theory


Coulomb's Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss's Law, Divergence, Electric Field
and Potential due to Point, Line, Plane and Spherical Charge Distributions, Effect of Dielectric
Medium, Capacitance of Simple Configurations, BiotSavarts Law, Amperes Law, Curl, Faradays
Law, Lorentz Force, Inductance, Magnetomotive Force, Reluctance, Magnetic Circuits, Self and
Mutual Inductance of Simple Configurations.

Analysis of GATE Papers


Year

Percentage of Marks

2015

4.00

2014

3.60

2013

4.00

2012

2.00

2011

2.00

2010

0.00

2009

0.00

2008

4.00

2007

6.00

2006

0.67

Overall Percentage

2.627%

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Contents

Contents

#1.

Chapters
Electromagnetic Field

Introduction
Operators
Material and Physical Constants
Electromagnetic (EM Field)
Electric Field Intensity
Electric Dipole
Divergence of Current Density and Relaxation
Boundary Conditions
The Magnetic Vector Potential
Faradays Law
Maxwells Equations
Magnetic Field
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys & Explanations

Page No.
1 46
1
27
78
89
9 12
12 17
18
19 21
21 25
25 27
27 28
28 32
32 38
39 41
41 42
43 46

Module Test

47 50

47 48
49 50

Test Questions
Answer Keys & Explanations

Reference Books

51

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Picture yourself vividly as winning and that


alone will contribute immeasurably to success."

CHAPTER

Harry Fosdick

Electromagnetic
Field

Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you will know:
1. Elements of Vector Calculus
2. Operators, Curl, Divergence
3. Electromagnetic Coulombs law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Dipole, Electric Flux Density
4. Gauss's Law, Electric Potential
5. Divergence of Current Density and Relaxation
6. Boundary Conditions
7. Biot-Savarts Law, Ampere Circuit Law, Continuity Equation
8. Magnetic Vector Potential, Energy Density of Electric & Magnetic Fields, Stored Energy in
Inductance
9. Faradays Law, Motional EMF, Induced EMF Approach
10. Maxwells Equations

Introduction
Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z), < x < , < y < , < z <
Cylindrical coordinates ( , , z), 0 < , 0 < 2, < z <
Spherical coordinates (r, , ) , 0 r < , 0 , 0 < 2
Other valid alternative range of and are----(i) 0 < 2, 0
(ii) , 0

(iii) 2 2 , 0 < 2
(iv) 0 < , <
Vector Calculus Formula
SL. No
(a)
(b)

(c)

Cartesian Coordinates
Differential Displacement
dl = dx ax + dy ay + dz az
Differential Area
dS = dy dz ax
= dx dz ay
= dx dy az
Differential Volume
dv = dx dy dz

Cylindrical Coordinates
dl = da + da +dzaz
dS = d dz a
= d dz a
= dd az

Spherical Coordinates
dl = drar + rda + r sin
da
ds = r 2 sin d d ar
= r sin dr d a
= r dr d a

dv = d d dz

dv = r 2 sin d d dr

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Electromagnetic Field

Operators
1) V Gradient, of a Scalar V
2) V Divergence, of a Vector V
3) V Curl, of a Vector V
4) 2 V Laplacian, of a Scalar V
DEL Operator:

= ax + ay +
a (Cartesian)
x
y
z z

=
a +
a +
a (Cylindrical)


z z

1
1

= ar +
a +
a (Spherical)
r
r
rsi n
Gradient of a Scalar field
V is a vector that represents both the magnitude and the direction of maximum space rate of
increase of V.
V
V
V
V =
ax +
ay +
a For Cartisian Coordinates
x
y
z z
V
1 V
V
=
a +
a +
a For Spherical Coordinates


z z
V
1 V
1 V
=
ar +
a +
a For Cylindrical Coordinates
r
r
rsi n
The following are the fundamental properties of the gradient of a scalar field V
1. The magnitude of V equals the maximum rate of change in V per unit distance.
2. V points in the direction of the maximum rate of change in V.
3. V at any point is perpendicular to the constant V surface that passes through that point.
4. If A = V, V is said to be the scalar potential of A.
5. The projection of V in the direction of a unit vector a is V. a and is called the directional
derivative of V along a. This is the rate of change of V in direction of a.
Example: Find the Gradient of the following scalar fields:
(a) V = ez sin 2x cosh y
(b) U = 2 z cos 2
(c) W = 10r sin2 cos
Solution:
(a) V =

a
x x
z

= 2e
(b) U =

a
y y

V
z

az

cos 2x cosh y ax + ez sin 2x sinh y ay ez sin 2x cosh y az


1 U

+ a + z az

= 2z cos 2 a 2z sin 2 a + 2 cos 2 az


(c) W =

W
r

ar +

1 W
r

a +

r sin

= 10 sin2 cos ar + 10 sin 2 cos a 10 sin sin a


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Electromagnetic Field

Divergence of a Vector
Statement: Divergence of A at a given point P is the outward flux per unit volume as the volume
shrinks about P.
Hence,
A . ds
DivA = . A = lim S
(1)
v0
v
Where, v is the volume enclosed by the closed surface S in which P is located. Physically, we may
regard the divergence of the vector field A at a given point as a measure of how much the field
diverges or emanates from that point.
Ax Ay Az
. A =
+
Cartisian System
x
y z
P
1
1 A A z
(A ) +
+
Cylindrical System
=
z


1 2

1 A
1
= 2 (r Ar ) +
(A sin ) +
Sphearical System
r r
r sin
r sin
From equation (1),
A . dS = . A dv
S

This is called divergence theorem which states that the total outward flux of the vector field A
through a closed surface S is same as the volume integral of the divergence of A.
Example: Determine the divergence of these vector field
(a) P = x 2 yzax + xzaz
(b) Q = sin a + 2 za + z cos az
1

(c) T = r2 cos ar + r sin cos a + cos a


Solution:

(a) . P = x Px + y Py + z Pz
2

(x yz) + (0) + (xz)


x
y
z
= 2xyz + x

(b) . Q = (Q ) + Q + z Qz
1 2
1 2

( sin ) +
( z) +
(z cos )


z
= 2 sin + cos

=
(c) . T =

1
r2 r

(r 2 Tr ) +

r sin

(T sin ) +

r sin

(T )

1
1
1

(cos ) +
(r sin 2 cos ) +
(cos )
2
r r
r sin
r sin
1
=0+
2r sin cos cos + 0
r sin
= 2 cos cos
=

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Electromagnetic Field

Curl of a Vector
Curl of a Vector field provides the maximum value of the circulation of the field per unit area and
indicates the direction along which this maximum value occurs.
That is,
A . dl
)
an . . (2)
Curl A = A = lim ( L
S0
S
max
ax ay az

|
A = |
x y z
Ax Ay Az
a a az

1
|
= |
z
A A Az
a ra r sin a

||
|
= 2
r sin r
|
A r rA r sin A
From equation (2) we may expect that
A dl = ( A) . ds
L

This is called stokes theorem, which states that the circulation of a vector field A around a (closed)
path L is equal to the surface integral of the curl of A over the open surface S bounded by L, Provided
A and A are continuous no s.
Example: Determine the curl of each of the vector fields.
(a) P = x 2 yz ax + xzaz
(b) Q = sin a + 2 za + z cos az
1

(c) T = r2 cos ar + r sin cos a + cos a


Solution:
Py Px
P Py
Px Pz
(a) P = ( z
) ax + (

) ay + (

)a
y
z
z
x
x
y z
= (0 0)ax + (x 2 y z)ay + (0 x 2 z)az
= (x 2 y z)ay x 2 zaz
Q Qz
Q
1 Qz Q
1
] a + [
] a + [ (Q )
]a


z
z


z
z
1
= ( sin 2 ) a + (0 0)a + (32 z cos )az

1
= (z sin + 3 )a + (3z cos )az

(b) Q = [

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Electromagnetic Field

1
[ (T sin )
T ]a
r
r sin
1 1

+ [
Tr (rT )] a + [ (rT ) Tr ] a
r sin
r
r r

1
[ (cos sin )
=
(r sin cos )] ar

r sin
1 1 (cos )
+ [
(r cos )] a
r sin r 2
r
1 2
(cos )
] a
+ [ (r sin cos )
r r
r 2
1
1
(cos 2 + r sin sin )ar + (0 cos )a
=
r sin
r
1
sin
+ (2r sin cos + 2 ) a
r
r
cos 2
cos
1
=(
+ sin ) ar
a + (2 cos + 3 ) sin a
r sin
r
r

(c) T =

Laplacian
(a) Laplacian of a scalar field V, is the divergence of the gradient of V and is written as 2 V.
2 V 2 V 2 V
2 V = 2 + 2 + 2 For Cartisian Coordinates
x
y
z
1
V
1 2 V 2 V
2 V =
( ) + 2 2 + 2 For Cylindrical Coordinates


z

1
V
1
V
1 2 V
= 2 (r 2 ) + 2
(sin ) + 2
For Spherical Coordinates
r r
r
r sin

r sin 2
If 2 V = 0, V is said to be harmonic in the region.
A vector field is solenoid if .A = 0; it is irrotational or conservative if A = 0
. ( A) = 0
(V) = 0

(b) Laplacian of Vector A


2
A = is always a vector quantity
= (2 Ax )ax + (2 Ay )ay + (2 Az )az
2 A
2 Ax Scalar quantity
2 Ay Scalar quantity
2 Az Scalar quantity
p
2 V = ........Poissions E.q.

2 V = 0 ........Laplace E.q.

E
2 E
2 E =
+ E 2 . . . . . . . wave E. q.
t
t

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Electromagnetic Field

Example: The potential (scalar) distribution in free space is given as V = 10y 4 + 20x 3 .
If 0 : permittivity of free space what is the charge density at the point (2,0)?

