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ndice

tIntroduccin

..................1

tPresente Simple

..................2

tPresente Progresivo

..................4

tFuturo Simple

..................6

tPasado Simple

..................8

tPasado Progresivo

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

tPresente Perfecto

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

tPasado Perfecto

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

tVerbos Modales

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

tLista de Verbos Irregulares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


tExamen

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Copyright C 2008 Ingls Sin Barreras, Inc. todos los derechos


reservados. Ingls Sin Barreras as como hablemosingles.com
son marcas registradas propiedad de Ingls Sin Barreras, Inc.
Los contenidos de esta Gua son propiedad de Ingls Sin
Barreras, Inc. Qued estrictamente prohibido la reproduccin de,
parcial o total, sin el permiso correspondiente.

Introduction

Introduccin

Congratulations!

Felicidades!

If you are reading this guide is because you wish to


learn English. Believe it, this is a huge step forward
and we can help you.
We compiled the most practical verbal tenses in
English, and made it simple and easy for you to
remember.
However, be aware that even when the expressions
herein are basic and understandable, you need a
previous knowledge of English language.
This guide begins with easy topics and gradually
increases its level of complexity. In the last part, you
will find a short test so you can know if you have
reached an adequate learning. We suggest practice.
Realize that this guide does not use the same natural
learning method as used in Ganando con Ingls.
Moreover, it do es not comprise material from the
course. This guide has been created with a different
purpose.
We do not want that you lose great opportunities
just because you do not speak English. Get the
promotion you are looking forward, change your job,
travel to other countries, know different cultures and
give your life emotion and success:

Si ests leyendo esta gua seguramente es porque


tienes el deseo de aprender ingls, y crelo, este es
un importante paso hacia adelante. Nosotros te
vamos a ayudar.
Hicimos una recopilacin sobre los tiempos verbales
ms utilizados en ingls y los explicamos de una
manera sencilla y fcil de recordar para ti.
Sin embargo, queremos aclararte que aunque las
expresiones utilizadas son bsicas y muy
entendibles, es necesario un conocimiento previo
del idioma ingls.
La gua inicia por los temas ms sencillos y el nivel
aumenta gradualmente. Al final encontrars un
pequeo test que medir s has aprendido lo
suficiente. Te recomendamos practicar.
Debes saber que esta gua no utiliza el mismo
mtodo de aprendizaje natural de Ganando con
Ingls, ni incluye contenido del curso. Ha sido
realizada con un objetivo diferente.
No queremos que dejes pasar ninguna oportunidad
ms por no hablar ingls. Llvate ese ascenso que
deseas, cambia de trabajo, viaja a otros pases,
conoce otras culturas, y dale a tu vida mucha ms
emocin y xito:

Learn English once and for all!

Aprende ingls de una vez por todas!


www.ganandoconingles.com

CONVERSACIONES
My Hobby
Alan
Caroline, what's your hobby?
Caroline Well, I play the guitar.
Alan
Really?
Caroline Yes, I like playing the guitar.
Alan
How often do you play?
Caroline I play twice a week. What about you? Do you have a hobby?
Alan
I'm interested in video games.
Caroline That's interesting!
Alan
Yes, I play video games almost every day.

Useful Expressions
tReally
( De verdad? )

Mi Pasatiempo
Alan
Carolina, cul es tu hobby?
Carolina Bueno, yo toco la guitarra.
Alan
De verdad?
Carolina S, a mi me gusta tocar la guitarra.
Alan
Qu tan seguido tocas la guitarra?
Carolina Yo toco la guitarra 2 veces por semana. Y t?
T tienes algn hobby?
Alan
Yo estoy interesado en los videojuegos.
Carolina Eso es interesante!
Alan
S, yo juego videojuegos casi todos los das.

www.ganandoconingles.com

tWell
( Bueno )

tI Like To
( Me gusta )

tHow often?
( Qu tan seguido? )

tWhat about you?


( Qu hay sobre ti? )

PRESENTE SIMPLE

Presente de los Verbos Auxiliares

Presente Simple

tTo be: - I am (m), You/we/they are (re), he/she/it is (s).

El tiempo Presente Simple se utiliza, entre otras cosas, para expresar acciones,
eventos o situaciones habituales que
transcurren con cierta frecuencia.

- I am not (m not), You/we/they are not (re not / arentt),


he/she/it is is (s not / isnt).
tTo have: I/you/we/they have (ve), he/she/it has.
- Have not (dont havent), does not have (hasnt).
have not (don't have), does not have (doesn't have)

Por ejemplo:
tI'm a teacher. Yo soy un maestro.
tAnne is a teacher. Ana es maestra.
tShe lives in London. Ella Vive en Londres.
tAnne gets up at 7 a.m. Ana se despierta a las 7 a.m.
tShe usually has breakfast at 8 a.m. Usualmente desayuna a las 8 a.m.

