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ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficiencies

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ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficiencies
The ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies article provides you with
information about pressure vessel joint efficiency requirements and their
connectionwithradiographytesting.

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YoumayknowPressureVesselJointEfficiencies
arelinkedtotheradiographytestinggradesand
thereisaconcessionforfullradiographytesting
as per the UW11(a) (5) (b) clause which it is a
littlebitconfusing.

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This article provides you the ASME pressure


vessel joint efficiencies requirements and
guidelinesfortheaboveclause.

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Based on the ASME Code requirement, manufacturers have to mark the


typeofRTi.e.RT1,RT2,RT3andRT4inthepressurevesselnameplate
andstatethesameinPressureVesselDataReport.
We have seen many professionals, from
inspectors to quality control engineers who
are confused between RT1 and RT2,
specifically when they see ASME Pressure
Vessel Joint Efficiencies for both RT1 and
RT2isthesameandequalto1(E=1).

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They say both RT1 and RT2 are


categorizedintheFullRadiographypartinUW11clause...
SowhyaresomejointsinRT2radiographedinspots?
Wearemakingspotradiography,butitiscategorizedinfullradiography!!!
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So in this "ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies" article we want to


answer this question in very simple way, but before this, we need review
jointcategoriesandsummarizethemasbelow:

Pipeline
PipingSystem

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CategoryA:
Alllongitudinalweldsinshellandnozzles
Allweldsinheads,Hemisphheadtoshellweldjoint
CategoryB:

CentrifugalPump

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ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficiencies

CentrifugalCompressor
ReciprocatingCompressor
GasTurbine
SteamTurbine
FanandBlower
ElectricalEquipment
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ElectricGenerator
ElectricMotor

Allcircumferentialweldsinshellandnozzles
Headtoshelljoint(otherthanHemisph.)
Category C and D are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds
respectively
Longitudinalwelds(CategoryA)aremorecriticalthanCircumferentialwelds
(CategoryB)becausetheyareunderdoublestress.

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ThisthereasonwhyindifferentpartofASMEcodewehavestringentrules
incategoryAjointcomparedtocategoryBjoint.
SeethefollowingFig.forjointcategories:

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Nowlet'sgetbacktotheASMEPressureVesselJointEfficienciessubject,
toremovetheaboveconfusionaboutRT1andRT2.

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Weneedtoknow:

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Whenandwhereisthereacoderequirementforfullradiography?

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Item 1: All butt welds in vessels used to contain a lethal substance (UW
11(a)).Lethal substances have specific definitions in ASME Code in UW2
and it is the responsibility of the end user to determine if they ordered a
vesselthatcontainslethalsubstances.

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Item 2: All butt welds in vessels in which the nominal thickness exceeds
specified values (UW11(a). You can find these values in subsection C, in
UCS57,UNF57,etc.Forexample,thisvalueforPNo.1inUCS57is1
inch.
Item3:Allbuttweldsinanunfiredsteamboilerwithdesignpressure>50
psi(UW11(a)).
Item4:AllcategoryAandDbuttweldsinvesselwhenFullRadiography
optionally selected from table UW12(column (a) in this table is selected)
and categories B and C which intersect Category A shall meet the spot
radiographyrequirement(UW11(a)(5)(b)).
The point is this: items 1, 2 and 3 are similar, but item 4 is completely
different.Initems1,2and3itismandatedbycodetodofullradiographyin
all butt welds in vessel so it means it is mandatory for designer to select
column(a)inUW12table.
But in item 4, there is no mandating rule. A manufacturer with its own
decisionhaschosentousecolumn(a)intableUW12forfullradiography.
So here there is a concession or bonus to manufacturers for categories B
andC.
What is concept behind this concession or bonus in pressure vessel
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8/5/2015

ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficiencies

RTtest?
Ifyoureviewitem1,2and3onemoretime,youwillseethatthepressure
vesselRTtestsarerelatedtothetypeofweldsandservices.
You can see the pressure vessels in these items are critical from a safety
point of view, one contains a lethal substance, the other one has a high
thickness, which implicates high pressure, and the last one is an unfired
steamboiler.Butitem4hasnocriticalityliketheotheritemshave.
But you should note all 4 items have been categorized in full radiography
clause( U11(a)), so to differentiate item 1, 2 and 3 from item 4, the RT
symbolsareusedinCode(UG116).
RT1:Items1,2and3,(E=1),Allbuttweldsfulllengthradiography
RT2:Item4(E=1),CategoryAandDbuttweldsfulllengthradiographyand
categoryBandCbuttweldsspotRadiography
RT3:(E=0.85),Spotradiographybuttwelds
RT4:(E=0.7),Partial/Noradiography
YouneedtoconsiderthehemisphericalheadjointtoshellascategoryA,but
ellipsoidalandtorisphericalheadjointtoshellascategoryB
Do you know why? Why ASME considered the stringent rule for pressure
vesselRTtestinhemisphericalheadjoint?
Itisbecausethisjointismorecritical,becausethethicknessobtainedfrom
theformulaforhemisphericalheadapproximatelywouldbehalfoftheshell
thickness
It means if the shell thickness is 1 inch, the hemispherical head thickness
wouldbe0.5inch.
Formoredetail,youmayreviewthePressureVesselHeadsarticle.
ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficienciesforweldedHeads
For Welded Heads, the joint efficiency of the vessel will be 1(E=1), if all
weldswithinthehead'sfulllengthareradiographed(sincetheyareallCat.A
welds).Seeabovefigure.
ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficienciesforSeamlessHeads
For seamless heads, the joint efficiency of the vessel will be 1(E=1) if the
headtoshellweldisfullyradiographedforthehemisphericalHead(CatA)
SeethefollowingFigureforRTtypes:

