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Krausz Hausz

Geosphere Test 2015


1.
a.
b.

fertilizing crops
irrigation
2.

a.
b.
c.
d.

vegetative land.
All of the above

Which of the following best describes why many people in the world go hungry?

Which of the following actions contributes to soil erosion?

Which of the following agricultural products requires the least amount of energy?

beef cattle
wheat
7.

a.
b.
c.
d.

c.
d.

using compost as fertilizer


allowing land to lie fallow
driving farm machinery over fields
all of these practices contribute to soil erosion
6.

a.
b.

Land where it is possible to grow crops is called

Food production has not been increasing as fast as the human population.
There is plenty of food produced for everyone to have more than enough, but it is not distributed equally.
In recent years, the human population has been growing, while food production has been falling.
Global warming has contributed to crop failures.
5.

a.
b.
c.
d.

pest control
None of the above

Farmland may become desertified if

organic land.
arable land.
4.

a.
b.
c.
d.

c.
d.

domestic animals are allowed to overgraze the land.


too many crops are grown on the land and the land gradually loses its fertility.
as a result of erosion, there is no fertile soil left to grow plants.
All of the above
3.

a.
b.

Which of the following farm practices have been used by farmers only in recent years?

c.
d.

When a farmer uses no-till farming methods,

seeds are planted among the roots of the previous crop.


more erosion is likely.
only organic fertilizers are used.
All of the above

dairy cows
Both (b) and (c)

8.
a.
b.

genetic engineering
subsistence farming
9.

a.
b.
c.
d.

One potential way to deal with the problem of seafood overharvesting is by intensifying _____ efforts.
c.
d.

aquaculture
integrated pest management

DDT is harmful to the environment because it

does not break down quickly into harmless chemicals.


concentrates in the bodies of animals high in the food chain.
causes some birds to lay eggs so thin that they break when the birds sit on them.
All of the above
10. The results of the green revolution were not entirely positive because

a.
b.
c.
d.

there were too few subsistence farmers.


use of pesticides and fertilizers increased the risk of pollution.
substantial resources were no longer required to grow the new grain varieties.
All of the above
11. Irrigation water usually comes from

a.
b.

rainwater collection.
rivers and groundwater.

c.
d.

salty sources.
All of the above

12. Pest populations that damage plants


a.
b.
c.
d.

breed more slowly in hot climates.


become resistant to pesticides via natural selection.
include only insects and small rodents.
attack wild plants with greater success than crops.
13. Persistent pesticides are those that

a.
b.
c.
d.

require repeated high-dose use for optimum effect.


retain their popularity among U.S. farmers.
become concentrated in organisms high on the food chain.
possess the greatest chemical toxicity.
14. Biological mechanisms of pest control include all of the following except

a.
b.
c.
d.

making male insects infertile with X rays.


releasing Bacillus thuringiensis to control insect larvae.
breeding plants with natural defenses.
applying an organophosphate chemical with a short half-life.
15. Products obtained from livestock include

a.
b.
c.
d.

leather, wool, eggs, meat, and manure.


cotton, linen, and nylon.
wood and plastic.
All of the above
16. Earths available arable land is being reduced by

a.
b.

fast-growing human populations.


soil erosion.

c.
d.

desertification.
All of the above

17. Erosion is most likely when the soil is


a.
b.
c.
d.

bare and exposed to wind and rain.


plowed along the contour of the land.
covered with grass.
planted to forest.
18. Plowing with machines, irrigating with drip systems, and _____ are all modern agricultural methods.

a.
b.

using manure
applying chemical fertilizers

c.
d.

irrigating with ditches


Both (a) and (b)

c.

cooking

19. Genetic engineering of food crops


a.
b.
c.
d.

continues to be debated among scientists.


is only used with corn.
must be disclosed on food ingredient labels.
Both (a) and (c)
20. Which of the following is not a main use of fuel?

a.
b.

transportation
manufacturing

21. Which of the following is an advantage of nuclear energy?


a.
b.

It poses no safety risks.


It does not produce solid waste.

c.

It does not produce air pollution.

22. During the process of nuclear fission,


a.
b.
c.

a neutron splits a uranium-235 atom, forming new elements and releasing several neutrons, plus energy.
a neutron splits a daughter nucleus, thus creating uranium-234.
radioactivity causes the neutron of a uranium-235 atom to split in two.
23. Which of the following is an advantage of using fossil fuels for energy?

a.
b.

the resulting air pollution


versatility in their uses

c.

limited quantities

24. Coal is formed when


a.
b.
c.

sediments cover dead marine organisms and heat converts them into complex, energy-rich carbon molecules.
deposits of methane are subjected to high pressure until they condense into crystals.
swamplands are buried by sediment. The added weight creates heat and pressure that converts the plants to coal.
25. How is electricity generated in a coal-fired power plant?

a.