: Poissions Equation 2 V =

2
2

2
( 2 + 2 + 2 ) (10 y 4 + 20x 3 ) =
y
z
x
0
= r 0 [ = 0 as r = 1]

20 3 2x + 10 4 3y 2 =
0

At pt(2, 10) 20 3 2 2 =
= 2400
0
Example: Find the Laplacian of the following scalar fields
(a) V = ez sin 2x cosh y
(b) U = 2 z cos 2
(c) W = 10r sin2 cos
Solution: The Laplacian in the Cartesian system can be found by taking the first derivative and later
the second derivative.
2 V 2 V 2 V
(a) 2 V = 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z

= (2ez cos 2x cosh y) + (ez sin 2x sinh y) + (ez sin 2x cosh y)


y
x
z
= 4ez sin 2x cosh y + ez sin 2x cosh y + ez sin 2x cosh y
= 2ez sin 2x cosh y
U
1 2 U 2 U
1
(b) 2 U =
( ) + 2 2 + 2

z

1
1
(22 z cos 2) 2 42 z cos 2 + 0
=

= 4z cos 2 4z cos 2
=0

2 W
1
W
1
W
1
(c) 2 W = 2
(r 2
)+ 2
(sin
)+ 2
r r
r
r sin

r sin2 2

1
1
10r sin2 cos
(10r sin 2 sin cos )
= 2 (10 r 2 sin2 cos ) + 2
r r
r sin
r 2 sin2
2
20 sin cos 20r cos 2 sin cos 10r sin 2 cos cos 10 cos
=
+
+

r
r 2 sin
r 2 sin
r
10 cos
=
(2 sin2 + 2 cos 2 + 2 cos2 1)
r
10 cos
=
(1 + 2 cos 2)
r
Stokes Theorem
integrated over any closed curve C is always equal to
Statement: Closed line integral of any vector A
integrated over the surface area s which is enclosed by the
the surface integral of curl of vector A
closed curve c.
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Electromagnetic Field

= ( A) dS
A . dL
S

The theorem is valid irrespective of


(i) Shape of closed curve C
(ii) Type of vector A
(iii) Type of co-ordinate system
Divergence Theorem
S

V
dv
A dS = V. A
S

integrated over any closed surface area. S is


Statement: Closed surface integral of any vector A
integrated over the volume V
always equal to the volume integral of the divergence of vector A
which is enclosed by the closed surface are S the theorem holds good, irrespective
(i) Shape of closed surface
(ii) Type of coordinate system
(iii) Type of vector A

Material & Physical Constants


(a) Material Constants
Material
Air
Aluminum
Bakelite
Brass
Carbon
Copper
Glass
Graphite
Mica
Paper
Paraffin

Conductivity ( ) S/m
0
3.186 107
1014
2.564 107
3 104
5.8 107
1013
105
1015

1015

Relative Permittivity (r)


1.0006
1.0
5
1

1
6

6
3
2.1

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Electromagnetic Field

Plexiglas
Polystyrene
PVC
Porcelain
Quartz
Rubber
Rutile
Soil(Clay)
(Sandy)
Urban ground
Vaseline
Terflon
Water (Distilled)
(Fresh)
(Sea)
Wood
Transformer oil
Ebonite
Epoxy

1016

1017
1013

5 103
2 103
2 104

1015
104
102 to 103
4 to 5

3.4
2.7
2.7
5
5
5
100
14
10
4
2.2
2.1
80
80
80
2
2 to 3
2.6
4

(b) Physical Constants


Permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85410-12 F/m = (1/36 ) 10-9 F/m
Permeability of free space, 0 = 410-7 H/m
Impedance of free space, 0 = 120 Ohms = 377 Ohms
Velocity of free space, c = 3 108 m/sec = 3 1010 cm/sec
Charge of an Electron, q = 1.602 10-19 C
Mass of electron, m = 9.107 10 -31 kg
Boltzmans constant, k = 1.3810-23 J/0K
Plancks constant, h = 1.054 10-34 J-s
Base of natural logarithm, e = 2.718

Electromagnetic (EM Field)

In general, electromagnetic field is regarded as interplay between time varying electric and
magnetic fields. The study of electromagnetic can be accomplished with study of electrostatics,
magneto statics and time varying electric and magnetic fields.
Electrostatics deals with field related to stationary charge(s). The charge can be positive or
negative. The unit of charge is called a coulomb. The charge of an electron is
e = 1.6019 1019 Coulombs
q = |e|
Charge may be distributed in space or may be concentrated in a small volume at a point.
A charge that occupies a volume in space may be considered to be a point charge for analysis
purposes if this volume is small compared to the surrounding dimensions.
A charge density defines charge distribution on a line (or) over a surface (or) throughout a
volume.
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Electromagnetic Field

Coulombs Law
Statement: The force between any two point charges Q1 and Q2 is proportional to the product of the
two charges, inversely proportional to square of the distance between the two charges, and directed
along the line connecting the two charges.
The Mathematical expression of Coulombs law is
Q1 Q2

F=
R
4 R2
Where (1/4 ) is proportionality factor
R is the distance between the two charges.
is the unit vector pointing form Q1 to Q2 (or) Q2 to Q1.
R
The proportionality factor depends on the material in which the charges are located. is a material
constant and is called the permittivity of the material and its units are Farad/meter.
Force is measured in Newton.
= 0 r , where r is relative permittivity and 0 is permittivity of free space.

Electric Field Intensity


Electric Field Intensity is defined as the force per unit charge, when placed in an electric field and its
unit is Newton/Coulomb (or) Volt/meter.
The electric field can be viewed as starting at a positive charge and ending at a negative charge. In
the electric field E of a charge (say Q1), if we introduce another charge (say Q2), there will be a force
acting on this charge Q2 .
i.e., F = Q2 E
a r

Q
a . . . . . . . . . . . . due to pt. chrage
40 R2 r
dl
E = L
a . . . . . . . . . . . . (Line Charge)
40 R2 r

=
E

=
E
S

ps ds
a . . . . . . . . . . . . (Surface Charge)
4R2 r

E =
V

v dv
a . . . . . . . . . . . . (Volume Charge)
40 R2 r

General Form of Coulombs Law


= r r
R
| = |r r |
R = |R

R
r r
=
R
=
| |r r |
|R

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Electromagnetic Field

Electrical field
y

R
Q
r

=
E

O
E =

R = r r
x

Q
Q
R
a R =
2
40 R
40 R3
Q(r r )
3

40 |r r |
Equipotential surface
An equipotential surface has its every point at equal potential.
Properties:
The movement of charge over such a surface would require no work.
Tangential to such surface is zero electric field.
Electric field is always perpendicular to an equipotential surface for static fields, a conductor
surface is always an equipotential surface.
Electric Field Intensity of a Finite Line Charge
Consider a line charge with uniform charge density L extending from A to B along the z axis as
shown in
For a finite line charge
L
[(sin 2 sin 1 )ar + (cos 2 cos1 )az ]
E=
40
Where L is line charge density and r is the perpendicular distance from the line to point of interest.
+

As a special case, for an infinite line charge 1 =


and 2 =
2
2
L
And
E=
a
20 r
z
r
2

P (x, y, z)

A
0

The E Field Due to a Line Charge


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10

Electromagnetic Field

For an infinite sheet of charge,


s
E=
a
20 n
Where s is surface charge density of sheet and an is a unit vector normal to sheet.
Example: Point charges 1 mC and 2 mC are located at (3, 2, 1) and (1, 1, 4), respectively.
Calculate the electric force on a 10 nC charge located at (0, 3, 1) and the electric field
intensity at that point.
Solution:
QQk
QQk (r rk )

F=
a
=
R
40 R2
40 |r rk |3
k=1,2

k=1,2

Q 103 [(0, 3, 1) (3, 2, 1)] 2 103 [(0, 3, 1) (1, 1, 4)]


{
}
=

|(0, 3, 1) (3, 2, 1)|3


|(0, 3, 1) (1, 1, 4)|3
40
103 10 109
(3, 1, 2)
2(1, 4, 3)
[
]
=

9
3/2
10
(9 + 1 + 4)
(1 + 16 + 9)3/2
4 36
(3, 1, 2) (2, 8, 6)
]
= 9 102 [
+
1414
2626
F = 6.507 ax 3.817 ay + 7.506az mN
At that point,
F
E=
Q
103
= (6.507 3.817, 7.506)
10 109
E = 650 7ax 381 7ay + 750 6az kV/m
Example: The finite sheet 0 x 1, 0 y 1 on the z = 0 plane has a charge density
s = xy(x 2 + y 2 + 25)32 n C/m2 . Find
(a) The total charge on the sheet
(b) The electric field at (0, 0, 5)
(c) The force experienced by a 1 mC charge located at (0, 0, 5)
Solution:
1

(a) Q = S S dS = 0 0 xy(x 2 + y 2 + 25)3/2 dx dy nC

Since x dx = 1/2 d(x 2 ), we now integrate with respect to x 2 (or change variable:
x 2 = u so that x dx = du2.
1

1
Q = y (x 2 + y 2 + 25)32 d(x 2 )dy nC
2
0
1

1
2
1
= y (x 2 + y 2 + 25)52 |0 dy
2
5
0
1

1 1
= [(y 2 + 26)52 (y 2 + 25)52 ]d(y 2 )
5 2
0

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11

Electromagnetic Field

1 2 2
1
[(y + 26)72 (y 2 + 25)7/2 ]|0
10 7
7
1
[(27)72 + (25)2 2(26)72 ]
=
35
Q = 33.15 nC
=

(b) E =
S

S dS (r r )
S dS aR

=
40 |r r |3
40 r 2
S

Where r r = (0, 0, 5) (x, y, 0) = (x, y, 5). Hence,


1 1

E =
0 0

109 xy(x 2 + y 2 + 25)32 (xax yay + 5az )dx dy


109
4 36 (x 2 + y 2 + 25)32
1

= 9 [ x 2 dx y dy ax x dx y 2 dy ay + 5 x dx y dy az ]
0

1 1 5
= 9( ,
, )
6 6 4
= (1.5, 1.5,11.25) V/m
(c) F = qE = (1.5, 1.5, 11.25) mN

Electric Dipole
Two equal and opposite electric charges, separated by a very short distance is called electric dipole
and is shown below.
P
+Q

R
R>>d

Q
Electric Dipole

The electric dipole moment, p = Q d


The dipole moment is directed from Q to + Q
The electric field intensity of a dipole varies as 1/R3 , where as the electric field intensity of a
point charge varies as 1/R2
The electric field due to the dipole is given by
p
(2 cos ar + sin a )
E=
40 r 3

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12

Electromagnetic Field

Electric Flux Density (D)


D = 0 E
This vector has the same direction as E, but it is independent of and therefore of material
properties.
The unit of D is Coulomb/meter2.
Electric Flux in terms of D is defined as
= D. ds
S

Gausss Law

Gausss law states that the total electric flux through any closed surface is equal to the total
charge enclosed by that surface. Thus
= Qenc
= Qenc
i. e. , = d = D ds
S

Total charge enclosed Q = v dv


v

or
Q = D dS = v dv
S

By applying divergence theorem,


D dS = D dv
v

So, v = D
Which is one of the four Maxwells equation and it states that the volume charge density is the same
as the divergence of the electric flux density.
When, at any point if charge density is zero, then divergence of electric flux density and
divergence of electric field intensity is zero.
Curl of static electric field intensity is zero. Mathematically, E = 0
Thus, electrostatic field is Irrotational (curl free) and Non-Solenoidal (non zero divergence).
Gausss law is an alternate form of Coulombs law.
Gausss law may be used either to calculate the equivalent charges from known electric fields or
electric fields due to known charges.
Example: Find the Total flux in a cylinder of radius r and length L placed in a uniform electric field E
parallel to the axis of cylinder.
dA
B
E
E

dA
dA
L
A
C
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13

Electromagnetic Field

Solution:
The total flux E is the sum of flux coming out of surface A, B and C
E = E dA cos + E dA cos + E dA cos
A

A = 0 B = 90 C = 180
dAA = r 2 dAB = 2rl dAC = r 2
E = E. A + 0 E. A = 0
As E = 0, charge enclosed Qenclosed = 0 and hence D and E are 0 at all point inside the
plane of uniformly charged circular ring.
Example: Find the electric flux inside and outside a symmetrically charged sphere of radius A
R

A
r

Solution: By Gusss Law


E. dA =
surface

1
Q
0 enclosed

E dA = E (4R2 ) =

1
Q
0

1 Q
40 R2
Where Q is the charge in the sphere of radius A and enclosed by sphere of radius R.
Suppose there is a point charge Q at the origin O. Then the electric field at the distance R
will be
1 Q
E=
40 R2
E.g.: Find the field for a long st. wire of charge.
E=

