NIGHT DEITIES

Contents
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2

3

Chthonic

1

1.1

Chthonic and Olympian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.1

Cult type versus function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.1.2

Ambiguities in assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.2

References in psychology and anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

References in structural geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

List of night deities

3

2.1

Arabian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.2

Aztec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.3

Canaanite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.4

Egyptian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.5

Etruscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.6

Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.7

Hindu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.8

Lithuanian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.9

Māori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.10 Norse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.11 Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.12 Slavic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Nephthys

5

3.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.2

Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.3

Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.4

Nephthys and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.5

The saving sister of Osiris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.6

New Kingdom cults of Nephthys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

3.7

Chief goddess of Nome VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

i

ii

CONTENTS
3.8

4

5

6

7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Asteria

10

4.1

Daughter of Coeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.2

Amazon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.3

Heliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.4

Danaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.5

Alkyonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.6

Consort of Phocus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.7

Consort of Bellerophon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.8

Daughter of Coronus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.9

Daughter of Teucer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.10 Athenian maiden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.11 In Gluck opera

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11

4.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Erebus

12

5.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

5.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Artume

13

6.1

Artume in popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Hecate

14

7.1

Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.2

Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.3

Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.4

Other names and epithets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.4.1

Goddess of the crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.5

Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.6

Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.7

Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8

Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8.1

The Deipnon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Modern expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.11 Cross-cultural parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.12 Nature of her cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.14 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

7.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Worship of Artemis . . .11 Chione . . . . . . . 34 Artemis in art .10 Niobe . . . . . . . . . . .16 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Others . .4. . . . . .1 Endymion . . . 31 8. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Atalanta. . . . . . 28 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Epithets . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Orion . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Intimacy . . .1 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern . . . . . . . . . . .4 The moon chariot . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .15. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References and sources . . . . . .2 Artemis in mythology . . . . . . . . . . . Oeneus and the Meleagrids . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . 40 9. .13 Aura . . . . . . .15 Trojan War . . . . .5 Depictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . 26 Artemis 28 8. . . . 39 9. . 34 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. .1 Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 8 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 37 8. .1 Birth . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus . . . 40 9. . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2 Origin . . . .7 The Aloadae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Childhood . . . . .6 Artemis in astronomy . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Polyphonte . . . . . .4 9 iii Selene 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Attributes . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. .9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Actaeon . . . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . .8 Callisto . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Adonis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lovers and offspring . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 29 8. . . . . 35 8. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .4 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10 Nyx 47 10. . . . . .2. 54 13. 47 10. .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . .8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Words derived from Hypnos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 13 Hypnos 53 13. .3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Sanctuaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology and literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Family . . . . 57 14.2 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Homer . . . . . .6 Cult . . . . . . . .2 Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dwelling place . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 External links . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . 56 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. .1 Hesiod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv CONTENTS 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 14 Diana (mythology) 56 14. . . . . . . .1 Hesiod’s Account . . . . . . .2 Nyx in society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hypnos in the Iliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 11 Philotes (mythology) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hypnos in art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 External links . . . . . . . . 42 9. .8 External links . . . . . .3 Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Physical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nonnus’ Account . 12 Achlys 50 50 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cults . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Leto in Crete . . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Lycian peasants . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summanus and Mount Summano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Luna (goddess) 67 67 68 17. . . . . . . . .10External links . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . .2 In language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Niobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References . . . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Chthonic assailants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Juno as moon goddess . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Lycian Letoon . .1 Ugaritic inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 15 Summanus 65 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS v 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 16 Trivia (mythology) 16. . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . .3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . .2 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Legacy . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In the arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cult and temples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 18 Leto 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . .7 Leto of the golden spindle . . . . . . . . .10Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology . . . . . . 64 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 14. . . . . . . . . . .1 In religion . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 19 Shalim 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Chariot of the moon . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 15. 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. 82 23. . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Otomi mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Representations of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . .9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Tezcatlipoca 83 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 20 Al-Qaum 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . 22 Itzpapalotl 78 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Black Sun (mythology) 87 87 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . 85 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Iconography . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 24.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 23 Metztli 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . .11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Aztec Reverence . . . . . . .2 Mexican traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . .3 Legend . . . . . . . . .10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 20. . . . . . . .5 Aztec religion . . . 77 21 Lords of the Night 78 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ritual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 25 Yohaulticetl 25. . . .6 Mythical stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 94 29 Apep 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Notes . . . . . . . 88 26.2 Variations and alternative myths 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 32 Chandra 100 32. . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . .5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 In popular culture . . . . . . 99 31. . . . .CONTENTS vii 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . .2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 30 Kuk (mythology) 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . 88 26. . . . . . .1 In astrology . . 100 32. . . . . .1 Fiction . . .1 Legend 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . .6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dark spot on the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 26. . . . . . . . .1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 27 Five Suns 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . .1 Notes . . . . . . . . 91 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 28 Tzitzimitl 93 28. . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 33 Rahu 104 33. . . . . . . .1 Other views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . 101 32. . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Brief summation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Other aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . 31 Ratri 98 98 99 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Battles with Ra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Further reading . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . .3 See also . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Holy places and things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . .1 Rahu dan . . . . . .2. .2 Astrology . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . .1 In the Vedas . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 . . . . 114 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . .1 Earliest Russian chronicles . . . . . . . . . . .1 Myths . . . . . . . . .4 Various lower beings . . .5 In modern age . . . . . 115 35. . . . . . . 110 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. .3 Local and nature spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 108 34. .8 Other names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . .4 Jan Łasicki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In the Ramayana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Names from folklore myths and legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . .3 In contemporary Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 34. . . . . . . . . 106 33. .5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Maciej Stryjkowski . .1. . .7 External links . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . .3 Worship . .2 Names by written sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35.5 Demonic beings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes .1 Gods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Martynas Mažvydas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 34. . . . .2. . . . . 110 34. . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buddhism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 36 Hine-nui-te-pō 119 36. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rahu Mantra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . .viii CONTENTS 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 33. . .5 Matthäus Prätorius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 34. . . 113 35. 115 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Other written sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Theodor Narbutt . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . .4 In Zoroastrianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33.2. . . . 106 34 Varuna 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heroes and heroines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 References 37 Nótt . . . .6. . . . .3 References . . . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In art and literature . 119 36. . . . . . . . . .3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Images . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 120 37. . . . . . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 38. . . . . 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Text and image sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 38 Zorya 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Notes .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS ix 36. . . . 121 37. . .2 Prose Edda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .1 Attestations . . 130 38. . . . . .2 Evening Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . contributors. . . . . . 122 38. .5 References . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Morning Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Poetic Edda . . . . . . . . .

1. For the band. or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does). Some Olympian deities. rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does). completely separate. It evokes.Chapter 1 Chthonic This article is about the Greek deities. del Valle’s Gendered Anthropology describes there being “male and female deities at every level. “pit”) or megaron (μέγαρον. the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos (βωμός. Moreover. The deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes.1 Chthonic and Olympian 1. the unconscious earthly impulses of the Self. with the earth. When the sacrifice was a living creature. water of the underground. and the chthonic deities. see Chthon (disambiguation). 1. with identical rites. see Chthonian (Cthulhu mythos). US /ˈθɒnɪk/ from Greek χθόνιος khthonios [kʰtʰónios]. from χθών khthōn “earth”)[1] literally means “subterranean”.[2] 1.. Greek. the term chthonic was often used to describe the spirit of nature within. such as Dike. otherwise known as the sky. and yet occasionally was classified as an “Olympian” in late poetry and myth.2 Ambiguities in assignment The categories Olympian and chthonic were not. see Chthonic (band). Chthonic (UK /ˈkθɒnɪk/. for instance. it typically refers to the interior of the soil. a few deities aren't easily classifiable under these terms. depending on the site and the time of origin of the myth. yet Demeter had a typically Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one. simultaneously. men associated with the above. such as Hermes and Zeus. in Ancient Egypt the main deity of the earth was the male god Geb. that is one’s material depths. khthonios had a more precise and technical meaning in Hecate is generally classed as chthonic. in cultural anthropology. the animal was placed in a bothros (βόθρος. Because of her underworld roles. For other uses. or beneath the earth”. Hecate. abundance and the grave.1. under. The absorption of some earlier cults into the newer pantheon versus those that resisted being absorbed is suggested as providing the later myths. The Greek word khthon is one of several for “earth". Offerings usually were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers. the chthonic has connotations with regard to gender. "altar"). Thus Demeter and Persephone both watched over aspects of the fertility of land. goddess of justice who sits on the right side Cult type versus function The myths associating the underworld chthonic deities and fertility was not exclusive. For Cthulhu mythos creatures. the words khthonie and phone or the heroes. however. also received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations. Also. In some Greek chthonic cults. The translation of meaning discusses deities or spirits of the underworld. and women associated with the below.”[3] This was by no means universal. which often happened at night time. his female consort was Nut. Myths about the later Olympian deities also described an association with the fertility and the prosperity of Earth. especially in Greek religion. “in.. see also anima and animus or shadow. the sky. Demeter was worshipped alongside Persephone 1 .1 In analytical psychology. referring primarily to the manner of offering sacrifices to the deity in question. Greek mythology likewise has female deities associated with the sky.2 References in psychology and anthropology Some chthonic cults practised ritual sacrifice. 1. As well. was typically offered puppies at crossroads—a practice neither typical of an While terms such as “Earth deity” or Earth mother have Olympian sacrifice nor of a chthonic sacrifice to Persesweeping implications in English. however not necessarily with negative connotations. “sunken chamber”).

'hearth'. [3] Teresa del Valle. Thames & Hudson 1978). in contradistinction to thysia. 1. at Perseus. A Greek– English Lexicon. 1993. and Eos. Through them the blood of the victims. Henry George Liddell.” (Source The Heroes of the Greeks. The 'gods of the dead' are. Chthonic deities. Therefore they were funnel-shaped and open at the bottom.6 External links • The dictionary definition of chthonic at Wiktionary . goddess of dawn—and Hades as god of the underworld. The victim was held over the trench with its head down. were to flow into the sacrificial trench.2 CHAPTER 1.4 See also • Chthonic law • Earth mother • Geomancy • Life-death-rebirth deities • Sky father 1.5 References [1] Chthonios. which was the portion especially of the celestial deities. C. ISBN 0-415-06127-X. From the Greek “allo” meaning other and “chthon” designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus “under the earth”. usually by low angle thrust faulting. 108. and it was burned entirely. [2] “The sacrifice for gods of the dead and for heroes was called enagisma. 1. Robert Scott. 1. as for the celestial gods. CHTHONIC of Zeus as his advisor. with its neck bent back and the head uplifted. of course. and also libations. and their name was ischara.3 References in structural geology The term Allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation. For this kind of sacrifice did not lead up to a joyous feast in which the gods and men took part. Kerenyi pub. Gendered Anthropology. not. p. It was offered on altars of a peculiar shape: they were lower than the ordinary altar bomos. Routledge.

They commonly feature in polytheistic religions. personification of the primordial darkness The Norse night goddess Nótt riding her horse. temptation.1 2. goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars • Erebus. night and farmers • Tezcatlipoca. goddess of magic. Artames. obsidian. goddess of night as well as death and birth A night deity is a god or goddess in mythology associated with night. Etruscan goddess of night Arabian 2. rulership. lunar goddess known as the “Lady of the Night” 2.5 • Artume. 2. the night sky. or Artumes). enmity. the earth. god of the night sky. Nabatean god of war and the night. the night winds. the north.fearsome skeletal goddess of the stars • Nyx. a group of nine gods. or darkness. deification of evil and darkness • Kuk.2 Etruscan Greek • Asteria. and guardian of caravans 2. hurricanes.4 Egyptian • Apep.6 • Al-Qaum. moon. primordial goddess of night 3 . the night. discord. sorcery. god of dusk 2. war and strife • Yohaulticetl. primordial god of darkness and consort of Nyx Aztec • Lords of the Night. jaguars. god or goddess of the moon. the serpent god.3 Canaanite • Shalim. The following is a list of night deities in various mythologies. in a 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo • Nephthys.Chapter 2 List of night deities • Metztli. ghosts and necromancy • Itzpapalotl . divination. beauty. each of whom ruled over a particular night • Hecate. (also called Aritimi. witchcraft.

and the wild. primordial goddess of eternal night. associated with the night. • Luna. equivalent to Hecate. 2. hunting. god of dreams. equivalent to Selene. death. tombs. goddess of the moon. an equivalent to the goddesses Leto and Asteria. • Somnus.11 Roman • Nox. 2. goddess of night • Chandra. two guardian goddesses. a celestial deity of darkness and eclipse • Varuna (Hindu mythology) 2. goddess of the moon. equivalent to Artemis. hunting.13 See also • Chthonic (underworld) deities . • Trivia. and torches. equivalent to the Greek goddess Nyx • Summanus. who protects people from sunset to sunrise 2. goddess of the moon. primordial goddess of night.7 Hindu • Ratri.9 Māori • Hine-nui-te-pō. representing the morning and evening stars. 2. ghosts. goddess of night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori mythology 2.and young women.12 Slavic • Zorya.10 Norse • Nótt. LIST OF NIGHT DEITIES • Achlys.4 CHAPTER 2.8 Lithuanian • Breksta. god of nocturnal thunder • Diana. god of the moon • Rahu. • Selene. • Latona. goddess of twilight and dreams. equivalent to Hypnus. goddess of sorcery. goddess of the moon. misery and sorrow • Artemis. female personification of night 2.

see Oxford University ated as Nebet-het. France thys is sometimes featured as a rather ferocious and danNephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliter. In contrast NephNephthys . glyphs). just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience. Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function.Chapter 3 Nephthys For Nephthys Boat Club. sister-wife of Set.2 Function At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts. Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh himself. which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name.1 Etymology 3. from Egyptian hieroLightweight Rowing Club.” or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the “Useful Goddess” or the “Excellent Goddess”. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris. Her name means quite specifically.[4][5] Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet[6] or Isis. Horus. 3. Paris.The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as “Lady of the House.” which has caused some to mistak[1] Nephthys /ˈnɛpθɨs/ (Greek: Νέφθυς) or Nebthet /ˈnɛbˌθɛt/ (Arabic: ‫ نيفتيس‬Nyftys) is a member of enly identify her with the notion of a “housewife. Along with her sister Isis. with her sister Isis in funerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the “Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure” which associates her with the role of priestess.[8] Though other goddesses could assume this role. a daughter of Nut and Geb. Set. This entrance way symbolised the horizon or akhet. This the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology. probably indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual. capable of incinerating the enemies of 5 . Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience. This title. and Nebt-het.[3] These late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship.[7] As the primary “nursing mother” of the incarnate Pharaonic-god. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis (Inpu) in some myths. Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity. Nephthys was typically paired is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity.gerous divinity.Musée du Louvre.

“Ascend and descend.6 the Pharaoh with her fiery breath. along with the sign for neb. usually out. were enamored of Mother Nephthys. She was not paired with Set the villain. Less well understood than her sister Isis. sink into darkness with the Night-bark. In this capacity. in particular. or twilight. and Harpocrates.3 Symbolism while Nephthys’s marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology. rise with the Day-bark. . The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead. Early Greco-Roman. on top of the enclosure sign. which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (hwt).[10] CHAPTER 3. was a force before whom demons trembled in fear. the benevolent figure who was the killer of Apophis. the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys. 3. depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name. Nephthys often was depicted as a kite. Nephthys’s associ. it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts.[11] along with the work of several noted scholars. Thus. Ascend and descend. Nephthys. According to the Pyramid Texts. who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion.[12] 3. reTriad of Isis.Nephthys plays an important role in the Osirian mythstretched as a symbol of protection..4 Nephthys and Set Though it commonly has been assumed that Nephthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis.5 The saving sister of Osiris In the funerary role.cycle. Walters Museum Levai notes that while Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity’s marriage. She argues that the later evidence suggests that: mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Seth. Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E.e. but with Set’s other aspect. or mistress (Lady). the majestic sun god. ascend with Isis. there is very little specifically Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in fu. Isis was Ra’s companion at the coming of dawn. Hornung.[14] 3.[13] Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition. She was. where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler. almost without fail. i. It should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed as the polar opposite of Isis. and whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various levels of Duat. as the region of the afterlife was termed. particularly when he entered Duat at the transitional time of dusk. cent Egyptological research has called this into question. but rather as a different reflection of the same reality: eternal life in transition.linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian nerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the sources. as is attested in various stelae and a wealth of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor. along with Isis. where Nephthys was a member of that great city’s Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex. NEPHTHYS ation with the kite or the Egyptian hawk (and its piercing. descend with Nephthys. This was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period.[9] New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs. Nephthys.” Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210. Nephthys was also seen in the Pyramid Texts as a supportive cosmic force occupying the night-bark on the journey of Ra. or as a woman with falcon wings. mournful cries) evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women.

. one of the Sons of Horus. midway between Oxyrhynchos and . and by her presence in a variety of magical papyri that sought to summon her famously altruistic qualities to the aid of mortals. which she would “return”. 300-200 B. Nephthys was one of the protectresses of the Canopic jars of the Hapi. 300-200 B.C. Nephthys. after his murder by the envious Set. Nephthys was attested as one of the four “Great Chiefs” ruling in the Osirian cult-center of Busiris. No cult is attested for her there. One ancient Egyptian myth preserved in the Papyrus Westcar recounts the story of Isis.c.” This fits well with more general textual themes that consider Nephthys to be a goddess whose unique domain was darkness. Nephthys is depicted receiving lavish beer-offerings from the Pharaoh. Hapi. in the Delta[15] and she appears to have occupied an honorary position Nephthys’s healing skills and status as direct counterpart of Isis.” and there associated with the jackal-headed god Anubis as patron.C. Nephthys joined Isis as a mourner in the shrine known as the Osireion.6 New Kingdom cults of Nephthys The Ramesside Pharaohs were particularly devoted to Set’s prerogatives and. wherein two chosen females or priestesses played the roles of Isis and Nephthys and performed the elaborate 'Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys’. or the perilous edges of the desert. Nephthys could also appear as one of the goddesses who assists at childbirth. NEW KINGDOM CULTS OF NEPHTHYS 7 at the holy city of Abydos. Meskhenet.c. in the 19th Dynasty.[18] Nephthys .3.”[17] in direct reference to her regenerative priorities on the embalming table.6. Dendera. assisting the wife of a priest of Amun-Re as she prepares to bring forth sons who are destined for fame and fortune.[16] These "Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys" were ritual elements of many such Osirian rites in major ancient Egyptian cult-centers. and Heqet as traveling dancers in disguise. and Behbeit. There. Thus we find Nephthys endowed with the epithet.Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud .Metropolitan Museum of Art It is Nephthys who assists Isis in gathering and mourning the dismembered portions of the body of Osiris. though she certainly figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted. and Serqet). Nephthys is a goddess who gives the Pharaoh power to see “that which is hidden by moonlight. Isis . .” are evidenced by the abundance of faience amulets carved in her likeness. Nephthys was duly honored with the title “Queen of the Embalmer’s Shop.” Elsewhere at Edfu. a temple of Nephthys called the “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” was built or refurbished in the town of Sepermeru. as her sister in “words of power. Nephthys also serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus.[19] 3.Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud . at Abydos.Metropolitan Museum of Art Nephthys was also considered a festive deity whose rites could mandate the liberal consumption of beer. As a mortuary goddess (along with Isis. The Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the “birth-mother” and to Nephthys as the “nursing-mother” of Horus. “Nephthys of the Bed of Life. In various reliefs at Edfu. for example. guarded the embalmed lungs. using her power as a beergoddess “that [the pharaoh] may have joy with no hangover. In the city of Memphis. Neith. steeped.

El Qa'la. He notes his obvious administration of the “House of Set” and adds: “I am also responsible for the ship. 27 [6] A. the prophet (named Pra'emhab) laments his workload.7 Chief goddess of Nome VII Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Sacred Phoenix. Wilson. 3. north of Sepermeru. 2005 ISBN 977-17-2353-7 [Retrieved 2011-12-12] [3] P. where another shrine existed in honor of the Bennu. K. Here. This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis.[24] CHAPTER 3. Vol. While certainly affiliated with the “House of Set. an independent entity. as part of the cultic celebration of the Pharaonic “Sed-Festival. and of the local Horus/Osiris manifestation. 2007.”[22] As “Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun. The cult-image’s inscription originally pertained to “Nephthys. in the town of Su. Nephthys found her typical place as part of a triad alongside Osiris and Isis. Busiris. Foremost of the [Booths of] Herakleopolis. Letopolis. El Qa'la. Universal-Publishers. Numen. closer to the Fayyum region. Heliopolis. on the outskirts of the Fayyum and quite near to the modern site of Deshasheh. The Literary Motif of the Exposed Child (cf.” A “prophet of Nephthys” is indeed attested for the town of Herakleopolis in the 30th Dynasty. it should not surprise us that her cult images could likely be found as part of the divine entourage in temples at Kharga. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 14. (Feb. Deir el-Hagar. which was renowned for its “House of the Bennu” temple. or the Bennu Bird.[26] In most cases. as Papyrus Wilbour notes in its wealth of taxation records and land assessments. p. Nephthys was the primary protectress of the resident Osirian relic. Another temple of Nephthys seems to have existed in the town of Punodjem. Kellis. of the Bennu Bird. and Nephthys” for the ultimate resolution of this issue by the royal Vizier. Page 219 in the article On a Topos in Egyptian Medical History by Hedvig Györy [7] Donald B. Dendera. Foremost of the Sed [Festival] in the Booth of Annals” (at Medinet-Habu). Philae.[21] another “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” seems to have existed to the north. Philae. Abydos. and indeed throughout Egypt. A. The fields and other holdings belonging to Nephthys’s temple were under the authority of two Nephthys-prophets (named Penpmer and Merybarse) and one (mentioned) wa'ab priest of the goddess. but was re-inscribed or re-dedicated to “Nephthys. Seshat and the Pharaoh. Fasc.. OLA 78. Therefore. ii 1-10). After making an introductory appeal to “Re-Horakhte. the chief city of Nome VII. or as part of a quartet of deities. [2] Abeer El-Shahawy books. Wainwright.” and a wealth of temple texts from Edfu. the temple of Nephthys was a specific foundation by Ramesses II. Dendera. Koptos. Set. Nephthys was given the name “Nephthys-Kheresket. 2003. Thebes. It is perhaps in this way that Nephthys best fulfilled her role as an important national deity whose ideal function was to provide powerful assistance to her associates in a great variety of temple cults— a truly “Useful” and “Excellent” goddess. along with a heap of other temples. or Isis and Min. The basalt image originally was stationed at Medinet-Habu.” the Nephthys temple at Sepermeru and its apportioned lands (several acres) clearly were under administration distinct from the Set institution. land-owning temples delineated for this portion of the Middle Egyptian district in Papyrus Wilbour.co.8 References [1] Or /ˈnɛfθɨs/. and others corroborate the late identification of Nephthys as the supreme goddess of Upper Egyptian Nome VII. The Ancient Egyptians. In this role.[20] The Nephthys temple was a unique establishment in its own right.” the goddess and her shrines were under the particular endorsement of Ramesses II. located in close proximity to (or within) the precinct of the enclosure of Set. To be certain. as her primary epithets reflect. Nephthys also was the goddess of the “Mansion of the Sistrum" in Hwt-Sekhem (Gr. NEPHTHYS 3. Marshall Cavendish. Shenhur. A near life-sized statue of Nephthys (currently housed in the Louvre) boasts a curiously altered inscription. Dakleh Oasis. 26. 1941). Diospolis Parva). 'A Ptolemaic Lexikon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu'. . 1997 [4] G. 3.8 Herakleopolis.[25] Nephthys was most widely and usually worshipped in ancient Egypt as part of a consortium of temple deities. or Isis and Horus.[23] There can be little doubt that a cult of Nephthys existed in the temple and great town of Herakleopolis. 30-40 [5] Virginia Schomp. Esna. pp.uk The funerary art of Ancient Egypt: a bridge to the realm of the hereafter (106 pages) American University in Cairo Press. Vol. Eyma. The Papyrus Bologna records a complaint lodged by a prophet of the temple of Set in that town regarding undue taxation in his regard. Sebennytos.” but was transferred at some point to Herakleopolis and the temple of Herishef. Ex. and the Nephthys temple was a selfsustaining temple complex within the Set enclosure. Redford. the god Neferhotep. A Delta-man in Yebu.google. There. and I am responsible likewise for the House of Nephthys. The foundations of the Set and Nephthys temples at Sepermeru finally were discovered and identified in the 1980s. Kom Ombo. According to Papyrus Wilbour. (Nov. the House of Nephthys was one of fifty individual.

1 [23] 'Les Deesses de l'Egypte Pharaonique'. “Nephthys and Seth: Anatomy of a Mythical Marriage”. 6. London 1992. G. FRANCE. Peter Der Manuelian. Gutbub. C.' 152 n. Elephantine.html [15] The Book of the Dead. 2. LaChaud. REFERENCES 1967). Allen. Temples in Ancient Egypt. Kitchen. 1992. 2005 [14] Levai.8. [13] James P. pp. Sanctuaire nord. Apr 20. 8-7. 6. and Paintings. 1993. 1989 [21] Section 1. Nephthys découverte dans un papyrus magique in Mélanges. Relevés des scènes et des textes. Karnak VII. p. Moss. Dynasty XVIII [18] J. Traunecker.d. 'Pretres Isiaques. 112. Toledo. 186-188 [12] Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Cauville. Theban Temples.A. 41-62. Varia Memphitica. Griffiths. 2007.]. Beitrage Bf. Le temple d'El-Qal'a. R. Ramesside Inscriptions.' BIFAO 84. Lloyd [Hrsg. Paper presented at The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt. Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. Reliefs. The discussion of Isis as the mother of Anubis appears on pages 222 and 223 [8] K. Berlandini. 'Essai.. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112 [26] BIFAO website 9 . Porter/R. p. Katary.http: //www. Traunecker. Oxford University Press 1969. Wyndham Toledo Hotel.7 [10] B. 209-228.com/meta/p176897_index. Ohio. Bergman. 184 n. 'The Pyramid Texts’ SBL.3. II. Faullkner. Dieter Arnold. 1984 [20] 'Land Tenure in the Ramesside Period' by S. Jessica. Beitrage Bf. 5. Theban Recension [16] Byron Esely Shafer. I' Sanctuaire central. in: A. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. 28 [22] Papyrus Bologna 1094.allacademic. université de Montpellier. Oxford Second Edition [11] Versuch über Nephthys. B. 155-157 [25] Sauneron. Publications de la recherche. Blackwell [9] Sauneron. J. 46. Montpellier. VI . R.O. Durocher-Champollion [24] Forgeau.La stèle de Parâherounemyef. 46 n. 2005 [17] Tomb of Tuthmosis III. BIFAO 82 [19] A.

an Amazon woman.[3] This then became identi.[1] According to Hesiod. which was the only piece on earth to give refuge to the fugitive Leto when.[2] Panopeus by Phocus.4 Danaid Asteria and Phoebe on the Pergamon Altar. preg. by Perses she Asteria[8] or Asterodia[9] was the mother of Crisus and had a daughter Hecate. Asteria was one of the Danaids. Alkyonides. she flung herself into the sea and was transformed into a kingfisher. king in India. starry one”) was a name attributed to the following eleven individuals: the daughter of Coeus.3 Heliad Asteria or Astris was a daughter of Helios and Clymene or Ceto.[6] Greek: Ἀστερία. daughters of Danaus who. the bride of Chaetus. Along with her sis“Telemaco”. Ancient he came for Hippolyte's girdle. briefly.4. Asteria flung herself into the Aegean Sea in the form of a quail in order to escape the advances of Zeus. Her son is known for having founded a city in Caria which was named after him. ters. For the medieval music 4. For the type of gemstone. Heliad. She married the river god Hydaspes (the modern Jhelum River) and became mother of Deriades. “of the stars. with one exception. the daughter of Coronus.2 Amazon ensemble. 4.[7] 4. Asteria (/əˈstɪəriə/. Each of these is detailed below.6 Consort of Phocus Asteria was the daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe and sister of Leto. see Asteria Medievale.7 Consort of Bellerophon fied with the island of Delos. an Athenian maiden. and became the “quail island” of Ortygia. Danaid. Asteria was the ninth Amazon killed by Heracles when In Greek mythology. the daughter of Teucer. was the mother of Hydissos nant with Zeus’s children.Asteria. murdered their husbands on their wedding nights.[4] 10 . the consort of 4. one of the Heliades. she was pursued by vengeful by Bellerophon. see Star stone. daughter of Hydeus.[10] Hera. She was.1 Daughter of Coeus 4.[5] 4. and a character in the opera Asteria was one of the Alkyonides. The Titan goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. see Asteria (band). the Consort of Phocus.Chapter 4 Asteria For the band.5 Alkyonides Bellerophon.

1. 404ff. 53 [9] Tzetzes on Lycophron. and Apollo were possible parents of the seer Idmon. though the name did not appear in Homer's Odyssey on which the opera was based. 139. 4. [2] Theogony 409–11. Argonautica.10 Athenian maiden Asteria was one of the would-be sacrificial victims of Minotaur.11 In Gluck opera Christoph Willibald Gluck gave the name Asteria to one of the characters in his 1765 opera "Telemaco". [4] Theoi Project .12 References [1] Hesiod.8 Daughter of Coronus Asteria. 450 [13] Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum 4. Theogony.9 Daughter of Teucer The daughter of Teucer and Eune of Cyprus also bore the name Asteria. portrayed in a vase painting. 5 [7] Suda s. 939 [10] Stephanus of Byzantium.4. s. [3] John Tzetzes.3 (on-line text) [6] Bibliotheca 2. EXTERNAL LINKS 4. Library of History. Alkyonides [8] Tzetzes on Lycophron.13 External links • Theoi Project: Asteria 11 .[12] 4. 8185 (painting on François Vase) 4. v. Hydissos [11] Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius.[11] 4. 16. daughter of Coronus. 4. v.[13] 4.13. 1. citing Pherecydes of Leros [12] Tzetzes on Lycophron.Titanis Asteria [5] Diodorus Siculus.

ISBN 1-60413-412-7.Chapter 5 Erebus For other uses. (1914). Scott. Burdett and Company. (1999). Retrieved 1 July 2011. the Moirai. Hugh G. Classical Mythology: Sixth Edition. p. The Sources of Spenser’s Classical Mythology. Dictionary of Ancient Deities. representing the personification of darkness. Beekes. Patricia (2001). whom she con• Evelyn-White. for instance. • The Theoi Project. ISBN 0-19-514338-8.[10] Evelyn-White (1914) . first recorded instance of it was “place of darkness between earth and Hades”. Alice (1896). P. O. Theogony 116–124. “Erebos” [2] Hesiod. shadow”). The Roman writer Hyginus. Evelyn-White. but of Night were born Aether and Day. “deep darkness. 263. New York: Silver. Volume 1. Old Norse røkkr). evening' are sometimes cited 2009. [3] Elizabeth. Geras. New York: Harper. 52. 451. Sanskrit rájas.[11] • Smith. Charon. Henry George. Styx. In Greek mythology. Robert.. New York: Oxford University Press US.2 External links [1] Ἔρεβος. “Theogony”. also Erebos (Greek: Ἔρεβος. Perseus Digital Library Project (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). ISBN 0-19-514504-6. Brill. brew ‫( ֶעֶרב‬ˤerev) 'sunset.[1] Library. described Erebus as the father of Geras. 84. [6] Rengel. Retrieved 1 July 2011. born of Chaos.[1] was often conceived as a primordial deity. and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus. Douglas. Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z. ISBN 9780195143386 [5] Peck. Marian (2009).” Hesiod. According to the Greek oral poet Hesiod's Theogony. the [8] Harper. 170. Hypnos. p. depending on the source of the mythology. Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities.[9] R. Infobase Publishing. William. Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Theogony (120–125)[10] Translation by Hugh G. “Hyginus. “darkness”[8][9] “darkness” (cf.[3] However. in his Fabulae. Hesiod’s Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence. 253. Aaron. Gothic [11] Atsma. 12 . Harry Thurston (1897). The ceived and bore from union in love with Erebus. Erebus is the offspring of Chaos.. the god of old age. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. Fabulae 1–49”. Mark P. p. an Indo-European origin for the name Ἔρεβος itself is possible from PIE *h1 regʷ-es/os. Theoi E-Texts riqis.. “Online Etymology Dictionary: Erebus”. 36. 55. S. Hemera. 620. pp. ISBN 9780195145045 The perceived meaning of Erebus is “darkness". see Erebus (disambiguation). London (1873). p. “E'rebos” 5. pp. as a source. Oxford University Press. Semitic forms such as He.[3][4][5][6][7] [7] Turner. but is said to have fathered several other deities with Nyx.[2] Erebus features little in Greek mythological tradition and literature. 271. Erebus /ˈɛrəbəs/. the Hesperides. this union includes Aether.1 References Notes 5. Liddell. and Thanatos. and brother to Nyx: Sources “From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. [4] Morford. ISBN 9781604134124 In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. 51.

Sacred History. 130–32. nature. 141. “Incredible Hercules #124”. death. She was associated with the Greek goddess Artemis in later history.1 Artume in popular culture Artume appeared as a recurring character in Marvel Comics. Fred. Greg. 99–103. and Legend. 12. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Marvel Universe. pp. [2] Van Lente. ISBN 978-1-93170786-2.2 References [1] Thomson de Grummond. or Artumes) was an Etruscan goddess who was the goddess of night. Etruscan Myth. 13 . 2008). Pak. Referred to as “Artumes”. 149. 158.[1] Aritimi was also considered the founder of the Etruscan town Aritie. 6. which is today the Italian town Arezzo. Retrieved 26 April 2010. Nancy (2006). Losna).Chapter 6 Artume Artume (also called Aritimi. Artames. of the moon (like another goddess. 51.[2] 6. woods and fertility. et al. (December 31.

ink and light brown and • the name of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth. sea and sky. Greek Ἑκάτη. with whom she was identified in Rome. see Hecate (disambiguation). It remained com. 7. Hecate or Hekate (/ˈhɛkətiː. an obscure epithet of Apollo. well into the 19th century.[6] mon practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables.[8] • From Ἑκατός Hekatos. even when spelled with final e.[12] The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced.monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate 14 .[11] Statuette of Triple-bodied Hekate. Pen.[15] 7.[10] “the far reaching one” or “the far-darter”. the name was also pronounced not three-formed. ˈhɛkɪt/.Chapter 7 Hecate For other uses. In Early Modern English. Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul.1 Name The etymology of the name Hecate (Ἑκάτη. necromancy.[13] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the ElizabethanJacobean period.[4][5] She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family. magic.refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens. entrance-ways. She was variously associated with crossroads. ghosts. as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira). where variants of her name are found as names given to children.[14] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the influence of Shakespeare for the thenpredominant disyllabic pronunciation of the name. most often shown holding two torches or a key[1] and in later periods depicted in triple form. The spelling Hecat is due to Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses. grey wash. Farnell states: “The evidence of the disyllabic and sometimes spelled Hecat.2 Representations Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia.[9] This has been translated as “she that operates from afar”. has been compared. Suggested derivations include: • From the Greek word for 'will'. dogs. light. knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants.[2][3] In the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles (2nd3rd century CE) she was regarded with (some) rulership over earth. “she that removes or drives off”.”[7] She also closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia. Hekátē) is a goddess in Greek religion and mythology. and sorcery. Heqet. it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat. the moon. William Berg observes. “Since children are not called after spooks. Hekátē) is not known . witchcraft.

But it is only in Charites. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony. son of Mothon.[24] Lagina. but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. placing a wreath on the head of a mare. a key. He reported the image to be the work of Scopas. her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water. with a dedication to Hecate. Some classical portrayals show her as a tripthe later period that they come to express her manifold licate goddess holding a torch. left). and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion. while the bronze images opposite.[19] It shows Hecate. round the column of Hecate dance the 7.[24] Her most important sanctuary was Lagina. Attic. taking part in the battle with the Titans. Greek anthropomorphic conventions of art resisted representing her with three faces: a votive sculpture from Attica of the 3rd century BCE (illustration. even if he hears the sound of footsteps or barking dogs. then to retreat from the site without looking back. with a hound beside her. stating further. and the main historical value of this work. now in Berlin. “This one is of stone. is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form. daggers and mystic nature.[17] Depictions of both a single The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found form Hekate and triple formed.[18] Hecate’s triplicity is elsewhere expressed in a more Hellenic fashion in the vast frieze of the great Pergamon Altar. shows three single images against a column. Jason is to dig a round pit and over it cut the throat of a ewe. a 3rd-century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early material. The place of origin of her following is uncertain. and when she is depicted alongside the god Hermes and the goddess Kybele in reliefs. and one horse. she is altogether without attributes and character. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs. He is told to sweeten the offering with a libation of honey.3 Mythology Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. and in magical papyri of Late Antiquity she is described as having three heads: one dog. Images of her attended by a dog [20] are also found at times when she is shown as in her role as mother goddess with child.7) A 4th-century BCE marble relief from Crannon in Thessaly was dedicated by a race-horse owner. Triple Hecate and the Charites. Pausanias saw the temple of Hecate opposite the sanctuary of Eileithyia.[23] All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity.[16] In Egyptian-inspired Greek esoteric writings connected with Hermes Trismegistus. serpents. MYTHOLOGY 15 is almost as full as that of the literature.3.” (Description of Greece 2. near the shrine of the Dioscuri.[21] In the Argonautica. In the Argolid. Munich) The 2nd-century travel writer Pausanias stated that Hecate was first depicted in triplicate by the sculptor Alkamenes in the Greek Classical period of the late 5th century BCE [3] which was placed before the temple of the Wingless Nike in Athens. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar. where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year. also of Hecate. style of the 6th century. and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads.22. wherein she is shown with three bodies. lay close to the originally Macedonian colony . sacrificing it and then burning it whole on a pyre next to the pit as a holocaust. and dressed in dark robes. were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes. where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. as well as occasional four in Athens. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head. in writing of the headed descriptions continued throughout her history. 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek.”[16] and numerous other items.[22] Jason placates Hecate in a ritual prescribed by Medea.7. one serpent. which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription.

16 CHAPTER 7. and surviving evidence. He gave her splendid gifts.[26] Mallarmé in Les Dieux Antiques. and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. and she bestows wealth upon him. privilege both in earth. So. Good is she also when men contend at the games. Hermes. it is clear that the special position given to Hecate by Zeus is upheld throughout her history by depictions found on coins depicting Hecate on the hand of Zeus [30] as highlighted in more recent research presented by d'Este and Rankine. HECATE of Stratonikeia. nouvelle mythologie illustrée in Paris. if she will. whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea. as the division was at the first from the beginning. in that he seems to hold her in high regard. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. Hestia. One theory is that Hesiod's original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers.[29] However. Greek goddess of the crossroads. then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will.[26] Hesiod’s inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars. and in sea. easily the glorious goddess gives great catch. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men. and in heaven. where she was the city’s patroness. drawing by Stéphane are her honours. and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. and who pray to Hecate and the loudcrashing Earth-Shaker.[31] . and these Hecate. Hesiod: Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon. a star-goddess who was The first literature mentioning Hecate is the Theogony by the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). she increases from a few. were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household. the daughter of Perses and Asteria. she held sway over many things: Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes. she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. along with Zeus. suggests that this may have been exceptional. to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. For to this day. whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom.[27] Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship. and easily she takes it away as soon as seen.[25] In According to Hesiod. then. for the power surely is with her. if so she will. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably. albeit her mother’s only child. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds. while the testimony of other writers. namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness. he calls upon Hecate. for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy. or makes many to be less. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep. and Apollo. and brings glory to his parents.[28] In Athens Hecate. 1880 Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child. Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. She received honor also in starry heaven. And she is good to stand by horsemen.

. Likewise. because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans. Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia.[41] Variations in interpretations of Hecate’s role or roles can be traced in 5th-century Athens.7.[24] the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate. Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries. decorated throughout with symbols and whirled on an oxhide thong.[35] 17 the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.] speaks of a bullroarer.[1] The modern understanding of Hecate has been strongly influenced by syncretic Hellenistic interpretations. where the priests. are attested. it has been argued that “Hecate must have been a Greek goddess. Other than in the Theogony. were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros (the tale is preserved in the Suda). such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus. For example. the father of Mausolus. who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal’s suicide. Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits. MYTHOLOGY Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia. and her presence is signified by the barking of dogs. shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils. Her continued presence was explained by asserting that. the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins.[32] and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times.”[34] The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date. when she assisted Demeter with her search for Persephone following her abduction by Hades.[37] One interesting passage exists suggesting that the word “jinx” might have originated in a cult object associated with Hecate. the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage. her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world. in the magical papyri of Ptolemaic Egypt. a euphemism perhaps intended to emphasize her concern with the disappearance of Persephone.[27] Here. “The Byzantine polymath Michael Psellus [. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon.[39] where she is associated in fragment 194 with a strophalos (usually translated as a spinning top. However. In two fragments of Aeschylus she appears as a great goddess.. or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness.[36] Hecate also came to be associated with ghosts. officiated. as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon. Because of this association. the dead and sorcery. In Sophocles and Euripides she is characterized as the mistress of witchcraft and the Keres. Hecate is called the “tender-hearted”. In late imagery she also has two ghostly dogs as servants by her side. saving the city. Hecate by Richard Cosway If Hecate’s cult spread from Anatolia into Greece. and a mighty helper and protector of humans.3. suggesting that Demeter should speak to the god of the sun.”[40] This appears to refer to a variant of the device mentioned by Psellus. One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis. it is possible it presented a conflict. He adds that such an instrument is called a iunx (hence “jinx”). used in magic) “Labour thou around the Strophalos of Hecate. but as for the significance says only that it is ineffable and that the ritual is sacred to Hecate. above all by Artemis and Selene. Many of the attributes she was assigned in this period appear to have an older basis. or wheel. she is called the 'she-dog' or 'bitch'. at her unrivalled[33] cult site in Lagina.”[38] Hecate is the primary feminine figure in the Chaldean Oracles (2nd-3rd century CE). consisting of a golden sphere. infernal spirits. In gratitude the Byzantines erected . There was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Subsequently she became Persephone’s companion on her yearly journey to and from the realms of Hades. She scorns and insults Artemis. alongside Demeter and Persephone. megabyzi. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time. Helios. she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians.

for the dog was sacred to Eileithyia. Samothrace.[53] 7. where three roads meet. according to Saint Ouen would urge them “No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium.[42] • Soteira (savior)[51] As a virgin goddess. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog.[9] In this form she came to be known as the goddess Trivia “the three ways” in Roman mythology. In what appears to be a 7th-century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort.[52] and. Saint Eligius. the sea. “In art and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog.[9] It has been claimed that her association with dogs is “suggestive of her connection with birth. and Athens. and was often eaten in solemn sacrament..[44] 7. Although in later times Hecate’s dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who . She had the power to create or hold back storms. though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla. she remained unmarried and had no regular consort.4 Other names and epithets • Apotropaia (that turns away/protects) [45] • Chthonia (of the earth/underworld)[46] • Enodia (on the way)[47] • Klêidouchos (holding the keys)[48] • Kourotrophos (nurse of children)[48] • Melinoe[49] • Phosphoros (bringing or giving light)[48] • Propolos (who serves/attends)[48] • Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate)[50] The Triple Hecate.18 CHAPTER 7. HECATE a statue in her honor. and the sky.5 Animals Triple Hecate Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene. and other birth goddesses. in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted flock in Flanders against putting “devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads”.”.4..1 Goddess of the crossroads Cult images and altars of Hecate in her triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at three-way crossroads (though they also appeared before private homes and in front of city gates). which influenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors. the earth. The dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal. she ruled over three kingdoms.”[54] The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate is attested for Thrace.[43] • Trimorphe (three-formed)[48] • Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads)[48] • Trivia (Roman form) 7. Genetyllis. 1795 William Blake Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. Colophon.

