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TNG QUAN GSM


Trc tin cng im qua v cc nh ngha c bn trong GSM:
1.

Cu trc mng GSM

1.1.

Trm di ng (MS)

Trm di ng l giao din gia ngi s dng v mng, c cu thnh bi hai phn
ring bit:
1.2.

Thit b hoc u cui di ng.


Module nhn dng thu bao (SIM)
Trm thu pht c s (BTS)

BTS hot ng nh l mt giao din gia MS v mng bng cch cung cp sng
v tuyn t anten ph cho mt khu vc nht nh.
Chuyn ha cc tn hiu v tuyn GSM sang nh dng m BSC c th nhn.
M ha khi s dng kha ciphering.
M ha knh v chn.
iu ch v gii iu ch.
Ghi v chuyn n BSC cng tn hiu MS o c.
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1.3.

Trm iu khin c s (BSC)

BSC l nt trung tm trong mt BSS v c chc nng phi hp cc trm c s.


BSC iu khin mt phn quan trng trong mng v tuyn.
Tnh ton vic chuyn giao.
Tnh ton vic iu khin cng sut.
Gim st mng truyn dn v hot ng ca tng BTS.
1.4.

Trung tm chuyn mch (MSC)

Thnh phn quan trng nht trong mng GSM l MSC. MSC iu khin cc cuc gi i
v n ca cc MS. Cc chc nng chnh ca MSC bao gm:

1.5.

Chuyn mch v nh tuyn cc cuc gi n hoc i ca MS.


Tnh ph.
Cung cp dch v.
iu khin kt ni cc BSC.
Truy cp trc tip cc dch v internet.
Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng Gateway (GMSC)

Gateway l mt node lin kt hai mng vi nhau.


GMSC l giao din gia mng t ong di ng v PSTN. N c nhim v nh
tuyn cc cuc gi t cc mng c nh n ngi s dng GSM. GMSC thng
c cng chc nng nh MSC.
1.6.

B ghi nh v thng tr (HLR)

HLR l mt c s d liu mng tp trung cha v qun l cc ng k di ng


thuc v mt nh mng c th.
HLR hot ng nh mt ni lu tr thng trc cc thng tin thu bao di ng
cho n khi b hy.
1.7.

B ghi nh v tm tr (VLR)

Vai tr ca VLR trong GSM hot ng nh mt ni lu tr tm thi thng tin


thu bao cho MS ang trong khu vc ca mt MSC c th.
Do s c mt VLR cho mi MSC v MSC s khng phi lin h vi HLR mi
khi thu bo s dng dch v hoc thay i trng thi.
VLR lun c tch hp vi MSC.
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1.8.

Trung tm nhn thc (AUC)

B thanh ghi nhn thc c s dng cho mc ch bo mt, n cung cp cc thng s


cn thit cho chc nng nhn thc. Cc thng s ny gip thm tra nhn dng ngi s
dng.
1.9.

B ghi nhn dng thit b (EIR)

Do cc thu bao v thit b l ring bit trong GSM nn cn thit phi c mt qu


trnh xc thc ring bit cho tng thit b MS.
Cc th tc nhn din thit b s dng chnh nhn dng IMEI ca cc thit b
m bo cc thit b u cui MS l hp l.
1.10.

Trung tm vn hnh v bo dng (OMC)

OMC c kt ni vi tt c cc thit b trong SS ( GMSC, cc MSC, HLR, VLR,


AUC, EIR v BSC).
OMC c xem nh mt trung tm gim st m cc nhn vin c th theo di v
kim sot mng t xa.
2.

Cu trc cc knh Logic ca h thng GSM

2.1.

Knh lu lng Traffic Channels

Mang tn hiu thoi c m ha hoc d liu ngi dng trao i ln xung gia mt
thit b di ng vi mt BTS.
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C hai loi knh lu lng vi tc truyn khc nhau l:
TCH/F: mt knh s chim 1 timeslot ca khung TDMA. Tc l 13kb/s cho
thoi v 9.6kb/s cho data.
TCH/H: 2 knh s chim 1 TS nn tc gim i mt na nhng s lng 1 cell
c th phc v li tng ln.
2.2.

