Está en la página 1de 57

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Problem

English is the first foreign language in our country, which is taught from

Elementary level to University level. English is also intensively used in

international communication, in written as well as in spoken communication. In

addition, many books of science, technology, art and other published issues are

written in English.

In English language, there are integrated skills to be mastered such as:

Speaking, listening, reading, and Writing. As Haycraft states (1978:8) that there

are various skills in mastering of language: respective skill, listening

(understanding the spoken language), reading (understanding the written

language), and productive skills-speaking and writing.

The researcher chooses student’s composing narrative writing as a material

of narrative writing. By assumption that the composition is the result of

students’ product that can be known clearly. Sofyan (1999:86) stated that

Narrative is a story which is connected with events based on the plot. Then why

the teachers use narrative text, it is because the narrative as a story of human

experience, so that the students arrange easily the composition. As Keraf

(1991:136) states that “Narrative as a story tells or describe an action in the past

1

time clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the question: what had happened?”.

Narrative as a story, so it is should have the element that can make story more

interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.

The students must have good communication in both oral and written form.

Oral form is that speaking and listening, and written form is that writing in

reading. The students have difficulties in composing narrative writing. Some of

them feel difficulties in composing narrative writing such as: stuck to get

diction, getting idea, and ordering the words.

Based on the problem above, the students must know some strategies in

composing narrative writing such as: making outline, using picture, using

dictionary, sharing with friends, using the tools (audio, audio-visual) or

learning’s aids( a guide),. As Brown (2000:113) stated that strategies are

specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for

achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating

certain information. Because of that the students should choose a good strategy

to compose narrative writing. As Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) says learning

strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of

both linguistic and contains information.

From the above explanation, we can infer that each student has certain

tendency and capability in using certain learning strategies, therefore the use of

various learning strategies influenced by their family background, experience,

and character. In order words, strategy that is useful to student might not be

2

useful to others. Since students have their own strategy characteristic, they will

have different learning strategies that are useful and comfortable for them.

From the above explanation, the researcher will discuss about “the students’

strategies in composing narrative writing” which is conducted at the second

year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa Tangerang.

1.2 The Identification of Problem

Based on the background above, the research identifies the problem as

follow:

1 The students get difficulties in composing narrative writing.

2 Inappropriate learning strategies and teaching techniques.

3 There are many kind of strategies which have done.

1.3 The Limitation of Problem

In this research the researcher limits only on strategy in composing

narrative writing done by students at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa

Tangerang.

1.4 The Formulation of Problem

Dealing with limitation of the problem, the researcher would like to

formulate the problem as follow:

1) What strategies are used by the students in writing narrative at second

year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?

3

2) What are the students’ reasons in choosing strategies at second year of

SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?

3) How do the students’ compose narrative writing at second year of SMK

PGRI 13 Cikupa?

1.5 The Objectives of the research

The objectives of the research could be formulated as follow:

1) To find out strategies used by the students at second year of SMK

PGRI 13 Cikupa.

2) To know the students reasons in choosing a strategy at second year

of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

3) To know the students ability in composing narrative writing at

second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

1.6 The Uses of the Research

1.6.1 Theoretically:

1. As the references for other researchers who are interested in

investigating the teaching writing ability by using composing narrative

writing to students’ composing narrative writing.

2. As the support for the theory which states that composing narrative

writing.

4

1.6.2 Practically:

1 As the answer of the writer’s curiosity on the teaching by using

composing narrative writing to the students’ and the English teachers.

2 As the information for all the teachers and the students to use strategies in

composing narrative writing.

1.7 Clarification of terms

1.7.1 Writing Strategies

According to Collin (2008) state that writing strategies are deliberate,

focused ways of thinking about writing.

Based on definition above, writing strategies are some of technique it can be

a formal plan to write a book report, or it can be something as simple as a trick

to remember how a word is spelled.

1.7.2 Strategy

According to Brown (2000:113) Strategies are specific methods of

approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular

end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information.

Then strategy is as a remedy the teacher in making system area that

happened to process teaching learning. (Ahmadi:2005: 32).

According to Chamot (1987) strategies are often more powerful when they

are used in appropriate combinations.

5

Based on those definitions above.3 Learning Strategies According to Chamot (1987) learning strategies are techniques approaches. 1992:209) Based on definition above. intention behavior used by learner during learning. 1. so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information. 1.4 Narrative writing As Semi in Hasani (2005:22) stated that narrative is conversation or writing with the purpose tells about action or human experience based on the development of time. Then according to Keraf (1991:136) states that “Narrative as a story tells or describes an action in the past time clearly. so narrative is tried to answer the question: what had happened?” Narrative as a story.7. 6 . strategies are any tools or tactics that learners employ to learn more effectively and more autonomously. so it is should have the element that makes the story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.7. 2005:5) Then learning strategies are intention behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning. or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and content information. (Cited from Masdari. (Richards. so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information. learning strategies are technique approaches.

data analysis technique and analysis of the instrument. objective of the research. data collecting technique. Chapter four discusses about research result and discussion of the findings. plan for writing. limitation and formulation of problem. Chapter three discusses about methodology that consist of research design. uses of the research. identification of problem. definition of learning strategies. Referring on the definitions above we conduct that narrative is a story telling about the event consist of conflict and conclusion. the characteristic of narrative.8 Organization of the paper Chapter one discusses about introduction that consists of background of problem. 7 . the different between narrative and recount. definition of narrative. place of the research. the kinds of narrative. 1. definition writing strategies. clarification of terms and organization of paper Chapter two discusses about frame of theories that consist of the definition of strategy. Chapter five discusses about conclusions and suggestion. the categories of learning strategies. the kinds of strategies.