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ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficiencies

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Spotradiographedforellipsoidalandtorisphericalheads(Cat.B).
WeldTypes:
Hereissomeclarificationaboutthedifferenttypeofweldsthathavespecific
definitionsinASMECodeSECVIIIDIV1andrelatedtothepressurevessel
RTtest.
The concept is to define the different types and then introduce some
restrictionforusingthem.
For example, a Type 1 weld is defined as a full penetration weld, typically
doubleweldedandType2isweldswithbackingstrips.

So when you go to service restriction for a vessel containing a lethal


substance,youseethereisarestrictiontherethatsaysallcategoryAjoints
shallbeweldType1andCategoryBandCshallbetype1ortype2.
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You should take this point in to account, which is this: the same joint
categorywithdifferentweldtypeshavedifferentjointefficiencies.
Summaryofweldtypes:
Type1:Fullpenetrationwelds(TypicallyDoublewelded)

Type2:Weldswithbackingstrip
Type3:Singleweldedpartialpenetrationwelds
Type4,5and6:VariousLapwelds(rarelyused)
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RelatedArticles
Pressure Vessel Definition, Pressure Vessel Certification, Pressure Vessel Heads, Pressure
Vessel Handbook, Spherical Pressure Vessel, Pressure Vessel Plate Material, ASME Code
Section8, ASME Impact Test Requirement, Pressure Vessel RT Test , Vessel Pressure Testing,
ThirdPartyInspectionforPressureVessel,InspectionandTestPlanforPressureVessel

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Haveyoursayaboutwhatyoujustread!Leavemeacommentintheboxbelow.
13Comments

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ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficiencies

MuhammedIbrahimPK
VendorInspectoratAMO&PartnersEngineeringCo.

http://www.pressurevesselinspection.blogspot.com/
LikeReplyJun28,20153:11am

AlWu
IwouldliketoconcludethatthetwoimagesnexttoRT2
abovearefornonhemisphericalheadssinceitsshowingspot
radiographyontheheadtoshellweld(catBweld).Pleaselet
meknowifotherwise.
LikeReplyMay4,20156:54am

ArumugamKathirvel
UniversityofMadras,Chennai

proclaimedinfo
LikeReplyApr13,20159:06pm

VinithMohan
KendriyaVidyalayaPalakkad

Dearsir,
howthicknessofpressurevesselisrelatedtoradiographyor
whatexactlyisthereasonforvariationinthelevelof
radiographywithmaterialthicknessinthecontextofASME
pressurevesselcode?
pleaseclarify
regards,
vinithmohan
LikeReplyFeb21,20146:17am

EssamHassan
WorksatGermanischerLloyd

DearSir,
Ihaveaquestion,
DotherequirementofUW52(a)(1)covertherequirementof
UW52(a)(2)?
Byotherwording,NoneedtoconductmoreRTspotsfor
weldersprovidingtheirworkarecoveredbyRTspotstakento
meetrequirementofUW52(a)(1)?
Pleaseadvise
Regards,... SeeMore
LikeReplyNov20,20134:29am

RajVikhar
RajendraHighSchool,Nagpur

DearSir,Thanksforvalluableinfo.Justaquerywhy
HemisphheadtoshellweldjointisCataAwhileotherheads
areB?
LikeReply

1Mar10,20134:47pm

haris.hutama
Dearsir,
regardingRT2.
wehavemechanicaldatasheetwhichspecifiedasfollow:
thevesselisnotcontainedlethalsubtance.
thevesselisnotunfiredsteamboilerwithdesignpressure
>50psi.
Jointeff.=1
aftercalculatethenominalthicknessontheshellandheadis
20mm.
couldweperformRT2schemetothevessel.
http://www.inspectionforindustry.com/asmepressurevesseljointefficiencies.html

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8/5/2015

ASMEPressureVesselJointEfficiencies
couldweperformRT2schemetothevessel.
LikeReplyMar4,201310:31pm

InspectionforIndustry
Yes.YoucanperformRT2
LikeReplyMar8,20134:08am

SergioJaramillo
Thanksforthisinfo,Itsimplifiedtheunderstandingofweld
Jointefficiencies,whichtranslatedintowhythicknessare
heavieronsomevesselsandwhyleathalsubstancesplaya
hugerole.Thankyousomuch.
PressurevesselEngineeratVertexFD.
LikeReplyMar1,20136:58am

SanjaykumarLad
InspectionEngineeratVELOSILLCOMAN

goodinterpretation,itsreallyhelp.
LikeReplyJan3,20132:38am

GauravJha
InspectionEngineeratChemproinspectionspvtltd

awsome!
LikeReplyDec28,201212:05am

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