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Propiedades elasticas de la materia

Propiedades elasticas de la materia

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Publicado porRoberto Laguna
Ley de Hooke, modulos lineal, corte, volumetrico, presentación Por: Casio Pérez Geovanny, grupo: 430, turno matutino, CCH-VALLEJO
Ley de Hooke, modulos lineal, corte, volumetrico, presentación Por: Casio Pérez Geovanny, grupo: 430, turno matutino, CCH-VALLEJO

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Roberto Laguna on Feb 23, 2010
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05/04/2013

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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTÓNOMA DE

MÉXICO
COLEGIO DE CIENCIAS Y HUMANIDADES
PLANTEL VALLEJO
FISICA II
“ELASTICIDAD”
PROFE: ROBERTO LAGUNA LUNA
ALUMNO: EDDER GEOVANNY CASIO PÉREZ
TURNO: MATUTINO
GRUPO 43B
DEDICATORIA
!
ESTE TRABAJO SE LO "UIERO DEDICAR A MIS
PADRES# POR"UE GRACIAS A ELLOS ESTOY
ESTUDIANDO Y HAN HECHO TODO LO POSIBLE
POR MI Y POR MI PREPARACIÓN PROFESIONAL#
POR HABERME FORMADO CON VALORES CON
CONSEJOS Y CON TODAS SUS PALABRAS DE
INSPIRACIÓN EN MOMENTOS TRISTES# Y EN LO
PERSONAL YO NO FUERA NADA SIN ELLOS Y SI
ELLOS NO HUBIERAN ESTADO EN EL PRECISO
MOMENTO DE MIS CA$DAS NO HUBIERA SABIDO
"UE HACER Y NO HUBIERA PODIDO LEVANTARME
DE MIS TROPIEZOS% YO NO CAMBIARIA A MIS
PADRES POR OTROS NI POR NADA EN EL MUNDO
POR"UE GRACIAS A ELLOS HOY SOY LO "UE
SOY%
INDICE
TEMAS A DESARROLLAR
!
PROPIEDADES ELASTICAS DE LA MATERIA%
MODULO DE YOUNG &
!
MODULODE CORTE 3
!
MODULODE VOLUMEN% 4
!
PROPIEDADES FISICAS DE LOS
MATERIALES 4
PROPIEDADES ELASTICAS DE
LA MATERIA
! S' (')*+' ,-.- cuerpo elástico / /01'2 01' 3',-43/ 51 6/./7- 8 )-3./ -3*9*+/2'5
,1/+(- (':/ (' /,61/3 5-43' ;2 1+/ )1'3</ (')-3./+6'# ,-.- =-3 ':'.=2- 5-+: 2/
4/+(/ (' >12'# 1+/ 2*9/# 2/5 ='2-6/5 (' 9-2)# 2/5 ,/./5 '2?56*,/5# '+63' -63/5%
! H--@' )1' '2 01' ('5,143*A 01' ,1/+(- 1+/ )1'3</ F /,6B/ 5-43' 1+ ,1'3=-
'2?56*,- =3-(1,' '+ ;2 1+ /2/39/.*'+6- s 01' '5 (*3',6/.'+6' =3-=-3,*-+/2 / 2/
./9+*61( (' 2/ )1'3</% L/ 2'8 (' H--@' 5' 3'=3'5'+6/ ,-.-:
!
! F= KS
! L/ ,-+56/+6' =3-=-3,*-+/2*(/( K C/3*/ (' /,1'3(- ,-+ '2 6*=- (' ./6'3*/2 8 3',*4'
'2 +-.43' (' constante del resorte.