modes of operation for achieving a particular end. Mintzberg (1991: 5) says that strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organization’s major goals. Based on the statement above strategies are any tools or tactics that learners employ to learn more effectively and more autonomously. As Ahmadi (2005:14) states that strategy is as a remedy for the teacher in making system area that happened to process of teaching learning. Moreover. policies. It is conscious or unconsciously. planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information. it is one of their development process. Chamot (1999:32) stated that strategies are often more powerful when they are used in appropriate combinations. 8 . Sometimes strategy can help the students. It is natural for learners to use strategy in learning process. and action sequences into a cohesive whole. Then. so the teacher helps the learner. According to Brown (2000:113) Strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or task.1 Definition of Strategy Everybody has strategy in learning everything. CHAPTER II LITERATURE OF THEORIES 2. because learning is not an instantaneous process for every learner.

and socioaffective strategies.2 The Kinds of Strategy There are kinds of strategies. monitoring of one’s production or comprehension. thinking about the learning process as it is taking place. Strategies were divided into three main categories. 9 . c) Socioaffective strategies Socioaffective strategies have to do with social mediating activity and interacting with others. or deliberate the learning and recalls of both linguistic and content are information. As Brown (2000:122) states that the strategies divide in to two are 2.2. b) Cognitive strategies Cognitive Strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself.2.1 Learning Strategies Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) stated Learning strategies are techniques approaches. are: a) Metacognitive strategies Metacognitive strategies is a term used in information-processing theory to indicate an “executive” function. and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. strategies that involve planning for learning. cognitive strategies. Referring to the explanation above there are many categories of learning strategies are metacognitive strategies.

Avoidance Strategies Avoidance strategies are a common communication strategy that can be broken down into several subcategories. Learners may. if stuck for a particular word or phrase. such as: a. directly ask a native speaker or the for the form. There are several categories in communication strategies. 1 .2 Communication Strategies Faerch and Kasper in Brown (2000:127) defined communication strategies as “potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communication goal”. According to Brown (2000:127).2.2. Compensatory Strategies Common compensatory strategies are a direct appeal for help. b. using an alternative term which expresses the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible. 2) Topic avoidance: avoiding topic areas or concepts that pose language difficulties. The types of compensatory strategies are: 1) Circumlocution: describing or exemplifying the target object of action. The types of avoidance strategies are: 1) Message abandonment: leaving a message unfinished because of language difficulties. 2) Approximation.

facial expression. 4) Word coinage: creating a none existing. 2. 10) Appeal for help. empty lexical item to contexts where specific words are lacking. or structure from L1 to L2 8) Foreign zing: using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonology 9) Code-switching: using a L1 word will. gesture. compound word. Li pronunciation or a L3 word with L3 pronunciation while speaking in L2. 11) Stalling or time-gaining strategies: using files or hesitation devices to fill and to gain time to think. 5) Prefabricated patterns: using memorized stock phrases. 6) Nonlinguistic signal: mime.3 Definition of learning Strategy According to Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) state that Learning strategies are techniques approaches. or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and contains information. asking for aid from the interlocutor either directly. usually for “survival’ purpose. idiom. or sound imitation. 7) Literal translations: translating literally a lexical item. Then Richards (1992:209) says that learning strategies are intention behavior and thoughts used by learners during 1 . 3) Use of all-purpose words: extending a general.

1 . students can facilitate their quality of learning respond to their learning needs and acquire knowledge better than those who do not know and use learning strategies. From the statement above we can infer that in order to be a successful language learner student should be able to decide which learning strategies that one suitable for them. Brown in Purpura (1997). learning. so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information. thinking about the learning process as it is taking place. strategies that involve planning for learning. categories of learning strategies are: 2. monitoring of one’s production or comprehension.4. we can conclude the characteristic of metacognitive strategies. The Categories of learning strategies There are several categories. are: a) Advance organizers: making a general but comprehensive preview of the organizing concept or principle in an anticipated learning activity.4. According to explanation of metacognitive strategies. they can optimize and enjoy they learning by using learning strategies. Thus.1 Metacognitive strategies Metacognitive is a term used in information-processing theory to indicate an “executive” function. and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. According to Brown (2000: 124). 2.

d) Self management: understanding the conditions that help one learn and arranging for the presence of those conditions. b) Directed attention : deciding in advance to attend in general to a learning task and to ignore irrelevant distracters c) Selective attention: deciding in advance to attend to specific aspects of language input or situational details that will cue the retention of language input. 2. According to explanation of cognitive strategies. are: 1 . of for appropriateness related to the setting or to the people who are present.4. g) Delayed production : consciously deciding to postpone speaking in order to learn initially through listening comprehension h) Self valuation: checking the outcomes of one’s own language learning against an internal measure of completeness and accuracy. f) Self monitoring: correcting one’s speech for accuracy in pronunciation. grammar. vocabulary. e) Function planning: planning for and rehearsing linguistic components necessary to carry out an upcoming language task.2 Cognitive strategies Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself. we can conclude the characteristic of cognitive strategies.

important points. or summary of information presented orally or in writing f)Direction: consciously applying rules to produce or understand the second language. phrase. g) Recombination: constructing a meaningful sentence of target language sequence by combining known elements in a new way. including overt practice and silrehearsal b) Resourcing : using target language reference materials c) Translation: using the first language as a base for understanding and/or producing the second language. easily retrievable visualizations.a) Repetition :imitating a language model. outline. h) Imagery : relating new information to visual concepts in memory via familiar. the material to be learned based on common attributes e) Note taking : writing down the main idea. and perhaps labeling. d) Grouping : reordering or reclassifying. or longer language sequence i) Keyword : remembering a new word in the second language by (1) identifying a familiar word in the first language the sounds like or otherwise resembles the new word and (2) generating easily recalled images of some relationship between the new word and thee familiar word j) Contextualization : placing a word or phrase in a meaningful language sequence 1 .

