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EUF

Joint Entrance Examination


for Postgraduate Courses in Physics
For the first semester 2015
14-15 October 2014

LIST OF CONSTANTS AND FORMULAE

Do not write anything on this list. Return it at the end of the first exam day.

Physical constants
c = 3.00108 m/s
h = 6.631034 J s = 4.141015 eV s
hc = 1240 eV nm
Wiens constant
W = 2.898103 m K
Permeability of free space (Magnetic constant)
0 = 4107 N/A2 = 12.6107 N/A2
1
Permittivity of free space (Electric constant)
0 =
= 8.851012 F/m
2
0 c
1
= 8.99109 Nm2 /C2
40
Gravitational constant
G = 6.671011 N m2 /kg2
Elementary charge
e = 1.601019 C
Electron mass
me = 9.111031 kg = 511 keV/c2
Compton wavelength
C = 2.431012 m
Proton mass
mp = 1.6731027 kg = 938 MeV/c2
Neutron mass
mn = 1.6751027 kg = 940 MeV/c2
Deuteron mass
md = 3.3441027 kg = 1.876 MeV/c2
Mass of particle
m = 6.6451027 kg = 3.727 MeV/c2
Rydberg constant
RH = 1.10107 m1 ,
RH hc = 13.6 eV
11
Bohr radius
a0 = 5.2910
m
23
Avogadros number
NA = 6.0210 mol1
Boltzmanns constant
kB = 1.381023 J/K = 8.62105 eV/K
Gas constant
R = 8.31 J mol1 K1
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
= 5.67108 W m2 K4

Speed of light in a vacuum


Plancks constant

Radius of Sun
Radius of Earth
Distance from Earth to Sun

1 J = 107 erg

=
=
=

6.96108 m
6.37106 m
1.501011 m

Mass of Sun
Mass of Earth

=
=

1.991030 kg
5.981024 kg

1 eV = 1.601019 J

Numerical constants

= 3.142
e
= 2.718
1/e
= 0.368

log10 e = 0.434

cos(30 ) = sin(60 ) = 3/2


= 0.866

sin(30 ) = cos(60 ) = 1/2

ln 2
= 0.693
ln 3
= 1.099
ln 5
= 1.609

ln 10 = 2.303

Classical Mechanics
dL
=rF
dt

L=rp

Li =

Iij j

TR =

X1

ij

Z
Iij i j

I=

r2 dm

r = rer

e
v = r
er + r




2

a = r r er + r + 2r e

r = e + zez

v =
e +
e + z
ez


e + zez
a = 2 e + ( + 2 )

r = rer

e
v = r
er + r
+r sin e


2
2
2

a = r r r sin er


+ r + 2r r 2 sin cos e


+ r sin + 2r sin + 2r cos e

1
L2
E = mr 2 +
+ V (r)
2
2mr2
Z

R0

q
E V (r)

L
2mr2

2
(t t0 )
m

L
qk

Qk =

N
X

= 0, L = T V
qk

Fix

i=1

d2 r
dt2

H=

yi
zi
xi
+ Fiy
+ Fiz
qk
qk
qk


f
X
k=1


=

rotating

pk qk L;

d2 r
dt2

L2
+ V (r)
2mr2

L
=
mr2

m
1
d2 u
+
u
=

F
(1/u)
,
u
=
;
d2
L2 u2
r
d
dt

F (r0 )dr0 Veffective =

r0

dr

V (r) =

du
d

d
dt

2

+ u2 =

T
qk

Qk =

2m
[E V (1/u)]
L2

T
= Qk
qk

V
qk

2 v0 ( r) r

inertial

qk =

H
;
pk

pk =

H
;
qk

H
L
=
t
t

Electromagnetism
I

Ed~` +
t

Z
E +

BdS = 0

B
=0
t

I
B = 0

BdS = 0
I

Z
D =

DdS = Q = dV
I
Z
Z

~
Hd`
DdS = I = JdS
t

D = 0 E + P = E

B = 0 (H + M) = H

I
PdS = QP

Z
V =

dE =

P = P

Ed~`

1 dQ
er
40 r2

E = V

dV =

J +

1
u = (DE + BH)
2

Id~`er
4r2

B = A

dF = Id~`B

=0
t
0
A=
4

S = EH

( = 0, J = 0) 2 E = 
1 qQ
er
40 r2

M = JM

F = q(E + vB)

J = E

F=

Md~` = IM

dH =

1 dQ
40 r

U=

2E
t2

D
=J
t

JdV
r

n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2

1 qQ
40 r

E=

1 Q
er
40 r2

V =

1 Q
40 r

Relativity
1
=p
1 V 2 /c2
vx0 =

vx V
1 V vx /c2

E = mc2 = m0 c2 = m0 c2 + K

x0 = (x V t)

vy0 =

vy
(1 V vx /c2 )

E=

p
(pc)2 + (m0 c2 )2

t0 = t V x/c2

vz0 =

vz
(1 V vx /c2 )

