NIGHT DEITIES

Contents
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2

3

Chthonic

1

1.1

Chthonic and Olympian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.1

Cult type versus function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.2

Ambiguities in assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

References in psychology and anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

References in structural geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

List of night deities

3

2.1

Arabian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.2

Aztec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.3

Canaanite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.4

Egyptian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.5

Etruscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.6

Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.7

Hindu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.8

Lithuanian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.9

Māori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.10 Norse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.11 Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.12 Slavic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Nephthys

5

3.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.2

Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.3

Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.4

Nephthys and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.5

The saving sister of Osiris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.6

New Kingdom cults of Nephthys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

3.7

Chief goddess of Nome VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

i

ii

CONTENTS
3.8

4

5

6

7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Asteria

10

4.1

Daughter of Coeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.2

Amazon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.3

Heliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.4

Danaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.5

Alkyonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.6

Consort of Phocus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.7

Consort of Bellerophon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.8

Daughter of Coronus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.9

Daughter of Teucer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.10 Athenian maiden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.11 In Gluck opera

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Erebus

12

5.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

5.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Artume

13

6.1

Artume in popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Hecate

14

7.1

Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.2

Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.3

Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.4

Other names and epithets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.4.1

Goddess of the crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.5

Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.6

Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

7.7

Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8

Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8.1

The Deipnon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Modern expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.11 Cross-cultural parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.12 Nature of her cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.14 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

7.9

. . . . . . . . . . . 32 Worship of Artemis . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . 34 Artemis in art . . . . . . . . . . .2 Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. .2 Childhood . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . .4 Actaeon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8. . . . . . 29 8. . .7 The Aloadae . . . . . . . . .1 Endymion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus . . . . . . .1 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Orion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Aura . . . . . . .1 Epithets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 39 9. . .4 The moon chariot . . . . .9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Chione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . . . . .6 Artemis in astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . .2 Artemis in mythology . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lovers and offspring . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 26 Artemis 28 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Adonis . . . . . . . . . .2 Origin . . .2 Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . 31 8. . . . 40 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . .8 Callisto . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .4 9 iii Selene 39 9. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 28 8. . . . . .7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Names . .15 Trojan War . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .CONTENTS 8 7. . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References and sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Intimacy . . . . . . 40 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oeneus and the Meleagrids . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . . . . . .14 Polyphonte . . .1 Attributes . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . .10 Niobe .12 Atalanta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Depictions . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hypnos in the Iliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14. .7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . 55 14 Diana (mythology) 56 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10 Nyx 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . 44 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . .3 Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 13 Hypnos 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Words derived from Hypnos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dwelling place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Notes . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 14. . . . . . . 51 12. . . 49 11 Philotes (mythology) 11. . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hesiod’s Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . .1 Hesiod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13.8 References . . . . . . . .2 Nonnus’ Account . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Homer . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Physical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Achlys 50 50 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hypnos in art . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . .2 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nyx in society . . .iv CONTENTS 9. . . . . . . . . . .1 External links . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Sources . . . . 48 10. . . .8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology and literature . . . . .5 Sanctuaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Juno as moon goddess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . .9 Niobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . .1 In religion . . . 66 16 Trivia (mythology) 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .12External links . . . . . .6 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cult and temples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 15 Summanus 65 15. . . . .10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology . . . . . 64 14. . . . . . . . .2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . .2 In language . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . .3 In the arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Chthonic assailants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 14. . . . . . . . .1 References . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . .11Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Leto in Crete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . .5 The Lycian Letoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ugaritic inscriptions . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Notes and references . . . . . . .1 Summanus and Mount Summano .8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Luna (goddess) 67 67 68 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 18 Leto 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS v 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also .8 The Lycian peasants .6. . . . . . .4 See also . . 65 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 19 Shalim 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . .7 Leto of the golden spindle . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Chariot of the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .4 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Black Sun (mythology) 87 87 88 . . .11External links . . . . . 85 24. . . . . .5 Aztec religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References 82 23. . . . . . . . . . .1 Representations of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mexican traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 25 Yohaulticetl 25. . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 20 Al-Qaum 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 21 Lords of the Night 78 21. . . . . . . . 22 Itzpapalotl 78 80 22. . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Mythical stories . . . . . . . . .1 In Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . . . .1 Otomi mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . .8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 23 Metztli 82 23. . . . . . . . . .9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS 19.2 Ritual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 24. . . 85 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Iconography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . .10References . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Tezcatlipoca 83 24. . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . .7 Aztec Reverence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Legend . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .1 Legend 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . .1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 29 Apep 95 29. . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . .4 In popular culture . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS vii 26. . . . . .2 Variations and alternative myths 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 32 Chandra 100 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. . . . . . . . .1 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 30 Kuk (mythology) 30. . . . .6 References . . . . . . . . . . 103 33 Rahu 104 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 28 Tzitzimitl 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 26. . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 27. . . .3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Ratri 98 98 99 31. . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . 89 27 Five Suns 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 26. .1 References . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Other aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 32.4 See also . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Battles with Ra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 28. .3 Brief summation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . .1 Dark spot on the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .1 Myths . . 109 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In contemporary Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 In modern age . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 34 Varuna 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . .1 Rahu dan . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii CONTENTS 33. . . . . . . . 114 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .5 Matthäus Prätorius . 115 35. 112 35. . . . .2. . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1 In the Vedas . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . .4 Various lower beings . 110 34. . . . .1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 In Zoroastrianism . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Names from folklore myths and legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . .1 Earliest Russian chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Martynas Mažvydas . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rahu Mantra . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Holy places and things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Other names . .3 Local and nature spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Maciej Stryjkowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hinduism . . . . . 106 33. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 109 34. . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buddhism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Other written sources . . .6 See also . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Gods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures 111 35. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In the Ramayana . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heroes and heroines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Names by written sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . .4 Jan Łasicki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35.6 Theodor Narbutt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .5 Demonic beings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 36 Hine-nui-te-pō 119 36. . . 104 33. . . . .

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 References 37 Nótt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and licenses . . . . . .3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . contributors. . . . .2 Evening Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 38. . .1 Poetic Edda . . . . . . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS ix 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Text . . . . 135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Morning Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 36. . . . . . . . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Attestations . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Prose Edda . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . .2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. .1. . . . . . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 Content license . . . . . . . 121 38 Zorya 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Text and image sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 38. . . . .2 See also .2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . .3 In art and literature . 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

water of the underground. or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does). Chthonic (UK /ˈkθɒnɪk/. also received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations. For other uses. was typically offered puppies at crossroads—a practice neither typical of an While terms such as “Earth deity” or Earth mother have Olympian sacrifice nor of a chthonic sacrifice to Persesweeping implications in English. the words khthonie and phone or the heroes. khthonios had a more precise and technical meaning in Hecate is generally classed as chthonic. The absorption of some earlier cults into the newer pantheon versus those that resisted being absorbed is suggested as providing the later myths.2 References in psychology and anthropology Some chthonic cults practised ritual sacrifice. For Cthulhu mythos creatures. it typically refers to the interior of the soil. in Ancient Egypt the main deity of the earth was the male god Geb. US /ˈθɒnɪk/ from Greek χθόνιος khthonios [kʰtʰónios]. that is one’s material depths. “pit”) or megaron (μέγαρον.Chapter 1 Chthonic This article is about the Greek deities. “sunken chamber”). As well. completely separate. such as Hermes and Zeus. Because of her underworld roles. del Valle’s Gendered Anthropology describes there being “male and female deities at every level. The translation of meaning discusses deities or spirits of the underworld. especially in Greek religion. goddess of justice who sits on the right side Cult type versus function The myths associating the underworld chthonic deities and fertility was not exclusive. the unconscious earthly impulses of the Self. the animal was placed in a bothros (βόθρος. and women associated with the below. for instance. 1. and the chthonic deities. see Chthon (disambiguation).. under.1. Thus Demeter and Persephone both watched over aspects of the fertility of land.1 In analytical psychology. referring primarily to the manner of offering sacrifices to the deity in question. "altar"). such as Dike. men associated with the above. his female consort was Nut. Offerings usually were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers. with the earth.2 Ambiguities in assignment The categories Olympian and chthonic were not. The Greek word khthon is one of several for “earth".1. from χθών khthōn “earth”)[1] literally means “subterranean”. see Chthonic (band). or beneath the earth”.[2] 1.1 Chthonic and Olympian 1. rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does). the term chthonic was often used to describe the spirit of nature within. in cultural anthropology. Greek.”[3] This was by no means universal.. Some Olympian deities. however not necessarily with negative connotations. and yet occasionally was classified as an “Olympian” in late poetry and myth. a few deities aren't easily classifiable under these terms. Also. In some Greek chthonic cults. depending on the site and the time of origin of the myth. simultaneously. 1. see also anima and animus or shadow. abundance and the grave. which often happened at night time. the sky. the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos (βωμός. The deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes. however. When the sacrifice was a living creature. Moreover. the chthonic has connotations with regard to gender. with identical rites. yet Demeter had a typically Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one. Demeter was worshipped alongside Persephone 1 . see Chthonian (Cthulhu mythos). It evokes. “in. For the band. Myths about the later Olympian deities also described an association with the fertility and the prosperity of Earth. Greek mythology likewise has female deities associated with the sky. otherwise known as the sky. Hecate.

and it was burned entirely. not. of course. with its neck bent back and the head uplifted. in contradistinction to thysia.4 See also • Chthonic law • Earth mother • Geomancy • Life-death-rebirth deities • Sky father 1. Robert Scott. at Perseus.5 References [1] Chthonios. goddess of dawn—and Hades as god of the underworld. as for the celestial gods. p.2 CHAPTER 1. 1.” (Source The Heroes of the Greeks. The 'gods of the dead' are. [2] “The sacrifice for gods of the dead and for heroes was called enagisma. It was offered on altars of a peculiar shape: they were lower than the ordinary altar bomos.3 References in structural geology The term Allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation. and their name was ischara. Chthonic deities. 1993. were to flow into the sacrificial trench.6 External links • The dictionary definition of chthonic at Wiktionary . Routledge. [3] Teresa del Valle. which was the portion especially of the celestial deities. usually by low angle thrust faulting. and Eos. 108. 1. Thames & Hudson 1978). For this kind of sacrifice did not lead up to a joyous feast in which the gods and men took part. The victim was held over the trench with its head down. Henry George Liddell. A Greek– English Lexicon. From the Greek “allo” meaning other and “chthon” designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus “under the earth”. CHTHONIC of Zeus as his advisor. ISBN 0-415-06127-X. and also libations. Therefore they were funnel-shaped and open at the bottom. C. Gendered Anthropology. Through them the blood of the victims. 'hearth'. 1. Kerenyi pub.

primordial goddess of night 3 . beauty. the north. the earth. god of dusk 2.fearsome skeletal goddess of the stars • Nyx. the night winds. divination.Chapter 2 List of night deities • Metztli. Nabatean god of war and the night. deification of evil and darkness • Kuk. god or goddess of the moon. ghosts and necromancy • Itzpapalotl . Artames. discord. 2. obsidian. the night sky. a group of nine gods. rulership. moon. Etruscan goddess of night Arabian 2. and guardian of caravans 2.3 Canaanite • Shalim. (also called Aritimi. each of whom ruled over a particular night • Hecate. or darkness.4 Egyptian • Apep.6 • Al-Qaum. or Artumes). witchcraft. personification of the primordial darkness The Norse night goddess Nótt riding her horse. the serpent god.5 • Artume. goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars • Erebus. primordial god of darkness and consort of Nyx Aztec • Lords of the Night. The following is a list of night deities in various mythologies. jaguars. enmity. goddess of magic. sorcery. temptation. hurricanes. the night. war and strife • Yohaulticetl. They commonly feature in polytheistic religions. night and farmers • Tezcatlipoca.2 Etruscan Greek • Asteria. lunar goddess known as the “Lady of the Night” 2. in a 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo • Nephthys. god of the night sky. goddess of night as well as death and birth A night deity is a god or goddess in mythology associated with night.1 2.

13 See also • Chthonic (underworld) deities . who protects people from sunset to sunrise 2. goddess of night • Chandra. tombs.9 Māori • Hine-nui-te-pō. a celestial deity of darkness and eclipse • Varuna (Hindu mythology) 2. primordial goddess of eternal night. an equivalent to the goddesses Leto and Asteria. goddess of twilight and dreams. goddess of sorcery. ghosts. • Trivia. • Latona. god of dreams. primordial goddess of night. god of nocturnal thunder • Diana.10 Norse • Nótt. and the wild. goddess of the moon.11 Roman • Nox. hunting.and young women. representing the morning and evening stars. equivalent to Selene. • Selene. equivalent to Artemis. goddess of night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori mythology 2. and torches. god of the moon • Rahu. 2. associated with the night. LIST OF NIGHT DEITIES • Achlys. goddess of the moon.12 Slavic • Zorya. • Luna. female personification of night 2.8 Lithuanian • Breksta. equivalent to Hypnus. equivalent to Hecate. goddess of the moon. hunting. two guardian goddesses. death. • Somnus. 2. goddess of the moon. equivalent to the Greek goddess Nyx • Summanus. 2.4 CHAPTER 2. misery and sorrow • Artemis.7 Hindu • Ratri.

The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as “Lady of the House. with her sister Isis in funerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the “Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure” which associates her with the role of priestess. Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh himself.1 Etymology 3. In contrast NephNephthys . see Oxford University ated as Nebet-het. just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience. Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff. This the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology.” which has caused some to mistak[1] Nephthys /ˈnɛpθɨs/ (Greek: Νέφθυς) or Nebthet /ˈnɛbˌθɛt/ (Arabic: ‫ نيفتيس‬Nyftys) is a member of enly identify her with the notion of a “housewife. and Nebt-het.Chapter 3 Nephthys For Nephthys Boat Club.[4][5] Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet[6] or Isis. Nephthys was typically paired is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the “Useful Goddess” or the “Excellent Goddess”.Musée du Louvre. which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name. sister-wife of Set. a daughter of Nut and Geb. This title. glyphs). Horus. 3. probably indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual. Her name means quite specifically. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris.gerous divinity. France thys is sometimes featured as a rather ferocious and danNephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliter. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis (Inpu) in some myths.[8] Though other goddesses could assume this role.” or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function. Paris. Along with her sister Isis. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity. from Egyptian hieroLightweight Rowing Club.[7] As the primary “nursing mother” of the incarnate Pharaonic-god. Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience. capable of incinerating the enemies of 5 . Set. This entrance way symbolised the horizon or akhet.[3] These late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship.2 Function At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts.