Knh bo hiu Control Channels

Nhm knh ny m bo cho cc bo hiu ca h thng nh: ng b, qung b, cp


knh, thit lp cuc gi Chng c chia thnh ba nhm chnh nh sau:
Nhm knh qung b (BCH): L cc knh mt chiu theo ng xung, gm c:
- FCCH: knh iu khin tn s gi ti MS, MS da vo hiu chnh tn s
pht.
- SCH: knh ng b cho MS kh nng ng b vi trm BTS.
- BCCH: gi cc thng tin c th v mng nh qun l ti nguyn v cc bn tin
iu khin.
Nhm knh iu khin chung (CCCH): bao gm tt c cc knh ng xung ti
a im (mt BTS ti nhiu MS) v knh truy cp ngu nhin ng ln.
- AGCH: c s dng n nh mt knh dnh ring (SDCCH) ti MS.
- PCH: knh tm gi (pagging) gi tn hiu thng bo ti MS v mt cuc gi
n.
- CBCH: l mt ty chn (c th c hoc khng) cho bn tin qung b SMS.
- NCH: l mt ty chn (c th c hoc khng) dng cho dch v qung b
thoi.
Nhm knh iu khin ring (DCCH): bao gm cc knh iu khin im im,
gm c hai hng (uplink/downlink). Cc nhm knh ny dng thit lp lin
lc ring gia mt MS v h thng, qua h thng s lng nghe v thc hin cc
yu cu hp l ca MS .
- SDCCH: knh iu khin dnh ring c s dng cho thit lp cuc gi, LU
v SMS.
- SACCH: knh iu khin lin kt chm c s dng cho bo co o v bo
hiu trong mt cuc gi.
- FACCH: knh iu khin lin kt nhanh c s dng (khi cn) cho bo hiu
trong mt cuc gi, ch yu cho phn pht bn tin chuyn giao v cho hi bo
khi TCH c gn.

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3.

Cc loi trm BTS

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Gc ngng ca anten
Hng ca chm tia anten so vi phng thng ng. Gm ba loi nh hnh di:

Mt anten cu to gm c tilt c v tilt in:


Tilt c (M-Tilt): iu chnh bng cch thay i vt l bn ngoi anten.
Tilt in (E-Tilt): iu chnh thay i b lng cc bn trong dn ti thay i
chm tia chnh.

Nn iu chnh M-Tilt hay E-Tilt ???


iu chnh M-Tilt c th gy ra nhiu do cc bp sng ngc tng v khng th
iu chnh M-Tilt cho tng bng tn.
Ngc li c th iu chnh cho tng bng tn bng cch iu chnh E-Tilt m
khng b nh hng can nhiu.
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V d: E-Tilt = 2

E- Tilt = 10

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4.
4.1.

4.2.
4.2.1.

Drive Test
Cc cng c cn chun b
1. Laptop
2. GPS
3. Phn mm TEMS
4. Dongle ( TEMS licence)
5. in thoi ( H tr TEMS)
6. Cp kt ni
7. Inverter
Cc thng s k thut 2G
GSM Serving + Neighbors

Cell name: Tn ca cell phc v v cell ln cn


BSIC: M nhn dng trm gc
BSIC = NCC (m mng [0>7] + BCC (m trm [0>7])
ARFCN: Tn s v tuyn BCCH
V d: Tn s 890.2 ---> ARFCN =1
Tn s 890.4 ---> ARFCN =2
RxLev: Mc thu tn hiu c o bi MS (dBm)

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4.2.2.