Quantum Mechanics
2
~2 1 2
L
H=
r+
+ V (r)
2m r r2
2mr2

(x,t)
i~
= H(x,t)
t
px =

~
i x

r
a
=

m
2~

[x, px ] = i~


p
x + i
m

a
|ni =

a
|ni =

n|n 1i ,

n + 1|n + 1i

L = Lx iLy

p
L Y`m (,) = ~ l(l + 1) m(m 1) Y`m1 (,)

Lz = x py y px

Lz =

En(1) = hn|H|ni

En(2) =

= ~ ~
S
2







0 1
0 i
1 0
x =
, y =
, z =
1 0
i 0
0 1

p) =
(~

1
(2~)3/2

i~
p~
r/~

d re

(~r)

~
,
i

[Lx ,Ly ] = i~Lz

X |hm|H|ni|2
(0)
m6=n En

(0)
Em

1
(~r) =
(2~)3/2

(1)
n =

X hm|H|ni
(0)
m6=n En

(0)
Em

p)
d3 p ei~p~r/~ (~

Modern Physics
p=

RT = T 4
0 =

h
(1 cos )
m0 c

E = h =

hc

max T = b

n = 2d sin

En = Z 2

hcRH
n2

L = mvr = n~

x p ~/2

(0)
m

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics


dU = dQ dW

dU = T dS pdV + dN

dF = SdT pdV + dN

dH = T dS + V dp + dN

dG = SdT + V dp + dN

d = SdT pdV N d

F = U TS

G = F + pV

H = U + pV

= F N

T
V

T
p


=


=


CV =

V
S

F
V

U
T

p=

p
S


p


S=


=T
V

Ideal gas:

S
T

S
V

S
p

F
T


=
T


=

p
T

V
T


V


p


V

pV = nRT,

Cp =
V

H
T


=T
p

S
T

pV = const.,

U = ncT,

= (c + R)/c

S = kB ln W

Z=

En

Z
Z=

deE()

= 1/kB T

F = kB T ln Z

U =

ZN eN

ln Z

= kB T ln

fFD =

1
e()

fBE =

+1

1
e()

Mathematical results
Z

2n x2

x e

dz
(a2 + z 2 )1/2
Z

1+u
1u

2
= 1,645
6

exp(t )dt =

Z
a2

(3) = 2

(4) =
Z

P0 (x) = 1

(5) = 1,037

dx dy dz = r2 dr sin d d
r

dx dy dz = d d dz

Y2,0 =

4
= 1,082
90

cos(mx) cos(nx) dx = m,n

(5) = 24

sin(mx) sin(nx) dx = m,n

Y0,0 =

(x > 0)

(x > 1)

(4) = 6

(3) = 1,202

x
1
dx = ln(a2 + x2 )
2
+x
2

z x1
dz = (x) (x)
ez 1

(2) = 1
(2) =

z x1
dz = (1 21x ) (x) (x)
z
e +1
Z

(|x| < 1)

ln N ! N ln N N

1
y
1
dy = arctan
2
2
a +y
a
a
Z

1
1x

ei = cos + i sin




= ln z + z 2 + a2

du
1
ln
=
1 u2
2

xk =

k=0

du
= ln(1 1/u)
u(u 1)

1.3.5...(2n+1)   12
dx =
(2n+1)2n n

1
4

Y1,0 =


5
3 cos2 1
16

3
cos
4

r
Y2,1 =

15
sin cos ei
8

Y1,1 =
r
Y2,2 =

3
sin ei
8
15
sin2 e2i
32

P2 (x) = (3x2 1)/2

P1 (x) = x

General solution to Laplaces equation in spherical coordinates, with azimuthal symmetry:


V (r,) =

(Al rl +

l=0

Bl
) Pl (cos )
rl+1

Z
AdS =

I
(A) dV

Ad~` =

Z
(A) dS

Cartesian coordinates
A =

Ax Ay Az
+
+
x
y
z


A =

f =

Az Ay

y
z


ex +

Ax Az

z
x

f
f
f
ex +
ey +
ez
x
y
z

2 f =


ey +

Ay Ax

x
y


ez

2f
2f
2f
+
+
x2
y 2
z 2

Cylindrical coordinates
A =

1 (A ) 1 A Az
+
+


z






A Az
1 (A ) 1 A
1 Az A

e +
e +
ez
A =

z
z

f
1 f
f
f =
e +
e +
ez

1
f=

2



2f
f
1 2f

+ 2 2+ 2

Spherical coordinates
A =

1 (sin A )
1 (A )
1 (r2 Ar )
+
+
2
r
r
r sin

r sin



1 (sin A )
1 A
A =

er
r sin

r sin





1 Ar 1 (rA )
1 (rA ) 1 Ar
+

e +

e
r sin
r r
r r
r

f =

f
1 f
1 f
er +
e +
e
r
r
r sin

1
f= 2
r r
2


r

2 f

+ 2
r sin

f
sin


+

1
2f
r2 sin2 2