5 Definition of Narrative The students are learning many texts. we can conclude the characteristic of socioaffective strategies. pool information. or fill in missing information. explanation. It is related to the experience or story of past time. 2. paraphrasing. k) Elaboration : relating new information to other concepts in memory l) Transfer : using previously acquired linguistic and/or conceptual knowledge to qqqq new language learning task m) Inferencing: using available information to guess meaning of new items. are: a) Cooperation : working with one or more peers to obtain feedback. predict outcomes. One of texts is narrative text. Base of explanations above. Marahamin (1999:96) defined 1 . or model a language b) Question for clarification: asking a teacher or other native speaker for repetition.4. the characteristic of socioaffective strategies is more conclude to social activity or always met people to interaction with others. According to explanation of socioaffective strategies. 2. and/or examples.3 Socioaffective strategies Socioaffective strategies have to do with social mediating activity and interacting with others.

3) try to answer the question. it has aesthetics. we can conclude the characteristic of narrative. Keraf (1991:136) stated that “Narrative as a story tells or describes an action in the past time clearly. so it is should have the element that can make the story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story. person. 3) systematic. Semi in Hasani (2005:27) states that. what happened? 4) It has conflicts. 2. “Narrative is a story based on the plot. As Keraf (2000: 136) states that the characteristic of narrative are 1) concern to actions. As semi (2003:29) in Hasani (2005:22) stated that narrative is conversation or writing with the purpose tells about action or human experience based on the development of time. 2) set in the time sequences. 2. and plot consists of event.1 Expository narrative 1 . and conflict”. 2) it has a conflict and solving problem.7. are 1) it is a story or it is usually human experience.6 The Characteristic of Narrative According to explanation of narrative. it should have imagery to increase the reader’s interest.7 The Kinds of Narrative Keraf (1991: 136) defines those kinds of narrative: 2. the other characteristic of narrative. so narrative is tried to answer the question: what happened”. Narrative as a story.

(2007:63).Pd.8 The Different between Narrative and Recount According to Pardiyono. suggestive narrative can be unsuitable with the factual data. because it emphasizes the suggestive sense. 2. the purpose of suggestive narrative is to increase the reader’s imagination. the narrative is tells the story based on the human experience in the first until the end to give a certain purpose tell an explicit message to readers about object of story deeply. The object in expository narrative is beginning the first until the end. Pardiyono (2007:94) defines the different Narrative and Recount: 1 .M. Expository narrative is usually tells the information about the event based on factual data. The purpose of narrative is to make the reader’s knowledge about object of story is deeply.7. Referring to the explanation above. 2.2 Suggestive narrative Different from expository narrative. It also tells about the steps of the event to the reader. it means that the writer tells the story from the first until the end. So. Hasani (2005:290) Says “narrative suggestive is narrative that tried to give a certain purpose tell an explicit message to readers or listener so they fell that they are involved in the story”. recount is as a kind of the text that have purpose to gives the information about the activity in the past.

• Recount is a kind of text about the activities that happened in the past time. A writing strategy can take many forms. 1 . but recount is tell story about the activities that happened in the past time. end the purpose just to explain or to give information to the reader. the main purpose is just to explain or give the information to help the reader. From the definition above. tales and other that tell about the experience in the past time which is it has the conflict and resolution. writing strategies are some technique it can be a formal plan a teacher wants students to follow to write a book report. narrative is tells story about problematic human experience and resolution in the past time. It is appear about problematic experience and resolution. Narrative text is very general than short story. film text. legend. 2. novel. it purpose to amuse and sometimes it can be have to give the moral education to the reader. • Narrative is a kind of text about the activities that happened in the past time. Based on the explanation above. focused ways of thinking about writing.9 Strategies in Composing Narrative Writing According to Collin (2008) state that writing strategies are deliberate. or it can be something as simple as track to remember how a word is spelled.

and idea organization strategies. orientation strategies.  Students use drafting strategies in which students. brainstorming and semantic mapping (including computer and graphic organizer in planning and collecting knowledge for writing different text types) and strategies for narrative or expanding a topic prior to drafting. for example. A plan for writing Preparing a writing plan for a specific text type from this they can put a plan for writing a descriptive report in the future. and the actions they will use to achieve their goals or purpose for writing. Setting of the narrative 3. The ending (the conclusion) Students use a range of strategies including the following:  Students describe their action plan for writing. for example: (Department of education and early childhood development) 1. The main characters of the narrative and how they develop 4.  Students use idea generation and collation strategies. 2) elaborate initial 1 . The events that lead up to the problem or challenge (the complication) 6. The events that lead up to the problem/challenge being solved (the resolution) 7.30. Title of the narrative 2. The main background of the narrative 5. 1) use the idea and perspectives generated to write a first draft.

http:/www. and 3) focus on developing ideas.  The students use editing strategies to check the use of spelling. From the above explanation.vic.  Students use publishing strategies such as. and 2) using technology to support the publishing process. and modify the draft accordingly. the students’ can be good written if their use strategies in make composing narrative writing. 1) selecting a format for publication appropriate for the audience for example a letter.au/studentlearning/teachingresource/English/e nglishcontinum/40writingstrategy/htm. details and organizing them. 2 . a poster. punctuation.  Students use revising strategies such as rereading the draft to check that there is consistency of learning and main ideas. a report). we know that by knowing the plan of writing. grammar. language use and style. ideas and identify subordinate ideas. an essay. computer and style guides. students use several resources such as a dictionary.education.gov. and capitalization.