Forma Afirmativa

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + Verbo + Complemento

Sujeto + Verbo + Complemento

I am a student
(Yo soy un estudiante)

I am not a student
(Yo no soy un estudiante)

Recordemos: Al conjugar los verbos regulares en tiempo presente, debe

You are an engineer


(T eres un ingeniero)

You are not an engineer


(T no eres un ingeniero)

agregarse para la tercera persona del singular


(He / She / It) una "s" al verbo base, mientras que para las dems personas
el verbo permanece igual.

FormaInterrogativa
Sujeto + Verbo + Complemento ?
Am I a student?
(Soy yo un estudiante?)
Are you an engineer?
(Eres t un ingeniero?)
www.ganandoconingles.com

CONVERSACIONES
At the party
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky

Hi, How are you doing?


Im ok, what about you?
Im good. Is Janet at the party?
Yes, she is. Shes at the garden.
What is she doing?
Shes talking with Patty right now.
Where are Peter and Sue?
Theyre dancing now.
Are they singing too?
No, they arent. Theyre drinking some soda, but Alice
is singing a romantic song.
And whos playing the guitar?
Maybe Alex is.
Its nice talking to you!

En la fiesta
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky
Joe
Ricky

Useful Expressions
tHi, Hello
( Hola )

tHow are you doing?

Hola, Cmo te va?


Bien, Y t?
Bien. Est Janet en la fiesta?
Si. Est en el jardn.
Qu est haciendo?
Est platicando con Patty en este momento.
Dnde estn Pedro y Susana?
Estn bailando ahora.
Estn cantando tambin?
No. Estn tomando refresco, pero Alicia est cantando
una cancin romntica.
Y quin est tocando la guitarra?
Quiz es Alex.
Es agradable platicar contigo!

www.ganandoconingles.com

( Cmo te ha ido? )

tWhere are
( Dnde estn? )

tI'm ok/ I'm good


( Estoy bien)

tMaybe
( Quizs )

tIt's nice talking to you


( Es agradable platicar
contigo )

PRESENTE PROGRESIVO

Presente Progresivo
Forma Afirmativa

Ejemplo:

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + To Be + Verbo + ING


+ Complemento

Sujeto + To Be + Not + Verbo + ING


+ Complemento

I am doing the homework


(Estoy haciendo la tarea)

They are not drinking coffe.


(Ellos no estn tomando caf)

You are playing the guitar


(Tu ests tocando la guitarra)

He is not buying that car


(El no est comprando ese auto)

tI am working at home (Estoy trabajando en casa)


tYou are doing the homework (Estas/Estan haciendo la tarea)
tWe are sitting next to Mr. Lee. (Estamos sentados junto al Sr. Lee)
tI'm not having fun (No me estoy divirtiendo)
tAre you doing your homework? (Ests haciendo tu tarea?)

Forma Interrogativa

To Be + Sujeto + Verbo + ING


+ Complemento ?

Am i eating too much?


(Estoy comiendo demasiado?)
Are you doing yoga?
(Ests haciendo yoga?)

El presente progresivo es usado para expresar que una actividad est


sucediendo al momento de hablar. Este tiempo
verbal se construye utilizando como auxiliar el verbo TO BE (am, is, are)
y como verbo principal en infinitivo con la
terminacin ING.

www.ganandoconingles.com

CONVERSACIONES

Cleaning your room


Mom
Daughter
Mom
Daughter
Mom
Daughter
Mom
Daughter
Mom
Daughter
Mom

Are you going to clean your room today?


I dont know, mom. I have a lot of homework to do.
Really? When are you going to do it then?
Well
Remember that your friends are coming tonight.
Oh, I had forgotten that! Ill clean it right now.
Good!
Wait! Mom! Where are you going?
Ill go to buy some snacks to your friends.
Arent you going to help me?
I wont have enough time, Im going to the supermarket,
sorry!
Daughter Never mind.

Useful Expressions
tGood
( Bien )

tWait
( Espera )

Limpiando tu cuarto
Mam
Hija
Mam
Hija
Mam
Hija
Mam
Hija
Mam
Hija
Mam
Hija

t I don't know

Vas a limpiar tu cuarto hoy?


No lo s mam. Tengo que hacer mucha tarea.
De verdad? Entonces, cundo lo vas a limpiar?
Bueno
Recuerda que tus amigos van a venir esta noche.
Hjole, se me haba olvidado! Lo limpiar ahora mismo.
Bien.
Espera! Mam!, adnde vas?
Ir a comprar algunos bocadillos para tus amigos.
No me vas a ayudar?
Lo siento, pero no tendr tiempo suficiente, me voy al
supermercado.
No te preocupes.

www.ganandoconingles.com

( No lo se )

tReally?
( De verdad? )

tWhere are you going?


