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ENTREPRENEURSHIP

IN ACADEMIC FIELD

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Today the importance of


entrepreneurship
has
increased as a result of
economic
developments
and changes. Therefore,
there is a need for
entrepreneurs to provide
global
and
regional
development.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneur is the most important production


factor that creates economic value and provides
social welfare.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The universities integrated into changes and


transformations
improve
entrepreneurial
tendencies of students with its entrepreneurship
education..
4

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

INTRODUCTION:
This representation prepared on
entrepreneurship in the academic field consists
of 3 chapters.
1. Entrepreneurship Education in General
2. Entrepreneurship Education in Gazi University
3. Success Story at Gazi University
5

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship Education
in General

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship Education:
In the developing world,
universities have acquired a new
place in society. Now, the
universities should participate in
today's economic life as an actor
directly or indirectly.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Purpose of entrepreneurship education is to reveal the


entrepreneurial personality.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

It should be determined
primarily how students are
ready to entrepreneurial
activity in the process of
preparing students to
entrepreneurial activity.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship Education Given at


the Universities and Impact on
Entrepreneurship Tendency:
When
efficient
efforts
for
entrepreneurship
are
oriented,
developed, motivated and encouraged
in appropriate and scientifically way,
lead to successful results suc as various
social organizations and firms (Top
2006: 183).

10

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Universities that are under institutional, national and global pressures are
forced to be more dynamic and they try to explore and to learn the theory
and practice of entrepreneurship like in other countries, and thus try to
create new opportunities beyond the existing capabilities. (Odaba,
2007).

11

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

All actors in the competitive environment of today's


world are working to develop their own regions. All
actors in the region including universities are obliged to
contribute to the preparation of a development
strategy based on the internal dynamics.

12

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The change requiring new


formations requires the
pressures, production of
information that will be
useful to economy and
social development, the
co-operation with industry
that can use it. (Odaba,
2007).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship derived from the word


entreprendre in French and meaning to do
something in a different way is considered as a
part of a new economic model with Austrian
economist Joseph Schumpeters views on
entrepreneurship. (TSAD, 2002:35). (Baar,
Tosunolu and Demirci, 2001:89).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurial approach and its


applications have a high priority in
increasing
the
performance,
productivity and competitiveness
for any organization whatever the
size, type and background of the
organization. From this point of
view, Entrepreneurial University"
concept means to apply the
entrepreneurship
into
the
universities.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The concept of entrepreneurial university has led to the


development of entrepreneurial concept which exists at USA
universities since two hundred years and then this trend has spread
to the world's universities by growing.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

In recent years, universities in European countries such as


Cambridge and Twente follow in the universities' in the U.S.A
footsteps and they try to implement these applications by
starting from top management. (Lazzeroni and Piccaluga,
2003:38).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

"So, what's changing at the universities?


This question can be answered as
expansion of the role of universities in
the context of rapid exchange of
information for globalization and rapid
economic development (Mszros,
1999:91).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Universities have to be able


to
continue
together
"traditional" and "innovative"
by improving the functions
and roles so as to meet these
requests newly formed while
fulfilling their traditional
teaching
and
research
purposes (training qualified
human
and
producing
information). (Schulte, 2004).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Modern universities of the future are expected to establish on three


basic including science, education and entrepreneurship (Aalerud,
2004). (etin, 2007).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Importance of the Universities on Entrepreneurship Education:


The contributions of the education needed by entrepreneurs to the Japanese
economy was noticed and the first systematic training on entrepreneurship
was carried out with giving training courses and seminars for small businesses
by Emeritus at Kobe University in Japan in 1938.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship education in USA was performed by Myles


Mace in Harvard Business School in 1947 firstly and by Peter
F. Drucker in New York University in 1953 secondly (Top 2006:
183-184).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Today, the importance of this issue has understood and these


trainings have become common in order to increase the
entrepreneurs. (Dndar, Aca 2007:123).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurs who contribute to strengthening the social and economic


cohesion, revival of economic activities, creation of business life in backward
regions in development or to participate unemployed or people with
disabilities in working life provide significant benefits in economic growth by
bringing together capital, innovation and skills (Girginer, Ukun 2004: 785),
(etin 2007: 219).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Changes at Universities and Emergence of the Concept of Entrepreneurial


University:
The important developments that may impact on the organizational
structure, roles and functions of the universities are concerned lately. These
developments causing changes in the universities are as follows (H:\Toros
niversitesi 3K niversite.htm):

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

1. Leading universities seek


alternative sources for research,
2. Technology companies seek
cooperation with universities for
research,
3. Globalization is growing
steadily,

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

4. Universities are seen as incubation centers by national


governments,
5. Research is now interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary,
6. Governments establish research institutions.
7. The competition is growing to get a good student,

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

For these reasons, today's


universities are in a
competitive environment.
(H:\Torosniversitesi.3K.niversite.htm)