In line with that. Sugiono (2005:9) states that Qualitative research is descriptive. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 2 . Qualitative research is descriptive research. the data collected is in the form of words of pictures rather that number: Qualitative researches are concerned with process rather than simply outcomes or products: qualitative researches tend to analyze their data inductively. the researcher used Descriptive Qualitative. Borgan and Taylor (1990:3) in Margono (2005:36) defined that qualitative research is “the research procedure which produces descriptive data such as word written or speed from the population people and attitude which can analyze”.1 The Research Design and Method In this research.

perception and people thinking either in individual or in a group. complete. It is a formal education institution located in Cikupa kabupaten Tangerang. Moreover Licon and Guba in Sugiono (2005:60) state that the instrument of choice in naturalistic inquiry is the human. and systematic. especially in students’ strategies in composing narrative writing.2 Place of Research The research is about the analysis of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing at second year class of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa. 3. SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa has facilities that support students in teaching and learning process such as library 3. choose the informant as source of the data. Tangerang. As human instrument. Sukmadianata in Sugiono (2005:60) states that qualitative research is a research that is used to describe and analyzed phenomena. social activity. the writer should make to focus of the research. event. attitude. Based on that explanation.3 The Research Instrument Arikunto (1997:136) stated that Research instrument is the tools or facilities used by researcher in collecting the data. The writer used this method to examine the events or phenomena of students. hope the result of research is more accurate. analyze the data and make conclusion. so the process is easier. belief. the writer used research instrument in collecting data to support the research. We shall see that other 2 .

4 Time of Research The research held on 15 – 29 August 2008. So. the writer took the students as research subject purposively. Then. They are 102 students.5 The Research subject Related to the research subject. the writer concluded that in qualitative research. the writer used purposive sampling in deciding the students as research subject. According to Linclon and Guba in Sugiono (2005:54) the characteristic of purposive sampling: a) Emergent sampling design b) Serial selection of sample unit c) Continuous adjustment of focusing of the sample d) Selection to the point of redundancy 2 . 3. which consists of three class and 102 students. so that an instrument can be constructed that grounded in the data that the human instrument has product. forms of instrumentation mat be used a tear phrases of the inquiry. From the statement above. it consist three meeting. the writer conducted her research in SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa at Second year. 3. so that there is no choice than to use the researcher as the main instrument. there is no other opinion that to use human as the main research instrument because the problem. but human instrument has been used extensively in earlier stages of inquiry. research procedure hypotheses and event the result in qualitative research are still unclear. research focus.

teaching aids and students’ achievement in order to know how the process of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing is and how is the result of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing.6. just only observed and was not involved in the teaching process. Observation used as data collecting technique have specific type if compared by another type such as interview and questioner. 3. Besides observing student’s activities. 3. Furthermore.6.3.2 Interview This instrument is the way on the method of data collection in which the writer asks the information directly. the writer only used checklist as the instrument in the observation. the writer also observed teacher’s roles. As far as the writer conducted a observation in the second year at SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.(Sugiono. In this observation the writer as an observer.6 The Data Collecting Technique In collecting the data in the students’ strategies in composing narrative writing the writer used observation. interview known as triangulation and questionnaire.1 Observation In the instrument.2005:65). the writers will observation about student’s strategies in composing narrative writing at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa. The writer interviewed the English teacher and students to knowing some information from her/him how the teacher give a 2 .

3. Good : 76-100% 2. and II) consist of 102 students. Gay and Arikunto The writer used the following technique to measure the data: Agreement x 100% __________ ∑ Items (Taken from L.6.7 The Data Analysis Technique Muhajir (1996:104). data analysis is a process to find out and set result data from observes. Then.R. the writer used the method by L. 3. Gay.3 Questionnaire In this research. In this research the writer conducted her research at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa in dividing into three classes (Management I.R. interview. material narrative writing and how the students’ using strategies in composing narrative writing at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa Tangerang. the writer was given questioner to the students’ at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa cause the writer want to know more deeply how does the students’ strategies in composing narrative writing. 1992:248) The following are the standard in measuring the data: 1. and other to increase the researcher about the study and make easy to understand by our self and other. to find out the data. Enough : 51-75% 2 .

2 Display In data display. 3. Worst : < 40% (Taken from Arikunto 2002:244) To analyses the data the writer as follow: 3. the third step in analyzing data in qualitative research is conclusion drawing or verification. so that they would be understood easily.55% 4.8 Research validity and Reliability 2 .3 Conclusion drawing/ Verification According to Miles and Huberman (1992). In data reduction. the writer will summarize and focus on the important data that could eases the writer in collecting the next data. unsatisfactory : 40% . 3. 3. the writer will analyze the result from observation.7.1 Reduction of data Data reduction use for collecting the data from observation. Then the data were organized and arranged in a pattern. interview and questionnaire. interview.7.7. It was used to describe all of the data which were still unclear in the beginning. and questionnaire. 3.

the researcher is responsibility for providing efficient descriptive data if she wants to make a decision about the transferability. Credibility The validity concept mentions that generalization of a finding can be valid or applied on all contexts in the same population based on the finding obtained in the sample which resent the population it self. Transferability Transferability as empiric matter depends on the equity between sender and receiver contexts. there are four terms used: a. a researcher needs to conduct a researcher to ensure an attempt of verifying it. To make sure that something is objective or doesn’t depend 2 . Conformability A conformability term derives from “objectives” concept according to non qualitative research. Dependability Dependability term is reliability substitution term in qualitative research. To determine the validity of the data. b. The reliability is achieved if the result is equal when two or several times conducted repetition of a study in the same condition and essentially. c. Therefore. it is needed a checking technique of the data. a researcher should find and collect empiric event of the context equality. Non qualitative states the objectivity of agreement side between subjects. To do the transferability. d. According to Moleong (1993:173). To do this thing.