E
Gaussian
h
Surface

E
E

EdA =
E=

h
h
, E(2rh) =
0
0

r, Where, = Line Change / Unit Length


20

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14

Electromagnetic Field

Example: If A = sin p + 2 p , and L is the contour of fig. given below, the circulation
y

A. dL

C
2

d
1

a
1

Solution:
A. dL = ( + + + ) A. dL
C

ab

bc

cd

da

Along ab, d = 0, = 0
b

A. dL = 0 A. dL = 0
a

Along bc, d = 0 A.dL = 3 d


c

A. dL = 3 d = 23 = 8
b

Along cd, d = 0, = , A.dL = 0


d

A. dL = 0
C

Along da, d = 0, A.dL = 3d


a

A. dL = 3 d = (1)3 () =
d
a

A. dL = 0 + 8 + 0 = 7
d

Example: Let J =

800 sin
r2+4

Ur A/m2 the total current flowing in a portion of spherical surface having

radius r = 0.8 bounded by 0.1 < < 0.3, 0 < < 2 will be
Solution:
I = J. n d s
2

S
3

0.1

800 sin
(0.8)2 sin d d = 154.8 A
(0.8)2 + 4

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15

Electromagnetic Field

Example: In a certain region where the relative permitivity is 2.4, D = 2ux 4uy + 5uz ncm2 .
Polarization = ?
Solution: D = 0 E + P where D = 0 r E
0 E = D/r
D D
p = D = (r 1)
r r
2.4 1
p = (2ux 4uy + 5uz )
2.4
p = 1.2ux 2.3uy + 2.9uz ncm2
Electric Potential
The scalar electric potential is defined using fundamental ideas of force and work related to the
electric field. When a charge is allowed to move due to force in the electric field, work is said to be
done as expressed below.
Work, W = (Force) (Displacement)
dW = F. dI
= (QE) (Displacement) = QE. dl
The total work done in moving a point charge Q from A to B is,
B

W = Q E. dl
A

Where negative sign indicates that the work is being done by an external agent.
Work done per unit charge is potential difference. Potential difference between two points is
difference of absolute potentials at the two points.
Absolute Potential
The potential at any point is the work per unit charge required to bring a unit charge form infinity to
the point.
In simple, it is potential difference between any point and a reference point at infinity.
Due to a point charge, Q
Absolute potential at a point r = a is Va = Q/4 a
Absolute potential at a point r = b is Vb = Q / 4 b
Potential difference between a and b is Vab = Va Vb
Q 1 1
=
( )
4 a b
The potential, only depends on the distance between points a and b and the point charge,
regardless of path between a and b.
In moving a charge along a closed path in electrostatic field, total work done is zero. Thus,
E dl = 0
L

By applying stokes theorem


E dl = ( E). ds = 0
L

E =0
It is one of the four Maxwells equations.
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16

Electromagnetic Field

Any surface on which the potential is same throughout is known an equipotential surface.
The direction of E is everywhere normal to the equipotential surface.
No work is done in moving a charge from one point to other point along equipotential surface.

The lines of constant potential are always perpendicular to the electric field intensity. Electric scalar
potential is scalar.
Electric field intensity and electric potential are related as, E = V. The negative sign shows that
the direction of E is opposite to the direction in which V increases; E is directed from higher to lower
level of V.
An electric flux line is an imaginary path or line drawn in such a way that its direction at any point is
the direction of the electric field at that point.
Example: Two point charges 4 C and 5 C are located at (2, 1, 3) and (0, 4, 2), respectively.
Find the potential at (1, 0, 1), assuming zero potential at infinity.
Solution: Let,
Q1 = 4 C, Q2 = 5 C
Q1
Q2
V(r) =
+
+ C0
40 |r r1 |
40 |r r2 |
If V() = 0, C0 = 0,
|r r1 | = |(1, 0, 1) (2, 1, 3)| = |(1, 1, 2)| = 6
|r r2 | = |(1, 0, 1) (0, 4, 2,)| = |(1, 4, 3)| = 26
Hence,
4
5
106
[
]
+
V(1, 0, 1) =
9
10
4 36 6 26
= 9 103 (1.633 + 0.9806)
= 5.872 kV
In electrostatics, charges are considered to be stationary. This certainly does not mean
that charges cannot move. A conductor is a material that allows free movement of charge
within its volume. In other words, if a charge is introduced into a conductor, it can move
freely until something prevents it from moving. This something may be an electric field
or the surface of the conductor. The movement of charges is merely a mechanism to
reach the steady state. After charges have reached their final state, the conductor has no
effect on the charges.
Conductors in electrostatic field are said to be perfect conductors. A perfect conductor
( = ) can not contain an electrostatic field within it. E = 0, v = 0, Vab = 0 inside a
conductor.
Unlike conductors, dielectrics are materials in which charges are not free to move.
A perfect dielectric is a material which has bound charges but no free charges.
A material is linear if a particular property like permittivity does not change when the
fields are changed.
A homogeneous material is a material whose physical properties do not vary from
point to point in space.
An isotropic material is one whose properties are independent of direction in space.
A linear, homogeneous, isotropic material is called simple material.
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17

Electromagnetic Field

Divergence of Current Density and Relaxation


Charges in conductors under static conditions are distributed on the surface of the conductor in
such a way that the potential energy in the system is minimum.
If charges are placed in the interior of a conductor, they will move to the surface. This motion of
charges constitutes a current. Since the current ceases, once the charges are static on the surface,
the current is a transient current.
Example: A block of silicon made in the form of a sphere of radius 100 mm is given. The
conductivity of silicon is 4 10-4 S/m, its relative permittivity is 12 and both are constant.
Suppose that by some means a volume charge density v = 10-6 C/m3 is placed in the
interior of the sphere at t = 0; calculate
(a) The current produced by the charge as they move to the surface
(b) The time constant of the charge decay in the silicon
(c) The divergence of the current density during the transient
Solution: At time t = 0, the charges start moving toward the surface. The charge density must
satisfy the continuity equation at all times, . J =

In addition, the current in the conducting material must satisfy Ohms law, J = E and
v
Gausss law . E =

v
v
. E =
=

t
v

+ v = 0
t

This is a homogenous linear differential equation. By separately variables,


v
t
=
t and integrating ln v = + ln vo
v

t/
v = 0 e
where = /
This equation shows that the introduction of charge at some interior point of material
results in a decay of volume charge density .
At a radius R, the total current crossing the surface defined by the sphere of radius R is
d(QR )
4R3 d
t
(
)
[v (t)] = 15.8 R3 exp [
]
I R, t =
=
dt
3 dt
2.65 107
The current depends on the location and increases with the radius. Therefore, it is not
constant in space or time.
The time constant of the charge decay is /. This time constant depends on material
alone and is called the relaxation time.
A long time constant (poor conductors) means charges take longer to relax or to reach
the surface.
A short time constant (good conductor) means the charges quickly reach their static state
(at the surface). In the present case,
= / = 2.65 107 sec
the divergence of the current density is
v

t
[0 e ] = 3.77 exp (t
)
.J =
=
2.65 107
( )
t
t
The divergence of the current density is clearly not zero, but decays with time.
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18

Electromagnetic Field

Boundary Conditions
If the field exists in a region consisting of two different media, the condition that the field must
satisfy at the interface separating the media are called Boundary Conditions.
(a) Dielectric Dielectric Boundary Conditions: The tangential component Et of field undergoes no
change on the boundary and it is said to be continuous across the boundary,
E1t = E2t
D1t D2t

=
1
2
Hence Dt undergoes some change across the boundary and said to be discontinuous.
For normal component, D1n D2n = S
Where S is the free charge density placed at the boundary. If S = 0 then
D1n = D2n
1 E1n = 2 E2n
So the normal component of E is discontinuous across the interface.
tan1 r1
Law of refraction,
=
tan 2 r2
Where 1 and 2 are angles which E1 and E2 makes with the normal at the interface.
(b) Conductor Dielectric Boundary Condition: No electric field, E may not exist inside conductor
that is
E = 0, V = 0
Et = 0 = Dt
Dn = S
2 En = S
Thus, an electric field must be external to the conductor and must be normal to the surface.
(c) Conductor Free Space Boundary Condition:
Dt = o Et = 0
Dn = o En = S
BiotSavarts Law
The Biot Savarts Law is used to compute the magnetic field generated by a steady current, i.e., a
continuous flow of charges, for example through a wire, which is constant in time and in which
charge is neither building up nor depleting at any point. The equation is as follows:
0 Idl r
0 Idl r
B=
or (equivalently) B =
(in SI units)
2
4 r
4 r 3
dl

P
dB (Inside)

Magnetic Field dB at P Due to Current Element I dl


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19

Electromagnetic Field

Where,
I is the current,
dl is a vector, whose magnitude is the length of the differential element of the wire, and whose
direction is the direction of conventional current,
B is the net magnetic field,
0 is the magnetic constant,
r is the displacement unit vector in the direction pointing from the wire element towards the point
at which the field is being computed,
r = rr is the full displacement vector from the wire element to the point at which the field is being
computed, the symbols in boldface denote vector quantities.
Magnetic field B, at point P due to a straight line conductor,
o I
(cos 2 cos 1 )a
B=
4
Where I is current of conductor and is perpendicular distance.
B
2
I
A
1

P
Field at P Due to a Straight Filamentary Conductor
When the conductor is semi infinite, 1 = 90 and 2 = 0
o I
B=
a
4
For a infinite conductor 1 = 180 and 2 = 0
o I
B=
a
2
Ampere's Circuit Law
In classical electromagnetism, Ampre's circuit law, discovered by Andr-Marie Ampre in 1826,
relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the
loop.
It states that the line integral of B around a closed path is the same as the net current Ienc enclosed
by the path multiplied by permeability.
In SI units (the version in cgs units is in a later section), the "integral form" of the original Ampre's
circuital law is:
B. dl = 0 Ienc
C

By applying stokes Theorem to the right side of equation,

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20

Electromagnetic Field

B. dl = ( B). ds = 0 Ienc
C

But Ienc = J. ds
S

B = o J

Where
C is the closed line integral around the closed curve C.
B is the magnetic field in tesla.
". " is the vector dot product.
dl is an infinitesimal element (differential) of the curve C (i.e., a vector with magnitude equal to

the length of the infinitesimal line element, and direction given by the tangent to the curve C, see
below),
denotes an integral over the surface S enclosed by the curve C (see below). The double
integral sign is meant simply to denote that the integral is two-dimensional in nature.
0 is the magnetic constant also called the absolute permeability of free space.
Jf is the free current density through the surface S enclosed by the curve C
dS is the vector area of an infinitesimal element of surface S (that is, a vector with magnitude
equal to the area of the infinitesimal surface element, and direction normal to surface S. The
direction of the normal must correspond with the orientation of C by the right hand rule, see
below for further discussion),
Ienc is the net free current that penetrates through the surface S.
H = J 0, that is a magnetostatic field is not conservative.
This is one of the four Maxwells equation.

An isolated magnetic charge does not exist.


Thus the total flux through a closed surface in a magnetic field must be zero; that is,
B. ds = 0
By applying divergence theorem,
B. ds = . B dv = 0
S

or . B = 0
This is the fourth Maxwells equation.