Horace. the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens. and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires. to whom the red mullet was offered in sacrifice. making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating. “The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet (trigle). They turned her into a deceitful weasel (or polecat). a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity. Trioditis / With three forms and three faces / Propitiated with mullets”. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene. May the goddess be gracious to me : fables and their telling I leave to others. dog. discussed above. ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished. daughter of Perses.7. Galinthias. “Cicero. who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar. its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog’s connection with birth than the dog’s underworld associations. He goes on to quote a fragment of verse “O mistress Hecate.[61] After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate. being but a mortal. Alkmene’s pangs ceased at once and Herakles was born.”[65] . and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change. probably Hekate or else Artemis. it is said there stood a statue of Hecate Triglathena.[59] In relation to Greek concepts of pollution. serpent and horse. Hecate often has one or more animal heads. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since. daughter of Elektryon.”[57] Athenaeus (writing in the 1st or 2nd century BCE. The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size. PLANTS 19 Aelian told a different story of a woman transformed into a polecat: ""I have heard that the polecat was once a human being. consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress (Pharmakis). in the Argonautica mentions that Medea was taught by Hecate.”[55] The association with dogs. Apollonius of Rhodes. Pliny. for that the goddess is trimorphos.[64] 7. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then. could be explained by a metamorphosis myth. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature. They remained seated. each keeping their arms crossed. particularly female dogs. Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire. boar. “I have mentioned to you before a certain young girl whom Hecate. fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad.”[60] At Athens. From Antoninus Liberalis: “At Thebes Proitos had a daughter Galinthias. As the birth throes for Herakles were pressing on Alkmene. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. kept Alkmene in continuous birth pangs. accompanied her. also has become sacred to Hecate in modern Pagan literature. and drawing on the etymological speculation of Apollodorus of Athens) notes that the red mullet is sacred to Hecate.”[58] A goddess.' and 'would eat the corpse of a fish or a man'. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. Blood-coloured itself.[56] Another metamorphosis myth explains why the polecat is also associated with Hecate. It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe. which fits neatly into the pattern. The Greek word for mullet was trigle and later trigla. Juvenal. Martial. as a favour to Hera. that she was extremely incontinent. is depicted with a bow. of a triple form”. she had deceived the gods. dog and twin torches.6 Plants Hecate was closely associated with plant lore and the concoction of medicines and poisons. has taught to work in drugs.” [62] The frog.[63] In her three-headed representations. it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate. “on account of the resemblance of their names. including cow. the Moirai (Fates) and Eileithyia (Birth-Goddess). It 'delighted in polluted things. Parker observes.6. Alan Davidson writes. At all this. significantly a creature that can cross between two elements.

indeed.8 Festivals Hecate was worshipped by both the Greeks and the Romans who had their own festivals dedicated to her. crossroads and. Enodia (on the way). Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads).”[67] Hecate was said to favor offerings of garlic. and mandrake. and the dead from leaving it. or even drive them on against unfortunate individuals. according to the legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever present torches. medicinal and/or psychoactive) are associated with Hecate. twining through branches of oak. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. toxos. usually the largest meal of the day.[77] Like Hecate. which when positioned on either side of a gate or door illuminated the immediate area and allowed visitors to be identified. and might also relate to her appearance with two torches. In Greek. a meal served to Hekate and the restless dead once a lunar month on the night when there is no visible moon.[74] The yew in particular was sacred to Hecate. “Hecate mediated between regimes — Olympian and Titan —.1 The Deipnon The Athenian Greeks honored Hekate during the Deipnon. who. She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a "liminal" goddess. which served as her constant companions. which was closely associated with her cult. was probably derived from the Greek word for yew. HECATE The goddess is described as wearing oak in fragments of Sophocles’ lost play The Root Diggers (or The Root Cutters). Enodia’s very name (“In-the-Road”) suggests that she watched over entrances. particularly at night. and an ancient commentary on Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica (3. since at least as early as the 1st century CE. doorways. at its most basic. Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate). It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate. but also between mortal and divine spheres. usually noted on modern calendars as the . "[t]he dog is a creature of the threshold. their word for bow and toxicon.”[78] 7.. Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. by extension. with realms outside or beyond the world of the living. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection.”[76] This suggests that Hecate’s close association with dogs derived in part from the use of watchdogs. deipnon means the evening meal. keeping an eye on all who entered.8. etc. 7. there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic.[68] She is also sometimes associated with cypress.. their word for poison.[69] A number of other plants (often poisonous. the guardian of doors and portals. and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier. and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death.[72] 7. Klêidouchos (holding the keys). and with her pack of dogs.[66] which she stood guard and to protect the individual as she or he passed through dangerous liminal places.”[73] This liminal role is reflected in a number of her cult titles: Apotropaia (that turns away/protects). and hence sacred to a number of chthonic deities. a Thessalian goddess. taxus.[71] belladonna. and in the road in front of private houses. city walls. The yawning gates of Hades were guarded by the monstrous watchdog Cerberus. Hekate’s Deipnon is. The yew was associated with the alphabet and the scientific name for yew today.[75] This function would appear to have some relationship with the iconographic association of Hecate with keys. raised an alarm when intruders approached. “In Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. which is hauntingly similar to toxon. whose function was to prevent the living from entering the underworld. a tree symbolic of death and the underworld. Hecate would naturally become known as a goddess who could also refuse to avert the demons.20 CHAPTER 7. dittany.1214) describes her as having a head surrounded by serpents.7 Places Hecate was associated with borders. “Greeks held the yew to be sacred to Hecate. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison. protecting their inhabitants. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans. for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city. As a goddess expected to avert harmful or destructive spirits from the house or city over It was probably her role as guardian of entrances that led to Hecate’s identification by the mid fifth century with Enodia.[70] These include aconite (also called hecateis).

or phases.[97] Modern etymology reconstructs Proto-Germanic *hagatusjon.[.”[98] Neopaganism.[83] and 3) purification of the household. who was skeptical of theories proposing non-Germanic origins for German folklore traditions.“hedge.[99] and the second Hecate is now firmly established as a figure in perhaps from *dhewes. Her role as a tripartite goddess. the Mother and the Crone”.[89] with Isis: 7. c.[90] Hecate is also one of the “patron” goddesses of many Wiccans. the initial progeny of worlds. but are not explicitly attested in..[87] witches. conflated with the figure of Diana. Historical depictions and descriptions show her facing in three different directions. 7. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient. The figure of Hecate can often be associated with the figShe is worshiped by people who have reconstructed and ure of Isis in Egyptian myth. chief of powers divine. Queen of heaven. and still others Hecate. Modern Hellenic polytheists honor Hecate during the Deipnon. who in some traditions identify her with the Triple Goddess’ aspect of the "Crone". hedges and 'hedge-riding'. usually in a shrine outside the entryway to the home [82] 2) an expiation sacrifice. and this can be seen as a reference to her aspect of Motherhood. Classical sources. Scene 1 by the character Macbeth. Hecate was identified with Ereshkigal.[88] and other themes 7. do call me Queen Isis. Lucius Apuleius (c.] Some call me Juno.[92] 'I am she that is the natural mother of all things. and the silences of hell be disposed. such as the 20th century occultist and author. 170 CE) in his work The Golden Ass associates Hecate Hellenismos. and then the Agathos Diamon the day after that. be smoke.]'[100] In the syncretism during Late Antiquity of Hellenistic and late Babylonian ("Chaldean") elements. vanish. or the “Mother” aspects as well. the later Greek Magical Papyri sometimes refer to her as also having the heads of animals. mistress and governess of all the elements. causing her to withhold her favor from them. for Hecate has three faces. my divinity is adored throughout all the world in divers manners. which derives from PIE *kagh.from haegtesse and hagazussa.[79] The Deipnon is always followed the next day by the Noumenia. and many others. and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me.[95] Such derivations are today proposed only by a minority[96] since being refuted by Grimm.[84] Strmiska notes that Hecate. a clear and precise reference to the tripartite nature of this ancient Goddess.”[93] This theory of the Roman origins of many European folk traditions related to Diana or Hecate was explicitly advanced at least as early as 1807[94] and is reflected in numerous etymological claims by lexicographers from the 17th to the 19th century. In the Michigan . in this portrayal she is known as “Mistress of Animals”. such as groups like Hellenion and YSEE. known as the 'Dagger' soliloquy. in William Shakespeare's play of the same name: “Witchcraft celebrates pale Hecate’s offerings. and witchcraft that eventually became established “in the area of Northern Italy.”[81] A secondary purpose was to purify the household and to atone for bad deeds a household member may have committed that offended Hekate.. the principal of the Gods celestial.[91] was made popular in modern times by writers such as Robert Graves in The White Goddess. the underworld counterpart of Inanna in the Babylonian cosmography.11 Cross-cultural parallels that parallel.[85] which draws heavily on folkloric traditions[86] associating Hecate with 'The Wild Hunt'. the light of the goddesses: at my will the planets of the air. southern Germany. which many modern-day Wiccans associate with the concept of “the Maiden.”. appears in late antiquity and in the early medieval period as part of an “emerging legend complex” associated with gatherings of women. the wholesome winds of the Seas. Aleister Crowley.7.[98] the first element is probably cognate with hedge..10 Survival in pre-modern folklore The main purpose of the Deipnon was to honor Hekate and to placate the souls in her wake who “longed for vengeance.. and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine.10. In other circles Wiccan witches associate her with the “Maiden”. [. and the western Balkans.[80] when the first sliver of moon is visible. SURVIVAL IN PRE-MODERN FOLKLORE 21 new moon. in variable customs and in many names. others Bellona of the Battles. my name. 123 — revived the indigenous polytheist religion of Greece. the moon.9 Modern expressions Hecate is mentioned in Act 2.. enclosure”. deriving “hag” and/or “hex” from Hecate by way of haegtesse (AngloSaxon) and hagazussa (Old High German). The Deipnon consists of three main parts: 1) the meal that was set out at a crossroads..“fly about.

14 Notes Isis and her various other names and symbols from The Golden Ass. com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate [7] Berg 1974.g.[104] 7. see Clay. were offered to Hecate at crossroads. p. pictures : HEKATE”. 135. http://www. HECATE mentioned. eds. Hesiod’s Cosmos. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. They played a similar symbolic role in ancient China.[103] This can be compared to Pausanias’ report that in the Ionaian city of Colophon in Asia Minor a sacrifice of a black female puppy was made to Hecate as “the wayside goddess”. she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition. 1986). 90. Spawforth. [8] At least in the case of Hesiod's use. 671. pp. mythology . Dogs. with puppies often [1] The Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of Hekate by Charles M. purification. magical papyrus (inv. [4] “Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02. Vol. Hecate. Antony. danger-stricken outside world”. A Greek English Lexicon. 'she who works her will'" [9] Hornblower. p. she had many similarities with Artemis (wilderness. [5] Sarah Iles Johnston.” This interpretation also appears in Liddell-Scott. 1990. Neitzel (1975).”[9] 7. “The use of dog sacrifices at the gates and doors of the living and the dead as well as its use in travel sacrifices suggest that dogs were perceived as daemonic animals operating in the liminal or transitory realm between the domestic and the unknown. Walcot (1958). Sorita & Rankine. ghosts & magic . Derossi (1975)). p.com. Jenny Strauss (2003).22 CHAPTER 7. and Plutarch’s observation that in Boeotia dogs were killed in purificatory rites. Hecate Ereschigal is invoked against fear of punishment in the afterlife. and watching over wedding ceremonies)[102] Dogs were sacred to Hecate and associated with roads. ISBN 0-521-82392-7. [6] Encyclopedia Britannica. where dogs were conceived as representative of the household sphere.11”. 307-318 [2] “HECATE : Greek goddess of witchcraft.06.13 See also • Asura (Buddhism) • Janus • Amphisbaena • Lampade 7.britannica. 3 (Jul. Theoi. “she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous. New York: Oxford University Press. Scholars Press.). and as protective spirits appropriate when transcending geographic and spatial boundaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hekate Soteira. Clay lists a number of researchers who have advanced some variant of the association between Hecate’s name and will (e. which is glossed as “lit. No. Bmcr. The researcher is led to identify “the name and function of Hecate as the one 'by whose will' prayers are accomplished and fulfilled. it has been remarked. which were sacred to the goddess. and spirits of the dead. 2009.edu. Dogs were also sacrificed to the road. 129. domestic spaces. Avalonia. in the entry for Hecate. Retrieved 2012-09-24. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. As Roel Sterckx observes. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology.. . Simon.brynmawr. 7). [3] d'Este. (1996). Hekate Liminal Rites. Retrieved 2012-09-24. dated to the late 3rd or early 4th century CE.[101] Before she became associated with Greek mythology. David.12 Nature of her cult Regarding the nature of her cult.

Act III. [38] Mark Edwards. 2009 [29] Encyclopedia Britannica. Doctor Faustus.com. and in the same number in the Greek word Ἑκάτη. Peter Green).. Hekate: Studien zu Wesen u. 134. Avalonia. (1896). p. and the rest of the world have followed them. 128: Berg comments on Hecate’s endorsement of Roman hegemony in her representation on the pediment at Lagina solemnising a pact between a warrior (Rome) and an amazon (Asia) [34] Berg 1974. “Hecate in Art”. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested “Carian theophoric names” is not convincing. 2009 [32] Theodor Kraus. Retrieved 2012-09-24.7. p. 2010-02-28. line 668: “our dame Hecat”. (English Translation by Hugh G. who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people. p. 316. p. [14] Marlowe. in Greek. p. Wendy Doniger. In Asia Minor only one monument can be associated with Hecate prior to the 2nd century BCE. 21. [26] Hesiod. Bloomington. Eidola. Oxford. And the play-going world. Roman and European Mythologies. University of Chicago Press. 2007.labrys. Kraus 1960. pronounced in three syllables when in Latin. Act II. p. The Argonautika. eds. 2007.)" [16] Lewis Richard Farnell. pagan magic that later became closely associated with Neoplatonism. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Sarah Iles. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Scene 3. Cf. line 1: “Why. 2000.” observes Peter Green. [19] This statue is in the British Museum. the recording of which is traditionally attributed to Julian the Chaldaean or his son. Berg’s argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. [22] “The legend of the Argonauts is among the earliest known to the Greeks. 133. [25] Strabo.gr/index. (1987) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. 144. 2.. William (c. [15] Webster. Book Seven. [28] Household and Family Religion in Antiquity by John Bodel and Saul M. Act V. Oxford. ISBN 0-631-15624-0. Macbeth. Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names”. 2010 [18] Yves Bonnefoy. in English is universally contracted into two. page 221. Sorita d'Este. Evelyn-White) [11] Wheelwright. seeHornblower. Retrieved 2012-09-24. Christopher (first published 1604. Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1894): "Hec'ate (3 syl. 1992.. as he has now confirmed. 171. ancient coins index with thumbnails”. p. Neoplatonic saints: the Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by their Students. edited and translated by Lesley Madytinou & Rathamanthys Madytinos http://www.). . p. Spawforth. Griechenland (Heidelberg) 1960. how now. 100.. The material seems to have provided background and explanation related to the meaning of these pronouncements. Guillaume. WildWinds.com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate also Hellenic Household Worship by Christos Pandion Panopoulos.” [35] Kraus 1960. Charles (1869). [27] Johnston.14. Julian the Theurgist. inventory number 816. 14. Philippe (2008). 195. He concludes. Hekate Liminal Rites. E. Leiden: Brill. p. A Classical Dictionary.166ff.25. and appear to have been related to the practice of theurgy. ISBN 0-253-20122-5. Liverpool University Press. line 21: “Pluto’s blue fire and Hecat’s tree”. “Arguments for Hecate’s “Anatolian” origin are not in accord with evidence. New York: Oxford University Press. Theoi. printed 1641). (1996). Metaphor and Reality. University of California Press. performed earlier). have followed the actors in this world. 1594-96).. The Cults of the Greek States. Scene 2.php?l=householdworship#1 [30] “Baktria. list pp. published by John Wiley & Sons. Hecate.. ed.23 [37] “CULT OF HEKATE : Ancient Greek religion”. Shakespeare. Oxford University Press. A Dictionary of the English Language (10th ed. p. [36] Strabo. 3. Scene 1. this pronunciation.9: "Hecate. [20] [21] “Images”. p. The Sad Shepherd. Simon. 1603-07).). Retrieved 2012-0924. Antony. and especially from Attica—all of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. 579.com. by so adapting the word in Macbeth. Olyan. Harper & Brothers. http://www. (1991). NOTES 23 [10] Anthon. Arthur (1567). Ben (c. Noah (1866). Kings. Paul.1. Theogony. and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. Scene 5. [39] The Chaldean Oracles is a collection of literature that date from somewhere between the 2nd century and the late 3rd century. Shakespeare. britannica. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 [12] McKechnie. Geography 14. by sinking the final e. line 384: “By the triple Hecat’s team”. [17] Hekate Her Sacred Fires. Hecat!" Jonson. 1637. The Argonautika. Avalonia. Introduction. Act III. William (c. [23] Apollonios Rhodios (tr. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland. p. Agathokles. 52. Bilde der Göttin in Kleinasien u. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. [31] d'Este & Rankine. ISBN 978-90-04-17089-6. P. (1975). Shakespeare seems to have begun. [33] Berg 1974. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Geography. Blackwell.eu. 2 in Eng. [13] Golding.2. p140 [24] Walter Burkert.

1958 [59] Charles Duke Yonge. 16. Hunter. it is related. Harvard University Press.. Creatures in the Mist: Little People. CHAPTER 7. [53] Saint Ouen. 76. as if it had an ineffable power. p. 2003. 2. Columbia University. p. pp. vol. 1993. Routledge. Roscher. New York: Algora Publishing. Restless Dead. “If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople. W. University of California Press. Such things they call charms. or some other shape. Lycophron of Chalcis was a Greek poet in the 3rd century BCE The poem can be read here: http://www. Cambridge University Press. Hellenic Religion and Christianization. 94. according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her everpresent torches. 142. C. pp. who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian. Stählin. p67 [55] Sarah Iles Johnston. [44] “Hecate. 1890–94). 72. [54] Alberta Mildred Franklin. [Diviners] spin this sphere and make invocations. Vita Eligii book II. a Byzantine lexicon of the 10th century CE. p. Oxford University Press. vol. Psychology Press. [49] Ivana Petrovic.H. Wendy Doniger. Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner. the Byzantines. 208-209. p. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 2005. 135.” As quoted in Frank R. [42] “In 340 B. 1921. Roman and European Mythologies. Bohn. appearing suddenly in the heavens. 2. on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise. [45] Alberta Mildred Franklin. To commemorate this timely phenomenon. 2002. 2007). p. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the Suda. It is called the top of Hekate because it is dedicated to her. The Learned Banqueters. The Argonautica of Apollonius. Trombley. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros’ was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate’s defensive aid. p. (2007). they call out unintelligible or beast-like sounds.]" William Gordon Holmes. [51] Sarah Iles Johnston. which was attributed to Hecate. translated by Alwyn Faber Scholfield. 362-363. Like Byzas in one legend. In her right hand she held the source of the virtues. 96. Brill. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. 492. H. A Greek-English Lexicon. in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. withstood a siege successfully. Columbia University. . Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. The Lupercalia. [46] Jon D. While spinning them. 1854. 1999. but were foiled by reason of a bright light which. laughing and flailing at the air. Von den Toren des Hades zu den Hallen des Olymp (Brill. 1992 [58] On the Characteristics of Animals by Aelian. Healing in the history of Christianity. translation by Francis Celoria. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium and Eustathius. Since Hecate was the guardian of “liminal places”. 1841. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. [65] R. or a triangular one. 211-212. 1992. 319.” Vasiliki Limberis. London. Scholars Press. University of California Press..com/Text/LycophronAlexandra. Mediterranean Seafood. 2005. UNC Press. 1999. Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins. however. 982. Wild Men and Spirit Beings Around the World: A Study in Comparative Mythology. citing Apollonius of Rhodes.24 [40] English translation used here from: William Wynn Wescott (tr. p. [52] Amanda Porterfield. 68. The Lupercalia. p.16. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. The Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster. whether it is the matter of a spherical object. Oxford University Press. tr. translation by Mair. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 18 April 2011.G. Athenian Popular Religion. startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. 1987. 1823. [63] Varner. 1999. 1994. [61] William Martin Leake. 2. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. Greek Goddess of the Crossroads”. 1924. 1921. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. [41] “A top of Hekate is a golden sphere enclosing a lapis lazuli in its middle that is twisted through a cow-hide leather thong and having engraved letters all over it. 1895. HECATE [47] Sarah Iles Johnston. that is the movement of the top. [50] Sarah Iles Johnston. 1990. 1981). and with her pack of dogs. she had her origins in Thrace.). 1974. L. Metamorphoses 29. University of California Press. 195. 2. Schmid and O. [Hekate] teaches the taketes to operate. 92. [64] Yves Bonnefoy. Philip of Macedon. p. 126-127. pp. 370529. The Age of Justinian and Theodora. But it is all nonsense. Goddess Gift: Meet the Goddesses Here. In the course of this beleaguerment. [48] Liddell-Scott. Ten Speed Press. pt. [43] Joseph Eddy Fontenrose. [56] The poem Alexandra by Lycophron 1174 ff.html [57] Antoninus Liberalis. which served as her constant companions. pp. pt. 207. theoi. “Hecate” article. Mikalson. [62] Alan Davidson. p.. W.H. [60] Robert Parker. ISBN 0-87586-546-1. 5-6. they erected a public statue to that goddess [. p. Hekate Soteira. 1990. an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age. Divine Heiress. Encyclopædia Britannica. Gary R. p. The Topography of Athens.). it was Hecate.C. p. this story apparently survived in the works Hesychius of Miletus. Beck. p. pp. with the aid of the Athenians. Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (C. Biblo & Tannen Publishers.

ii. Plants of Death. Simoons.html . Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 1998. eds. 208. pp 127-129. 1992 [89] Hellenion is a 501c3 religious organization based in the USA dedicated to reviving the religions indigenous to Greece. Spawforth. Virginity Revisited: Configurations of The Unpossessed Body. Chapter in the book The Goddess Hekate: Studies in Ancient Pagan and Christian Philosophy edited by Stephen Ronan. 79. Chariclides (iii. University of Wisconsin Press. Mandragores (Mandragora officinarum). Moon Magick: Myth & Magic.). 2003. aoroi and ataphoi (cf. Eerdmans. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. 65.7. [77] Hornblower. 394 K). University of California Press. State University of New York Press. in Athenaeus. 490. 1996. [84] Roscher.). 1998. [83] Hekate’s Suppers. p. 1995.. 1999. 2008 and Rae Beth. [69] Freize. line 594 any translation will do or Benjamin Bickley Rogers is fine [80] Harvard Theological Review. Oxford University Press. Diktamnon (Dictamnus albus).). Aristophanes. University of California Press. Magic. Taxol: Science and Applications.. 1999. Judith Fletcher. [76] Vasiliki Limberis. ii. 82-83. 325 B. 2006. (1996).com/macbeth/page_50. Pages 57 to 64 [67] Matthew Suffness (Ed.” Timothy Miller (Ed. 2002. Michael Wink.sparknotes. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. [82] Antiphanes. As a general indicator of the currency of the association of hedge and witch see titles such as: Silver Ravenwolf. America’s Alternative Religions.A Documentary History of Religion In America Since 1877. [75] Sarah Iles Johnston.org/ The Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes is an umbrella group based in Greece that is a legally recognized Non Profit Organization (NPO) and was “founded in June of 1997 aiming to the morale and physical protection and restoration of the Polytheistic. hedge-riding and witches in German folklore see: C. R. 1999. Pendraig Publishing. 19 K). J. [71] Robert Graves. and notes. University of Toronto Press. See Heckenbach. p. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary And The Creation of Christian Constantinople. http://hellenion. Plants of Death. 1995. Simon. 275-277. Com. Melanthius. Routledge.]" Margaret F. by K. Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft. [70] “Hecate had a “botanical garden” on the island of Colchis where the following alkaloid plants were kept: Akoniton (Aconitum napellus). p. Witching Culture: Folklore and Neopaganism in America. [74] Sarah Iles Johnston.14. Routledge. No. Crafts & Rituals for Natural Magick. was much dreaded.). 264 f. Bilardi. 2776 and references. New York: Oxford University Press. State University of New York Press. Hegesander. 143. also Ammonius (p. N111. Plato. The Greek Myths. 1977. in Athenaeus. Conway. Roberts. Mekon (Papaver somniferum). 121-124. Springer. 1972 pages 291-297 [81] These are the biaiothanatoi. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. 1. Hedge-Rider: Witches and the Underworld. 79. Dennison. Hedge Witch: Guide To Solitary Witchcraft. 358 F. p303 [87] For a summary of the wild hunt as a neopagan 'tradition' see the entry in James R. 62. Llewellyn. Ecology. Archaeopress. Lewis. Vol. Rohde. and for the relation between hedges. p. p. Antiphanes. p603.. p. Witchcraft. 2008. CRC Press.” Gaustad. 596. [90] http://nfs. Plants and Diet in Greece From Neolithic to Classic Periods. Apollodorus. (i. Noll (Eds. [73] Bonnie MacLachlan. Alkaloids: Biochemistry. [78] Richard Cavendish. pp. pp. 209. New York: American Book Company. Penguin Books. pp.” James R. p. 1998. of the wandering Teutonic tribes and of others as well. Walter (1902). 411-413. 1975. 362. [85] For Hecate as a protector deity of a contemporary (midnineties) neopagan coven see: Sabina Magliocco. n. NOTES 25 [66] Daniel Ogden. p. “Neopaganism sees itself as a revival of ancient pre-Christian religion: the old nature religions of Greece and Rome.2. University of Pennsylvania Press. University of Wisconsin Press. pp 10-23 (De Vries also mentions Hecate in this liminal context). i. in Athenaeus. 28. Hale. 647. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. 126-127. 313 B (2. p157 [88] For an extensive discussion of the symbolism of the hedge and hedge-riding as it relates to contemporary witchcraft see: Eric De Vries. p. 154. F. “A second theme in the Neo-Pagan combination is the pre-Christian European folk religion or Paganism. The Red Church or The Art of Pennsylvania German Braucherei. Thryon (Atropa belladona). 14. Melaina (Claviceps pupurea). Valckenaer) [68] Frederick J. 1995. tradition and way of life in the “modern” Greek Society from which is oppressed due to its institutional intolerance and theocracy”. Pendraig Publishing. Henry. Antony. and Cochicum [. The Powers of Evil in Western Religion. pp. Crafts & Recipes. [72] Frederick J. 2009. Plutus. 16. Heckenbach. Plants of Life. Ethnic Hellenic religion. Virgil’s Aeneid. 2781. Plants of Life. 2004. Llewellyn. p. the quasi-technical word designating their longing for vengeance. whose enthumion. Melanthius. pp 303-304. [79] [5] The play Plutus by Aristophanes (388BCE). Lewis. For a 'moon magick' reference to Hecate as “Lady of the Wild Hunt and witchcraft” see: D. Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions. p. and 358 F. and Medicinal Applications. Hedge Witch: Spells. 71. […] most see in goddess worship a rediscovery of folk practices that persisted in rural Europe throughout the Christian era and up to recent times. 1994. 39 K). 1889. Smith. Simoons. Magic and Folk Belief. Rituals & Spells. 424-425). 2007. and note. p339. p79 [86] “Neo-paganism/witchcraft is a spiritual orientation and a variety of ritual practices using reconstructed mythological structures and pre-Christian rites primarily from ancient European and Mediterranean sources. Rohde. Fragkiska Megaloudi.

4 (May 1980):287-295). 94. Sarah Iles. Geography 7. [101] Hans Dieter Betz. State University of New York Press. p.1 Primary sources • Hesiod. in American Folk Medicine: A Symposium Ed. [92] https://sites. Walter. University of Wisconsin Press. The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures. The Rotting Goddess. Sterckx explicitly recognizes the similarities between these ancient Chinese views of dogs and those current in Greek and Roman antiquity. Teutonic Mythology. Leo. 213. Les Dieux Antiques. “Hecate in Art”. Donna (1994). entry 'hag'. • Johnston. [97] “Many have been caught by the obvious resemblance of the Gr. Robert. Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess.google. An English translation is available online [93] Michael Strmiska. Hecate. The Day of Yahweh: A Study of Sacred Days and Ritual Forms in the Ancient Near East. Description of Greece [94] Francis Douce. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. • Kerenyi. 223 [100] Apuleius. Works and Days.com/site/hellenionstemenos/Home/ festivals/hekatesdeipnon CHAPTER 7.15. pp 233-234 • Strabo. HECATE 7.16 External links • Myths of the Greek Goddess Hecate • Encyclopædia Britannica 1911: “Hecate” . Cures. Hand. J. 1990. Modern paganism in world cultures. no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M.15 References 7. p. William. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 • Mallarmé. accessed 8/23/09 [99] Mallory. • Rabinovich. 1976. XIV 44. 2007.2 Secondary sources • Berg. Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them. (1990). The Gods of the Greeks. Hekate in Early Greek Religion. Etymologicon Universale (1822) [96] e. Theogony. or Romance writings in the sense of witch. p. Oxford University Press. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows: A Complete History. 174. American Historical Association. 235-243. “Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus”. (Oxford: Blackwell) ISBN 0-631-15624-0. Numen 21.P. 1994. 405. Adams. and goes on to note “Dog sacrifice was also a common practice among the Greeks where the dog figured prominently as a guardian of the underworld.Q. “The Role of Animals in Infant Feeding”. Illustrations of Shakspeare. Oxford University Press. • Pausanias. (1880). (1991). 2006. • Lewis Richard Farnell. Radbill. 2002. Samuel X. 68. History of Religions 19. • Ovid. The Golden Ass 11. and the Mid. • Von Rudloff. Karl. Gerald Milnes. Lat. Johann Georg Wachter. [95] John Minsheu and William Somner (17th century). Metamorphoses.g. Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. (English translation 1900) [98] Etymology Online. some dismissing Rabinowitz as a neo-pagan. ABC-CLIO. The work has been sharply criticized by Classics scholars. p.15. 514. nouvelle mythologie illustrée. Edward Lye of Oxford (1694-1767).47. Rochester. Wayland D. Simoons.” (Footnote 113. Sarah Iles. 1987. VT: Inner Traditions International. Wilshire. and how should the word have spread through all German lands?" Jacob Grimm. Walter Whiter. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. pp 232-233. 1807. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate’s Role in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature. VII 74. contrary to the laws of change. (1896). 1835. Glossarium Germanicum (1737).2 (August 1974:128-40) • Burkert. 116. • Johnston. 1985. • Ruickbie. Univ. Yakov.g. & Witchery. Stéphane. Signs. The Animal and The Daemon In Early China. A work which views Hekate from the perspective of Mircea Eliade's archetypes and substantiates its claims through cross-cultural comparisons. 241. of Tennessee Press. 194. 2004. 177. 1951. [103] Roel Sterckx. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) Published in the UK as Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. Robert Hale. 2005. p. p. VI 140. Oxford. The Cults of the Greek States. William Arthur (1929). ISBN 0-89281-494-2. Horned Owl Publishing (July 1999) 7. [102] Heidel. and of Ancient Manners. “Hecate: Greek or “Anatolian"?". Berkeley: University of California Press.26 [91] E. D. but the letters agree to closely. p318) [104] Frederick J.

at the Ashmolean Museum. EXTERNAL LINKS • The Rotting Goddess by Yakov Rabinovich. • Theoi Project. • The Hekate/Iphigenia Myth 27 . Hecate Classical literary sources and art • Hekate in Greek esotericism: Ptolemaic and Gnostic transformations of Hecate • The Covenant of Hekate • Cast of the Crannon statue. complete book included in the anthology “Junkyard of the Classics” published under the pseudonym Ellipsis Marx. Oxford.7.16.

[3] Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera. “butcher”[17][18] or. wild animals. “to shake. artamos. *art.” and makes Artemis mean the thrower of the dart or the shooter”.” thus Artemis “becomes identical with the great mother of Nature.mis] in Classical Attic) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto.[9] Babiniotis while accepting that the etymology is unknown.Ancient Greek writers. virginity and protector of young girls. c. 8.e.[12][13] the earliest attested forms of the .[11] this cult was a survival of very old totemic and shamanistic rituals and formed part of a larger bear cult found further afield in other Indo-European cultures (e. Potnia Theron: “Artemis of the wildland. Artemis /ˈɑrtɨmɨs/ was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. written certain origin and etymology[7][8] although various ones in Linear B at Pylos. and lation Artemas of Xenophon. Artemis (Ancient Greek: Ἄρτεμις. holy.[8] The name could also be possibly related to Greek árktos "bear" (from PIE *h₂ŕ̥tḱos). as well as the story about Callisto.[10] the name is also was venerated in Lydia as Artimus.[9][10] e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin.Chapter 8 Artemis For other uses.te. In later Hellenistic times.. she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth.tamis) to ἄρταμος. 85 BCE.[15] Artemis [16] For example according to Jablonski.[6] The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. *arte. Ionia. have linked Artemis (Doric Arthon the primitive root of the name is probably of Per. P. by way of folk etymology. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt. Phrygian and could be “compared with the royal appel.[1] Some scholars[2] believe that the name. a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/.[14] R. Mistress of Animals”. Britomartis.[4] The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter. supported by the bear cult that the goddess had in Attica (Brauronia) and the Neolithic remains at the Arkoudiotissa Cave. Gaulish Artio). all meaning “great. pronounced [ár. and indeed the goddess herself. excellent.[5] In the classical period of Greek mythology. childbirth. wilderness. and the twin sister of Apollo. featuring Artemis with a drawn bow and a quiver on her back on the reverse of the coin sian origin from *arta. representing the goddess Artemis been suggested. was originally pre-Greek.1 Etymology Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Greek king Artemidoros (whose name means “gift of Artemis”).[10] Anton Goebel “suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ. bringing and relieving disease in women.g. It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. Beekes suggested that the have been proposed. feminine) is of unknown or un. i. S.some modern scholars. even as she was worshipped at Ephesus”. which was originally about Artemis (Arcadian epithet kallisto). According to Charles An. see Artemis (disambiguation). While connection with Anatolian names has Didrachm from Ephesus. 28 . a-te-miname Artemis are the Mycenaean Greek The name Artemis (noun.to /Artemitos/ and . states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of pre-Hellenic origin.

2. Brygos (potter. Theogony. asked him to grant her six wishes: to remain always a virgin.e. A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. and for twenty Amnisides Nymphs as handmaidens to watch her dogs and bow while she rested. that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and that she was the twin sister of Apollo. her husband. delighting in arrows.2 Artemis in mythology Leto bore Apollon and Artemis. becoming her mother’s mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo. with a deer) and Apollo (on the right. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY 29 like Plato did in Cratylus. holding a lyre) from Myrina. As she joined in love to the Aegis-bearing ruler. signed). who. An account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra firma (the mainland) or on an island. “the stainless maiden”.[23] A poem of Callimachus to the goddess “who amuses herself on mountains with archery” imagines some charming vignettes: according to Callimachus.2. 72 accounts for the island’s archaic name Ortygia[21] by asserting that Zeus transformed Leto into a quail (ortux) in order to prevent Hera from finding out his infidelity. to be the Phaesporia or Light Bringer. and Kenneth McLeish suggested further that in quail form Leto would have given birth with as few birth-pains as a mother quail suffers when it lays an egg. and for the ability to help women in the pains of childbirth.1 Birth Apollo (left) and Artemis. Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup.[9][10][19] 8. all nine years of age.[20] The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth. —Hesiod. because he had impregnated Leto. dating to approximately 25 BC Various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother. Apollo.[22] The myths also differ as to whether Artemis was born first. but to rule the mountains.2. at three years old. Hera was angry with Zeus. and Leto gave birth there. ca. “safe”. to have a bow and arrow and a knee-length tunic so that she could hunt. to have many names to set her apart from her brother Apollo. artemḗs. She wished for no city dedicated to her. Zeus. Artemis at the islands known today as the Paximadia. 470 BC. climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus. Briseis Painter. to be her choir. The Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl. “uninjured”. Most stories depict Artemis as born first. lines 918–920 (written in the 7th century BCE) 8. while sitting on the knee of her father. “pure”. having been thrashed by Hera. or Apollo.2 Childhood Artemis (on the left.[24] In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates . to ἀρτεμής. Louvre. i. however. to have sixty “daughters of Okeanos". “unharmed”. Both of lovely shape like none of the heavenly gods. All accounts agree.8. Artemis. But the island of Delos (or Ortygia in the Homeric Hymn to Artemis) disobeyed Hera. 8.

either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her.4 Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon myth survive. who is with her com. Therefore. though many are fragmentary. Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs.2. Usually the dogs are his own. but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. he is killed by Artemis. sees Artemis and thinks about raping her. and Artemis closely guarded her own chastity. The details vary but at the core they involve a great hunter. 8. who had been a favorite of Artemis. Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts. As a virgin. Lamar Ronald Lacey’s The Myth of Aktaion: Literary and Iconographic Studies. Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than she. the god of the forest. a river god. and the moon. seeing her naked in her sacred spring. So he decides to capture her. the son of the Titan Iapetos. and Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytus. in some surviving versions Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her. Gaia. Alphaeus sions. Orion. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by In yet another version. goes to Alpheus. Artemis killed Adonis to avenge Hippolytus’s but only her hunting companion.6 Orion panions at Letrenoi. 8. the hunting dog. which is sometimes merely seeing the virgin goddess naked. Artemis had interested many gods and men. Artemis. was in love with Artemis.3 Intimacy of Aphrodite. However.5 Adonis In some versions of the story of Adonis. who gave her seven bitches and six dogs.2. or even merely being a rival of Zeus for the affections of Semele. who no longer recognize their master. where the goddess and her attendant drink. death. she covers her face with mud so that the river Orion was Artemis’ hunting companion.2. particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother. Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Pan. is turned into a girl by the goddess. who was a late addition to Greek mythology during the Hellenistic period. won her heart. Sipriotes is a boy. Artemis Alphaea in Letrini. who. Alpheus.2. Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow. while in others he is killed . the stag. In another story. to be a midwife. Reading his sinful thoughts. Okeanus’ daughters were filled with fear.[25] All of her companions remained virgins. Bouphagos. Artemis killed Adonis for revenge. In other versions. Sometimes they are Artemis’ hounds. but. Callimachus tells[26] how Artemis spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress. but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows. as punishment for being with Aphrodite. Different tellings also diverge in the hunter’s transgression. In later myths. how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Lipara. Rome. Adonis had been related as a favorite 8. attempts to force himself on her. Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis’ temple.8. sometimes boasting he is a better hunter than she. For this hubris he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. Roman marble Bust of Artemis after Kephisodotos (Musei Capitolini). In some vergod does not recognize her. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot. but by Ares.[26] According to the standard modern text on the work. ARTEMIS tries to rape Artemis’ attendant Arethusa. the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who.30 CHAPTER 8. suspicious of his motives. Apollo. Adonis was not killed by Artemis. Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe. where Hephaestus and the Cyclops worked.

8.2. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY

31

Diana and Callisto by Titian.

8.2.8 Callisto
Callisto was the daughter of Lycaon, King of Arcadia and
also was one of Artemis’s hunting attendants. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus apThe Death of Adonis, by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709 - Hermitage
peared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories
Museum.
Apollo, gained her confidence, then took advantage of
her (or raped her, according to Ovid). As a result of this
encounter she conceived a son, Arcas.
by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries Enraged, Hera or Artemis (some accounts say both)
to seduce Opis,[27] one of Artemis’ followers, and she changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but
kills him. In a version by Aratus,[28] Orion takes hold Zeus stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus placed
of Artemis’ robe and she kills him in self-defense.
Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of CalIn yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion. According to Hyginus[29] Artemis once loved Orion (in spite
of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos did), but was tricked into killing him by her
brother Apollo, who was “protective” of his sister’s maidenhood.

8.2.7

The Aloadae

listo the Bear as a constellation. Some stories say that he
placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears,
forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations.

8.2.9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis
Artemis punished Agamemnon after he killed a sacred
stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess. When the Greek fleet was
preparing at Aulis to depart for Troy to begin the Trojan
War, Artemis becalmed the winds. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis
was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then
snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer.
Various myths have been told around what happened after Artemis took her. Either she was brought to Tauros
and led the priests there, or became Artemis’ immortal
companion.[30]

These twin sons of Iphidemia and Poseidon, Otos and
Ephialtes, grew enormously at a young age. They were
aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless
they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae never
stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach
heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take
them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for
Artemis who captured a fine deer (or in another version 8.2.10 Niobe
of the story, she changed herself into a doe) and jumped
out between them. The Aloadae threw their spears and A Queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted
of her superiority to Leto because while she had fourteen
so mistakenly killed each other.

32

CHAPTER 8. ARTEMIS

children (Niobids), seven boys and seven girls, Leto had
only one of each. When Artemis and Apollo heard this
impiety, Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics,
and Artemis shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to
kill them, though according to some versions two of the
Niobids were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at
the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated
Niobe and her remaining children were turned to stone
by Artemis as they wept. The gods themselves entombed
them.

8.2.11

Chione

Chione was a princess of Pokis. She was beloved by two
gods, Hermes and Apollo, and boasted that she was prettier than Artemis because she made two gods fall in love
with her at once. Artemis was furious and killed Chione
with her arrow or struck her dumb by shooting off her
tongue. However, some versions of this myth say Apollo
and Hermes protected her from Artemis’ wrath.

8.2.12

Atalanta, Oeneus and the Meleagrids

Artemis saved the infant Atalanta from dying of exposure
after her father abandoned her. She sent a female bear to
suckle the baby, who was then raised by hunters. But
she later sent a bear to hurt Atalanta because people said Artemis pouring a libation, c. 460-450 BC.
Atalanta was a better hunter. This is in some stories.
Among other adventures, Atalanta participated in the
hunt for the Calydonian Boar, which Artemis had sent
to destroy Calydon because King Oeneus had forgotten
her at the harvest sacrifices. In the hunt, Atalanta drew
the first blood, and was awarded the prize of the skin.
She hung it in a sacred grove at Tegea as a dedication to
Artemis.
Meleager was a hero of Aetolia. King Oeneus had him
gather heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian
Boar. After the death of Meleager, Artemis turned
his grieving sisters, the Meleagrids into guineafowl that
Artemis loved very much.

8.2.13

Artemis. Iakhos later became an attendant of Demeter
and the leader of Eleusinian Mysteries.

8.2.14 Polyphonte
Polyphonte was a young woman who fled home preferring
the idea of a virginal life with Artemis to the conventional
life of marriage and children favoured by Aphrodite. As
a punishment Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have
children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and
Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of
Zeus. Ultimately the whole family were transformed into
birds and more specifically ill portents for mankind.[32]

Aura
8.2.15 Trojan War

In Nonnus Dionysiaca,[31] Aura was Greek goddess of
breezes and cool air, daughter of Lelantos and Periboia.
She was a virgin huntress, just like Artemis and proud of
her maidenhood. One day, she claimed that the body of
Artemis was too womanly and she doubted her virginity.
Artemis asked Nemesis for help to avenge her dignity and
caused the rape of Aura by Dionysus. Aura became a mad
and dangerous killer. When she bore twin sons, she ate
one of them while the other one, Iakhos, was saved by

Artemis may have been represented as a supporter of
Troy because her brother Apollo was the patron god of
the city and she herself was widely worshipped in western Anatolia in historical times. In the Iliad[33] she came
to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks
and Trojans engaged each other in conflict. Hera struck
Artemis on the ears with her own quiver, causing the arrows to fall out. As Artemis fled crying to Zeus, Leto

8.3. WORSHIP OF ARTEMIS
gathered up the bow and arrows.
Artemis played quite a large part in this war. Like her
mother and brother, who was widely worshiped at Troy,
Artemis took the side of the Trojans. At the Greek’s
journey to Troy, Artemis becalmed the sea and stopped
the journey until an oracle came and said they could win
the goddess’ heart by sacrificing Iphigenia, Agamemnon's
daughter. Agamemnon once promised the goddess he
would sacrifice the dearest thing to him, which was Iphigenia, but broke the promise. Other sources said he
boasted about his hunting ability and provoked the goddess’ anger. Artemis saved Iphigenia because of her bravery. In some versions of the myth, Artemis made Iphigenia her attendant or turned her into Hecate, goddess of
night, witchcraft, and the underworld.

33
the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron to serve the Goddess
for one year. During this time, the girls were known as
arktoi, or little she-bears. A myth explaining this servitude states that a bear had formed the habit of regularly
visiting the town of Brauron, and the people there fed it,
so that, over time, the bear became tame. A girl teased
the bear, and, in some versions of the myth, it killed her,
while, in other versions, it clawed out her eyes. Either
way, the girl’s brothers killed the bear, and Artemis was
enraged. She demanded that young girls “act the bear” at
her sanctuary in atonement for the bear’s death.