! P/3/ 01' 2/ 2'8 5' =1'(/ /=2*,/3 (' 1+ .-(- 9'+'3/2# '5 ,-+C'+*'+6' 01' 5'
(')*+/+ 2-5 6;3.*+-5 esfuerzo y deformación% E2 esfuerzo 5' 3')*'3' / 2/ ,/15/ ('
1+/ (')-3./,*A+ '2?56*,/# .*'+63/5 01' 2/ deformación 5' 3')*'3' / 51 ')',6-# '+
-63/5 =/2/43/5# / 2/ (')-3./,*A+ '+ 5D .*5./%
! L-5 63'5 6*=-5 (' '5)1'3<- 5-+: de ensión! de com"rensión y corane#
! De tensión: S' =3'5'+6/ ,1/+(- )1'3</5 *91/2'5 8 -=1'56/5 5' /=/36/+ '+63' 5D%
! E+ '2 de comprensión 2/5 )1'3</5 5-+ *91/2'5 8 -=1'56/5 5' /,'3,/+ '+63' 5D%
! Y 2/ (' '5)1'3<- cortante 5' (/ ,1/+(- )1'3</5 *91/2'5 8 -=1'56/5 +- 6*'+'+ 2/
.*5./ 2D+'/ (' /,,*A+%
PROPIEDADES ELASTICAS DE
LA MATERIA
! U+ '5)1'3<- (' 6'+5*A+ - (' ,-.=3'5*A+# 51 (')-3./,*A+ 5' =1'(' ,-+5*('3/3 ,-.-
1+ ,/.4*- '+ 2/ 2-+9*61( =-3 1+*(/( (' 2-+9*61(# .*'+63/5 01' 1+ '5)1'3<- ,-36/+6'
=1'(' /26'3/3 B+*,/.'+6' 2/ )-3./ (' 1+ ,1'3=- 5*+ ,/.4*/3 515 (*.'+5*-+'5%
! E2 2D.*6' '2?56*,- '5 '2 '5)1'3<- .?E*.- 01' =1'(' 51)3*3 1+ ,1'3=- 5*+ 01' 2/
(')-3./,*A+ 5'/ ='3./+'+6'%
! E2 ./8-3 '5)1'3<- /2 01' 5' =1'(' 5-.'6'3 1+ /2/.43' 5*+ 01' 5' 3-.=/ 3',*4'
' +-.43' (' límite de rotura.
! S* +- 5' 'E,'(' '56' 2D.*6' =-('.-5 /=2*,/3 2/ 2'8 (' H--@' / ,1/201*'3
(')-3./,*A+ '2?56*,/%
! L/ 2'8 (' H--@' +-5 '56/42',':
! S*'.=3' 01' +- 5' 'E,'(/ '2 2D.*6' '2?56*,-# 1+/ (')-3./,*A+ '2?56*,/ '5
(*3',6/.'+6' =3-=-3,*-+/2 / 2/ ./9+*61( (' 2/ )1'3</ /=2*,/(/ =-3 1+/ 1+*(/( (' ?3'/
F'5)1'3<-G%
! S* 22/./.-5 / 2/ ,-+56/+6' (' =3-=-3,*-+/2*(/( ;2 .-(12- (' '2/56*,*(/(# 5'
=1'(' '5,3*4*3 2/ 2'8 (' H--@' '+ 51 )-3./ 9'+'3/2:
! E5)1'3<-
! M-(12- (' '2/56*,*(/(HIIIIIIIII
D')-3./,*A+
MOD$LO DE %O$&'
! U+ .-(12- '2?56*,- '5 1+ 6*=- (' ,-+56/+6' '2?56*,/ 01' 3'2/,*-+/ 1+/ .'(*(/
6'+5*A+ 3'2/,*-+/(/ ,-+ 2/ 6'+5*A+ 8 1+/ .'(*(/ 3'2/,*-+/(/ ,-+ 2/ (')-3./,*A+%