3. .Nephthys plays an important role in the Osirian mythstretched as a symbol of protection. the majestic sun god.linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian nerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the sources. rise with the Day-bark. usually out. who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion. Ascend and descend. it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. but with Set’s other aspect.[14] 3.” Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210. particularly when he entered Duat at the transitional time of dusk. on top of the enclosure sign. NEPHTHYS ation with the kite or the Egyptian hawk (and its piercing. It should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed as the polar opposite of Isis. Early Greco-Roman.[9] New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs. Isis was Ra’s companion at the coming of dawn. and Harpocrates. The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead.4 Nephthys and Set Though it commonly has been assumed that Nephthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis. i. According to the Pyramid Texts. Nephthys’s associ.cycle. Nephthys was also seen in the Pyramid Texts as a supportive cosmic force occupying the night-bark on the journey of Ra. Hornung. where Nephthys was a member of that great city’s Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex. as the region of the afterlife was termed. cent Egyptological research has called this into question. but rather as a different reflection of the same reality: eternal life in transition.[10] CHAPTER 3. and whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various levels of Duat.[12] 3. along with the sign for neb. Nephthys.6 the Pharaoh with her fiery breath. mournful cries) evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women. were enamored of Mother Nephthys. Thus. as is attested in various stelae and a wealth of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor. Nephthys often was depicted as a kite. it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts. the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys. She argues that the later evidence suggests that: mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Seth. almost without fail.e. along with Isis. Walters Museum Levai notes that while Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity’s marriage. In this capacity.5 The saving sister of Osiris In the funerary role. the benevolent figure who was the killer of Apophis. Nephthys.[13] Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition.3 Symbolism while Nephthys’s marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology. which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (hwt). “Ascend and descend.. Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. or mistress (Lady). reTriad of Isis. or as a woman with falcon wings. ascend with Isis. Less well understood than her sister Isis. was a force before whom demons trembled in fear. descend with Nephthys. She was not paired with Set the villain. She was. there is very little specifically Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in fu. in particular. sink into darkness with the Night-bark. or twilight. depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name. This was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period.[11] along with the work of several noted scholars. where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler.

” are evidenced by the abundance of faience amulets carved in her likeness. steeped. Nephthys is depicted receiving lavish beer-offerings from the Pharaoh. using her power as a beergoddess “that [the pharaoh] may have joy with no hangover. There. One ancient Egyptian myth preserved in the Papyrus Westcar recounts the story of Isis. a temple of Nephthys called the “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” was built or refurbished in the town of Sepermeru.” and there associated with the jackal-headed god Anubis as patron. . and Behbeit. at Abydos. 300-200 B. Hapi. Nephthys was duly honored with the title “Queen of the Embalmer’s Shop. . and Heqet as traveling dancers in disguise.Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud .Metropolitan Museum of Art It is Nephthys who assists Isis in gathering and mourning the dismembered portions of the body of Osiris. Nephthys was attested as one of the four “Great Chiefs” ruling in the Osirian cult-center of Busiris. Nephthys also serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus.” Elsewhere at Edfu.C. In the city of Memphis. Dendera. assisting the wife of a priest of Amun-Re as she prepares to bring forth sons who are destined for fame and fortune. midway between Oxyrhynchos and .6.3. Nephthys. in the Delta[15] and she appears to have occupied an honorary position Nephthys’s healing skills and status as direct counterpart of Isis. NEW KINGDOM CULTS OF NEPHTHYS 7 at the holy city of Abydos. Nephthys was one of the protectresses of the Canopic jars of the Hapi. one of the Sons of Horus.6 New Kingdom cults of Nephthys The Ramesside Pharaohs were particularly devoted to Set’s prerogatives and. which she would “return”. Meskhenet.”[17] in direct reference to her regenerative priorities on the embalming table. The Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the “birth-mother” and to Nephthys as the “nursing-mother” of Horus. Nephthys joined Isis as a mourner in the shrine known as the Osireion. after his murder by the envious Set.” This fits well with more general textual themes that consider Nephthys to be a goddess whose unique domain was darkness. and Serqet). as her sister in “words of power. in the 19th Dynasty. Neith.Metropolitan Museum of Art Nephthys was also considered a festive deity whose rites could mandate the liberal consumption of beer.Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud . Isis . wherein two chosen females or priestesses played the roles of Isis and Nephthys and performed the elaborate 'Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys’.c.[16] These "Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys" were ritual elements of many such Osirian rites in major ancient Egyptian cult-centers. Nephthys is a goddess who gives the Pharaoh power to see “that which is hidden by moonlight. In various reliefs at Edfu. or the perilous edges of the desert. No cult is attested for her there.[18] Nephthys .C. guarded the embalmed lungs. As a mortuary goddess (along with Isis. “Nephthys of the Bed of Life. though she certainly figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted.c. Thus we find Nephthys endowed with the epithet. and by her presence in a variety of magical papyri that sought to summon her famously altruistic qualities to the aid of mortals. for example. 300-200 B. Nephthys could also appear as one of the goddesses who assists at childbirth.[19] 3.

Abydos. Redford.” the goddess and her shrines were under the particular endorsement of Ramesses II. After making an introductory appeal to “Re-Horakhte.7 Chief goddess of Nome VII Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Sacred Phoenix. and I am responsible likewise for the House of Nephthys. 1941). Vol. or Isis and Horus. It is perhaps in this way that Nephthys best fulfilled her role as an important national deity whose ideal function was to provide powerful assistance to her associates in a great variety of temple cults— a truly “Useful” and “Excellent” goddess. (Nov. Heliopolis. The Literary Motif of the Exposed Child (cf. 2005 ISBN 977-17-2353-7 [Retrieved 2011-12-12] [3] P.8 References [1] Or /ˈnɛfθɨs/. Philae. Thebes. Nephthys was the primary protectress of the resident Osirian relic. it should not surprise us that her cult images could likely be found as part of the divine entourage in temples at Kharga. or Isis and Min.8 Herakleopolis. Fasc. of the Bennu Bird. Foremost of the Sed [Festival] in the Booth of Annals” (at Medinet-Habu). The fields and other holdings belonging to Nephthys’s temple were under the authority of two Nephthys-prophets (named Penpmer and Merybarse) and one (mentioned) wa'ab priest of the goddess. on the outskirts of the Fayyum and quite near to the modern site of Deshasheh. Philae.co. and of the local Horus/Osiris manifestation. A near life-sized statue of Nephthys (currently housed in the Louvre) boasts a curiously altered inscription. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Nephthys also was the goddess of the “Mansion of the Sistrum" in Hwt-Sekhem (Gr. The Ancient Egyptians. To be certain. A. p. The foundations of the Set and Nephthys temples at Sepermeru finally were discovered and identified in the 1980s. He notes his obvious administration of the “House of Set” and adds: “I am also responsible for the ship.” but was transferred at some point to Herakleopolis and the temple of Herishef. Koptos. Wilson. as Papyrus Wilbour notes in its wealth of taxation records and land assessments. the god Neferhotep. 2003. Universal-Publishers. and Nephthys” for the ultimate resolution of this issue by the royal Vizier. or as part of a quartet of deities. Esna. El Qa'la.” A “prophet of Nephthys” is indeed attested for the town of Herakleopolis in the 30th Dynasty. In this role.uk The funerary art of Ancient Egypt: a bridge to the realm of the hereafter (106 pages) American University in Cairo Press. 1997 [4] G. Vol. 3. or the Bennu Bird. Marshall Cavendish. Sebennytos. 3. located in close proximity to (or within) the precinct of the enclosure of Set. land-owning temples delineated for this portion of the Middle Egyptian district in Papyrus Wilbour. Kellis. and others corroborate the late identification of Nephthys as the supreme goddess of Upper Egyptian Nome VII. 14. pp. 2007. ii 1-10). Kom Ombo. 'A Ptolemaic Lexikon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu'. 30-40 [5] Virginia Schomp. Diospolis Parva). 27 [6] A. as her primary epithets reflect.[21] another “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” seems to have existed to the north. According to Papyrus Wilbour. While certainly affiliated with the “House of Set. Numen. Deir el-Hagar. Another temple of Nephthys seems to have existed in the town of Punodjem. Nephthys found her typical place as part of a triad alongside Osiris and Isis. OLA 78.. Shenhur. and indeed throughout Egypt. Set.[20] The Nephthys temple was a unique establishment in its own right. Ex. Page 219 in the article On a Topos in Egyptian Medical History by Hedvig Györy [7] Donald B. K. The Papyrus Bologna records a complaint lodged by a prophet of the temple of Set in that town regarding undue taxation in his regard. (Feb.”[22] As “Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun. El Qa'la.[25] Nephthys was most widely and usually worshipped in ancient Egypt as part of a consortium of temple deities.” the Nephthys temple at Sepermeru and its apportioned lands (several acres) clearly were under administration distinct from the Set institution. which was renowned for its “House of the Bennu” temple. and the Nephthys temple was a selfsustaining temple complex within the Set enclosure. Nephthys was given the name “Nephthys-Kheresket. Eyma. an independent entity. the House of Nephthys was one of fifty individual. Therefore. along with a heap of other temples. The cult-image’s inscription originally pertained to “Nephthys.google. 26. in the town of Su. as part of the cultic celebration of the Pharaonic “Sed-Festival. closer to the Fayyum region. Foremost of the [Booths of] Herakleopolis. Here. There. north of Sepermeru. Dakleh Oasis. Letopolis.” and a wealth of temple texts from Edfu. .[24] CHAPTER 3. A Delta-man in Yebu. NEPHTHYS 3. Wainwright. the temple of Nephthys was a specific foundation by Ramesses II. This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis.[23] There can be little doubt that a cult of Nephthys existed in the temple and great town of Herakleopolis. Dendera. [2] Abeer El-Shahawy books. Busiris. the chief city of Nome VII. Dendera. Seshat and the Pharaoh.[26] In most cases. the prophet (named Pra'emhab) laments his workload. The basalt image originally was stationed at Medinet-Habu. but was re-inscribed or re-dedicated to “Nephthys. where another shrine existed in honor of the Bennu.

1989 [21] Section 1. 28 [22] Papyrus Bologna 1094. R. in: A.A. Porter/R. Faullkner. Cauville. Lloyd [Hrsg. Montpellier. 'Pretres Isiaques. 186-188 [12] Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. 2. Karnak VII. université de Montpellier. 8-7. Beitrage Bf. 46 n. Relevés des scènes et des textes. Sanctuaire nord. Elephantine. Ohio. 184 n. G. 1993.allacademic.O. 2005 [14] Levai.d. 'Essai. 2007. 6. The discussion of Isis as the mother of Anubis appears on pages 222 and 223 [8] K. Bergman. I' Sanctuaire central. 5. 1992. II. 46. Berlandini. FRANCE. Dieter Arnold. Oxford Second Edition [11] Versuch über Nephthys. and Paintings. Traunecker. Peter Der Manuelian. Wyndham Toledo Hotel. 6. Kitchen.La stèle de Parâherounemyef. Jessica. Katary. B. Theban Temples. C. J. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112 [26] BIFAO website 9 . p. REFERENCES 1967). Dynasty XVIII [18] J. London 1992. [13] James P. Oxford University Press 1969. R.]. BIFAO 82 [19] A. Traunecker. Allen. Blackwell [9] Sauneron. Griffiths. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. “Nephthys and Seth: Anatomy of a Mythical Marriage”. Publications de la recherche. Reliefs. VI . 1 [23] 'Les Deesses de l'Egypte Pharaonique'. Apr 20.http: //www. pp. Theban Recension [16] Byron Esely Shafer. 112. 41-62. Beitrage Bf.' BIFAO 84. Nephthys découverte dans un papyrus magique in Mélanges. Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. p. Le temple d'El-Qal'a.8. Moss. 2005 [17] Tomb of Tuthmosis III.' 152 n. Paper presented at The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt.html [15] The Book of the Dead. Toledo..7 [10] B.com/meta/p176897_index. 209-228. 'The Pyramid Texts’ SBL. 1984 [20] 'Land Tenure in the Ramesside Period' by S.3. Gutbub. Ramesside Inscriptions. LaChaud. Durocher-Champollion [24] Forgeau. 155-157 [25] Sauneron. Varia Memphitica. Temples in Ancient Egypt.

an Amazon woman. see Asteria (band). Danaid. Heliad. preg. She married the river god Hydaspes (the modern Jhelum River) and became mother of Deriades. she flung herself into the sea and was transformed into a kingfisher. see Star stone.[5] 4. Ancient he came for Hippolyte's girdle. Each of these is detailed below.[10] Hera.7 Consort of Bellerophon fied with the island of Delos.[3] This then became identi.[7] 4. king in India. and became the “quail island” of Ortygia. which was the only piece on earth to give refuge to the fugitive Leto when. daughters of Danaus who. She was. Alkyonides. murdered their husbands on their wedding nights. Asteria (/əˈstɪəriə/. by Perses she Asteria[8] or Asterodia[9] was the mother of Crisus and had a daughter Hecate.5 Alkyonides Bellerophon. briefly.[1] According to Hesiod. For the type of gemstone. 4.3 Heliad Asteria or Astris was a daughter of Helios and Clymene or Ceto.[4] 10 .1 Daughter of Coeus 4. with one exception.[6] Greek: Ἀστερία.Asteria. daughter of Hydeus.2 Amazon ensemble. The Titan goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. one of the Heliades.6 Consort of Phocus Asteria was the daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe and sister of Leto. see Asteria Medievale. the Consort of Phocus.4 Danaid Asteria and Phoebe on the Pergamon Altar. “of the stars. the daughter of Teucer. was the mother of Hydissos nant with Zeus’s children. the bride of Chaetus. ters. she was pursued by vengeful by Bellerophon. Her son is known for having founded a city in Caria which was named after him.[2] Panopeus by Phocus. and a character in the opera Asteria was one of the Alkyonides. Asteria flung herself into the Aegean Sea in the form of a quail in order to escape the advances of Zeus. Along with her sis“Telemaco”. the consort of 4. an Athenian maiden. the daughter of Coronus. For the medieval music 4. Asteria was one of the Danaids. Asteria was the ninth Amazon killed by Heracles when In Greek mythology.4. starry one”) was a name attributed to the following eleven individuals: the daughter of Coeus.Chapter 4 Asteria For the band.