Virginal Artemis was worshipped as a fertility/childbirth
goddess in some places, assimilating Ilithyia, since, according to some myths, she assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin. During the Classical period in Athens,
Aeneas was helped by Artemis, Leto, and Apollo. Apollo she was identified with Hecate. Artemis also assimilated
found him wounded by Diomedes and lifted him to Caryatis (Carya).
heaven. There, the three of them secretly healed him in
a great chamber.

8.3.1 Epithets

8.3 Worship of Artemis

Roman Temple of Artemis in Jerash, Jordan, built during the
reign of Antoninus Pius.

Main article: Brauronia
Artemis, the goddess of forests and hills, was worshipped
throughout ancient Greece.[34] Her best known cults were
on the island of Delos (her birthplace), in Attica at
Brauron and Mounikhia (near Piraeus), and in Sparta.
She was often depicted in paintings and statues in a forest
setting, carrying a bow and arrows, and accompanied by
a deer.
The ancient Spartans used to sacrifice to her as one of
their patron goddesses before starting a new military campaign.
Athenian festivals in honor of Artemis included
Elaphebolia, Mounikhia, Kharisteria, and Brauronia.
The festival of Artemis Orthia was observed in Sparta.

Color reconstruction of a first century AD statue of Artemis found
in Pompeii. Reconstructed using analysis of trace pigments. It
was an imitation of Greek statues of the sixth century BC. Part
of Gods in Color.

As Aeginaea, she was worshiped in Sparta; the name
means either huntress of chamois, or the wielder of
the javelin (αἰγανέα).[35][36] She was worshipped at
Naupactus as Aetole; in her temple in that town there
was a statue of white marble representing her throwing a
javelin.[37] This “Aetolian Artemis” would not have been
introduced at Naupactus, anciently a place of Ozolian
Locris, until it was awarded to the Aetolians by Philip II
of Macedon. Strabo records another precinct of “Aetolian Artemos” at the head of the Adriatic.[38] As Agoraea
she was the protector of the agora.

Pre-pubescent and adolescent Athenian girls were sent to As Agrotera, she was especially associated as the pa-

she is shown in the shooting pose. or sometimes a leopard and a lion. dressed in saffron robes and The oldest representations of Artemis in Greek Archaic played the bear to appease the goddess after she sent art portray her as Potnia Theron (“Queen of the Beasts”): a winged goddess holding a stag and leopard in her hands. In Athens Artemis was often associated with the local Aeginian goddess. while the seventh was Apollo’s. She was sometimes known as Cynthia. As Kourotrophos. each of them sixteen cubits long. lygos (λυγός. As Potnia Theron. or Amarynthia from a festival in her honor originally held at Amarynthus in Euboea.[49] • Day 6 of 16 of Mounikhion (tenth month) a celebration of her as the goddess of nature and animal.[41][42] and in Ortygia. Aphaea. piling earth upon the altar steps. the feminine form of her brother Apollo’s solar epithet Phoebus. bond). This epithet means “willow-bound” from the Gr. aged between five and ten. The procession started by setting the logs of wood around the altar. the reason why it was sacred for her. a bow[53] and arArtemis in Trozeinos. Homer used this title. When portrayed . a town in Argolis. she was the patron of wild animals. 8.[50] • Day 6 of Thargelion (eleventh month) the 'birthday' of the goddess. a quiver. ARTEMIS tron goddess of hunters.3. not until the next day that the sacrifice is offered.[39] Alphaea. 8. where girls. or Alpheiusa (Gr. • In Orchomenus. On the altar. Swiss and Greek archaeologists found the ruin of In Greek classical art she is usually portrayed as a maiden Artemis Amarysia Temple. In Sparta the Artemis Lygodesma was worshipped. the plague when her bear was killed. within the circle. with a sanctuary Artemis Amarysia in Attica.34 CHAPTER 8. is placed the driest of their wood. The willow tree appears in several ancient Greek myths and rituals. they construct a smooth ascent to the altar. • Laphria. a team of close by Sparta. people sacrifice to Artemis and Hecate at deme of Erchia. a sanctuary was built for Artemis Hymnia where her festival was celebrated every year. a festival to celebrate skirt.2 Festivals the goddess saved his life when he went on hunting and swept by the wave and held a festival for her. from her birthplace on Mount Cynthus on Delos. at Euboea. It is. or Ἀλφειοῦσα) was an epithet that Artemis derived from the river god Alpheius. Greece.[40] It was under this name that she was worshiped at Letrini in Elis. This winged Artemis • Festival of Amarysia is a celebration to worship lingered in ex-votos as Artemis Orthia.3 Modern Artemis was born at the sixth day. clothed in a girl’s short • Festival of Artemis Saronia. Ἀλφεαία. A goat was being sacrificed to her.[48] • Day six of Elaphobolia (ninth month) festival of Artemis the Deer Huntress where she was offered cakes shaped like stags.[44] 8. she was the nurse of youths.[52] with hunting boots. Often. A king rows. She was sometimes identified by the name Phoebe. she and her nymphs escaped him by covering their faces.[46] • At the 16 of Metageitnio (second month on Athenian calendar). who was said to have been in love with her. a festival for Artemis in Patrai. tall and slim. young.4 Artemis in art • Festival of Artemis in Brauron. and is named Saron built a sanctuary for the goddess after accompanied by a hunting dog or stag.3. honey and sesame-seeds.[47] • Kharisteria Festival on 6 of Boidromion (third month) to celebrate the victory of Marathon and also known as the Athenian “Thanksgiving”. Sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron. Just before the time of the festival. Ἀλφαῖα. and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a chariot yoked to four deer. In 2007. The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis. As Locheia. willow) and desmos (δεσμός. Artemis’ traditional mode of transportation (see below). Alpheaea. made from dough.[43] Artemis Alphaea was associated with the wearing of masks.[51] • A festival for Artemis Diktynna (of the net) in Hypsous. however. largely because of the legend that while fleeing the advances of Alpheius.[45] huntress. she was the goddess of childbirth and midwives.

Pan also gave Artemis seven bitches of the finest Arcadian race. Artemis only ever • Chariots brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time. Deer were also the first animals she captured. She caught five golden horned deer called Elaphoi 8.8. as the one she asked from her father. “of the Golden Shaft”.[58] lakatos.[59] . a Roman era bronze sculpture of Artemis and the Stag was sold at Sotheby’s auction house Deer were the only animals held sacred to Artemis herin New York state by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery for self. Artemis was sometimes represented in Classical art with Fauna the crown of the crescent moon. and Iokheira (Showered by Arrows). found at Issa (Vis. times a veil covered her head.4. However. Artemis wore a long robe and some. Heracles begged Artemis for forgiveness and promised to return According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis. Her darker side is revealed in some vase paintings. • Deer On June 7. showed her with a hunting spear. where she is shown as the death. such as the daughters of Niobe. as her epithet was Khryseher wrath. and lyre Although quite seldom.5 million. 2007. Her cult in Aetolia. she had it alive.[57] women. The arrows of Artemis could also bring sud• Hunting dog den death and disease to girls and women.cadia. commanded by Eurystheus. Artemis is ofbringing goddess whose arrows fell young maidens and ten portrayed with a lyre. Artemis is sometimes portrayed with a hunting spear. The bridles of her chariot were also made of gold. Fourth century Praxitelean bronze head of a goddess wearing a lunate crown. the Artemis Aetolian.1 Attributes Khrysokeroi and harnessed them to her chariot. the bow became the symbol of waxing reddish ones. Croatia). On seeing a deer larger than a bull with horns $25. and one spotted one .[55] The third labour of Heracles. ARTEMIS IN ART 35 The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.As a goddess of maiden dances and songs.[55] • Spears. nets.4. shining. con• Bow and arrow sisted in catching the Cerynitian Hind alive. Artemis got her bow and arrow for the first time from The Kyklopes. Artemis’ chariot was made of gold and was pulled by four golden horned deer (Elaphoi Khrysokeroi). The bow of Artemis Artemis got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Aralso became the witness of Callisto’s oath of her virgin. Artemis forgave him but targeted Eurystheus for golden bow and arrows. The description about Artemis’ spear can be found in Ovid’s Metaconnected as a moon goddess.morphosis. she fell in love with these creatures and held them sacred.[54] to hunt even lions. such as also found on Luna and others. In later cult.these dogs were able moon. while Artemis with a fishing spear [56] with her cult as a patron goddess of fishing. three ity. Pan gave Artemis two black-and-white dogs.

only one composite. The Athenians consulted an oracle to understand how to end the plague.[68] 8.[60] • Boar The boar is one of the favorite animals of the hunters. A bear was tamed by Artemis and introduced to the people of Athens. Other plants sacred to Artemis are Amaranth and Asphodel.[64][65] Excavation at the site of the Artemision in 1987-88 identified a multitude of 8. jealously rioted in her defense. Turkey. akin to the Phrygian goddess Cybele. located in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. 1st century AD (Ephesus Archaeological Museum) Artemis felt pity for the Meleagrids as they mourned for their lost brother. The oracle suggested that. metalsmiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. 105 Artemis. Oineus and Adonis were both killed by Artemis’ boar. They have been variously interpreted as multiple accessory breasts.[66] In Acts of the Apostles. and also hard to tame. they sacrificed it to her. made up of Hawks were the favored birds of many of the gods. acorns. still stands as a marker of the temple’s locaArtemis included. Artemis is the acronym for “Architectures de bolometres pour des Telescopes a grand champ de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol”.7 See also • Artemisia • Diana (mythology) .6 Artemis in astronomy A minor planet. a lunar crater. In honor of Artemis’ skill. The Byzantine writer Suidos relayed the legend in Arktos e Brauroniois.5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus Main article: Temple of Artemis At Ephesus in Ionia. Flora Palm and Cypress were issued to be her birthplace. so Artemis sent a plague in revenge. shout• Buzzard hawk ing “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”[67] Of the 121 columns of her temple. in payment for the bear’s blood. so she transformed them into tear-shaped amber beads that had adorned the ancient wooden xoanon. the Artemis Chasma and the Artemis Corona have all been named for her.[61] • Guinea fowl The Artemis of Ephesus. her temple became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. fragments. Meleagor. no Athenian virgin should be allowed to marry until she had served Artemis in her temple ('played the bear for the goddess’). in an ancient sanctuary where her cult image depicted the “Lady of Ephesus” adorned with multiple rounded breast-like protuberances on her chest. The rest were used for making churches. as eggs. Every year a girl between five and ten years of age was sent to Artemis’ temple at Brauron. ARTEMIS • Bear The sacrifice of a bear for Artemis started with the Brauron cult.[63] or even bull testes. They touched it and played with it until one day a group of girls poked the bear until it attacked them. roads. A brother of one of the girls killed the bear.36 CHAPTER 8. Ephesian Guinea Fowl to be her favorite animals. a large bolometer camera in the submillimeter range that was installed in 2010 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). grapes. and forts. It was probably the best known center of her worship except for Delos. There the Lady whom the Ionians associated with Artemis through interpretatio graeca was worshiped primarily as a mother goddess. tion.[62] 8.

C. Brown. William. REFERENCES AND SOURCES 37 • Janus [16] Indogermanica et Caucasica: Festschrift fur Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. Oxford Classical Dictionary. [36] Schmitz. Ann. “Isle of Quail”. 142. Iliad xxi 470 f.470 ff). Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. J. Leonhard (1867). 251ff. 126. Ritual. [18] Ἄρτεμις. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. 1993). Myth. 112. NY: State University of New York Press.v. [19] ἀρτεμής. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Georgios (2005). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Henry George. p. Online Etymology Dictionary.(genitive). 2009. Boston. Etyma Graeca. Guthrie. § 6. Metamorphoses.3. [14] John Chadwick and Lydia Baumbach. “The Mycenaean Greek Vocabulary” Glotta. Leto’s birth-pangs. The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera during the Hellenistic Period (Leiden) 1961:166.34. . Ἂρτεμις. H. 286. 251: Artemis. Robert. [35] Pausanias. 26. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. Restelli. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Brill. 638 [10] Anthon. is not supported by modern scholars. pp. . and specifically the uncultivated parts. Hymn III to Artemis 46 [27] “Another name for Artemis herself”. 210. [11] Michaël Ripinsky-Naxon. [4] Homer. Houwink ten Cate. Charles (1855). Liddell. “Artemis”. but in all likelihood pre-Hellenic. της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Souvinous. Green and Co. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor (Albany. § 2. “In Search of Anatolian Apollo”. “A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE”. Athens: Λεξικολογίας. where wild beasts are plentiful” Hammond and Scullard (editors). 213–214. The Book People. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Oswyn Murray (1 January 2009). 32. p. [23] Iliad xxi. forests and hills. 14. Andrew (1887). [31] Aura does not appear elsewhere in surviving literature and appears to have been offered no cult. Infobase Publishing. Henry George. p. the etymology Ortygia. [28] Aratus. W. de Gruyter. [7] “Artemis”. [34] “. Geburtstag (Studies in Indo-European language and culture). 56–. Scott. noted in this context by Brown 2004:252. are graphically depicted by ancient sources. a goddess universally worshiped in historical Greece. 312. References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. 597-598. Theoi. Karl Kerenyi observes. 1994. “Aeginaea”.” Hammond. T. [32] Antoninus Liberalis. Immerwahr. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. [8] Babiniotis. [22] Kenneth McLeish. Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. for you bare glorious children. Robert. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. and Religion. pp. [12] Campanile. Oxford Classical Dictionary. 1995. s. however. Scott. Poeticon astronomicon. Hesperia Supplements 33 (2004:243-257) p. Palaeolexicon. The Gods of the Greeks (1951:204). [29] Hyginus. Kadmos 11 :125-28. Scott. [37] Pausanias. “FAVOUR OF ARTEMIS : Greek mythology”. 99. A Classical dictionary. and him in rocky Delos. [5] “Artemis”. Word study tool of ancient languages. • Artemas • Bendis 8. 215. [2] David Sacks. In Smith. pp. “Further remarks on A-TE-MI-TO and A-TIMI-TE”. ii. Kadmos 9 1970:42-47. a-te-mi-to. [21] Or as a separate island birthplace of Artemis— “Rejoice. 209–210. Liddell. is discussed pp. Retrieved 2012-04-26. x. Liddell. Atsma. A Handbook of Greek Mythology.8. Robert. [6] “Her proper sphere is the earth. New York: Harper & Brothers. [13] Edwin L. Λεξικό Κέντρο [9] Lang. London: Longmans.505-13. 176f./4. p. Iliad 21. W.com. Henry George.” says the Homeric Hymn. p. C. p. 41. blessed Leto. [15] . [30] Aaron J. Christidis. Dutton 1959. The Greeks and Their Gods. 1970) 126. Children of the Gods pp 33f. as Apollo’s inseparable twin. [24] Hymn Around Artemis’ Childhood [25] On-line English translation. (1963:157-271) p. 38. Aevum 37 :307. . the lord Apollon and Artemis who delights in arrows.8 References and sources [17] ἄρταμος. her in Ortygia. K. p. Retrieved 15 March 2015. [26] Callimachus. Scuola Pisa 28 :305. Beacon 1955. Haydock. 21 [33] Homer. "Άρτεμις". quoting the Greek poet Istrus. [3] Rose. [20] Hammond. on Google books. ISBN 978-1-4381-1020-2. iii.8.

187. Winterscapes.blogspot.693.” (Homeric Hymn to Artemis). Marindin. [53] Greek poets could not decide whether her bow was silver or gold: “Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she draws her golden bow.com. the Bible and the Ancient Near East. 133. Geographica viii. February 5th. [43] Scholiast on Pindar's Pythian Odes ii. 8. § 5 CHAPTER 8. 2010-01-11.com. [46] “SARON. Retrieved 2011-01-28. E. 1951. Retrieved 2011-0128. “And how often goddess.com. Greek Mythology Index”. [51] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. The Gods of the Greeks • Seppo Telenius (2005) 2006. p.. Brown and Company. [52] Homer portrayed Artemis as girlish in the Iliad. 3 [66] “Potnia Aswia: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion” by Sarah P. a white horse is still sacrificed to him. Retrieved 2011-01-28. and two precincts are still to be seen — one of them sacred to the Argive Hera and the other to the Aetolian Artemis. [63] “Ancient Art and Artemis: Toward Explaining the Polymastic Nature of the Figurine” by Andrew E. ARTEMIS [59] “Pack”. 172. p. The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: Supplementary Papers. LLD. information on Artemis from original Greek and Roman sources. [50] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. (Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan) Athena-Artemis [49] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. Retrieved 2011-01-28. [54] “Bow”. [67] Acts 19:28.com.38 [38] “Among the Heneti certain honours have been decreed to Diomedes. Alberti’s Window.9 External links • Theoi Project. New York Times. asks Callimachus for whom it is a Cydonian bow that the Cyclopes make for her (Callimachus. “Terracotta Masks”. G. [60] “Cult”. Boston: Little. Metamorphoses 1. 22. William Smith.com. 2007-07-24. G. and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid. 2007-07-24. [45] mharrsch (2007-11-04). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. 1994.9 on-line text). blog by Monica Bowen. and. Retrieved 2009-03-19. [41] Pausanias. v. [61] “Animals”. • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. The Greek Myths (Penguin) • Karl Kerenyi.1. Winterscapes. Hill Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 1992.Artemis”. p. Retrieved 2011-01-28. “Passionate about History: Search continues for temple of Artemis Amarysia”. [47] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. Passionateabouthistory. 2007-07-24. [55] “Chariot”.) From Artemis to Diana: the goddess of man and beast. William Wayte) • Fischer-Hansen T.150 images of Artemis . 2007-07-24. didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?". Brill. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Hymn 3 to Artemis).com. (2008) Greek Religion and Culture. [48] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. 2007-07-24. [39] Bremmer Jan N. In William Smith. [62] “Plants”. Poulsen B. Netherlands. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Mythindex.com.org. [40] Schmitz. Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (1929). (Strabo. [57] “Dance”. Retrieved 2013-03-25. (eds. p. “Alphaea”. Collegium Hyperboreum and Museum Tusculanum Press. 2011 [42] Strabo. Winterscapes. 1985. Description of Greece vi. Copenhagen. Winterscapes. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) • Robert Graves (1955) 1960. [58] “Kerynitian”. Artemis. [56] “Spears”. indeed. 12. London. [68] “APEX .. August 21. Nemean Odes i. Sources • Walter Burkert. 2009 • Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1. Winterscapes. images from classical art. [64] “Diana of Ephesus: Keeping Abreast with Iconography” (see footnote 1). Morris [44] Dickins. Leonhard (1867). Apex-telescope. England: Macmillan Publishers. where her nymph’s is of horn. 343 [65] “In Search of Diana of Ephesus”.

”[16] The eternally sleeping Endymion was proverbial. Her Roman equivalent is Luna. to take up thy burden of pain. rosy-armed Eos and rich-tressed Selene and tireless Helios. fraught with many sighs. “Selene watched him from on high. go on. is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe (feminine form).[17] but exactly how this eternal sleep came 39 . Also from Artemis. and all three were regarded as lunar goddesses. but if the name is Mount Latmus:[15] of Greek origin. In classical times. was identified with Apollo. and sister of the sun-god Helios.[14] However. and Hecate.[1] Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate. Helios. Selene was sometimes called “Cynthia”. and Eos.Chapter 9 Selene This article is about the Greek goddess. which tells of Selene’s “mad passion” and her visiting the “fair Endymion” in a cave on The etymology of Selene is uncertain. who bare him lovely children. is called Phoebus (“bright”).[6] The word men (feminine mene). In the Theogony.3 Lovers and offspring 9.[2] Other accounts make Selene the daughter of the Titan Pallas[11] or of Helios.[7] 9. meaning “light”.) is the goddess of the moon. and the mortal Endymion. nor do I alone burn with love for fair Endymion. The Homeric Hymn to Helios follows this tradition: “Hysee Selene (disambiguation). while Endymion slept in his cave beside his cattle. For other uses. beheld her [Medea] as she fled distraught. for passionate love drew down the immortal stainless Queen of Night. oft times with thoughts of love have I been driven away by thy crafty spells. Several lovers are attributed to her in various myths. wise though thou be. Pan.[13] The late 7th-century – early 6th-century BC poet Sappho apparently mentioned Selene and Endymion. his own sister. She drives her moon chariot across the heavens. Selene. Selene was often identified with Artemis. and grandmother of Apollo.[5] from a far land.2 Origin The usual account of Selene’s origin is given by Hesiod. and steel thy heart.1 Names Apollonius of Rhodes.3. and slid from heaven to earth.1 Endymion Selene is best known for her affair with the beautiful mortal Endymion. perion wedded glorious Euryphaëssa.[4] The original Phoebe of Greek mythology is Selene’s aunt.[3] “And the Titanian goddess. the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia. meant the moon. the sun-god Hyperion espoused his sister Theia. from his identification with Apollo. and the lunar month.”[8] Quintus Smyrnaeus' The Fall of Troy tells that. the Titaness mother of Leto and Asteria. in order that in the darkness of night thou mightest work thy sorcery at ease.[12] Just as Helios. And now thou thyself too hast part in a like mad passion. it is likely connected to the word selas (σέλας). although only Selene was regarded as the personification of the moon itself. Artemis. from her identification with Artemis. and thus spake to her own heart: 'Not I alone then stray to the Latmian cave. goddess of the dawn. much as her brother. the moon. and fiercely exulted over her. the first direct account comes from the third-century BC Argonautica of 9. and some god of affliction has given thee Jason to be thy grievous woe. Well. who gave birth to “great Helios and clear Selene and Eos who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven. even the deeds dear to thee.' " 9.”[9] Here Euryphaëssa (“wideIn Greek mythology. Greek Σελήνη [10] [selɛ̌ ːnɛː] 'moon'. She is shining”) is probably an epithet of Theia. rising Selene was also called Mene. Selene (/sɨˈliːni/. including Zeus. It was also the name of the Phrygian moon-god Men.

[21] From Pausanias we hear that Selene was supposed to have had by Endymion fifty daughters.[28] Whereas for Hesiod.[22] Nonnus has Selene and Endymion as the parents of the beautiful Narcissus. Endymion was the son of Aethlius (a son of Zeus). by Sebastiano Ricci (1713). the usual mother of Dionysus. goddesses of the seasons. shown with her characteristic attributes of lunate crown and billowing veil (velificatio) [35] Like her brother Helios.[25] Alcman makes Ersa (“dew”).[29] other accounts have Selene involved in some way in its birth or rearing. but this may be the result of confusing Semele. Endymion.”[30] Quintus Smyrnaeus makes Helios and Selene (the Sun and Moon) the parents of the Horae.3. the Sun god.7.[19] However. Aelian. SELENE 9. the goddess bore Zeus a daughter.[33] Selene was also said to be the mother of the legendary Greek poet Musaeus. with Selene because of the similarity of their names.[34] 9. according to Epimenides. and where the Nemean Games were held.[32] Scholia on Virgil add that the god wrapped himself in a sheepskin.4 The moon chariot Detail of a sarcophagus depicting Endymion and Selene.2 Others According to the Homeric Hymn to Selene. who in a fearful shudder shook off the savage lion in Nemea. and brought him forth at the bidding of Queen Hera. where Heracles slew the Nemean Lion.[26] Selene and Zeus were also supposed by some to be the parents of Nemea. but in most accounts their number is three.[23] According to Virgil. and he chose to sleep for ever. who seduced her with a “snowy bribe of wool”.[18] A scholiast on Apollonius says that. and their parents are Zeus and Themis. According to the Catalogue of Women. and quotes Epimenides as saying: “For I am sprung from fair-tressed Selene the Moon. and Zeus granted him the right to choose when he would die. the Nemean Lion was born to Echidna and raised by Hera. Endymion and Selene. asked Zeus to grant him eternal sleep. states: “They say that the Lion of Nemea fell from the moon”. including Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Selene also had a tryst with the great god Pan. the daughter of Selene and Zeus. so that “she might kiss him while sleeping”. England about and what role.40 CHAPTER 9.[24] “exceeding lovely amongst the deathless gods”. who possibly represented the fifty lunar months of the Olympiad. Chiswick House. but in other accounts.[20] Cicero seems to make Selene responsible for Endymion’s sleep. the Moon fell in love with him. Selene may have had in it is unclear. if any. the eponymous nymph of Nemea. Apollodorus says that because of Endymion’s “surpassing beauty. On Animals 12.[31] Smyrnaeus describes them as the four handmaidens of Hera. having fallen in love with Hera. remaining deathless and ageless”. and Zeus allowed him to choose what he would. Narcissus was the son of Cephissus and Liriope. Pandia (“all-brightness”).[27] Some accounts also make Selene and Zeus the parents of Dionysus. who drives his char- .

a lover of horses and of vigilance.[56] Selene’s head is sometimes surrounded by a nimbus. such as Helios. glows with the light of her golden crown.5 Depictions Surviving descriptions of Selene’s physical appearance and character. descends from her chariot [59] Paired with her brother Helios. are scant. often accompanied by stars. pediment of the Parthenon. Selene adorned the east to join her lover. Selene rides across the heavens. and yoked her strong-necked. Selene is generally depicted as a depicting the birth of Athena. describing her as “all-seeing”. “bright”.[51] From oxen or a pair of horses. a lunar disc is used. driving a silver chariot pulled either by a yoke of her chariot descending into the sea on the right.[53] Selene also appears on horseback as part of the Gigantomachy frieze of the Pergamon Altar. calling her “white-armed” and “benevolent”. drawn by two winged horses.[58] As frequently depicted on Roman sarcophagi. lustrous black chariot rising from the ocean on the left. apart from those which would apply to the moon itself.[45] Aeschylus calls Selene “the eye of night”. sometimes.[50] Pausanias.[42] or was drawn by oxen or bulls.[57] In later second and third century AD Roman funerary art.[48] In red-figure pottery before the early 5th century BC. Eos. and a “foe of strife” who “giv’st to Nature’s works their destin'd end”.[55] Often a crescent moon rests on her brow. horn-like. CULT 41 iot across the sky each day. instead of a crescent. or “beautiful haired”. provides a description: The air. or the cusps of a crescent moon protrude. with Helios driving his beautiful woman with a pale face and long.6. holding a billowing veil forming a crescent over her head. she is sometimes pictured with a torch.[38] Though the moon chariot is often described as being silver. unlit before. we learn that Selene and Helios also framed the birth of Aphrodite on the base of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. variously translated as “rich”. She is usually portrayed either driving a chariot. vase paintings.[36] The Hymn to Selene. and her rays beam clear.[41] described as “snow-white” by Ovid. . who slumbers at her feet. mule. and Epimenides uses the epithet “lovely-haired”. and from the Hellenistic period onwards.[46] The Orphic Hymns give Selene horns and a torch. and donned her far-gleaming raiment. drives on her long-maned horses at full speed. Selene is also said to drive across the heavens. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men. she is depicted only as a bust. Three early sources mention Selene’s hair. showing Selene plunging her chariot. into the sea. coins. Selene.[40] And while the sun chariot has four horses. from her head. and Nyx (“night”). shining team.[37] The earliest known depiction of Selene driving a chariot is inside an early 5th century BC red-figure cup attributed to the Brygos Painter. or ram). or from behind her head or shoulders.[54] Selene is commonly depicted with a crescent moon.[44] The Hymn to Selene describes the goddess as very beautiful. the love of Selene for Endymion and his eternal sleep was a popular subject for artists. and gems. artistic representations of Selene included sculptural reliefs. Selene’s usually has two. or riding sidesaddle on horseback (or sometimes on an ox or bull. or in profile against a lunar disk. where the two framed a scene In post-Renaissance art. with long wings and a golden diadem. like other celestial divinities.[43] Statue of Luna 9.[47] In antiquity.[39] for Pindar it was golden. at eventime in the mid-month: then her great orbit is full and then her beams shine brightest as she increases.[49] In later art.[52] There are indications of a similar framing by Selene and Helios of the birth of Pandora on the base of the Athena Parthenos. “all-wise”. whensoever bright Selene having bathed her lovely body in the waters of Ocean. and Selene and hair. Both the Hymn to Helios and the Hymn to Selene use the word εὐπλόκαμος.9.

57.266 ff. Nicomachean Ethics 10.38. 275. Originally Pandia may have been an epithet of Selene. “SELENE” pp. 196–197. . Ovid. 18. Davidson. 72c.1. 99–100. [23] Nonnus..89 ff.. 41.92. Dionysiaca 44.. brated on the full-moon and may have been associated [21] Cicero. 2.. Hammond. p. Fabulae 271. this time attributed to the Great Ehoiai.581 ff. Amores. but apart from the role played by the moon itself in magic. pp.325 ff. [16] Quintus Smyrnaeus. folklore. Propertius.89 ff.[61] Pausanias also described seeing two stone images in the market-place of Elis. 42. p. 1. pp.. 213.59 ff. 48.. instead of referring to the daughter of Helios and wife of Minos. 1. Nonnus.553 ff.13: “See how the moon does her 9. Carmina 66. 5. 137. p. [3] Kerenyi. [14] This is according to a scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes 4. saying that “Endymion was carried up by Zeus to heaven.5.7.195 ff.7 Notes [1] Hard. Pandia had become a daughter of Zeus and Selene. see Most. 7. Morford.125 ff. says that “no source claims that the sleep was her idea. [2] Smith.” [22] Pausanias. each of whom bore a son to Heracles (Apollodorus. Theocritus. “Endymion” p. 281 [15] Apollonius of Rhodes. 204– 205. p. 48. 219–221. discussing Selene’s role.342.[65] was perhaps cele.516 ff. pp. Metamorphoses 3. pp.379 ff.2. The Phoenician Women 175 ff. The same scholiast gives another story involving Endymion’s love for Hera.. West 2003.[63] but by at least the time of the late Homeric Hymn. 46. 64.42 CHAPTER 9. “SELENE” pp. 13. 61..7. Theogony 371 ff. p.. 428–429.7. 162. p. [17] Frazer’s note to Apollodorus.50. fragment 10. 219–220. [9] Hymn to Helios (31) 4–7. Argonautica 4. Aristotle. “Selene”. 34.. p. Here Pasiphaë is used as an epithet of Selene. Phaedo.” Gantz. p. Tusculan Disputations 1. [5] Pannen. Plato. Heroides 15. usually considered to be a festival for Zeus..4.8. p.[66] Ovid. and despite the later worship of the Phrygian moongod Men. See also Apollodorus 1. one of the sun and the other of the moon. 64. [12] Euripides. 970–971. and Thespius had fifty daughters..1. p.50. and his love for Hera). 10. Smith. [24] Fairbanks. There are other accounts of fifty daughters in Greek mythology.2. p. Argonautica 8.[64] and an Athenian festival.8). 1.237 ff. Pandia (or Pandia Selene) may have personified the full moon. Strabo. Nonnus.8. Weigal. Hammond. p. [10] Morford. there was relatively little worship of Selene. pp. 422 ff.10.. 196–197.54 ff.667 ff. Most. Dionysiaca 2. pp... Morford. 2. [6] Smith. 970–971.38. Phaedra 309 ff. 5. pp. and likely enough (given its role in some quarters as a punishment. Fabulae Preface. “SELENE”. 196–197. pp.[60] An oracular sanctuary existed near Thalamai in Laconia. “Selene”.. 14. 197. and that because of this desire he was thrown out and went down to Hades”. Dionysiaca 48. it contained statues of Pasiphaë and Helios. Hard. 167. 3.. [8] Hesiod. See also with Selene. described by Pausanias.5. “Selene” Endymion keep / In night conceal'd. Hyginus. Cashford.[20] Apollodorus. Theogony 240–264). For example see Ovid. Hammond. 35. Ovid. SELENE [7] Kerenyi. see Campbell.50. p. 215.. fragment 198. Smith. [11] Hymn to Hermes (4)..92. [18] Catalogue of Women. lines 58–62. Heroides 15. she was not always a part of the story. Tusculan Disputations 1.4.7.191.. note 61 p. 96. the Nereids were fifty sea nymphs born to Nereus and Doris (Hesiod. and poetry. Lucian Aphrodite and Selene. Hyginus. 4. Mayerson p. “Selene”. 970– 971. [19] Gantz. Elegies 2. 46.[62] [13] Catullus. p.28 ff.6 Cult Moon figures are found on Cretan rings and gems (perhaps indicating a Minoan moon cult).57. 4.15. and drown'd in dewy sleep. Seyffert.582 ff. but that he was seized by desire for Hera and was deceived by the phantom of a cloud. Seneca. 786 ff.5.213 ff. [4] Morford. called the Pandia. Selene from an altar piece 9.. Cicero. p. Valerius Flaccus. 64. Kerenyi. from the heads of which projected the rays of the sun and the horns of the crescent moon.

LIMC Selene. p. p. [56] British Museum 1923. [59] Examples. Fabulae 30.391–93. Ovid. instead of being her daughter. p. see LIMC Selene. Martin 1981. Pausanias. 156–157. p. p. 170. calls the confusion “frequent”. Philodemus. see Robertson. 457 note. [42] Ovid. Statius. [44] Evelyn-White. pp. p.185 ff. p. 970–971. Hard. Luna 7. De pietate P.109–110. [6] "χρυσέου". NOTES [25] Hymn to Selene (32) 15–16. 732. e. Luna 35. fragments 48. Luna 21. see also Anaxagoras. Luna 34. Graves. but some have suggested that instead of Selene. two in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (c. Walters. On Rivers 18. West 1983. Hard. Burkert 1972. Luna 4. p. 3. (1903) p. 1.7248.0401. [47] Orphic Hymns 8. Cook p. the goddess on the right could be Nyx or Eos. LIMC Selene. p. [49] Cohen.373–374. 12. 2. p. pp. [40] Pindar.9. 160 AD and c. pp. Nonnus.11. [37] Hymn to Selene (32) 5–14.199. Morford. 70. LIMC Selene. [55] Savignoni. p. Hymn to Helios (31) 6.8. 221. pp. pp. 310 AD). Quintus Smyrnaeus. 104–105. Morford. [35] Stefania Sorrenti. Fabulae Preface. 94–95. 336 ff. 46: “this is really no more than an allegorical fancy referring to the heavy dew-fall associated with clear moonlit nights”. “Les représentations figurées de Jupiter Dolichénien à Rome. Luna 2.364e. LIMC Selene. For an example of Selene driving the less usual four horses see Morford. LIMC Selene. 220 AD). [33] Gantz.Herc. Allen. 49 (Edmonds. [32] Virgil. 34. 456–457. 271. Hercules Furens 83 ff. Dionysiaca 44. West 2003. Pausanias. 353. 733. Gantz. Dionysiaca 7. 19 describes Pandia as an “obscure figure [who] featured in an Attic genealogy: she was the wife of Antiochos. pp. 25. p. Burkert 1972. “Benevolent": Allen. p. 456. among many others. 236–237.4 (PDF). 65. p. p. Argonautica 5. Vol. include sarcophagi in the Capitoline Museum in Rome (c. [48] For an example of Selene depicted on a coin see British Museum.191. Republic 2. 196. which has the Nemean Lion created from a chest filled with foam. p. Seneca. Cook p. p. “SELENE”. 92. For an image of Selene driving cattle. Seven against Thebes 390. 79. 11. Mitchell. Kerenyi.336 ff. [28] Cook. Theogony 327 [30] Cook. 96. p. Compare with Pseudo-Plutarch. 87. 255. [1] "τανυσίπτερον"). Hammond. Zschietzschmann. Luna 15. 1-7. Luna 9. 63. pp. pp. and one in Palazzo Doria Pamphilj Rome (c.244.3. 256. p. Grimal. 5. [46] Aeschylus. [52] Robertson. [18] "Πρόφρον". p. the eponymous hero of the Antiochid phylē. 243 Fragment 6 (Obbink. p. Cohen. 346 n.g. p. Aelian. fragment A77 (Scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes 1. 177–179. Palagia. [34] Plato.7. pp. 2.. LIMC Selene. p. LIMC Selene.. LIMC Mithras 113.373–374. “Pandia was originally an epithet of Selene”. .11. Smith. [45] “Winged": Hymn to Selene. Pausanias. Georgics 3. 732 says that it seems probable that. The same pair also appear on the North Metopes of the Parthenon.3 has Asopus as the father of Nemea. For another example of the framing of a scene. p. “Selene” p. Luna 10. 415. 270–271. pp. p. Luna 19.199. 84–85). 23. Hymn to Selene. 990–991. [29] Hesiod. For Selene driving another pair of winged horses see Zschietzschmann. 970–971. 10. 46. pp. 353. Luna 61. 36.” in La terra sigillata tardo-italica decorata del Museo nazionale romano. 208 ff. pp. 43 [41] Kerenyi. p. 23. 123 c. Nonnus. [58] Sorabella. Idyll 2. p. «L'Erma» di Bretschneider. see: Allen. 5. Euripides. Hard. [38] Cohen.” Cook p.. see Hurwit. 64. Obbink. [50] Savignoni. [27] Cook. “SELENE”. [31] Hammond. LIMC Selene. This is the usual interpretation. 175. p. 48. for images see Sorabella. (32) 18. 970–971. Hyginus. 96.163 ff. 5. figs. XII. Martin 1981. Hansen. 442–443. (32) 1 (a winged Selene seems to be unique to this Hymn.. “White-armed": Hymn to Selene. Martin 1992. [53] Morris.498) pp.15. Olympian 3. for an example of a gem see the British Museum 1923. Morford. LIMC Selene. 12. with Selene this time entering the sea on horseback. 48. 272. 47–48.. Fasti 4.8. 111–112. (32) 17. 178–179.214 ff. “SELENE”. p. “Selene”. 415. Metamorphoses 2. 353). 346 n. pp.. 135 AD ).405 ff. [54] Thomas. 196.17. Valerius Flaccus. On Animals. but see Hyginus. For the use of “golden” in reference to the moon. [57] Parisinou. 22. 157. Theocritus. p.408 ff. The Suppliant Women. 370.19–20. LIMC Selene. [36] Pindar. 2. For the close association between the crescent moon and horns see Cashford. [15] "ΠανδείηΝ". see Robertson. p. in this case the Judgement of Paris. “Selene”. p. [51] Neils. says that Pandia was “elsewhere unknown as a daughter of Selene”. 1999). [39] Grimal. Fasti 4. p. see Allen.7. Rudin. Olympian 3. Thebaid 1. Either Selene or her daughter may have been connected to the Athenian festival Pandia. R. [26] Alcman. p.0401. [43] Hammond. p. p. 47.19–20. p. Murray (1892) p.

Patricia Curd. Yonge. • Fairbanks. translated by C. Lexicon s.. D.B. apparatus criticus. William Heinemann Ltd. Evelyn-White. Πάνδια. p. pp. 447. ISBN 978-0674539181. Harvard University Press. p. George W. Πάνδια (Bekker. publishers.org • Aelian. Jr. London.6. p. p. London. edited by Whitney J. James. Scholfield. 970–971. Johns Hopkins University Press. Photius. 174. Harpers. 1914. [64] Cox. edited by Daniel Ogden. The Phoenissae. Macmillan. 1934. 2003.8 References • Cook. Cook. Homeric Hymns. • Grimal. 1). 2004. Willets.S. • Campbell.44 CHAPTER 9. “Outline as a Special Technique in Black. [66] Robertson. Oates and Eugene O'Neill..39a. p. 1959) ISBN 978-0674994942. ISBN 9780631201021. • Euripides. Propertius. William Heinemann Ltd. 178. [62] Pausanias. Greek Greek Lyric Poetry: Volume I. Notes. Universität Salzburg. Walter (1972). Basic Books. SELENE [60] Hammond. The Carmina of Gaius Valerius Catullus. 3. • Catullus. F. • Apollonius of Rhodes. • Anaxagoras. W.A. 1996. WileyBlackwell. The Complete Greek Drama'. Timothy. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: Fragments and Testimonia : a Text and Translation with Notes and Essays. Online version at openlibrary. 19. Arthur. 9. and appendices. • Cicero. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Hugh. • Aristotle. • Gantz. ISBN 3705204246. Cook. Roman Erotic Elegy: Selections from Tibullus. • Cohen. with preface. [65] Parker 2005. Pierre. Argonautica. Smithers. F. Loeb Classical Library (January 1. 75 note 109. 1995. Seaton. Jon. Appleton–Century Company. Cambridge. 6. Roscher.. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations Part Two. The Mythology of Greece and Rome. with an Introduction . translated. Harvard University Press. William Heinemann Ltd. 2010. 732. New York. ISBN 9781568582658. MA. no. 1907. 100. ISBN 9780766189409. 2. ISBN 9780892369423. Anecdota Graeca: Lexica Segueriana. Wiley-Blackwell. Aelian: On the Characteristics of Animals. p. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G.v. (1982). Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion. p. The Moon: Myth and Image. with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer. New York. Kessinger Publishing. Nauckium. C. Walter (1991). Jules. 138. Heinemann. translated by E. • Edmonds. 1922. Getty Publications. Cambridge. MA. translated by H. London. Loeb Classical Library. E. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources.24. • Bekker. Harvard University Press. 1938. 2007. “Time and Greek Religion”. 178– 179. 292). The Library. Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations. Smithers. Volume I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky. in A Companion to Greek Religion.A. John Maxwell. D.C. Coleridge.1. ISBN 9780674991576. in two volumes. Smith. “Selene”. edited. 1996. Scholiast on Demosthenes. Sikes. University of Toronto Press. Casford p. 1814. Vol. The Homeric Hymns. ISBN 9781444334173. P. MA.26. “SELENE” pp. Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik. and Sulpicia. 2). MA. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. Volume III. 21. Random House. Cambridge. • Apollodorus. John Wiley & Sons. [61] Plutarch. Pausanias. in 2 Volumes. • Davidson. Translation by A. 1888. William Heinemann. Ovid. Cambridge University Press 1914. Cambridge. Greek Religion. E. Burkert 1991. Apollodorus. Immanuel. with an English translation by R. Lexica Segueriana s. in The Colors of Clay: Special Techniques in Athenian Vases. • Corelis. 1912. notes. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. 1894. Arthur Bernard. Apud G. [63] Willetts. D. F. Rackham. Harpers & Brothers. ISBN 978-0631156246. • Evelyn-White. ed. • Cox. Books 12-17. 142.R. Noel 1996. “Pandia”. London. • Allen.Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780802093257. . Leonard C. Beth. 2006. 1904.and Red-figure Vase-painting”. and Glossary. 732. Thomas W. • Burkert. Lyra Graeca. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-80185360-9 (Vol. • Burkert. 176 • Cashford. Agis 9. 1921. Sappho and Alcaeus. p. Aristotle in 23 Volumes. London.v.

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• Taylor. Loeb Classical Library Volume 286. Wilhelm Heinrich. 9. SELENE • Theocritus. 1900 • Robertson. Martin (1981). “From the panteon of the gods to the Pantheon of Rome” in Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea. ISBN 9780521280846. Mythology. A Shorter History of Greek Art. F. Noel (1996). London. translated by Miller. Taylor & Francis. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library • Robertson. London. • Weigal.9 External links • Theoi. ISBN 9780313220500. Volume 2. 1899. R. Plato in Twelve Volumes. William Heinemann Ltd. Henry Beauchamp. Translated by Mozley. William Heinemann Ltd. The Hymns of Orpheus. Greenough. “On Representations of Helios and of Selene. and Roman. Martin L. The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens. H. J H. • Smith.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 19: pp. W. London. 2005) ISBN 978-0872207257. CHAPTER 9.com: Selene Passages from Greek and Roman texts. Introduction by W. translated by Arthur Sanders Way. Cambridge University Press. Loeb Classical Library Volumes . Bucolics. Kessinger Publishing. 1 translated by Harold North Fowler. Loeb Classical Library Volume 28. 1905. “A Roman Sarcophagus and Its Patron. Literature and Art. Lamb. Cretan Cults and Festivals. Hellas and Rome: The Classical World in Pictures. from the German of Dr. • Roscher. ISBN 9780521338813. Martin (1992). 36 (2001). Ginn & Co.. 1928. Martin L. The Fall of Troy. no. Translated by Mozley. ISBN 9780299151140. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198148542 • West. 1901. Lives of Homer. J. 2004. Cambridge. translated by Sarah Rudin. William Heinemann Ltd. Thebaid. Vol. W. Aeneid. John Murray. 1980. London. • Walters. • Virgil. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. Hamilton. Harvard University Press. Leizig 1890. M. 496. S. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 9780754608080.M. • Thomas. Sarah. Oskar Seyffert. Harvard University Press. • Valerius Flaccus. 1966 • Quintus Smyrnaeus. 1932. The University of Wisconsin Press. • Robertson. ISBN 978-0-674-996069 • Willetts. 1917. Esq. (1983). Cambridge. Translated by Edmonds. • Seneca. Religion. Edmund. (2003). 2006. MA. Homeric Hymns. Loeb Classical Library. G. MA. Frank Justus. W. ISBN 9781428655447. 1912. in translation . J H. Tragedies. “Athena’s Shrines and Festivals” in Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. 265–272 • Seyffert. Heinemann. Sappho of Lesbos: Her Life and Times. Oskar. B. Harvard University Press. Cambridge University Press. Hackett Publishing Company (September 30. A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Arthur. and Georgics Of Vergil. Limited edition (June 1987). History of Ancient Pottery: Greek. • Savignoni L. The Orphic Poems. • Rudin. PDF • Statius. Cambridge. Sonnenschein. Samuel Birch. William. Cambridge.46 • Plato.. Jean. Ltd. Falconer.C. ISBN 978-0893144159. • Sorabella. Etruscan. London. J M. George Bell & Sons. 1903. • West. MA. Teubner. B.” Metropolitan Museum Journal. Cambridge. 1913 • Strabo. William Heinemann Ltd. 1928. Boston. Homeric Apocrypha.R. Über Selene und Verwandtes. Cambridge. Greenwood Press. Thomas. Philosophical Research Society.. MA. Editors. The Greek Bucolic Poets. Vol.A. Harvard University Press. MA.. MA. London (1873). Harvard University Press. Geography. Argonautica. • Zschietzschmann. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Homeric Hymns.