The Magnetic Vector Potential (A)


The magnetic vector potential is defined based on the divergence free condition of B, the magnetic
flux density.
The definition of A is based entirely on the mathematical properties of the vector B, not on its
physical characteristics.
A is viewed as an auxiliary function rather than fundamental field quantity. Since the magnetic
vector potential is a vector function, both its curl and divergence must be specified.
The magnetic vector potential does not have a simple physical meaning in the sense that it is not a
measurable physical quantity like B or H.
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21

Electromagnetic Field

Because the magnetic vector potential relates to the magnetic flux density through A, it is at right
angles to the magnetic flux density B.
The magnetic vector potential is always in the direction of the current (and perpendicular to B). It is
a sort of current distributed in space. It is sometimes even called a fuzzy current since it is spread
around the current, as shown in below figure
A
I
A

. B = 0, B = A
. A = 0 and is called the coulomb guage for static fields.
Amperes law is H = J
B = J
Since, B = A, A = J
(. A). 2 A = J
Taking . A = 0
2 A = J
i.e., 2 A = J
The above equation is a vector Poissons equation.
Energy Density of Electric and Magnetic Fields
Electric and magnetic fields store energy. In a vacuum, the (volumetric) energy density (in SI units)
is given by
0
1 2
U = E2 +
B
20
2
The electric (Potential) energy in an electrostatic field is given by
1
1
WE = D. E dv = E2 dv
2
2
The energy in an magnetostatic field in given by
1
1
WM = B. H dv = H 2 dv
2
2
Capacitance of capacitor (Parallel Plate) is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the charge on one
of the plate to the potential difference between them.
Q
C=
V
Q

q
1 Q2 1 2
1
Wcharging = dq =
= CV = Wstored = QV
C
2 C
2
2
0

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22

Electromagnetic Field

Capacitance of Simple Systems


Type
Capacitance Resistance
Comment
d
Parallel-Plate Capacitor
A/d
A: Area
d: Distance
A
a
1
2l
Coaxial Cable /
a1 : Inner Radius
ln a1
Cylindrical Capacitor
a2 : Outer Radius
ln(a2 /a1 )
2l
l : Length
1
1
4a
a
Concentric Spheres
a1 : Inner Radius
1 2
ab
a2 : Outer Radius
a2 a1
4
1
Sphere
4a
a : Radius
4a
Circular Disc
8a
a : Radius
Example: The point charges 1 nC, 4 nC, and 3 nC are located at (0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), and (1, 0, 0),
respectively. Find the energy in the system
Solution: W = W1 + W2 + W3
= 0 + Q2 V21 + Q3 (V31 + V32 )
Q1
Q3
Q1
Q2
[
]
= Q2
+
+
40 |(0, 0, 1) (0, 0, 0)| 40 |(1, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0)| |(1, 0, 0) (0, 0, 1)|
Q2 Q3
1
(Q1 Q2 + Q1 Q3 +
)
=
40
2
1
12
12
=
(4 3 +
) 1018 = 9 ( 7) nJ = 13.37 nJ
9
10
2
2
4 36
Alternatively,
3

1
1
W = Qk Vk = (Q1 V1 + Q2 V2 + Q3 V3 )
2
2
k=1

Q2
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q3
Q2
Q3
Q3
Q2
[
]+
[
] +
[
]
=
+
+
+
2 40 (1) 40 (1)
2 40 (1) 40 (2)
2 40 (1) 40 (2)
Q2 Q3
12
1
=
(Q1 Q2 + Q1 Q3 +
) = 9 ( 7) nJ = 13.37 nJ
40
2
2
As obtained in the first solution.
Stored Energy in Inductance
The energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored by an inductor is equal to the amount of work required
to establish the current through the inductor, and therefore the magnetic field. This is given by
1
Estored = LI2
2
The quantitative definition of the self inductance of a wire loop in SI units (weber per ampere known
as henries) is
N
L =
I
Where denotes the magnetic flux through the area spanned by the loop, and N is the number of
wire turns. The flux linkage thus is
N = LI
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23

Electromagnetic Field

Inductance of a Solenoid
A solenoid is a long, thin coil, i.e., a coil whose length is much greater than the diameter. Under these
conditions, and without any magnetic material used, the magnetic flux density B within the coil is
practically constant and is given by
B = 0 NI/ l
Where 0 is the magnetic constant, N the number of turns, I the current and l the length of the coil.
Ignoring end effects the total magnetic flux through the coil is obtained by multiplying the flux
density B by the cross-section area A and the number of turns N
= 0 N2 IA/l
From which it follows that the inductance of a solenoid is given by
L = 0 N2 A/l

Inductance of Simple Systems


Coaxial Cable, High Frequency

Toroidal Core (Circular crosssection)

l
a1
ln

2
a
L = 0 r

a1 : Outer radius
a : Inner radius
l : Length
L = Inductance (H)
0 = Permeability of free space = 4 107 H/m
r = Relative permeability of core material
N = Number of turns
r = Radius of coil winding (m)
D = Overall diameter of toroid (m)

N2 r 2
D

The Continuity Equation


Consider figure below which shows an isolated volume, charged with a charge density v. No charge
leaves or enters the volume and, therefore, the charge is conserved. This is a trivial example of
conversation of charge.

v
Now, consider figure below where we connect the volume through wire and allow the charge to flow
through the wire to some other body (not shown)
ds
I

v
The rate of decrease of charge in volume v is the current out of the volume. Because charges flow
there is a current I in the wire. At the same time, the charge that flows out of the volume over a time
dt (i.e., the charge that flows through the wire) is dQ. The time rate of decrease of charge in the
volume v is = dQ/dt.
The rate of decrease of the charge in volume v must equal the current out of the volume.
I = dQ/dt
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24

Electromagnetic Field

This is the basic definition of current. The current is considered to be positive because it flows
through the surface of the volume v in the direction of ds.
The total charge in volume v is Q =v v dv
dv
I = ddt v dv =
dv
v
v dt
The current I flowing out of the volume v in terms of the current density J that flows through the
surface enclosing the volume v is
I = J. ds
S

J. ds = dv dt dv
v

The surface s is a closed surface (encloses a volume). Thus, we can apply the divergence theorem
to the LHS of the above equation to convert the closed surface integral to a volume integral.
J dv = ( dv dt) dv
v

Since both integrals are taken over the same volume, we get
. J = dv dt
This is the general form of the continuity equation.
This expression holds at any point in space and is not limited to conductors.
In the particular case of steady currents, the charge density v does not vary with time. The rate of
change of charge with time is zero and the charge decreases from volume v must be replenished
constantly to maintain a steady current.
. J = 0, If v = Constant
The above equation means that a steady current must flow in closed circuits, it cannot end in a point
because the divergence at that point would not be zero, invalidating the requirement of steady
current. This also means that the total current entering any volume must equal the total leaving this
volume.
The steady current density is conservative, since
E . dI = 0 i. e. , J . dI = 0
J=0
The steady current density is solenoidal,
Since, J . ds = 0 i. e. , . J = 0
The current density is an irrotational, solenoidal field.

Faradays Law
Faraday found that the electromotive force (EMF) produced around a closed path is proportional to
the rate of change of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path.
In practice, this means that an electrical current will be induced in any closed circuit when the
magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the conductor changes. This applies whether the field
itself changes in strength or the conductor is moved through it.
Electromagnetic induction underlies the operation of generators, all electric motors, transformers,
induction motors, synchronous motors, solenoids, and most other electrical machines.
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25

Electromagnetic Field

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that:


d
Vemf =
,
dt
Thus
Vemf is the electromotive force (emf) in Volts
B is the magnetic flux in webers
Thus a static magnetic field produces no current flow, but a time varying field, produces an induced
voltage in a closed circuit and causes a flow of current.
For the common but special case of a coil of wire, composed of N loops with the same area,
Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that
d
Vemf = N
dt
Where
Vemf is the electromotive force (emf) in Volts
N is the number of turns of wire
B is the magnetic flux in Webers through a single loop
An emf - produced field is non-conservative
Motional EMF
When a conductor moves through a magnetic field an emf is produced in the conductor.
The charges in the conductor are carried along with the moving conductor and thus experience a
magnetic force acting upon them which causes them to move inside the conductor.
As the conduction charges pile up at the end of conductor creating an electric field in the
conductor.
The conduction electrons will stop piling up when the electric force on the interior conduction
charges is equal to the magnetic force on those same charges so that the net force on the
conduction charges is zero.
B-Field
+
+
+

Fr

Conductor
v = Velocity of
Conductor

Force
Equilibrium
+

Electric Force on
FB Conduction Charge

E q

Built up of

Conduction Electrons

FM

Magnetic Force on
Conduction Charge

Motion in a Perpendicular Field

At Equilibrium, when the net force is zero.


FE = FM
qE = vB sin()q
E = vB sin(90o )
E = vB
The charges that pile up create a voltage or emf across the length of the rod that is constant.
E =

V
L

, Vemf = EL = vBL

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26

Electromagnetic Field

Induced EMF Approach


As the rod moves, it sweeps out area A. The change in magnetic flux can be found using Faraday's
Law,
L

Area
A=Lx

x
d
d
Vemf = M = Bcos( )dA
dt
dt
Bd
cos(180)dA = Bd
d
dx
A = B Lx = BL = BLv
= dt
dt
dt
dt
The results are the same, a conductor moving in a perpendicular magnetic field produces an emf
across its length
Vemf = vLB
If the ends of the conductor are connected to an external circuit them the emf can act like a

battery. The end where the positive charges would build up would act like the positive pole of a
battery. Alternately, the flow of current is in the same direction as the force that magnetic field
exerts on positive conduction charges due to the conductors motion.

Maxwells Equations
Static
Integral Form
Differential Form
H = Jc
H. dl = J. ds
L

E. dl = 0

Time - Varying
Differential Form
Integral - Form
H = Jc + JD
D
H. dl = (JC + ) . ds
t
L

E = 0

E = Bt

D. dS = v dv

. D = v

. D = v

B. dS = 0
S

E. dl =
B. ds
t
D. ds = v dv
S

. B = 0

. B = 0

B. ds = 0

H = Jc + JD is modified Amperes law


E = Bt is Faradays law
E = 0 conservative nature of electrostatic field
. D = v is Gausss law for electric field
. B = 0 is Gausss law for magnetic field (Non-existence of magnetic monopole)
D = E Electric flux density
B = H Magnetic flux density
JC = E Conduction current density, (this relation is referred to as Ohms law)
JD = Dt Displacement current density
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27

Electromagnetic Field

is conductivity expressed in Siemens/ meter


is permeability expressed in Henry / meter
is permittivity expressed in Farad / meter
For a fields to Qualify as an electro magnetic field, it must satisfy all four Maxwells equations.
The ratio of conduction current density of displacement current density is referred to as loss
tangent, i.e., loss tangent = (Jc / JD) = ( / ).
If ( / ) > > 1, the medium is referred to as high loss medium.
If ( / ) < < 1, the medium is referred to as low loss medium.
If

= 0, Loseless medium

The frequency at which (Jc/ JD) is equal to one is referred to as Transition Frequency, fq
i.e., When f = fq, Loss Tangent is one.
fq = /2 is called Transition Frequency.
From continuity of current equation . JC = v t
And Gausss law, . D = v
And Ohms law, JC = E,
We can find,
v = V0 e()t
v = V0 et Where = / and is called relaxation time constant.