! L-5 ./6'3*/2'5 '2?56*,-5 *5A63-=-5 01'(/+ ,/3/,6'3*</(-5 =-3 1+ .A(12- '2?56*,-
8 1+ ,-')*,*'+6' '2?56*,- F- 3/<A+ '+63' (-5 (')-3./,*-+'5G% E5 (',*3# ,-+-,*(- '2
C/2-3 (' 1+- (' 2-5 .A(12-5 '2?56*,-5 8 ('2 ,-')*,*'+6' (' P-*55-+ 5' =1'('+
('6'3.*+/3 2-5 -63-5 .A(12-5 '2?56*,-5% L-5 ./6'3*/2'5 -36A63-=-5 - /+*5A63-=-5
3'01*'3'+ 1+ +B.'3- (' ,-+56/+6'5 '2?56*,/5 ./8-3%
! L/5 ,-+56/+6'5 '2?56*,/5 01' 3',*4'+ '2 +-.43' (' .A(12- '2?56*,- 5-+ 2/5
5*91*'+6'5:
! MA(12- (' Y-1+9% S' 2' ('5*9+/ =-3 % E56? /5-,*/(- (*3',6/.'+6' ,-+ 2-5
,/.4*-5 (' 2-+9*61( 01' 'E='3*.'+6/ 1+ ,/42'# 1+ /2/.43'# 1+/ C/3*22/# '6,%
,1/+(- '56? 5-.'6*(- / 2/ /,,*A+ (' '5)1'3<-5 (' 63/,,*A+ - (' ,-.=3'5*A+% P-3
'5/ 3/<A+ 5' 2' 22/./ 6/.4*;+ .A(12- '2?56*,- 2-+9*61(*+/2%
! MA(12- (' ,-.=3'5*4*2*(/(% S' 2' ('5*9+/ =-3 % E56? /5-,*/(- ,-+ 2-5 ,/.4*-5
(' C-21.'+ 01' 'E='3*.'+6/ 1+ ./6'3*/2 4/:- 2/ /,,*A+ (' '5)1'3<-5
F9'+'3/2.'+6' ,-.=3'5-3'5G 01' /,6B/+ ='3='+(*,12/3.'+6' / 51 51='3)*,*'% N-
*.=2*,/ ,/.4*- (' )-3./# 6/+ 5-2- (' C-21.'+%
MOD$LO DE %O$&'
!
MA(12- '2?56*,- 63/+5C'35/2% S' 2' ('5*9+/ =-3 % E56?
/5-,*/(- ,-+ '2 ,/.4*- (' )-3./ 01' 'E='3*.'+6/ 1+
./6'3*/2 4/:- 2/ /,,*A+ (' '5)1'3<-5 ,-36/+6'5% N-
*.=2*,/ ,/.4*-5 (' C-21.'+# 6/+ 5-2- (' )-3./% T/.4*;+
5' 2' 22/./ .A(12- '2?56*,- 6/+9'+,*/2 8 .A(12- '2?56*,-
,-36/+6'%
!
S* (')*+*.-5 '2 .-(12- (' '2/56*,*(/( 2-+9*61(*+/2 ,-.-
.-(12- (' 8-1+9 Y# =-('.-5 '5,3*4*3 2/ ',1/,*A+:
!
MODULO DE YOUNGH '5)1'3<-
2-+9*61(*+/2J(')-3./,*A+ 2-+9*61(*+/2
!
D-+(' '5)1'3<- 2-+9*61(*+/2 '5 *91/2 /: FJA
!
Y (')-3./,*A+ 2-+9*61(*+/2 '5 *91/2 / : K2 J 2
MODULO DE CORTE
! L-5 '5)1'3<-5 (' ,-.=3'5*A+ 8 ('6'+,*A+ =3-(1,'+ 1+ 2*9'3- ,/.4*- '+ 2/5
(*.'+5*-+'5 2*+'/2'5%
! E2 '5)1'3<- ,-36/+6' 5' (')*+' ,-.- 2/ 3'2/,*A+ (' 2/ )1'3</ 6/+9'+,*/2 F '+63' '2 ?3'/