[7] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day). Hypnos (Sleep). Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx. and Eris (Strife). Zeus was furious and would have smitten Hypnos into the sea if he had not fled to Nyx. Nyx. He had once before put Zeus to sleep at the bid.1 Hesiod In Hesiod's Theogony. the minor deity of sleep. his mother. left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it. see Neck (water spirit). Nyx left. Sunset). continuing cyclicly. who is Nyx’s daughter. and was the mother of other personified deities such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death). Destiny). 10.Zeus by appealing to his powerful mother. in fear. Destruction. the Oneiroi (Dreams). Momus (Blame). Nyx (/nɪks/. see NYX (disambiguation). Nemesis (Indignation.[5] In his description of Tartarus.[1] Greek: Νύξ. that she is feared by Zeus himself. Death). re. on her own.249–61.[3] With Erebus (Darkness). Nyx is born of Chaos. He disturbed minds Hera of an old favor after she asks him to put Zeus Zeus only a few times after that always fearing Zeus and to sleep.1 Mythology and literature 10. Thanatos (Death). held his 10. who would have con47 . Love).1.2 Homer fury at bay and in this way Hypnos escaped the wrath of At Iliad 14. For other uses. Hypnos.1. Her appearances are sparse in surviving mythology. Philotes (Friendship. Pain. Distress).Chapter 10 Nyx For the water spirit Nix. Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day). when Hemera returned.[8] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda. Retribution). allowing her to cause Heracles (who was returning by sea from Laomedon's Troy) great misfortune. Oizys (Woe.running back to his mother. but reveal her as a figure of such exceptional power and beauty.[6] and the homes of her children Hypnos and Thanatos. Homer goes on to say that Zeus. the Keres.[4] Later. Roman-era bronze statuette of Nyx velificans or Selene (Getty Villa) ding of Hera. “Night”)[2] – Roman (in Latin): Nox – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. Apate (Deceit). She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses. where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn). the Moirai (Fates). Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation. Geras (Old Age). A shadowy figure. fearing to anger Nyx. Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom. the Hesperides (Evening. Ker (Fate.

[12] Pausanias 1. 10. in which she gives oracles. Theogony 212–225. 10.48 CHAPTER 10. this (S/2005 P 2) to Nix. Theogony 746–750. The name was hypothesis. Nyx.On June 21.6. Theogony 123. which may be Orphic in inspiration. Robert. the International Astronomical Union approved the name Nyx for a mons (mountain/peak) feature on the The theme of Nyx’s cave or mansion. rather than Chaos. Liddell.[13] 10.are attested for several deities. According to Pausanias. moving the entire universe in an ecstatic dance to the rhythm of Nyx’s chanting.3 In Greece. pp. from perseus.1 Cults 10.6) [13] Orphic Hymn 55. however. [9] Pausanias 1. spelled with an “i” instead of a “y”. the International Astronomical Union ert has speculated that the house of the goddess to which renamed one of Pluto's recently discovered moons the philosopher is transported is the palace of Nyx. In them. Theogony 124–125. NYX fronted Zeus with a maternal fury. Thus there was a statue called “Nyx” in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[10] The Spartans had a cult of Sleep and Death. is the first principle from which all creation emerges. asleep and drunk on honey – dreams and prophesies. Nyx was only rarely the focus of cults. Henry George. in honor of Nyx. [8] Hesiod. beyond the ocean planet Venus. [11] Pausanias 3. [5] Hesiod. Nyx. [3] Hesiod.org. see Chaos (cosmogony) and Cosmogony and cosmology. Theogony 758–759.5° East on the Venusian surface.2. Nyx lurked in the background of other cults.18. poem of Parmenides. The Birds .2. as represented in the 10th-century Paris Psalter at the side of the Prophet Isaiah References • Aristophanes. she had an oracle on the acropolis at Megara.1. to avoid conflict with the asteroid 3908 Nyx. [4] Hesiod. [7] Hesiod. Outside the cave.38. most notably Dionysus Nyktelios “nocturnal”[12] and Aphrodite Philopannyx “who loves the whole night”. The classical scholar Walter Burk. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. trans. Jones and Ormerod. For other mythical aspects connected with Nyx. Gantz. Scott. must remain tentative. 10.[11] Cult titles composed of compounds of nyx. [6] Hesiod. hermaphrodite Orphic demiurge – was the child or father of Nyx.40. conceived of as twins. 4.[9] Others Nyx took on an even more important role in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus.2 Nyx in society 10. Nyx is also the first principle in the opening chorus of Aristophanes' The Birds. 4–5. [10] Pausanias. 1918.3 Notes [1] Oxford dictionary [2] νύξ. p. Here she is also the mother of Eros. monstrous. Cronus – who is chained within. Nyx occupies a cave or adyton. Nyx Mons is located at latitude 30° North (as in Hesiod) or somewhere at the edge of the cosmos and longitude 48.1). Its di(as in later Orphism) may be echoed in the philosophical ameter is 875 km.40.2 Astronomy In 1997. More often. Phanes – the strange.1. Adrasteia clashes cymbals and beats upon her tympanon. 2006. Theogony 744–745. Gantz.

Johns Hopkins University Press. London (1873).10. “Nyx” p. 2). • Simmons. 1). • Smith. Descriptions of Greece. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. ISBN 978-0-63120102-1.4. MA. 314 • Hesiod.4 External links Media related to Nyx at Wikimedia Commons • “Nyx” from Theoi. Theogony. Pierre. Wiley-Blackwell. in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1996. Olympos. Orphicorum Fragmenta.com 49 . London. Evelyn-White... William. William Heinemann Ltd. EXTERNAL LINKS • Gantz. 1914. • Grimal.Harvard University Press. 1996. “Nyx” 10. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. • Pausanias. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Cambridge. • Otto Kern ed.

She was a daughter of Nyx.html 50 . 11.Chapter 11 Philotes (mythology) Philotes (Greek: Φιλότης) is a minor Greek goddess.theoi.1 External links • http://www.com/Daimon/Philotes. She is the goddess of affection and friendship.

3 See also • List of Greek mythological figures 12. grinning forever. and weeping. (1870). William.4 References [1] Scut. and knew all. which fell before the eyes preceding death). Dionysiaca 14. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. saw from on high the everchanging shape of Lyaios [Dionysos]. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic 8th or 7th century BC): And beside them [the Keres (Deaths) and the Moirai (Fates) on the battlefield] was standing Akhlys (Achlys). She procured from Thessalian Akhlys (Achlys. “Achlys”. . in Smith. covering their necks with rough hair. Death-Mist) treacherous flowers of the field.[1] If she was a daughter of Nyx (Night) then she may have been numbered amongst the Keres.1 Hesiod’s Account Hesiod. dismal and dejected. knee-swollen. with chattering teeth. she distilled poisoned drugs over their hair. and ran down from the loins to feet underneath. to every place. and her shoulders thickly covered with dust.and changed their earlier human shape. long nails on her fingers.Chapter 12 Achlys For the plant genus named Achlys. according to some ancient cosmogonies. she smeared a subtle magical ointment over their faces . Then she was angry with the guardians of Bromios. she was the personification of misery and sadness. 12. swollen knees. fallen in on herself with hunger. 12 12. ed. bloody cheeks. etc. and the dust that had gathered and lay in heaps on her shoulders was muddy with tears. the eternal Night (perhaps the Mist of Death. a strange kind of mane grew of itself. and the nails were grown long on her hands. green and pale.5 Sources Nonnus. see Achlys (plant).[2] 12. from the temples cow’s horns sprouted out. 143 ff (trans.2 Nonnus’ Account 12. Achlys (Greek language: Ἀχλύς “mist”) was. and a horse’s tail sticking out straight from the loins and flogging the flanks of its shaggy-crested owner. their eyes widened under the horned forehead. p. Rouse) (Greek epic 5th century AD): [Hera spies the nurses of the infant god Dionysos:] Hera. In Greek mythology. and she stood there. and off her cheeks the blood dribbled to the ground. 264. Here. and as such she was represented on the shield of Heracles: pale. dirty-dry. [2] Schmitz. MA. who turns her all-seeing eye 51 • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith. and shed a sleep of enchantment over their heads. Then they took the form of a creature with long ears. the hair ran across their heads in tuft. Leonhard (1867). Shield of Heracles 264 ff (trans. "article name needed ". William. long white teeth grew out of their jaws. and the first created being which existed even before Chaos. According to Hesiod. Boston. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. and from her nostrils the drip kept running. emaciated.

ACHLYS .52 12.Akhlys CHAPTER 12.6 External links • Theoi Project .

During the war. and offer.[2] 13.Phantasos appeared in the dreams of kings.2 Family Hypnos lived next to his twin brother. 13. It was Hera who had asked him to trick Zeus His wife. When Zeus Hypnos’ three sons were known as the Oneiroi. Nyx. he could take the shape of any animal includ. The For other uses. “Night”). Thanatos (Θάνατος. She then called for Aphrodite. who had tricked Zeus once before. sacked the city of the Trojans. he was furious when feared entering her realm. Hera loathed her brother and husband. see Hypnos (disambiguation). one made from ivory and the other from buckhorn. however. was one of the youngest of the Graces the first time as well. [1] “sleep”) was the personification of sleep. whose mansion does not see the rising. Greek: Ὕπνος. Hera was almost ready to trick Zeus.[3] This river is known as the river of forgetfulness. the goddess of love. Phobetor is his mother. Pasithea. Hera first dreams. the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. She decided that in order to trick him she needed to make him so enamoured with her that he would fall for the trick. Zeus’ and was promised to him by Hera. He refused this first fake dreams full of illusions. Aphrodite willingly agreed. she lied to Aphrodite because they sided on opposites sides of the war. nor does it see the “lightsome noon. Morpheus. So she went and washed herself with ambrosia and anointed herself with oil. flowed through his cave. before they could do their work and send out [4] first Hypnos had to put the recipient to sleep. nor the setting sun. She wove flowers through her hair. the dreams. She told Aphrodite that she wanted the charm to help her parents stop fighting. However. which awoke he was furious and went on a rampage looking for is Greek for “dreams. Hypnos was able to trick him and help the Danaans win the Trojan war.” At the entrance were a number of poppies and other hypnotic plants. So she had Hypnos marriage and birth. remembering the last time he tricked Zeus. and set blasts of angry winds upon the or relaxation. and donned a wondrous robe. Hypnos (/ˈhɪpnɒs/. The river Lethe. Hera 53 . sea while Heracles was still sailing home. but she needed the help of Hypnos. who is the goddess of son. he awoke. and asked her for a charm that would ensure that her trick would not fail. She was furious that Hercules. Phobetor. The underworld is translated into English as Hell in the Septuagint Bible. The Oneiroi horse.Chapter 13 Hypnos “Somnus” redirects here. Hypnos used his powers to trick Zeus. the deity of Night. Phantasos was known for creating apart and a footstool to go with it. lived in a cave at the shores of the Ocean in the West. This made Hypnos reluctant to accept the personification of nightmares and created frightening Hera’s proposal and help her trick Zeus again. In Greek mythology. Hypnos managed to avoid Zeus by hiding with Dreams and can take human form in dreams. see Somnus (horse).1 Dwelling place According to Greek mythology Hypnos lived in a cave. Hera called on Hypnos and asked him to help her by Nyx was a dreadful and powerful goddess. Hypnos was reluctant because the last time he had put the god to sleep. in the underworld. Pasithea is the deity of hallucination put Zeus to sleep. Hypnos’ mother was Nyx (Νύξ. “death personified”) in the underworld. In order to procure the charm. the deity of Darkness. and his father was Erebus.3 Hypnos in the Iliad 13. made especially for her to make herself impossible to resist for Zeus. put on three brilliant pendants for earrings. His dwelling had no door or gate so that he might not be awakened by the creaking of hinges.” Morpheus is the Winged God of Hypnos.offered him a beautiful golden seat that can never fall ing bears and tigers. so she devised a plot to trick him. and even Zeus putting Zeus to sleep. cave had two gates with which to send people dreams. Zeus. For the thoroughbred race.

referring to the fact that when hypnotized.[6] [8] “Bronze Head of Hypnos. “Book the Eleventh.” [10] “Insomnia | Define Insomnia at Dictionary. most of which nary.” Trans. Hypnos made her swear by the river Styx and call on gods of the underworld to be witnesses so that he would be ensured that he would marry Pasithea. Sir Samuel Garth. 1962. In this vase.reference. [3] Richard S. god of dreams 13. leaving Poseidon eager to help the Dananns. Now. (in. [5] Homer. one of the youngest Graces. N. now kept in the British Museum in London. Hypnos is shown as a winged god [11] “Somnolent | Define Somnolent at Dictionary. N. MA: Focus Information Group. [4] Ovid. Henry George. [6] British Museum Highlights [7] “Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. This bronze head has wings sprouting from his temples and the hair is elaborately arranged.” British Museum −.[5] 13. While this went on. Zeus said that she could go any time. 2013.com.com. Trans.6 See also • Aergia. Robert Fagles.[10] as well as a few less-common words such as “somnolent”. 15 Oct. Mantinband. Somnus.[7] One of the most famous works of art featuring Hypnos is a bronze head of Hypnos himself. Ed.[8] 13.p. 15 Oct. Dictionary. meaning sleepy or tending to cause sleep. the topmost peak of Mount Ida. are vases. which is part of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston’s collection. Cambridge. n. Web. and that she should postpone her visit and stay there with him so they could enjoy each other’s company.4 Hypnos in art CHAPTER 13. Web.reference. Zeus asked Hera what she was doing there and why she had come there from Olympus and she told him the same lie she told her daughter Aphrodite. Caldwell. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. the English word "insomnia" comes from the name of his Latin counterpart.com”. Retrieved 2014-01-27.5 Words derived from Hypnos The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name. a person is put into a sleep-like state (hypnos “sleep” + -osis “condition”). a goddess of sloth and attendant of Hypnos • Hesiod’s Theogony • Morpheus. Concise Dictionary of Greek Literature. God of the Sea. Retrieved 2014-01-27. Bernard Knox. Dictio- Hypnos appears in numerous works of art. She told him that she wanted to go help her parents stop quarreling and she stopped there to consult him because she didn't want to go without his knowledge and have him be angry with her when he found out. and Zeus never found out that Hypnos had tricked him one more time. n. This is where Hypnos leaves the story. from Civitella d'Arna near Perugia in Italy. dripping Lethean water upon the head of Ariadne as she . New York: Viking.com.[9] Additionally.[11] 13. Metemorphoses. Hesiod’s Theogony. Trans. He took her in his embrace and Hypnos went to work putting him to sleep.com”. Retrieved 2014-01-27. Cambridge. 1717. Hypnos traveled to the ships of the Achaeans to tell Poseidon. He told her that he was never in love with anyone as much as he loved her at that moment. with Hera in his arms. Liddell. The Iliad. Scott. 2013. some tying in knots and some hanging freely from his head. [2] James H. 1990. that he could now help the Danaans and give them a victory while Zeus was sleeping. Robert.. Dictionary.d. whom he had always wanted to marry. with Hypnos’ help. John Dryden.reference.p. Hera went to see Zeus on Gargarus.7 References [1] ὕπνος.“not” + somnus “sleep”). 1st-2nd Century AD. Thanks to Hypnos helping to trick Zeus. HYPNOS sleeps. Bronze Head of Hypnos in the British Museum. [9] “Hypnosis | Define Hypnosis at Dictionary. Zeus was extremely taken by her and suspected nothing as Hypnos was shrouded in a thick mist and hidden upon a pine tree that was close to where Hera and Zeus were talking.com”. the war changed its course to Hera’s favor.54 finally got him to agree by promising that he would be married to Pasithea.d. 1987.. New York: Philosophical Library.” Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. An example of one vase that Hypnos is featured on is called “Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus.

EXTERNAL LINKS 13.8 External links • Hypnos at theoi.13. 55 .com • 3D model of Bronze head of Hypnos via laser scan of a cast of British Museum’s bronze.8.

daughter of Jupiter and ters as the fates of mortals and states. corresponding to later 'divus’. 'dius’. while keeping the original features of celestial divinities. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her conwomen. In Roman mythology. Dea Dia and in the neuter form dium meaning the sky. (day. Diana (lt. the moon and childbirth. The Diana of Versailles. from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus. referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. Diana therefore reflects the heavenly world (dimythology (in common with the Greek religion and their uum means sky or open air) in its sovereignty. Di. At the same time. virginity. meaning bright sky or daylight. erence for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred Oak groves were especially sacred to her. who swore never to marry. i. transcendent heavenly power and abstention from direct rule in worldly matters. (god). “heavenly” or “divine”) was the goddess of the hunt.[3] The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. dies.[5] since they did retain a particular sort of influence over the world and mankind. her servant and assistant midwife. and indifference towards such secular matApollo on the island of Delos. Minerva and Vesta. a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography 14. being associated with wild animals and woodland.1 Etymology Diana (pronounced with long 'ī' and 'ā') is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios. inaccessibility. did not share the fate of other celestial gods in Indoeuropean religions—that of becoming dei otiosi or gods without practical purpose. she is seen as active in ensuring the succession 56 . Such gods. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια (diwia) is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. She was one of the three maiden goddesses. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman however.Chapter 14 Diana (mythology) deities: Egeria the water nymph. According to Georges Dumézil[4] it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods. Dianic Wicca. daylight). and her prefana. a largely feminist form of the practice. (daytime). According to woods. deity Artemis).e.[2] It is rooted in Indoeuropean *d(e)y(e)w.2 Mythology The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis. and Virbius. 14. and " diurnal”.[1] though she had an independent origin in Italy. the woodland god. Diana was born with her twin brother impassibility. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. Latona. supremacy.nection with light. as in Dius Fidius. is named for her.

bestowing on him worn as a diadem. supplanting Titan goddess Luna. she was portrayed The Scandinavian god Heimdallr performs an analogous deer or hunting dogs. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who. preserving mankind through childbirth and royal succession.[6] According to Dumezil the forerunner of all frame gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image (avatar) of the Vedic god Dyaus. 14. Lucina. H. he attained the status of an im. associated Dumezil’s interpretation appears deliberately to ignore with wild animals and woodlands. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. Having renounced the world. This form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources. who held the position until someone else challenged and killed him in a duel. and carrying a quiver on her shoulder. the institution of the Rex Nemorensis and related ritual should be seen as related to the theme of the dying god and the kings of May. 1. prayed for an easy delivery. is a major attribute of the goddess. WORSHIP 57 of kings and in the preservation of humankind through the protection of childbirth. supreme heavenly couple Jupiter-Juno and additionally ties in these figures to the overarching Indoeuropean religious complex. Being placed on the Aventine.4 Worship F. The crescent moon.[7] 2. Diana was initially just the hunting goddess. function: he is born first and will die last. sometimes origin to kingship and the first king.[6] Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire. dedicated As a goddess of hunting. In this interpretative schema. in his roles of father and king. although a female deity. It is noteworthy that the list includes Luna and Diana Lucina as separate entities.Gallo-Roman bronze statuette of Diana (latter 1st century) mortal being while retaining the duty of ensuring that his dynasty is preserved and that there is always a new king for each generation. She also later became that of James G. This regality is also linked to the cult of trees.14. Another testimony to the high antiquity of her cult is to be found in the lex regia of king Tullus Hostilius that condemns those guilty of incest to the sacratio to the goddess. Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations. the figure of Janus. Iuno. Diana’s sacerdos (priest) in the Arician wood.3 Physical description In Rome the cult of Diana should have been almost as old as the city itself as Varro mentions her in the list of deities to whom king Titus Tatius vowed a shrine. who links Diana with the male a moon goddess. regal prerogatives. She is often portrayed holding a bow. once pregnant. accompanied by a [10] Like Venus. Diana.g.[12] when King Servius Tullius. after breaking a branch from a certain tree of the wood. Frazer.[9] 14.4. Pairault in her essay on Diana qualifies Dumézil’s theory as "impossible to verify". Ovid. e. This looks odd as Dumézil’s also became the goddess of childbirth and ruled over the definition of the concept of frame god would fit well countryside. has exactly the same functions. Diana often wears a short tunic her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century and hunting boots. and thus outside the .[8] Frazer identifies the two with the has more [11] Luna. particularly oaks. Trivia. He too gives as beautiful and youthful. BC. She god Janus as a divine couple. The institution of the rex Nemorensis. Catullus wrote a poem to Diana in which she than one alias: Latonia. himself born a slave.

58 CHAPTER 14.e. A coin minted by P. Vulci and Caere (allied with the Greeks above right) this is because Diana was the patroness of of Capua) and those of Clusium. Two heads found in the sanctuary[33] and the over to the Etruscans and the Latins by the 6th and 5th Roman theatre at Nemi. If she is accompagroups of Etruscans who fought for supremacy. Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a torical and archaeological evidence point to the fact that central deity not immediately identifiable. This religious complex is in turn supported by the triple statue of Artemis-Hecate.[35] Cuma too had a [20] Aristodemos and is probably connected to the politHecate and certainly had strict contacts ical events at end of the 6th century narrated by Livy cult of a chthonic with Latium. who saw her bathing the inhumation of his bones in the Roman Forum near naked. “Men of Ephesus. Octavius Verus. meant that Diana’s cult essentially remained a foreign one.[14] which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct. The meaning of Tauropolos denotes an Asi- Worship of Diana is mentioned in the Bible. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) atic goddess with lunar attributes. In Acts of the Apostles.Though some Roman patrons ordered marble replicas of mation and not a traditional society founded on links of the specifically Anatolian “Diana” of Ephesus. lady of the herds. in whom three different elements are ashave to be traced to the legend of Orestes and Iphigenia sociated. and slaves. Diana of the wood was soon thoroughly Hellenized. he said. what person is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper (guardian) of the temple of the great Diana and of her image that fell from . those nied by a deer.[34] which have a hollow on their centuries BC.[27] According to the legend Orestes founded Nemi together with Iphigenia. she was never officially transferred to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. which in turn passed it models. Strabo’s version looks to be the most authoritative as he had access to first hand primary sources on the sanctuaries of Artemis.[28] At Cuma the Sybil is the priestess of both Phoibos and Trivia. Georg Wissowa proposed the explanation that it might be because the first slaves of the Romans must have been Latins of the neighbouring tribes.[26] The only possible interpretatio graeca of high antiquity concerning Diana Nemorensis could have been the one based upon this ancient aspect of deity of light. at Nemi is apparently that of the Artemis Tauropolos.[18] his. Ephesian metal smiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. It is remarkable that the composition of this ana looks very elaborated and certainly Hellenic. the Rex Nemorensis remained. it has not as its leader the rex Nemorensis but a dictator pomerium. as in the Diana of Versailles (illustration.[36] The theological complex present in Diand Dionysius. such as the siege of Aricia by Porsenna's son Arruns. This fact is of difficult interpretation.[32] It represents Artemis with the bow at one According to Françoise Hélène Pairault’s study. by Strabo[25] and Servius Honoratus.[22] The cult introduced by Orestes own hunting dogs to kill him. jealously rioted in her defense. This is reflected in hunting.[29] Hesiod[30] and Stesichorus[31] tell the story according to which after her death Iphigenia was divinised under the name of Hecate.[13] where her priest. master of wildlife. New English Bible). shouting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28. i. back. Latinus. as Diana Tifatina was appelled Trivia in an imperial League led by Laevius (or Baebius) Egerius[19] happened Virbialis dedunder the influence of an alliance with the tyrant of Cuma age inscription which mentions a flamen icated by eques C.[17] However in Ephesus too there was the same custom of the asylum (ασυλιον). like that of Bacchus. slaves could receive asylum in her temples.[15] “a process which culminated with the appearance of Diana beside Apollo in the first lectisternium at Rome”. while an analogous Latin concept of Diana Trivia seems uncerleague does not reflect that of the Latin people who took sources reflect a Hellenised character of the part in the Latiar or Feriae Latinae given by Pliny and tain. fact which would support the assumption that Artemis Tauropolos had a real ancient alliance with the heroine. After the city secretary (γραμματεύς) quieted the crowd. lend support to this interpretation of an archaic The origin of the ritual of the rex Nemorensis should Diana Trivia. Diana transformed Acteon into a stag and set his the temple of Saturn.[16] Diana was regarded with great reverence and was a patroness of lower-class citizens. Temple of Artemis stood. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes. The literary amplification[23] reveals a confused religious background: different Artemis were conflated under the epithet. from Tarquinia. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia. Artemis and even Athena. as Latin [37] goddess. Diana was usually depicted for It looks as if the confrontation happened between two educated Romans in her Greek guise.[21] It should thence be considered a political for. the priest of Artemis Artemidoros of Ephesus. called plebeians. who was her priestess in Taurid and her human paragon. The formation of the Latin should be related to the presence of the cult in Campania.[24] As far as Nemi’s Diana is concerned there are two different versions. The deer may also offer a covert reference to the legend of the coming of Orestes to Nemi and of the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon). Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BC has been acknowledged as representing the archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis. the product of the direct or indirect influence of the cult of The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this imArtemis spread by the Phoceans among the Greek towns age to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan of Campania Cuma and Capua. all united by a both Diana of the Aventine and Diana Nemorensis were horizontal bar. The presence of a Hellenised Diana at Nemi more than that of Hippolitos.extremity. Tauropolos is an ancient epithet attached to Hecate. where the blood.

She was related to myths of a female and "morning call" (diana) seem to come from the name Wild Hunt. Perchta.6. LEGACY 59 heaven ?" (Acts 19:36) 14.[38] She had a shrine in Rome on the Aventine hill. the god of the Sun. the light.[42] • At Lavinium.[39] where she is referred to with the archaic Latin name of deva Cornisca and where existed a collegium of Wicca worshippers.[43] Today there is a branch of Wicca named for her.5 Sanctuaries See also: Diana Nemorensis Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes.[40] • At Évora. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba Longa before the town was destroyed by the Romans.e.[49] 14. Apollo. In Italy the old religion of Stregheria embraced the goddess Diana as Queen of the Witches. It was said that out of • In Ephesus.1 In religion Both the Romanian words for "fairy" Zânǎ[50] and Diana’s cult has been related in Early Modern Europe Sânzianǎ.[46] created the world of her own being having in herself the seeds of all creation yet to come. etc. • Colle di Corne near Tusculum. original territory of the city. Bronze. Augustus Saint-Gaudens. of Diana. i. where she is referred to as Diana Opifera Nemorensis. and the Spanish word for “shooting target” Herodiana. Other sanctuaries we know about are listed below: Diana (1892 .6. Therefore many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins. Portugal. New York City. which is characterized by an exclusive focus on the feminine aspect of the Divine. keeping for Ephesus and the temple Artemision used to be one herself the darkness of creation and creating her brother of world’s seven wonders.[41] • Mount Algidus. near Capua in Campania. also near Tusculum.k. in order to comply with the tradition that Diana was a goddess common to all Latins and not exclusively of the Romans.a. nymph” xana. where she was worshipped as Diana of herself she divided the darkness and the light.“Isis Astarte Diana Hecate Demeter Kali Inanna”. according to tradition dedicated by king Servius Tullius. Metropolitan Museum of Art.93).). . Dame Habond.6 Legacy 14.14. Diana was said to have • On Mount Tifata.[48] • At Tibur (Tivoli).[44] Stregheria • A sacred wood mentioned by Livy[45] ad compitum Anagninum (near Anagni). Its location is remarkable as the Aventine is situated outside the pomerium.[47] Diana’s name is also used as the third divine name in a Wiccan energy chant. The Arician wood sanctuary near the lake of Nemi was Latin confederal as testified by the dedicatory epigraph quoted by Cato.2 In language 14. the Leonese and Portuguese word for “water to the cult of Nicevenn (a.6. Diana was believed to have loved and ruled with her brother Apollo. witches being the wise women healers of the time.

1796.” • There is a reference to Diana in Much Ado About Nothing where Hero is said to seem like 'Dian in her orb'. mistress of Henri of France... The plot deals with Sylvia.. • Diana is referred to in Twelfth Night when Orsino compares Viola (in the guise of Cesario) to Diana. the main character in Carlos Fuentes' novel Diana o la cazadora soltera (Diana. minions of the moon” who are governed by their “noble and chase mistress the moon under whose countenance [they] steal”. gentlemen of the shade. Dian no queen of virgins.” and ". is now begrim'd and black as my own face.. Falstaff styles himself and his highway-robbing friends as “Diana’s foresters. the Apollo-like “Sun King” liked to surround himself. Chenonceau. In the 16th century. women who claim they are virtuous despite never having been tempted are referred to as “Dianas. Diana’s image figured prominently at the châteaus of Fontainebleau. as goddess of the moon. Dian. • In “Castaway” by Augusta Webster. Desdemona. in deference to Diane de Poitiers. & at Anet. without/ rescue in the first assault or ransom afterward. Since the Renaissance the myth of Diana has often been represented in the visual and dramatic arts. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) In the arts • In the sonnet “To Science” by Edgar Allan Poe. ".. “Her name that was as fresh as Diana’s visage.” The Steward also says. is described as having the same personality as the goddess.[51] . Starts: 'When first Diana leaves her bed. such as. science is said to have “dragged Diana from her car”. from thy altar do I fly. reclines on a blue drapery. • Diana Soren./ that would suffer her poor knight surprised. At Versailles she was incorporated into the Olympian iconography with which Louis XIV. “Diana’s lip is not more smooth and rubious” A chariot clock depicting the goddess. or The Lone Huntress).. including the opera L'arbore di Diana. identified by the crescent moon in her hair and the bow and quiver at her side. In literature • In "The Knight’s Tale" in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. Diana leads the Trojan Brutus to Britain. France. • In “Ode” by John Keats. c.” It can be assumed that 'Dian' is simply a shortening of 'Diana' since later in the play when Parolles’ letter to Diana is read aloud it reads 'Dian'. where he and his people settle. The nude goddess. • In Jonathan Swift’s poem: “The Progress of Beauty”.60 14. and Diana’s assault on Sylvia’s affections for the shepherd Amyntas. telling him to go to her temple and tell his story to her followers.3 CHAPTER 14. • Diana is referenced in As You Like It to describe how Rosalind feels about marriage..wish chastely and love dearly. he writes 'Browsed by none but Dian’s fawns’ (line 12) • Speaking of his wife.6. Part 1.” (Line 128) Diana Reposing by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry. “Now. Emily prays to Diana to be spared from marriage to either Palamon or Arcite. in terms of her chastity. • In Henry IV. Prince of Tyre Diana appears to Pericles in a vision... one of Diana’s nymphs and sworn to chastity. Diana is also a character in the 1876 Léo Delibes ballet Sylvia. that your Dian/was both herself and love. In Shakespeare • In Shakespeare’s Pericles.' • In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”). Diana is used in comparison to the 17th/early 18th century everyday woman Swift satirically writes about... • In All’s Well That Ends Well Diana appears as a figure in the play and Helena makes multiple allusions to her. Othello the Moor says.

• In The Merchant of Venice Portia states “I will die as chaste as Diana. 61 In painting and sculpture Diana has been one of the most popular themes in art. (I. The character Hippolyta states “And then the moon. Peter Paul Rubens. saying that “She hath Dian’s wit”. Diana and Callisto. On the mantel he painted an image of Diana riding in a chariot possibly pulled by a stag. She refers to Diana. which is a perpetual hunt for advantage and profits. François Boucher. like to a silver bow new bent in Heaven”.14. unless I be obtained by the manner of my father’s will”. He was commissioned in 1519 to paint the ceiling and mantel of the fireplace. . Painters like Titian. He refers to her becoming a nun. by Giampietrino. In beaux arts Diana as the Huntress.or depicted her resting after hunting. Pietro Solari.6. • Diana and Endymion by Poussin. • Diana and Callisto. • A sculpture by Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain can be seen at the Musée du Louvre. • The famous fountain at Palace of Caserta. Antonio Allegri da Correggio painted the chamber of the Abbess Giovanna Piacenza’s apartment. and Diana Getting Out of Bath by François Boucher. Diana Resting After Bath. In the same play the character Hermia is told by the Duke Theseus that she must either wed the character Demetrius “Or on Diana’s alter to protest for aye austerity and single life”. or Callisto. • Diana and Callisto. LEGACY • The goddess is also referenced indirectly in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. with the goddesse Diana having connotations of chastity. • Diana and Endymion by Johann Michael Rottmayr. Diana and Her Nymphs Surprised By A Faun by Rubens. • Diana Bathing With Her Nymphs by Rembrandt. and Death of Actaeon by Titian. Two of the most popular of the period were of Pomona (goddess of orchards) as a metaphor for Agriculture. who is often depicted with a silver hunting bow. Nicholas Poussin made use of her myth as a major theme. It now is on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art • A sculpture by French sculptor François-Léon Sicard in the Archibald Fountain. created by Paolo Persico. Brunelli. Sydney NSW Australia • In Parma at the convent of San Paolo. • “Diana of the Tower” a copper statue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens was created as the weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden in 1893.ii) • In Romeo and Juliet. Diana and Her Nymph Departing From Hunt. goddess of the moon. depicting Diana being surprised by Acteon. Beaux Arts architecture and garden design (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used classic references in a modernized form. representing Commerce. Romeo describes Rosaline. Italy. Most depictions of Diana in art featured the stories of Diana and Actaeon. and Diana. Some famous work of arts with a Diana theme are : • Diana and Actaeon.

62 CHAPTER 14. (in particular chapter “The king of May”). 1995. [8] J. In film • In Jean Cocteau's 1946 film La Belle et la Bête it is Diana’s power which has transformed and imprisoned the beast. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris 1974. Frazer Dying gods. 1954. Contrary G. part 3. • Diana/Artemis appears at the end of the 'Pastoral Symphony' segment of Fantasia. her brother drew an analogy between the ancient goddess of hunting and his sister . an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau. • In the manga and anime series Sailor Moon. [5] Mircea Eliade Traite' d'histoire des religions Paris. F. of which Fergus becomes the fourth victim. part 3. is named after Diana.7 See also • Artemis • Diana Nemorensis • Dianic Wicca • Janus • Domus de Janas • Pachamama In opera • Diana is a character in Hippolytus and Aricia.G. 1. chap. . Other • In the funeral oration of Diana. 1. Retrieved 2012-11-11. Pairault below cites three. [3] H. Pomona (left. Julie Kohler. poses as Diana/Artemis for the artist Fergus. played by Jeanne Moreau. This choice seems fitting for Julie.8 References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. Haydock.[53] [9] J. 262-271. She poses with a bow and arrow. [11] “Latin Oration”. [6] Ovid Fasti III. Frazer The golden bough 1922. • In his 1968 film La Mariée était en noir François Truffaut plays on this mythological symbol.4 • The character of Diana is the principal character in the children’s novel The Moon Stallion by Brian Hayles (1978) and the BBC Television series of the same name Diana is played by the actress Sarah Sutton.KG. Diana is the daughter of Artemis and Luna. [2] G.6. the main character.“the most hunted person of the modern age”. 1912.[52] • The Royal Netherlands Air Force 323rd Squadron is named Diana and uses a depiction of Diana with her bow in its badge. • She also is one of the main gods in the popular video game Ryse. magic and the divine king Routledge. • DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. The theme of Diana is carried throughout the album. 16. • For the album art of progressive metal band Protest the Hero's second studio album Fortress. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) • The character of Diana from the video game League of Legends is largely based on the goddess. p. Geza Roheim Animism. [10] “Artemis”. symbolizing agriculture). 12. 1974. while wearing white. fulfill his duty to Rome. Usagi’s daughter. 215. Princess of Wales in 1997.1. All of these characters are advisers to rulers of the kingdom of the moon and therefore have moonassociated names. chaps. 14.Dumézil La religion Romaine archaique Paris. the goddess of hunting. London. part 3. an airgun company. Diana is the feline companion to Chibiusa. Rousseau. 14. 1972. The Book People. 14. scribd.com. a character beset by revenge. Diana is depicted protected by rams and other animals. • William Moulton Marston used the Diana myth as a basis for Wonder Woman. and Diana (symbolizing commerce) as building decoration. [7] Titus Livius Ab Urbe Condita 1:31-1:60. [4] G. who help Marius Titus. chap.

Aricinus. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 177-192) p 178. West Fragmenta Hesiodea Oxonii 1967. Darehnberg -Saglio-Pottier Dictionnaire des antiquités s. xliv. Greek cities of Magna Graecia. [25] Strabo V 249: αφιδρύματα της ταυροπόλου. pp. P. VII 6.v. in the 5th century BC. Rutulus. US. ISBN 1-56619-104-1. (Gordon 1932:178 note. fragment 23.net. Joyce. [36] Dionysius Hal. L. 91. [30] Hesiod Catalogueedited by Augusto Traversa. [18] “Diana Nemorensis. Tuaropolos. Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome. pp. 448 citing Jean Bayet Origines de l' Hercule romain p.part 3. 3537. From The Witches Voice.” [19] The historicity of this character is questioned by Dumézil as the name Egerius looks suspect to him. 1. Nilson Griechische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1955 p. Gordon. Carmen Saeculare. Lucanus Pharsalia III 86 “qua sublime nemus Scythicae qua regna Dianae”. των ποιμνίων επστάσις. 322-328. :η Άρτεμις εν Ταύροις της Σκυθίας τιμωμένη.14.” COMPANY | THE DIANA TRADEMARK.43. 242 and Ovid’s Fasti III 327-331. [35] CIL X 3795. [43] CIL XIV. Retrieved 2007-05-23. [17] as quoted by Dumézil La religion romaine archaique Paris. Carmina I 21. Lucidi Memorie storiche dell'antichissimo municipio ora terra dell'Ariccia e delle sue colonie Genzano e Nemi Rome 1796 p. 181). 2012). 259-261 platesVI a-b. Hyginus Fabulae 261. Naples 1951 p. in a surviving quote by the late grammarian Priscian. Laurens.KG THE DIANA TRADEMARK. " Witches Of The Craft. 242. 425-471. M. 485 ff. Tiburtis. P. “The Goddess Diana. Pausanias I 43. “On the Origin of Diana”. CIL XIV. déesse latine. 5-6. Wilbur L. 15. Merkelbach. 365–399. finds at Valle Giardino. VI 136. Ardeatis.135. [42] Horace. (1993). 2357. [38] Cato Origins fr. [22] Servius ad Aeneidem II 116. déesse hellénisée” in Mélanges d' archéologie et d'histoire 81 1969 p. 1. [20] Livy II 14. Scholiasta ad Aristophanem Lysistrata 447. Blue Moon [50] Zânǎ in DEX '98 and NODEX [51] Cross. [47] Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition. [33] Excavation of 1791 by cardinal Despuig not mentioned in the report: cf. Wicca. Suidas above. Pometius. 2010 [28] Servius ad Aeneidem VI 136. Supposed Greek origins for the Aricia cult are strictly a literary topos. Abel Orphica. Hymni magici V in Selenen 4. 1974. 76 text 82. 5-9.2633. Hymni I in Hecaten 7.. 975. VIII 362. Lingua Latina V. Yalouris Athena als Herrin der Pferde in Museum Helveticum 7 1950 p. F. 2012). Pairault p. 4. [24] Jean Bayet “Les origines de l'Arcadisme romain” p.v. R. N. η ότι η αυτη τη σελήνη εστι καί εποχειται ταύροις. Diana fig. Tauropolai. 99. [45] Livy Ab Urbe Condita XXVII 4. Alföldi"Diana Nemorensis” in American journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p.RNLAF 323rd squadron”. (accessed November 27. Arthur E. M. and p. f-16. Photius Lexicon s. 7. 1-4. (accessed November 27. [13] Her cult at Aricia was first attested in Latin literature by Cato the Elder. [48] “TRADITIONAL WICCA .v. [21] Pliny Naturalis Historia III 5 68-70. Dionysius Halicarnasseus V 36. Valerius Flaccus Argonauticae II 305. [14] commune Latinorum Dianae templum in Varro. Ennius apud Varro De Lingua Latina VII 16. the cult there was of antiqua religione in Pliny’s Natural History. Hi populi communiter: Tusculanus. 97 ff. H. REFERENCES [12] The date coincides with the founding dates celebrated at Aricium. [27] Hesichius s. 280 n. 62: “Lucum Dianum In nemore Aricino Egerius Baebius (some scholars prefer to read Laevius) Tusculanus dedicavit dictator Latinus. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 63 (1932. 1919. pp. Silius Italicus Punica IV 367. chap. [46] Roy Merle Peterson The cults of Campania Rome. Leland. [29] Aeneis VI 35. η από μέρους. . 4: the people of Aricia help Aristdemos in bringing home the Etruscan booty. [23] Ovid Metamorphoses XIV 331-2 Scythicae regnum nemorale Dianae. [49] Charles G.2112.v. 137-144. [41] Hifler. [39] Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia XVI. [32] A. [26] Suidas s. Coranus. II 22.8. The Yale Shakespeare: the complete works. [44] CIL. [40] CIL.CLASS 8”. 63 [31] Orestia cited by Philodemos Περι εύσεβείας 24 Gomperz II 52: fragment 38 B. [37] Servius Ad Aeneidem IV 511. Riis who cites E. Theophania Publishing. E. [52] “DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. [16] Gordon 1932:179. Aradia: The Gospel of Witches. [53] “F-16 Units . Catullus 34. United States of America: Barnes & Noble. [34] NSA 1931 p. [15] The Potnia Theron aspect of Hellenic Artemis is represented in Capua and Signia.

95 ff. 47-100. Morpurgo “Nemus Aricinum” in MonAntLincei 13 1903 c. • A. • A. 69 ff. March Apr. 1ff..E. 55. Altheim Griechischen Götter im alten Rom Giessen 1930 p. • J. Heurgon “Recherhes sur. • K. • L. • E. Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1966 p. Collection Latomus 45 Bruxelles 1960 p. p. Frazer Balder the Beautiful II London 1913 p. Gordon Local Cults in Aricia University of California Publications in Classical Archaeology 2 1934 p. 177ff. • A. J. • P.. 1ff. Paribeni “A note on Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archeology 65 1961 p. Schilling “Une victime des vicissitudes politiques. 20 ff. Momigliano “Sul dies natalis del santuario federale di Diana sull' Aventino” in RAL 17 1962 p. Capoue préromaine” in BÉFAR 154 Paris 1942 p. 93-172. Gordon “On the Origin of Diana” in Transactions of the AMerican Philological Association 63 1932 p. Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich 1912 p. 137-144.64 14. • A. 387 ff. • F. la Diane latine” in Hommages á Jean Bayet.9 Bibliography • A. Alföldi “Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. • J. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) 14. • G. 307 ff. • J. • J. 398 ff. Heurgon in Magna Graecia 1969 Jan..E. • G.G. 300 ff. 198 ff.10 External links • Landscape with Diana and Callisto painting • Diana and her Nymphs painting • The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1150 images of Diana .. • J. 169-173. Bayet Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine Paris 1957 p. 39ff. Riis “The Cult Image of Diana Nemorensis” in Acta Archaeologica Kopenhagen 37 1966 p. 650 ff. 1969 p. • A. • R. CHAPTER 14. 12 ff. Merlin “L'Aventin dans l'antiquité" Paris BÉFAR 97 1906. Latte Römische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1960 p. Alföldi Early Rome and the Latins Ann Arbor 1964 p. 302 ff.. Feb. Gagé “Apollon Romain” in BÉFAR 182 Paris 1955.