The above relaxation indicates that at an interior point of any conductor if we place a charge, it
decreases to (1/e) times of initial charge in one relaxation time constant.
When operating frequency f, in a medium with , , is greater than fq, then that medium is
regarded as a Dielectric.
f >> fq Dielectric
When operating frequency f, in a medium with , , is less than fq, then that medium is
regarded as a Conductor.
f << fq Conductor
f = fq describes the transition point of medium behavior.

Magnetic Field
The magnetic field at a point is defined as being equal to the force acting on a unit magnetic pole
placed at that point. [Unit of magnetic field is ampere per meter (A/m)]
Magnetomotive Force (mmf): Magnetomotive force is the flux producing ability of an electric current
in a magnetic circuit. [It is something similar to electromotive force in an electric circuit].
[Unit of magnetomotive force is ampere (A)] - Note: Although some books use the term
ampere-turns, it is strictly not correct as turns is not a dimension]

Flex path

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28

Electromagnetic Field

mmf = I
Consider a coil having N turns as shown. It will link the flux path with each turn, so that total current
linking with the flux would be
I = N.I
Thus from Amperes Law, the mmf produced by a coil of N turns would be N I, and N I = H.I
Field Produced by a Long Straight Conductor: If a circular path of radius r is considered around the
conductor carrying a current I, then the field Hr along this path would be constant by symmetry.
By Amperes Law, 1.I = Hr .2 r
I
at a radial distance r from the conductor.
or Hr =
2r
I

r
Field Produced Inside a Toroid
Consider a toroid (similar to a ring) wound uniformly with N turns. If the mean radius of the
magnetic path of the toroid is a, then the magnetic path length would be 2.a, and the total mmf
NI
produced would be N I. Thus from Amperes Law magnetic field H =
inside the toroid.
2 a

[Variation of the magnetic field inside the cross section of the toroid is usually not necessary to be
considered and is assumed uniform]

I
N turn

Toroid

Reluctance of a Magnetic Path: A magnetic material presents a Reluctance S to the flow of magnetic
flux when an mmf is applied to the magnetic circuit.
[This is similar to the resistance shown by an electric circuit when an emf is applied]
Thus mmf = Reluctance flux or = S.
For a uniform field, = N I = H.l, and = B. A = H. A
H.l = S . H. A
So that the magnetic reluctance S =

, where l = length and A = cross-section

[Unit of magnetic reluctance is henry 1 (H 1 )]


Magnetic Permeance is the inverse of the magnetic reluctance. Thus =

1
S

A
l

[Unit of magnetic permeance is henry (H)]

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29

Electromagnetic Field

Self Inductance: While the reluctance is a property of the magnetic circuit, the corresponding
quantity in the electrical circuit is the inductance.
Nd
di
N
Induced emf e +
= L , N = Li, L =
dt
dt
i
The self inductance L of a winding is the flux linkage produced in the same winding due to unit
current flowing through it. For a coil of N turns, if the flux in the magnetic circuit is , the flux
linkage with the coil would be N. .
N2 N2 A
also since NI = S, L =
=
S
l
Thus the inductance of a coil of N turn can be determined from the dimensions of the magnetic
circuit.
Mutual Inductance: When two coils are present in the vicinity of each others magnetic circuit,
mutual coupling can take place. One coil produces a flux which links with the second coil, and when
a current in the first coil varies, an induced emf occurs in the second coil. Induced emf in coil 2 due
to current in coil 1
d12
di1
N2 12
e2 = N2
= M12
, N2 12 = M12 i1 , M12 =
dt
dt
i1
The mutual inductance M12 , of coil 2 due to a current in coil 1, is the flux linkage in the coil 2 due to
unit current flowing in coil 1. Also since N1 I1 = S1 and a fraction k12 of the primary flux would link
with the secondary, 12 = k12 1
k12 N1 N2 k12 N1 N2 A
M12 =
=
S
l
k12 is know as the coefficient of coupling between the coils.
k12 = k 21 so that M12 = M21 . For good coupling, k12 is very nearly equal to unity.
Analysis of Electromagnetic Circuit
Electromagnetic circuit can be analyzed in a manner similar to the analysis of resistive circuit.
Consider the following two winding transformer would in a three limb core.
ly
I1
ll

I2

N1
Am

Al

N2

Ay
Cross section areas of the core, and the effective length of magnetic path are indicated. It is assumed
that the cross section does not change at the corners. m. m. f. s 1 and 2 are produced in the two
windings and equal to N1 I1 and N2 I2 .
l1
relactances of each outer limb Sl =
,
o r Al
ly
relactances of each part of top and bottom yokes Sy =
,
o r Ay
ll
relactancesof middle limb Sm =
, [length of middle limb same as outer]
o r Am
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30

Electromagnetic Field

if the fluxes flowing in the path are l (outer limbs, yokes) and m (centre limb), then an equivalent
circuit similar to the electrical equivalent circuit may be drawn as follows.
Sy
Sy
Sy
I1
Sl

Sy
1 = N1 I1
Sl

Sm
2 = N2 I2
Sy

l
Sl

1
Sm

l
Sl

Sy

Sy
Sy
The fluxes can be calculated using laws similar to Ohms law and Kirchoffs law as follows.
m = l + l
Similar to Kirchoffs current law
1 + 2 = Sm m + (2Sy + Sl )l
Similar to Kirchoffs voltage law and Ohms law
Only one loop was considered as both outer limbs are identical and must therefore have the same
flux. If the limbs were different, then there would have been one additional flux term and one
additional equation. The only unknowns are m and l which can be calculated. In the case of three
phase transformers, the winding current would have different phase angles, so that the
corresponding mmfs too would have different phase angles. The analysis of this would be similar to
the analysis of three phase problem, but no equivalent being there for inductance and capacitances
in the corresponding equations. The above analysis are valid only in the linear region of the
magnetization characteristic where the permeability can be assumed to be constant. However, when
saturation occurs, the analysis is more complicated.
Analysis in the Presence of a Non- Linear Magnetization Characteristic: Only a simple circuit having a
non linear magnetic characteristic and a series air gap will be considered to illustrate the method
of analysis. It is assumed that there is no fringing of flux around that air gap so that the flux density
will be the same in both the air gap as well as the magnetic core. Bm = Ba . The characteristic of the
magnetic core is alo known. The air has a linear characteristic with permeability o

Let the cross section the core (and air gap) be A, the length of the magnetic path be lm in the
magnetic material and la in the air gap. Let the number of turn in the coil be N and the current I the
winding be I. Then from Amperes law
NI = Hm lm + Ha la

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31

Electromagnetic Field

for the air gap, Ha =

Ba Bm
=
o
o

Bm
l , or Bm = a Hm + b
o a
Since this equation has been written in terms of the parameters of the magnetic material,
intersection of this straight line with the magnetization characteristic would give the operating
position.
B
NI = Hm lm +

Bm

Bm = a Hm + b

Hm

Solved Examples
Example 1
= r 2 ar + 2sina
Given that D
in Spherical Coordinate System, where D is the electric flux
density, find the charge density ?
Solution:
Given:
1
v = 4 (r + cos )
r
= Dr ar + D a + D a
Electric Flux Density, D
In Spherical Co-ordinate System,
Where Dr = r 2 , D = 2 sin() , D = 0
and volume charge density , is given by
The relation between D
= v (1)
. D
Which is point form of Gauss law
in Spherical Co-ordinates is given by
. D
1 2
1

1 D
=
(
)
(
)
. D
r
D
+
D
sin

+
r

r 2 r
r sin
r sin
1
1

(2 sin2 ) + 0
v = 2 (r 2 r 2 ) +
r r
r sin
1
1
= 2 4r 3 +
2 2 sin cos
r
r sin
4
= 4r + cos
r
1
v = 4 (r + cos )
r

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32

Electromagnetic Field

Example 2
r, where C is the helical path described by, x = cos t,
Evaluate the integral, C . d
y = sin t, z = t, joining the points given by t = 0 and t = /2
Solution:
Let I = r . dr
c

Where C is the helical path described by x = cos (t), y = sin (t), z = t joining the
point P at t = 0 and the point, Q at t = /2.
Position vector, r in Cartesian co-ordinates is given by
r = x ax + y ay + z az and dr = dx ax + dy ay + dz az
1
Q
I = (x dx + y dy + z dz) = [x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ]P
2
c

With t = 0, P(x, y, z) = (1, 0, 0)


With t = /2, Q(x, y, z)=(0,1,/2)
1
1
2
2
/2
I = [x 2 |10 + y 2 |10 + z 2 |0 ] = [1 + 1 + ] =
2
2
4
8
Example 3
Three electrostatic point charges are located in the xy-plane as given below
+Q at (a/2, 0), +Q at (a/2, 0) and 2Q at (0, a3/2)
Calculate the co-ordinates of the point, P, on the y-axis, where the potential due to these
charges is zero. Also, calculate the magnitude of the electric field strength at p. At the
point, P, what is the angle between the equi-potential passing through p and the y-axis?
Solution:
a
a
3
Three point charges + Q at A ( , 0) , +Q at B ( , 0) and 2Q at C (0,
a)
2
2
2
are located in the xy-plane as shown in figure below.
y
P(0, y)
2Q C
+Q
A
a
( , 0)
2
z

OC =

3
a
2

+Q
B
a
( , 0)
2

(i) Let P(0, y) be the point on y-axis, where the potential, V = V1 + V2 + V3 due to these
charges is zero.
V = V1 + V2 + V3 = 0 . . (1)
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33

Electromagnetic Field

V1 =

Q
,
40 (AP)

a2
AP = + y 2 . . . (2)
4

V2 =

Q
,
40 (BP)

a2
BP = + y 2 = AP . . (3)
4

2Q
3
, CP = (y OC) = (y
a) . (4)
40 (CP)
2
From equations (2), (3) and (4)
Q
1
1
2
[ +
V =
] . (5)
40 AP BP CP
1
1
2
2
2
V = 0 if
+
=
or
=
or AP = CP
AP BP CP AP CP

V3 =

a2
a2
3
3
+ y2 = y
a or
+ y 2 = y 2 + a2 y3a
2
4
4
4
3
a2
a2
a
y3a = a2
or y3a =
or y =
4
4
4
23
a

Coordinates of the point P on y-axis are (0, 23)


:
(ii) To find E
Find equation (5), V at(0,y) is given by
V =

2Q 1
Q
1
[ ]=
40 AP CP
20

1
2

2
a
[ 4 +y

1
3
y 2 a
]

at P(0, y) is given by
E
= grad(V) = V
E

[ V ax +
V ay + V az ]
x
y
z

V = 0, V = 0
x
z
3/2

Q
1 a2
[( ) ( + y 2 )
V=
y
20
2 4
Q
a2
[y ( + y 2 )
20
4
a
At P(x, y) = P (0,
)
23