GSM Current Channel

Time: Gi hin th trn my tnh


Cell Name: Tn cell phc v ( hin th theo cellfile)
CGI: m nhn din quc t
MCC: M quc gia
MNC: M mng
LAC: M vng
CI: M cell
Cell GPRS support
Band: bng tn.
BCCH ARFCN: Tn s s dng cho c qung b v dch v.
TCH ARFCN: Tn s s dng ring cho dch v.
Mode: Idle/ Dedicated.
BSIC: m nhn dng trm.
Timeslot: knh cha TCH ca sng mang [0>7].
Channel type: TCH hoc BCCH.
Channel mode: ch m ha knh (fullrate hoc halfrate).
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4.2.3.

Channel codec: FR (fullrate), HR (halfrate), AMR (t l a thch nghi).


Ciphering Algorithm: thut ton m ha.
Sub channel number: SDCCH (c/khng ghi).
Hopping Channel: c/khng cho mc cell.
Hopping Frequencies: Tn s phn b trong cc nhm nhy tn.
MAIO: Tn s m cuc gi bt u.
Hopping Sequence Number: Trnh t m trong MS nhy tn trong cng TS.
Radio Parameter

RxLev: Mc thu tn hiu (-10 > -115)


RxQual: Cht lng thoi (0 > 7) ph thuc vo BER ( t l li bit)

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FER: T l li khung
BER actual: (s bit li/ s bite c truyn)
SQI: ch s cht lng thoi

MS Power control level: iu khin cng sut (0 > 8) ph thuc vo thit k mng.
DTX: Truyn khng lin tc.
TA: Timing Advance (0 > 63).
4.2.4.

GSM Hopping Channel

ARFCN
RxLev
C/I: T l nhiu trn sng mang.

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4.3.
4.3.1.

Cc thng s k thut 3G
WCDMA Serving/Active set + Neighbors

Type: SC Idle Mode, AS dedicated mode, MN Monitoring neighbor, DN


Detected neighbor.
Cell Name: Tn cell (theo cellfile)
SC: Scrambling Code
UARFCN: Tn s s dng trong 3G
CPICH Ec/No: t l nhn nng lng theo chip (Ec) trn nhiu (No) trong knh
pilot chnh.

CPICH RSCP: Mc thu knh pilot chnh

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4.3.2.

HSPDA analysis

HS session: Active/No (Active khi c kt ni HSDPA)


HS serving cell: SC ca cell phc v.
CQI: Ch s cht lng knh
Lin quan gia CQI o bi UE, pilot Ec/Io v t l thng lng

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No: mc nhiu.
Io: Nhiu do ting n (khng thc t)
DSCH throughput: lu lng tnh bng kb/s.
4.3.3.

Event

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4.3.4.

Layer 3 messages

Bao gm cc bn tin trao i ln xung gia MS v mng.

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4.4.

Map

To bn dng Geosat
Ti bn dng Geosat
Ti Cellfile

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4.4.1.

To Geosat map

Theo cc bc t 1 n 9

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4.4.2.

Ti Geosat map

Theo cc bc t 10 n 12

Ngoi ra c th trc tip ti bn di nh dng .tab

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iu chnh cc lp hin th trn Map (Layer Control v Theme Setting)

Phn Layer Control la chn cc lp hin th (Visible).

Trong phn Theme Settings c th ty chn cc thng s hin th ca Coverage Layer,


Event Layer, Cell Layer theo mc ch.
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4.4.3.

Ti Cellfile

nh dng cell file

Configuration >>> General >>> Cell file load

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4.5.
4.5.1.

Cc bc thc hin trn TEMS


Kt ni thit b

Trc khi thit b kt ni. Thc hin thao tc kt ni tt c hoc kt ni tng thit b

Thit b kt ni thnh cng


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4.5.2.

Ghi logfile

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4.5.3.

c tnh thit b

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iu khin RAT (RAT control)
Bnh thng
2G
3G

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iu khin bng tn (Band control)
900
900E
1800

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iu khin la chn cell GSM ( Idle mode control )
Kha cell theo BCCH ca cell cn kha

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iu khin chuyn giao GSM ( Dedicade mode control )

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iu khin chn cell WCDMA ( WCDMA cell selection control)

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4.5.4.