( A dnde vas? )

tSorry
( Lo siento )

tNever mind
( No hay problema )

FUTURO SIMPLE

Futuro con Will

Recordemos: El tiempo futuro se forma con los verbos auxiliares will, ms el

Forma Afirmativa

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + Will + Verbo + Complemento

Sujeto + Will not + Verbo + Complemento

She will clean her room


(Ella limpiar su cuarto)
Contraccin:
She'll clean her room
(Ella limpiar su cuarto)

She will not clean her room


(Ella no limpiar su cuarto)
Contraccin:
She won't clean her room
(Ella no limpiar su cuarto)

infinitivo del verbo principal. Se puede


contraer el auxiliar will. Will -> 'll, Will not -> Won't

Futuro con Be going to


Forma Afirmativa
Sujeto + To be + going to + Complemento

She is going to clean her room


(Ella va a limpiar su cuarto)

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + To be + not going to


+ Verbo + Complemento

She is not going to clean her room

(Ella no va a limpiar su cuarto)

Forma Interrogativa
Will + Sujeto + Verbo + Complemento ?

Forma Interrogativa
To be + Sujeto + Going To
+ Verbo + Complemento

Will she clean her room?


(Limpiar ella su cuarto?)

Is she going to clean her room?


(Va a limpiar ella su cuarto?)

El tiempo futuro se utiliza, entre otras cosas, para expresar promesas,


determinacin, dar nfasis o situaciones
condicionales.
tI will clean my room. Limpiar mi cuarto.
tI will clean it right now! Lo limpiar ahora mismo!
tI will clean it if you help me. Lo limpiar si t me ayudas.
tShe will do it. Ella lo har.

Cuando queremos indicar el propsito de realizar alguna accin futura o se


planea algo, la frase going to es muy comn.
El uso de la forma verbal going to es mucho ms generalizado que will para
indicar accin futura o para expresar intencin
de realizarla en el futuro.

www.ganandoconingles.com

CONVERSACIONES

Enjoying vacations
Edward Hows it going?
Lillian Not bad, everything is ok, what about you?
Edward Im fine and a lot to talk.
Lillian Tell me, how was your vacation?
Edward It was great. My family and I went to the beach.
Lillian Wow, thats terrific!! And what did you do there?
Edward Well, I swam at the beach, my mom prepared sandwiches, and then
we went fishing. Tell me about your vacation!
Lillian We went to the mountains. We left home around 5 oclock in the
morning. We went skating and my brother climbed a small mountain.
Edward Did you go to the Rocky Mountains?
Lillian No, we didnt. We traveled to YellowStone. Did you travel to
Puerto Vallarta?
Edward Yes, we did. We stayed there for two weeks, also we visited the
aquarium.

Disfrutanto las vacaciones

Useful Expressions
tHow's it going?
( Qu tal? )

tNot bad

( No est mal )

Edward Qu tal?
Lillian No me puedo quejar, todo muy bien, y t?
Edward Bien y mucho que platicar.
Lillian Dime, Cmo estuvieron tus vacaciones?
Edward Estuvieron fantsticas. Mi familia y yo fuimos a la playa.
Lillian Wow, eso es genial! Y que hicieron ahi?
Edward Bueno, nad en la playa, mi mam prepar emparedados y luego
fuimos de pesca. Platcame de tus vacaciones!
Lillian Fuimos a las montaas, caminamos alrededor del bosque,
fuimos a esquiar y mi hermano escal una montaa pequea.
Edward Fueron a las Montaas Rocallosas?
Lilian No. Viajamos a Yellowstone. Viajaron a Puerto Vallarta?
Edward S. Permanecimos por dos semanas, y tambin visitamos el acuario.

www.ganandoconingles.com

tWe went to
( Fuimos a)

tThat's terrific!
( Es genial! )

tIt was great

( Estubo muy bien )

tTell me

( Dime )

PASADO SIMPLE

El tiempo pasado es usado para hablar acerca de actividades o situaciones


que comenzaron y terminaron en un
tiempo particular en el pasado, y a su vez traduce el pretrito simple en espaol:
Com, jugu, nad, corr, etc.,
y notaremos que este tiempo, en ingls, tiene una sola forma para todas
las personas.