Italy) is considered a site of the cult of god Pluto.According to Martianus Capella. and one and was continuously active til late antiquity (at least the of the nine gods of thunder. Iupiter Summanus and the Manes . “under” + lost and disappeared. The story looks to be an adaptation manus. where indeed it was found on the very spot indicated by them. but with the construction of a temple that was more magnificent than that of Summanus.[19] The content of this section is adapted from the entry Monte 65 .[12] Paulus Diaconus considers him a The mountain top is frequently hit by lightningbolts. The first gods of these precise nature was unclear even to Ovid.[11] Varro.[3][4] It stood at its reassuring. daylight and legalistic aspect. It seems the temple had been dedi. This identification is taken up by later writers roof of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been struck such as Camões (“If in Summanus’ gloomy realm / Sever[5] by a lightningbolt. violent and awe-inspiring element of the gods of the first function. Dark victims were typically offered to chthonic deities. located in the Alps near Vicenza (Veneto. quence of a votum. 278 BCE on June 20. round cakes called summanalia. perhaps on the slope [16] Summanus is anof the Aventine. see Brian Lumley deities#Summanus. wrapped in a smoking whirlwind of blue flame. in summer solstice.[7] Saint Augustine records that in earlier times Summanus had been more exalted than Jupiter.[10] that dates back to the first Iron Age (9th century BCE) Pliny thought that he was of Etruscan origin. the god of diurnal (daylight) thunder. lists 4th century CE).[13] mountain has a deep grotto (named Bocca Lorenza) in The name Summanus is thought to be from Summus Ma. The double aspect of heavenly In ancient Roman religion.[9] 15.).[14] or sub-.[2] pairs would incarnate the violent. represent the uncanny. however. The area was one of the last strongholds of ancient religion in Italy as is shown by the fact that Vicenza had no bishop until 590 CE.Georges Dumézil[15] has argued that Summanus would ley’s fictional god. to the custom of ancient time pilgrims of bringing flowers whom king Titus Tatius dedicated altars (arae) in conse. “hand”. The local flora is very peculiar due to Summanus among gods he considers of Sabine origin. were manus. milk and honey and shaped as wheels. Summanus (Latin: Summānus) was the god of nocturnal thunder. nocturnal.[8] Cicero recounts that the clay statue of the god which stood on the roof of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was struck by a lightningbolt: its head was nowhere to be seen. For Brian Lum. The haruspices announced that it had been hurled into the Tiber River. The temple of Summanus itself was struck by lightning Archeological excavations have found a sanctuary area in 197 BCE.Chapter 15 Summanus This article is about the Roman deity. other name for Pluto as the “highest” (summus) of the cated because the statue of the god which stood on the Manes. of the myth of Pluto and Proserpina. offered to him as a token of propitiation: the wheel might [18] falls upon people and cities”.which according to a local legend a young shepherdess got nium “the greatest of the Manes".1 Summanus and Mount Summano Traditionally Mount Summano (elevation 1291 m. The god of lightning. the west of the Circus Maximus. mysterious The temple of Summanus was dedicated during the aspect of sovereignty while the second ones would reflect Pyrrhic War c.from their own native lands afar. Every June 20. the day before the [17] est punishment you now endure …") and Milton. as counterposed sovereign power would be reflected in the dichotomy Varuna-Mitra in Vedic religion and in Rome in the dito Jupiter. be a solar symbol.[1] His chotomy Summanus-Dius Fidius. connected to heavenly sovereignty. Jupiter became more honored. made a simile to describe Satan visiting Rome: “Just so Sum[6] of flour. Summanus also received a sacrifice of two black oxen or wethers.

Pliny mentions the temple at Natural History 29. rariora sane eadem de causa frigidioris caeli).14).. [14] Summanus. I 10. 5. Livy Periochae XIV. [15] Myth et epopée vol. IV.57 (= 29. in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. Of these the Romans retained only two. ascribing the diurnal kind to Jupiter.. Amit. 211. “The Wheel in the Ritual Symbolism of Some Indo-European Peoples.66 Summano of WP Italian. City of God IV 23 [9] Cicero De Divinatione I 10 [10] Livy AUC XXXII 29. CHAPTER 15. Fasti 6. that there are nine Gods who discharge thunder-storms. 1 [11] Natural History 2. [8] Augustine. diurna attribuentes Iovi. . citing Cicero de Div. that there are eleven different kinds of them. CIL I 2nd p. 98100 [6] Festus p. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. tr. via Perseus Digital Library.: ad XII Kal. see Orlin. [3] Ovid fasti VI 729-731. 1967). in consequence of the heavens being colder” (Tuscorum litterae novem deos emittere fulmina existimant. Loeb Classical Library. Frazer. 15. [2] “The temple is said to have been dedicated to Summanus. and the nocturnal to Summanus. Romani duo tantum ex iis servavere. It. Summano templa feruntur): Ovid. 184 [16] Martianus Capella. [12] Varro Lingua Latina V 74. III part 2 chapt. Mitra-Varuna: essai sur deux representations indoeuropeennes de la souverainetè Paris 1948 2nd.164. nocturna Summano. English translation by John Bostock. 408. Ball Platner. 14-15. Milano 1977 p. Translation by James G.53 (alternative numbering 52 or 138): “The Tuscan books inform us.188 L 2nd. Venus. 33. 320 [4] Pliny Nat.243. 221.557 L [7] John Scheid. T. 107. La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1974. [5] S. “Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule”. SUMMANUS [17] Os Lusíadas. Fasti Esquil. Iovem enim trina iaculari. arte e tradizioni Schio. Vol. Raffaele Pettazzoni.. 47 (2002). p.2 Notes and references [1] Paulus Festi epitome p. [13] Entry on Dium above. Iul. “Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors”. and that three of them are darted out by Jupiter. 1977. [19] Lucio Puttin Monte Summano: storia. p. whoever he may be” (quisquis is est. Hist. [18] In the Latin poem “In Quintum Novembris” (lines 23– 24): Talibus infestat populos Summanus et urbes / cinctus caeruleae fumanti turbine flammae. XXIX 14. 264. Livy Periochae XIV. De nuptiis 2. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome Baltimore 1928 p. Iordanes I 2. 2007). eaque esse undecim generum. For dedication year.. p. this latter kind being more rare. 731. Eric M. translated as The Lusiad by Thomas Moore Musgrave (1826).” in Essays on the History of Religions (Brill. 3.

graveyards. J E. (1964). 84. Potter. she was known as the Queen of Ghosts. and was the goddess of sorcery and witchcraft. Although she helped Ceres to find her daughter. These women later became nymphs. 278. 67 . she wandered about at night and was seen only by the barking of dogs who told of her approach. New York: Harper & Row.Chapter 16 Trivia (mythology) Trivia in Roman mythology was the goddess who “haunted crossroads.”[1] She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Hecate. p. As a part of her role as an underworld goddess. Who’s Who in Greek and Roman Mythology. [2] Kravitz. “TRIVIA”. De rerum natura.1 References [1] Zimmerman. the three-way crossroads and the harvest moon. David (1975). she was also known to steal young maidens to assist her in her powers. the goddess of witchcraft.[2] She was an underworld Titan-goddess who assisted Jove in the Titanomachy and was therefore able to keep her powers. i. “Trivia”. 16. 231. She was a friend of Ceres and helped her to find her daughter Proserpina. ISBN 0-517-52746-4. Dictionary of Classical Mythology. [3] Lucretius. p. Her association for Romans of the first century BCE with Artemis was so thorough that Lucretius[3] identifies the altar of the goddess at the sacrifice of Iphianassa (Iphigeneia) in Aulis as Triviai virginis aram. Inc. New York: Clarkson N.

[7] as does Vergil in a different list of twelve.[14] The Aventine temple may have been destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome during the reign of Nero. Titus Tatius was supposed to have imported the cult of Luna to Rome from the Sabines.[10] but Servius Tullius was credited with the creation of her temple on the Aventine Hill. Luna is the divine embodiment of the Moon (Latin luna. In the Carmen Saecit is unclear what Varro meant.[16] ulare. Luna is distinguished from both Diana and Juno. along with Proserpina and Hecate. the same day the popularist leader Cinna was murdered by his troops. but sometimes rather an epithet that specializes a goddess.[19] 68 . 2nd–5th centuries AD) The Romans dated the cultivation of Luna as a goddess at Rome to the semi-legendary days of the kings. and and the two-yoke chariot (biga). as Luna’s Greek counterpart was Selene. just below a temple of Diana.Chapter 17 Luna (goddess) 17. performed in 17 BC.2 Juno as moon goddess the deities Macrobius proposed as the secret tutelary of Rome. in which he refers to Luna and Sol as clarissima mundi lumina. Luna is not always a distinct goddess.[3] She was one of 17. Luna is also sometimes represented as an aspect of the Roman triple goddess (diva triformis).[13] In 84 BC. was sacred to Juno. since both Diana and Juno are identified as moon goddesses. cf. English “lunar”).[18] Both Luna.[6] with the epithet Lucina.[9] In this list. The myth of Endymion. as distinguished from invisible gods such as Neptune. was a popular Juno and Diana were invoked as childbirth goddesses subject for Roman wall painting.[15] In ancient Roman religion and myth. she was honliterature. Nothing else is known about the temple.[4] In Imperial cult. when according to the lunar guaranteeing peace. who also appear on it.1 Cult and temples Varro lists Luna among twelve deities who are vital to agriculture.[12] It first appears in Roman literature in the story of how in 182 BC a windstorm of exceptional power blew off its doors. Luna’s attributes are the crescent moon ing by night. which crashed into the Temple of Ceres below it on the slope. with the aim of The Kalends of every month. it was struck by lightning. for instance.[8] Varro also lists Luna among twenty principal gods of Rome (di selecti). She is often presented as the female complement of the Sun (Sol) conceived of as a god. Horace invokes her as the “two-horned queen of the stars” (siderum regina bicornis). which Varro described as shining or glowIn Roman art. myths of Selene are adapted under the name of ored as Juno Covella.[1] As Noctiluna (“Night-Shiner”) Luna had a temple on the Palatine Hill. Sol and Luna can represent the extent of Roman rule over the world. and deified mortals such as Hercules. Juno of the crescent moon.[11] The anniversary of the temple founding (dies natalis) was celebrated annually on March 31.[2] Varro categorized Luna and Sol among the visible gods. In Roman art and all Ides were to Jupiter. the world’s clearest sources of light.[17] On the Nones. Ox-drawn biga of Luna on the Parabiago plate (ca. bidding her to listen to the girls singing as Apollo listens to the boys.[5] calendar the new moon occurred.

Richardson. frg. usually in the context of the tauroctony. Luna drives a biga drawn by oxen (right). p. In the mithraeum of S. p.” in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell.M. drawn by horses or oxen. Richardson. Maria Capua Vetere. 1992). “because it travels on a twin course [13] Livy 40. p.17. 73. and Proserpina. 2007). 23 (Cardauns) = Tertullian. Lawrence Richardson. [10] Varro. p. Etymologies 18. 188. 238. as light in color.”[20] Luna in her biga was an element of Mithraic iconography. Georgics 1.3 Chariot of the moon 69 heaven.C. 383. De re rustica 1. According to the [20] Isidore.12. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 2. p. Luna (top right corner) paired with the Sun (top left) in another depiction of the tauroctony [9] Varro. p.. 65. 238.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. “horned” or crescent-crowned Diana and Luna. Richardson.3–10. while the Sun drives a horse-drawn quadriga (left) [3] Varro. 73. the chthonic aspect of the triple goddess in complement with the [18] Varro. [7] Varro. the sun’s course through the four seasons. land. 2007).5–25.2. p. “Creating One’s Own Religion: Intellectual Choices.2. p. not as in the later tradition bridge University Press. chariot (quadriga). 2006). A biga of oxen was also driven by Hecate. A New Topographical Dictiowith the sun. as preserved by Augustine of Hippo. three-form Hecate (trimorphos) was identified by Servius [23] with Luna. SEE ALSO 17. [4] Jörg Rüpke. A New Topographical Dictionary. De Vir. Carmen Saeculare.14–2-. In Roman art. A New Topographical Dictionary. 368 online. earth. A New Topofocuses on Luna alone shows one of the horses of the team graphical Dictionary. [2] Horace. De lingua latina 6.” in A Companion to Roman Religion.[22] The [19] Green. the charioteer [11] Orosius 5. Fasti 3. as translated by Stephen A. . Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. a wall painting that uniquely [16] Varro. Archaic Greek poet Hesiod. [6] Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann. [5] William Van Andringa.27.78. Hecate originally had power Barney et al. 73.883–84. “Religion in the House.4–6.4 See also • List of Roman deities 17. Isidore of Seville explains that the quadriga represents [12] Ovid.5 References [1] C.41. Green. 94.3.[21] [17] Green. white. night—for they yoke together one black horse and one [14] Appian. with the other a dark brown. [15] Tacitus. Attilio Mastrocinque. “Religion and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the Second Century AD: The Creation of a Common Religious Language. 133.2.68. p. and sea. De lingua latina 5. Ill. p. Bellum Civile 1.[24] 17. Diana. or because it is visible both by day and by nary. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at Aricia (Cambridge University Press. De lingua latina 5. p. De Civitate Dei 7.1. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Camover the heavens. lines 33–36. p. Ad nationes 2. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. while the biga represents the moon. p. and underworld. 238.2.50. 238. [8] Vergil. Religion of the Romans.74. Luna is often depicted driving a two-yoke chariot (biga). 238.4. Annales 15. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Johns Luna is regularly paired with the Sun driving a four-horse Hopkins University Press. In this relief depicting a Mithraic tauroctony. Richardson.26.

Plato. 17. pp–15.” Vigiliae Christianae 19. [23] Servius. note to Aeneid 6. Friedrich Solmsen. Maria Capua Vetere (Brill. Contra Symmachum 733 (Migne).6 External links Media related to Luna (mythology) at Wikimedia Commons CHAPTER 17. 248.70 [21] M.4 (1965). Vermaseren. [24] Hesiod. [22] Prudentius. Phaedrus 246. “The Powers of Darkness in Prudentius’ Contra Symmachum: A Study of His Poetic Imagination. p. LUNA (GODDESS) . 14. 1971).118. Theogony 413f. Mithraica I: The Mithraeum at S.J.

or any place under the sun. which she renamed to honthe sun and moon.[2] In the Olympian scheme.[1] The island of Kos is claimed throughout Homer. Leto withdraws. by the help of whose united the Lycian confederacy of city-states. cement the new order.1 Etymology Several explanations have been put forward to explain the origin of the goddess and the meaning of her name.suggested a Pre-Greek origin.” and our wolves that had befriended her[20] for her denning.[16] ered an eighth-century post-Minoan hearth house temple in which there were found three unique figures of Apollo. also links Leto with wolves 71 . the Letoon near Xanthos pre. heaven from pole to pole. Erich Bethe. see Leto (disambiguation) and Latona though Herbert Jennings Rose considers his name and na(disambiguation). at the city of Dreros. of course. In Roman mythology. her part already played. Another late source. the mainsanctuary. and the sister of Asteria. as her birthplace. Leto’s equivalent is Latona. Lycian lada may also be the origin of the Greek name Λήδα Leda. was at Oenoanda in land. as her earliest cult was centered in Lycia. since Hera in her jealousy had caused all lands to shun her.[3] Apollo and Artemis. the most conservative of goddesses — for cult. she finds an island that isn't attached to the ocean floor so it isn't considered land and she can give birth. Aelian.[4] This is her one active mythic role: once Apollo and Artemis are grown. as Zeus was the father. a Latinization of her name. a further Antoninus Liberalis is not alone in hinting that Leto came Letoon at Delos. influenced by Etruscan Letun. Artemis and Leto made of brass sheeting hammered over 18. Other scholars (Paul Kretschmer. Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων. or that she sought out the “wolf-country” of Lyof her father and mother. “Latona for her intrigue with Zeus was country. Her Titan father is called “Coeus. however. Finally. Older sources speculated that the name is related to the Greek λήθη lḗthē (oblivion) and λωτός lotus (the fruit that brings oblivion to those who eat it). Another banned Leto from giving birth on “terra firma”.[15] In 20th-century sources Leto is traditionally derived from Lycian lada.[9] In Greek inscriptions.[7] Walter Burkert notes[8] that in Phaistos she appears in connection with an initiation When Hera. down from the land of the Hyperboreans in the guise of a Leto’s primal nature may be deduced from the natures she-wolf. Greek: Λητώ Lētṓ.[14] which may relate him to the sphere of In Greek mythology. ture uncertain. She was powerless to stop the the Letoides are referred to as the “national gods” of the flow of events. who may have been Titans of cia.Chapter 18 Leto For other uses.2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo a shaped core (sphyrelata). Lātṓ in Dorian Greek.[13] he is in one Roman source given the name Polus.[11] and los and brought forth first Artemis. Leto (/ˈliːtoʊ/. etymology and meaning “Phoebe” (Φοίβη — literally “pure. Zeus is the father of her twins.[19] the north of Lycia. any island at sea. Classical Greek myths record little about Leto other than her pregnancy and her search for a place where she could give birth to Apollo and Artemis.midwifery she afterwards gave birth to Apollo.[10] Her sanctuary. she realized that the offspring would the region became Hellenized. Λατώ. Spyridon Marinatos uncov. to remain a dim[5] and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus. is identidisputed) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe cal to the epithet of her son Apollo. bright”). P.[12] There was. S.”[18] Hera lenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own.hunted by Hera over the whole earth. It would thus mean “the hidden one”. formerly called Tremilis. “wife”.[6] 18. The name of Leto’s mother. more recently identified. Beekes) have In Crete. she had the most to lose in changes to the order of naLeto was identified from the fourth century onwards with ture —[17] discovered that Leto was pregnant and that the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia. till she came to Dedated Hellenic influence in the region. the Letoides. which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus. The Hel. Pierre Chantraine and R.

5 The Lycian Letoon Leto was intensely worshipped in Lycia. for the people of Delos maintain that this was the length of time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyperboreoi to Delos.[24] In Delos and Athens she was worshipped primarily as an adjunct to her children. or Python. whether one of “certain Cretan goddesses.del notes. He attempted to rape Leto near Delphi under the orders of Hera. on the island of Ortygia. in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo and in an Orphic hymn. Ichnaea.[29] As Leto Phytia she was a mother-deity. records her cult image as sitting on 18. states that Artemis was born before Apollo.[31] “The conception of a goddess enthroned like her mother Rhea attends. the goddesses who as. and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth there to Apollo. still bearing its archaic name of Asterios. only after twelve days and twelve nights. since though Python was a child of was secured with four pillars and later became sacred to Gaia. Leto labored for nine nights and nine days for Apollo.”[21] It is remarkable that Leto brought forth Artemis. Herodotus reported[25] a temple to her in Egypt supposedly attached to a floating island[26] called "Khemmis" in Buto.[22] as if she were merely revealing another manifestation of herself. As a gesture of gratitude. name. O. in the presence of all the first among the deathless goddesses as witnesses: Dione. Wolves are not easily delivered of their young. The island was Spring. or Greek goddesses in their Cretan form. perhaps to kidnap Eileithyia. Apollo slew it but had to do penance and be surrounded by swans. island of Delos. promising the island wealth from the was the dragon Pytho. having been born first. Apollo. and these became the enemies of Apollo and Artemis. the cobra-headed goddess of Lower Egypt.72 CHAPTER 18.[30] an epithet los who bear witness to the rightness of the birth are the that was attached to her daughter Artemis as early as great goddesses of the old order. a phallic being who grew so vast that he split his mother’s womb and had to be carried to term by Gaia herself.at the islands known today as the Paximadia (also known sembled to be witnesses at the birth of Apollo were re. it was necessary that the ancient Delphic Oracle passed to the protection of the new god. the goddess whom Greeks recognised as Leto was worshipped in the form of Wadjet. Delos cleansed afterwards. The dynastic rite of the witnessed birth must have been familiar to the hymn’s hearers. 18. where she was the central figures she would not have assembled here. but was laid low by the arrows of Apollo and/or Artemis. Demeter is not present. and the goddesses at De. influenced by the Minoan goddess”. as Callimachus wrote. Instead Artemis. There. a queen and equipped with a spindle seems to have origiThe goddess Dione (in her name simply the “Goddess”) is nated in Asiatic worship of the Great Mother".18. which also included a temple to an Egyptian god Greeks identified by interpretatio graeca as Apollo. and Another ancient earth creature that had to be overcome gave birth there. but a lucky survival of an inscribed inventory inine form of Zeus (see entry Dodona): if this were so.as Letoai in ancient Crete) and at Lato. where the authenticity of the child must be established beyond doubt from the first moment.4 Chthonic assailants Leto was threatened and assailed in her wanderings by chthonic monsters of the ancient earth and old ways. 18. assisted with the birth of Apollo. Another version. according to the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo. which bore her sponding to a public occasion in the rites of a dynasty. as Pindar recalled in a Pythian Most accounts agree that she found the barren floating ode.[27] Veneration of a local Leto is attested at Phaistos[28] (where it is purported that she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis According to the Homeric hymn. Only Hera kept apart.6 Leto in Crete Leto was also worshipped in Crete. By contrast. the goddess of childbirth.[23] The dynasty that is so concerned about be. of her temple on Delos. which lived in a cleft of worshippers who would flock to the obscure birthplace the mother-rock beneath Delphi and beside the Castalian of the splendid god who was to come. to prevent Leto from going into labor. Herodotus was given to understand. which was neither mainland nor a real island. Brensometimes taken by later mythographers as a mere fem. One was the giant Tityos. Themis and the “loud-moaning” sea-goddess Amphitrite.Pindar calls the goddess Leto Chryselakatos. without travail. LETO and Hyperboreans: 18. Homer. Rhea. the elder twin. Aphrodite is not present either.7 Leto of the golden spindle ing authenticated in this myth is the new dynasty of Zeus and the Olympian Pantheon. Asia Minor. of the Delian trinity.3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo .

5a-b.2. Her tears formed the river Achelous. Annual of the British School at Athens 62 (1967) p. she attempted to drink water from a pond in Lycia. Leto’s introduction into Lycia was met with resistance. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them.98. R. at the sight of his dead sons. Etruscan Myths (series: The Legendary Past) (British Museum/University of Texas Press) 2006. John Boardman. I.18. 48–69). Niobe.10. 18.” [5] Hesiod. queen of Thebes. usually). leaving her childless. “dark-veiled Leto” (Orphic Hymn 35.8 The Lycian peasants better parentage and more children than Latona. though according to some versions a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris. Leto turned them into frogs for their inhospitality. though she continues to weep. she is more fit to be worshipped than the goddess. Greek Religion 1985. [4] Karl Kerenyi notes. [13] Herbert Jennings Rose. claiming that having beauty. [7] Marinatos’ publications on Dreros are listed by Burkert 1985. when the gods themselves entombed them.10 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Latona and the Lycian Peasants.[32] (Book VI). enters in the midst of the worship and insults the goddess. while Leto had only two. 321 (1983:1–13). 18. [3] Pindar consistently refers to Apollo and Artemis as twins. Latona begs Apollo and Artemis to avenge her against Niobe and to uphold her honor. Niobe is unable to move from grief and seemingly turns to marble. . “A Sanctuary of Leto at Oenoanda” Anatolian Studies 27 (1977) pp 193–197. Historia: Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte. Theogony 403. p. either killed himself or was killed by Zeus after swearing revenge. Theodora Hadzisteliou Price. ca. the twins slay Niobe’s seven sons and seven daughters. [8] Burkert. GENEALOGY OF THE OLYMPIANS IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY 73 a wooden throne.[35] allowing a combination of mythology with landscape painting and peasant scenes.47. Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics. 61. Amphion. Obedient to their mother.4 note 16 (p. boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids). summarizing the archaeology of the Letoon. “His twin sister is usually already on the scene.[34] The peasants there refused to allow her to do so by stirring the mud at the bottom of the pond. and her husband Amphion kills himself.[33] when Leto was wandering the earth after giving birth to Apollo and Artemis. The Gods of the Greeks 1951:130. To punish this insolence. by Jan Brueghel the Elder. clothed in a linen chiton and a linen The Niobe narrative appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses himation.365).9 Niobe Niobe. according to Ovid's Metamorphoses. To Leto [6] Letun noted is passing in Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling. [11] Bryce 1983. It is represented in the central fountain. “Double and Multiple Representations in Greek Art and Religious Thought” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 91 (1971:pp. Theogony 406. 18. in the garden terrace of Versailles. the Bassin de Latone. [12] Alan Hall. 18. where Latona (Leto) has demanded the women of Thebes to go to her temple and burn incense. there. usually called Latona and the Lycian Peasants or Latona and the Frogs. 1605. This scene. thus combining history painting and genre painting. Bryce. was popular in Northern Mannerist art. plate III. a queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion. and her body is transported to a high mountain peak in her native land. A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1991:21).11 Notes [1] Hesiod. For her hubris. “The Arrival of the Goddess Leto in Lycia”. A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylus in Asia Minor and either turned to stone as she wept or killed herself. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death. Diodorus Siculus 2. [2] Herodotus 2. and Artemis her daughters. seven sons and seven daughters. [9] The process is discussed by T. 72. [10] Bryce 1983:1 and note 2. forever doomed to swim in the murky waters of ponds and rivers. other sources instead give separate birthplaces for the siblings. sect.

F.com. pp. noting Pierre Roussel. Brendel. [16] R. [22] Artemis speaks: “my mother suffered no pain either when she gave me birth or when she carried me in her womb. [28] “the citizens of Phaistos on Crete performed sacrifices to Leto the Grafter because she had grafted male organs onto a maiden (Antoninus Liberalis 17)" notes William F. [20] Antoninus Liberalis’ etiological myth reflects Greek misunderstanding of a Greek origin for the place-name Lycia.317-81. [29] Noted by R. modern scholars now suggest a source in the "Lukka lands" of Hittite inscriptions (Bryce 1983:5). Handbook of Classical Mythology. according to Kerenyi 1951:131. The Classical Quarterly. How Renaissance Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods. as Polus: “From Polus and Phoebe: Latone.. Malcolm. tr. The Mirror of the Gods.com [32] O. P. Brendel. 4 (A. giving as his sources Menecrates of Xanthos (4th century BCE) and Nicander of Colophon.F. at Theoi. Brill. 2004: “Sexchangers”. pp. [25] Herodotus. pp.74 [14] In the surviving summary of the preface to Gaius Julius Hyginus. S. 1958.317-81 provides another late literary source. 1963:87–91. at least among Athenians. [27] D. 36 [31] O. Fabulae 140). in Anton Powell. Ovid.” (Callimachus. Gray. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1873. ISBN 100195219236 [19] Hyginus. Koios is translated literally. (Appian. Beekes. 100– 127) p 113ff. Palmer. gave birth in the midst of a crowd of the women of the household. Sixth Nemean Ode.155-56 [26] “The claim that it floated is rightly dismissed by Herodotus — it probably reflects nothing more than contamination by Greek traditions on the floating island of Ortygia/Delos associated with Leto. to Artemis). [23] Greek women. 2005. Délos. Antoninus Liberalis also relates a version of this myth.F.H. in “The Corbridge Lanx” The Journal of Roman Studies 31 (1941). p 221.1.4.). 285. ed. 13. Römische Mitt. 2009.R. Metamorphoses. Lloyd. Smith. 27). Hansen. Antoninus Liberalis. p 60ff. “Cretan Eileithyia'. Mithridates. the article is a discussion of the seated female figure he identifies as Leto on the Roman silver tray (lanx) at Alnwick Castle. [35] Bull. Willetts. “The temple of Leto (Wadjet) at Buto”. The Greek World (Routledge) 1995:190. Metamorphoses. [21] Aelian. Mycenaeans and Minoans: Aegean Prehistory in the Light of the Linear B Tablets in The Classical Review. ed. 35. vi. colonie athénienne (Paris: Boccard) 1916. On the Nature of Animals 4. Metamorphoses vi. 2. [33] Ovid. a nightmare warned him to desist. Scholfield. 51 (1936). LETO [15] W. Leto • Pictures of the sanctuary for Leto at Letoum . [34] The spring Melite. [30] Pindar. [18] Pseudo-Apollodorus.” remarks Alan B. [17] See Hera. Etymological Dictionary of Greek.” CHAPTER 18. 18. Asterie. but without travail put me from her body. reviewing L. 855 and 858–9. Histories.12 External links • Theoi. 266-268. Hymn 3. Oxford UP. [24] Appian tells of Mithridates’ intention to cut down the sacred grove at the Letoon to serve in his siege of Patara on the Lycian coast. Bibliotheke 1.

google. Israel.] The names [of Sahar and Salim] are rendered in modern scholarly texts as Shakhar and Shalim [. Eisenbrauns. Bob.4 Other uses Shalem is also the name of the 4-D cinematic presentation at the Jerusalem Time Elevator in Jerusalem.[3] In the Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible. Shalim is also identified as the deity representing Venus or the “Evening Star. and also romanized as Shalem. 75 . were conceived of as its beginning and end..p. 1999.. Ugarit-Forschungen Vol.2 References [1] van der Toorn et al. the two are associated with the sun goddess.[8] • Golan. p. Pieter Willem (1999). p.[1][2] William F. Becking..[1] Many scholars believe that the name of Shalim is preserved in the name of the city Jerusalem.E. “Let me invoke the gracious gods. Na'aman. mentioned in inscriptions found in Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria. symbolism. Salem.). [6] L. ISBN 978-965-90555-0-0. twin deities of the dusk and dawn. the Akkadian word for sunset.1 Ugaritic inscriptions [7] John Day. Prehistoric religion: mythology.C. Ethnic groups in Jerusalem.” and Shalim and Shahar.). pp.” Ym in most Semitic languages means “day. 187. 24 (1992). William Foxwell (1968 / 1990). Eerdmans Publishing. Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd. 1990. 2003. perhaps as a divine name or epithet.com/books?id=63BP9RPm26sC& pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=god+of+peace+ugaritic+ shalim&source=bl&ots=kFmXA0htEw&sig= ovNpxhbuiBv1k4jiuSR34176GZI&hl=en&sa= X&ei=GM08UZ-hM42Q7Aa0rIC4Aw&ved= 0CE0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=god%20of% 20peace%20ugaritic%20shalim&f=false 19. the “Morning Star”. describes Shalim and his brother Shahar as offspring of El through two women he meets at the seashore..[4] [8] http://books. and Shahar as god of the dawn.]" 19. p180 A Ugaritic myth known as The Gracious and Most Beautiful Gods. cf. 19. “The name of the Canaanite deity of the setting sun Salim. 755-6 [2] Golan. 82. Check date values in: |date= (help) Shalim is also mentioned separately in the Ugaritic god lists and forms of his name also appear in personal names. Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan..Chapter 19 Shalim Shalim (derived from the triconsonantal Semitic root SL-M.. 1999. 19. B. Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths (Reprint ed. Canaanite Jerusalem and its central hill country neighbours in the second millennium B. They are both nursed by “The Lady”. Ariel Golan (Original from the University of Virginia. in Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (Clark International. ISBN 9780802824912.. ISBN 978-0-931464-01-0. and Salim) was the name of a god in the Canaanite religion pantheon. the voracious gods of ym.[1] Another inscription is a sentence repeated three times in a para-mythological text. • van der Toorn. šalām šamši. K. or Salem. pp275-291.[1][5][6][7] The god Shalim may have been associated with dusk and the evening star in the etymological senses of a 'completion' of the day. Wm. 222.[1] [3] Albright. van der Horst. likely Anat (Athirat or Asherah).” In other Ugaritic texts. Sheffield Academic Press 2002. and have appetites as large as "(one) lip to the earth and (one) lip to the heaven. Grabbe. Ariel (2003). Albright identified Shalim as the god of dusk. [4] van der Toorn et al. 2003) pp145-163..” and Shahar. 'sunset' and 'peace'. [. revised ed.3 Bibliography • Albright. [5] N.

SHALIM .5 See also • Almaqah • Wadd • Shahar CHAPTER 19.76 19.

[2] Phillips. uses this pantheon as inspiration for its music.[1] Large numbers of inscriptions bearing his name have been found. it might just be referring to a group of people at the time as an entity.1 In Popular Culture A black metal band in Saudi Arabia.[2] 20.2 References [1] “NABATAEAN PANTHEON”. 2012). and archaeologists believe that he was a major god of the Nabataean pantheon. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 20. “AL-NAMROOD Heavy Metal Underground”. and guardian of caravans. 77 . Al-Namrood. Alex (October 11. Retrieved 31 January 2013..[1] Al-Qaum however also literally translates to 'the people' in formal Arabic.Chapter 20 Al-Qaum Al-Qaum (Arabic: ‫ )القوم‬was the Nabataean god of war and the night.

approximately. 259 [4] http://www. bad or good. Oxford University Press. since the evidence suggests that the lord of a given night ruled over that entire night. Chalchiuhtlicue (“Jade Is Her Skirt”) Tlazolteotl (“Filth God[dess]") Tepeyollotl (“Mountain Heart”) Tlaloc (Rain God) are a set of nine gods who each ruled over every ninth night forming a calendrical cycle. 2b. (2c) Chalchiuhtlicue.pauahtun. 1b. although the specific names of the Maya Night Lords are unknown. 9 vague lunations of 29 days each. The actual reading order of the panels is boustrophedon and begins in the bottom right: 3c. 3a. these glyphs are frequently used with a fixed glyph coined F. this argument has not generally been accepted. Foster.[6] The cycle of the Nine Lords of the Night held special relation to the Mesoamerican ritual calendar of 260-days and nights or -night which includes exactly 29 groups of 9 nights each. Astronomers. The only Mayan light lord that has been identified is the God G9.[3][4] [2] Gabrielle Vail. Skywatchers: A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. Seler argued that the 9 lords each correIn Mesoamerican mythology the Lords of the Night sponded to one of the nine levels of the under world and ruled the corresponding hour of the night time. 156-57 The glyphs corresponding to the night gods are known and mayanists identify them with labels G1 to G9. the G series. 291 The existence of a 9 nights cycle in Mesoamerican calendrics was first discovered in 1904 by Eduard Seler.[2] [1] Anthony F.[1] 21. (1b) Tepeyollotl. (3b) Itztli. The Nine Lords of the Night in Aztec mythology are:[5] Xiuhtecuhtli (“Turqoise/Year/Fire Lord”) Itztli/Tecpatl (“Obsidian"/"Flint”) Piltzintecuhtli (“Prince Lord”) Centeotl (“Maize God”) Mictlantecuhtli (“Underworld Lord”) Lords of the Night in Codex Borgia (1a) Tlaloc. pp.Chapter 21 Lords of the Night Further information: List of Aztec deities names are glossed in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis and See also: Lords of the Day Codex Tudela. Aveni. Scribes. Christine L.Pauahtun the Aged Quadripartite God. 2c. University of Texas Press. Harvard University Press p. 2a.[5] Zelia Nuttall argued that the Nine Lords of the Night represented the nine moons of the Lunar year. 1c. The Aztec names of the Deities are known because their 78 [3] Lynn V. that was an omen for the night that they ruled over. 2010.1 Sources The lords of the night are known in both the Aztec and Maya calendar. Each lord was associated with a particular fortune. and also. 1a. (3c) Xiuhtecuhtli. 3b. 2001. (2a) Centeotl. and Priests: Intellectual Interchange Between the Northern Maya Lowlands and Highland Mexico in the Late Postclassic Period. (2b) Mictlantecuhtli.org/Calendar/gglyph. (1c) Tlazolteotl. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World. p.html Gods discussion in Pauahtun Night . Hernández. 2005. Generally. (3a) Piltzintecuhtli.

The Periodical Adjustments of the Ancient Mexican Calendar. 4 pp. Vol. 1904. University of Texas Press pp. New Series. 6. 486-500 79 . Cycles of Time and Meaning in the Mexican Books of Fate. 2007. American Anthropologist .21. SOURCES [5] Elizabeth Hill Boone. No.1. 44-45 [6] Zelia Nuttall.

3 Mythology 22. It’s quite possible that clawed butterfly refers to the bat and in some instances Itzpapalotl is depicted with bat wings.1 Iconography Itzpapalotl’s name can either mean “obsidian butterfly” or “clawed butterfly”. but she was also one of the tzitzimime. 22. see Acamapichtli. ͡ ͡ (“ObIn Aztec mythology. Not only was Itzpapalotl considered one of the cihuateteo herself. and her toes into eagle’s claws. she can also appear with clear butterfly or eagle attributes. the paradise of victims of infant mortality and the place identified as where humans were created. Although the identity remains inconclusive. As the legend goes.[3] Depiction of Itzpapalotl from the Codex Borgia. Some of her associations include birds and fire. is identified with bats.[4] 22.[2] Her nagual was a deer. section VII.Chapter 22 Itzpapalotl For the Aztec ruler. Itzpapalotl is described as having “blossomed into the white flint. caking her face with white powder and lining her cheeks with strips of rubber. and they took the white and wrapped it in a bun- According to the Manuscript of 1558. Her fingers tapered into the claws of a jaguar. bats are sometimes called “black butterflies"". Ītzpāpālōtl /iːtspaːˈpaːlot ɬ/ dle. whose image is found on ceramic urns. star demons that threatened to devour people during solar eclipses.”) She could appear in the form of a beautiful. To Xiuhnel. Itzpapalotl approached the two “cloud serpents named ͡ who transXiuhnel /ˈʃiwnel/ and Mimich /ˈmimitʃ/". formed themselves into men (so as to disguise themselves when all the others of the Centzonmimixcoa had been slain in the ambush?). At some times. Itzpapalotl fell from heaven along with Tzitzimime and several other shapes such as scorpions and toads. Xiuhnel. the latter meaning seems most likely. However. seductive woman or terrible goddess with a skeletal head and butterfly wings supplied with stone blades. The Trecena 1 House is one of the five western trecena dates dedicated to the cihuateteo. “In folklore.2 Ritual Itzpapalotl is the patron of the day and associated with the stars Cozcuauhtli and Trecena 1 House in the Aztec calendar. Itzpapalotl said ""Drink.” Xiuhnel drank the blood and then im- 80 . she was said to have dressed up like a lady of the Mexican Court. Itzpapalotl was one of two divine 2-headed doe-deers (the other one being Chimalman) who temporarily transformed themselves into women in order to seduce men.[3] (In the Manuscript of 1558.[1] She is the mother of Mixcoatl and is particularly associated with the moth Rothschildia orizaba from the family Saturniidae. or women who had died in childbirth. Her wings are obsidian or tecpatl (flint) knife tipped. In many instances Goddess 2J. Itzpapalotl wore an invisible cloak so that no one could see her. sidian Butterfly”) was a fearsome skeletal warrior goddess who ruled over the paradise world of Tamoanchan. the Zapotec deity named Goddess 2J by Alfonso Caso and Ignacio Bernal may be a Classic Zapotec form of Itzpapalotl.

and Wayne Ruwet (completion. p. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) 22. Anderson. the Obsidian or Clawed Butterfly [2] Itzpapalotl: Itzpapalotl. 200. tore open his breast.6 Notes [1] Itzpapalotl. ran and . Civilization of the American Indians series vol. OCLC 27667317. Citing :. . Rituals..5 See also • Aztec mythology in popular culture • Black Sun (mythology) • Cihuateteo • Cihuacoatl • Tzitzimime • Mixcoatl • Tamoanchan • Woman warrior • List of women warriors in folklore 22. Nicholson. 318 [5] Miguel León-Portilla & Earl Shorris : In the Language of Kings. She also runs a nightclub named Obsidian Butterfly. revisions. with H.”[5] 22. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 22.8 External links • An image of Rothschildia orizaba . and paleography of Nahuatl text).. the ninth book is named Obsidian Butterfly and involves a vampire named Itzpapalotl.8. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.1558–61].7 References Miller.Elsie Clews Parsons : Mitla. 113. Jason J González (2002). and Beliefs of Mexico and Central America. who was once an Aztec priestess and believes herself actually to be the goddess of that name. In :LATIN AMERICAN INDIAN LITERATURES JOURNAL.O. Kay Almere. p. Dibble.B... p.. Bernardino de (1997) [ca. Primeros Memoriales. p.. part 2. Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology: A Guide to the Gods. Sullivan (English trans. Arthur J. Hamilton’s Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series. descended into a thorny barrel cactus. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-80612909-9.4 Popular culture In Laurel K. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. fell into it. Eloise Quiñones Keber.22. Thelma D.. ISBN 0-19-514909-2.. U of Chicago Pr. 2001. vol 4 (1988). 61 22. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) Sahagún. devoured him. Karl Taube (1993). Suddenly she . London: Thames 81 & Hudson. Charles E. Mary. OCLC 77857686.. and ed. Invalid |namelist-format=scap (help) Read. ISBN 0-500-05068-6.). EXTERNAL LINKS mediately lay down with her. 1936. Mythology [3] Miller & Taube. OCLC 35848992. 100 [4] Elizabeth Benson : “The Maya and the Bat”. Goddess of Fire and Birds in Aztec Religion. Then Mimich . Heroes. NY. and the woman fell down after him.

2 Mexican traces The origin of the name of the Mexica probably derived from Metztli. the Old Father. 23.1 Otomi mythology For the Otomi people. Jesús (1994). and farmers. like the latter. Metzi) was a god or goddess of the moon.4 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Mextli 82 • Galindo Trejo. he/she feared the sun because he/she feared its fire. was the god of fire. “Metztli. They called her the Old Mother. During a full moon. probably the main deity. the “Rabbit in the Moon” becomes readily visible. 23. who represented both Moon and Earth simultaneously. 28 de Mayo de 1996 .Chapter 23 Metztli In Aztec mythology. the Queen of the Night. ISBN 84-86639-66-2. Zäna was the Moon. the night. 23. La Luna”. Henceforth it’s possible to distinguish a figure of a rabbit on the moon’s surface.5 References 23. Her spouse. one of them threw a rabbit in the face of the other. The Otomi counted lunar months as a period from new moon to new moon. • Tecciztecatl 23. and the one struck darkened to become today’s moon. México: Equipo Sirius. Metztli (also Meztli. For more detailed explanation see Toponymy of Mexico.3 Legend The Moon and Sun were at one time equally bright. Diario Síntesis. and became the moon instead. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Esperanza Carrasco Licea & Alberto Carramiñana Alonso. He/she was probably the same deity as Yohaulticetl and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl.A. his face darkened by a rabbit. Arqueoastronomía en la américa antigua. Also referred to as the lowly god of worms who failed to sacrifice himself to become the sun. They were giving every month 30 days. S. It not being appropriate for gods to be equals.