A 5-43' 2/ 01' 5' /=2*,/% L/ (')-3./,*A+ ,-36/+6' 5' (')*+' ,-.- '2 ?+912- L F '+
3/(*/+'5G# 01' 5' ,-+-,' ,-.- ?+912- (' ,-36'% S* 5' =2*,/ 2/ 2'8 (' H--@'#
=-('.-5 />-3/ (')*+*3 '2 .-(12- (' ,-36' S '+ 2/ 5*9% F-3./
! SH'5)1'3<- ,-36/+6'J(')-3./,*A+ ,-36/+6'
! E2 ?+912- L 9'+'3/2.'+6' '5 6/+ ='01'7- 01' '5 /=3-E*./(/.'+6' *91/2 / 6/+ L%
A=3-C',>/+(- '56' >',>- =-('.-5 C-2C'3 / '5,3*4*3 2/ ',1/,*A+ (' 2/ 5*9% F-3./:
SH FJA J TANL
! D'4*(- / 01' '2 C/2-3 (' S +-5 (/ *+)-3./,*A+ 5-43' 2/ 3*9*('< (' 1+ ,1'3=-# / C','5
5' ,-+-,' ,-.- .-(12- (' 3*9*('<
! E2 3',D=3-,- ('2 .A(12- (' C-21.'+ 5' ('+-.*+/ compresibilidad 8 5' ('+-6/ ,-+
@% L/ ,-.=3'5*4*2*(/( '5 2/ (*5.*+1,*A+ )3/,,*-+/3*/ (' C-21.'+ J((MN# =-3 1+*(/(
(' /1.'+6- (' 2/ =3'5*A+# '56- '5: "M
! "(("(()*MMHMMNHHJO FC-.=3'5*4*2*(/(G%
! L/5 1+*(/('5 (' 2/ ,-.=3'5*4*2*(/( 5-+ 2/5 ('2 *+C'35- (' 2/ =3'5*A+# P/PO - /6.PO%
! P-('.-5 (')*+*3 '2 .-(12- (' ,-36' S '+ 2/ 5*9% F-3./:
! SH '5)1'3<- ,-36/+6'J (')-3./,*A+ ,-36/+6' H FJAJ L
MODULO DE VOLUMEN
!
E2 3',D=3-,- ('2 .A(12- (' C-21.'+ 5'
('+-.*+/ compresibilidad 8 5' ('+-6/ ,-+ @%
L/ ,-.=3'5*4*2*(/( '5 2/ (*5.*+1,*A+
)3/,,*-+/3*/ (' C-21.'+ J((MN# =-3 1+*(/( ('
/1.'+6- (' 2/ =3'5*A+# '56- '5: "M
!
"(("(()*MMHMMNHHJO FC-.=3'5*4*2*(/(G%
!
L/5 1+*(/('5 (' 2/ ,-.=3'5*4*2*(/( 5-+ 2/5 ('2
*+C'35- (' 2/ =3'5*A+# P/PO - /6.PO %
!
L/ )-3.12/ (' .-(12- (' C-21.'+ '5 2/ 5*9%
!
BH '5)1'3<- (' C-21.'+J (')-3./,*A+ ('
C-21.'+H FJA ENTRE KVJV
PROPIEDADES FISICAS DE LOS
METALES
!
A('.?5 (' 2/ '2/56*,*(/(# '2 '5)1'3<- (' 6'+,*A+ 8 '2
'5)1'3<- ,-+56/+6' (' 2-5 ./6'3*/2'5# >/8 -63/5
=3-=*'(/('5 *.=-36/+6'5 (' 2-5 .'6/2'5% U+ 5-2*(-
,-+5*56' '+ 1+ ,-+:1+6- (' .-2;,12/5 6/+ ,'3,/+/5 1+/5
/ -63/5 01' 5' /63/'+ )1'36'.'+6' '+63' 5*% E56/
/63/,,*A+# 22/./(/ ,->'5*A+# 2' *.=/36' / 1+ 5-2*(- 1+/
)-3./ 8 1+ 6/./7- (')*+*(-5%
!