Cch to sequence

Control >>> Comand sequence >>> edit

iu chnh cc thit lp: thi gian cuc gi (call duration), khong cch gia hai cuc gi
lin tip (wait), thit b (MS).

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5.

Cc dng cng vic Drive Test

5.1.

Cluster

Bi o ny c thc hin kim tra kh nng truy nhp (Blocking) v kh nng duy tr
(quality) ca h thng.
kim tra kh nng truy nhp: s dng bi o Short Call (vd: cuc gi 30s,
khong cch gia hai cuc gi lin tip 10s)
kim tra kh nng duy tr: s dng bi o Long Call (vd: cuc gi 180s, khong
cch gia hai cuc gi lin tip 10s)
V d cluster Marina

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5.2.

Nghim thu cell mi

5.2.1.

Th tc o DT nghim thu cell 2G

Cc dng trm 2G:


3 cell E, F, G vi BCCH bng tn 900 v TCH bng tn 900. (Concentic GSM).
6 cell A, B, C vi BCCH v TCH bng tn 1800 v E, F, G vi BCCH v TCH
bng tn 900. (Dual BCCH).
ch idle, cc sector c kim tra nh sau:
Mi sector c vng phc v ph hp mc mong i.
Chn li cell t trm kim tra ti cc trm ln cn.
Chn li cell t cc trm ln cn ti trm kim tra.
Chn li cell gia cc sector theo chiu kim ng h v ngc chiu kim ng h.
ch dedicated, cc sector c kim tra nh sau:
Mi sector c vng phc v ph hp mc mong i.
Chuyn giao t cc trm ln cn ti trm kim tra.
Chuyn giao gia cc sector theo chiu kim ng h v ngc chiu kim ng h.
Mc chnh lch gia cc knh hopping khng vt qu 15dbm, nu c th cn
kim tra v x l vn phn cng v TRX li.
Cc bi o c thc hin cho tng cell ca trm:
10 cuc gi thoi vi thi gian 10s
Phn tch cc cuc gi thit lp khng thnh cng v cc cuc gi ri.
1 tin nhn c gi v nhn
Kim tra dch v SMS
Kt ni internet
Kim tra PDP (Packet Data Protocol)
Vi cc trm dual BCCH th tc kim tra cc cell E, F, G tng t cc cell A, B, C.

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5.2.2.

Th tc o DT nghim thu cell 3G

ch idle, cc sector c kim tra nh sau:


Mi sector c vng phc v ph hp mc mong i.
Chn li cell t trm kim tra ti cc trm ln cn.
Chn li cell t cc trm ln cn ti trm kim tra.
ch dedicated, cc sector c kim tra nh sau:
Mi sector c vng ph RSCP v Ec/No ph hp.
Chuyn giao mm gia trm kim tra v cc trm ln cn.
Cc bi o c thc hin cho tng cell ca trm:
5 cuc gi thoi (60s - 30s)
2 cuc gi c nh.
3 cuc gi video.
1 tin nhn gi v nhn kim tra dch v SMS.
Kim tra IRAT (chuyn giao t 3G sang 2G)
Chn li cell t 2G sang 3G
Kt ni internet
Kim tra PDP (3G-R99): thng lng trn 350 Kbit/s
Kim tra 3.5G-HSDPA: thng lng trn 1 Mbit/s (vi u cui c h tr
HSDPA).

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5.3.

o so snh (Benchmarking)

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5.4.

Cc vn trm 2G

5.4.1.