subjectivity means vague. that were given. 1999:175). Based of the techniques mentioned above.9.9 Checking Technique of Data Credibility Lincoln et al (Moleong. are true or not. there is another “qualitative” element which sticks on the objectivity. are true means that the data are credible and the 2 . and someone’s finding. In this case. Based on those descriptions. factual. whereas. it should be trust able. From the above explanation. in this case. Beside that.1 Prolong Observation Prolong observation means that the writer should back to the field research again. there are eight checking techniques of data credibility suggested namely: 3. the objectivity of something depends on the people opinion. with a consideration that qualitative research with its naturalistic paradigm is completely unable to use validity and reliability terms. As Scriven (in Moleong. to determine the validity and reliability. 1999:174). non qualitative emphasize on the data. When the data. if qualitative research emphasizes on “people”. In other word. opinion. then do observation and interview again to the participants in order to recheck whether the data. the writer used conformability of the data. So. on several people’ agreement toward view. the naturalistic paradigm qualitative uses the term in which certainly adjusted to inquiry force. and can be guaranteed. that were given before. so that the redefine term is a demand that unavoidable. 3.

By using persistent observation.9. 3.9.2 Persistent Observation Persistent observation means that the writer should do observation more accurately and continuously.9.9.5 Negative Case Analysis Negative analysis means that the writer should search another data. When the writer and the other research find the same data means that the data are credible. which are different and even contradiction with the data that had already found. Furthermore. the writer observed the English teacher when her/him teaching narrative writing. 3.4 Colleague Checking Through Discussion It is known as inter-rater. 2 . by using prolong observation the relationship between the writer and the participants can form rapport. This technique is conducted to know whether the writer and the other experts find the same data. The most triangulation technique often used is checking trough available source. Denzin (in Moleong. are: 1) triangulation of source. the writer could give an accurate and systematic data description about the thing that is observed. In this case. 2) triangulation of method. 1999:178) defines types of triangulation as checking techniques. 3) triangulation of investigation. 3. and 4) triangulation of theory. 3.prolong observation can be ended.3 Triangulation Triangulation data is a checking technique of data credibility by making use of another thing which out of data to check the necessity of the data or as a comparison of the data.

3 . for example information that can be used during checking of the data. What will be checked with the members involve are data. can be used to record and compare with the result gained with the critics collected. other devices can be used as a comparison critic.9.9. 3.9.When the writer does not find the contradiction data means the data are credible. analytic category. The member involved who represent their colleague have function to give reaction from their view sight and situation towards the data which organized by the researcher.8 Detail Description Detail description technique which demands the researcher to describe the result of the research as accurate as possible which draws the research place carried out.6 Available Reference Available reference is a device to cope and adopt with written critics for evaluation necessity. If those mediums are not existed. 3. assumption and conclusion.7 Checking Member Checking with the members involved in the process of collecting data is very important to check credibility of the data. 3. The description should be revealed in detail to give what the readers needed so that they are able to understand the findings obtained. especially in fiscal field which is used to check the dependency and credibility of the data. Auditing technique is a technique in business concept. Film or video tape for example.

Doing observation in the class. From all of the technique mentioned. Determining the subject of the research. 3) Triangulation. and 5) Field note. 6. 2. interview guide. 3 . 2) Interview. 1) Observation. 4. Explaining the result of data descriptively by making conclusion drawing or verification. 5. Interview the English teacher and interview students. 3.10 Research Procedures The following are the procedure used in this research: 1. 7. interview students and questionnaire guide. 3. researcher uses triangulation of source to display that the data is credible. Giving questionnaire to the students. interview and questionnaire by using data display. Analyzing the result of observation. As Setiyadi (2002:206) states that there are five checking technique of data credibility are. 4) Documentation. Providing the instruments of data collecting such as observation form.

1 The Result 1. Result of observation After observing students’ strategies in the process of composing narrative writing in the classroom. teacher’s participant. (See table 1). interview and questionnaire by using colleague checking or inter-rate and member check technique. 8. CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4. which had been collected. 3 . such as. In this research. teaching’s aids and students’ learning achievement. Identifying the credibility of the result of the observation. the writer measured the data. students learning activity. so that the writer gets the result that was observed. the writer observed four components in the teaching process.

example the students can not make outline before writing. They are: the students listen to the teacher’s explanation about narrative writing. Actually one of four activities was not done. While doing observation. it was the students make outline before writing. and the students find difficulties in composing narrative writing. The second component was teacher’s participant. the writer observed the students’ learning to compose narrative writing. The writer got students’ strategies used to compose narrative writing. the students make a group to discuss narrative writing. and 4) the students find difficulties in composing narrative writing. 3) the students make the outline before writing. stuck to get diction and etc. the students find difficulties in composing narrative writing such as: ordering the word. To know what is of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa. The writer got the data which has result seventy five percent it means the students’ are enough to do four activities. such as : 1) the students listen to the teacher’s explanation about narrative writing. There are four components to get the data by observing the process of composing narrative writing. 2) The students do assignments to compose narrative. The first component is activities of students. The main reason why the writer observed the teacher’s participation because the teacher got the 3 . the writer found that the activities of students. the students make the outline before writing. It takes 90 minutes to observe the process of composing narrative writing. the students do assignment to compose narrative writing.