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The most important of these reasons affecting higher


education institutions and higher education policy
directly is the rapid increase of the globalization.
(zdem, Sar 2007: 2).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

With the globalization process, the direction and range


of functions expected from higher education
institutions have changed or functions expected from
higher education institutions have increased. (zdem,
Sar 2007: 4):

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

These areas;
1. To provide general education after secondary education,
2. To turn to applied scientific research,
3. To meet the labor needs of society,
4. To help governments and civil society organizations on the important issues
such as improving the efficiency, places that the resources direct to, the
implementation of research results for a strong economic competition.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

5. To prepare "continuous education" programs for various


professional groups, to provide the university opportunities for
environment by providing consultancy services for the local industry
organizations in order to serve the region and the society in which they
live.
6. To form academic departments that are compatible with markets.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

7.Leading to the development of environmental by putting


out an open and free ideas. (zdem, Sar 2007: 3-4).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The best example for corporate


universities is USA and Canada having an
advanced higher education system.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Today's universities are managed like large companies.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The methods such as strategic planning used in the


real business world, total quality management, ISO
certificates have been institutionalized in many
public universities. (Erdem 2010: 310).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The entrepreneurial universities focused on


generating new sources of revenue explore new
resources. (etin 2007: 225).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The Relationship Between


Entrepreneurship Tendency:

Entrepreneurial

University

and

Entrepreneurial university has emerged based on the fact that


entrepreneurship can be learned and taught and the training and
education in these universities was restructured so as to enable the
students to educate as entrepreneurs in the future Entrepreneurial
universities are based on three structures (Odaba 2006: 92,93)

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

- University is entrepreneur as an organization,


- Entrepreneurial structures are formed with the
interaction between the university and
environment,
- Academic staff, employees and students
transformed themselves into an entrepreneur.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Universities may give support from outside by using many


functions for entrepreneurship that is vital for the development
of a country; also they can be entrepreneurs directly and can
contribute to the development of the entrepreneurship in this
way (Kavi 2009: 171).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Effect
of
Entrepreneurship
Education
on
Entrepreneurship Tendency of University Students:
Career prospects and trends of individuals begin to
take shape in the university period (Wilson 2007:
388), (Artan 2005: 18).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Young people who have


higher
education
are
regarded as "be ready to be
educated"
in
developed
societies and it is highlighted
that educated young people
have several advantages in
terms of entrepreneurial
(Arslan 2002), (Titiz, 1999:
218).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

One of the most important differences between


entrepreneurs and other people is education according
to the research(Lee 2006: 356).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

In developing countries,
young
people
are
generally intended to be
employed in the private
or
public
sector.
(Girginer, Ukun 2004:
783).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

When people integrate


the
knowledge
obtained from schools,
training programs and
university with their
own
knowledge,
increase their chances
of
becoming
a
successful entrepreneur
(Souitaris 2007: 570).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship education provides a common workspace and


motivation, knowledge and skills that are basic for a successful
entrepreneurship to students (Lee 2006: 352), (Grol, Atsan 2006:
26-27).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship education is
given from the primary level
and the interest of students in
entrepreneurship is increased
and
entrepreneurship
is
introduced and it is guided
them to have their own
business (Shinnar 2009: 152).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

It is aimed to development of creative, critical and analytical


thinking skills and encouraging entrepreneurship with a formal
education. (Arkan 2002: 54).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship Education
And Activities
In Gazi University

49

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship Education and Activities are given in


all departments of Gazi University.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship education is assured by lectures/classes


in faculties, colleges and vocational high school. In
addition to that lectures, some activities are also, arranged
in research centers, students groups and technology
transfer offices.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Students
of
Technology,
Engineering
Faculty
and
Vocational High School in Gazi
University have to have
minimum 56 and 24 hours
entrepreneurship
lectures,
respectively.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The
students
who
pass
entrepreneurship lectures are given
certificate
approved
by
Gazi
University and KOSGEB (The Support
of Small and Medium Enterprises
Development Organization).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Graduated students who have


this certificate could apply
financial support funds to
establish a company, if they have
a project or an idea. The amount
of this support (25.000) is paid 5
years later, the rest (10.000 Euro)
is given by government as
nonrecourse/nonrefunding.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The Entrepreneurship Certificate


Program is arranged in Gazi
University for increasing capacity
for
innovation
and
entrepreneurship organized by
Technology Transfer Office which is
supported by TUBITAK (The
Scientific
and
Technological
Research Council of Turkey). 19
lectures (equal 163 lecture-hours)
are given in this certificate
program.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Above mentioned lectures are given below:


The Foundations of Entrepreneurship
Business Modelling
Applied Project Management
Creative Thinking and Idea Generation
Management Skills, Leadership and DecisionMaking Techniques
Project Proposal Preparing
Effective Presentation
Effective Negotiation and Marketing Techniques
Active Correspondence in the Business World
Business Planning and Development