The heat generated from burning coal turns water into steam, which turns a turbine, thus running the electric

b.

generator.
The coal is burned, which heats the air. The hot air rises and turns the electric generators turbine.
The turbine breaks down the coal into a liquid fuel that powers the electric generator, thus producing an electric

c.
current.
26. A fuels suitability is dependent on all the following factors, except
a.
b.

magnetism.
cost.

c.

energy content.

27. Storage sites for nuclear wastes


a.
b.
c.

can only be located only in mountain ranges.


will always leak lethal amounts of radioactivity.
should be located only in areas that are extremely geologically stable.
28. Nuclear fusion

a.
b.
c.

must take place at extremely high temperatures.


does not release a great amount of energy.
must take place in low-density containers.
29. Nuclear fusion

a.
b.
c.

must take place at extremely high temperatures.


does not release a great amount of energy.
must take place in low-density containers.
30. New nuclei and neutrons result from

a.
b.
c.

nuclear fusion.
the release of electrons from a positively charged atom.
the splitting of an atoms nucleus.
31. Most of the energy consumed in the United States is used for

a.
b.

commercial electrical needs.


transportation.

c.

industrial purposes.

32. Inside the combustion chamber of a coal-fired power plant,


a.
b.
c.

burning fossil fuels release energy in the form of heat.


electricity is generated.
steam is directed against turbine blades and causes the blades to turn.
33. Oil and natural gas result from

a.
b.
c.

the migration of complex carbohydrate molecules to nonporous rock formations.


the decay of tiny marine organisms that accumulated on the ocean floor millions of years ago.
the burning of high-sulfur, low-grade uranium.

34. Electric generators work by


a.
b.
c.

converting oil into electricity.


turning turbines in a dam.
converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.
35. What is the main reason why fewer nuclear power plants are being built today compared to 40 years ago?

a.
b.
c.

Nuclear fusion power plants are being built instead.


Federal laws were passed prohibiting the development of new nuclear power plants.
Nuclear power plants have become too expensive to generate electricity at a reasonable cost.
36. One disadvantage of wind energy is that

a.
b.
c.

wind turbines are not cost-effective.


large amounts of farmland are needed for the turbines.
the difficulty of transporting the energy from its source to where it is needed.
37. The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work is

a.
b.
c.

energy conservation.
renewable energy.
energy efficiency.
38. A heat exchanger is used in

a.
b.
c.

wind turbines.
geothermal power plants.
active solar heating.
39. Which of the following statements about hydrogen as a fuel source is correct?

a.
b.
c.

Hydrogen can be burned as a fuel or used to produce electricity chemically.


Hydrogen is not abundant enough on Earth.
When hydrogen is burned, it releases pollutants.
40. The most energy-efficient vehicles available today are

a.
b.
c.

cars with gasoline engines.


hybrid cars.
fuel cell cars.

41. In the United States, which of the following would increase energy efficiency?
a.
b.
c.

using public transportation and developing more efficient engines for vehicles
turning thermostats down in winter and up in summer
insulating homes and businesses

42. Which of the following is an example of cogeneration?


a.
b.
c.

driving a fuel-efficient car


using the waste heat from a furnace to power a steam turbine
using ocean thermal energy conversion to run a turbine
43. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion works because water boils at low temperatures when

a.
b.
c.

in a high-pressure chamber.
cooled in a vacuum chamber.
under low pressure in a vacuum chamber.
44. Hydrogen could be used as a fuel source in the future because it

a.
b.
c.
d.

is abundant.
can be burned as fuel.
is used in fuel cells.
All of the above
45. Compared to washing clothes in warm water, washing clothes in cold water uses

a.
b.
c.

much more energy.


the same amount of energy.
much less energy.
46. A hybrid car uses

a.
b.
c.

an efficient gasoline engine and an electric motor.


an efficient gasoline engine and a fuel cell.
a fuel cell and a solar cell.
47. Which of the following is an example of how biomass fuel is currently being used?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Biogas digesters ferment manure and produce methane.


Dung-fired power stations produce electricity.
Ethanol from fermenting corn is added to gasoline.
All of the above
48. Renewable energy is energy from sources that

a.
b.
c.

are constantly being formed.


will take years to deplete.
humans can manufacture.
49. Which of the following describes new wind turbines?

a.
b.
c.

cost-effective
take up a large amount of space
take a year to build
50. Habitat loss, soil erosion, and air pollution are disadvantages of which renewable energy source?

a.
b.
c.

solar
wind
biomass fuel