Pasado de los verbos auxiliares


tTo be: I / he / she / it

was, you/we/they were


- Was not (wasnt), were not (werent).
tTo have: had; en una pregunta: did + sujeto + have.
- Did not have (didn't have)

Forma Afirmativa

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + Verbo en pasado + Complemento

Sujeto + did not +Verbo en pasado


+ Complemento

I went to the beach


(Fui a la playa)

I didn't go to the beach


(Yo no fui a la playa)

We traveled to YellowStone
(Nosotros viajamos a YellowStone)

We didn't traveled to YellowStone


(Nosotros no viajamos a YellowStone)

Forma Interrogativa

Did + Sujeto + Verbo en presente


+ Complemento ?

Did I tell you?


(Te lo dije?)

tIt was great. Fue genial Fue muy bueno.


tMy family and I went to the beach. Mi familia y yo fuimos a la playa.
Para cambiar un verbo a pasado basta con agregar una -ed al final si es regular.

Ejemplo:
tPlay (jugar) -> Played (jug).
tClean (Limpiar) -> Cleaned (Limpi).
Al final de la gua se incluye una lista de verbos irregulares.

Ejemplo:
tTell (Decir) -> Told (Dijo),
tTeach (Ensear) -> Taught (Ense).

Did you find your cellphone?


(Encontraste tu telfono celular?)

www.ganandoconingles.com

CONVERSACIONES

Talking in the school


Rose
Edward
Rose
Edward
Rose
Edward
Rose
Edward
Rose
Edward
Rose
Edward
Rose
Edward
Rose

What were you doing at the store yesterday?


I was waiting for David.
What was he doing?
He was buying things for school. He was looking for special sales.
What was he buying?
Pens, some paper, a notebook. Where were you? How did you see me?
I was in the store too.
What were you doing there?
I was with Lisa.
Was Lisa buying things?
No, she wasnt. She was working.
Oh, I didnt see you.
I saw you pass, but you were looking something.
Rose, sorry but I have to go to classes, can we talk later?
Sure, dont worry. See you after class.

Hablar en la Escuela
Rosa
Eduardo
Rosa
Eduardo
Rosa
Eduardo
Rosa
Eduardo
Rosa
Eduardo
Rosa
Eduardo
Rosa
Eduardo
Rosa

Useful Expressions
tWhat were you doing?
( Qu estabas haciendo? )

tI was waiting for


( Estaba esperando a )

Qu estaban haciendo en la tienda ayer?


Estaba esperando a David.
Qu estaba haciendo l?
El estaba comprando artculos para la escuela. Estaba buscando ofertas.
Qu estaba comprando?
Plumas, algo de papel, un cuaderno. Dnde estabas? Cmo me viste?
Estaba en la tienda tambin.
Qu estabas haciendo ah?
Estaba con Lisa.
Estaba Lisa comprando cosas?
No, ella estaba trabajando.
Oh, no las vi.
Los vi pasar, pero estaban buscando algo y decid no interrumpirlos.
Rosa, lo siento, pero me tengo que ir a clases, podemos hablar despus?
Claro, no te preocupes. Te veo despus de clase.
www.ganandoconingles.com

tI was with


( Estaba con )

tIt's fine
( Est bien)

tSure
( Seguro )

tDon't worry
( No te preocupes )

10

PASADO PROGRESIVO

Pasado Progresivo
Forma Afirmativa

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + To be (was, were) + verbo


+ ING + Complemento

Sujeto + To be (was, were) + not + verbo


+ ING + Complemento

I was talking with lisa


(Estaba hablando con lisa)

She was not talking with Tom


(Ella no estaba hablando con Tom)

They were waiting for David


(Ellos esperaban a David)

You were looking for a new car


(Ustedes buscaban un auto nuevo)

El pasado continuo se forma con el pasado simple del verbo (to) be:
was o were como auxiliar ms el gerundio (ing)
del verbo principal. Describe una accin que ocurra en cierto momento o
poca en el pasado. Usualmente el pasado
continuo est complementado por un pasado simple.
tI was sleeping when you called. Estaba durmiendo cuando llamaste.
t It was nice talking to you. Fue divertido hablar contigo.
tShe was thinking what to do. Ella estaba pensando que hacer.
tWe were living in New York in 2006. Nosotros vivimos en Nueva York en 2006.

Forma Interrogativa

To be (was, were) + Sujeto + Verbo


+ ING + Complemento ?

Was I buying things?


(Estaba yo comprando cosas?)

Forma Interrogativa

Did + Sujeto + Verbo en presente


+ Complemento
Were they
waiting for ?David?

(Esperaban ellos a David?)

www.ganandoconingles.com

11

CONVERSACIONES

CHIAPA

My beautiful car
Sandy
Saul
Sandy
Saul
Sandy

I love this car! Its so much fun to drive and its very
comfortable. Have you driven a sports Focus car?
No, I havent, but please slow down a little, Sandy,
you re doing nearly 100!
Am I? Oh, sorry, but dont worry. Ive never gotten
a speeding ticket.
Um, how long till we get there? You know, Ive never
been to Chiapas before.
Oh, well be there in about an hour.