450 [13] Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum 4. and Apollo were possible parents of the seer Idmon. though the name did not appear in Homer's Odyssey on which the opera was based.9 Daughter of Teucer The daughter of Teucer and Eune of Cyprus also bore the name Asteria.13 External links • Theoi Project: Asteria 11 . 4.11 In Gluck opera Christoph Willibald Gluck gave the name Asteria to one of the characters in his 1765 opera "Telemaco".[13] 4. Alkyonides [8] Tzetzes on Lycophron. citing Pherecydes of Leros [12] Tzetzes on Lycophron.13. 139. EXTERNAL LINKS 4. v. [3] John Tzetzes. 8185 (painting on François Vase) 4. Argonautica. 5 [7] Suda s. [4] Theoi Project . 404ff. 1. Hydissos [11] Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius.[12] 4.10 Athenian maiden Asteria was one of the would-be sacrificial victims of Minotaur.4. portrayed in a vase painting. Library of History. 4.8 Daughter of Coronus Asteria. daughter of Coronus. [2] Theogony 409–11.[11] 4. 53 [9] Tzetzes on Lycophron. 939 [10] Stephanus of Byzantium.3 (on-line text) [6] Bibliotheca 2. 1. Theogony. 16.Titanis Asteria [5] Diodorus Siculus. s.12 References [1] Hesiod. v.

the god of old age.2 External links [1] Ἔρεβος.Chapter 5 Erebus For other uses. evening' are sometimes cited 2009. “Hyginus. Liddell. (1999). Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Theogony (120–125)[10] Translation by Hugh G. and Thanatos. Patricia (2001). 51. Erebus /ˈɛrəbəs/. London (1873). 253. Volume 1.. ISBN 9780195143386 [5] Peck. representing the personification of darkness. In Greek mythology. Hesiod’s Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence. Scott. 620. 55. Perseus Digital Library Project (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). Styx. “Online Etymology Dictionary: Erebus”. p. Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. Marian (2009). O. pp. Theogony 116–124. p. 170. brew ‫( ֶעֶרב‬ˤerev) 'sunset.. ISBN 0-19-514504-6. “Erebos” [2] Hesiod. an Indo-European origin for the name Ἔρεβος itself is possible from PIE *h1 regʷ-es/os. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. S. Evelyn-White. William. Classical Mythology: Sixth Edition. 263.. as a source. Dictionary of Ancient Deities.[1] Library.[2] Erebus features little in Greek mythological tradition and literature.[3] However. [6] Rengel. Fabulae 1–49”. Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z. Mark P. Semitic forms such as He. p. According to the Greek oral poet Hesiod's Theogony. Theoi E-Texts riqis. “deep darkness. 451. depending on the source of the mythology. New York: Oxford University Press US. [3] Elizabeth. Hypnos. born of Chaos. Retrieved 1 July 2011. P. The Roman writer Hyginus. The Sources of Spenser’s Classical Mythology. but is said to have fathered several other deities with Nyx. Beekes. Harry Thurston (1897). “E'rebos” 5. p. Henry George.[3][4][5][6][7] [7] Turner. Burdett and Company. ISBN 9780195145045 The perceived meaning of Erebus is “darkness". see Erebus (disambiguation). this union includes Aether.” Hesiod. 12 . shadow”). “Theogony”. “darkness”[8][9] “darkness” (cf. • The Theoi Project. but of Night were born Aether and Day. (1914).[10] Evelyn-White (1914) . Charon. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. 52. Hugh G. in his Fabulae. Retrieved 1 July 2011. Oxford University Press. described Erebus as the father of Geras.1 References Notes 5. 84. whom she con• Evelyn-White. New York: Harper. first recorded instance of it was “place of darkness between earth and Hades”. and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus. Infobase Publishing. Geras. 36. ISBN 1-60413-412-7.[1] was often conceived as a primordial deity.[9] R. Hemera. and brother to Nyx: Sources “From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night. for instance. the Moirai. Aaron. Brill. Robert. the [8] Harper. Douglas. Alice (1896). Old Norse røkkr). pp. [4] Morford. also Erebos (Greek: Ἔρεβος. ISBN 9781604134124 In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying. ISBN 0-19-514338-8. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.[11] • Smith. 271. New York: Silver. Gothic [11] Atsma. Erebus is the offspring of Chaos. Sanskrit rájas. the Hesperides. The ceived and bore from union in love with Erebus.

158. Greg. 149. Pak. 12. Marvel Universe. 99–103. “Incredible Hercules #124”.1 Artume in popular culture Artume appeared as a recurring character in Marvel Comics.[1] Aritimi was also considered the founder of the Etruscan town Aritie. and Legend. She was associated with the Greek goddess Artemis in later history. Retrieved 26 April 2010. [2] Van Lente. pp. Nancy (2006). death. Artames. Sacred History. Referred to as “Artumes”. Fred. Losna). of the moon (like another goddess.Chapter 6 Artume Artume (also called Aritimi. et al. 13 . 51.[2] 6. Etruscan Myth. nature. ISBN 978-1-93170786-2. 6. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. or Artumes) was an Etruscan goddess who was the goddess of night. 2008). woods and fertility. (December 31. 130–32. which is today the Italian town Arezzo. 141.2 References [1] Thomson de Grummond.

William Berg observes.[8] • From Ἑκατός Hekatos.[10] “the far reaching one” or “the far-darter”.[9] This has been translated as “she that operates from afar”. Heqet. entrance-ways. ink and light brown and • the name of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth. magic. ˈhɛkɪt/. Farnell states: “The evidence of the disyllabic and sometimes spelled Hecat. Hecate or Hekate (/ˈhɛkətiː. with whom she was identified in Rome. even when spelled with final e. “Since children are not called after spooks. as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira). “she that removes or drives off”.[12] The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced. She was variously associated with crossroads.[2][3] In the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles (2nd3rd century CE) she was regarded with (some) rulership over earth. Pen.[14] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the influence of Shakespeare for the thenpredominant disyllabic pronunciation of the name. Suggested derivations include: • From the Greek word for 'will'. knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants.[15] 7. light.monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate 14 .2 Representations Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia.[6] mon practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables. an obscure epithet of Apollo. The spelling Hecat is due to Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses. sea and sky. grey wash. Greek Ἑκάτη. 7. where variants of her name are found as names given to children. has been compared. the name was also pronounced not three-formed.refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens. Hekátē) is a goddess in Greek religion and mythology. and sorcery. ghosts.”[7] She also closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia.[4][5] She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family. Hekátē) is not known .[11] Statuette of Triple-bodied Hekate. Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul. see Hecate (disambiguation).[13] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the ElizabethanJacobean period.1 Name The etymology of the name Hecate (Ἑκάτη.Chapter 7 Hecate For other uses. dogs. It remained com. the moon. it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat. In Early Modern English. well into the 19th century. necromancy. most often shown holding two torches or a key[1] and in later periods depicted in triple form. witchcraft.

Attic. she is altogether without attributes and character. stating further. while the bronze images opposite. sacrificing it and then burning it whole on a pyre next to the pit as a holocaust. left). “This one is of stone. lay close to the originally Macedonian colony . placing a wreath on the head of a mare. and dressed in dark robes. MYTHOLOGY 15 is almost as full as that of the literature.7) A 4th-century BCE marble relief from Crannon in Thessaly was dedicated by a race-horse owner. then to retreat from the site without looking back. daggers and mystic nature. one serpent. taking part in the battle with the Titans. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs. serpents. were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes. and one horse.[21] In the Argonautica. even if he hears the sound of footsteps or barking dogs. and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion. Pausanias saw the temple of Hecate opposite the sanctuary of Eileithyia. and in magical papyri of Late Antiquity she is described as having three heads: one dog. He reported the image to be the work of Scopas.[17] Depictions of both a single The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found form Hekate and triple formed. style of the 6th century. a key. Some classical portrayals show her as a tripthe later period that they come to express her manifold licate goddess holding a torch. Images of her attended by a dog [20] are also found at times when she is shown as in her role as mother goddess with child.3. In the Argolid. Triple Hecate and the Charites. with a dedication to Hecate.”[16] and numerous other items. and the main historical value of this work. with a hound beside her. son of Mothon.[18] Hecate’s triplicity is elsewhere expressed in a more Hellenic fashion in the vast frieze of the great Pergamon Altar. Munich) The 2nd-century travel writer Pausanias stated that Hecate was first depicted in triplicate by the sculptor Alkamenes in the Greek Classical period of the late 5th century BCE [3] which was placed before the temple of the Wingless Nike in Athens. and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. Jason is to dig a round pit and over it cut the throat of a ewe. and when she is depicted alongside the god Hermes and the goddess Kybele in reliefs. Greek anthropomorphic conventions of art resisted representing her with three faces: a votive sculpture from Attica of the 3rd century BCE (illustration. her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water. which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription.[24] Lagina. shows three single images against a column. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar. wherein she is shown with three bodies. as well as occasional four in Athens.[23] All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head. round the column of Hecate dance the 7.” (Description of Greece 2. near the shrine of the Dioscuri. a 3rd-century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early material. He is told to sweeten the offering with a libation of honey. in writing of the headed descriptions continued throughout her history. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony.7. 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek.22.[19] It shows Hecate. The place of origin of her following is uncertain.[16] In Egyptian-inspired Greek esoteric writings connected with Hermes Trismegistus. also of Hecate. where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. now in Berlin. where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year. But it is only in Charites. is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form.3 Mythology Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess.[24] Her most important sanctuary was Lagina.[22] Jason placates Hecate in a ritual prescribed by Medea. but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace.

And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men.[28] In Athens Hecate. and she bestows wealth upon him. One theory is that Hesiod's original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers. and easily she takes it away as soon as seen. a star-goddess who was The first literature mentioning Hecate is the Theogony by the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). suggests that this may have been exceptional. whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea. And she is good to stand by horsemen. where she was the city’s patroness. the daughter of Perses and Asteria. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all.[27] Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship. then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement. she held sway over many things: Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes. while the testimony of other writers. were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household. she is honored amongst all the deathless gods.16 CHAPTER 7. albeit her mother’s only child. and who pray to Hecate and the loudcrashing Earth-Shaker. and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people.[26] Mallarmé in Les Dieux Antiques. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds.[25] In According to Hesiod. to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. and surviving evidence. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably. Hesiod: Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon. HECATE of Stratonikeia. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. 1880 Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child.[26] Hesiod’s inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars. or makes many to be less. whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom. Hermes. and brings glory to his parents. Hestia. privilege both in earth. along with Zeus. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion.[31] . it is clear that the special position given to Hecate by Zeus is upheld throughout her history by depictions found on coins depicting Hecate on the hand of Zeus [30] as highlighted in more recent research presented by d'Este and Rankine. She received honor also in starry heaven. if she will. For to this day. then.[29] However. and Apollo. Good is she also when men contend at the games. Greek goddess of the crossroads. He gave her splendid gifts. namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness. and these Hecate. and in heaven. and in sea. So. in that he seems to hold her in high regard. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep. as the division was at the first from the beginning. nouvelle mythologie illustrée in Paris. he calls upon Hecate. drawing by Stéphane are her honours. for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy. she increases from a few. easily the glorious goddess gives great catch. and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young. if so she will. for the power surely is with her.

However. Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries. or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness. are attested. or wheel. when she assisted Demeter with her search for Persephone following her abduction by Hades. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. where the priests. because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans. In two fragments of Aeschylus she appears as a great goddess. Subsequently she became Persephone’s companion on her yearly journey to and from the realms of Hades. above all by Artemis and Selene.[39] where she is associated in fragment 194 with a strophalos (usually translated as a spinning top. In Sophocles and Euripides she is characterized as the mistress of witchcraft and the Keres. alongside Demeter and Persephone.[32] and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time. at her unrivalled[33] cult site in Lagina. There was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack. a euphemism perhaps intended to emphasize her concern with the disappearance of Persephone. the dead and sorcery.[41] Variations in interpretations of Hecate’s role or roles can be traced in 5th-century Athens. Because of this association. For example.”[34] The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date. decorated throughout with symbols and whirled on an oxhide thong.[37] One interesting passage exists suggesting that the word “jinx” might have originated in a cult object associated with Hecate. consisting of a golden sphere. Hecate by Richard Cosway If Hecate’s cult spread from Anatolia into Greece. suggesting that Demeter should speak to the god of the sun. infernal spirits. the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage. and a mighty helper and protector of humans..[36] Hecate also came to be associated with ghosts. it is possible it presented a conflict. and her presence is signified by the barking of dogs. He adds that such an instrument is called a iunx (hence “jinx”).”[40] This appears to refer to a variant of the device mentioned by Psellus. Likewise. Other than in the Theogony. saving the city. her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world. megabyzi.[27] Here.[1] The modern understanding of Hecate has been strongly influenced by syncretic Hellenistic interpretations..7.[35] 17 the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Hecate is called the “tender-hearted”. such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus. the father of Mausolus. but as for the significance says only that it is ineffable and that the ritual is sacred to Hecate. MYTHOLOGY Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia. “The Byzantine polymath Michael Psellus [. In late imagery she also has two ghostly dogs as servants by her side. she is called the 'she-dog' or 'bitch'.] speaks of a bullroarer. in the magical papyri of Ptolemaic Egypt.3. Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. She scorns and insults Artemis. she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians. used in magic) “Labour thou around the Strophalos of Hecate.[24] the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate. Her continued presence was explained by asserting that. officiated. Helios. Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits. Many of the attributes she was assigned in this period appear to have an older basis. were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros (the tale is preserved in the Suda). shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils. it has been argued that “Hecate must have been a Greek goddess. One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis. who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal’s suicide.”[38] Hecate is the primary feminine figure in the Chaldean Oracles (2nd-3rd century CE). as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins. In gratitude the Byzantines erected .

for the dog was sacred to Eileithyia.[53] 7.[52] and.18 CHAPTER 7.[44] 7.”[54] The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate is attested for Thrace.1 Goddess of the crossroads Cult images and altars of Hecate in her triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at three-way crossroads (though they also appeared before private homes and in front of city gates).5 Animals Triple Hecate Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene.. 1795 William Blake Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog. and the sky.[9] It has been claimed that her association with dogs is “suggestive of her connection with birth. the sea. “In art and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog. where three roads meet. and was often eaten in solemn sacrament. Genetyllis.”.[43] • Trimorphe (three-formed)[48] • Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads)[48] • Trivia (Roman form) 7.[42] • Soteira (savior)[51] As a virgin goddess. HECATE a statue in her honor. the earth.4 Other names and epithets • Apotropaia (that turns away/protects) [45] • Chthonia (of the earth/underworld)[46] • Enodia (on the way)[47] • Klêidouchos (holding the keys)[48] • Kourotrophos (nurse of children)[48] • Melinoe[49] • Phosphoros (bringing or giving light)[48] • Propolos (who serves/attends)[48] • Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate)[50] The Triple Hecate. She had the power to create or hold back storms. she remained unmarried and had no regular consort. she ruled over three kingdoms. though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla.4.. Samothrace. Saint Eligius. and Athens. Although in later times Hecate’s dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who . and other birth goddesses. which influenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors. The dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal. according to Saint Ouen would urge them “No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium. In what appears to be a 7th-century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort. Colophon.[9] In this form she came to be known as the goddess Trivia “the three ways” in Roman mythology. in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted flock in Flanders against putting “devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads”.

The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe.' and 'would eat the corpse of a fish or a man'. discussed above. it is said there stood a statue of Hecate Triglathena.[61] After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. From Antoninus Liberalis: “At Thebes Proitos had a daughter Galinthias. in the Argonautica mentions that Medea was taught by Hecate. that she was extremely incontinent.”[57] Athenaeus (writing in the 1st or 2nd century BCE. as a favour to Hera. consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. she had deceived the gods.7. also has become sacred to Hecate in modern Pagan literature. has taught to work in drugs. fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad. PLANTS 19 Aelian told a different story of a woman transformed into a polecat: ""I have heard that the polecat was once a human being. which fits neatly into the pattern. It 'delighted in polluted things. daughter of Perses. Parker observes. Trioditis / With three forms and three faces / Propitiated with mullets”. boar. significantly a creature that can cross between two elements.6.”[60] At Athens. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. “The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet (trigle). and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change. He goes on to quote a fragment of verse “O mistress Hecate. making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating.”[65] . “Cicero. the Moirai (Fates) and Eileithyia (Birth-Goddess). the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens. The Greek word for mullet was trigle and later trigla. that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress (Pharmakis). “on account of the resemblance of their names. being but a mortal. particularly female dogs. for that the goddess is trimorphos. Blood-coloured itself. They turned her into a deceitful weasel (or polecat). is depicted with a bow. of a triple form”. As the birth throes for Herakles were pressing on Alkmene. a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity.”[55] The association with dogs. Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire. could be explained by a metamorphosis myth.” [62] The frog. probably Hekate or else Artemis. dog and twin torches. to whom the red mullet was offered in sacrifice. Pliny.[56] Another metamorphosis myth explains why the polecat is also associated with Hecate. who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar. it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate. and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires. Juvenal. Galinthias. each keeping their arms crossed. The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size. and drawing on the etymological speculation of Apollodorus of Athens) notes that the red mullet is sacred to Hecate. ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished. Martial. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then. May the goddess be gracious to me : fables and their telling I leave to others. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature.[64] 7. serpent and horse.[63] In her three-headed representations. Apollonius of Rhodes. accompanied her. Horace. Alkmene’s pangs ceased at once and Herakles was born. dog. including cow.”[58] A goddess. “I have mentioned to you before a certain young girl whom Hecate. Alan Davidson writes. kept Alkmene in continuous birth pangs. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene. its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog’s connection with birth than the dog’s underworld associations. daughter of Elektryon.6 Plants Hecate was closely associated with plant lore and the concoction of medicines and poisons. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. They remained seated. Hecate often has one or more animal heads. It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep. At all this. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since.[59] In relation to Greek concepts of pollution.