T/.4*;+ /)',6/ 51 16*2*(/( =/3/ 2/ *+(1563*/ ,-.-
./6'3*/2 (' 63/4/:-% E5 =3',*5- ,-.=3'+('3 =3-=*'(/('5
,-.- 2/ (13'</# 2/ (1,6*2*(/(# 2/ ./2'/4*2*(/( 8 2/
,-+(1,6*C*(/( /+6'5 (' '2'9*3 .'6/2'5 =/3/ /=2*,/,*-+'5
'5=',*)*,/5%
F-3.12/5 8 =/3?.'63-5
! FH @5
! QHF J S
! E H FJA
! DH MLJ L
! YH FJAJMLJL
! YH FLJAML
! MLHLFPLO
! SH FJA J6/+L
! SHFL J (JL
! SHFLJA(
! BH F JA JMCJC
! BHPF VJA M
! CHPOJPB
! CHAMV
! PARAMETROS
! F H )1'3</
! Q H .-(12- (' '2/56*,*(/(
! S H E56*3/.*'+6-
! E H '5)1'3<-
! A H ?3'/
! DH (')-3./,*A+
! M2H,/.4*- (' 2-+9*61(
! Y H .-(12- (' Y-1+9
! S H .-(12- (' ,-36'
! BH .-(12- (' C-21.'+
! T/+ L H 6/+9'+6' (' )*
! D H /2613/
! VH C-21.'+
! C H ,-.=3'+5*4*2*(/(
PREGUNTAS Y PROBLEMAS DE REPASO
! %P RA 01' 5' 2' (')*+' ,1'3=- '2?56*,-S
! &%P RC1?2 '5 2/ )-3.12/ ,-+ 2/ 01' 5'
3'=3'5'+6/ 2/ 2'8 (' H--@'S
! 3%P RE+ 01' ,-+5*56' '2 ,-+56/+6' ('2
3'5-36'S
! 4%P RA 01' 5' 3')*'3' 2/ (')*+*,*A+ ('
'5)1'3<-S
! T%P RA 01' 5' 3')*'3' 2/ (')*+*,*A+ ('
(')-3./,*A+S
! U%P RC1/2'5 5-+ 2-5 63'5 6*=-5 (' '5)1'3<-S
! V%P R"1' '5 '2 2D.*6' '2?56*,-S
! W%P RA 01' 5' 2' 22/./ 2*.*6' (' 3-613/S
! X%P R"1' .'+,*-+/ 2/ 2'8 (' H--@'S
! O%P RC-.- 5' '5,3*4' 2/ 2'8 (' H--@' '+
51 )-3.12/ 9'+'3/2S
! O%PU+ /2/.43' (' 6'2;)-+- (' O& . ('
2/39- 8 (' &%& .. (' (*?.'63- 5' '56*3/
('4*(- / 1+/ )1'3</ (' 3W N% RC1?2 '5 '2
'5)1'3<- 2-+9*61(*+/2S S* 2/ 2-+9*61(
('5=1;5 (' 5'3 '56*3/(- '5 (' O&%O .#
R C1/2 '5 2/ (')-3./,*A+ 2-+9*61(*+/2S
D'6'3.*+' '2 .-(12- (' 8-1+9 =/3/ '2
/2/.43'%
! &%P U+ ='3+- (' /,'3- ,-+ 1+ (*?.'63- (' O
*+ 5-43'5/2' O%T *+ (' 2/ =/3'(% S* '2
'E63'.- ('2 ='3+- '56/ 5-.'6*(- / 1+/
)1'3</ ,-+56/+6' (' W I4# ,/2,12' ,1/2
5'3? 51 ('5C*/,*A+ >/,*/ /4/:-%
! 3%P U+/ =3'+5/ >*(3?12*,/ ,-+6*'+' T 2*63-5
(' /91/% E+,1'+63' '2 (',3'.'+6- '+
C-21.'+ (' /91/ ,1/+(- 5' C' 5-.'6*(/ /
1+/ =3'5*A+ (' &T @P/%
! 4%P E+ 1+/ ,-+5631,,*A+ 5' 15/ 1+ /2/.43'
=/3/ >/,'3 5-=-6' / 2/ C*9/5% S1 (*?.'63-
'5 (' 3 =129/(/5 8 6*'+' 1+ 2/39- (' T .#
/2 '56*3/32- 5' 2' /=2*,/ 1+/ )1'3</ (' 34 N%
C/2,12/3 ,1/2 '5 51 '5)1'3<- 2-+9*61(*+/2# 5*
/2 6'3.*+/3 (' '56*3/32/ 51 2-+9*61( '5 ('
T%3T . 8 ,1/2 '5 2/ (')-3./,*A+
2-+9*61(*+/2% D'6'3.*+' '2 .-(12- (' 8-1+9%

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