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Mentoring Application and Experience


Sharing
Strategy
Marketing Management
Financial Management
Production Management
Access to Financial Resources and
Investor Relations
Law of Entrepreneurs
Technology Transfers in Entrepreneurs
Foreign Trade for Entrepreneurs

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

By various institutions (Ministry of Science, Industry and


Technology, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of
Turkey (TBTAK), The Support of Small and Medium Enterprises
Development Organization (KOSGEB) and Gazi University
Technology Transfer Office) in order to increase entrepreneurship
competitions and science fairs are organized such as I got an
idea, Project idea. At the same time, these organizations
provide unlimited grants to projects worth supporting.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Besides, Center of Career Planning,


Implementation and Research are
existed in our university. This center
organized various activities. Some
examples are given below:
What is the career planning?
What is not?
Explain Yourself Correctly
METU (Middle East Technical
University) Career Fair
First Step

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

In order to increase entrepreneurs, student communities are operating in Gazi


University. These communities are;

Entrepreneurial Leaders Community


Academic Idea Construction Community
Design and Innovation Community
Career Guidance Community
Build Dreams Community

Young Entrepreneurs Community


Career Management Community
Reasoning Community
Technology Res. and Dev. Community

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Entrepreneurship Education
And Activities
In Gazi University
Ostim Vocational School

61

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The main purpose of Gazi


University Ostim Vocational High
School, all graduated students
have top-level entrepreneurial
spirit. For this reason, threesemester system is applied.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

In general, there are 4


semesters in 2 years at
vocational schools, in Turkey.
But, Gazi University Ostim
Vocational High School applies
6 semesters in 2 years.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Also, various activities related to entrepreneurship were organized at


the school in 2014. The organizations;
Goal and achievement-oriented work,
Entrepreneurship education
Personal development and management

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Furthermore, BELTEK courses are conducted with the partnership


Ankara Metropolitan Municipality in our school. These courses;
Career Management and Entrepreneurship
Personal Development and Modern Management Techniques
Business Organization, Quality Control and Quality Management
Systems

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The Success Story


of Entrepreneurs
Graduated From
Gazi University
As An Example

66

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The Stories of Successful


Entrepreneurs
Young entrepreneurs who dream
of establishing her/his own
business after graduating from
university became boss with The
Support of Small and Medium
Enterprises
Development
Organization (KOSGEB).

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Nihat Kaya and mit Sar who were both graduated from Gazi
University, Technical Education Faculty can be given as a good
success story.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

These two entrepreneur friends applied to KOSGEB with a project


in 2008 and they established TURKMAK Ltd. ti, their own
company with state credit 25.000 TL (9.000 Euro). They took the
first step with 1 CNC machine, 1 CMM measuring device and 4
personnel in 100 square meters workshop in 2008, in order to
become the boss of their own business.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The entrepreneurs obtained the results of intensive works within 7


years from the company's establisment. Today they work in a 3-storey
shop of 1800 square meters with 7 CNC machines, 2 CMM measuring
devices, Quality Control Laboratory.

Young entrepreneurs starting with project management and


engineering services in a small office in 2006 continue to business life
by planning projects and producing for domestic and foreign industry
with young but experienced staff of 40 people consisting of engineers
and technical staff and ISO 9001:2008 certified production capabilities
today.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

TURKMAK makes a large part of the production for foreign firms.


Entrepreneurs reach 90% of its annual turnover by producing for
defense and aerospace industry enterprises operating in USA and
Germany especially, they reach 10% of its annual turnover by
producing for government agencies operating in defense and
aerospace industry enterprises in Turkey.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The company's annual turnover in 2013


Domestic
500.000 TL/yl (172.500 Euro/year)
Overseas
4.500.000 TL/yl (1.550.000 Euro/year)
The company's annual turnover in 2014
Domestic
700.000 TL/yl (240.000 Euro/year)
Overseas
5.200.000 TL/yl (1.800.000 Euro/year)

The company's revenue targets in 2015


Domestic
1.000.000 TL/yl (350.000 Euro/year)
Overseas
7.000.000 TL/yl (2.400.000 Euro/year)

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

The objective of young entrepreneurs who are the owner of the company is to
participate in major projects of institutions and firms operating in the defense
and aerospace industry within the country and abroad, to get new customers,
to work with main contractors rather than subcontractors, to participate in
Organized Industrial where the major industries exist with more machines and
staff in order to achieve administrative and financial targets, to move from the
workshop environment to factory environment.
Information:
www.turkmak.com.tr

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

Prepared by Hakan ADA


(hakanada@gazi.edu.tr)
Presented by Prof. Dr. Sleyman TEKEL
(stekeli@gazi.edu.tr)

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ACADEMIC FIELD

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