8 Festivals Hecate was worshipped by both the Greeks and the Romans who had their own festivals dedicated to her. Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. In Greek. Klêidouchos (holding the keys). at its most basic. which served as her constant companions.[70] These include aconite (also called hecateis).”[73] This liminal role is reflected in a number of her cult titles: Apotropaia (that turns away/protects). Hecate would naturally become known as a goddess who could also refuse to avert the demons. which was closely associated with her cult.20 CHAPTER 7. The yew was associated with the alphabet and the scientific name for yew today. their word for poison. As a goddess expected to avert harmful or destructive spirits from the house or city over It was probably her role as guardian of entrances that led to Hecate’s identification by the mid fifth century with Enodia.7 Places Hecate was associated with borders. It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate. the guardian of doors and portals. and in the road in front of private houses.1214) describes her as having a head surrounded by serpents. Enodia’s very name (“In-the-Road”) suggests that she watched over entrances. since at least as early as the 1st century CE.[72] 7.[75] This function would appear to have some relationship with the iconographic association of Hecate with keys. their word for bow and toxicon. there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic. Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads).[74] The yew in particular was sacred to Hecate. and hence sacred to a number of chthonic deities. which is hauntingly similar to toxon. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. “In Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. and the dead from leaving it. who. “Hecate mediated between regimes — Olympian and Titan —. and might also relate to her appearance with two torches. usually the largest meal of the day. which when positioned on either side of a gate or door illuminated the immediate area and allowed visitors to be identified. dittany. city walls. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison.[69] A number of other plants (often poisonous. “Greeks held the yew to be sacred to Hecate. for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city. doorways. "[t]he dog is a creature of the threshold. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans. taxus. Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate). keeping an eye on all who entered. a tree symbolic of death and the underworld. deipnon means the evening meal. The yawning gates of Hades were guarded by the monstrous watchdog Cerberus. and mandrake. usually noted on modern calendars as the .”[67] Hecate was said to favor offerings of garlic. according to the legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever present torches. particularly at night. indeed. or even drive them on against unfortunate individuals. She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a "liminal" goddess.”[78] 7. with realms outside or beyond the world of the living. twining through branches of oak. and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death.[66] which she stood guard and to protect the individual as she or he passed through dangerous liminal places. HECATE The goddess is described as wearing oak in fragments of Sophocles’ lost play The Root Diggers (or The Root Cutters). etc.. a Thessalian goddess. protecting their inhabitants.[68] She is also sometimes associated with cypress.[71] belladonna. was probably derived from the Greek word for yew. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection. and with her pack of dogs. 7. and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier. toxos.8. Hekate’s Deipnon is.1 The Deipnon The Athenian Greeks honored Hekate during the Deipnon. a meal served to Hekate and the restless dead once a lunar month on the night when there is no visible moon. by extension. and an ancient commentary on Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica (3. crossroads and.. raised an alarm when intruders approached.”[76] This suggests that Hecate’s close association with dogs derived in part from the use of watchdogs. whose function was to prevent the living from entering the underworld. medicinal and/or psychoactive) are associated with Hecate. but also between mortal and divine spheres. Enodia (on the way).[77] Like Hecate.

SURVIVAL IN PRE-MODERN FOLKLORE 21 new moon. southern Germany. [. deriving “hag” and/or “hex” from Hecate by way of haegtesse (AngloSaxon) and hagazussa (Old High German). such as the 20th century occultist and author.“hedge.“fly about.[97] Modern etymology reconstructs Proto-Germanic *hagatusjon.[89] with Isis: 7. others Bellona of the Battles.”[81] A secondary purpose was to purify the household and to atone for bad deeds a household member may have committed that offended Hekate. the moon. or phases. 7. Modern Hellenic polytheists honor Hecate during the Deipnon.[83] and 3) purification of the household. my name. a clear and precise reference to the tripartite nature of this ancient Goddess.. Historical depictions and descriptions show her facing in three different directions.9 Modern expressions Hecate is mentioned in Act 2. for Hecate has three faces. the principal of the Gods celestial. Lucius Apuleius (c. Aleister Crowley.. chief of powers divine. Classical sources.”[93] This theory of the Roman origins of many European folk traditions related to Diana or Hecate was explicitly advanced at least as early as 1807[94] and is reflected in numerous etymological claims by lexicographers from the 17th to the 19th century.[.[80] when the first sliver of moon is visible. and still others Hecate. 123 — revived the indigenous polytheist religion of Greece. The figure of Hecate can often be associated with the figShe is worshiped by people who have reconstructed and ure of Isis in Egyptian myth.[90] Hecate is also one of the “patron” goddesses of many Wiccans.11 Cross-cultural parallels that parallel. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient.. the wholesome winds of the Seas. In other circles Wiccan witches associate her with the “Maiden”. the later Greek Magical Papyri sometimes refer to her as also having the heads of animals. enclosure”. and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine. which derives from PIE *kagh.[79] The Deipnon is always followed the next day by the Noumenia. c. Queen of heaven.”[98] Neopaganism. In the Michigan .[98] the first element is probably cognate with hedge.[95] Such derivations are today proposed only by a minority[96] since being refuted by Grimm.from haegtesse and hagazussa. and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me. The Deipnon consists of three main parts: 1) the meal that was set out at a crossroads.[91] was made popular in modern times by writers such as Robert Graves in The White Goddess. appears in late antiquity and in the early medieval period as part of an “emerging legend complex” associated with gatherings of women. the Mother and the Crone”. but are not explicitly attested in.[88] and other themes 7.] Some call me Juno.”.[92] 'I am she that is the natural mother of all things. and the silences of hell be disposed.[87] witches. Her role as a tripartite goddess. and this can be seen as a reference to her aspect of Motherhood. such as groups like Hellenion and YSEE. my divinity is adored throughout all the world in divers manners. known as the 'Dagger' soliloquy.10. be smoke. and witchcraft that eventually became established “in the area of Northern Italy. which many modern-day Wiccans associate with the concept of “the Maiden. usually in a shrine outside the entryway to the home [82] 2) an expiation sacrifice. 170 CE) in his work The Golden Ass associates Hecate Hellenismos. hedges and 'hedge-riding'. who was skeptical of theories proposing non-Germanic origins for German folklore traditions. in this portrayal she is known as “Mistress of Animals”.[84] Strmiska notes that Hecate. vanish. the initial progeny of worlds. the light of the goddesses: at my will the planets of the air. and many others..]'[100] In the syncretism during Late Antiquity of Hellenistic and late Babylonian ("Chaldean") elements. mistress and governess of all the elements. conflated with the figure of Diana. Scene 1 by the character Macbeth. do call me Queen Isis. in variable customs and in many names. and the western Balkans. causing her to withhold her favor from them.. in William Shakespeare's play of the same name: “Witchcraft celebrates pale Hecate’s offerings.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore The main purpose of the Deipnon was to honor Hekate and to placate the souls in her wake who “longed for vengeance.[99] and the second Hecate is now firmly established as a figure in perhaps from *dhewes. the underworld counterpart of Inanna in the Babylonian cosmography.7. who in some traditions identify her with the Triple Goddess’ aspect of the "Crone".. Hecate was identified with Ereshkigal. or the “Mother” aspects as well.[85] which draws heavily on folkloric traditions[86] associating Hecate with 'The Wild Hunt'. and then the Agathos Diamon the day after that.

Theoi. purification. Hecate Ereschigal is invoked against fear of punishment in the afterlife. Scholars Press.12 Nature of her cult Regarding the nature of her cult. As Roel Sterckx observes.[103] This can be compared to Pausanias’ report that in the Ionaian city of Colophon in Asia Minor a sacrifice of a black female puppy was made to Hecate as “the wayside goddess”. [8] At least in the case of Hesiod's use. [5] Sarah Iles Johnston. Clay lists a number of researchers who have advanced some variant of the association between Hecate’s name and will (e. in the entry for Hecate. which is glossed as “lit. [4] “Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02. 90. ISBN 0-521-82392-7. Antony. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous. The researcher is led to identify “the name and function of Hecate as the one 'by whose will' prayers are accomplished and fulfilled. 2009. and spirits of the dead.14 Notes Isis and her various other names and symbols from The Golden Ass. “The use of dog sacrifices at the gates and doors of the living and the dead as well as its use in travel sacrifices suggest that dogs were perceived as daemonic animals operating in the liminal or transitory realm between the domestic and the unknown. New York: Oxford University Press. Vol. 1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Spawforth.” This interpretation also appears in Liddell-Scott. 135. pictures : HEKATE”.06. Hekate Liminal Rites.[104] 7. it has been remarked. which were sacred to the goddess. Hekate Soteira. pp. she had many similarities with Artemis (wilderness. danger-stricken outside world”. Dogs. Jenny Strauss (2003).).britannica. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology. and watching over wedding ceremonies)[102] Dogs were sacred to Hecate and associated with roads. 7). 1986). Simon.com. 671. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. Hecate. Neitzel (1975). [6] Encyclopedia Britannica. . and Plutarch’s observation that in Boeotia dogs were killed in purificatory rites. 129. They played a similar symbolic role in ancient China. dated to the late 3rd or early 4th century CE. Retrieved 2012-09-24. see Clay. (1996). p.. where dogs were conceived as representative of the household sphere. p.brynmawr.[101] Before she became associated with Greek mythology. Hesiod’s Cosmos. and as protective spirits appropriate when transcending geographic and spatial boundaries. 3 (Jul. A Greek English Lexicon. p. eds.”[9] 7. http://www. “she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Retrieved 2012-09-24. ghosts & magic . com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate [7] Berg 1974. domestic spaces.11”. [3] d'Este. HECATE mentioned. David.13 See also • Asura (Buddhism) • Janus • Amphisbaena • Lampade 7. 307-318 [2] “HECATE : Greek goddess of witchcraft. she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition. Avalonia. magical papyrus (inv. Dogs were also sacrificed to the road. with puppies often [1] The Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of Hekate by Charles M. 'she who works her will'" [9] Hornblower. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.g. Walcot (1958). Derossi (1975)). Sorita & Rankine. No. mythology . Bmcr. were offered to Hecate at crossroads.22 CHAPTER 7.edu.

Simon. inventory number 816. New York: Oxford University Press. 2009 [32] Theodor Kraus. Metaphor and Reality. 3. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. p. pronounced in three syllables when in Latin. Oxford. Charles (1869). 2010-02-28. 2009 [29] Encyclopedia Britannica. Bloomington. Harper & Brothers. Macbeth. 2000. 52. p. William (c. Scene 3. 21. line 21: “Pluto’s blue fire and Hecat’s tree”. [22] “The legend of the Argonauts is among the earliest known to the Greeks. Paul.. WildWinds. Agathokles. Act V. published by John Wiley & Sons. p. [19] This statue is in the British Museum. Noah (1866). Julian the Theurgist. p. ancient coins index with thumbnails”. A Classical Dictionary. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested “Carian theophoric names” is not convincing. Scene 1. [31] d'Este & Rankine. 128: Berg comments on Hecate’s endorsement of Roman hegemony in her representation on the pediment at Lagina solemnising a pact between a warrior (Rome) and an amazon (Asia) [34] Berg 1974. Christopher (first published 1604. (1987) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. 2.1. Scene 2.gr/index. Peter Green). have followed the actors in this world. Ben (c. The Cults of the Greek States.. by so adapting the word in Macbeth. Geography. page 221.7. Geography 14. Act II. 100. Act III. 1637.com. Act III. [25] Strabo. 14. Retrieved 2012-09-24. p. He concludes. [27] Johnston. E. 316. Scene 5. performed earlier).9: "Hecate. line 668: “our dame Hecat”. (English Translation by Hugh G. p. And the play-going world. University of Chicago Press. Doctor Faustus. p. line 384: “By the triple Hecat’s team”.” observes Peter Green. Oxford University Press. Hecat!" Jonson.. [20] [21] “Images”. 171. 1603-07). [28] Household and Family Religion in Antiquity by John Bodel and Saul M. Kings. 2007. line 1: “Why. 1992. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland. p. Philippe (2008). Hekate Liminal Rites. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. eds. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 [12] McKechnie.)" [16] Lewis Richard Farnell. Eidola. Retrieved 2012-09-24. and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. 2007. The Argonautika. ed. Neoplatonic saints: the Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by their Students. and appear to have been related to the practice of theurgy. this pronunciation. Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names”.labrys. p. Theogony. p. Kraus 1960. [38] Mark Edwards. ISBN 978-90-04-17089-6. the recording of which is traditionally attributed to Julian the Chaldaean or his son. ISBN 0-253-20122-5. Hecate. Sorita d'Este. Blackwell. Theoi. [23] Apollonios Rhodios (tr. Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1894): "Hec'ate (3 syl. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Berg’s argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1.). [33] Berg 1974. Roman and European Mythologies.14. 144.” [35] Kraus 1960. Evelyn-White) [11] Wheelwright.com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate also Hellenic Household Worship by Christos Pandion Panopoulos.php?l=householdworship#1 [30] “Baktria. in English is universally contracted into two. in Greek. (1991).. 2010 [18] Yves Bonnefoy. NOTES 23 [10] Anthon. [15] Webster. Leiden: Brill. The material seems to have provided background and explanation related to the meaning of these pronouncements. Spawforth. Hekate: Studien zu Wesen u. as he has now confirmed. Sarah Iles.eu. P. Oxford. p140 [24] Walter Burkert. [17] Hekate Her Sacred Fires. Liverpool University Press. seeHornblower. The Sad Shepherd.23 [37] “CULT OF HEKATE : Ancient Greek religion”.). 579. Shakespeare. printed 1641). (1996).25.. 133. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. “Hecate in Art”. p. Antony. and especially from Attica—all of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. Olyan. britannica. who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people. [39] The Chaldean Oracles is a collection of literature that date from somewhere between the 2nd century and the late 3rd century. list pp. and in the same number in the Greek word Ἑκάτη. . http://www. Introduction. ISBN 0-631-15624-0.2. 1594-96). p. Shakespeare seems to have begun. 2 in Eng. Avalonia. edited and translated by Lesley Madytinou & Rathamanthys Madytinos http://www. 134. Bilde der Göttin in Kleinasien u. 195. (1896). how now. Guillaume. The Argonautika. Griechenland (Heidelberg) 1960.. Arthur (1567). pagan magic that later became closely associated with Neoplatonism. by sinking the final e. [13] Golding. University of California Press. [26] Hesiod.166ff. William (c. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. Shakespeare. “Arguments for Hecate’s “Anatolian” origin are not in accord with evidence. Avalonia. [14] Marlowe. (1975). and the rest of the world have followed them. In Asia Minor only one monument can be associated with Hecate prior to the 2nd century BCE. Retrieved 2012-0924. Wendy Doniger. [36] Strabo.com. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. Book Seven. Cf. A Dictionary of the English Language (10th ed.