3/2

E =

3
+ (y
a)
2

Q
a a2 a2
E =
[
( + )
20
23 4 12

3
2y + (y
a) ]
2

] ay

3
+(

a) ] ay
2
23

Q
3
3Q
[ 2 ] a y =
a
20 2a
40 a2 y
3Q
E = Ey =
40 a2
=

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34

Electromagnetic Field

(iii) The direction of E at P is the direction of the normal to the equipotential surface
(V = 0) at that point, in the direction of the decreasing values of V.
From equation (6) it follows that the direction of E is in the ve y-direction.
The angle between the equipotential surface and the y-axis is zero.
Example 4
Given an irrotational vector field
= (k1 xy + k 2 z 3 )ax + (3x 2 k 3 z)ay + (3xz 2 y)az
F
Find . F at(1,1, 2)
Solution:
= Fx ax + Fy ay + Fz a z ,
Given: Irrotational vector field, F
Where Fx = (k1 x y + k 2 z 3 ), Fy = (3 x 2 k 3 z), Fz = (3 x z 2 y)
) = . F is given by
In Cartesian coordinates, Div (F

. F = (Fx ) + (Fy ) + (Fz )


x
y
z

Fx = k 1 y ,
Fy = 0,
F = 6xz
y
z z
x
At the point (x, y, z). . F = k1 y + 6 x z
At (1, 1, 2), . F = (k1 12)
Example 5
Given E = 10ej(4xkt) y V/m in free space.
(A) Write all the four maxwells equations in free space
(B) Find E
(C) Find H
Solution: Maxwells equations are Electro magnetic equations relating the field variables, which are
, H
, B
and D

vectors: E
Point or Differential Form

=
+ J
x H
D
t

B
x E
t

Integral Form

D + J ) . (ds)
s t

.
E
dl = B . ds
t
s

=
. D

D. d s = dV

= (
. dl
H

. B = 0

B. d s = 0

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

Contained in the above is the equation osf continuity,

= dv
J . ds
. J =
t
t
Characteristics of the medium in which the fields exist given rise to the following
Constitutive relation:
= E,
= H
,
D
B
J = E
For a homogenous, isotropic and source free (no impressed voltages or currents) medium
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35

Electromagnetic Field

In free space medium i.e., perfect dielectric containing no charges, and no conduction
currents
1
109 F
Put = 0, J = 0, = 0, = 0 =

, = 0 = 4 107 H/m
36
m
In the above equations.
(a) The given field, E = 10 ej(4xkt) a V/m ..(1)
represents a uniform plane wave travelling in the x-direction with velocity v = k/4
and having components, Ex = 0, Ez = 0, Ey = 10ej(4xkt)
ax ay az
a x a y a z

|
E = ||
| = || x y z ||
x y z
0 Ey 0
Ex Ey Ez

= ax (0) a y (0) + az
E
x y
o
E = j 40 ej(4xkt) = 40 ej(4xkt+90 )az
(b) For uniform plane wave
E
=
H
can have only z-component so that wave travels in the x-direction.
As E = Ey a y , H
Ey

= = 0 = (120) for free space


Hz
Ey
10 j(4xkt)
Hz =
=
e
, from equation (2)
120 120
1 j(4xkt)
A
H
= Hz az =
e
a z
12
m
= 26.5 ej(kt4x) az mA/m
H
Example 6
A system of three electric charges lying in a straight line is in equilibrium. Two of the
charges are positive with magnitudes Q and 2Q, and are 50 cm apart. Determine the sign,
magnitude and position of the third charge.
Solution:
Let Q3 be the third charge located at a distance, x from the first charge, Q
1

2Q

3
Q3

50 cm
x

2Q
Q3
+
450 4x
Q
Q3
V2 =
+
450 4(X 50)
Q
2Q
+
V3 =
(
4x 4 x 50)
P. E of the field = Q V1 + 2Q V2 + 3Q V3 = 0, for equilibrium

V1 =

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36

Electromagnetic Field

Q
2Q
Q3
Q3
] + 2Q [
]
Q[
+
+
(
450 4 x 50)
450 4x
Q
2Q
]=0
+Q3 [
+
4x 4(x 50)
2Q Q3 2Q
2Q3
1
2
]=0
+
+
+
+ Q3 [ +
50
x
50 x 50
x (x 50)
4Q
1
2
1
2
]=0
+ Q3 [ +
+ +
50
x x 50 x x 50
2
4
4Q
6x 100
] = Q3 [
]
= Q3 [ +
x x 50
50
x(x 50)
4Q
2
= Q3 , Q3 = Q
50
25
x 2 50 x = 6x 100
x 2 56 x + 100 = 0
56 562 400 56 52.3
=
= 54.15, 1.85
2
2
x = 54.15 cm
Q3 should be a negative charge with magnitude 0.08 Q and located at x = 54.15 cm from
Q and 4.15 cm from 2Q.
x =

Example 7
Consider a circular cylinder of radius 1 meter and length 0.75 meters in free space
(intrinsic impedance = 120 ohms) with its oriented along the z direction. Let a x , a y
and a z denote the unit vectors in the x, y and z directions respectively. An EM wave is
propagating in the positive z-direction with its electric field E = cos [2 f(t z/c )] a x
volts/m, where f = 100 MHz and c is the velocity of light 3 108 m/s). Determine (i) the
pointing vector P, and (ii) the net power flux intering the cylinder.
Solution:
Given E = Ex a x
With Ex = 1 cos[2 f(t z/c)]
|Ex | = 1 V/m
is having only ax component with |Ex | = 1, the corresponding magnetic field
(i) As E
should have only y component so that the EM Wave travels in +ve z-direction.
z

0.75m
y
x

1m

z
= |Hy | cos [2f (t )] ay
H

c
|Ey | and |Hy | are related by
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37

Electromagnetic Field

|Ex |
|Hy |

= 0 = (120)

1
z
yA
cos [2f (t )] a
120
c
m
is given by
The pointing vector, P
1
z
P = E
H
=
cos2 [2f (t )] az W/m2
120
c
(ii) Power enters from the bottom plane area = () m2 of the cylinder and leaves from
the top plane area of the cylinder.
Power flow through the curved surface is zero.
Net average power flux entering the cylinder
=
H

1 1
z
P=
cos2 (2f (t )) dt, where T = 1/f sec
T 120
c
t=0

1 T
1
=
=
W
120 T 2
240

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38

Electromagnetic Field

Assignment 1
1.

Maxwells divergence equation for the


electric field is
(A) .E =
(B) .E =

2.

3.

(C) E =

(D) .E =

2o

5.

An infinite plane at Z = 10 m carries a


uniformly distributed charge of density
2 nC/m2 . The electric field intensity at
the origin is
(A) 0.2 az n V/m
(C) 2 az n V/m
(B) 2 az n V/m
(D) 36 az V/m

6.

If an isolated conducting sphere in air

The critical angle in degrees, for an


electromagnetic wave passing from
quartz (= 0 , = 40 ) into air is
(A) 15
(C) 45
(B) 30
(D) 90
A single layer air-cored coil having n
turns has an inductance L. If a new coil
is formed by having 2n turns while
retaining the coil length and diameter at
the same value as before, the
inductance of the new coil will be
L
(C) 4L
(A)
L
2
(D)
(B) 2L

has radius =
be
(A) Zero
(B) 1 F

A parallel plate capacitor of plate area A


and plate separation t has a capacity C.
If a metallic plate P of area A and of
negligible thickness is introduced in the
capacitor at a distance

t
2

The displacement flux density at a point


on the surface of a perfect conductor is
= 2(ax 3az ) C/m2 and is pointing
D
away form the surface. The surface
charge density at that point (C/m2 ) well
be
(A) 2
(C) 4
(B) 2
(D) 4

9.

t/2

(A)

(B) C

t/2

(C) 2C
(D) 4C

(C) 4 F
(D) 0 F

8.

the two plates, as shown in the given


figure, then the capacity of the capacitor
will come

its capacitance will

Which one of the following statements


DOES NOT pertain to the equation
. B = 0?
(A) There are no sinks and sources for
magnetic fields.
(B) Magnetic field is perpendicular to
the electric field.
(C) Single magnetic pole cannot exist.
(D) B is solenoidal

from either of

4o

7.

4.

The torque in (N m) acting on a


circular current loop of radius 1mm in
the xy-plane, connected at the origin
and with current 0.1 A flowing in the
sense of increasing in a magnetic field
=105 (2ax 2ay + az ) Wb/m2 is:
B
(A) (2) 1012 (2ax 2ay + az )
(B) 2 1012 (ax + ay)
(C) 1012
(D) 1012

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39

Electromagnetic Field

10.

The given figure shown the surface


charge distribution of q Coulombs/m2 .
What is the force on a unit charge
placed at the centre of circle?

13.

Two coils have self-inductances of 0.09


H and 0.01 H and a mutual inductance
of 0.015H. The coefficient of coupling
between the coils is
(A) 0.06
(C) 1.0
(B) 0.5
(D) 0.05

14.

In a hundred-turn coil, if the flux


through each turn is (t 3 2t)m Wb, the
magnitude of the induced EMF in the
coil at a time of 4s is
(A) 46 mV
(C) 4.6 V
(B) 56 mV
(D) 5.6 V

15.

A positive charge of Q coulomb is


located at point A(0, 0, 3) and a
negative charge of magnitude Q
coulomb is located at point B(0, 0 3).
The electric field intensity at point C(4,
0, 0) is in the
(A) Negative x direction
(B) Negative z-direction
(C) Positive x-direction
(D) Positive z-direction

16.

The force between two point charges of


1 nC each with a 1mm separation in air
is
(A) 9 103 N
(C) 9 109 N
(B) 9 106 N
(D) 9 1012 N

17.

A 3 F capacitor is charged by a
constant current of 2 A for 6 seconds.
The voltage across the capacitor at the
end of charging will be
(A) 3 V
(C) 6 V
(B) 4 V
(D) 9 V

18.

A coil of resistance of 5 and


inductance 0.4 H is connected to a 50 V
d.c supply. The energy stored in the
field is
(A) 10 Joules
(C) 40 Joules
(B) 20 Joules
(D) 80 Joules

R
q

(A) Zero
(B)
11.

12.

q
4R2

(C)
N

(D)

q2
4R
q2

4R2

Match List I(Laws) with List II


(Applications) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below the
lists:
List I
To find the
A. Amperes law
B. Biosavarats law
C. Coulombs law
D. Gausss law
List II
1. Force on a charge
2. Force due to a current carrying
conductor
3. Electric flux density at a point.
4. Magnetic flux density at a point
Codes
A B C D
(A) 3 2 1 4
(B) 4 2 1 3
(C) 4 1 2 3
(D) 3 1 2 4
A solid cylindrical conductor of radius
R has a uniform current density. The
magnetic field H inside the conductor
at a distance r from the axis of the
conductor is
(A)

2r
I
(B)
4r

(C)

Ir

2R2
Ir
(D)
4R2

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40

Electromagnetic Field

19.

around the closed


The circulation of H
contour C, shown in the figure is
3I

2I

5.

A coaxial transmission line has inner


and outer radius a&b respectively.
If H = (AP) sintcos (z). The
conductors are perfect and the
dielectric has r = 1, o = 2.25, = 0.
The line extends from z = 0 to z = d. If
z = 0 is a perfect conductor, what will
be Vab (t)at z = d
(A) ( w0 /A) ln(a b) cos(t) cos(d)
(B) ( w0 A/ ) ln(a/b) sin(t) cos(d)
(C) ( w0 A/ ) ln(ab) sin(t) sin(d)
(D) ( w0 A/ ) ln(b/a) sin(d) cos(t)

6.