Useful Expressions
tI love this
( Yo amo este )

tHave you?

Mi precioso auto

( Has tu? )

tNo. I havent
Sandy

Sal
Sandy
Sal
Sandy

Yo amo este auto! es muy divertido y cmodo


conducirlo, has conducido un automvil Focus
deportivo?
No, no lo he hecho, pero por favor baja un poco
la velocidad, Sandra, ya ests casi en los 100 kms!
Lo estoy? Oh, lo siento, pero no te preocupes.
Yo nunca he recibido una multa por alta velocidad.
Um, cunto nos falta para llegar? Sabes, Yo nunca
he estado en Chiapas antes.
Oh, estaremos ah mas menos en una hora.
www.ganandoconingles.com

( No no lo he hecho )

tUntil / Till
( Hasta que / Mientras )

tYou Know
( Tu sabes )

tAbout an hour
( Cerca de una hora )

12

PRESENTE PERFECTO

Presente Perfecto
Forma Afirmativa

Sujeto + have/has + verbo en particio


pasado + Complemento

que es igual para todas las personas.

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + have/has + not + verbo en


participio pasado + complemento

We have played tennis for two hours


(Hemos jugado tenis por dos horas)

You have not studied a lot


(Tu no has estudiado mucho)

She has arrived late again


(Ella ha llegado tarde de nuevo)

He has not buyed that car


(El no ha comprado ese carro)

Los verbos irregulares tienen su propio participio pasado y la nica manera de


aprenderlos es memorizarlos.
Normalmente son los que aparecen en la tercera columna de los listados de
verbos irregulares en los diccionarios de ingls.
Por ejemplo el participio pasado del verbo TO SEE (ver) es "seen". Siempre es
igual para todas las personas.

tWe have seen many people around here. Nosotros hemos visto mucha gente
por aqu.
tShe has seen many people around here. Ella ha visto mucha gente por aqu.

Forma Interrogativa

Have/has + Sujeto + Verbo en participio


pasado + Complemento ?

Para realizar preguntas usando este tiempo, se usa HAVE (conjugado para la
persona correspondiente), seguido del
sujeto, luego el participio pasado y finalmente el resto de la oracin.

Have i gone to the mall?


(He ido al centro comercial?)
Has he cleaned his room?
(Ha limpiado el su habitacin?)

tHave you had lunch? Has almorzado?

El tiempo Present Perfect se usa para hablar de acciones comenzadas en el


pasado y que an continan en el presente.

La forma negativa se compone del auxiliar HAVE en su forma negativa


(conjugado para la persona correspondiente),
seguido del participio pasado, que es igual para todas las personas.
tI haven't seen him yet. An no lo he visto.

Ejemplo:
tI have been here since Monday. Yo he estado aqu desde el lunes.
Para formarlo, se usa el auxiliar HAVE, conjugado para la persona
correspondiente (cambia solamente para la tercera
persona del singular), seguido del participio pasado,

www.ganandoconingles.com

13

CONVERSACIONES

I steal in house
Sally
Hi Donna, what happened to you! Look at your face!
Donna Oh! Im really scared! Im going to the police station.
Sally
Why? What happened?
Donna Well, I arrived to my house this evening, and I realized that somebody
had broken into it. Somebody had been in my house and had taken
my new computer!
Sally
Really? How did you realize it?
Donna Because I tried to open the door but somebody had opened it before.
Then, when I came in, I looked that all my stuff were in a mess. I had
left the computer on the table, but it wasnt there anymore: a thief
had stolen my computer!
Sally
Oh, what a shame!
Donna Yes, I had bought that computer just a week ago.
Sally
Oh well, Ill go with you to the police station.
Donna Thank you.

Robo en casa

Useful Expressions
tWhat happened to you?
( Qu te pas? )

tI'm really scared


( Estoy muy asustado )

Sally
Donna
Sally
Donna

Hola Donna, qu te pas? Mira la cara que traes!


Oh! Estoy muy asustada! Voy a la estacin de polica.
Por qu? Qu pas?
Resulta que llegu a mi casa esta tarde y me di cuenta de que alguien
se haba introducido. Alguien haba estado en mi casa y se haba
llevado mi nueva computadora!
Sally
De veras? Cmo te diste cuenta?
Donna Porque trat de abrir la puerta pero alguien la haba abierto antes.
Luego, cuando entr, vi que todas mis cosas estaban en desorden.
Yo haba dejado la computadora sobre la mesa, pero ya no estaba
all: un ladrn se haba robado mi computadora!
Sally
Oh, qu pena!
Donna S, haba comprado esa computadora hace slo una semana.
Sally
Bueno, te acompao a la estacin de polica.
Donna Gracias.
www.ganandoconingles.com

tWhy?
( Por qu? )

tHow did you realize?