they call out unintelligible or beast-like sounds. Schmid and O. Restless Dead. [Diviners] spin this sphere and make invocations. pp. as if it had an ineffable power. they erected a public statue to that goddess [. 2003. CHAPTER 7.24 [40] English translation used here from: William Wynn Wescott (tr. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. Wild Men and Spirit Beings Around the World: A Study in Comparative Mythology. . [64] Yves Bonnefoy. 5-6. and with her pack of dogs. 492. [Hekate] teaches the taketes to operate. Hekate Soteira.. In her right hand she held the source of the virtues. 1958 [59] Charles Duke Yonge. [63] Varner. p..H. Columbia University. 1981). 96. or a triangular one. 94. 370529. Bohn. 72. p. Stählin. translated by Alwyn Faber Scholfield. While spinning them. Mediterranean Seafood.16. 1992 [58] On the Characteristics of Animals by Aelian. Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (C. or some other shape. 208-209. 2005. however. (2007). Wendy Doniger. startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. Gary R. Since Hecate was the guardian of “liminal places”. p. The Lupercalia. 1999. 1974. HECATE [47] Sarah Iles Johnston. C. Greek Goddess of the Crossroads”. pp. 1890–94). withstood a siege successfully. Goddess Gift: Meet the Goddesses Here. Metamorphoses 29. a Byzantine lexicon of the 10th century CE. The Argonautica of Apollonius. 2005. which was attributed to Hecate. Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner. pt. UNC Press. 1999. Harvard University Press. in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. 1987. p67 [55] Sarah Iles Johnston.” Vasiliki Limberis. Routledge. 1823. H. translation by Mair. Biblo & Tannen Publishers. p. [61] William Martin Leake. 1992. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros’ was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate’s defensive aid. The Learned Banqueters. [44] “Hecate. laughing and flailing at the air. p. the Byzantines.. Beck. 2. University of California Press.C. on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise. Brill. 126-127. Such things they call charms. 1841. [53] Saint Ouen. 1993. pp. p. p. But it is all nonsense. 1990. 1895. appearing suddenly in the heavens. 2. [52] Amanda Porterfield. University of California Press. Encyclopædia Britannica. 68. who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian. To commemorate this timely phenomenon. Healing in the history of Christianity. p. [62] Alan Davidson. University of California Press. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. Philip of Macedon. but were foiled by reason of a bright light which. 2.]" William Gordon Holmes. 1854. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium and Eustathius. 362-363. vol. 1994. [51] Sarah Iles Johnston. It is called the top of Hekate because it is dedicated to her. vol. Like Byzas in one legend. 135. ISBN 0-87586-546-1. Psychology Press. p. 1921. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece.G. Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins.com/Text/LycophronAlexandra. W. [54] Alberta Mildred Franklin. [48] Liddell-Scott. Athenian Popular Religion. 2. Cambridge University Press. The Lupercalia.H.” As quoted in Frank R. Creatures in the Mist: Little People. [56] The poem Alexandra by Lycophron 1174 ff. London. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. [49] Ivana Petrovic. 1921. p. Roscher. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. [60] Robert Parker. The Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster. Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. that is the movement of the top. she had her origins in Thrace. citing Apollonius of Rhodes. according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her everpresent torches. Columbia University. Roman and European Mythologies. Vita Eligii book II. Hunter. In the course of this beleaguerment. [65] R. which served as her constant companions. 92. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. 2007). 142. Scholars Press. it was Hecate. this story apparently survived in the works Hesychius of Miletus. theoi.). “Hecate” article. 982. University of Chicago Press. Ten Speed Press. Trombley. Oxford University Press. an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age. p. 1990. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the Suda. Von den Toren des Hades zu den Hallen des Olymp (Brill. 1924. The Topography of Athens. [42] “In 340 B. p. Mikalson. 195. 16. W. 2002. pp. whether it is the matter of a spherical object. p. translation by Francis Celoria. [41] “A top of Hekate is a golden sphere enclosing a lapis lazuli in its middle that is twisted through a cow-hide leather thong and having engraved letters all over it. [50] Sarah Iles Johnston. tr. 319. A Greek-English Lexicon. 211-212. The Age of Justinian and Theodora. Hellenic Religion and Christianization. New York: Algora Publishing. pp. [43] Joseph Eddy Fontenrose. it is related. [45] Alberta Mildred Franklin. Divine Heiress. 1999. 76. Oxford University Press. pt. “If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople.). Retrieved 18 April 2011. 207. L. with the aid of the Athenians. [46] Jon D. Lycophron of Chalcis was a Greek poet in the 3rd century BCE The poem can be read here: http://www. p.html [57] Antoninus Liberalis.

and for the relation between hedges. 79. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. p303 [87] For a summary of the wild hunt as a neopagan 'tradition' see the entry in James R.]" Margaret F. [74] Sarah Iles Johnston. 358 F. 1975. Bilardi. Plutus.. Magic. Penguin Books. by K. University of California Press.7. [69] Freize. and Cochicum [. Plants of Death. Hedge Witch: Guide To Solitary Witchcraft. p. 39 K).” Timothy Miller (Ed. New York: Oxford University Press. The Powers of Evil in Western Religion. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. Simoons. Apollodorus. R. Lewis. and Medicinal Applications. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece.A Documentary History of Religion In America Since 1877. p79 [86] “Neo-paganism/witchcraft is a spiritual orientation and a variety of ritual practices using reconstructed mythological structures and pre-Christian rites primarily from ancient European and Mediterranean sources. Virgil’s Aeneid. Diktamnon (Dictamnus albus).). 121-124. p. F. 313 B (2. ii. hedge-riding and witches in German folklore see: C. 1998. 1992 [89] Hellenion is a 501c3 religious organization based in the USA dedicated to reviving the religions indigenous to Greece. Chapter in the book The Goddess Hekate: Studies in Ancient Pagan and Christian Philosophy edited by Stephen Ronan. Alkaloids: Biochemistry. [82] Antiphanes. University of Wisconsin Press. Pendraig Publishing. 424-425). [90] http://nfs.sparknotes. Taxol: Science and Applications. Mandragores (Mandragora officinarum). [75] Sarah Iles Johnston. University of Toronto Press. Chariclides (iii. University of Wisconsin Press. and 358 F. Michael Wink. Plants of Life. University of California Press. 62. p. http://hellenion. Spawforth. Plants of Death. The Greek Myths. was much dreaded. 2009. Conway. eds. the quasi-technical word designating their longing for vengeance. Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions. pp 10-23 (De Vries also mentions Hecate in this liminal context). Rituals & Spells. 1999. 65. As a general indicator of the currency of the association of hedge and witch see titles such as: Silver Ravenwolf. pp 303-304. 411-413. Aristophanes. p. p. 19 K). New York: American Book Company. 490. J.. 2004. Simoons. 2007. Pendraig Publishing. pp 127-129.. and notes. N111. 2008 and Rae Beth. 1. Eerdmans. of the wandering Teutonic tribes and of others as well. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. Hale.html . Noll (Eds. Hedge-Rider: Witches and the Underworld.14. Hegesander. p. whose enthumion.2. 79. 1999. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1977. p. 1889. pp. [85] For Hecate as a protector deity of a contemporary (midnineties) neopagan coven see: Sabina Magliocco. 1994. Smith. (i. See Heckenbach. Mekon (Papaver somniferum). Lewis. Vol. 28. Crafts & Rituals for Natural Magick. Magic and Folk Belief. [70] “Hecate had a “botanical garden” on the island of Colchis where the following alkaloid plants were kept: Akoniton (Aconitum napellus). i. Rohde. 1972 pages 291-297 [81] These are the biaiothanatoi. No. Judith Fletcher. ii. in Athenaeus. 82-83. 1999. tradition and way of life in the “modern” Greek Society from which is oppressed due to its institutional intolerance and theocracy”. 325 B. [84] Roscher. (1996). 126-127. Ethnic Hellenic religion.). 1995. 71. 1995. 2008. pp. 143. State University of New York Press. 1998. […] most see in goddess worship a rediscovery of folk practices that persisted in rural Europe throughout the Christian era and up to recent times. [83] Hekate’s Suppers. n. p. 647. 16. 2006. Fragkiska Megaloudi. Antiphanes. Thryon (Atropa belladona). p603. Plants of Life. America’s Alternative Religions.). Ecology. Plants and Diet in Greece From Neolithic to Classic Periods.” James R. Heckenbach. Oxford University Press. “Neopaganism sees itself as a revival of ancient pre-Christian religion: the old nature religions of Greece and Rome. [71] Robert Graves.). also Ammonius (p. in Athenaeus. Llewellyn. Melanthius. pp. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary And The Creation of Christian Constantinople. 2776 and references. NOTES 25 [66] Daniel Ogden. Plato. CRC Press. Witching Culture: Folklore and Neopaganism in America. 208. For a 'moon magick' reference to Hecate as “Lady of the Wild Hunt and witchcraft” see: D. Antony. 154. 394 K). 1998. The Red Church or The Art of Pennsylvania German Braucherei. 2003. Witchcraft. Routledge.com/macbeth/page_50. 264 f. p157 [88] For an extensive discussion of the symbolism of the hedge and hedge-riding as it relates to contemporary witchcraft see: Eric De Vries. 362. Routledge. 1996. [78] Richard Cavendish. 596. 1995. Melanthius. 2002. 275-277. “A second theme in the Neo-Pagan combination is the pre-Christian European folk religion or Paganism. Moon Magick: Myth & Magic. Melaina (Claviceps pupurea). [73] Bonnie MacLachlan. Simon. Springer. Hedge Witch: Spells. Roberts. [79] [5] The play Plutus by Aristophanes (388BCE). 14. 2781. Pages 57 to 64 [67] Matthew Suffness (Ed. [77] Hornblower. 209. Crafts & Recipes. Virginity Revisited: Configurations of The Unpossessed Body. pp. Llewellyn. Archaeopress. line 594 any translation will do or Benjamin Bickley Rogers is fine [80] Harvard Theological Review. p. Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft. Walter (1902). Valckenaer) [68] Frederick J. and note. [76] Vasiliki Limberis. [72] Frederick J. Henry. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. p. p. Com. Dennison.org/ The Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes is an umbrella group based in Greece that is a legally recognized Non Profit Organization (NPO) and was “founded in June of 1997 aiming to the morale and physical protection and restoration of the Polytheistic. in Athenaeus.” Gaustad. p339. aoroi and ataphoi (cf. Rohde. State University of New York Press.

Hecate. The Rotting Goddess.15 References 7. 514. Yakov. VI 140. The work has been sharply criticized by Classics scholars. The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures. p318) [104] Frederick J. “Hecate in Art”. VT: Inner Traditions International. Modern paganism in world cultures. [102] Heidel. 1835. • Kerenyi. Hekate in Early Greek Religion. 213. ISBN 0-89281-494-2. Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. Wayland D. Sterckx explicitly recognizes the similarities between these ancient Chinese views of dogs and those current in Greek and Roman antiquity. [97] “Many have been caught by the obvious resemblance of the Gr. Leo. p. and goes on to note “Dog sacrifice was also a common practice among the Greeks where the dog figured prominently as a guardian of the underworld. • Von Rudloff. 1976. [101] Hans Dieter Betz. Description of Greece [94] Francis Douce. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World.2 (August 1974:128-40) • Burkert. • Ovid. Edward Lye of Oxford (1694-1767). American Historical Association. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) Published in the UK as Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate’s Role in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature. Sarah Iles. Numen 21. & Witchery. • Ruickbie. Cures. HECATE 7. [92] https://sites. and of Ancient Manners. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows: A Complete History. 241. State University of New York Press. Johann Georg Wachter. 2004. The Animal and The Daemon In Early China.4 (May 1980):287-295). no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M. Horned Owl Publishing (July 1999) 7. p. Radbill. Etymologicon Universale (1822) [96] e. 177. (1991). 174. (1880). [103] Roel Sterckx. pp 233-234 • Strabo. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. The Day of Yahweh: A Study of Sacred Days and Ritual Forms in the Ancient Near East. A work which views Hekate from the perspective of Mircea Eliade's archetypes and substantiates its claims through cross-cultural comparisons. The Gods of the Greeks. 2007. Robert. Stéphane. 1985. 2002. p. Walter Whiter.P. University of Wisconsin Press.47. Univ.” (Footnote 113. Wilshire.com/site/hellenionstemenos/Home/ festivals/hekatesdeipnon CHAPTER 7.1 Primary sources • Hesiod. Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them. 1951. Hand. J. 223 [100] Apuleius. Samuel X. “Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus”. or Romance writings in the sense of witch.g.26 [91] E. (1990). contrary to the laws of change.2 Secondary sources • Berg. 2005. 68. (1896). Donna (1994). Adams. • Johnston. D. The Golden Ass 11. Robert Hale. VII 74. entry 'hag'. Oxford University Press. and the Mid. 2006. Simoons. Glossarium Germanicum (1737). 194. in American Folk Medicine: A Symposium Ed. “Hecate: Greek or “Anatolian"?". William Arthur (1929). nouvelle mythologie illustrée. [95] John Minsheu and William Somner (17th century). Rochester.g. Teutonic Mythology. • Pausanias.15. 1807. of Tennessee Press.google. 405. Theogony. and how should the word have spread through all German lands?" Jacob Grimm. Geography 7. Sarah Iles. Walter.15. accessed 8/23/09 [99] Mallory. XIV 44. Signs.16 External links • Myths of the Greek Goddess Hecate • Encyclopædia Britannica 1911: “Hecate” . Oxford University Press. p. Les Dieux Antiques. Karl. History of Religions 19. Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess. ABC-CLIO. • Lewis Richard Farnell. 116. Works and Days. 1994. Gerald Milnes. 1990. 235-243. pp 232-233. but the letters agree to closely. 1987. “The Role of Animals in Infant Feeding”. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 • Mallarmé. The Cults of the Greek States. (Oxford: Blackwell) ISBN 0-631-15624-0. • Johnston. Oxford. Illustrations of Shakspeare.Q. some dismissing Rabinowitz as a neo-pagan. William. An English translation is available online [93] Michael Strmiska. • Rabinovich. p. Lat. 94. (English translation 1900) [98] Etymology Online. Metamorphoses.