Cho sector v cho feeder

5.4.1.1. Cho sector

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Cho ton b sector (c GSM v DSC)

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Cho DSC

V d

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Mt trc S2 GSM, MS1 ch dedicated

Mt trc S3 GSM ch dedicated

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Mt trc S2 DSC, MS1 ch dedicated

Mt trc S3 DSC, MS1 ch dedicated

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Cho GSM
Mt trc S2 GSM, MS1 ch dedicated

Mt trc S3 GSM, MS1 ch dedicated

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Mt trc S2 kha vo DSC

Mt trc S3 kha vo DSC

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5.4.1.2. Cho feeder
Cho feeder GSM

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Cho feeder DSC

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V d
Mt trc S2 DSC

Mt trc S3 DSC

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Mt trc S2 kha vo S3

Mt trc S3 kha vo S2

Cc trng hp cho sector v cho feeder trm 3G tng t trm 2G.

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5.4.2.

Cht lng km

Rx qual tng ng vi t l li bit BER (Bit Error Rate) nh hng bi can nhiu.
C 2 loi can nhiu:
Can nhiu ng knh
Can nhiu cc knh ln cn
Can nhiu xut hin trong ca s nhy tn (C/I)
C/I: t s sng mang trn nhiu
Nhiu cao >>> C/I thp >>> Rx qual km >>> SQI km
Nu c tn s nhiu cn thay i bng tn s khc.
V d

Tn s 518 v 531 can nhiu (C/I thp) nn cht lng km.


Khuyn ngh: thay i 2 tn s bng tn s khng b can nhiu

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5.4.3.

DTRU li

DTRU: Dual Transceiver Unit, b thu pht kp pht ra 2 tn s

V d

Gii php: thay th DTRU li.

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5.4.4.

Over shooting

Cell c vng ph qu xa chng ln ln vng ph cc cell khc.

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5.4.5.

Vng ph km

5.4.6.

Cuc gi ri

Nguyn nhn c th do:

5.4.7.

Cht lng km do can nhiu


TRX li
Vng ph km
Vn truyn sng
Cuc gi b Block

Nguyn nhn c th do:

5.4.8.

Qu ti cell
Cht lng km do can nhiu
TRX li
Vng ph km
Vn truyn sng
MS qu xa BTS ( MAX TA = 63)
Li chuyn giao

MS khng th kt ni c vi cell mc tiu nguyn nhn do cht lng km hoc vng


ph km hoc qu ti nn MS quay li bt vo cell c.

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5.5.
5.5.1.

Cc vn trm 3G
Cho sector

Tng t cc trng hp ca trm 2G


5.5.2.

Vng ph km

5.5.3.

Pilot pollution

Trng hp c nhiu pilot c mc tn hiu tng ng nhau ph cng mt khu vc m


khng c pilot chnh dn n Eq/No km, c th gy ra rt cuc gi v lm gim dung
lng.
Khuyn ngh:
Gim tilt cc anten ca cc trm xung quanh gim nhiu gy ra bi chng ti
cell chnh.
Tng cng sut ca mt trong s cc pilot hoc gim cng sut ca cc cell xung
quanh.
iu chnh hng anten (azimuth)
5.5.4.

Thiu cell ln cn

Hin tng pht hin cell c mc RSCP cao m khng c thm vo danh sch AS dn
n Eq/No km.

5.5.5.

Over shooting

5.5.6.

Cuc gi ri

Nguyn nhn c th do:

Nhiu pilot (pilot pollution)


Vng ph km (RSCP thp)
Cht lng km (Ec/No)
Thiu cell ln cn
Over shooting
Nhiu ng xung
Nhiu ng ln
Vn truyn sng
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5.5.7.

Cuc gi b Block

Nguyn nhn c th do:

5.5.8.

Cell qu ti
Nhiu ng ln
Ec/No km
Li phn cng
Vn truyn sng
Li IRAT (Chuyn giao t 3G sang 2G)

RSCP gim di ngng IRAT nhng khng c th tc IRAT no c thc hin dn


n cuc gi b ri.
Li IRAT xy ra do thiu cell 2G ln cn.

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