A 100 MHz uniform plane wave is


normally incident from air into a
material measurement yield a SWR of 5
and the appearance of an electric field
minimum at 4 in front of the interface.
The impedance of material is
(A) 100j300 (C) 113.36+j260.09
(B) 125j275 (D) 105j260.25

7.

The cross section of a waveguide is


shown in the figure. It has a dielectric
discontinuity. If the guide operates at
8 GHz in dominant mode. Then SWR is

(A) 0
(B) 2I

(C) 4I
(D) 6I

Assignment 2
1.

2.

3.

Two media 1 and 2 are separated by x-y


plane. Medium 1(z > 0, r 1 = 4) has
electric field 3ax + 5ay + 2az v/m.
What will be the electric field in
medium 2 (z < 0, r = 16).
(A) 3ax + 5ay + 0.5az
(B) 3ax + 5ay 0.5az
(C) 2ax + 5ay + 0.5az
(D) 2ax + 5ay + 0.5az
A lossy material has = 50 , = 20 ,
The phase constant is 10 rad/m at
5 MHz. The loss tangent is
(A) 2913
(C) 2468
(B) 1823
(D) 1374
Which one of the following is another
form of Faradays law
(A) J =

A
(B) E = t

4.

Y
2.5

PV
t

(C) . A = E t
(D) None of these

If v = 10xyz z + 5x V find the E field


on V = 100 volt surface at the point
x = 2, y=3
(A) 50.76ax 30.51ay 59azv/m
(B) 27.726ax 30.51ay 59azv/m
(C) 50.76ax 22.61ay 59azv/m
(D) 27.32ax 30.51ay 11.22azv/m

0 2.25 0

(A) 1.564
(B) 2.468
8.

0 0

(C) 3.911
(D) 4.389

An electrostatic field is said to be


conservative when
(A) The divergence of the field is equal
to zero
(B) The curl of the field is equal to zero
B
(C) The curl of the field is equal to t
(D) The laplacian of the field is equal to

2 E
t2

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41

Electromagnetic Field

9.

Two long parallel wires in free space


are separated by a distance R and carry
currents of equal magnitude but
opposite in direction. At any general
point, the Z component of

12.

The electric field strength at a far off


point, P, due to a point charge, +q,
located
at
the origin, O, is
100 mV/meter. The point charge is now
enclosed by a perfectly conducting
hollow metal sphere with its centre at
the origin, 0. The electric field strength
at the point, P,
(A) Remains unchanged in its
magnitude and direction
(B) Remains unchanged in its
magnitude but reverse in direction
(C) Would be that due to a dipole
formed by the charge, +q, at 0 and
q induced
(D) Would be zero

13.

Which of the following field equations


indicate that the free magnetic charges
do not exist
1
(C) . H = 0
(A) H= A

d1

d2

(A) The magnetic vector potential is


0 I
4

ln(d2 2 /d1 2 )

(B) The magnetic induction is


0 I
2

(d2 /d1 )

(C) The magnetic induction is zero


(D) The magnetic vector potential is
0 I
4

10.

11.

(d2 2 /d1 2 )

On either side of a charge free


interface between two media
(A) The normal components of the
electric field are equal
(B) The tangential components of the
electric field are equal
(C) The normal components of the
electric flux density are equal
(D) The tangential components of the
electric flux density are equal
Vector potential is a vector
(A) Whose curl is equal to the magnetic
flux density
(B) Whose curl is equal to the electric
field intensity
(C) Whose divergence is equal to the
electric potential
(D) Which is equal to the vector
product E x H

(B) H =

I dIR
4R2

(D) H = J

14.

The incoming solar radiation at a place


on the surface of the earth is
1.2 kW/m2 . The amplitude of the
electric field corresponding to this
incident power is nearly equal to
(A) 80 mV/m
(C) 30 V/m
(B) 2.5 V/m
(D) 950 V/m

15.

Given V = x cos2 y i + x 2 ez j + z sin2 y k


and S the surface of a unit cube with one
corner at the origin and edges parallel to
the coordinate axes, the value of the
integral V. n ds is ________
s

16.

For a uniformly charged sphere of


radius R and charged density , the
ratio of magnitude of electric fields at
distances R/2 and 2R from the centre,
i.e.,
E(r=R /2)
E (r=2R)

is __________

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42

Electromagnetic Field

Answers Keys & Explanations


Assignment 1
1.
[Ans. A]
Maxwells divergence equation,

E =
o
2.

4.

5.

6.

[Ans. B]
The new system has two capacitor in
series, let the value of one capacitor is C.
A
A 2 A
C =
,C =
=
= 2C
t
t/2
t
New capacitance = 2C in series with 2C = C
[Ans. D]
s
E =
20

2 109
= 36 az V/m
2 8.854 1012

8.

10.

[Ans. A]
The E field vanishes everywhere inside
the sphere.

11.

[Ans. B]
Amperes law Magnetic flux density at a
point. Biosavarts law Force due to a
current carrying conductor. Coulombs
law Force on a charge. Gausss law
Electric flux density at a point

12.

[Ans. C]
H 2 r =

13.

14.

[Ans. C]
Surface Charge Density = |D|
= 21 + 3 = 4 C/m2

[Ans. B]

[Ans. C]
Nd
= 100 (3 t 2 2) 103
dt
[magnitude EMF] at t = 4 sec
EMF = 100 (48 2) 103
100 46 103 = 4.6 V
EMF =

1
=1F
40

[Ans. B]
B = 0
It does not pertain that magnetic field is
perpendicular to the electric field.

Ir 2
Ir
H =
2
2R2
R

M = K L1 L2
M
0.015
K=
=
= 0.5
0.09 0.01
L1 L2

[Ans. B]
C = 40 R = 40

7.

= 0.1 (103 )2 105 (2 ax + 2ay )


= 2 1012 (ax + ay )Wb/m2

[Ans. C]
Inductance of solenoid,
o N2 A
L=
l
So L N2
When turns are double, inductance will be
4 times.

[Ans. B]
T = m B = IA az B
= IA az (2 ax 2 ay + az )105
= IA 105 (2ay + 2ax )

[Ans. B]
1
= sin1 = sin1 0.5 , = 30o
4

3.

9.

15.

[Ans. B]
z
A
+Q
C

Q
B

45

45

E2

E1

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43

Electromagnetic Field

E1 = Field due to A at point C


E2 = Field due to B at point C
both are equal in magnitude and make
angle of 90, their resultant lie in z
direction.
16.

4.

V = 10xyz z + 5x E = v
100 = 10xyz z + 5x
(10yz + 5)ax 10xzay + (1 10xy)az
5x 10
z=
1 210xy
At point P(2,3, z), z = 1.52
E = 50.76 ax 30.51 ay 59 az V/m

[Ans. A]
q2
r2
1018
= 9 109
= 9 103 N
106

F = 9 109

17.

[Ans. B]
q It 2 106 6
V = = =
= 4V
C C
3 106

18.

[Ans. B]
1
1
50 2
E = LI2 = 0.4 ( ) = 20 J
2
2
5

19.

5.

[Ans. D]
For a < P < b & 0 < z < d
d b
0 A
=
sin(t) cos() dp dz
P
0 a
0 A
b
=
ln ( )

a
w0 A
ln(ba) sin(d) cos(t)
=

6.

[Ans. C]
At minimum

[Ans. C]
By Amperec circuit law H. dl = Ienc
3I + 2I I = 4I

2
= 6

S1
51 4
| | =
=
= = 0.67
S+1
5+1 6
2 0
|| = 67ej0.6
[ = ||ej ]
2 + 0
1 + 0.67ej0.6
2 = 0 (
)
t 0.67ej0.6
0.67ej108 = 20 + j0.6365
1 20 + j 6365
2 = 377 [
]
1 + 20j0.6365
377[0.3007 + j0.6899]
2 = 113.36 + j260.09

D
=
D2n
1n = 4 to (2az )

E2n = 0.5az, E2 = E2t +


E2n
[Ans. B]
Loss Tangent

=x

2
= [1 + ( ) + 1 ]
2

2 5 106 5 2

[1 + x 2 + 1]
3 108
2

x=
= 1823

10 =

3.

[Ans. B]

B
t

A
=
E
[ A], E =
t
t
=
E

( + )
= 4
2

Assignment 2
1.
[Ans. A]

E1t = 3ax + 5ay =


E2t

2.

[Ans. A]

7.

[Ans. A]
Since a > b the dominant mode is TE10
C
3 108
In face space fc =
=
= 3 GHz
2a
2 0.05
0
377
=
= 406.7
1 =
2
2
3
1 ( )
1 (fc )
7
f0
c
In dielectric medium fc =
2 GHz
2ar
0
377
=
=
= 251.33
r 2.25
251.33
2 =
= 259.23
2
2
1 ( )
8

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44

Electromagnetic Field

Reflection Coefficient =

2 1
2 + 1

I
[ln [L + L2 + d12 ] ln d1 ]
2
I
[ln[2L] ln d1 ] , L >> d1
=
2
Vector magnetic potential A2 due to long
wire RS:
I
A2 = [ln[2L] ln d2 ]
2
Due to both wires,
I
A = A1 + A2 = [ln d2 ln d1 ]

259.23 406.7
= 0.22
259.23 + 406.7
1 + ||
1 + 0.22
S =
=
= 1.564
1 + ||
1 0.22

8.

[Ans. B]
An electrostatic field with electric field, E
is said to be conservative, if the closed
line integral of the field is zero. i.e.,
. dl = 0..(1)
E
Applying stokes theorem, equation (1)
becomes
= 0, i.e., the curl of the field, E
is
E

I
d2
I
d22
=
ln [ ] =
ln [ 2 ]
2
d1
2
d1
10.

[Ans. B, C]
This question is regarding the boundary
conditions at the interface between two
media (1) and (2)
For a charge free interface between two
media with dielectric constant 1 and 2
(i) The tangential components of the
electric field are equal. i.e.,
Etan1 = Etan2
or E is continuos at the boundary
(ii) The normal components of electric
flux density D are equal. i.e.,
DN1 = DN2 or DN is continuous at the
boundary.
Dtan1 1 EN2
It may be noted that
= =
Dtan2 2 EN1

11.

[Ans. A]

equal to zero.

Note that E = t for time varying


fields. Also note that laplacian of the field
E is given by

2 E

2 E = t2 , which is the wave equation


of an electromagnetic wave.
9.

[Ans. A]
The magnetic vector potential A, at point
P in the xy plane (z=o) is derived below
(see Fig.)
Taking an elemental current element I dz,
Vector magnetic potential A1 due to the
long wire PQ:
Q z

Vector magnetic potential, A is a vector


whose curl is equal to the magnetic flux

density, B

A = B = H

R
o

y
d1

Note that the unit of A is web/meter.

d2
P

12.

x
P

N
L

A1 =

I
dz

, R = d12 + z 2
4
R
L
L

I
dz
I

=
ln [z 2 + d12 ]
2 d12 + z 2 2
0

[Ans. D]
E = 100 V/m is replaced by a 100 mV/m
Note that the data either 100 V/m has no
effect on the field strength required at the
point P.
Therefore for the present question also
the electric fields strength at P would be
zero.