EXTERNAL LINKS • The Rotting Goddess by Yakov Rabinovich.7. • Theoi Project. at the Ashmolean Museum. Hecate Classical literary sources and art • Hekate in Greek esotericism: Ptolemaic and Gnostic transformations of Hecate • The Covenant of Hekate • Cast of the Crannon statue. complete book included in the anthology “Junkyard of the Classics” published under the pseudonym Ellipsis Marx. Oxford.16. • The Hekate/Iphigenia Myth 27 .

which was originally about Artemis (Arcadian epithet kallisto). excellent.[6] The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. feminine) is of unknown or un. representing the goddess Artemis been suggested.Chapter 8 Artemis For other uses. have linked Artemis (Doric Arthon the primitive root of the name is probably of Per.[15] Artemis [16] For example according to Jablonski. In later Hellenistic times. Beekes suggested that the have been proposed.[9] Babiniotis while accepting that the etymology is unknown.[10] the name is also was venerated in Lydia as Artimus. by way of folk etymology. According to Charles An.some modern scholars. “to shake.e. she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth.[9][10] e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. a-te-miname Artemis are the Mycenaean Greek The name Artemis (noun.te. While connection with Anatolian names has Didrachm from Ephesus. c. Artemis /ˈɑrtɨmɨs/ was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/. Potnia Theron: “Artemis of the wildland.[1] Some scholars[2] believe that the name. she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows.[11] this cult was a survival of very old totemic and shamanistic rituals and formed part of a larger bear cult found further afield in other Indo-European cultures (e. 85 BCE. Mistress of Animals”.1 Etymology Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Greek king Artemidoros (whose name means “gift of Artemis”). wild animals. see Artemis (disambiguation). Britomartis.mis] in Classical Attic) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto. even as she was worshipped at Ephesus”.[5] In the classical period of Greek mythology. pronounced [ár. *arte. all meaning “great. was originally pre-Greek. bringing and relieving disease in women. childbirth. i. as well as the story about Callisto.to /Artemitos/ and . wilderness. states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of pre-Hellenic origin. *art.g. holy. “butcher”[17][18] or.[14] R. 28 .. featuring Artemis with a drawn bow and a quiver on her back on the reverse of the coin sian origin from *arta. Ionia. supported by the bear cult that the goddess had in Attica (Brauronia) and the Neolithic remains at the Arkoudiotissa Cave.[8] The name could also be possibly related to Greek árktos "bear" (from PIE *h₂ŕ̥tḱos). Phrygian and could be “compared with the royal appel. artamos.tamis) to ἄρταμος. and indeed the goddess herself. It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting. P.[3] Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera.” thus Artemis “becomes identical with the great mother of Nature. Gaulish Artio). 8.[12][13] the earliest attested forms of the . Artemis (Ancient Greek: Ἄρτεμις.[10] Anton Goebel “suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ. and the twin sister of Apollo.[4] The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter.Ancient Greek writers. and lation Artemas of Xenophon. written certain origin and etymology[7][8] although various ones in Linear B at Pylos.” and makes Artemis mean the thrower of the dart or the shooter”. S. virginity and protector of young girls. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt.

2. signed). ca. 72 accounts for the island’s archaic name Ortygia[21] by asserting that Zeus transformed Leto into a quail (ortux) in order to prevent Hera from finding out his infidelity.1 Birth Apollo (left) and Artemis.2.[24] In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates . 470 BC. with a deer) and Apollo (on the right. holding a lyre) from Myrina. lines 918–920 (written in the 7th century BCE) 8. at three years old. Zeus.2. All accounts agree. dating to approximately 25 BC Various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother. Briseis Painter. however. An account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra firma (the mainland) or on an island. becoming her mother’s mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo.[23] A poem of Callimachus to the goddess “who amuses herself on mountains with archery” imagines some charming vignettes: according to Callimachus. “the stainless maiden”. but to rule the mountains. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY 29 like Plato did in Cratylus. “unharmed”. and Leto gave birth there. “safe”. But the island of Delos (or Ortygia in the Homeric Hymn to Artemis) disobeyed Hera. i. to have a bow and arrow and a knee-length tunic so that she could hunt.2 Childhood Artemis (on the left. asked him to grant her six wishes: to remain always a virgin. “pure”.[22] The myths also differ as to whether Artemis was born first. having been thrashed by Hera. to ἀρτεμής. because he had impregnated Leto. and for twenty Amnisides Nymphs as handmaidens to watch her dogs and bow while she rested. As she joined in love to the Aegis-bearing ruler. climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus. Artemis.2 Artemis in mythology Leto bore Apollon and Artemis. all nine years of age. Most stories depict Artemis as born first.[20] The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth. Apollo. Brygos (potter. her husband. 8. artemḗs. A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii.e. Hera was angry with Zeus. Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup. The Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl.8. that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and that she was the twin sister of Apollo. Artemis at the islands known today as the Paximadia. who. Louvre.[9][10][19] 8. and for the ability to help women in the pains of childbirth. or Apollo. She wished for no city dedicated to her. delighting in arrows. while sitting on the knee of her father. “uninjured”. and Kenneth McLeish suggested further that in quail form Leto would have given birth with as few birth-pains as a mother quail suffers when it lays an egg. Theogony. to have sixty “daughters of Okeanos". Both of lovely shape like none of the heavenly gods. to be the Phaesporia or Light Bringer. —Hesiod. to be her choir. to have many names to set her apart from her brother Apollo.

As a virgin. is turned into a girl by the goddess. the god of the forest. who had been a favorite of Artemis.30 CHAPTER 8. but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. Callimachus tells[26] how Artemis spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress.4 Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon myth survive. either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her.2.2. who no longer recognize their master. In another story. Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow.2. Artemis killed Adonis for revenge. goes to Alpheus. Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis’ temple. Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than she. Gaia. who is with her com. who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. the stag. Apollo. but. where the goddess and her attendant drink. Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs. as punishment for being with Aphrodite. Reading his sinful thoughts. and Artemis closely guarded her own chastity. 8. the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who.8. was in love with Artemis.[26] According to the standard modern text on the work. Bouphagos. Usually the dogs are his own. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot.3 Intimacy of Aphrodite. Artemis Alphaea in Letrini. the son of the Titan Iapetos. sees Artemis and thinks about raping her. and the moon. Artemis killed Adonis to avenge Hippolytus’s but only her hunting companion. won her heart. Artemis. Okeanus’ daughters were filled with fear. Therefore. Adonis was not killed by Artemis.5 Adonis In some versions of the story of Adonis. sometimes boasting he is a better hunter than she. she covers her face with mud so that the river Orion was Artemis’ hunting companion. In some vergod does not recognize her. or even merely being a rival of Zeus for the affections of Semele. a river god. attempts to force himself on her. Roman marble Bust of Artemis after Kephisodotos (Musei Capitolini). the hunting dog. However. For this hubris he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. Sometimes they are Artemis’ hounds. death. The details vary but at the core they involve a great hunter.[25] All of her companions remained virgins. Different tellings also diverge in the hunter’s transgression. how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Lipara. seeing her naked in her sacred spring. Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Pan. Artemis had interested many gods and men. to be a midwife. suspicious of his motives.2. In other versions. Adonis had been related as a favorite 8.6 Orion panions at Letrenoi. but by Ares. where Hephaestus and the Cyclops worked. who. in some surviving versions Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her. Orion. Rome. particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother. and Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytus. while in others he is killed . In later myths. 8. but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows. which is sometimes merely seeing the virgin goddess naked. Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe. ARTEMIS tries to rape Artemis’ attendant Arethusa. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by In yet another version. who was a late addition to Greek mythology during the Hellenistic period. Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts. So he decides to capture her. though many are fragmentary. Alphaeus sions. Alpheus. he is killed by Artemis. Sipriotes is a boy. Lamar Ronald Lacey’s The Myth of Aktaion: Literary and Iconographic Studies.

8.2. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY

31

Diana and Callisto by Titian.

8.2.8 Callisto
Callisto was the daughter of Lycaon, King of Arcadia and
also was one of Artemis’s hunting attendants. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus apThe Death of Adonis, by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709 - Hermitage
peared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories
Museum.
Apollo, gained her confidence, then took advantage of
her (or raped her, according to Ovid). As a result of this
encounter she conceived a son, Arcas.
by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries Enraged, Hera or Artemis (some accounts say both)
to seduce Opis,[27] one of Artemis’ followers, and she changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but
kills him. In a version by Aratus,[28] Orion takes hold Zeus stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus placed
of Artemis’ robe and she kills him in self-defense.
Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of CalIn yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion. According to Hyginus[29] Artemis once loved Orion (in spite
of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos did), but was tricked into killing him by her
brother Apollo, who was “protective” of his sister’s maidenhood.

8.2.7

The Aloadae

listo the Bear as a constellation. Some stories say that he
placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears,
forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations.

8.2.9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis
Artemis punished Agamemnon after he killed a sacred
stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess. When the Greek fleet was
preparing at Aulis to depart for Troy to begin the Trojan
War, Artemis becalmed the winds. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis
was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then
snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer.
Various myths have been told around what happened after Artemis took her. Either she was brought to Tauros
and led the priests there, or became Artemis’ immortal
companion.[30]

These twin sons of Iphidemia and Poseidon, Otos and
Ephialtes, grew enormously at a young age. They were
aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless
they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae never
stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach
heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take
them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for
Artemis who captured a fine deer (or in another version 8.2.10 Niobe
of the story, she changed herself into a doe) and jumped
out between them. The Aloadae threw their spears and A Queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted
of her superiority to Leto because while she had fourteen
so mistakenly killed each other.

32

CHAPTER 8. ARTEMIS

children (Niobids), seven boys and seven girls, Leto had
only one of each. When Artemis and Apollo heard this
impiety, Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics,
and Artemis shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to
kill them, though according to some versions two of the
Niobids were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at
the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated
Niobe and her remaining children were turned to stone
by Artemis as they wept. The gods themselves entombed
them.

8.2.11

Chione

Chione was a princess of Pokis. She was beloved by two
gods, Hermes and Apollo, and boasted that she was prettier than Artemis because she made two gods fall in love
with her at once. Artemis was furious and killed Chione
with her arrow or struck her dumb by shooting off her
tongue. However, some versions of this myth say Apollo
and Hermes protected her from Artemis’ wrath.

8.2.12

Atalanta, Oeneus and the Meleagrids

Artemis saved the infant Atalanta from dying of exposure
after her father abandoned her. She sent a female bear to
suckle the baby, who was then raised by hunters. But
she later sent a bear to hurt Atalanta because people said Artemis pouring a libation, c. 460-450 BC.
Atalanta was a better hunter. This is in some stories.
Among other adventures, Atalanta participated in the
hunt for the Calydonian Boar, which Artemis had sent
to destroy Calydon because King Oeneus had forgotten
her at the harvest sacrifices. In the hunt, Atalanta drew
the first blood, and was awarded the prize of the skin.
She hung it in a sacred grove at Tegea as a dedication to
Artemis.
Meleager was a hero of Aetolia. King Oeneus had him
gather heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian
Boar. After the death of Meleager, Artemis turned
his grieving sisters, the Meleagrids into guineafowl that
Artemis loved very much.

8.2.13

Artemis. Iakhos later became an attendant of Demeter
and the leader of Eleusinian Mysteries.

8.2.14 Polyphonte
Polyphonte was a young woman who fled home preferring
the idea of a virginal life with Artemis to the conventional
life of marriage and children favoured by Aphrodite. As
a punishment Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have
children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and
Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of
Zeus. Ultimately the whole family were transformed into
birds and more specifically ill portents for mankind.[32]

Aura
8.2.15 Trojan War

In Nonnus Dionysiaca,[31] Aura was Greek goddess of
breezes and cool air, daughter of Lelantos and Periboia.
She was a virgin huntress, just like Artemis and proud of
her maidenhood. One day, she claimed that the body of
Artemis was too womanly and she doubted her virginity.
Artemis asked Nemesis for help to avenge her dignity and
caused the rape of Aura by Dionysus. Aura became a mad
and dangerous killer. When she bore twin sons, she ate
one of them while the other one, Iakhos, was saved by

Artemis may have been represented as a supporter of
Troy because her brother Apollo was the patron god of
the city and she herself was widely worshipped in western Anatolia in historical times. In the Iliad[33] she came
to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks
and Trojans engaged each other in conflict. Hera struck
Artemis on the ears with her own quiver, causing the arrows to fall out. As Artemis fled crying to Zeus, Leto

8.3. WORSHIP OF ARTEMIS
gathered up the bow and arrows.
Artemis played quite a large part in this war. Like her
mother and brother, who was widely worshiped at Troy,
Artemis took the side of the Trojans. At the Greek’s
journey to Troy, Artemis becalmed the sea and stopped
the journey until an oracle came and said they could win
the goddess’ heart by sacrificing Iphigenia, Agamemnon's
daughter. Agamemnon once promised the goddess he
would sacrifice the dearest thing to him, which was Iphigenia, but broke the promise. Other sources said he
boasted about his hunting ability and provoked the goddess’ anger. Artemis saved Iphigenia because of her bravery. In some versions of the myth, Artemis made Iphigenia her attendant or turned her into Hecate, goddess of
night, witchcraft, and the underworld.

33
the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron to serve the Goddess
for one year. During this time, the girls were known as
arktoi, or little she-bears. A myth explaining this servitude states that a bear had formed the habit of regularly
visiting the town of Brauron, and the people there fed it,
so that, over time, the bear became tame. A girl teased
the bear, and, in some versions of the myth, it killed her,
while, in other versions, it clawed out her eyes. Either
way, the girl’s brothers killed the bear, and Artemis was
enraged. She demanded that young girls “act the bear” at
her sanctuary in atonement for the bear’s death.

Virginal Artemis was worshipped as a fertility/childbirth
goddess in some places, assimilating Ilithyia, since, according to some myths, she assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin. During the Classical period in Athens,
Aeneas was helped by Artemis, Leto, and Apollo. Apollo she was identified with Hecate. Artemis also assimilated
found him wounded by Diomedes and lifted him to Caryatis (Carya).
heaven. There, the three of them secretly healed him in
a great chamber.

8.3.1 Epithets

8.3 Worship of Artemis

Roman Temple of Artemis in Jerash, Jordan, built during the
reign of Antoninus Pius.

Main article: Brauronia
Artemis, the goddess of forests and hills, was worshipped
throughout ancient Greece.[34] Her best known cults were
on the island of Delos (her birthplace), in Attica at
Brauron and Mounikhia (near Piraeus), and in Sparta.
She was often depicted in paintings and statues in a forest
setting, carrying a bow and arrows, and accompanied by
a deer.
The ancient Spartans used to sacrifice to her as one of
their patron goddesses before starting a new military campaign.
Athenian festivals in honor of Artemis included
Elaphebolia, Mounikhia, Kharisteria, and Brauronia.
The festival of Artemis Orthia was observed in Sparta.

Color reconstruction of a first century AD statue of Artemis found
in Pompeii. Reconstructed using analysis of trace pigments. It
was an imitation of Greek statues of the sixth century BC. Part
of Gods in Color.

As Aeginaea, she was worshiped in Sparta; the name
means either huntress of chamois, or the wielder of
the javelin (αἰγανέα).[35][36] She was worshipped at
Naupactus as Aetole; in her temple in that town there
was a statue of white marble representing her throwing a
javelin.[37] This “Aetolian Artemis” would not have been
introduced at Naupactus, anciently a place of Ozolian
Locris, until it was awarded to the Aetolians by Philip II
of Macedon. Strabo records another precinct of “Aetolian Artemos” at the head of the Adriatic.[38] As Agoraea
she was the protector of the agora.