3) teacher prepared learning’s aids. for instance I saw the teacher gives rewards to students in learning narrative writing. the teacher make groups of students to discuss about narrative writing. finally they found dictionary. such as: 1) Teacher gives motivation to the students. teacher explains about narrative writing. example the teacher answered directly students question or the teacher answer the question in the students paper. While doing observation.important role in helping the students to learn narrative writing. the writer found that teacher had done some roles. teacher answers the student’s question and the teacher solves their own problem in composing narrative writing and one activity again the teacher can not prepare learning’s aids. 2) teacher explains about narrative writing clearly. 3 . hand out or picture to helping the students in learning. such as: the teacher gives explanation clearly to students in narrative writing so the students will understand about the material and the teacher can help the students by answering their question from the students about narrative writing. from five aspects the teacher did four activities such as: teacher gives motivation to the students. while explaining and conveying the material. Unfortunately. the teacher could answer students question directly and indirectly. 4) teacher answered the student’s question. The result for teacher’s participation was good because it reaches eighty percent. the teacher only focused on the teaching aids a book. and 5) the teacher solved their own problems in composing narrative. for supporting the teaching learning process. the teacher gave works sheet.. the students found stuck to get diction.

such as: make outline. The third component is about students’ aids was enough. Because it reach seventy five percent. The result of the data is good. the students used picture sequence or picture card to compose narrative writing. use learning’s aids or sharing with friend. and. The aspects are: 1) Students make their own experience orally. 2) Students used dictionary. The fourth component or the last component is students’ learning achievement. 3) Students used picture to compose narrative writing. and 3) Students use strategies to compose narrative writing. and students shared among their friends. 4) Students share among their friends. finally they used dictionary. such as: 1) Students used a guide. the students can compose narrative writing based on their experience in the last time. use picture. students know some techniques in composing narrative writing. It means that the students used the aids when they compose narrative writing. the students used the hand out or work sheet in learning process. students founds stuck to get diction. The students’ could do the aspects about one hundred percent. 3 . The writer found that the students aids. 2) Students are able to compose narrative writing. from four aspects the students used three students’ aids such as: students used a guide. one again the students did not use picture to compose narrative writing. for example the students asked with their friend about the ordering the words into good sentences. the students can composing narrative writing because the students use some of strategies in compose narrative writing. students used dictionary.

It can achieve eighty two percent that doing activities of the students and teacher activities during observation. the second is eighty percent. 2) Using outline. ( see appendix 1). The result of students’ strategies in composing narrative is the first component is seventy five percent. Result of interview After analyzing the data. because the picture can remind their experience. using picture . 5) Using tools (audio. The writer interviewed the students at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa. 4) Using picture. The writer got the result that most of the students always use strategies such as: 1) sharing with their friends. because some of students do not believe themselves. because their stuck idea and the result do not coherence. because the students lack of vocabulary. So the average of table 1 is good. 3) Using dictionary. audio-visual). the students seldom used this strategy because it doesn’t work. the third component is seventy five percent and fourth component is one hundred percent. using learning’s aids. 2. The writer saw the students could compose narrative writing well because some of the students used metacognitive strategies such as: making outline. using dictionary. sharing with 3 . they said that it is easy to compose narrative writing and help them in writing. and eighteen percent of the activities can not doing. the writer interview was given to the students to know their learning strategies especially in composing narrative writing at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

Do you write your experience in writing? 3 . there were five students who answered sometimes. Do you make outline before writing? 5) Do you use the tools to help you in writing? 6). could you get idea in compose narrative writing?. Do you use dictionary in learning? 7) Do you always share with your friend? 8). Does the teacher give explanation clearly? 9). Then. audio-visual) to help them to compose narrative writing. Do you like writing? 2) Do you write your experience in writing? 3). seldom. Do you determine outline before compose narrative writing? 4). According to those students. Do you find difficulties in composing narrative writing? 10). Result of questioner After analyzing the data the writer was given questioner to the students. and it has been done in order to know the students’ activity in composing narrative writing. There were two students who answered no because they don’t like writing. Students can answer the questions by choosing the options yes. no and sometimes Based on the questioner above. because. the result of the questioner are: 1) Do you like writing? From ten students. there are: 1). 3. It consists of ten items. they like writing because they often write their past experience on their diaries. friends and using tools(audio. because they stuck idea to composing narrative writing 2). they only compose if they get the task from the teacher. there were three students who answered yes.

there were five students who answered yes. because they said it is easier to write experience their own. 4) Do you make outline before writing? From ten students. there was one student who answered no. The last. she said determine the outline is difficult then compose. who answered seldom. because 3 . Second. they said by using the learning aids such as: picture. there were two students who answered no because they didn’t like writing therefore they seldom write their experience. there were six students who answered yes. because writing experience is something experienced or felt by them at past. Third. There was one student who answered sometimes because he only can memorize a little bit of his past experience. and there are 2 students who answered sometimes. 3) Do you determine the outline before composing narrative writing? From ten students. 5) Do you use the tools to help you in writing? From ten students. book that make them easier. because they never make outline in composing narrative writing. The last. because they seldom write by determine the outline. there were three students who answered no. making outline can help them in writing. they said that the outline can help them in composing narrative writing. who answered yes there were seven students. who answered sometimes. because based on their opinion. first. The last. because according to them determining the outline can save the time. there were seven students who answered yes. there were two students. From the ten students. they said making outline make them easier to composing narrative writing.

according them dictionary doesn’t help them much. they said they found difficulties in ordering the words and they stuck to get the diction. There were two students who answered seldom. there were eight students who answered yes. 8) Does the teacher’s give explanations clearly? From ten students. they said the teacher explanation make them confused and He could not understand. because they said sharing with friend could give idea or share the idea if their found words difficult. because the teacher explanation was simple and clearly. 9). and there were five students who answered sometimes. they enjoy writing what they like to write. there were three students who answered yes. 3 . 7) Do you always share with friends? From ten students. because they said they could find the meaning of difficulty English words. there were five students who answered yes. who answered sometimes. There were two students who answered sometimes because they liked writing theirselves. There were three students. because they said by opening dictionary to make confused than to share with friends. Do you find difficulties in composing narrative writing? From ten students. and who answered sometimes there were five students. with the picture can express their idea in composing narrative writing. there were four students who answered yes. because learning’s aids sometimes can help them in learning narrative writing. There was one student who answered no. 6) Do you often use dictionary in learning? From ten students. because the teacher voice couldn’t be listened clearly.