Most Ome Acatl[6] (“Two Reed”). Classical Nahuatl: his foot battling with the Earth Monster.Chapter 24 Tezcatlipoca For other uses. war and strife. sorcery. the night 24. beauty. Necoc Yaotl (“Enemy being black in certain places. The color black is strongly associated with Tezcatlipoca and he is often portrayed as having horizontal catlipoca in codex illustrations. enmity.[3] Another talis. and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. However. jaguars. which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica which were some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisi[10] used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl (“Mountainheart”). His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as “Smoking Mirror”[2] and There are few surviving representations of Tezcatlipoca alludes to his connection to obsidian. bone—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses Tezcatlipoca (/ˌtɛzˌkætliˈpoʊkə/. rulership. the full length of his arms. temptation. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca’s apand depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tez. including the night sky. the earth.[12] Tezcatlipoca is often shown carwith his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror or a rying a shield with balls of either feathers or cotton and 83 . and tinker bells either around yellow stripe painted across his face. or any combination there of can be depicted.1 Representations winds.[4][5] bands across his face especially in black and yellow. Tloque Nahuaque (“Lord of the Near of his leg.[9] deity in Aztec religion. a loincloth. In the Aztec ritual calendar the Tonalpohualli Tezcatlipoca ruled the trecena 1 Ocelotl (“1 Jaguar”)—he was also patron of the days with the name Acatl (“reed”). Wind”). Ipal. or the “Manikin Scepter” and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian Tezcatlipōca pronounced /teskatɬiˈpoːka/[1] ) was a central knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake.ble god'. He is often shown his neck or ankles. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists Tezcatlipoca as depicted in the Codex Borgia. his animal counterpart. as "God K". the north. Tezcatlipoca’s nagual. Due to the lack of surviving images. catlipoca discord. the material from into the present day. legs. but He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects the many different codices vary on which two colors from of his deity: Titlacauan (“We are his Slaves”).[11] There are also portrayals of his body also nemoani (“He by whom we live”).site to site. Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque commonly he is shown with horizontal face bands.pearance. the majority of his and the Nigh”) and Yohualli Èhecatl (“Night. and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May.[7] ing a heron feather headdress. see Tezcatlipoca (disambiguation).[8] The Tezcatlipoca figure goes back to earlier Mesoamerican deities worshipped by the Olmec and Maya. divination. and knotted When depicted he was usually drawn with a black and a sandals with an armband. Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest. Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. wear(“Possessor of the Sky and Earth”). A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means “obsidian” and who was associated with sacrifice. Depending on the site half of Both Sides”). One of the four sons of Ometeotl. hurricanes. he is associated with a of Tezwide range of concepts. obsidian. the fact that many images are difman related to Tezcatlipoca was a disc worn as a chest ficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that pectoral.

the four gods who created the world. darkness. such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned calendar. write that.Diego Durán it was “lofty and magnificently built.[20] There were several smaller temples dedicated to Tezcatlipoca in the city. the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods. their façades being towards the West”. “stone seat” and “temple”. in the same manner of the Great Temple was.[16] More on the ex. a paper loincloth. His cult was associated with royalty. in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of later. Common ornaments were white turkey feather head.[18] When the ritual called for it. Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black.2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West. the culture hero. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs. among them the ones called “Tlacochcalco” and “Huitznahuatl”. Quetzalcoatl.The rivalry between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca is also als.5 Aztec religion was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was into a jaguar. Tezcatlipoca. the god and wore specific garments for different ritu. specifically mentioned as “his [Tezcatlipoca’s] viewing place”. TEZCATLIPOCA holding arrows or a spear in his right hand with a fan of feathers surrounding a mirror.[17] They would also cover the both of them were seen as instrumental in the creation sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with of life. Bedown Quetzalcoatl. the White. lady and hall. priests would also Tezcatlipoca appears to be the embodiment of change dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other through conflict.. specialists in a black ointment to encourage an association with the Mesoamerican Studies. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the sub. In one version of the Aztec creation account[19] the myth of the Five Suns.located south of the Great Temple. and Tezcatlipoca de.[15] Tezcatlipoca depicted in the codex Rios in the aspect of a Jaguar—in this form he was called Tepeyollotl.of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the act rituals. with definitions varying from “mound”. as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: “the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun.”[8] Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page similarly outfitted gods or goddesses. long chamber the size of a great In later myths.[14] There are also several reference to momoztli.[13] 24. as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. But it is interesting to practice was to cover themselves in black soot or ground note that Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collabocharcoal while they were involved in priestly activities at rated in the creation of the different creations and that the temple or during rituals.recounted in the legends of Tollan where Tezcatlipoca dedresses. Tlaxcala and Chalco.. Tezcatlipoca was also worshipped in many other Nahua cities such as Texcoco. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl.84 CHAPTER 24. and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the 24. 24. “The Sun of the Earth” 24. the first creation. “More than anything god. as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex.[16] Another common city and forces him into exile.ceives Quetzalcoatl who was the ruler of the legendary lar feathers and paper decorations.”. and were the creators of all the other The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of gods. as well as the world and all humanity. Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown. yond it stood a wide. and a tzanatl stick with simi. Quetzalcoatl. Eighty stroyed the third creation “The Sun of Wind” by striking steps led to a landing twelve or fourteen feet wide. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan. According to Fray sequent creation “Sun of Water”.4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl rites of kingship.3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca lord of the duality. Each temple had a statue . Karl Taube and Mary Miller.

“which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca. or where “citizens waited expectantly” for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of “shell trumpets.[25] To attract her. Quetzalcoatl replaced him and started the second age of the world and it became populated again.[25] The two gods 24.As discussed above. to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca. Turquoise mask representing the god Tezcatlipoca.” the hansome young man “worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity” [24] He would marry four young women.[25] Angered.allels.[23] The preparations began a year earlier. became the sun. wearing expensive jewellery and having eight attendants. he is a night god or of his missing foot. and peo. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility. much of the time depicted in deities such as ferings. Tlaloc. He did not make it rain for several years until.[25] For Aztec nobility. when a young man was chosen by the priests. a time in which he proceeded to symbolically crush “one by one the clay flutes on which he had played in his brief moment of glory. the fifth month of the Aztec calendar. others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. Tezcatlipoca used his foot as bait. and spent his last week singing. as well as during the Panquetzaliztli “Raising of Banners” ceremony in the 15th month. made it rain fire with what people survived turning into birds. These children would then have their skin painted black and be adorned with quail feathers in the image of the god. they created the people. a jaguar and destroyed the world. AZTEC REVERENCE 85 of the god for which copal incense was burned four times a day.[25] Chalchihuitlicue the Water Goddess became the sun. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca. During the feast where he was worshipped as the deity he personified he climbed the stairs to the top of the temple on his own where the priests seized him.” and then was sacrificed. “On his installation.7 Aztec Reverence then captured her. the patron deity of the royal house”. and Cipactli ate it.[24] Immediately after he died a new victim for the next year’s ceremony was chosen. often because they were sick. Quetzalcoatl and world was destroyed by[25] being turned into fish. from the British Museum. but Quetzalcoatl was furious possibly because they are enemies.[21] Extreme reverence and respect. the god of rain. with what people survived In one of the Aztec accounts of creation.[25] is fundamental in the social and natural phenomena jusAnother story of creation goes that Tezcatlipoca turned himself into the sun. She cried for many years and floods. Aztec folklore is rife with parple had to offer sacrifices to comfort Cipactli for her suf.24.” . his body being eaten later.[21] Tezcatlipocas priests were offered into his service by their parents as children. Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the world. in a fit of rage. when the Miccailhuitontli “Little Feast of the Dead” was celebrated to honour the dead. so he knocked Tezcatlipoca out of the sky with a stone club. Before their act there was only the sea and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli.” the new king fasted and meditated. But had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were “to pay homage” to Tezcatlipoca.7. and distorted her to make the land from her body. one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl". After that. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month. others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca. Because of this. But was crushed with Tezcatlipoca’s words saying that she is 24. this “patron deity” missing foot.[24] “For one year he lived a life of honor.6 Mythical stories just pretending to be kind. feasting and dancing.[25] Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl making him send a great wind that devastated the world. Tezcatlipoca turned into tified by religion during this time.[22] Tezcatlipoca’s main feast was during Toxcatl. Tezcatlipoca is depicted with a Tezcatlipoca. and the people who survived were turned into monkeys. For the next year he lived like a god.

. I am deaf. in filth hath my lifetime been. Guilhem (2003).” speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god’s will. 186 For kings. Thames & Hudson Ltd. Tezcatlipoca stories 24. emphasizing his utter unworthiness.trinity. of the nigh. London: Thames and Hudson.[21] The king would stand “naked.[25] [21] Coe and Koontz. Mary.edu/org/tricksters/trixway/current/ Vol%201/Vol%201_1/Tstocker. 164 24. perhaps thou seekest another in my stead”. and in excrement. Missing or empty |title= (help). 1415.mexicolore. Michael D.html • Quetzalcoatl [23] For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6.8 See also [22] http://www. ISBN 978-0-500-28755-2.. and citizens alike. priests. O night. shown through the figurative and literal nakedness of his presence in front of Texcatlipoca. Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another. It was gods like Tezcatlipoca that solidified this notion. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God: Tezcatlipoca.Poor am I. translated by Michel Besson. [4] http://www.86 were commonplace. p. Rex (2008). lords.10 References • Coe. O wind.Tezcatlipoca Symposium . ISBN 0-87081-745-0. p. 212 [25] Olivier 2003. In what manner shall I act for thy city? In what manner shall I act for the governed.[21] CHAPTER 24. Missing or empty |title= (help).). Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (Sixth ed.. 167 [15] Olivier 2003 p. and thunderous war. 183. [5] http://5oymexico.org/ arqueologos-del-inah-descubren-vasija-en-forma-de-tlaloc-y-cuchillos-en-ofrenda-del-templo-mayor/ ?lang=en''. University Press of Colorado. for the vassals (macehualtin)? For I am blind. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. 174 [16] Olivier 2003 p.9 Notes [1] The vowel transliterated here as [i] may in fact have been long or followed by a glottal stop which is sometimes written as an ⟨h⟩ [2] For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp. • Miller. O our lord. “Lord of the Smoking Mirror”.. 183 [17] Olivier 2003 p.[21] The new king would claim his spiritual nakedness symbolically through words and physical vulnerability. [3] http://www. I am an imbecile. 51 [14] Olivier 2003 p. 185 [18] Olivier 2003 p. especially for this deity. [8] Taube & Miller 1993 p. • List of night deities [24] Coe and Koontz.mexicolore. praising Tezcatlipoca with lines such as: “O master. the king. Missing or empty |title= (help). TEZCATLIPOCA [9] Jun Raqan “the one-legged” was an epithet of this Classic Maya Deity of rulership and thunder which eventually led to the English word “Hurricane”. Karl Taube (1993). representing both [20] Durán quoted from Olivier (2003) p.[19] The Version as it is recounted in the Codex Ramirez— also called “Historia de Los mexicanos por sus Pinturas”.co.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ personified-knives''. 166 the silent wind. 48 [11] Olivier 2003 p. 24.201 24. but Full text of this Codex in English translation can be found utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they at FAMSI believed were the cause of these events. [10] Olivier 2003 p. London. O lord of the near. • Olivier.co..uk/aztecs/artefacts/ smoking-mirrors''. trayed not through science or philosophical debate. 52 [12] Olivier 2003 pp.[21] Utter respect from the highest position of Aztec nobility.11 External links • Mexicolore . Koontz. the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was por. 54-55 [13] Olivier 2003 p. [6] This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec “2 Reed” which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl [7] For a summary of Tezcatlipocas epithets and their siginificance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1. ISBN 0-500-05068-6.

25. the “Lady of the Night”.Chapter 25 Yohaulticetl In Aztec mythology. was a moon goddess and guardian of infants. She may have been the same as Metztli and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl. Yohualticetl.1 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Five Suns (mythology) 87 .

Chapter 26 Black Sun (mythology) The Black Sun in Mesoamerican mythology has many mystical meanings. was one of the Five Suns of the creation myth of some Nahua peoples. however. the underworld was made of nine layers. he ruled over the north. the Plumed Serpent shows a 88 .[8] Sculpture of a Teotihuacan feathered serpent. and judgment. Before his nightly effort. Black Tezcatlipoca. Some scholars regard the mythological Black Sun as the ancient female origin of all. is an archetypical symbol of the transcendent soul.” which reproduces the appearance of a wheel. it is both tomb and womb. or the face of a gigantic toad that devoured the dead and gave access to the other eight lower levels. night. he demanded human blood as payment to his tasks.2 See also • Black Sun (alchemy) • Black Sun (occult symbol) • Five Suns (mythology) • Lords of the Night (mythology) • Tzitzimitl (mythology) At archaeological scenes. which also had the entrance. and yet an expectation of fecundity. death. In this manner the spinning of the sun and black sun shows a wheel crossing with an obfuscatory motion where four black rays move out of four yellow rays.[5] while the Aztec underworld was the eternal dwelling place of the souls. son of the primordial god Ometeotl who was a god of dualities such as light and darkness. the Earth. and the universal rulership portrayed in the great dance called “Mitotiliztli. these sets of four rays relate to the four cardinal points and the four quarters. at Museo Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico City man with a black sun within a yellow sun.[1] 26. among them it is connected to the god Quetzalcoatl and his penetration in the Underworld through the west door after his diurnal passage on the sky. in turn. transformation and mystical rebirth. which then reappeared as crepuscular moths on Earth. The souls of the dead occupied the ninth level known as "Mictlan Opochcalocan.” that devoured people during the solar eclipses. This way. they represent the governance held by the gods over the human race since its infancy.”[6] The connection with nocturnal elements is also ascribed to the god Tezcatlipoca. as well as the annual rotation of the heavens. the souls of women who had died in childbirth. For the Mexicas there were two suns.[1] According to some authors. sorcery.1 Other views The Aztecs associated the passage of the Black Sun. a forerunner of Quetzallcoatl. Huitzilopochtli was accompanied from zenith to setting by the Ciuapipiltrins. the “Obsidian Butterfly.[3][4] whereas also seen in the figure of the frightening earth goddess Itzpapalotl.[2][3] The butterfly.[7] Another interpretation [8] holds that the sun god Huitzilopochtli crossed the underworld during the night bestowing light to the forgotten souls. The first level was the Earth’s surface.[1] 26. it is the oneness that uniformly integrates unawareness. on its nightly journey through the underworld with the image of a butterfly. the young Day Sun and the ancient Dark Sun. According to the Codex Ríos. as he was known.

Ring (2009). Manuel (2007). Kiberd. Thomas Athol.. Teresa (2002). Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God. Mexican archaeology: an introduction to the archaeology of the Mexican and Mayan civilizations of preSpanish America. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Dick. ISBN 0-87081-745-0.S. The illustrated encyclopedia of signs & symbols. Susan. K. Dougald. (2007) pp 139. Vincent.4 References • Aguilar-Moreno. Resh. Culture Industry (Hispanic Issues). McMillan (1989). University Press of Colorado. Cardé. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • O'Connell. Lorenz.. REFERENCES 26.26. Teresa (2002). T. ISBN 0-19-533083-8. Academic Press. University of Michigan Library. (2007) pp 149. [2] Longo.D. Routledge. Guilhem (2003). Guilhem. ISBN 0-7548-1548-X. Susan. Pablo Neruda and the U. Mark. [7] Olivier. Airey. ISBN 0-8153-3386-2.. Resh. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • H. Essays for Richard Ellmann: Omnium Gatherum. Mark. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Joyce.A. (2003). Vincent. 106. M. [4] H.3 Notes [1] Dick. [5] Aguilar-Moreno. R.D. Thomas Athol (1920). Raje (2005). 102. Mcgill Queens University Press. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Olivier. ASIN B004183HZC. R. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. ISBN 0-12374144-0. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) 89 . Oxford University Press. pp 187-188. (1989) pp 165-166.4. (2009) pp 239-240. Declan. Encyclopedia of insects. (2005) pp 185.C. 26. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Longo.T. [6] Aguilar-Moreno. ISBN 0-7735-0707-8.. [3] O'Connell. [8] Joyce. (1920) pp 52.

but Tezcatlipoca seduced and stole his wife Xochiquetzal. deceit. the goddess of sex. These earlier worlds and their inhabitants had been created. also the goddess of beauty. With no sun. Quetzalcoatl. Tlaloc then refused to do anything other than wallow in his own grief. The next sun and also Tlaloc’s new wife. He then stepped down as the sun to create a new people. Ometeotl gave birth to four children. The gods then had to construct a whole new Earth from the ashes. the god of rain and fertility and Chalchiuhtlicue. and the Aztec saw themselves as “the People of the Sun. Ometeotl. the four Tezcatlipocas. night.[1] In the creation myths which were preserved by the Aztec and other Nahua peoples. the first god. Thus the welfare and the very survival of the universe depended upon the offerings of blood and hearts to the sun. light and darkness. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca. It continued to rain fire until the entire Earth had burned away. Quetzalcoatl. also called simply Tezcatlipoca. the sun would disappear from the heavens. it would fall into the water beneath them and be eaten by Cipactli. The people’s prayers for rain annoyed the grieving sun and he refused to allow it to rain. rivers and oceans. good and evil. they needed a god to become the sun and the Black Tezcatlipoca was chosen. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca. who each preside over one of the four cardinal directions.[2] It was these four gods who eventually created all the other gods and the world we know today. the most important of whom were the water gods: Tlaloc. who had loved the flawed people as they were. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca. before the present universe. became upset and blew all of the monkeys from the face of the Earth with a mighty hurricane. who swam through the water with mouths at every one of her joints. see Five Suns (album). for every time they attempted to create something. the people of the Earth grew less and less civilized and stopped showing proper honor to the gods. flowers and corn. Then. the world was totally black and in his anger. he only managed to become half a sun. but before they could create they had to destroy. Xipe Totec. the god of light. the god of judgment. who Quetzalcoatl knocked from the sky with a stone club. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca. the central tenet was that there had been four worlds. in a fit of rage he answered their prayers with a great downpour of fire. The four Tezcatlipocas descended the first people who were giants. but either because he had lost a leg or because he was god of the night. Without it. the goddess of lakes. The term Five Suns in the context of creation myths. mercy and wind. Tezcatlipoca commanded his jaguars to eat all the people. describes the doctrine of the Aztec and other Nahua peoples in which the present world was preceded by four other cycles of creation and destruction. To give light. the god of war. The present world is the fifth sun. judgment and forgiveness. As a result.[1] 27. the god of duality. the giant earth crocodile. but the people continued to beg him.1 Legend From the void that was the rest of the universe.[3] The gods created a new group of people to inhabit the Earth. Huitzilopochtli. fire and water.” whose divine duty was to wage cosmic war in order to provide the sun with his tlaxcaltiliztli (“nourishment”). was Chalchiuhtlicue. but a sibling rivalry grew between Quetzalcoatl and his brother the mighty sun. It is primarily derived from the mythological.Chapter 27 Five Suns For the Guapo album. the god of gold. while however modifying some aspects and supplying novel interpretations of their own. The Late Postclassic Aztec society inherited many traditions concerning Mesoamerican creation accounts. then destroyed by the catastrophic action of leading deity figures. this time they were of normal size. The world continued on in this way for some time. so a great drought swept the world. She was very loving towards the people. sorcery and the Earth. Quetzalcoatl became the new sun and as the years passed. or “Suns”. farming and Spring time. but 90 . Tlaloc became the next sun. created itself. They created the other gods. Ometeotl was both male and female. cosmological and eschatological beliefs and traditions of earlier cultures from central Mexico and the Mesoamerican region in general. Tezcatlipoca demonstrated his power and authority as god of sorcery and judgment by turning the animalistic people into monkeys.

Both the people and Chalchiuhtlicue felt his judgment when he told the water goddess that she was not truly loving and only faked kindness out of selfishness to gain the people’s praise. often nated himself by burning himself alive and then became mentioning his twin brother Xolotl. followed by the Tzitzimitl and then Huitzilopochtli. also known as Tlaltecuhtli. Further variations depict the ball of feathers as being the father of Huitzilopochtli or the father of Quetzalcoatl and sometimes Xolotl. It Most of what is known about the ancient Aztecs comes is also said that Tezcatlipoca created half a sun. the guide of the dead the warrior sun and wandered through the heavens with . Quetzalcoatl would not accept the destruction of his people and went to the underworld where he stole their bones from the god Mictlantecuhtli. while she was still a virgin. probably because myths changed in cor. Tezcatlipoca was then born to her by an obsidian knife. in thanks of his blood sacrifice for them and give offerings to many other gods for many purposes.Nanauatzin then walked slowly towards and then into relation to the popularity of each of the gods at a given the flames and was consumed. similar gods from various other cultures. the sun and Tecuciztecatl became the much less spectacular earth goddess. the Tzitzimitl. who was replaced by Coatlicue in this myth probably because it had absolutely no worshipers or temples by the time the Spanish arrived. and the Tzitzimitl will slay Huitzilopochtli and all of humanity. Further variations on this myth state that it was only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca who pulled apart Cipactli. before dismembering her. They also offer human sacrifices to Tezcatlipoca in fear of his judgment. the same action. Should these sacrifices cease. goddess of the moon. Each world’s end correlates consistently to the god that was the sun at the time throughout all variations of the myth. lowed. more important brother Huitzilopochtli. Much later she gave birth to Huitzilopochtli when a mysterious ball of feathers appeared to her. but are beaten back by the mighty Huitzilopochtli who rules the daytime sky. was the mother of the four Tezcatlipocas moon. Some versions claim that Tezcatlipoca actually used his leg as bait for Cipactli. The of mouth and because the Aztecs adopted many of their two volunteers were the young son of Tlaloc and Chalchigods from other tribes. or should mankind fail to please the gods for any other reason. It is sometimes said that the male characteristic of Ometeotl is named Ometecutli and that the female characteristic is named Omecihualt. without the involvement of Tezcatlipoca. or stars. both assigning their own new as. and the old Nanauatzin. but also because there are many named Nanauatzin. It was pects to these gods and endowing them with aspects of believed that Nanauatzin was too old to make a good sun. lead them in an assault on the sun and every night they come close to victory when they shine throughout the sky. though the above version is the most common. who reopened their eyes to a sky illuminated by the current sun. Tecuciztecatl. which his from the few codices to survive the Spanish conquest. Huitzilopochtli. Some versions say that Quetzalcoatl and Huitzilopochtli is Tonatiuh. Sometimes he is said to have decapitated Coyolxauhqui and either used her head to make the moon or thrown it into a canyon. Their myths can be confusing not only because of the The fifth sun however is sometimes said to be a god lack of documentation. causing a horrific flood that drowned everyone on Earth. Other variations of this myth claim that only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were born to Ometeotl. believing it to be insulting that she had given birth to another child. The braver Nanauatzin became what is now the Other variations on this myth state that Coatlicue. Tecuciztecatl tried first but was not brave enough to one another by claiming that a different god performed walk through the heat near the flames and turned around. The order of the first four suns varies as well.2 Variations and alternative Xochiquetzal for the rain of fire. The most popular variation including Coatlicue depicts her giving birth first to the Tzitzimitl. Coyolxauhqui. the gods popular myths that seem to contradict one another due convened in darkness to choose a new sun. jaguars then ate before eating the giants. became jealous of their brighter. this fifth sun will go black. To aid this all-important god in his continuing war. offer their own blood to Quetzalcoatl. 91 and god of fire.[2] Some of Ometeotl’s later children. VARIATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE MYTHS Tezcatlipoca was not.uhtlicue. though the loss of is not always identified as Tlaloc’s reason 27. who was sick. the Aztecs offer him the nourishment of human sacrifices. who was to the fact that they were originally passed down by word sacrifice himself by jumping into a gigantic bonfire. but rejuvewas born to her first. the world will be shattered by a catastrophic earthquake. and that Xipe Totec and Huitzilopochtli then constructed the world from her body. Chalchiuhtlicue was so crushed by these words that she cried blood for the next fifty-two years. Tecuciztecatl then foltime. Older myths but both were given the opportunity to jump into the boncan be very similar to newer myths while contradicting fire. He dipped these bones in his own blood to resurrect his people.2. who were also referred to as the Centzon Huitznahuas.27. Their leader. which is not otherwise given and it myths is sometimes said that Chalchiuhtlicue flooded the world on purpose. A god that bridges the gap between Nanauatzin and the Tzitzimitl. The Tzitzimitl then decapitated the pregnant Coatlicue. Huitzilopochtli then sprang forth from her womb wielding a serpent of fire and began his epic war with the Tzitzimitl. who opposes fatal sacrifices. In this version of the myth.

The Five Suns: A Sacred History of Mexico. • Nahui-Ehécatl (Wind Sun) . Manuel. This world was destroyed by hurricanes. UK: Blackwell Publishing. • Nahui-Ollin (Earthquake Sun) . • Nahui-Quiahuitl (Rain Sun) .3 Brief summation • Nahui-Ocelotl (Jaguar Sun) . Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Smith. A couple escaped but were transformed into dogs.Inhabitants were destroyed by rain of fire.92 the souls of those who died in battle. In Necuepaliztli in Aztlan (Retorno a Aztlán). Manuel (2006).Michael E. • Rage Against the Machine refers to intercultural violence as “the fifth sunset” in their song People of the Sun. Chapter Seven.This world was flooded turning the inhabitants into fish. 2001. Handbook to life in the Aztec World. by Juan Mora Catlett. where an ancient star-faring civilization (“people of the First Sun”) had disappeared and left the galaxy with many dangerous artifacts.Moreno. 27. Osita. Los Angeles: California State University. A Day in the Life of God. CHAPTER 27. California State University. 2006 27. The Aztec World. Blackwell Publishing.Inhabitants were giants who were devoured by jaguars. Los Angeles. by Patricia Amlin. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) . on the album Evil Empire.4 In popular culture • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin serves as a framing device for the 1991 Mexican film. This world will be destroyed by earthquakes (or one large earthquake).Inhabitants were transformed into monkeys. 27. Michael E.7 Further reading • Aguilar. refusing to move if not offered enough sacrifices. 2005 [3] Aguilar-Moreno. published by the Enlil Institute 27. • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin is in the 1996 film.6 References [1] Iroku. The world was destroyed.5 See also • Aztec mythology • Aztec religion • Aztec philosophy • Black Sun (mythology) • Mesoamerican creation accounts [2] Smith. • Thomas Harlan's science fiction series “In the Time of the Sixth Sun” uses this myth as a central plot point. Only birds survived (or inhabitants survived by becoming birds). • Nahui-Atl (Water Sun) .We are the inhabitants of this world. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. FIVE SUNS 27. (2003).

and as such recially in periods of cosmic instability. The leader of the tzitz. 153: cenca nemauhtiloya mitoaya intla quitlamiz in quiqua tonatiuh quilmach çentlaiovaz valte- . espeThe Tzitzimimeh were female deities. ͡ simit ͡ ͡ (plural TzIn Aztec mythology. a Tzitzimitl /tsiˈt ɬ/ ͡ ͡ itzimimeh /tsitsiˈmimeʔ/) is a deity associated with stars. from the Codex Borgia.1 Notes imimeh was the Goddess Itzpapalotl who was the ruler of Tamoanchan . Citlalicue and Cihuacoatl and they were worshipped by midwives and parturient women. In Postconquest descriptions they are often described as "demons" or “devils” . and during the New Fire ceremony marking the beginning of a new calendar round .both were periods associated with the fear of change. They were also powerful and dangerous.[1] were protectresses of the feminine and progenitresses of mankind.[3] lated to fertility. Depiction of a Tzitzimitl from the Codex Magliabechiano.Chapter 28 Tzitzimitl Depiction of Itzpapalotl. they were associated with the Cihuateteo and other female deities such as Tlaltecuhtli. They were depicted as skeletal female figures wearing skirts often with skull and crossbone designs. ing a solar eclipse.28. the tzitzimime would descend to the earth and devour human beings. This was interpreted as the Tzitzimimeh attacking the Sun. this caused the belief that during a solar eclipse.the paradise where the Tzitzimimeh [1] See Klein 2000 for an analysis of the nature of the Tzitzimimeh in relation to the Aztec belief system. Queen of the Tzitzimimeh. such as during the five unlucky days called Nemontemi which marked an unstable period of the year count. resided.but this does not necessarily reflect their The Tzitzimimeh had a double role in Aztec religion: they function in the prehispanic belief system of the Aztecs. The Tzitzimimeh were also associated with the stars and especially the stars that can be seen around the Sun dur93 [2] Sahagún 1997. p. Coatlicue.[2] The Tzitzimimeh were also feared during other ominous periods of the Aztec world.

It was said that if [the moon] finished eating the sun. . so it was said. Thelma D. Bernardino de.. [3] This is the conclusion reached by Cecelia Klein (2000) based on an investigation of the iconographical depictions of Tzitzimimeh by the Aztecs 28. TZITZIMITL mozque in ţiţimime techquazque There was great fear. (1997). 153. Primeros Memoriales. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mèxico) 31: 17–62.94 CHAPTER 28. the Tzitzimimeh would descend here. B. • Klein. all would be in darkness. they would devour us. Nicholson. p. H. Cecelia F (2000). “The Devil and the Skirt: an iconographic inquiry into the prehispanic nature of the Tzitzimime”.2 References • Sahagún. Sullivan.

Myths sometimes say that Apep was trapped there. The etymology of his name (ꜥꜣpp) is perhaps to be sought in some west-semitic language where a word root ꜣpp meaning 'to slither' existed. Apep was seen as a giant snake or serpent leading to such titles as Serpent from the Nile and Evil Lizard. storytellers said that Apep must lie just below the horizon. As the personification of all that was evil. He appears in art as a giant serpent. Apophis was a large Cypriot football team. A verb root ꜥꜣpp does at any rate not exist elsewhere in Ancient Egyptian. and he was honored in the names of the Fourteenth Dynasty king 'Apepi and of the Greater Hyksos king Apophis. 95 . and Apep (/ˈæˌpɛp/ or /ˈɑːˌpɛp/) or Apophis (/ˈæpəfɨs/. 4000 BC) C-ware bowl (now in Cairo) a snake was painted on the inside rim combined with other desert and aquatic animals as a possible enemy of a deity. the Romans referred to Set speared Apep Tales of Apep’s battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom.Chapter 29 Apep This article is about an Ancient Egyptian deity. This appropriately made him a part of the underworld. His name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāpī. who is invisibly hunting in a big rowing vessel. bringer of light. Apep was viewed as the greatest enemy of Ra.C. gradually took on all the characteristics of Apep.1 Development Ra was the solar deity. because he had been the previous chief god overthrown by Ra. to travel') Apep’s name much later came to be falsely connected etymologically in Egyptian with a different root meaning (he who was) spat out. It was thought that his terrifying roar would cause the underworld to rumble. He was so large that see Apep (disambiguation). comparable hostile snakes as enemies of the sun god existed under other names (in the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts) already before the name Apep occurred. For the Apep by this translation of his name. In some stories Apep waited for Ra in a western mountain called Bakhu. Already on a Naqada I (ca. and also “the Lord of Chaos”. and thus the upholder of Ma'at.[1] Apep was first mentioned in the Eighth Dynasty. ConseAncient Greek: Ἄποφις. see APEP F.. also spelled Apepi or Aapep) quently.[6] Since everyone can see that the sun is not attacked by a giant snake during the day. and in others Apep lurked just before dawn. in the Tenth region of the Night. 29. possibly a solar deity. and thus was given the title Enemy of Ra. The wide range of Apep’s possible location gained him the title World Encircler.2 Battles with Ra was written pp(y) and survived in later Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph. For other uses. he attempted to swallow the sun every day. Apep’s identity was eventually entirely subsumed was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗ zft by that of Set. as it 29.[3] Also. or because he was evil and had been imprisoned. Some elaborations even said that he stretched 16 yards in length and had a head made of flint. where the sun set. every day.[4] in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). (It is not to be confused with the verb ꜥpı͗/ꜥpp: 'to fly across the sky. golden snake known to be miles long. Set eventually became thought of as the god of evil.

(2004). in Greek). Fearing that even the image of Apep could give power to the demon any rendering would always include another deity to subdue the monster. and Apep worshipped against. 1977). [5] tomb of Inherkha.Wolterman. 49-57. and include: Spitting Upon Apep Defiling Apep with the Left Foot Taking a Lance to Smite Apep Fettering Apep Taking a Knife to Smite Apep Putting Fire Upon Apep • 99942 Apophis • Egyptian influence in popular culture • Ethnoherpetology • Jörmungandr • Mehen • Unut • Wadjet 29. Seth. God of Confusion (Leiden. Ra’s victory each night was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshipers at temples. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. [9] G. Alcock (London. and aid Ra to continue his journey across the sky. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. 116. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. Deir el-Medina [6] J. 1971). In some accounts. and burn it to protect everyone from Apep’s evil for another year.96 CHAPTER 29. The Egyptian priests even had a detailed guide to fighting Apep. Ra himself defeats Apep in the form of a cat. he was sometimes thought of as an Eater of Souls. (1973). pp. Leiden Nr. so they were sometimes buried with spells that could destroy Apep. J. whilst reciting spells that would kill Apep. 107–108 . 114–115. eds. The Egyptians practiced a number of rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apep.[11] 29. which would be spat on. As Apep was thought to live in the underworld.[7] Ra was assisted by a number of defenders who travelled with him. “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. or small drawings. in the form of Great Cat. 180. J. Leipzig: J.[8] Apep’s movements were thought to cause earthquakes. 1995). [8] Borghouts. by A. [2] Hieroglyph as per Budge Gods of the Ancient Egyptians (1969). “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. Vol.3 Worship Ra was worshipped. F. Only BD Spells 7 and 39 can be explained as such. 1926– 1953. in a similar manner to modern rituals such as Zozobra. in Jaarbericht van Ex Oriente Lux. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH. [4] H. of the serpent. slays the snake Apep[5] The Coffin Texts imply that Apep used a magical gaze to overwhelm Ra and his entourage. called the Banishing of Chaos.5 Notes [1] Erman. [7] Borghouts. The Book of the Dead does not frequently describe occasions when Ra defeated the chaos snake explicitly called Apep. Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom.[10] The chapters described a gradual process of dismemberment and disposal. APEP In addition to stories about Ra’s winnings. and Hermann Grapow. Hinrichs’schen Buchhandlungen. [3] C. Egyptian Mythology. I. priests would build an effigy of Apep that was thought to contain all of the evil and darkness in Egypt. including Set[4] and possibly the Eye of Ra. C. mutilated and burnt.37 (2002). Assmann. F.4 See also The sun god Ra. 1057. this guide had instructions for making wax models. Thus the dead also needed protection. (1973). referred to as The Books of Overthrowing Apep (or the Book of Apophis. Pinch. Adolf. transl. Te Velde. 6 vols.[9] 29. In an annual rite. and his battles with Set may have been meant to explain the origin of thunderstorms.

29. 29. Enemy of Ra.6. Water Snake-Demon of Chaos. 2007). dissertation.D. [11] J.Borghouts. EXTERNAL LINKS [10] P. 1999).6 External links • Apep. Wiesbaden.Apep 97 .Kousoulis. Magic and Religion as Performative Theological Unity: the Apotropaic Ritual of Overthrowing Apophis.. chapters 3-5. • ancient Egypt: The Mythology . University of Liverpool (Liverpool.F.. Book of the Dead [39]: From Shouting to Structure (Studien zum Altaegyptischen Totenbuch 10. Ph.

and the female form as a snake. For the abbreviation describing the AustroHungarian Empire. his female form being known as Kauket (also spelled as Keket). see Kuk.[1] Like all four dualistic concepts in the Ogdoad. In the Ogdoad cosmogony. Caroline. For other uses. his name meant darkness.k. Obscurity and Night”. or as a frog-headed man. The other members of the Ogdoad are Nu and Naunet.Chapter 30 Kuk (mythology) This article is about a concept in ancient Egyptian mythology. Retrieved 2008-08-22. “Kek and Kauket. thus was known as the bringer-in of light. Amun and Amaunet. Kuk also represented obscurity and the unknown. He was the god of the darkness of chaos 98 . Kuk was viewed as androgynous. 30. and thus chaos. Huh and Hauhet.1 References [1] Seawright. or a snake-headed woman. As a symbol of darkness. Kuk (also spelled as Kek and Keku) is the deification of the primordial concept of darkness in ancient Egyptian religion. see k. Kuk was seen as that which occurred before light. which is simply the female form of the word Kuk. Also..u. As a concept. Kuk’s male form was depicted as a frog. Deities of Darkness.

31. is the goddess of night in the Vedas and the mythology of India and Hinduism.1 Fiction The goddess Ratri is a minor character in Roger Zelazny's science fiction novel Lord of Light. Malayalam. often also called Ratridevi.Chapter 31 Ratri Ratri. 31. Bengali. Tamil. Her name is the common/ordinary word for nighttime in Indian languages like Kannada. who encounters and aids the protagonist in his battle against the other gods. She is sister to Ushas. the Vedic goddess of Dawn. Telugu.2 Further reading • Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-03795) by David Kinsley 99 .

Chapter 32

Chandra
This article is about the Hindu moon deity. For other
uses, see Chandra (disambiguation).
In Hinduism, Chandra (Sanskrit चन्द्र lit, Kannada
, Telugu
, Tamil சந்திரன். “shining”)[1]
is a lunar god and a Graha. Chandra is also identified
with the Vedic lunar deity Soma (lit. “juice”).[2] The
Soma name refers particularly to the juice of sap in the
plants and thus makes the Moon the lord of plants and
vegetation.[1]
Chandra is described as young, beautiful, fair; two-armed
and having in his hands a club and a lotus.[3] He rides his
chariot across the sky every night, pulled by ten white
horses or an antelope. He is connected with dew, and as
such, is one of the gods of fertility. He is also called Rajanipati (lord of the night)[1] and Kshupakara (one who
illuminates the night),[4] and Indu (lit. the bright drop).[1]
As Soma, he presides over Somvar or Monday.
Chandra is the father of Budha, (planet Mercury) the
mother being Tara. He is married to 27 Nakshatras (constellations), who are known to be daughters of Daksha.

32.1 In astrology
Chandra with Rohini

In Vedic astrology Chandra represents brain and mind,
emotions, sensitivity, softness, imagination, queen and
mother. Chandra rules over the sign Karkaataka (Cancer), while he is exalted in Vrishabha (Taurus) and in his
fall in Vrishchika (Scorpio). The waxing moon is considered to be benefic, and the waning moon is considered
to be malefic. The bright moon is considered a benefic
of the highest order, while the dark moon is considered
a malefic. Chandra is lord of three nakshatras or lunar
mansions: Rohini, Hasta and Shravana. Chandra has the
following associations: the color white, the metal silver
and the gemstones pearl and moonstone. His element is
water, direction is north-west and season is winter. The
food grain associated with him (one of Nava Dhanyas) is
rice.

name meaning “illustrious”. In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the god of the moon. In Hindu astrology, the moon
is considered a planet, and it is considered to be one of
the best planets to be born under as it promises wealth and
) or
happiness. It is also referred as Shashi (Kannada:
Tingala (Kannada:
).
According to Hindu mythology Chandra has not been
very fortunate in life. Chandra was born in the Ocean of
Milk (the gods were churning it for millennia in order to
create immortal life), and nearly blinded the gods with his
bright, glowing body (hence the name that means “illustrious”). The gods unanimously decided to give Chandra
the status of a planet and sent him into the cosmos.

Chandra is known for having a series of disastrous love
affairs. His first lover, Tara, was the wife of Brihaspati,
Chandra (pronounced “CHUHN-drah”) is a Sanskrit the planet Jupiter. From their union, Tara became preg100

32.2. OTHER ASPECTS
nant gives birth to Budha (a.k.a. the planet Mercury, not
to be confused with the other Buddha). Because of how
he was conceived, Budha hated his father and as Chandra also knew that Budha is his illegitimate son, he began
to hate his son, and their rivalry continues to this day.
For the sin of abducting another god’s consort, Brahma
banished Chandra to the outer atmosphere. This story
illustrates allegorically the prohibition of intoxicants for
Brahmins.[5] After that, Chandra, set out to marry the
twenty-seven daughters of Daksha. Daksha allowed this
on the condition that the moon not favor any daughter
over the others. Chandra failed to do this, and Daksha
placed a curse on him that took away his luster, which
accounts for the moon’s waxing and waning.

32.1.1

Dark spot on the moon

One popular story to account for the dark spot on the
moon is that Ganesha, once filled with food, fell from his
mouse and broke his stomach. Chandra laughed at this,
at which Ganesha injured him by breaking off and throwing one of his tusks; and cursed him so that it would be
forbidden to behold Chandra on Ganesh Chaturthi.

32.2 Other aspects
Chandra is also the word in Sanskrit, Hindi and other
Indian languages for moon. It is also a common Indian
name, both male and female and exists as a name in many
South East Asian languages that originate from Sanskrit.
The god, the drink and the plant probably referred to the
same entity, or at least the differentiation was ambiguous. In this aspect, Soma is similar to the Greek ambrosia (cognate to amrita); it is what the gods drink, and
what made them deities. Soma is still coined as name for
an entheogenic brew (avestic: Haoma) still in ceremonial
use.
Indu, one of the other names for Chandra, is also the
name of the first chakra (group) of Melakarta ragas in
Carnatic music. The names of chakras are based on the
numbers associated with each name. In this case, there is
one moon and hence the first chakra is Indu.[6][7]
In India Chandra is a common surname for example
'Anurag Chandra ' and ' Tanuja Chandra' . But in America the name has been used as a girl’s name. It appeared
on the popularity charts in the 1950s, peaking in the
1970s, before disappearing in the 1990s. The name has
several variations including Chandrah, Chaundra, etc.

101
shown as dark spot on moon as a result of the curse of
rishi Gautama. His Egyptian counterpart is Khonsu.
Chandra the moon is actually a satellite of the planet
Earth. But in Indian astrology the moon and the Sun
are counted among the nine planets. Chandra is called ‘
ChandA’ or ‘ChAnd’ in Hindi and Urdu languages. Chandra is the most beloved God of the humans, at least in
the tropics. Children all over India and even elders call
him affectionately as ‘Chanda- mama’. Mama means the
maternal uncle in both North Indian and South Indian
languages. There is a very popular children’s magazine
called ‘Chanda mama’ which is published from Chennai
in more than twelve Indian languages, There are hundreds
of nursery songs in all languages of India sung by all the
mothers addressing their handsome brother Chand, while
feeding their children, requesting him to bring milk, butter and curds for his sister’s child. Similarly Chandra
or Chanda is the most favourite topic of songs sung by
lovers. They express their happiness while making love
and request Chanda mama to shine brightly and not to
pass on so quickly. so that the wonderful night may continue forever. Dozens of folk songs, film songs and even
titles of films are named after the Chandra or Chand.
There is an interesting episode regarding the lunar eclipse
in the Hindu mythology. Lunar eclipse is called ChandragrahaN (swallowing of Chandra). Even today people believe that two great serpents named Rahu and Ketu which
are counted as two other planets ( Uranus and Neptune)
nurture a grudge against the planets moon and the Sun and
both these serpents occasionally come and swallow the
moon and the Sun gradually. When moon is swallowed
partially or completely it is called Chandra GrahaN. People wait patiently for the total release of the moon and
take holy bath after the end of the eclipse. Moon is the
symbol of beauty in Indian literature. The beautiful face
of a woman is compared to the moon by almost all Indian poets. The moon and the lotus flower are the most
popular similes used while describing the face of a beautiful woman who is often called as’ Chandramukhi’- the
moonfaced beauty.. Name of Chandra is attached to various Gods. For example the full name of Lord Sri Ram is
Ramachandra. Similarly the full name of another Avatar
Lord Krishna is Krishna Chandra. Some scholars opine
that both these avatars were so called because they were
perhaps born on a full moon day, a day which is sacred
for Jains also Lord Shiva is called Chandrasekhar also,
because he wears a crescent moon on his forehead. The
crescent moon with a star is a sacred symbol of Islam
also. There are also many ancient explanations and stories connected with the spots on the face of the moon.
Some people say that a rabbit stays always on the face of
the moon. That is why the moon is also called Shashank
( one who has a mark of a rabbit on his lap ). Some people think that a cat is sitting on the face of the moon. In
Telugu language the moon is also called Jabilli.

There is another story about moon (Chandra), when Indra
was trying to rape Ahilya, wife of rishi Gautama, Chandra
was in the form of a peacock to alert Indra on Gautama’s
arrival . Gautama eventually beheld the act and cursed Under the sub-title ‘other aspects’ it is stated that ChanIndra with impotency and hit Chandra (in the form of dra is the middle name of the Hindu God RamaChanpeacock) with his wet cloth (Dhoti). Those marks are

102
drasekhara, which is erroneous. There seems to be a mix
up between the names of two different Gods Sri Ram and
Lord Shiva. Full name of Lord Sri Ram is Rama Chandra and not Rama Chandra Sekhara. Rama was named
as Rama Chandra for reasons that are not revealed to the
public. Some Scholars opine that Sri Ram was born on a
full moon day and that is why he was called Rama Chandra. There was a great discussion among scholars as to
why Sri Rama the illustrious son of the solar dynasty
was named as Rama Chandra, Chandra being the progenitor of the lunar dynasty. Similarly the name Chandra
Sekhara is given to Lord Shiva only, because he wears a
crescent moon on his forehead. Name of Lord Sri Rama
is definitely not Rama Chandra Sekhara, nor Chandra is
His middle name

CHAPTER 32. CHANDRA
dren. His wife was ‘Ningal’(the great lady). ‘Nusku’ the
God of Fire was his son. Even today the crescent moon
and the planet Venus in the middle, is the Universal symbol of Islam. It is reported in the Wikipedia that the crescent moon has been used by the Arab religions as far back
as the time of Abraham.