Pre-pubescent and adolescent Athenian girls were sent to As Agrotera, she was especially associated as the pa-

[47] • Kharisteria Festival on 6 of Boidromion (third month) to celebrate the victory of Marathon and also known as the Athenian “Thanksgiving”. On the altar. Homer used this title. she was the nurse of youths. the plague when her bear was killed.[49] • Day 6 of 16 of Mounikhion (tenth month) a celebration of her as the goddess of nature and animal. As Locheia. This winged Artemis • Festival of Amarysia is a celebration to worship lingered in ex-votos as Artemis Orthia. a festival to celebrate skirt. dressed in saffron robes and The oldest representations of Artemis in Greek Archaic played the bear to appease the goddess after she sent art portray her as Potnia Theron (“Queen of the Beasts”): a winged goddess holding a stag and leopard in her hands. aged between five and ten. she is shown in the shooting pose. or sometimes a leopard and a lion. A goat was being sacrificed to her.[50] • Day 6 of Thargelion (eleventh month) the 'birthday' of the goddess. at Euboea. Sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron. however. Greece. largely because of the legend that while fleeing the advances of Alpheius.[39] Alphaea.[46] • At the 16 of Metageitnio (second month on Athenian calendar).[41][42] and in Ortygia. bond). In 2007. is placed the driest of their wood. Aphaea. who was said to have been in love with her.[52] with hunting boots. In Sparta the Artemis Lygodesma was worshipped. Artemis’ traditional mode of transportation (see below).[44] 8. It is. Just before the time of the festival. the feminine form of her brother Apollo’s solar epithet Phoebus. honey and sesame-seeds. and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a chariot yoked to four deer. ARTEMIS tron goddess of hunters.[43] Artemis Alphaea was associated with the wearing of masks. piling earth upon the altar steps.[51] • A festival for Artemis Diktynna (of the net) in Hypsous. a festival for Artemis in Patrai.3 Modern Artemis was born at the sixth day. lygos (λυγός. with a sanctuary Artemis Amarysia in Attica. a quiver. • In Orchomenus.4 Artemis in art • Festival of Artemis in Brauron. while the seventh was Apollo’s. tall and slim. The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis. A king rows. not until the next day that the sacrifice is offered. Often. they construct a smooth ascent to the altar. each of them sixteen cubits long. The procession started by setting the logs of wood around the altar. When portrayed . In Athens Artemis was often associated with the local Aeginian goddess. a team of close by Sparta. made from dough. This epithet means “willow-bound” from the Gr. where girls. 8. Swiss and Greek archaeologists found the ruin of In Greek classical art she is usually portrayed as a maiden Artemis Amarysia Temple. a bow[53] and arArtemis in Trozeinos.[45] huntress. She was sometimes identified by the name Phoebe. • Laphria. As Kourotrophos. or Alpheiusa (Gr. the reason why it was sacred for her. Ἀλφεαία. Alpheaea. from her birthplace on Mount Cynthus on Delos. a sanctuary was built for Artemis Hymnia where her festival was celebrated every year. The willow tree appears in several ancient Greek myths and rituals.[48] • Day six of Elaphobolia (ninth month) festival of Artemis the Deer Huntress where she was offered cakes shaped like stags.3.[40] It was under this name that she was worshiped at Letrini in Elis. people sacrifice to Artemis and Hecate at deme of Erchia. she was the patron of wild animals. young. she was the goddess of childbirth and midwives. or Ἀλφειοῦσα) was an epithet that Artemis derived from the river god Alpheius. 8. As Potnia Theron.34 CHAPTER 8. clothed in a girl’s short • Festival of Artemis Saronia. or Amarynthia from a festival in her honor originally held at Amarynthus in Euboea. she and her nymphs escaped him by covering their faces. willow) and desmos (δεσμός.3. Ἀλφαῖα. She was sometimes known as Cynthia. and is named Saron built a sanctuary for the goddess after accompanied by a hunting dog or stag. a town in Argolis.2 Festivals the goddess saved his life when he went on hunting and swept by the wave and held a festival for her. within the circle.

Artemis got her bow and arrow for the first time from The Kyklopes. Pan also gave Artemis seven bitches of the finest Arcadian race.4. Artemis forgave him but targeted Eurystheus for golden bow and arrows.morphosis.As a goddess of maiden dances and songs. con• Bow and arrow sisted in catching the Cerynitian Hind alive. showed her with a hunting spear. “of the Golden Shaft”.[59] . nets. as the one she asked from her father. The description about Artemis’ spear can be found in Ovid’s Metaconnected as a moon goddess. However. Artemis is ofbringing goddess whose arrows fell young maidens and ten portrayed with a lyre. a Roman era bronze sculpture of Artemis and the Stag was sold at Sotheby’s auction house Deer were the only animals held sacred to Artemis herin New York state by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery for self. and Iokheira (Showered by Arrows).4. Deer were also the first animals she captured. The bridles of her chariot were also made of gold.these dogs were able moon. Artemis only ever • Chariots brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time. Artemis was sometimes represented in Classical art with Fauna the crown of the crescent moon. The arrows of Artemis could also bring sud• Hunting dog den death and disease to girls and women.cadia. Artemis is sometimes portrayed with a hunting spear. She caught five golden horned deer called Elaphoi 8. as her epithet was Khryseher wrath. Heracles begged Artemis for forgiveness and promised to return According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis. shining. where she is shown as the death. commanded by Eurystheus.[57] women. In later cult.[54] to hunt even lions. Pan gave Artemis two black-and-white dogs. she had it alive. while Artemis with a fishing spear [56] with her cult as a patron goddess of fishing. 2007. Her cult in Aetolia.8. The bow of Artemis Artemis got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Aralso became the witness of Callisto’s oath of her virgin.[58] lakatos. Her darker side is revealed in some vase paintings. three ity. the bow became the symbol of waxing reddish ones. Fourth century Praxitelean bronze head of a goddess wearing a lunate crown.1 Attributes Khrysokeroi and harnessed them to her chariot. • Deer On June 7. Artemis wore a long robe and some.[55] • Spears. the Artemis Aetolian. Croatia).5 million. times a veil covered her head. Artemis’ chariot was made of gold and was pulled by four golden horned deer (Elaphoi Khrysokeroi). ARTEMIS IN ART 35 The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. On seeing a deer larger than a bull with horns $25. and one spotted one . such as also found on Luna and others. she fell in love with these creatures and held them sacred. found at Issa (Vis.[55] The third labour of Heracles. and lyre Although quite seldom. such as the daughters of Niobe.

Every year a girl between five and ten years of age was sent to Artemis’ temple at Brauron.[60] • Boar The boar is one of the favorite animals of the hunters. grapes. Meleagor.5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus Main article: Temple of Artemis At Ephesus in Ionia. metalsmiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. There the Lady whom the Ionians associated with Artemis through interpretatio graeca was worshiped primarily as a mother goddess. Other plants sacred to Artemis are Amaranth and Asphodel. shout• Buzzard hawk ing “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”[67] Of the 121 columns of her temple. The oracle suggested that. so she transformed them into tear-shaped amber beads that had adorned the ancient wooden xoanon. tion. jealously rioted in her defense. her temple became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. and also hard to tame. Turkey.7 See also • Artemisia • Diana (mythology) . a lunar crater. akin to the Phrygian goddess Cybele. It was probably the best known center of her worship except for Delos.[62] 8. no Athenian virgin should be allowed to marry until she had served Artemis in her temple ('played the bear for the goddess’). A bear was tamed by Artemis and introduced to the people of Athens. in payment for the bear’s blood. They touched it and played with it until one day a group of girls poked the bear until it attacked them. In honor of Artemis’ skill. acorns. only one composite. made up of Hawks were the favored birds of many of the gods. Ephesian Guinea Fowl to be her favorite animals. Flora Palm and Cypress were issued to be her birthplace.[63] or even bull testes. ARTEMIS • Bear The sacrifice of a bear for Artemis started with the Brauron cult.[66] In Acts of the Apostles. The Athenians consulted an oracle to understand how to end the plague. they sacrificed it to her.[64][65] Excavation at the site of the Artemision in 1987-88 identified a multitude of 8. 1st century AD (Ephesus Archaeological Museum) Artemis felt pity for the Meleagrids as they mourned for their lost brother. a large bolometer camera in the submillimeter range that was installed in 2010 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). The rest were used for making churches. fragments.6 Artemis in astronomy A minor planet.36 CHAPTER 8. in an ancient sanctuary where her cult image depicted the “Lady of Ephesus” adorned with multiple rounded breast-like protuberances on her chest. roads. so Artemis sent a plague in revenge. Oineus and Adonis were both killed by Artemis’ boar. still stands as a marker of the temple’s locaArtemis included. 105 Artemis. located in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. the Artemis Chasma and the Artemis Corona have all been named for her.[61] • Guinea fowl The Artemis of Ephesus. A brother of one of the girls killed the bear. They have been variously interpreted as multiple accessory breasts. as eggs. The Byzantine writer Suidos relayed the legend in Arktos e Brauroniois. and forts. Artemis is the acronym for “Architectures de bolometres pour des Telescopes a grand champ de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol”.[68] 8.

[24] Hymn Around Artemis’ Childhood [25] On-line English translation. x.505-13. pp. The Gods of the Greeks (1951:204). Andrew (1887). [5] “Artemis”. forests and hills. Liddell. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. [4] Homer. and specifically the uncultivated parts. Retrieved 15 March 2015. is discussed pp. 112. Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. where wild beasts are plentiful” Hammond and Scullard (editors).8. [8] Babiniotis. 210. Brill. Ritual. pp. "Άρτεμις". iii.(genitive). A Classical dictionary. 41. 213–214. p. 142. pp.8. Scott. [12] Campanile. Theoi. p. Beacon 1955. 56–. Guthrie. but in all likelihood pre-Hellenic. [32] Antoninus Liberalis. 209–210. § 6. Souvinous. Infobase Publishing. Kadmos 11 :125-28. Henry George. Oxford Classical Dictionary. [28] Aratus. [14] John Chadwick and Lydia Baumbach. Hymn III to Artemis 46 [27] “Another name for Artemis herself”.” says the Homeric Hymn. however. 286. blessed Leto. [34] “. and Religion. W. Robert. Myth.” Hammond. Karl Kerenyi observes. Word study tool of ancient languages. Robert. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Henry George. Leonhard (1867). In Smith. Geburtstag (Studies in Indo-European language and culture). Kadmos 9 1970:42-47. C. [35] Pausanias. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. “Isle of Quail”. Scott.com. p. Atsma. Etyma Graeca. T. W. Scott. Liddell. J. on Google books. Leto’s birth-pangs. 1993). 99. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. [13] Edwin L. A Handbook of Greek Mythology. ii. The Book People. “FAVOUR OF ARTEMIS : Greek mythology”. Brown. Houwink ten Cate. NY: State University of New York Press. Oswyn Murray (1 January 2009). Boston. “Aeginaea”. [15] . Hesperia Supplements 33 (2004:243-257) p. [3] Rose. William. Poeticon astronomicon. [19] ἀρτεμής. 312. “Further remarks on A-TE-MI-TO and A-TIMI-TE”. Aevum 37 :307. . . Scuola Pisa 28 :305.34. Haydock. “A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE”. noted in this context by Brown 2004:252. [31] Aura does not appear elsewhere in surviving literature and appears to have been offered no cult. p. [2] David Sacks. 38. Iliad xxi 470 f.v. 2009. 1994. Immerwahr. • Artemas • Bendis 8. Iliad 21. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. [22] Kenneth McLeish. London: Longmans. “The Mycenaean Greek Vocabulary” Glotta. 251: Artemis. [18] Ἄρτεμις. [37] Pausanias. H. a-te-mi-to. quoting the Greek poet Istrus. Robert. for you bare glorious children. Christidis. her in Ortygia. [20] Hammond. 176f. [11] Michaël Ripinsky-Naxon. [7] “Artemis”. 32. 1970) 126. “Artemis”. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 21 [33] Homer. de Gruyter. Oxford Classical Dictionary. C. The Greeks and Their Gods. Athens: Λεξικολογίας. Charles (1855). New York: Harper & Brothers. K. s. and him in rocky Delos. Liddell. Restelli. a goddess universally worshiped in historical Greece. Online Etymology Dictionary. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. [36] Schmitz. as Apollo’s inseparable twin. Ἂρτεμις. [26] Callimachus. the etymology Ortygia.470 ff). 215. Children of the Gods pp 33f. Green and Co. . The Oxford Classical Dictionary. [29] Hyginus. της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Georgios (2005). are graphically depicted by ancient sources. [30] Aaron J. 126./4.8 References and sources [17] ἄρταμος. Retrieved 2011-01-28.3. Ann. Dutton 1959. Λεξικό Κέντρο [9] Lang. The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera during the Hellenistic Period (Leiden) 1961:166. 251ff. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor (Albany. 1995. p. 638 [10] Anthon. REFERENCES AND SOURCES 37 • Janus [16] Indogermanica et Caucasica: Festschrift fur Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. [6] “Her proper sphere is the earth. 597-598. 14. ISBN 978-1-4381-1020-2. References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. the lord Apollon and Artemis who delights in arrows. p. p. “In Search of Anatolian Apollo”. 26. [23] Iliad xxi. [21] Or as a separate island birthplace of Artemis— “Rejoice. Palaeolexicon. is not supported by modern scholars. Metamorphoses. § 2. Henry George. (1963:157-271) p.

where her nymph’s is of horn.Artemis”.com. Nemean Odes i. 2011 [42] Strabo. Netherlands. Marindin. Leonhard (1867). Brill. Winterscapes. [43] Scholiast on Pindar's Pythian Odes ii. p. (eds. “Alphaea”. Poulsen B. and two precincts are still to be seen — one of them sacred to the Argive Hera and the other to the Aetolian Artemis. Collegium Hyperboreum and Museum Tusculanum Press.693. indeed. Copenhagen. [39] Bremmer Jan N. [45] mharrsch (2007-11-04). Retrieved 2009-03-19.38 [38] “Among the Heneti certain honours have been decreed to Diomedes. [48] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. Artemis. [52] Homer portrayed Artemis as girlish in the Iliad.com. New York Times.com. [50] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. 2007-07-24. [57] “Dance”. 2009 • Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Mythindex. 2007-07-24. 2007-07-24. Winterscapes. [64] “Diana of Ephesus: Keeping Abreast with Iconography” (see footnote 1). Retrieved 2011-01-28.. “Passionate about History: Search continues for temple of Artemis Amarysia”. August 21.9 External links • Theoi Project. 1951. William Smith. 8. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Winterscapes. [51] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”.com. LLD.1. [54] “Bow”.com. Winterscapes. In William Smith. The Gods of the Greeks • Seppo Telenius (2005) 2006. [61] “Animals”. (Strabo. 12. Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (1929). [53] Greek poets could not decide whether her bow was silver or gold: “Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she draws her golden bow. [47] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. information on Artemis from original Greek and Roman sources. 187. 3 [66] “Potnia Aswia: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion” by Sarah P. images from classical art. didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?". Sources • Walter Burkert. 22. 1985. (2008) Greek Religion and Culture. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 172. Morris [44] Dickins. G. Passionateabouthistory. “And how often goddess. Hymn 3 to Artemis). Greek Mythology Index”. and. G.org. [62] “Plants”. Retrieved 2013-03-25. Boston: Little.com. (Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan) Athena-Artemis [49] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. “Terracotta Masks”. § 5 CHAPTER 8. 2007-07-24. [63] “Ancient Art and Artemis: Toward Explaining the Polymastic Nature of the Figurine” by Andrew E. 343 [65] “In Search of Diana of Ephesus”. [67] Acts 19:28. p. Brown and Company. Retrieved 2011-01-28. [55] “Chariot”. [40] Schmitz. blog by Monica Bowen. William Wayte) • Fischer-Hansen T. Hill Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 1992. the Bible and the Ancient Near East. February 5th. Geographica viii.com. Alberti’s Window. England: Macmillan Publishers. Winterscapes. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Retrieved 2011-0128.) From Artemis to Diana: the goddess of man and beast. 2010-01-11. p. Metamorphoses 1. asks Callimachus for whom it is a Cydonian bow that the Cyclopes make for her (Callimachus. p. London. Apex-telescope.150 images of Artemis . ARTEMIS [59] “Pack”. Description of Greece vi. The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: Supplementary Papers.9 on-line text). [68] “APEX . The Greek Myths (Penguin) • Karl Kerenyi. [60] “Cult”. Retrieved 2011-01-28.. a white horse is still sacrificed to him. E. 2007-07-24.” (Homeric Hymn to Artemis). [58] “Kerynitian”. v. • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. 133.blogspot. [41] Pausanias. and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid. [56] “Spears”. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) • Robert Graves (1955) 1960. 1994. [46] “SARON.