seconds. those who use this strategy was about twenty percent of the students. because they made outline before composing narrative writing. Based on the result of questioner the writer got the data. and who answered sometimes there were two students because they said sometimes they got stuck when they were writing narrative. they said by using learning’s aids they were able to arrange their ideas. because the students can not combine the words into good sentences. 4 . Those who use this strategy is about thirty percent of the students. 10) Could you express your idea in composing narrative writing? From ten students. strategies that used by students in composing narrative writing are sharing with friends it is fifty percent of the student. book. because they sometimes sharing with friends if they find difficulties in composing narrative writing. making outline make them easier than using dictionary. and the last who answered no there were two students. The third strategy is using learning’s aids (picture. there were eight students who answered yes. audio or audio-visual). because most of the students thought that share with friends is easier and they don’t have to open dictionary if they find difficult words. they said in the composing narrative writing they could express their idea in writing by memorizing the experience by looking at the picture. making outline.then there were three students who answered sometimes.

the writer can discussion: Strategies are specific method to help the students in learning narrative writing. Strategies can be used by the students to make them easier in composing narrative writing. using dictionary.4. make outline. 4 . and using the learning aids (book. using picture.2 Discussion Based on the description above. because strategy is one of technique to helping the students in learning narrative writing and also express their idea. or audio-visual). audio. Strategies that used by the students are: sharing with friends.

there were two causes in composing narrative writing. when teacher asked them to practice. therefore. such as there is no a guide. They were seldom composing narrative writing and practiced their English. They only practiced to write narrative writing in the class. Another cause is lack of facilities which support them. In this case. They still confused to combine the words into good sentences. the writer proposes the conclusion as follow: 4 . they only wait for the teacher’s explanation about the material. they must know some strategies in composing narrative writing. So that. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusion After conducting the research and analyzing the data. The students’ difficulty in composing narrative writing is in ordering the words. The students seldom practice to write at home.

making outline about thirty percent. audio. 5. book. audio. making outline. using learning aids (picture. 1. based on observation For the Teacher: • The teacher should give motivation to students in learning especially in composing narrative writing. those strategies choose by the students to facilitate them in composing narrative writing. For the Students: • The students should use effective strategies in learning English such as: sharing with friends. and using learning aids (picture. There were some strategies that used by the students’ in composing narrative writing. or audio-visual) or ordering the words in compose narrative writing. or audio-visual) about twenty percent. the researcher would like to give some suggestions. 4 . The strategies that used by the students in composing narrative writing are: sharing with friends about fifty percent. book.2 Suggestion After having the research in SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa. 2. using dictionary. • The teacher should explain clearly the material narrative writing because the students can be understood the material.

Arikunto. Suharsimi. H. San Francisco State University 4 .For the school: • As a formal education institution. Brown. REFERENCES Ahmadi. Joko. Jakarta: Rineka Putra. 2001. Abu and Prasetyo. Teaching by Principles An Interaractive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Bandung: Pustaka Setia. Strategi Belajar Mengajar. 2005. 2002. Douglas. school provides facilities (have a library and language laboratory) to support and increase the student’s ability especially in composing narrative writing. Tri. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.

buffalo. Inc. Margono. Moleong.30 Am. Gorys.WritingStrategies.http://www. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya Masdari. Logman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. New Jersey: Prentice -Hall.1978. The state university of new york Graduate school of education. Skripsi. Yogyakarta: Rake Sarasin Pardiyono. Gay. Ismail. An Introduction to English Language Teaching.htm.gse.University at buffalo. Yogyakarta: ANDI 4 . Menulis Secara Populer.2007. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. John. Hasani. 16th 2008.Pd. Jakarta: PT. Aceng. 1999. The Correlation of using Memory Strategy on Improving students Reading Skill. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya Muhajir. Analisis Data Kualitatif. 2005. Essex: Longman. UNTIRTA PRESS Haycraf. Prosedur Penelitian Kualitatif. Gramedia Marahamin. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitative. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya. Neong.edu/org/writingstrate gies/index. 1992. Ihwal Menulis. 09. 1992. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.CollinsJim. Argumentasi dan Narasi. 2001. Keraf. and Platt John.A. London : Longman Group Limited Richards J. 2005. April. 1996. L. 2007 Pasti Bisa! Teaching Genre-Based Writing. 1996 Eductation Research: Competencies for Analysis and Application. 2005. Serang Miles and Huberman. 1999. M. Lexy J M.R.

Grafindo Media Pratama Sugiono. Mari Mengangkat Martabat Bahasa kita Bahasa Indonesia (Buku Pelajaran untuk SMU kelas III). Akhmad dkk. Bambang. 1999. Memahami penelitian Kualitatif. Alfabeta http://www.gov. Bandar Lampung: Universitas Bandar Lampung.education. Bandung: CV. Sofyan. 2005.Setiyadi.au/studetlearning/teachingresouces/english/englis hcontinuum/40writingstrategy/htm 4 . 2002 Penelitian Dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Asing.vic.

APPENDICES List of Appendices Appendix 1 Observation Appendix 2 Interview Appendix 3 Questionnaire 4 .