God Chandra and the tides: The Hindu mythology offers
an explanation for the high and low tides that occur in the
seas and oceans.The details areas follows.God Chandra
and Goddess Lakshmi are born from the ocean during
the churning of the milky ocean.( that part of the ocean
where the waters and waves are sparkling white and look
like milk). Being the father of Chandra the God of Ocean
is overjoyed to see his son rising from the eastern horizon
and rushes to greet him. Similarly the Sea God rushes
God Chandra is addressed by various names depend- towards the West when the moon God is going to set.
ing on his attributes. He is called Vidhu, Indu, Hi- Chandrama in Mantrapushpam: Mantrapushpam is a samansu, Subhranshu (whose rays are cool and clean), Ra- cred document available in the Taittareeya Aranyakam
janeesh,Rakesh ( Lord of the night ), Rajanikar, Nishakar in which the great Rishis have conceived the connection
( maker of the night), Shashi, Shashank ( one who bears between the human mind/ consciousness and various ela rabbit on his body),Sudha-nidhi, Sudhamaya (one who ements of nature like flower, water, moon, air, thunder
is full of nectar), Kumudesh ( lover of the esculent wa- etc. Giving great importance to the Moon God it informs
ter lily- Nymphaea esculent or the red lotus-Nymphaea in the first sloka itself that – Moon is the flower of Warubric), Kunda Pushpojjwala( as bright as the jasmine ters. He who knows this becomes endowed with flower,
flower-jasmine multiflora).
progeny and animals.
In the ‘Purusha Sukta’ of the Rigveda it is mentioned
“ Chandramaa va apaam pushpam pushpavaan, prathat Chandra was born from the mind of the virat Pu- jaavaan, pasumaan bhavati “
rusha(God symbolized as the entire universe) – ‘ChanLater the mantra says that - Moon is the support of waters.
drama manasojaatah’.
He becomes endowed with support who understands that
There is an episode explaining the waxing and waning Moon is the support of water, and similarly water is the
of the moon during a month. It was reported that God support of Moon. Thus Moon is the support of Water and
Chandra was paying more attention to one of his 27 wives. Water is the support of Moon.
The other 26 wives who are also the daughters of the great
Prajapati Daksha brought this fact to the attention of their “Yah Chandramasa aayatanam veda. aayatanavan bhafather. Daksha became very angry and cursed Chandra, vati. Aapo vai chandramasa aayatanam , aayatanavaan
his son in law’ to suffer from consumption. As a result the bhavati, Ya evam veda”
size of Chandra began to decrease gradually. Alarmed at The mantra says that the moon and water support each
this the daughters requested their father to take back his other and there is a similarity between the waxing and
curse. But since a curse which is delivered once, cannot waning of the moon and vacillation of mind between exbe taken back, Daksha modified his curse to the effect perience s of grief and happiness. Beyond this we cannot
that the size of Chandra will decrease from full moon to explain the meaning of this mantra because it is a Veda
new moon for a fortnight and then his size will gradually Mantra based purely on sound rather than meaning.
grow until the full Moon day, during the next fortnight.
Worship of the moon God in ancient Arabia: the Arabians who suffer from the excessive heat of the Sun preferred to worship the Moon God, who gives them cool
breeze and dew drops, thereby helping them in farming and development of green grass for their goats and
camels. That is why perhaps they were called Asuras 32.3 In popular culture
as opposed to the Indo-Aryans who called themselves
Suraas or Devas. The Suraas worshipped the Sun God.
The Indian mythology is full of wars between the Suras Chandra (and the gem supposedly on the forehead of
a statue of his at Somanath) plays an important role
and the Asuras.
in one of the first novel-length mystery stories in En'Sin' the moon God of ancient Arabia occupied the chief
glish, The Moonstone. The Sanskrit word for moon-craft
place in the astral triad. It’s other two members ‘Shamus’
Chandrayaan is used to refer to India’s lunar orbiters
the Sun god and ‘Ishtar’ the planet Venus were his chil(Chandrayan-1 and Chandrayaan-2).

Published by Kala Occult Publishers ISBN 0-9709636-4-5 p. 1990.6.132 [5] http://2-0-1-2. by Prof.6 External links • Media related to Chandra at Wikimedia Commons 103 . S.32. published by Kala Occult Publishers.html [6] South Indian Music Book III. The Indian Music Publishing House [7] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr.131 [4] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p.livejournal. p. CBH Publications 32.4 See also • Navagraha • Soma 32.5 References [1] Graha Sutras By Ernst Wilhelm . Published 1973. Bhagyalekshmy.0 [3] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p. Pub. 5.com/211027. EXTERNAL LINKS 32.51 [2] Graha Sutras by Ernst Wilhelm. P Sambamoorthy. ISBN 0-9709636-4-5.

1. 33. see Lunar node.man is trying to swallow the sun. The day was solar eclipse day. For other uses. Hanuman. however.Chapter 33 Rahu For the ascending lunar node Rahu. The head. during the Ramayana war. Rahu ( ) is a severed head of an asura. the minister of was attracted by curiosity to the disembodied head. one who frightens the On another occasion. the immortal (having drunk the divine nectar). 33. The fact that eclipses occur when the Sun and the Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the myth of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon by the demon snake. Rahu was considered as incarnation of Shakti in beastly form. that swallows the sun causing eclipses. bestower of prosperity and wealth and ultimate knowledge. when Rahu was to swallow up the sun. The time of day considered to be under the influence of Rahu is called Rahu kala and is considered inauspicious. the asura Rahu drank some of the amrita (divine nectar). ever-angry. The other name of Rahu is Bhayanka. Rahu and Ketu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. lord of illusions. Rahu is considered to be a rogue planet. in his childhood. Then. as it appeared to be a big fruit. the advisor of the demons. ing: the chief. Hanuman and Rahu In ancient Tamil astrological scripts. Rahu arrived and saw Hanuman also approaching and thought that HanuVarious names are assigned to Rahu in Vedic texts includ. The body also turned into Ketu due to a boon. causing eclipses. the luminaries. Hanuman. remained immortal due to the effect of amrita and became Rahu. and it in turn swallows the moon on timely basis to cause a lunar eclipse. Ravana 104 . Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes. see Rahu (disambiguation). Rahu is one of the navagrahas (nine planets) in Vedic astrology and is paired with Ketu.1 Hinduism According to legend. the sun passes through the opening at the neck. Therefore. It is believed that this immortal head from time to time swallows the sun. Mohini cut off the asura’s head before the nectar could pass his throat. the peacemaker. bitter enemy of caught Rahu. In Hindu tradition. and the demons. during the Samudra manthan. Sun. In Vedic astronomy. the one who makes the Moon lustreless. The sun and moon realized it and alerted Mohini (the female avatar of Vishnu). the tormentor.1 Mythology Vishnu beheading Rahu with his Sudarshana chakra. seeing Rahu. flew towards the sun. He is depicted in art as a serpent with no body riding a chariot drawn by eight black horses.[1] Astronomically. ending the eclipse.

Hanuman arrived and released them.e. Worship of Lord Rama appeases Lord Hanuman the most.2 Buddhism Rahu is mentioned explicitly in a pair of scriptures from the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon. it is believed that Rahu’s negative influence will be subdued when one worships Hanuman. Svati and Shatabhisha. aspecting or controlling. they can as an asura or demon who does his best to plunge any area together be treated as Ketu. He is usually depicted with nine heads and a Rahu with consort Karali thousand eyes all over his dark-colored body. and transmigration. a divinity having the attributes of anger and the like).1. Rahu is one of the krodhadevatas (lit: Anger divinities. They were grateful to Hanuman. as pending on which planet is controlling him and which it represents a force displaying all the possibilities within bhava or pattern of life like longevity.lates to the Seventh Ray energy of esoteric astrology. Thus.2 Astrology den changes in luck and fame are also linked to Rahu. Sud33. ASTROLOGY 105 imprisoned the Navagrahas. Shatabhisha is his most Rahu is supposed to be a mighty and naughty child of Maya. Tib.[4] In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. exaltation. poison dealers. worldly desire. metal is lead. falsehoods. and often a lasso and victory banner. uncontrolled growth Rahu is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: without wisdom or understanding. particularly the Longchen Nyingthik.. a class of deities associated with the heavenly bodies. Ardra. they can be together considered as confers immense benefits to the worshipper. which Rahu does rather than have his “head split into seven pieces”. cere and immoral acts. He is In Vedic astrology. Rahu is associated with the following: its color is smoky. of life he controls into chaos. bones. Rahu is considered instrumental in strengthening one’s In Vedic astrology Rahu dasha can either be the best time power and converting even an enemy into a friend. Rahu attacks Chandra the moon deity and Surya the sun deity before being compelled to release them by their recitation of a brief stanza conveying their reverence for the Buddha.[3] The verses recited by the two celestial deities and the Buddha have since been incorporated into Buddhist liturgy as protective verses (paritta) recited by monks as prayers of protection. . an outcast. Rahu dasa gives immense scope for obtaining spectacular results from worship or dhyana. as well as random. mystery. It reof any person’s life or plunge him into deep trouble de. pleasure seekers. operators in foreign lands. It is the symbol of an irreligious person. and its gemstone is honey-colored hessonite. and his lower body has the form of a snake. In his four arms he holds a bow and arrow. saying “people devoted to you are blessed by us too. Its element is air and its direction is southwest. different systems assign Rahu differassociated with the world of material manifestation and ent signs regarding rulership. ablaze with fire. Rahu is seen Rahu. i. becoming one of the principle protectors of the Dzogchen teachings. Rahu (or Rahula.33. 33. and cruelty. he is the realm of existence. and thus is associated with dualities resulting from its mayavi (illusory) nature. pleasures etc. and debilitation. it’s said that Rahu is at his apex of power when operating through this nakshatra. He is wrathful in appearance.[2][3] The Buddha responds by enjoining Rahu to release them. drug dealers. gza) is considered to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava. abdominal ulcers. harsh speech. insin- powerful nakshatra. In the Candima Sutta and the Suriya Sutta.2.” All the grahas thanked Hanuman individually for releasing them. Rahula is a sa. It is a legendary master of deception who signifies cheaters. The astrological text Lal Kitab notes that if Saturn and Worship of Goddess Durga pleases Rahu the most and he Mars are conjunct. while if Jupiter and Venus are conjunct. uncleanliness.

4 Rahu Mantra Mantras linked with Rahu include “Om Bhram Bhreem Bhroum Sah Rahave Namah” and “Om Rang Rahuve Namah Om”. Government of India. Kathmandu. and also in the courtyard of the South In Thailand. saffron. dalay. “Om Dhoom Raam Rahave Namaha” 33. Myanmar.7 External links • Things ruled by Rahu in Vedic Astrology . satnaja (a mixture of seven grains). India through the ages. RAHU followed for over 1.2. see the summary in the Devaputtasamyutta section Phra Rahu in Thailand.106 33. A glass fish-bowl Yannawa. 77. people offer a plate of black offering—black Indian temple in Silom. whom they hold in the Bhairav Mahadev Sthan in Gyaneswor. very high regard. There is a shrine for Phra Rahu in Wat Nepal. black beans. Phra Rahu. The milk turns light blue when it flows down after touching the statue of Rahu. near Wat Traimit in Bangkok’s Chinatown and also in Wat the Saphan Taksin sky train station. The bhagat (priest) assists the devotee in prayer by standing on a ladder made of swords and by fire-offering at which the bhagat walks through the fire. Tamil Nadu. as he is called in Thailand. 33. feasome parts of India feeding ants is considered one of the turing nine planets. exist in the Ganesh Temple in Manways of propitiating Rahu. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. A prayer in the form of a three-day fast is offered by devotees. ed. [2] Candima Sutta [3] Suriya Sutta [4] Access to Insight.S.1 Rahu dan CHAPTER 33. and coal. This practice has been [5] Daan in Vedic Astrology 33. Traimet near Chinatown in Bangkok. In all Hindu temples in Burma. black Coke. There is a dedicated temple to Rahu . The navagraha deities.6 Notes [1] Gopal. black biscuits amongst nature. a temple called Wat Srisathhong. blankets.ple for Phra Rahu worshipping in Thailand is in Nakhon uously is also kept in Thai businesses. p. India.3 Worship Rahu is also worshipped by the Dusadh (Paswan) caste found in Bihar. Articles that are donated in order to mitigate negative effects of Rahu include mustard. Madan (1990). Gautam. The most famous temfilled with white sugar balls on which ants are fed contin. Thailand. One complex of this coffee. radishes. Publication Division. sesame.500 years. amongst other wats. is worshipped in The other Phra Rahu statue is in the Wat Yannawa. also exists in other items to propitiate Phra Rahu. Pathom Province. featuring statues of all nine planets.Naganatha Temple at Thirunageswaram. There is a milk abhishekam everyday during Rahu Kaalam to appease Rahu. K. Rahu is also worshipped along with the other 9 planets in Ants are considered of the favoured species of Rahu.[5] 33. lead.5 See also • Ketu • Kirtimukha • Svarbhanu 33. The ritual is a device to secure abundance of sunlight and prosperity by the community.

7. EXTERNAL LINKS • How Does rahu Operate in its Dasha • Hessonite the Jyotish Gemstone of Rahu 107 .33.

He is attended by the nagas. who is mentioned 341 times. Varuna. Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element. see Varuna (disambiguation). As 34. asking him to forgive all sins. This may misrepresent the actual importance of Varuna in early Vedic society due to the focus of the Rigveda on fire and Soma ritual. Lakshmana. and Mitra with the daylight. he angrily begins attacking the oceans with celestial weapons—burning up the waters and killing its life and creatures. he is rather associ. ˈvɑːrə-/. was adopted or made the Faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka. prays to calm Rama’s mind. he is the supreme keeper of order and god of the law. Just as Rama invokes the brahmastra. With his bow and arrow. and establishes a purer. watching every movement of men. The daily Sandhyavandanam ritual of a dvija addresses Varuna in this aspect in its evening routine. chief of the Devas. Varuna has aspects of a solar of the Guardians of the directions.Later art depicts Varuna as a lunar deity. although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e. while Indra receives no mention. as a yellow man ated with the night. As the wearing golden armor and holding a noose or lasso made most prominent Deva. enraged by the God’s arrogance. liberated environment there. explaining that he himself was at a loss to answer Rama’s question. Begging him not to destroy the oceans with the missile. when opposed to Mitra.[1] Sanskrit: Varuṇa व ण. 34.[4] In Vedic religion. the Lord of Oceans. deity though. Varuna promises that he would keep the oceans still for all of Rama’s army to pass. He rides the sea creature Makara. being the king of the Asuras. he suggests that Rama re-direct the weapon at a demonic race that lives in the heart of the ocean. Vedic Varuna is sometimes thought to be a reflex of the same Proto-Indo-European theonym as Greek Ouranos. is a god of the water and of the celestial ocean. considered the most powerful weapon capable of destroying all creation.2 In the Ramayana Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath. and Nala con- 108 . Malay: Baruna). particularly the oceans. The stars are his thousand-eyed spies. is about six times more prominent than Varuna. Varuna is also a god of the dead.Chapter 34 Varuna For other uses.60. Indra.12). he is mostly concerned from a snake. however. Varuna does not respond. RV 7. imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra. The Rigveda and Atharvaveda[3] portrays Varuna as omniscient.1 In the Vedas such. with moral and societal affairs than being a deification of nature. Varuna is also twinned with Indra in the Rigveda. based on similarities between both names and the respective gods’ attributes. and Rama arises on the fourth morning. Rama’s arrows destroys the demons. but no successful derivation has yet been produced that is consistent with known laws of sound change. A Makara is his mount. He bows to Rama. In the Rigveda.3). where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana. and his brother. catching liars in his snares. In Hindu mythology. representing the west.g. as Indra-Varuna (when both cooperate at New Year in re-establishing order [2] ). and can grant immortality.g. He is also one As chief of the Adityas. Varuna (/ˈvɜrʊnə. Rama (an Avatar of Vishnu) performs a penance (tapasya) to Varuna.63. Varuna with his omniscience and omnipotence in the affairs of men has many aspects of a supreme deity.[5] In post-Vedic texts Varuna became the god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. Together with Mitra–originally 'agreement' (between tribes) personified—being master of ṛtá. RV 5. Varuna arises out of the oceans. change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos. fasting and meditating in perfect dhyana for three days and three nights. and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e. as well as a god of law of the underwater world. Soma being closely associated with Indra. The Vanaras (Monkeys) are dazzled and fearful at witnessing the enraged Rama demolish the oceans.

1938:282ff) sees Varuna represented as the Amesha Spenta Asha Vahishta “Best Righteousness”.together with a loss (Gray. 1965:12-13) also follow. IN ZOROASTRIANISM 109 cally interpreted as “deliverer from evil.34. The former is the Avesta’s mythological sea that covers the earth. while Varena is a mythological fourcornered fourteenth region of the world. Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the propitious characteristics of *mitra structs a bridge (Rama’s Bridge) across to Lanka. The other instance appears in a this supported by the younger Avestan dvandvah expresreading of a medieval Zoroastrian reaction to Islam’s 99 sion mithra ahura berezanta “Mithra and the High Lord”. In Kuiper’s view. which then -. Kuiper (IIJ I.4).e.[6] tive that also appears in the Avesta (as baga). It may then be that the Avestan adjective is likewise a cult epithet.(so Boyce 1984:159) recognized as being archaic and in dle Persian varun.4. a dim-witted.3 In contemporary Hinduism common occurrence. Mithra. which is the literal Middle Persian (Mithra the King and Varuna the Master. in the only two occurrences of the term where the late to be of relevance to a reconstruction of what might word does not refer to Ahura Mazda. While Ahura Mazda is uniformly “the mightiest Ahura” (e. described in Rigveda 8. and with whose Indian of halant by typesetting -. Too 33. However. the proper name having been forgotten—a not un34.in the 19th century esoteri. This may be seen to be reflected in Artaxerxes III’s invocation of ahuramazda ura mithra Worship of Varuna is an integral part of the evening ritual baga “Ahura Mazda. easily tricked demon which the other Ahuras are *mitra and *varouna. One of these instances is as Mid.phrase. and there may origin. a term in the ambiguous the latter being unambiguously Ahura Berezainti. justifies his angry assault on the oceans as he followed the correct process of petitioning and worshipping Varuna. the third member of the Ahuric triad jarati script as 'vāruná'. and the Baga” (Boyce. of a dvija Hindu. there are several different theories on what might have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna in Iran: Nyberg (Die Religionen des alten Iran. Rama negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna.9. assuming that he derives from an IndoIranian *vouruna). 1957) proposes that none less than Ahura Mazda is a development from an earlier dvandva *vouruna-mitra.equivalent (also Apam Napat) Vedic Varuna is closely as- . Acta of the Sandhyavandanam. Zimmer (Münchner Studien 1984:187-215) observed that Varuna has the byname (cult epithet) bhaga. This theory is based on Vedic Varuna’s role as the principal protector of rta. Foundations. 2001) sees meaning of his name.g. Yasna Varuna is not attested in the texts of the Avesta. which in Iran is represented by asha [vahishta].4 In Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda) explicitly naming them. Boyce of “backwards"-ness. 1929:15).11). Iranica 21. 1981:59-73). 31. This a predecessor figure existed) in Iran are the appear. is in “common opinion” Zoroastrian tradition. In that list. the poet uses the have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna (if at all such expression mazdasca ahurano (Yasna 30. (See Jhulelal) be a remnant of Varuna in those Gathic passages (generally presumed to have been composed by Zoroaster himself) refers to the ahuras (plural) without (aside from 34.Lord” Apam Napat.10 as the "(revealed) inRaja Ravi Varma Painting . names of Allah. generally understood to mean “the Wise [Mazda] ance of two names like 'Varuna' in the medieval texts of One and the (other) Ahuras”. Assuming that Vedic Varuna is not a purely Indian development (i.” Neither of these terms have any connection to Vedic Varuna. The basis of Kuiper’s proposal is that the equivalent of Avestan mazda “wisdom” is Vedic medhira. popular worship is primarily limited to Hindus of Sindhi Another epithet of Vedic Varuna is asura. an opinion—with extensions—that Dumezil (Tarpeia 1947:33-113) and Widengren (Die Religionen Irans.'Rama Conquers Varuna' sight into the cosmic order” that Varuna grants his devotees. Also unrelated to Vedic Varuna are Avestan Vourukasha and Varena.6. an adjecbut obtaining the result by force for the greater good. “High Pahlavi script was mis-transcribed into Pazand and Gu.

USS Varuna (1861) & USS Varuna (1943) Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Varuna for Varuna. 376–81 • The first Varuna was a screw gunboat launched in 1861 and sunk by enemy action in April 1862. • The second Varuna (AGP-5) was a motorboat tender.32.5 In modern age • Asura • Ahura Mazda 34. The Horse. David W. • INS Varuna • INS Tarangini • INS Sudarshini The dwarf planet candidate 20000 Varuna is named after Varuna. (2010). The Varuna class of ship of Indian Navy are sail training vessels.16. the Indian Neptune. demons) 34. VARUNA • Paravar • Shukra (guru of asuras. Beombay 1983 [3] Shaunakiya Atharvaveda 4. Ancient Idian Cosmopony. INS Varuna is a sail training vessel of the Indian Navy. corresponding to Paippalada 5. Varuna was completed in April 1981 by AlcockAshdown in Bhavnagar. J. 34. the Wheel.110 sociated. pp. and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. B. pp. It can carry 26 cadets. Princeton University Press. Kuiper. They consist of the following three ships. [6] Ramesh Menon (2004).6 See also • Rigvedic deities • Mitra (Vedic) • Adityas • Guardians of the directions • The king and the god . commissioned in 1943 and decommissioned in 1946. [4] http://www. the Vedic god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.jstor. CHAPTER 34.org/stable/1061926?origin= JSTOR-pdf [5] Anthony.7 Notes [1] “Varuna”. [2] F. Varuna. 30–31. The Ramayana.

one main chief god (whose name was cognate with the Vedic Dyaus.) without associated rituals. but often their accounts were confused. Nukirpėja (who cut the cloth of life). Deivės Valdytojos were associated with Dalia and Laima. an epithet of Dievas (the chief god). Alternatively her name is given as Aušra (“dawn”). He looks like an old traveling beggar. songs. Other stars. goddess of Fate and Luck (Laxmi in Hinduism). This section includes the names of gods. the Greek goddess Eos. Malayalam films. stars. and other personages from Lithuanian myths. are less important. the Sun Goddess (Surya in Vedic religion). only briefly mention the Lithuanian gods. folklore. a goddess. • Ašvieniai. By that time the pagan mythology became fragmented and mixed with Christian traditions. were the goddesses who made garments from human’s lives. the . the Moon as their father. The cults of old deities transformed into folklore (individual tales. but they. having the Sun as their mother and.1. Aušrinė has many similarities with Vedic Ushas. and instigated war between people). authored by foreigners and Christians. Germanic Tiwaz and Greek Zeus). and fairy-tales. Audėja (the weaver). For Indian actress in Telugu.1 Names from folklore myths and legends • Vakarinė. She was the goddess of the morning.1 Gods • Dievas. sometimes. Different authors present wildly contradictory reconstructions of Lithuanian pantheon. Gadintoja (who broke the thread). • Praamžius. Epithet of Dievas. • Saulė. Because of such difficulties obtaining data. • Dalia. Earliest written sources. Kannada.Chapter 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures “Indraja” redirects here. and Išskalbėja (the laundress). • Perkūnas. contradictory. the deified soil (Zamin in Persian and Hindi for “land”). goddess of the Evening Star. a daughter of Dievas (“dievaitė"). Lithuania converted to Christianity in 1387. the Morning Star. The list of Lithuanian gods is reconstructed based on scarce written sources and late folklore. • Gabija. • Aušrinė. Tamil. but elements of the Lithuanian mythology survived into the 19th century. a daughter of the Dievas (“dievaitė"). who makes the bed for Saulė. the Moon. Sergėtoja (who scolded Gadintoja. etc. Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine. • Laima. the Thunder. see Indraja (actress). • Žvaigždės (žvaigždė. the pagan religion received more attention from authors. in singular). Collection and recording of folklore began in the 19th century. goddess. and the Roman goddess Aurora. One of the most important stars is Aušrinė. Metančioji (who threw rims of life). the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun (the Vedic Ashwins or the Greek Dioskouri). a goddess. the foster of the Holy Fire. • Dievas Senelis (“Good Old Man”) he is a teacher of people and judge of their morality. goddess of fate and weaving. like Vakarinė or Vakarė (the evening Venus. Pramšans. and heavily influenced by various religious agendas. there is no accepted list of Lithuanian gods. divine or demonic beings. They have similarities with the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns.[1] 111 • Žemyna. • Mėnuo. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”) (Parjanya in Vedic religion). 35. Beginning in the 16th century. legends. Aušrinė's sisters. 35. myths. Praamžimas. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”). Pramžimas. probably of later literary origin. • Deivės Valdytojos (Lithuanian: Governing Goddesses). They were seven sisters: Verpiančioji (who spun the threads of life).

Good spirit. • Vėlės. Sometimes she was considered to be a sister of Laima (luck).112 CHAPTER 35. also The Reaper. Kapinių žmogus.1. spirits. Lapė (fox). Pypalas. • Jievaras. spirits similar to leprechauns. which would later be braided into plaits. Guda. a spirit of lakes • Upinis. Žalisos is on a high mountain (Latvian Debeskalns.dweller or even god of bogs and marshes. • Ragana is an old-looking female or witch. the god of the northeast wind. Kolera. Pavietrė. Bobas. The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with Feast of St.6 Holy places and things Katinas (tomcat). Also it could be described as a black and dark creature living under the carpet or in some dark spot of the house. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES sun). • Pinčiukas. Bubas. wrinkly fingers and red eyes. Kupolinės is also known as Rasos. sometimes appear in mythic stories too. Raudongerklis (red-throated).[2] Her sacral bird is the owl. a spirit of rivers • Auštaras (Auštra). Mostly has dark intentions and powers to control forces of nature. Bubis. He harasses people and tears their hair or stifles them.3 Local and nature spirits • Ežerinis. Indra in Vedic religion). the home of good souls.1. duodame ir tau ([You] gave for us. a household spirit who protects grain. a fairy-like female creature (pixies). The queen of the amber palace Jūratė may be considered a manifestation of the goddess of Sea in this legend. or baubas will come and get you”. Maras (black death or the Plague). Ruginis (spirit of rye). • Bangpūtys. mostly because of its modern poetic interpretation by Maironis. some consider him to be her cousin. • Laumė. 35. John the Baptist (Joninės). . who were • Žiburinis. a scary forest spirit that appears as a running through the fields. Žiezdrė (Mars) and Vaivora (Mercury). Žemele. Žebris. They would also leave some bread and salt under the plait. and would say: Davei manei. the spirit of springtime vegetation and flowers. misery or nightmare.1. There are aakis (green-eyed). Kiškis (hare). very friendly with the Earth and Nature gods.1. Arklys (horse). While cutting grain. an evil spirit with long lean arms. Raudongalvis • Dausos or Dangus. Other names include Kaulinyčia. between two rivers. Compare this with Ziedu māte in Latvian mythology. a household spirit bringing both good and bad luck • Baubas.2 Heroes and heroines • Pajauta. 35. Dau(red-headed). Bubė. Sėlija (Saturn). • Giltinė – goddess of death.1. • Laukų dvasios (spirits of fields). • Slogutis means pain. Papiokė. danced and sang songs. Dizikas. if anyone tried to use them. Paplėštakis. • Javinė. who stands at the gates of paradise and lights the way for those going to paradise. Meška (bear). When crops in the phosphorescent skeleton. spirits of dead human beings. devil. Laukų dvasios include Nuogalis. which subsequently became popular. His function of shining this beacon makes him similar to Aušrinė. the punishment was grave. Indraja (Jupiter. Earlier . A misbehaving child could be told by the parents: “Behave. the god of the seas and storms ––he is two-faced like the Roman god Janus. However. Smauglys (boa). Maumas (bugaboo). a request for the land to continue to be fruitful. people saw them as being the actions of spirits. Mother Earth. To children. having a good knowledge of plants and their use for medical and other purposes. Baubas. Babaužis. Kupala in Polish mythology and Ivan Kupala in Russian mythology 35. gnomes.5 Demonic beings • Aitvaras. Vilkas (wolf). not the pure evil being of Christianity. fields waved in the wind. or Norse Valhalla). • Kupolė. Also can mean fear or bad feelings.4 Various lower beings • Kaukas. • Nykštukas. we are giving for you too). 35. he is the equivalent of the boogeyman of the Englishspeaking countries. the legendary princess of Kernavė • Jūratė and Kastytis are heroes of a Lithuanian legend. Sacrifices to Jievaras are made after the rye harvest. Maro mergos. women picked sacral herbs. 35. In this festival. They probably were old ladies living by the forest. Described as white and blue as the sky itself. a household god who protects grain in barns. women would leave a few grain tufts uncut. but a trickster.

• Teliavelis (Televelis) was a powerful smith who made the sun and threw it to the sky. These deities were supposedly worshiped by King of Lithuania Mindaugas secretly after baptizing. one of the most garden is perpetual but outside its confines is perpowerful deities. Samogitia and all Russia. It may be euphemism of Dievas. Stryjkowski pointed out that Prakorimas was similar to Prussian supreme god Okopirmas.2. meaning leader of gods. Andojas. Master of Dausos is Vėjopatis (Lord and folk tales till the 20th century.3 Maciej Stryjkowski Maciej Stryjkowski (1547–1593) was a Polish– Lithuanian historian and author of Chronicle of Poland. The mediaeval chronicles tells that this custom is very old and was called Sovica. There was mentioned in chronicle that warriors invoke Andajus in battle. Sutvaras (Sotwaros) – god of all cattle .35.2 Names by written sources 35. like K. In this work. Prakorimas (Prokorimos) – the supreme deity. • Medeina (Medeinė) is another euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess. Lithuania. • Žvoruna(Zvoruna) was a euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess like Roman Diana. Vladimir Toporov suggested that it is derived from Lithuanian word kaurai (fur).[6] 7. • Andajus (Andajas. Estonians and others). 35. one Old Prussian and another Lithuanian. The cult of žaltys (grass snake) is associated with the cult of Žemininkas. Her name is connected with wild animals. of the wind) or Vėjas (Wind) who is also one of • Diviriks is thought to be one of Perkūnas euthe oldest gods in Lithuanian mythology. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 113 golden apple-trees in the Dausos garden. 35.2. • Sovijus in 13th-century Russian chronicles was a person who introduced the pagan custom of burning bodies after death. etc. Kauriraris (Chaurirari) – deity of war and warhorses. Russian chronicles are considered the best source of information about ancient Lithuanian pantheon worshiped by feodals and military. provider of crops 5. • Nonadievis (Nunadievis. according to studies by Gintaras Beresnevičius. 4. while Wilhelm Mannhardt argued it stems from karas (war). Day in the • Perkūnas was the god of thunder. While Auštaras shows the way for good souls. There was mentioned in chronicle that she is a bitch. Lasicki. by some scholars etimologized as Numadievis) is incorrectly written name of supreme god or just another euphemism.2. He listed 16 Lithuanian gods:[5] 1. Martynas Mažvydas in his Latin introduction to Catechismusa Prasty Szadei (1547) urged the people to abandon their pagan ways and mentioned the following gods:[3][4] • Perkūnas (Percuno) – god of thunder • Laukosargas (Laucosargus) – god of grains and other agricultural plants • Žemėpatis (Semepates) – god of cattle and other farm animals • Aitvaras and kaukas (Eithuaros and Caucos) – evil spirits 35. 2. Sovica was practicated not only by Lithuanians but also by other pagan tribes (Livonians. Stryjkowski elaborated that people used to sacrifice white cocks to Prakorimas.1 Earliest Russian chronicles Some names from Lithuanian mythology are also found in Russian chronicles of the 13th century. another for pagan priests (Lithuanian: žynys). Žemininkas (Ziemennik) – god of land and agriculture.) was mentioned in medieval chronicles as supreme deity. Auštaras and Vėjopatis are keepers of Dausos’s gates (Dausų Vartai). The name etymology is unclear. This myth survived in folk tales in the beginning of the 20th century. Krūminė (Kruminie Pradziu Warpu) – deity of ears. Vėjas phemisms. Some scholars. is identical to Vayu of Hinduism. Stryjkowski provided two lists of gods. The flesh would be dividing into three pieces: one for peasants. Būga tried to prove that Televelis is incorrectly written Kalvelis (smith diminutive in Lithuanian). Medeina also was mentioned in the 16th century by J. Rūgutis (Ruguczis) – god of fermentation and fermented foods 3. She was worshiped by King Mindaugas and represented military interest of warriors.2. and third for burning. Perkūnas survived in people faith petual night. it means that her zoomorphic shape is female dog. Teliavelis has connections with Finnish Ilmarinen. Lietuvonis (Lituwanis) – god of rain 6.2 Martynas Mažvydas Vėjas (Vėjopatis) blows bad souls into oblivion.

mosses and lichens 15. Kelių dievas (Kielu Dziewos) – god of roads. Algis 33. other Sarmatians. Pyzius (Pizio) – god of spouses 13. and dances in his honor lasted from May 25 to June 25. Audros – god of storm 32. Pušaitis or Puškaitis (Puszajtis) – deity of land. Łasicki obtained most of his information from Łaszkowski. Prigirstytis (Prigirstitis) – can hear whispers 23. the academic opinion on the list ranges from a valuable resource to a practical joke designed to poke fun of Christian saints through an inverted mirror. Perkūnas (Percunos) – god of thunder god 31. Derived from ežeras (lake).[11] 3. Simonaitis and Ventis Rekičionis (Simonaitem. Gulbis (Gulbi Dzievos) – the good spirit of every human. Krikštas (Kriksthos) – protector of tombstones[9] 2. Žemėpatis (Zemopacios) 30.4 Jan Łasicki Jan Łasicki (Lasicius) was a Polish Protestant activist. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES 8. People did not offer sacrifices to him as he was a free spirit. Her other name was Aušrinė. Therefore. Ganiklis (Goniglis Dziewos) – god of herds and shepherds 14. songs. Priparšis (Priparscis) 27. Apydėmė (Apidome) – deity of changed residence. Łasicki was also not intimately familiar with Lithuanian culture or language. written ca. Lavvkpatimo 26. Bubilas – god of honey and bees 9. Valgina (Walgina) – god of cattle[9] 1. Tavalas (Tavvals) – deity of physical strength. representing everyday household items. 29. The list contained very minor deities. Karvaitis Ėraitinis (Kurvvaiczin Eraiczin) – deity of calves and lambs[9] 21. Derived from Lithuanian word aukštas (high). Derintojas (Derfintos) 24. a Polish lesser noble who worked as a royal land surveyor. 15. Lazdona (Lasdona) – goddess of hazelnuts 5. Gardūnytis (Gardunithis) – protector of newlyborn lambs[10] 22. 19. Didis Lado (Dzidzis Lado) – the great god. Datanus 11. Aukštėjas (Auxtheias Vissagistis) – an euphemism of the supreme god. Also it could be a euphemism of Vakarė. The name is also known from hand-written collection of sermons from 1573. Aušra (Ausca) – the morning star (Venus). Upinis dievas (Upinis Dewos) – god of rivers 8. He wrote a treatise on idolatry About gods of Samogitians. Orthus 18.[7] 12.114 CHAPTER 35. Bežlėja (Bezlea) 9. Ežerinis (Ezernim) – spirit or deity of lakes. 10. Kirnis (Kirnus) – local god of cherries 12. Kremata – god of hogs[9] 13. Kerpyčius and Šilinytis (Kierpiczus and Siliniczus) – gods of forest. Sidžius. husband of Austėja 6. This 18-page treatise contained a lists of 76 Lithuanian gods with brief description of their functions. Šventpaukštinis (Swieczpunscynis) – god of all domesticated and wild birds. Festivities. Deities mentioned by Jan Łasicki were:[8] 16. Bubilas (Babilos) – household god of bees. Medeina (Modeina et Ragaina) – goddess of forest and hunting 14.2. Brėkšta (Breksta) – goddess of twilight. 1582 and published in 1615). Šeimos dievas (Seimi Dewos) – god of family 7. Ventis Rekicziouum) – spirits worshiped by individual noble families 20. Sidzium. 17. Ligyčius (Ligiczus) 11. There are doubts whether it was an actual god. living in bushes of sambucus and commanding chthonic dwarfs barstukas 35. Bentis 25. Gintaras Beresnevičius noted that this deity could be the same medieval Teliavelis. Žemyna (Zemina) – goddess of land and agriculture . Ratainyčia (Ratainicza) – god of horses[6] 28. Kriukis (Krukis) – deity of pigs 4. 34. guardian angel 10. and false Christians (De diis Samagitarum caeterorumque Sarmatarum et falsorum Christianorum. trade and travel 16.

Aitvaras (Aitvvaros) 38. Skalsa. it could be a god of birches and birch sap. Atlaibas (Atlaibos) – no function recorded by Łasicki. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 115 35. Raugo Žemėpatis (Rauguzemapati) – deity of sourdough. Guboi and Tvverticos 67. 53. Dugnai – spirit of flour 52. Klamals – no function recorded by Łasicki. Ligyčius / Lygėjus. Luibegeldas 62. and other gods 59. • Žalius (Zallus) – god of disagreement • Žėlius (Zelus) – god of grass • Šulininis (Szullinnijs) – god of wells • Bangpūtys. 55. Ublanyčia (Vblanicza) – patron of beggars[13] Polish historian Theodor Narbutt wrote the ten-volume work History of the Lithuanian Nation (Dzieje starożytne narodu litewskiego) between 1835 and 1841. 56.6 Theodor Narbutt 50. Giltinė. The first Pesseias volume contained a description of Lithuanian mythology. determines the fate of people. Matergabiae • Praamžius (Pramżimas) – highest god. Salaus – no function recorded by Łasicki. were:[12] 44. Vetustis 66. Dvargantis (Dvvargonth) – no function recorded by Łasicki.5 Matthäus Prätorius (broom).[12] 46. Karvaitis. modern historians have accused Narbutt of falsifying historical facts and reporting speculations. Bičbirbis. Beržulis (Birzulis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. 45. 42. leaven and fermentation • Ukapirmas (Okkapirmas) – preceded time. Kaukas (Kaukie) 39. Gabija (Gabie) – goddess of household fire • Perkūnas (Perkunas) – thunder god 61. Jaučių Baubis. Tiklis – no function recorded by Łasicki. spark.2. Polengabia 51. Veliuona (Vielona) – goddess of death 68. The name is derived from šluota 35. his feast is celebrated on December 25 60. Biržulis / Beržulis. Prigirstytis / Girystis. world. Deuoitis 65. Kelio dievas / Kelukis 47. Numeias 35. Smik smik per velėną (Smik Smik Perleuenu) – a phrase rather than a being 36. The name is possibly derived from šerti (feed). Ziemennik .[12] Deities mentioned by Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704) 43.2. Austėja (Austheia) – household goddess of bees. Srutis and Miechutele – deities of paint and color[12] 41. Vėjopatis.35. • Drebkulis and Magyla . Ėraitis. Narbutt claimed that he was equivalent to Auxtejas Wissagistis mentioned by Łasicki and to Roman Saturn 63.Prussian Lithuanian 48. Vaižgantas (Waizganthos) – a god of flax • Viršaitis (Wirszajtos) – protected household. Ežiagalis (Ezagulis) – god of death 37. often presented as wife of Bubilas 64. Gyvatė (Giuoitos) – black snake (see also žaltys) 40. domestic animals. Šluotražis (Szlotrazis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Užpelenė (Aspelenie) 57. 54. Gota. Warpulis 69.2. Thus. • Gabjauja (Gabvartas)[14] 49. Based on etymology. Šeryčius (Siriczus) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Trotytojas kibirkščių (Tratitas Kirbixtu) – deity of However. Budintojas (Budintaia) Male deities 58. fire some gods mentioned only by Narbutt and unknown from Alabathis other sources are usually treated as a figure of author’s imagination.

afterlife • Pergrubė (Pergrubie) – goddess of spring. storm. doctors • Atrimpas (Atrimpos) – god of sea and water • Gardaitis (Gardeoldiis) – god of wind. protector of ships • Poklius (Poklus) – god of death and underworld • Kriukis (Krugis) – god of smiths • Žiemininkas (Ziemienikas) – god of earth. harvest. wife of Poklius • Luobo gelda (Lajbegelda) – goddess of knowledge and rumors • Alabatis – goddess of flax • Mėšlų boba (Mahslu baba) – goddess of garbage • Aušra (Ausssra) – morning goddess • Budintoja – spirit that wakes sleeping people . and good luck • Lietuva (Liethua) – goddess of freedom. riches. agriculture • Valginė (Walgina) – goddess protecting domestic animals • Nijolė (Nijola) – mistress of the underworld. similar to an angel • Šneibratas (Sznejbrato) – god of birds and hunting • Kibirai (Kabiry) – a trinity Female deities • Praurimė (Praurime) – goddess of sacred fire. pleasure.116 CHAPTER 35. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES • Kovas (Kawas) – god of war • Ragutis – god of beer. springs • Ratainyčia (Ratajniczu) – goddess protecting horses • Krūminė (Krumine) – goddess of grain. flowers. poets. and darkness • Patelas (Patelo) – flying god of air. vodka. gardens • Milda – goddess of love. joy • Veliuona (Wellona) – goddess of eternity. she was served by vaidilutės • Lada (Lado) – the great goddess. Rasos festival is dedicated to her • Budtė (Budte) – goddess of wisdom • Laima (Lajma) – goddess of fate • Pelenų Gabija (Polengabia) – goddess of fireplaces • Moterų Gabija (Matergabia) – goddess of bread and bakery • Perkūnaitėlė (Perkunatele) – wife of Perkūnas • Pilvytė (Pilwite) – goddess of money. National Museum in Warsaw • Bezelea – evening goddess • Brėkšta (Brekszta) – goddess of darkness and dreams • Kruonis (Kronis) – goddess of time • Užsparinė (Usparinia) – goddess of land borders • Verpėja (Werpeja) – weaver of the thread of life • Gondu – goddess of weddings • Upinė (Upine) – goddess of rivers. mead • Santvaras or Sotvaras (Sotwaros) – god of daylight. courtship Goddess Milda by Kazimierz Alchimowicz (1910).

35.3. SEE ALSO

117

• Austėja (Austheja) – goddess of bees

35.2.8 Other names

• Ragutiene Pati (Ragutenapati) – wife of Ragutis

The names, that were more marginal in Lithuanian
mythology or less known from existing sources are put
here. In fact they denote some spirits or local deities, that
don't play a main role in the mythology of Lithuanians.

• Žemės Motina (Zemmes mahti) – goddess of underground, responsible for lost items
• Gaila (Gajla) – spirit torturing people and animals
• Neris – nymph of Neris River

• Blizgulis, a god of snow. His name means “that who
glitters.”
• Junda, Goddess of War

• Dugnė (Dugna) – nymph of rivers

• Baubis, a household god of meat and cattle.

• Ragana – goddess of trees

• Divytis, a god-like hero of fishermen legends. Fishermen at sea sang songs about Divytis.

• Lazdona – goddess of hazelnut

• Gardaitis, a god (a spirit?) of ships and sailors.

• Medziojna – goddess of forests

• Jagaubis, a household spirit of fire and the furnace.

• Pajauta – worshiped woman, daughter of Duke
Kernius, wife of Živinbudas

• Rasa, Kupolė's and Kaupolis’ daughter. She is the
goddess of summer’s greenage and flowers.

• Birutė (Biruta) – worshiped woman, wife of
Kęstutis

• Mokas, a stone with an ability to teach people,
sometimes they are found in families - with wife
Mokienė and children Mokiukas

35.2.7

Other written sources

35.3 See also

This section contains those names of Lithuanian and
Prussian gods or other mythical beings that are mentioned
in old treatises on history or philosophy, sometimes accompanied by brief descriptions, and which are known
from a few independent sources or from their counterparts under different names in later collections of myths
and tales.
• Dimstipatis (mentioned by Jokūbas Lavinskis), is a
masculine deity (genius loci). It is a household god,
the guardian of houses and caretaker of the hearth.
People sacrificed roosters and black hens to the deity. The birds were boiled; later people would gather
around the kettle and eat the birds. The bones were
burned. Sometimes Dimstipatis is reconstructed as
a god of housewives, to whom pigs were sacrificed.
Dimstipatis was also seen as a power protecting from
fires.[3]
• Dirvolika, Nosolus (Jesuit reports from 1605)[15]

• Baukuris (Kraziu kolegijos)[16]
• Velinas (mentioned by Konstantinas Sirvydas)

[2]

• Laima (Daniel Klein in 1666)[17]

• Lithuanian mythology
• Slavic mythology
• Romuva (temple)

35.4 References
[1] “Praamžius”. Mitologijos enciklopedija, vol. 2. Vilnius.
Vaga. 1999. 291 p.
[2] Balsys, Rimantas (2005).
“Prūsų ir lietuvių mirties (požemio, mirusiųjų) dievybės: nuo Patulo iki
Kaulinyčios” (PDF). Lietuvininkai ir lietuviai. Etninė
kultūra (in Lithuanian) IV: 27–51.
[3] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (2006-12-16). “Laukpatis ir
Dimstipatis. Lauko ir namų dievai”. Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (825). ISSN 1392-7760.
[4] Adalbert Bezzenberger, ed. (1874). Litauische und Lettische Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Göttingen: Robert
Peppmüler. p. 3.