( Cmo te diste cuenta?)

tWhat a shame!
( Qu pena! )

tThank you
( Gracias )

14

PASADO PERFECTO

Pasado Perfecto
Forma Afirmativa

Sujeto + had + verbo en particio pasado


+ Complemento

A thief had taken my computer


(Un ladrn se haba llevado
mi computadora)

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + had + not + verbo en participio


pasado + complemento

A thief had not (hadn't) take my


computer
(El ladrn no se haba llevado
mi computadora)

tSomebody had been in my house.Alguien haba estado en mi casa.


tHe had been doing his homework almost every day. El haba estado
haciendo su tarea casi todos los das.
tShe had been looking for you. Ella haba estado buscandote.
tWe had taken the bus to Picadilly. Nosotros habamos tomado el bus a Picadilly.
tI had studied chinese before getting this job. Yo haba estudiado chino
antes de obtener este trabajo.

Forma Interrogativa

Had + Sujeto + Verbo en participio


pasado + Complemento ?

Had a thief taken my computer


(Se haba llevado mi computadora
un ladrn?)

El pasado perfecto se forma con el tiempo pasado del verbo have (had) como
verbo auxiliar, para todas las personas
(I, you, he, etc.) ms el participio pasado del verbo principal conjugado.
Se utiliza para describir acciones ocurridas y
terminadas:

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14

CONVERSACIONES

Preparing a cake
William
Peter
William
Freddy
Sally
Peter
Fredy

Hi guys, what are you doing?


We are preparing this cake for my moms birthday.
May I help you? I could pass you the ingredients.
No, I dont think so. You should sit and be quiet.
Well, I think he could help us to prepare the cake.
O.K, you could read the instructions for making the cake.
Hurry up guys! We dont have much time. Its late and Mommy
might get back earlier.
Mom
Hello, children! Im already here.
William Uh, oh! Hey mom, how was your shopping?
Mom
It was perfect!
Sally
Mom, you look stressed. I think you ought to go to bed and take a nap.
All Brothers Yeeesssss Moommmm! Go to bed and take a rest.
Mom
O.K, please be good. See you later.

Preparando un pastel
William
Peter
William
Freddy
Sally
Peter
Fredy

Hola muchachos, qu estn haciendo?


Estamo preparando este pastel para el cumpleaos de mi mam.
Me dan permiso de ayudarlos? Podra pasarles los ingredientes.
No, no lo creo. Slo deberas sentarte y estar callado.
Bueno, yo creo que podra ayudarnos a preparar el pastel.
O.k. Podras leer las instrucciones para hacer el pastel.
Apresrense chicos! No tenemos mucho tiempo. Es tarde y mami
posiblemente regrese ms temprano.
Mami
Hola nios! Ya estoy aqu.
William
Hey mami! cmo estuvieron tus compras?
Mami
Estuvo perfecto.
Sally
Mami, te ves estresada. Creo que deberas ir a la cama y tomar
una siesta
Todos los Hermanos Siiiiiiii mamiii! Ve a la cama y descansa.
Mami
O.K. Por favor, prtense bien. Nos vemos luego.

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Keyphases
tWhat are you doing?
( Qu estn haciendo? )

tMay I help you?


( Puedo ayudarle? )

tI don't think so


( No lo creo )

tPlease be good
( Por favor comportate )

15

VERBOS MODALES

Verbos Modales (Auxiliares Especiales)


Can, May, Should, Ought, Must, Would, etc.
CAN COULD
Can es un verbo defectivo o incompleto, ya que slo tiene dos tiempos, can
en presente y could en el pasado.
Can tampoco tiene infinitivo y siempre se emplea como auxiliar especial con
el otro verbo en infinitivo. Can
puede expresar: Habilidad, Posibilidad, Permiso, aunque tambin se considera
ms correcto usar May.

tYou can't miss it. No te lo puedes perder.


tCould you please tell me where the bank is?
Podra decirme dnde est el banco?
WOULD
Es un verbo auxiliar que se usa para expresar un deseo, preferencia, para
solicitar ayuda amablemente, o para
expresar un deseo insatisfecho. En estas situaciones tambin se pueden
usar los verbos can o could.