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45

Electromagnetic Field

13.

[Ans. C]
Gausss law for magnetic fields states that
the electric flux flowing through the
closed surface is equal to zero, as free
magnetic charge do not exit and magnetic
flux lines are closed.
=0
B.
ds = 0 or . B

sin2 y dy dx =

sin 2y 1 1
1
] [x]
= [ ] [y
2 0 0
2
1
sin(2)
1
sin(2)
= [1
] (1) = [1
]
2
2
2
2
I3 through OTSM = Vy dx dz,
y = 0, x = 0 to 1, z = 0 to 1

, . H
= 0
As B = H
In homogeneous medias is independent
of position.
. H = 0
14.

x3
= [x e dx dz] = [ ] [ex ]10
3 0
1
1
= [ ] [e1 1] = [e1 1]
3
3
I4 through PQRN = I3
I5 through OTQP = xcos2 y dy dz ,
x = 0, y = 0 to 1, z = 0 to 1
=0
I6 through MSRN = xcos2 y dy dz ,
x = 1, y = 0 to 1, z = 0 to 1
2 2

[Ans. D]
Power density, P = 1.2 kW/m2, on the
surface of the earth where
= 0 = (120)
The relation between E and P is given by
E2
=P
2
The amplitude, E of the electric field is
given by

[Ans. *]
Given V = x cos2 y i + x 2 ez j + z sin2 y k

R
Q

M
O
x

. n dS
The given integral : I = s V
I1 through OMNP = Vz dx dy,
z = 0, x = 0 to 1, y = 0 to 1
= 0 , as Vz = 0 at z = 0
I2 through TQRS = Vz dx dy,
z = 1, x = 0 to 1, y = 0 to 1
= sin2 y dy dx

1
sin 2y 1 1 1
sin(2)
= [y +
] [z]0 = [1 +
] [1]
2
2 0
2
2
1
sin(2)
= [1 +
]
2
2
I = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 + I5 + I6
1
sin(2)
1
sin(2)
= [1
] + [1 +
]
2
2
2
2
1
= sin(2)
2

= 2 120 1.2 103 V/m


= 951 V/m 950 V/m

V = x cos2 y ax + x 2 e2 ay + z sin2 y az
= Vx ax + Vy ay + Vz az
Vx = cos2 y, Vy = x 2 e2 and Vz = z sin2 y

1 + cos 2y
cos y dy dz =
dy dz
2
2

E = 20 P

15.

1 cos 2y
dy dx
2

16.

[Ans. *]
Given the sphere of radius R with uniform
surface charge density C/m2 . Magnitude
of the electric field at 2R from the centre
of the sphere can be obtained by using
= Charge Enclosed
. ds
Gausss law: D
D (at r = 2R) 4(2R)2 = 4R2

D(at r = 2R) =
4
D(at r = 2R) 1
E(at r = 2R) =
=

4
R
R
But D (at r = ) = 0 or E (at r = ) = 0
2
2
Because no charge is enclosed within the
imaginary spherical surface of radius R/2
E(r = R/2)

=0
E(r = 2R)

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46

People rarely succeed unless they


have fun in what they are doing.
. Dale Carnegie

Module Test
1.

If divergence is represented by D and


curl is represented by C, which of the
following is true?

(A) D = 0 , C = 0
(B) D 0 , C = 0
2.

3.

4.

A parallel plate capacitor has plate


area of 5 cm2 and a separation of
3 mm and a voltage of 50 sin 103 t V
applied to its plates. Assuming
= 2 0 , the displacement current is,
(A) 147.4 cos103 t nA
(B) 150 cos 10 t A
(C) 180 cos 103 A
(D) 155 cos 103 mA
Which of the following expression is
not Maxwellss equation for time
varying fields?
B
(A) H = JC + JD
(C) .E=
t

(D) B. ds = 0

If J = (zy ax + xz ay + z 3 az ) cos 104 t


A/m2, then volume charge density
v is, ( given v (x, y, 0, t)= 0)
(A) v = 0.3z 2 sin 104 t mc/m3
(B) v = 0.6z 2 sin 104 t c/m3
(C) v = 0.3z 2 sin 104 t mc/m3
(D) v = 0.5z 2 sin 104 t mc/m3
Statement for Linked Answer Q.No. 6 & 7
A conducting bar can slide freely over
two conducting rails a shown in figure.

(C) D = 0 , C 0
(D) D 0 , C 0

E = 0 implies that
(A) E = 0
(B) E is a conservation field , and
hence irrotational vector
(C) E is a static and doesnt change
with time
(D) E is a constant vector

(B) .D = v

5.

P
y

O
V

6 cm
x

6.

If the bar is stationed at y = 8 cm and


B = 4 cos 106 t az mWb/m2, the
induced voltage in the bar is,
(A) 19.2 sin 106 t V
(B) 19.2 sin 106 t V
(C) 19.2 cos 106 t V
(D) 19.2 cos 106 t V

7.

If the bar slides at a velocity v = 20 ay


m/s and B = 4 az m Wb/m2, the
induced voltage in the bar is,
(A) 4.8 mV
(C) 48 mV
(B) 4.8 mV
(D) 48 mV

8.

Which law was given by Maxwell for


the correction of the inconsistency of
continuity equation for the time
varying field
D (C) Faradays law
(A) Amperes law
t

(B) Gausss law J

(D) None of these

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47

Module Test

9.

10.

11.

Maxwells Wave equation is


B
(A) E =
t
B
D
(B) E =
, H =
t
t
2

E
(C) . D = 0, 2 E = 0 0 2
t
2

E
2 B
(D) 2 E = 0 0 2 , 2 B = 0 0 2
t
t
In the source free wave equation

2 E
E
0 0
2 E
0
=0
2
t
t
The term responsible for the
attenuation of the wave is

E
(A) 0
t
2 E
(B) 0 0 2
t

(C) 2 E

E
2 E
(D) 0
and 0 0 0 2
t
t

Plane z = 10 m carries surface charge


density 20 nc/m2 . What is the electric
field at the origin?
(A) 10az V/m
(C) 72 az V/m
(B) 18 az V/m (D) 360 az V/m

15.

What is the value of total electric flux


coming out of a closed surface?
(A) Zero
(B) Equal to volume charge density
(C) Equal to the total charge enclosed
by the surface
(D) Equal to the surface charge
density

16.

Two extensive homogenous isotropic


dielectrics meet on a plane z = 0. For
z 0, r1 = 4 and for z 0, r2 = 2. A
uniform electric field exists at z 0 as
E1 = 5ax 2ay + 3a z kW/m. What is
the value of E2 in the region z 0?

17.

Which one of the following is the


poissons equation for a linear and
isotropic but inhomogeneous medium?
(A) 2 E = /
(V) =
(C) .
V) = v (D) 2 V = /
(B) . (

18.

= 0 is based on
Equation .B
(A) Gausss Law
(B) Lenzs Law
(C) Amperes Law
(D) Continuity Equation

=0
(C) B

= 0
. ds
(B) B
S

(D) . B 0

15ax + 20a y N/m


20ax + 15ay N/m
20ax + 15a y N/m
20ax 20ay N/m

14.

If a vector field B is solenoidal, which of


these is true?
= 0
. dl
(A) B

What is the force experienced per unit


length by a conductor carrying 5 A
current in positive Z direction and
placed
in
a
magnetic
field
= (3ax + 4a y )?
B
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

A potential field is given by V = 3x 2 y yz.


Which of the following in NOT true?
(A) At the point (1, 0, 1), V and the
electric field E vanish
(B) x 2 y = 1 is an equipotential plane in
the xy plane
(C) The equipotential surface V = 8
passes through the point P (2, 1, 4)
(D) A unit normal to the equipotential
surface V = 8 at P is
(0.83x + 0.55 y + 0.07 z)

12.

13.

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48

Module Test

Answer Keys & Explanations


1.

[Ans. D]
Both curl and divergence is not zero.

2.

[Ans. B]
E = 0 implies that E is a
conservative field and hence it is
irrotational vector.

3.

[Ans. A]
V
D = E =
d
D V
Jd =
=
t
d t
A V
A dV
( )=
Id = Jd . A =
d dt
d dt
109 5 104
=2

103
36 3 103
50 cos 103 t A
= 147.4 cos 103 t nA

4.

[Ans. A]

5.

[Ans. A]

8.

[Ans. A]
Dt is called displacement current &
behaves the same way as physical
current & hence the continuity equation
must also include this current.

9.

[Ans. D]

10.

[Ans. A]

E
t
involves the parameter i.e.,
conductivity of the lossy medium that
correspond to losses in EM wave
propagation.
The term 0

11.

V
V
V
a + a + a ]
x x y y z z
E = [6xyax + (3x2 z)ay yay ]
E = V = [

So, E at (+1, 0 1) = [0 + 3ay 0]


= 3ay 0

v
. J = (0 + 0 + 3z ) cos 10 t =
t
2

v = . Jdt = 3z 2 cos 104 t dt

6.

3z 2
=
sin 104 t + C0
104
v /z = 0 C0 =0
So, v = 0.3 z 2 sin 104 t mc/m3

[Ans. B]
According to Gauss law for magnetic
= 0 i.e., no existence of
field .B
monopoles.
= 0 ( Divergence theorem)
ds
B

[Ans. B]

Divergence of B = 0 i. e. , B is solenoidal.

Vemf =
0.08 0.06

B
. ds
t

4(103 ) (106 ) sin 106 t dx dy

y=0 x=0

= 19.2 sin 106 t V


7.

[Ans. A]
V = 3x 2 y yz

[Ans. B]
Vemf = (v B). dl
0

= (vay Baz ). dx ax = vBl

12.

13.

[Ans. B]
Force on current carrying conductor
due to magnetic field
B = 3ax + 4ay
= l(laz B)
F
Force per unit length
1 = l(az B)
F
= 5[az (3a x + 4ay )]
= 5[3a y 4ax ]
F1 = 20ax + 15a y N/m

x=l

= 20 (4 103 ) (0.06) = 4.8 mV


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49

Module Test

14.

[Ans. D]
s
(az )
E=
2 0
20 109 4 9 109
=
(az )
21
= 360 az V/m

15.

[Ans. C]
Net flux coming out from a closed
= Qenclosed total
. ds
surface i.e., D
charge enclosed within the surface this
is Gausss law for electric field.

16.

[Ans. C]
From the boundary condition
Dn1 = Dn2 (Charge-free)
0 r1 Ez1 = 0 r2 Ez2
4 3 = 2 Ez2
Ez2 = 6az

17.

[Ans. B]
.D
= v
We known that

But D = E
. (E
) = v

but E = V
V-potential (Scalar)
. (V) = v
Medium is inhomogeneous i.e., is
function of dimensions x, y, z so we
cannot take it out side.

18.

[Ans. A]
Magnetic monopoles are not physically
=0
possible as per Gausss Law i.e., .B

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50

Reference Books

Reference Books
1.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems


By E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balsain

2.

Engg Electromagnetic
By William Hayt

3.

Antenna And Wave Propagation


By KD Prasad

4.

Microwave devices & circuits


By Lio

5.

Schaum series for problems

6.

Principles of Elctromagnetics
By Matthew N.O. Sadiku

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