• Pagirnis (Jesuit reports from 1605)[3]

• Javinė (Jawinne by Jacob Brodowski)[15]

• Latvian mythology

[5] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (August 2006). “M. Strijkovskio
“Kronikos” lietuvių dievų sąrašas (1)". Metai (in Lithuanian) 8–9 (89). ISSN 0134-3211.
[6] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). "Žirgų (arklių) dievybės rašytiniuose šaltiniuose”. Žemaičių žemė (in Lithuanian) (3):
17–19. ISSN 1392-2610.

118

CHAPTER 35. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES

[7] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). “Lada (Didis Lado) in Baltic
and Slavic Written Sources”. Acta Baltico-Slavica. Archeologia, Historia, Ethnographia, et Linguarum Scientia
(30): 597–609. ISSN 0065-1044.
[8] Łasicki, Jan (1868) [1615]. De diis samagitarum libellus (in Latin). Riga: J. Bacmeister. pp. 10–16. OCLC
60605501.
[9] Mitchel, B. W. (April 1919). “The Early Centuries of
Kultur”. The Classical Journal 7 (14): 421.
[10] Paulauskytė, Teresė (2004-08-21). “Ką garbino žemaičiai
XVI amžiuje dievus ar demonus?". Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (713). ISSN 1392-7760.
[11] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Apydėmė".
Encyclopedia Lituanica I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas
Kapočius. pp. 113–114. LCC 74-114275.
[12] Balsys, Rimantas (2007). “Kai kurios Motiejaus Pretorijaus hipotezės ir jų interpretacijos XX a. pabaigos – XXI
a. pradžios mitologų darbuose” (PDF). Res Humanitariae
(in Lithuanian) I: 76–94. ISSN 1822-7708.
[13] Razauskas, Dainius (2009-12-04). “Krosnis – aukuras,
namų šventovė". Šiaurės Atėnai (in Lithuanian) (967).
ISSN 1392-7760.
[14] http://www.aidai.us/index.php?option=com_content&
task=view&id=892&Itemid=127
[15] Ona Verseckienė, ed. (2004). “Namų dievai. Baltiškieji
namų dievai”. Lietuvių etninė kultūra. Namai etninėje
kultūroje (in Lithuanian). Elektroninės leidybos namai.
ISBN 9955-606-04-5.
[16] Zinkus
[17] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Laima”.
Encyclopedia Lituanica III. Boston, Massachusetts:
Juozas Kapočius. pp. 269–270. LCC 74-114275.

35.5 Further reading
• Lithuanian Religion and Mythology by Gintaras
Beresnevičius
• Jūrate Baranova et al., eds. (2001). “Chapter iv:
Lithuanian mythology by Gintaras Beresnevičius”.
Lithuanian philosophy: persons and ideas Lithuanian philosophical studies, ii. Cultural heritage and
contemporary change series IVa, Eastern and Central Europe, volume 17. The Council For Research
In Values And Philosophy. ISBN 1-56518-137-9.
Retrieved 2007-09-07.
• Gintaras Beresnevičius on periodisation and Gods in
Lithuanian mythology.
• Algirdas Julien Greimas, “Of Gods and Men: Studies in Lithuanian Mythology”, Indiana Univ. Press
(November 1992)

Chapter 36

Hine-nui-te-pō
Hine-nui-te-pō (“Great woman of night") is a goddess of
night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori
mythology. She is a daughter of Tāne. She fled to the
underworld because she discovered that Tāne, whom she
had married, was also her father. The red colour of sunset
comes from her.

36.2 See also
• Vagina dentata
• Persephone
• Incest
• Māui (Māori mythology)

36.1 Myths

36.3 References

All of the children of Rangi and Papa were male. It
was Tāne who first felt the need for a wife and began to
look for a companion. His mother showed him how to
make a female form from red earth. Then Tāne breathed
life into Hine-ahuone, the earth-formed-maid, and mated
with her. Their child was Hine-ata-uira, maid-of-theflashing-dawn (a.k.a. Hine-tītama), and Tāne took her
to wife (Biggs 1966:449).
One day, while Tāne was away, Hine-ata-uira began to
wonder who her father was. She was disgusted and
ashamed when she heard that her husband was also her
father, and she ran away. When Tāne came back he was
told that she had run off to the spirit-world, and he quickly
followed after. But he was stopped from entering by Hine
herself, in her new role as goddess of the underworld.
“Go back, Tāne”, she said to him, “and raise our children. Let me remain here to gather them in.” So Tāne
came back to the upper world, while Hine stayed below,
waiting only for Māui to bring death into the world, and
begin the never-ending procession of mortals to her realm
(Biggs 1966:449).
Māui did the last of his tricks on her, attempting to make
mankind immortal by trying to crawl through her body,
entering in her vagina and leaving by her mouth while
she slept, to reverse the path of birth. But one of his bird
friends, the Pīwakawaka, laughed at the ridiculousness of
the situation, seeing Māui turned into a worm squirming to enter the goddess, and woke her. To punish the
demi-god, she crushed him with the obsidian teeth in her
vagina; Māui was the first man to die (Alpers 1964:70).
Her other husband is her paternal uncle Ruaumoko.
119

• B.G. Biggs, 'Maori Myths and Traditions’ in
A.H. McLintock (editor), Encyclopaedia of New
Zealand, 3 Volumes.
(Government Printer:
Wellington), 1966, II:447-454.
• Anthony Alpers, Maori Myths and Tribal Legends.
Anckland : Longman Paul, 1964. ISBN 0-58271674-8.

As a proper noun. Sigurd asks her name. and she gives him a “memory-drink” of a drinking horn full of mead. The first verse of this prayer features a reference to the “sons of Dagr” and the “daughter of Nótt": 37. “the masker by the mighty Powers”.1. including her three marriages. and the night and its tides. grandmother of Thor. Nótt’s third marriage was to the god Dellingr and this resulted in their son Dagr. In Norse mythology. written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. after the valkyrie Sigrdrífa is woken from her sleep curse by the hero Sigurd. and the Prose Edda.[3] In stanza 30 of the poem Alvíssmál. In both the Poetic Edda. the new and waning moons the beneficent powers created. “unlight” by the jötunn.[4] In Sigrdrífumál. but night was of Nörvi born. Hail to the Æsir! Hail to the Asyniur! Hail to the bounteous earth! Words and wisdom give to us noble twain. while the Prose Edda features information about Nótt’s ancestry.[2] Nótt rides her horse in this 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. In stanza 25. “joy-of-sleep” by the elves. the personified day (although some manuscript variations list Jörð as Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother instead). compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. and healing hands while we live![5] . “darkness” by the gods. Odin states that the horse Hrímfaxi “draws every night to the beneficent gods” and that he lets foam from his bit fall every morning. Vafþrúðnir responds: Delling hight he who the day’s father is. while dwarves call her “dream-Njörun" (meaning “dream-goddess”). to count the years for men. and then Sigrdrifa says a heathen prayer.Chapter 37 Nótt 37.1 Poetic Edda In stanza 24 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál.1 Attestations 120 Hail to the Day! Hail to the sons of Day! To Night and her daughter hail! With placid eyes behold us here. Nótt (Old Norse “night”[1] ) is night personified. the god Odin (disguised as "Gagnráðr") asks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir from where the day comes. Alvíss responds that night is referred as “night” by mankind. the word nótt appears throughout Old Norse literature. In stanza 14 of the Vafþrúðnismál. the god Thor asks the dwarf Alvíss to tell him what night is called in each of the nine worlds. whom "Nórr" birthed. Nótt is listed as the daughter of a figure by the name of Nörvi (with variant spellings) and is associated with the horse Hrímfaxi. and here sitting give us victory. from which dew comes to the valleys.

Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Larrington glosses draumNjörun (Jónsson (1931:84. • Faulkes.[9] and in chapter 64. Finnur (1931). Lexicon poeticum. [9] Faulkes (1995:137).) (1999).[8] Chapter 58 states that “Hrimfaxi or Fiorsvartnir draw the night”.[7] • Orchard. Finally. Nótt’s second marriage was to Annar. Nótt marries the god Dellingr.) (2006).2 Notes [1] Orchard (1997:120). scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt. W and T. ISBN 0-460-87616-3 Edda. Andy (1997). The results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition”. Jörð. Nótt is described as “black and swarthy”. [4] Translation of all of this section minus “dream-Njörun” from Larrington (1996:113). ISBN 0-19283946-2 • Thorpe. Penguin Classics. • Jónsson. placed them into the sky with a chariot and a horse each. R.3. offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts. Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. • Larrington.) (1995). and the couple have Dagr. Jesse (Trans. [2] Thorpe (1907:13). Benjamin (Trans. [5] Thorpe (1907:181). [3] Larrington (1996:42). [10] Faulkes (1995:144). Old Norse “dream-Njörun”) as “dream-goddess”. [8] Faulkes (1995:90). including “daughter of Nótt”. “Hinn fagri foldar son” as published in Gripla XIX. The Prose Edda. the enthroned figure of High states that Nótt is the daughter of a jötunn from Jötunheimr by the name of "Norfi or Narfi". . Odin took Nótt and her son Dagr. The Elder Edda of Saemund Sigfusson. Carolyne (Trans.[10] 37. and foam from her horse Hrímfaxi’s bit sprinkles the earth. and has had three marriages. • Haukur Thorgeirsson (2008). either Jörð or Nátt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. Nótt is again personified. [6] Byock (2005:19). Everyman.2 Prose Edda 121 37. REFERENCES 37.) (1907). Dagr. and the two produced a son by the name of Auðr. Cassell. The Poetic Edda. Norrœna Society. In chapter 10. means of referring to Jörð are provided. [7] Haukur (2008:159—168). Anthony (Trans. U. L. “nótt” is stated as one of various words for time and a version of the Alvíssmál passage is cited. Nótt rides before Dagr. Her first marriage was with Naglfari. and they ride around the earth every 24 hours. and argues that “the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT. Haukur details that “the oldest manuscript. resulting in their daughter Jörð. the personified earth.3 References In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning. Oxford World’s Classics. pages 159—168.[6] • Byock. In other words. who takes after his “father’s people” in brightness and fairness. and Dellingr. S. ISBN 0-304-34520-2 In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál.1. Møllers bogtrykkeri. cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother”. depending on the manuscript.37. ISBN 0-14-044755-5 However.

Zwezda. protection.Chapter 38 Zorya This article is about mythology.[2] She is a patroness of horses. but other accounts cast both Zorya as virgin goddesses. Zvezda Vechernitsa. In some myths. Zore = “dawn".1 Morning Star The Morning Star is Zorja Utrennjaja (from Russian utro. she is described as the wife of Perun and would accompany her husband into battle.[2][3] 38. bassoon and string quartet by Australian composer Julian Cochran. Večernica). see desses. the Zorja (alternately. the “Midnight Star”. . meaning “evening". and Slavs would pray to her each morning as the sun rose. the North. Zvezda Danica. 38. Zora. Večernja Zvezda.2 Evening Star The Evening Star is Zorja Vechernjaja (from Russian vecher. Zarja. Večernjača. In other accounts. an oceanic island paradise where the Sun dwelt along with his attendants. Zorja Utrennjaja. At dusk. Some myths described both her and her sister Zorya Utrennyaya as the wives of the moon god Myesyats and the mothers of the stars. exorcism. who closes the palace gates at dusk. Zornička). For other uses. who is chained to the star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor. meaning “morning".[3] • The Zorja appear in the novel American Gods by English author Neil Gaiman. The Zorja represent the Morning Star and the Evening Star. Danica = “star”) are the two guardian goddesses. Simargl. Zorja Vechernjaja—the Evening Star—closes the palace gates once more after his return. moon goddess. She was associated with the planet Venus or Mercury. Zornica. and by him bore all of the stars. Gwiazda Wieczorna. the “little bear”. A third sister is described in some versions of the myth. Zvezda Dennitsa. some have both Zorya as virgin god122 • Hecate • List of night deities • Zaria (goddess) • Hati and Sköll.3 In art and literature • Zorja Vechernyaya is a sextet for oboe. both she and Zorja Vechernjaja were the wives of the male Myesyats. two wolves that chase the sun and the moon. who in some myths is described as their father. the hound will devour the constellation and the universe will end. Gwiazda Poranna. who opens the gates of Dažbog’s palace each morning so that the Sun may begin his journey. Zvezda Zornitsa. If the chain ever breaks. Zwezda Wieczernica. 38. and the planet Venus. Rannia Zoria. Zwezda Wieczoniaia. Here Gaiman includes a third sister. also known as Večernja Zvijezda. while describing Myesyats as an unrelated female Zorya. The Zorja serve the sun god Dažbog. Vechirnia Zoria. opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sun-chariot’s departure. Zvezda. after sunset and Dažbog’s return. known as the Auroras. In this role she was known to protect those warriors she favoured against death by letting down her veil. Zvezda Vechernaya. The home of the Zorja was sometimes said to be on Bouyan (or Buyan). West and East winds. the moon god. but Gaiman has stated he invented her for his work.[2] However.[4][5] • The Zorya appear in Kevin Hearne's series of urban fantasy novels The Iron Druid Chronicles. Zwezda Dnieca. also known as Zvijezda Danica. In Slavic mythology. Zorja Polunochnaya. the Morning Star.4 See also Conflicting accounts exist of her marital situation. Zory. They guard and watch over the doomsday hound.[1] 38.

Retrieved 5 August 2011. p.5 References [1] Dixon-Kennedy. [5] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend.5.A. pp. ABC-CLIO. [3] Deck-Partyka. [2] Dixon-Kennedy. AuthorHouse. Retrieved 5 August 2011.38. Mike (1998).A. 48. Alicja (2006). 321–325. Mike (1998). 4 August 2011. [4] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. 281. a Unique Country & Its People. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. 123 . ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-42591838-5. p. REFERENCES 38. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. 6/28/11 pt2 (YouTube). 4 August 2011. Poland. 6/28/11 pt3 (YouTube).

KnightRider. 83d40m. Tide rolls. AvicAWB. Captain panda. Flyer22. Phlyaristis. Waacstats. YurikBot. SatyrTN. Fraulein451. Deucalionite. BotMultichill. NickSchweitzer. Dbachmann. Gilgamesh~enwiki. Nave.wikipedia. PbBot. PsychoBassChick. Polylerus. LadyofShalott.6. MaxSem on AWB wheels. Citation bot. Bblakeney. ICE77. Addbot. PamD. Zerokitsune. T@nn. Bobrednek. Sietse Snel.org/wiki/Nephthys?oldid=656931587 Contributors: Andre Engels. Sotakeit. Deflective. Waidanian. KGasso. ۩۩. RoyBoy. Excoriator. Hijiri88. Betaeleven. J. Mar2194. T@nn. Qtgeo. DCLXVI. Editor2020. TXiKiBoT. Amaury. Temporaluser. Meredyth. Drbreznjev. Gerrit. Xx-Alexia-xX. LapisLazuli9. Quota. MaxSem. WeggeBot. Nusarikaya. Bridgetfox. DVdm. Mirokado. Тиверополник. Asarelah. Mintrick. El C. Trekphiler. Koavf. Jumbuck. CatherineMunro. TuHan-Bot. Unctions Unit. Dustynyfeathers. Besieged. Leprof 7272. Dzordzm. Infrogmation. Luckas-bot. I dream of horses. Robin Hood~enwiki. Gtrmp. Biruitorul. Legobot. 999~enwiki. 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Apacheneo. Franko2nd. Glenn. Citation bot. CalicoCatLover. Art LaPella. RussBot. J. Ares teen of Chaos. Evilbunnie. Xqbot. P Aculeius. Xqbot.

Robbot. Gtrmp. TheRasIsBack. VAcharon. DocWatson42. Aeden:P. SieBot. RandyS0725.anacondabot.. Stwalkerster. Den fjättrade ankan~enwiki. Captain panda. Kimse. Jfire. Jononmac46. Looxix~enwiki. MelbourneStar. Y256. Kyoko. Nabm. Yobot. PhilKnight. Caltas. Ericl. SieBot.org/wiki/Trivia%20(mythology)?oldid=631593202 Contributors: IZAK. Colin256. Nor'westerner. Griffinofwales. Epbr123. Interiot. Xanzzibar. Metodicar. Kbh3rd. Mclay1. Maurice Carbonaro. Cjtsmith. Daderot. Bryan Derksen. Haymouse. Luckas-bot. RodC. Arichnad. Wetman. RandyS0725. Danrok. JAnDbot.org/wiki/Philotes%20(mythology)?oldid=651895038 Contributors: The Anome. Deucalionite. Lord Emsworth. Deucalionite. Urg writer. Recognizance. Abyca. Reidlophile. Yobot. RedePixie1. Tanner Swett. Pat9118. Silence. LilHelpa. Wetman. MrBill3. Clifflandis. Gilliam. L Kensington. Minesweeper. Maxis ftw. Addbot. Missvain. Theotherness. Legobot. Bollyjeff. Aecis. Andre Engels. The Singing Badger. Ptolemy Caesarion. Piano non troppo. Lemmikkipuu. ClueBot NG. Ruby Murray. T@nn. Slightsmile. Grimey109. Shapesjr. Panairjdde. John of Reading. Harlem Baker Hughes. Ricky81682. WeggeBot. Sintaku. Manning Bartlett. ClueBot. Donner60. Addbot. Zujua. Gerakibot. Jojalozzo. 1qazxswer. Arjayay. NjardarBot. B. Demosthanes. CalicoCatLover. Captin Shmit. CalicoCatLover. Luckas-bot. Tazmaniacs. Wayne Slam. Rich Farmbrough. ᏳᎴᏂ. Tbrittreid. Ignoge. Dexbot. Lectiodifficilior. Almondsouffle. Asarelah. VenomousConcept.org/wiki/Summanus?oldid=651508724 Contributors: TUF-KAT. AssassinCat. KocjoBot~enwiki. SoSivr. Arthena. LonebikeroftheApcocolypse. Hmains. Ow. Debresser. 17Drew. Miquonranger03. H4x. Joshua111123. Waacstats. TaBOT-zerem. Flyer22. YurikBot. Stesmo. Stemonitis. Rtkat3. Leonard G. Chustuck. UncleBubba. Fraulein451. Drilnoth. Mario777Zelda. TXiKiBoT. Nagelfar. NodnarbLlad. WikitanvirBot. Galoubet. Wieldthespade. NickSchweitzer. Eubot. CONTRIBUTORS. DanEdmonds. Wayland. Flyer22. Ginsuloft. Startswithj. Eranb. Bobo192. FF2010. Erik9bot. Seaphoto. Womaningreen. FrescoBot. Txomin. Kricxjo. SieBot. J36miles. Oskar71. Aseneath. Laterensis. Sitearm. Schneelocke. KylieTastic. Tylko. Shadowcat2012. JarlaxleArtemis. Wahrmund. Renato Caniatti~enwiki. Daylight15. Bovineboy2008. Magioladitis. The Great Honker. Jack Greenmaven. Dainomite.wikipedia. DarthBotto.delanoy. Botteville. Deucalionite. Zigger. Koavf. Feyandstrange. Kriiiiis. Oskar71. Erik9bot. FlaBot. Sannse. Deor. Stemonitis. Fullcrygal. Séphora Nyht. Xqbot. Paul August. Manytexts. Moonmage. Aeonx. Ugajin. T@nn. CutOffTies. Soulbot. Omnipedian. Barticus88. Mentifisto. LeonardoRob0t. Martarius. Donaldduck100. Nymf. O. Webclient101. ClueBot NG. Jim1138. Mogism. Jem supreme and Anonymous: 162 • Diana (mythology) Source: http://en. MalafayaBot.wikipedia. the pain!. Davidiad and Anonymous: 11 • Achlys Source: http://en. Che!. Almabot. Auslli. MTSbot~enwiki. Unoknows. Arakunem. Tripps. Lunagoth. GrouchoBot. AS. Victoriaearle. Boing! said Zebedee. Tucci528. Norman21. Christosjannes. Aircorn. Meiskam. DavidLeighEllis. Svetozar. RjwilmsiBot. Haploidavey. Thebomee. Gdr. Longbow4u. Vrenator. Midnightblueowl. Ccady. Aldrasto. Alice beaty. AvicAWB. LordCo Centre. LeaveSleaves. Gwen-chan. Rubinbot. Rembrandt. FrescoBot. Locobot. Seaphoto. Z10x. Avoided. Midasminus. Ballon845. Sue Gardner. Mattis. Lights. Frze. ONUnicorn. CocuBot. Pinethicket. Juliancolton. Res2216firestar. Gadykozma. C+C. Pmanderson. Edward321. Luxdormiens. Shikai shaw. Magioladitis. Dbachmann. God of dreams.org/wiki/Hypnos?oldid=657655497 Contributors: Bryan Derksen. Porsche997SBS. Bruce1ee. SmackBot. Msi800. Lunarblade. Thijs!bot. Yopienso. Busterbros. NunoAgostinho. Alex S. GregKaye. Ost316. JAnDbot. Discospinster. Salmanazar. Obradovic Goran. Fæ. Davidiad. LucienBOT. 999~enwiki. Pliny. PrincessofLlyr. Soporaeternus. Novaya9. . Fighting Fefnir. Tarquin.wikipedia. Snowded. Gidonb. Technopat. Gabriel leonardo. Amaury. Omnipaedista. Drinibot. Infrogmation. Heran et Sang'gres. SmackBot. EmausBot. Peter Flass.org/wiki/Achlys?oldid=629738635 Contributors: MPF. SJP. Fordmadoxfraud. Modkarma. Orphan Wiki. Cydebot. Mitrius.6. Xact. SchreiberBike. Darklilac. Bpeps. Dalkeith46. Pinethicket. Bigjimr. Gimboid13. Jdhomrighausen. Redeagle688. Petr Kopač. Waterlily364. Kkmurray. XX brothers. Tadorne. Autiger. Dianaisme. Cynwolfe.38. Bluerabbit4210. Whyleee. Aitias. Muadd. Pmanderson. FisherQueen. Alchemistoxford. HaeB. QuartierLatin1968. Che!. PixelBot. Norhelt. Str1977. TreasuryTag. SyL64. Qxz. Heptite. SoCalSuperEagle. Life of Riley. Bigtimepeace. Onel5969. Redmind0. Admiral Valdemar. Bluezy. Therealhazel. Jim1138. EmCat24. Tigerboy1966. Jafd88. Huon. AeternaReginula. StephenKingFan100. Alansohn. SieBot. Norwikian. Chobot. Loafofbrent. AnomieBOT. Simon Peter Hughes. SchreiberBike. Ryssby. GoingBatty. DVdm. Deor. Bota47. Pureeminences. Error. Robyn. Epriestess. Geogre. The Chief. GregKaye. Denelson83. Gscshoyru. Dougluce. SchreiberBike. Mon Vier. Cydebot. Cynwolfe. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. VoABot II. Gurchzilla. ForAllIKnow and Anonymous: 6 • Hypnos Source: http://en. Bcrowell. Bbhtryoink. Coughinink. Eequor. Favonian. Natalie Erin. Dianasbraham76. Lagoset. Jusdafax. Velella. Oiophron~enwiki.duits. Ptbotgourou. Sonarklipse. Guanabot. ThinkEnemies. Eskimbot. JackieBot. TuHan-Bot. Addbot.mrt. Xqbot. Ixfd64. Macedonian. Jkl. The Man in Question. Fratrep. Saurian. Alansohn. Lotje. Sutherland4l. TobeBot. RussBot. Bebenji123197. WikitanvirBot. Simply south. Eranb. PeoniesAbound. BCtl. GreekMythExpertx. Luckas-bot. RenamedUser01302013. Andrew Dalby. DixonDBot. DorganBot. Iridescent. Pigman. ChrisGualtieri and Anonymous: 14 • Trivia (mythology) Source: http://en. Stregamama. YurikBot. Simon Peter Hughes. Mathonius. Paul August. Jackollie. KingTT. RollanT. Denara~enwiki. Granger. Aeneas Middleton. Joshschr. WikiDreamer Bot. Eeekster. Majorly. Tyw7. Crisco 1492. BehemothCat. Aethralis. Bolowno. Specs112. MattSutton1. Polylerus. DrilBot. Excirial. Asarelah. MTSbot~enwiki. Nev1. ‫דוד‬55. Ryulong. Andres. Magnus. Tolly4bolly.wikipedia. GeeJo. A8UDI. RichardMills65. Ah3kal. The Man in Question. Ccacsmss. Franzeska. Brian Gunderson. ClueBot NG. Acather96. Ricardo Frantz. Ketiltrout.andrew. Freekuh. Brandmeister (old). DanielCD. Danelle11 and Anonymous: 379 • Summanus Source: http://en. Mediatech492. Rettetast. Rschmertz. George The Dragon. Flamarande. Blueboar. Apollonius 1236. Iamthecheese44. MartinBot. Magioladitis. Alton. Rrburke. BattyBot. AND LICENSES 127 dLeighEllis. Just granpa. Xandar. Aldrasto11.g. Alexwho314. Leolaursen. The Thing That Should Not Be. M Cheyne. Alexbot.wikipedia. Kintetsubuffalo. Tide rolls. Aldrasto11. Niera. TUF-KAT. Youandme. We are unipire. Waacstats. Hydrogen Iodide. FlaBot. Mboverload. T@nn. Shakko. DocWatson42. Amakuru. Frankenpuppy. ChrisGualtieri. Woohookitty. Russianamerican1. Wolterding. Bluebot. Synthebot. West. SmackBot.kostic. Geniac.Koslowski. SamuelTheGhost. Javert. . EscapingLife. Burn. CarsracBot. Ahivarn. Idioma-bot. Thanatos666. GreatWhiteNortherner. StigBot. Puffin. J.downard. Grumpyturtle and Anonymous: 285 • Philotes (mythology) Source: http://en. Dragospuri. Thijs!bot. Michael Goodyear. EuroCarGT. Daemon8666. Widr. 19cass20. VernoWhitney. Wderiamjh. Pstanton. NawlinWiki. Art LaPella. Angelo De La Paz. Lamro. Reywas92. Luk. Liastnir. Benoni. Niceguyedc. SuperJew. Benley. Renato Caniatti~enwiki. Knight of Truth. Tassedethe. Thadud. WikitanvirBot. Bhadani. Coffeewhite. Chobot. Vanished user g454XxNpUVWvxzlr. Ellsworth. Addbot. Addbot.org/wiki/Diana%20(mythology)?oldid=657242590 Contributors: Kpjas. Closedmouth. Mandarax. Irish Pearl. Bacchiad. JamesBWatson. Yobot. Pollen MM. Sti571. Kungfuadam. Nosaj9806. Nazar. Guy Peters. Woloflover. SchreiberBike. Tide rolls. AntiVandalBot. Snowolf. Gladrius. CanadianLinuxUser. SamEV. Qoqnous.wikipedia. OnePt618. Plastikspork. Wwallacee. Lt-wiki-bot. Kurt Leyman. GoingBatty. Slark. Zhangkev. Android Mouse Bot 3. Mr Monkey358. BG19bot. Gaius Cornelius. Mario Žamić. Sburke. Wetman. Lostangeles. Tommy2010. Denisarona. Useight. D'ohBot. Dday01. ClueBot. Cometstyles. Uncle Dick. Leovizza. SmackBot. Omnipedian.de. Philip Trueman. Reikku. Rror. Loupeter. YurikBot. Wereon. Rochelimit. Wahabijaz. RlyehRising. CounterVandalismBot. NHRHS2010. MichelSantos. Hashar. Pasquale. Gawdismydaddy. Whatscrackin555. Aranel. Haiduc. Astronautics~enwiki. Philafrenzy. VolkovBot. Aranel. Mr. Magioladitis. Melchizedekjesus. Patrick2480. Pete Hobbs. Robbot. Stenvenhe. Mottenen. Tucci528. Aaron Kauppi. Elkbone. SmackBot. Jiy. Dailyrole. VolkovBot. CmdrObot. Craig Baker. Agj. Xme. CosmoWenman. LaaknorBot. Citation bot. RattusMaximus. . Davidiad. Lotje. Mikeo. Ptbotgourou. Chris the speller. Knyght27.

Tempest67. Xact. Helpful Pixie Bot. Furius. Frietjes. DumZiBoT. Reedy.wikipedia. WhisperToMe. TX55. Omnipaedista. Tony Esopi. AmphBot.org/wiki/Yohaulticetl?oldid=542519736 Contributors: Gtrmp. GregKaye. Jonesey95. Indubitably. Widr. Shirahadasha. LucienBOT. Mychele Trempetich.. Ogress. AllyUnion. George Burgess.org/wiki/Luna%20(goddess)?oldid=651899676 Contributors: Tucci528. Discospinster. Ephert. FrescoBot. Monkbot and Anonymous: 17 • Metztli Source: http://en. Jeff G. ZéroBot. JFHJr. Tom. Satanael. Ale jrb.wikipedia. WBardwin. RlyehRising. Rykan. Fuzzypeg. Arabani. Tomtheman5. Machine Elf 1735.wikipedia. T@nn. Thijs!bot. EmausBot. Logan. Erik9bot.thomson. Maunus.wikipedia. CJLL Wright. Akhilleus. Renato Caniatti~enwiki. GunnarRene. Gtrmp. Jalo. Introvert. Susvolans. Kakoui. PhJ. Plushpuffin. Ilya. GeeJo. Melaen. Sillyfolkboy. Johnbod. ClueBot NG. Bobrayner. Lumachoo. Sam Hocevar. Bob Burkhardt. GeeJo. ZéroBot and Anonymous: 6 • Lords of the Night Source: http://en. Wtmitchell. Widr. Roboto de Ajvol. Cocytus. Nipsonanomhmata. Lesnail. Addbot. JFreeman. Light Bulb. RandyS0725. Elie plus. Will Beback Auto. RussBot.org/wiki/Leto?oldid=657031976 Contributors: Bryan Derksen. LadyofShalott. AnomieBOT. UltimatePyro. Kosebamse. Keenan Pepper. Sburke. Mintrick. TLG. Addbot. Chris the speller. Glengordon01. Trappist the monk. ESkog. Shelby64. Andre Engels. Lzur. SmackBot. Cynwolfe. JaGa. Ellenois. Eequor. NSH002. Flaming Mustang. Frankgeo. Eliz81. Damate. DavidLeighEllis. Mmmeg. Addbot. Meatballwriter123. AnomieBOT. Pearle. Helpful Pixie Bot. Roboto de Ajvol. ShelfSkewed. Missvain. Da Joe. Rob117. Amortias and Anonymous: 34 . Ptcamn. Registrant. VoABot II. FlaBot. ‫البجع‬. Addbot.org/wiki/Black%20Sun%20(mythology)?oldid=645460926 Contributors: Ogress. Ben-Zin~enwiki. JackofOz. Alansohn. Zsinj. Thijs!bot. GeeJo. Xu Davella. Kwamikagami. Mastrchf91. ÄDA . Alphachimpbot. Aranel. Liastnir. Sburke. Timwi. Retal. Obersachsebot. Derelik.org/wiki/Lords%20of%20the%20Night?oldid=653586031 Contributors: Andycjp. Omnipaedista. Brougham96. NeilN. Tim1357. Goldenbrook. Majestic Pyre. SmackBot. Davidiad. Eddietrich. Lugia2453. FrescoBot. Erik9bot. Marudubshinki. ESkog. AstroLynx. Citation bot. Eleph23. EmausBot. Aztlshamb. El C. Gtrmp. Freestylefrappe.wikipedia. Kamezuki. Rockero. Carlossuarez46. XZeroBot.org/wiki/Al-Qaum?oldid=641110619 Contributors: Malcolm Farmer. CParis3567. Wikibot.R. Simon Peter Hughes. Immunize. Tiddly Tom. GeeJo. Holothurion. Jalo. Peregrine981. Trappist the monk. ClueBot NG. Monique123456. Xuchilbara. Rickard Vogelberg. Tjmoel. O. The Wryter. Trappist the monk. Jakec. Marrovi. Prime Entelechy. Firebrand stone. Duja.128 CHAPTER 38. Heltec. Aztlshamb. Dger. Erik9bot. Nanahuatzin. Pigman. Josve05a. Rtkat3. TUF-KAT. Simon Burchell. Diselva. NawlinWiki. Gabrieli. Allens. Tahir mq. The Man in Question. DragonBot. Sigma 7. Thayora. Editorofthewiki. Magioladitis. Bgpaulus. ZéroBot. Goldenrowley. Böri. Stevenmitchell. D'ohBot. SamplerInfo. FrescoBot. Cedrus-Libani. Japf. Randykitty. ClueBot NG. Addbot. MarkGallagher. Rjwilmsi. CalicoCatLover. Terry Stocker. Ekips39. VolkovBot. Transity. Yobot. Vividonset2.org/wiki/Itzpapalotl?oldid=653827596 Contributors: Mrwojo. NSH002. 21Franta65. Infrangible. Robbot. Addbot. Alansohn. Budelberger. Giggette and Anonymous: 8 • Itzpapalotl Source: http://en. Imorthodox23. Oleaster and Anonymous: 173 • Shalim Source: http://en. WANAX. Alexbot. Robert Morning Sky and Anonymous: 15 • Al-Qaum Source: http://en. Goldenrowley. FrescoBot. Dyanega. Mentifisto. MMK GOD. BranStark. Rich Farmbrough. Mackplemons and Anonymous: 18 • Luna (goddess) Source: http://en. BillFlis. Aztlshamb and Anonymous: 15 • Tezcatlipoca Source: http://en. Simon Burchell. Idioma-bot. RodC. Thijs!bot. Dosseman. Marek69.DÄP. Sam Spade. JeepdaySock. FlaBot. Addbot. GrouchoBot. Lt-wiki-bot. Toshito. Omegium. MadGuy7023. Jonesey95. Yobot. Michaelmas1957. MWurtz. Tucci528. Whoop whoop pull up. Deflective. GeeJo. Amirobot.. Hveziris. Didactohedron. Laubrau~enwiki. Hombre amigo. Ushishir. Wahrmund. The Aeronus and Anonymous: 103 • Yohaulticetl Source: http://en. Mottenen. Thijs!bot.org/wiki/Five%20Suns?oldid=656968632 Contributors: Hyacinth. J. Junuxx. Simon Burchell. Carlo V. Csigabi. Helpful Pixie Bot. FF2010. Tyranitar Man. Melenc. 2T. T@nn. El-Ahrairah. AnomieBOT. Geraldshields11. Letoan1980. Jeepday. Gtrmp. Mustaqbal. ClueBot. Ruby Murray. Addbot. ChrisGualtieri and Anonymous: 5 • Leto Source: http://en. Mjk2357. Jorge Stolfi. ZORYA NinetyCharacters. Nanahuatzin. Tecpaocelotl. Wikiisawesome.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia. KocjoBot~enwiki. Briangotts. Yoma123. Twofistedcoffeedrinker. Editor2020. Saga City. MacKenzie Drake. Kitty9992. MartinBot. Ogress. Alexbot. Rudi argento. Werdan7. SashatoBot. JorgeGG. DumZiBoT. STBotD.org/wiki/Tezcatlipoca?oldid=651871562 Contributors: Infrogmation. TUFKAT. UtherSRG. Kusunose. TheEgyptian. Sir Anon. Rmccloskey001. Maunus. Athinaios. NuVanDibe. Jarble. Miskwito. CJLL Wright. Starsword333. DumZiBoT. GoingBatty. T@nn. Cgingold. Veron. Dougweller. The Thing That Should Not Be. Giggette. Martarius. DreamGuy. Senor Cuete. John of Reading. Woohookitty. KLBot2. Makalp. M-le-mot-dit. NSH002. Falcon8765.wikipedia. Davidlwinkler. Paul August. MKar. Benc. KoshVorlon. Ccson.wikipedia. Heunir. Trappist the monk. Simon Burchell. Pmanderson. Kuratowski’s Ghost. RussBot. Kwamikagami. Kubra. Maunus. Diablokrom. FlaBot. Gtrmp. Someone else. Addbot. AgnosticPreachersKid. Robertsteadman. Morki. Z. Addbot. EmausBot. TXiKiBoT. NewEnglandYankee. Josve05a. Ygrex. Haploidavey. Rich Farmbrough. ZéroBot. Khajidha. Toantbqn1980. Rahlgd. Better smile. Bollyjeff. Trappist the monk. TriniMuñoz. El C. Addbot. Hemeier. KJS77. Kimchi. Ptbotgourou. Sexron. Addbot. The Singing Badger. SmackBot. Keizers. EmxBot. Goldenrowley. Koveras. Aviados. Netsnipe. ChicXulub. 331dot. Rich Farmbrough. Unara.E. TUFKAT. Ian. Hajor. Zrampold. Missvain. AliceSech. Emperor of Europe. CmdrObot. SieBot. Tkandell.org/wiki/Shalim?oldid=654118137 Contributors: Zero0000. Tiamut. Killy mcgee. Nick Number. Kirkesque. DocWatson42. Brinsord. Crazyboy899. SatanistSin and Anonymous: 8 • Five Suns Source: http://en. Wetman. Palendrom. Sburke. Bluebot. Badagnani. Pumpie. Yobot. Pilotguy.O. ClueBot NG. Mike Rosoft. Evilbunnie.Reding. Lugia2453. Ravenmewtwo.at. Glenn. Tewok. Gilliam. Erik9bot and Aztlshamb • Black Sun (mythology) Source: http://en. Menchi. Xqbot. Comp25. ClueBot NG. Bacchiad. DragonBot. Quetzalcoatl777. Jusdafax. Tawkerbot2. AlnoktaBOT. Wolfdog. Jheald. Hirpex. Alexf. Monkbot. Ptcamn. Bota47. Woohookitty. DrilBot. Lotje. Setsuna999. SmackBot.princeps. RickK. ICE77. ZéroBot. Tetraedycal. Alansohn. Spondylus. TonkaT. Amberrock. Welsh. Nicke Lilltroll. Goldenrowley. Excirial. Synchronism. Castanea dentata. Decltype. BG19bot. E-Kartoffel. Klemen Kocjancic. Castanea dentata. Barmispain. Local hero. NSH002. Rjwilmsi. Viciroth. T@nn. Stevertigo. Beastly endevour. WriterHound. Metodicar. RibotBOT. ClueBot. Remuel. Chobot. Николов.delanoy. Simon Burchell. FlaBot. CJLL Wright. SmackBot. Rwv37. Luckas-bot. Robodoc. SmackBot.wikipedia. Barticus88. NSH002. T@nn. Ptcamn. Cyfal. Pharaoh of the Wizards. ChrisGualtieri. Drbreznjev.sg. Omnipaedista. CJLL Wright. CJLL Wright. BCtl. Publius02. BlazerKnight. YurikBot. Feeeshboy. Rjwilmsi. Tutthoth-Ankhre. Fiona CS. Jalo. Sburke. Jhattara. Missvain. Jeffq. Z-m-k. Macrakis. Asarelah. Goldenrowley. Lord Jim. The Thing That Should Not Be. ClueBot NG. Xqbot. John254. LilHelpa. T@nn. Classicfilms. Foobaz. Rjwilmsi. Nick Number. Tide rolls. Gongshow. Ketiltrout. Panellet. TUF-KAT. Luckas-bot. Simon Peter Hughes. Goldenrowley. XL2D. Aztlshamb. Sampo Torgo. Thehelpfulbot. Brentmichaelcox. DorganBot. Aztlshamb.org/wiki/Metztli?oldid=644279922 Contributors: Danny. 0XQ. Alivemajor. Danceswithzerglings. Ragestorm. SieBot. Maunus. NSH002. Jeraphine Gryphon. Hajor. Miracle Pen. Tydaj. GrouchoBot. ClueBot NG.Koslowski. LadyofShalott. Helpful Pixie Bot. VolkovBot. WSaindon. SmackBot. Cacaoatl. Eequor.

Dead-Inside. ScottSteiner. SIMVHA. ZéroBot. Ronz. Btr101themage. Estirabot. A. DragonflySixtyseven. Sardanaphalus. Tbhotch. Briangotts. Lotusocean. Triphala108. Sundar2000. Rockoprem. Veenapura. Ryan Roos. Rohitbd. Vishvas vasuki. SnoopY~enwiki. LilHelpa. Robbot. Xact. Snake712. Babbage. BCtl. Dreadstar. Morinae. FrescoBot. Adam sk. SlayerDave. AnonMoos. Leoboudv. Shmilyshy. NoahXQOASB. Sinaloa. JForget. Acalamari. Ptbotgourou. AaronCarson. Machine Elf 1735. Srpant. Agamemnon2. Gabbe. Spasemunki. Angr. Closedmouth. ClueBot NG. Str1977. Vorziblix. RandomCritic. Dinoceras. Picapicacuckoo. Melakavijay. Mahendra. DanielCD. Tabletop. Mckaysalisbury. Freedomji. BotKung. Enti342. SpuriousQ. Goethean. Q43. TUF-KAT. PeterSymonds. Eequor. Iry-Hor. Maunus. Prem786. Bomac. Jehid2262. Aztlshamb. Joshua Issac. Donner60. Arvindn. FlaBot. LogicDictates. GeeJo. Johanna-Hypatia. Epicgenius. Robbot. Pikiwyn. Amp71. Shikai shaw. StarDriver9 and Anonymous: 7 • Apep Source: http://en. ^demon. Pkousoulis. CanisRufus. RedBot. ArchyArchy. Xanzzibar. Eubot. Discospinster. Jergen. Rjwilmsi. That Guy. Qwertyus. ChuispastonBot. Michaelbusch. Dharmadhyaksha. Eisnel. SieBot. Crculver.wikipedia. YurikBot. John of Reading. DBaba.anand. Mononomic. Anarxia. Mavitra. Avecit. Captmondo. Tadorne. SundaLives. Jonomacdrones. Reegu and Anonymous: 102 • Varuna Source: http://en. Wakuran. EmausBot. Kasirbot. Ssriram mt. M. Sobreira. CALR. Mercury McKinnon. Redtigerxyz. Gogo Dodo. Caran Varr. Delta 51. TXiKiBoT. Quork. Harshadsamant. Smiisk. Addbot. Grammatical error. Vprashanth87. Elipongo. Redtigerxyz. Ketiltrout. Ian. Andrew Clucas. Yossarian. ClueBot. Malcolmxl5. Deeptrivia. Nathaniel360. Coldacid. Sburke. Fæ.org/wiki/Chandra?oldid=658935360 Contributors: Magnus Manske. Bryan Derksen. SieBot. JNW. Alex '05. Tawkerbot2. Fæ. Haymouse. Giuseppepiogrieco20. Yahaa. TXiKiBoT. JimVC3. Tarquin. Bobo192. Last1in. Cometstyles. Sam Medany. Trylks. DOI bot.13. Hu12. Ism schism. Blair. Warut. RussBot. Sam Spade. Marco9079. Jgremillot. Rossami. UtDicitur. Krishnachandra. Srck. FinnWiki. Madmedea~enwiki. Armbrust. Music Sorter. Maleabroad. SieBot. Joy1963. AphophisRa. T@nn. FrescoBot. ZéroBot. Reswobslc. Chobot. Tedder.org/wiki/Rahu?oldid=658456702 Contributors: AxelBoldt. Woohookitty. Cst17. FrescoBot. Zero sharp. JamesBWatson. Polveroj. Kubra. MKar. Hoodedwarbler12. Erik9bot.krishna. Euku. Kingpin13. Frietjes. Theelf29. Simon Burchell. Tbhotch. Muro Bot. ClueBot NG. Obersachsebot. KocjoBot~enwiki. Bhadani. Indubitably. Erud. Imc. Cydebot. Sharavanabhava.wikipedia. EmausBot. Shandris.wikipedia. Mordicai. Stenvenhe. VolkovBot. HyDeckar.wikipedia. LadyofShalott. Balster neb. Dmthoth. Ste4k. RussBot. Deflective. Andre Engels. Huzzlet the bot.akshay. Bhadani. Apepch7. Cognitivemind. Dbachmann. AbsolutDan. Jim1138. Babub. Andycjp.38. GoonerDP. Puffin. Banda. Ian. AdityaEX. JW1805. Beetstra. Mhotep. QuartierLatin1968. FinnWiki. Gtrmp. LordAnubisBOT. KylieTastic. Mighty Nut. IvanLanin. 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