MAY, MIGHT
May, como el auxiliar can, tambin es verbo defectivo y solamente tiene
dos tiempos. May en presente y might en
pasado. Tampoco tiene en infinitivo. May se emplea para expresar permiso,
duda o posibilidad, propsito.

tMay I use your pen? Puedo usar tu pluma?


tYou may sit next to John. Usted puede sentarse junto a Juan.
tThe train may arrive a little late. Puede que el tren llegue un poco retrasado.
Might, se emplea cuando se requiere la forma pasada del auxilia may.
Ejemplos:
t He thought I might go with him to the party. l pens que yo poda ir a la
fiesta con l.
SHOULD, OUGHT
Seguidos de un infinitivo, sirven para expresar una especie de obligacin leve,
similar al uso de debiera
o debera en espaol.
Ejemplos:
tYou should see a doctor. Usted debera ver a un doctor.
tEdward ought to study harder. Eduardo debera estudiar ms.

tI would like to go to the movies. Me gustara ir al cine.


tI would rather stay home than go to work. Preferira quedarme en casa en
vez de ir a trabajar.
tWould you please help me with this task? Podra ayudarme con esta tarea?
tI would have liked to receive a promotion. Me habra gustado recibir una
promocin (ascenso en el trabajo)
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16

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grew
hung
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
laid
led
learnt*
left
lent
let
lay
lit*
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
quit
read
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
shook

PASADO PARTICIPIO

grow crecer
hang colgar
have tener
hear or
hide esconder
hit golpear
hold sostener
hurt herir
keep guardar
know saber
lay colocar
lead guiar
learn aprender
leave abandonar
lend prestar
let dejar
lie acostarse
light iluminar
lose perder
make hacer
mean significar
meet encontrar
pay pagar
put meter
quit dejar
read leer
ride cabalgar
ring sonar
rise levantarse
run correr
say decir
see ver
seek buscar
sell vender
send enviar
set poner
shake sacudir

PRETERITO

been
borne
beaten
become
begun
bet
bitten
bled
blown
broken
brought
built
burnt*
burst
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dealt
done
drawn
dreamt*
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
fogotten
frozen
got, gotten
given
gone

INFINITO

was, were
bore
beat
became
began
bet
bit
bled
blew
broke
brought
built
burnt*
burst
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dealt
did
drew
dreamt*
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forgot
froze
got
gave
went

PASADO PARTICIPIO

be ser estar
bear soportar
beat pelear
become convertirse
begin comenzar
bet apostar
bite morder
bleed sangrar
blow soplar
break romper
bring llevar
build construir
burn quemar
burst estallar
buy comprar
catch aptrapar
choose escoger
come venir
cost costar
cut cortar
deal tratar
do hacer
draw dibujar
dream soar
drink beber
drive conducir
eat comer
fall caer
feed alimentar
feel sentir
fight pelear
find encontrar
fly volar
forbid prohibir
forget olvidar
freeze congelar
get obtener
give dar
go ir

PRETERITO

INFINITO

VERBOS IRREGULARES
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
laid
led
learnt*
left
lent
let
lain
lit*
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
quit
read
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
shaken

17

shone
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
smelt*
spoke
spelt*
spent
spoilt*
spread
stood
stole
stuck
stung
struck
swore
swam
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
woke
wore
wept
won

PASADO PARTICIPIO

shine brillar
shoot disparar
show mostrar
shrink encoger
shut cerrar
sing cantar
sink cantar
sit sentarse
sleep dormir
smell oler
speak hablar
spell deletrear
spend gastar
spoil estropear
spread extender
stand estar de pie
steal robar
stick pegar
sting picar
strike golpear
swear jurar
swim nadar
take tomar
teach ensear
tear desgarrar
tell decir
think pensar
throw lanzar
wake despertarse
wear llevar puesto
weep llorar
win ganar

PRETERITO

INFINITO

VERBOS IRREGULARES

shone
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
smelt*
spoken
spelt*
spent
spoilt*
spread
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
struck / stricken
sworn
swum
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
woren
worn
wept
won

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* Las formas regulares tambin se emplean.


1 Pero born en el sentido de nacido o como objetivo.
2 Forma regular hanged cuando se trata de persona.

18

EXAMEN

4. Time expression used in present progressive tense.


a. Last year.
b. Tomorrow.
c. 3 weeks ago.
d. Now.

5. Peter ________ his homework right now.


Guide's Test
This test is intended to help you determine how much you have learned
studying this guide. The test has 30 multiple choise questions. Each question is
worth one point. Complete the test and then have a look to the answers in the
last page of this guide. Study in the topics you have failed. Good luck.

Examen de la gua
Este examen est hecho para ayudarte a determinar cuanto has aprendido
estudiando esta guia. El examen tiene 30 preguntas de opcin multiple.
Cada pregunta cuenta como un punto. Completa el examen y despus mira
las respuestas en la ltima pagina de esta gua.
Estudia en los temas que hayas fallado.
Suerte.