Siswa membuat kerangka 4 . APPENDIX I DATA OBSERVATION No Komponen yang Aspek setiap komponen Ya Tidak diamati 1. Siswa mendengarkan penjelasan guru mengenai narrative writing. Siswa mengerjakan tugas membuat karangan(narrative writing). Kegiatan Belajar Siswa a. c. b.

c. Peran Guru a. Siswa menggunakan gambar sebagai media bantu membuat karangan. c. Siswa bertukar pikiran dengan teman sebagai masukan dalam membuat karangan (narrative writing) 4. Siswa menggunakan kamus untuk membantu menterjemahkan kata-kata yang sulit. Pencapaian hasil a. b. d. Guru menerangkan materi narrative writing dengan jelas. d. 2. Guru memberikan motivasi kepada siswa. b. e. Guru membantu mengatasi kesulitan siswa dalam membuat karangan narrative writing. Siswa menemui kesulitan dalam membuat narrative writing. 3. Guru memberikan alat Bantu ketika memberikan materi. Siswa menggunakan buku paket sebagai panduan dan pembelajaran. Siswa Belajar Siswa mampu memahami narrative writing dengan bercerita 4 . karangan (outline) sebelum menulis. d. Guru menjawab pertanyaan siswa. Alat Bantu Belajar a.

5% 4 INTERVIEW GUIDE Identity of interview : 29 August 2008 Name : Yulianti.Pd Place and Date of Birth : Tangerang. tentang pengalaman pribadi b. Jumlah 13 3 Note: Component 1 : 75% Component 2: 80% Component 3: 75% Component 4: 100% Average percentage: 75% + 80% + 75% + 100% = 82. S. Siswa mengetahui taktik/cara mudah dalam membuat karangan. 24 August 1981 Background of Education : English Teacher of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa 5 . Siswa mampu membuat karangan (narrative writing) c.

How is the student achievement in English Subject? It is not as good as I hope 7. Interview of Student Name : Irham Maulana Class or major : II PJ I Date of interview : August. What strategies used in teaching narrative writing? Make outline or give some pictures then ask them to make narrative writing based on the pictures 6. I have 5. What is the method used to increase the students’ ability interest in writing English? Always support them. give them more exercises 8.Teaching Experience : 6 years Questions: 1. 25th 2008 5 . What is your technique to increase the students’ ability in narrative writing? Make outline. How long have you been teaching? I have been teaching for 6 years 2. 4. what difficulties faced by you in teaching English subject in SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa? The students are not interested in studying English. So far. let them use Indonesian language and then translate it into English. Have you found the difficulties in teaching narrative writing? Yes. they never bring dictionaries 3.

I like.Questions: 1. audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? No. sometimes 5. I did. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes. because it is can not help me in writing. I make out line and ordering the word to help me in writing the story. 2. 4. book. using tools (audio or audio- visual) or ordering the words? Yes. Before writing. 3. What the tools (picture. did you make out line. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Sure! My difficulties in make story is ordering the word Interview of Student Name : Aan Angraeni Class or major : II PJ I 5 . usually I write story about my experience in the last. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes.

25th 2008 Questions: 1. I did not 3. because can easy to helping me writing the story 4. ! because I always difficulties in writing especially in ordering the words Interview of Student Name : Asep Supriadi Class or major : II PJ I 5 .Date of interview : August. audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? Picture. usually I write story about my activity 2. I like. using tools (audio or audio- visual) or ordering the words? No. did you make out line. Before writing. What the tools (picture. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes 5. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Yes. book.

25th 2008 Questions: 1. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes 5. using tools (audio or audio- visual) or ordering the words? Yes. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Yes. Before writing.Date of interview : August. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? No. did you make out line. book. What the tools (picture. I don’t’ like 2. 25th 2008 5 . audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? Picture. 4. because make easy and helping me to writing. I make outline before writing 3. ! because I can this to find ordering the words Interview of Student Name : Citra Cahya Lestari Class or major : II PJ I Date of interview : August.

Before writing. because I ever share with my friend Interview of Student Name : Atika Sari Class or major : II PJ I 5 . using tools (audio or audio- visual) or ordering the words? Yes. because with the look of book I can write the story 4. because I can writing well if I make outline before.Questions: 1. I like. audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? book. I ever share with my friend 5. book. did you make out line. What the tools (picture. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? No. 3. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes. usually I write story about my experience 2.

.. Kelas/jurusan : . audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? I use the picture..... did you make out line.............. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Sometimes........ 25th 2008 Questions: 1...........Date of interview : August.. because it can help me in writing... I did.... usually I write my experience 2. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Yes.... Before writing. ! because I difficulties in ordering the word APPENDIX III QUESTIONER Nama : ...... 5 ................................. before write I make outline 3............ Have you ever share with your friend? Yes 5...... What the tools (picture. 4.... book....... using tools (audio or audio- visual) or ordering the words? Yes....

Apakah kamu menentukan tema dulu sebelum membuat karangan? 4. Apakah dengan menggunakan alat bantu dapat membantumu dalam menulis/membuat karangan? 6. Apakah yang kamu tulis tentang pengalamnmu sendiri? 3. Apakah dengan menulis dapat menyalurkan ide atau gagasanmu? 5 . Apakah kamu suka menulis? 2. Apakah kamu membuat outline(kerangka karangan) sebelum mengarang? 5.Berilah tanda ( ) pada salah satu pilihan jawaban berdasarkan pendapat anda! NO Pertanyaan Ya Kadang Tidak Jarang -kadang 1. Apakah kamu sering menggunakan kamus ketika menulis? 7. Apakah penjelasan guru tentang narrative writing mudah di pahami? 9. Apakah kamu menemukan kesulitan dalam menulis/membuat karangan? 10. Apakah kamu sering bertukar pikiran dengan temanmu? 8.