1. Is Louis mad?
a. Yes, its.
b. No, he isnt.
c. No, he is.
d. Yes, hes.

2. The boys ____________ very noisy.


a. Is not
b. Arent
c. Isnt
d. rent

3. Is the dog sick?


a. Yes, its.
b. No, its.
c. No, isnt.
d. Yes, it is.

a. is doing
b. did
c. was doing
d. done

6. ______ you __________ overtime tonight? Yes, I _______.


a. Do study do.
b. Are playing am.
c. Did talk did.
d. Are working am.

7. Do you live in Rome?


a. Yes, I do.
b. Yes, I am.
c. Yes, I am live in Rome.
d. No, I am.

8. Does Anna study English?


a. Yes, she does.
b. Yes, she is.
c. Yes, she do.
d. No, she arent.

9. Does Peter go to school everyday?


a. No, he does not.
b. No, he dont.
c. No, he isnt.
d. Yes, she was.

10. My grandparents _________ at home in the morning.


a. were not
b. was not
c. no were
d. not were

19

11. _______Michael at the beach on Sunday __________?

18. According to the conversation: Did Edward get fun?

a. Were--Saturday
b. Was--afternoon
c. Were--tomorrow
d. Was--moorning

a.Yes, he does.
b.No, he didnt.
c.Yes, he did.
d.No, he doesnt.

12. My uncle and my aunt ______ at the movies __________.

19.Whats the right answer for this question: Will you clean your room?

a. Were--a day after tomorrow


b. Were--tomorrow
c. Were--three days ago
d. Was--last week

a. Yes, I did.
b. Yes, I have cleaned my room.
c. I am tired, I wont do it.
d. No, I wasnt.

13. The children _______________ at the park yesterday.

20. Whats the correct sentence?

a. was playing
b. wear playing
c. were playing
d. were playin

a. She going to buy some snacks.


b. She is not going buy some snacks.
c. She is goes to buy some snacks.
d. She is going to buy some snacks.

14. My parents and my sister _______________ cleaning up the house last week

21. According to the text, the phrase never mind is close in meaning to:

a. did not
b. were not
c. wasent
d. were nat

a. It doesnt matter.
b. Good luck.
c. See you later.
d. Congratulations!

15. ______ the students ____________ the car in the garage a day before?

22. Has Richard washed his car?

a. Where--washin
b. Were--washing
c. Wear--washing
d. Was--washes

a.No, he hasnt washed it for months.


b.No, he washed it yesterday.
c.No, he didnt.
d.Yes, they do.

16. My friends and I ________ to the movies last weekend.

23. Have you seen this movie before?

a. are going
b. went
c. didnt went
d. go

a.Yes, I did.
b.Yes, I have.
c.Yes, I do.
d.No, she does.

17. What does Hows it going mean?

24. Have you ever been to London?

a. Something that its passing.


b. Something to greet people.
c. Something that its good.
d. Something to ask the time.

a.Yes, I was.
b.Yes, I have.
c.Yes, I did.
d.No, they did.

20

25. Whats the correct sentence?


a. I had leave my computer on the table.
b. I had leaved my computer on the table.
c. I hasnt left my computer on the table.
d. I had left my computer on the table.

26. According to the text, whats the correct answer for this question:
How did you know that somebody had taken your computer?
a. Because I had bought it yesterday!
b. Because I had saved money to buy it.
c. Because I had left the computer on the table, and it wasnt there anymore.
d. Because I had taken a taxi to get home early.

27. The expression what a shame! means:


a. Feeling really sorry.
b. Nice to meet you.
c. Thats great!
d. Lets go to the police station.

28. The boys are preparing a birthday cake because


a. They like cakes.
b. Its her mothers cake.
c. They are her mothers ingredients.
d. Its their mothers birthday.

29. Why are they in a hurry?


a. Because their mom will gets back soon.
b. Because their mom is a good runner.
c. Because their mother might get back sooner.
d. Because their mom might gets back sooner.

30. What advice did the guys give their mom?


a. You should go to buy more things.
b. You should go to bed and jump.
c. You ought go to bed and take a nap.
d. You ought to go to bed and rest.

Test's answers
Here you have the correct answers, compare them with yours and finally study
the topics where you have failed.

Respuestas del examen


Aqu tienes las respuestas correctas, comparalas con las tuyas y finalmente
estudia en los temas donde no acertaste.

1.b
2.b
3.d
4.d
5.a
6.d
7.a
8.a
9.a
10.a
11.b
12.c
13.c
14.b
15.b
16.b
17.b
18.c
19.c
20.d
21.a
22.a
23.b
24.b
25.d
26.c
27.a
28.d
29.c
30.d
21

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