and fiercely exulted over her. Selene was sometimes called “Cynthia”. Selene was often identified with Artemis. although only Selene was regarded as the personification of the moon itself. Helios.[6] The word men (feminine mene).”[16] The eternally sleeping Endymion was proverbial.1 Endymion Selene is best known for her affair with the beautiful mortal Endymion.[4] The original Phoebe of Greek mythology is Selene’s aunt. and the lunar month. “Selene watched him from on high. much as her brother. In the Theogony.Chapter 9 Selene This article is about the Greek goddess.[1] Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate. and thus spake to her own heart: 'Not I alone then stray to the Latmian cave.[5] from a far land. go on. meaning “light”. and all three were regarded as lunar goddesses.[14] However. For other uses. beheld her [Medea] as she fled distraught. And now thou thyself too hast part in a like mad passion. Greek Σελήνη [10] [selɛ̌ ːnɛː] 'moon'. and slid from heaven to earth.2 Origin The usual account of Selene’s origin is given by Hesiod. is called Phoebus (“bright”). rosy-armed Eos and rich-tressed Selene and tireless Helios. and the mortal Endymion. including Zeus. and Hecate. Artemis. fraught with many sighs. but if the name is Mount Latmus:[15] of Greek origin.3.1 Names Apollonius of Rhodes. who bare him lovely children. perion wedded glorious Euryphaëssa. the sun-god Hyperion espoused his sister Theia. the Titaness mother of Leto and Asteria. She is shining”) is probably an epithet of Theia.[7] 9. the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia.”[9] Here Euryphaëssa (“wideIn Greek mythology.[12] Just as Helios. the moon. his own sister.3 Lovers and offspring 9. Well. In classical times.”[8] Quintus Smyrnaeus' The Fall of Troy tells that.[2] Other accounts make Selene the daughter of the Titan Pallas[11] or of Helios. Several lovers are attributed to her in various myths. in order that in the darkness of night thou mightest work thy sorcery at ease. Selene.[13] The late 7th-century – early 6th-century BC poet Sappho apparently mentioned Selene and Endymion. Pan.' " 9. Her Roman equivalent is Luna. and Eos. from her identification with Artemis. even the deeds dear to thee. rising Selene was also called Mene. was identified with Apollo. while Endymion slept in his cave beside his cattle. from his identification with Apollo. to take up thy burden of pain. is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe (feminine form). which tells of Selene’s “mad passion” and her visiting the “fair Endymion” in a cave on The etymology of Selene is uncertain.[3] “And the Titanian goddess. and steel thy heart. It was also the name of the Phrygian moon-god Men.) is the goddess of the moon. Also from Artemis. oft times with thoughts of love have I been driven away by thy crafty spells.[17] but exactly how this eternal sleep came 39 . and grandmother of Apollo. wise though thou be. The Homeric Hymn to Helios follows this tradition: “Hysee Selene (disambiguation). and sister of the sun-god Helios. Selene (/sɨˈliːni/. goddess of the dawn. nor do I alone burn with love for fair Endymion. She drives her moon chariot across the heavens. who gave birth to “great Helios and clear Selene and Eos who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven. meant the moon. for passionate love drew down the immortal stainless Queen of Night. the first direct account comes from the third-century BC Argonautica of 9. and some god of affliction has given thee Jason to be thy grievous woe. it is likely connected to the word selas (σέλας).

[34] 9. Selene also had a tryst with the great god Pan. by Sebastiano Ricci (1713).2 Others According to the Homeric Hymn to Selene.[18] A scholiast on Apollonius says that.[25] Alcman makes Ersa (“dew”). and brought him forth at the bidding of Queen Hera.40 CHAPTER 9. Pandia (“all-brightness”).[22] Nonnus has Selene and Endymion as the parents of the beautiful Narcissus.[24] “exceeding lovely amongst the deathless gods”. with Selene because of the similarity of their names. the Sun god. Narcissus was the son of Cephissus and Liriope.[26] Selene and Zeus were also supposed by some to be the parents of Nemea. but this may be the result of confusing Semele. and their parents are Zeus and Themis. Endymion and Selene. Aelian. the Moon fell in love with him. asked Zeus to grant him eternal sleep. who drives his char- . goddesses of the seasons. remaining deathless and ageless”. the daughter of Selene and Zeus. according to Epimenides. Endymion was the son of Aethlius (a son of Zeus).[20] Cicero seems to make Selene responsible for Endymion’s sleep. if any. and where the Nemean Games were held. and Zeus allowed him to choose what he would. where Heracles slew the Nemean Lion. who in a fearful shudder shook off the savage lion in Nemea.”[30] Quintus Smyrnaeus makes Helios and Selene (the Sun and Moon) the parents of the Horae. the Nemean Lion was born to Echidna and raised by Hera. and quotes Epimenides as saying: “For I am sprung from fair-tressed Selene the Moon. On Animals 12. the goddess bore Zeus a daughter.[21] From Pausanias we hear that Selene was supposed to have had by Endymion fifty daughters. states: “They say that the Lion of Nemea fell from the moon”.[31] Smyrnaeus describes them as the four handmaidens of Hera. but in most accounts their number is three. shown with her characteristic attributes of lunate crown and billowing veil (velificatio) [35] Like her brother Helios.[27] Some accounts also make Selene and Zeus the parents of Dionysus. who possibly represented the fifty lunar months of the Olympiad. but in other accounts. and he chose to sleep for ever.[33] Selene was also said to be the mother of the legendary Greek poet Musaeus. Apollodorus says that because of Endymion’s “surpassing beauty. having fallen in love with Hera.[19] However. SELENE 9. Chiswick House. the eponymous nymph of Nemea. and Zeus granted him the right to choose when he would die.[29] other accounts have Selene involved in some way in its birth or rearing. Endymion. so that “she might kiss him while sleeping”. the usual mother of Dionysus.3.[28] Whereas for Hesiod.7.[32] Scholia on Virgil add that the god wrapped himself in a sheepskin. According to the Catalogue of Women. Selene may have had in it is unclear.[23] According to Virgil. who seduced her with a “snowy bribe of wool”.4 The moon chariot Detail of a sarcophagus depicting Endymion and Selene. England about and what role. including Ovid’s Metamorphoses.

with Helios driving his beautiful woman with a pale face and long. variously translated as “rich”. driving a silver chariot pulled either by a yoke of her chariot descending into the sea on the right. and from the Hellenistic period onwards. “bright”.[57] In later second and third century AD Roman funerary art.[38] Though the moon chariot is often described as being silver.[48] In red-figure pottery before the early 5th century BC. “all-wise”. where the two framed a scene In post-Renaissance art. are scant. unlit before. Selene’s usually has two. Selene is generally depicted as a depicting the birth of Athena. and donned her far-gleaming raiment.[40] And while the sun chariot has four horses.[45] Aeschylus calls Selene “the eye of night”. and Nyx (“night”).[49] In later art. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men.[42] or was drawn by oxen or bulls. horn-like. or in profile against a lunar disk. showing Selene plunging her chariot. descends from her chariot [59] Paired with her brother Helios. artistic representations of Selene included sculptural reliefs. pediment of the Parthenon. coins. Selene.6.[37] The earliest known depiction of Selene driving a chariot is inside an early 5th century BC red-figure cup attributed to the Brygos Painter. describing her as “all-seeing”. holding a billowing veil forming a crescent over her head.9. drawn by two winged horses. or from behind her head or shoulders. like other celestial divinities. and Selene and hair. into the sea. Both the Hymn to Helios and the Hymn to Selene use the word εὐπλόκαμος. and yoked her strong-necked. shining team. such as Helios. or riding sidesaddle on horseback (or sometimes on an ox or bull.[53] Selene also appears on horseback as part of the Gigantomachy frieze of the Pergamon Altar. with long wings and a golden diadem. a lunar disc is used.[41] described as “snow-white” by Ovid. she is sometimes pictured with a torch. glows with the light of her golden crown. Three early sources mention Selene’s hair. CULT 41 iot across the sky each day. from her head.[39] for Pindar it was golden. vase paintings.[56] Selene’s head is sometimes surrounded by a nimbus. who slumbers at her feet. the love of Selene for Endymion and his eternal sleep was a popular subject for artists. apart from those which would apply to the moon itself. and gems. She is usually portrayed either driving a chariot. sometimes. provides a description: The air. we learn that Selene and Helios also framed the birth of Aphrodite on the base of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. and Epimenides uses the epithet “lovely-haired”. and a “foe of strife” who “giv’st to Nature’s works their destin'd end”.[43] Statue of Luna 9.[50] Pausanias.5 Depictions Surviving descriptions of Selene’s physical appearance and character.[46] The Orphic Hymns give Selene horns and a torch. or “beautiful haired”.[47] In antiquity. or the cusps of a crescent moon protrude. Eos.[52] There are indications of a similar framing by Selene and Helios of the birth of Pandora on the base of the Athena Parthenos.[51] From oxen or a pair of horses. instead of a crescent. she is depicted only as a bust. often accompanied by stars. and her rays beam clear. whensoever bright Selene having bathed her lovely body in the waters of Ocean. drives on her long-maned horses at full speed.[58] As frequently depicted on Roman sarcophagi. a lover of horses and of vigilance. Selene rides across the heavens. . calling her “white-armed” and “benevolent”.[44] The Hymn to Selene describes the goddess as very beautiful. at eventime in the mid-month: then her great orbit is full and then her beams shine brightest as she increases.[54] Selene is commonly depicted with a crescent moon.[36] The Hymn to Selene. Selene adorned the east to join her lover. Selene is also said to drive across the heavens.[55] Often a crescent moon rests on her brow. mule. lustrous black chariot rising from the ocean on the left. or ram).

14. 64. [9] Hymn to Helios (31) 4–7. p.7. p.89 ff.28 ff. West 2003. lines 58–62.325 ff. [2] Smith. Smith. “SELENE” pp.8). 137.516 ff. Ovid. Aristotle. brated on the full-moon and may have been associated [21] Cicero. Strabo.191.50. Hyginus... one of the sun and the other of the moon.195 ff. 275. Weigal. 35. [11] Hymn to Hermes (4).7. [19] Gantz. but that he was seized by desire for Hera and was deceived by the phantom of a cloud. For example see Ovid. p. p. the Nereids were fifty sea nymphs born to Nereus and Doris (Hesiod. “Selene”. 46.5. 61.. each of whom bore a son to Heracles (Apollodorus. Dionysiaca 48. Seneca. 64.” [22] Pausanias. note 61 p. p. 162. 4. [3] Kerenyi. 41.15. p. Tusculan Disputations 1. usually considered to be a festival for Zeus. p.. Pandia had become a daughter of Zeus and Selene. [16] Quintus Smyrnaeus. “Selene”. 204– 205.. [23] Nonnus.. Originally Pandia may have been an epithet of Selene. [5] Pannen.. instead of referring to the daughter of Helios and wife of Minos. Selene from an altar piece 9. 64. p. . SELENE [7] Kerenyi. and drown'd in dewy sleep. 196–197.667 ff.125 ff. Phaedo.. she was not always a part of the story. Theogony 371 ff.1.[60] An oracular sanctuary existed near Thalamai in Laconia. The Phoenician Women 175 ff. Hammond.7 Notes [1] Hard. Heroides 15.92. fragment 198. There are other accounts of fifty daughters in Greek mythology. See also Apollodorus 1.[62] [13] Catullus. [10] Morford. Dionysiaca 44. [14] This is according to a scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes 4. Smith. Hammond. p.. 428–429.8. but apart from the role played by the moon itself in magic.59 ff.7.38.. described by Pausanias. 5. Morford. Nicomachean Ethics 10. pp.[61] Pausanias also described seeing two stone images in the market-place of Elis.582 ff. 18..1.5. 4. 13. Theogony 240–264). Argonautica 8. and despite the later worship of the Phrygian moongod Men. 422 ff. 5. and poetry. pp.. Theocritus. Propertius. Lucian Aphrodite and Selene. Tusculan Disputations 1. Hyginus. it contained statues of Pasiphaë and Helios. pp. see Campbell. called the Pandia. Nonnus. “Endymion” p.42 CHAPTER 9. folklore. [4] Morford. 970– 971. Elegies 2.” Gantz. p. Metamorphoses 3.38. 970–971.379 ff. pp. “Selene” Endymion keep / In night conceal'd. p.8. The same scholiast gives another story involving Endymion’s love for Hera. Mayerson p. 1. [17] Frazer’s note to Apollodorus. pp.266 ff.553 ff. says that “no source claims that the sleep was her idea. 213.10.54 ff.2. p. see Most.4. 2. “Selene”. Fabulae Preface. [6] Smith. there was relatively little worship of Selene. saying that “Endymion was carried up by Zeus to heaven. 72c. Cashford. Argonautica 4. 34.89 ff.342. Amores.[65] was perhaps cele. Phaedra 309 ff..92..581 ff. [8] Hesiod. “SELENE” pp. Ovid. Most. Fabulae 271. [24] Fairbanks. Heroides 15. 96.57.[20] Apollodorus. Pandia (or Pandia Selene) may have personified the full moon. Plato. Seyffert. 219–220. 48. 196–197. 1. 786 ff. p. “SELENE”. Davidson. p. See also with Selene.[63] but by at least the time of the late Homeric Hymn.2. and his love for Hera). 219–221. Cicero.4. and likely enough (given its role in some quarters as a punishment. 7.[66] Ovid.237 ff. Here Pasiphaë is used as an epithet of Selene. pp. Morford.[64] and an Athenian festival. 10.13: “See how the moon does her 9.213 ff. Hammond.. pp.. 196–197. 167. p. 1. [12] Euripides.7.. 46. discussing Selene’s role. Kerenyi.50. 215. Valerius Flaccus.. and that because of this desire he was thrown out and went down to Hades”. and Thespius had fifty daughters.. Carmina 66. 281 [15] Apollonius of Rhodes.50. 970–971. 3. fragment 10. 99–100. pp.5. Nonnus. 2. 197. Hard.. 48.6 Cult Moon figures are found on Cretan rings and gems (perhaps indicating a Minoan moon cult). this time attributed to the Great Ehoiai. 57. from the heads of which projected the rays of the sun and the horns of the crescent moon.. [18] Catalogue of Women. Dionysiaca 2. 42.

5. Allen. Compare with Pseudo-Plutarch. 456.. 65. [57] Parisinou. (32) 1 (a winged Selene seems to be unique to this Hymn. 178–179. pp. [1] "τανυσίπτερον"). 990–991. Dionysiaca 7. [46] Aeschylus. p. Morford. LIMC Selene.3 has Asopus as the father of Nemea. 456–457. On Animals. p. Dionysiaca 44. include sarcophagi in the Capitoline Museum in Rome (c. pp. p.8.4 (PDF). 135 AD ). XII. p. West 1983. 64. [28] Cook. Hymn to Helios (31) 6. Theogony 327 [30] Cook. pp. (32) 17. 12. 87. 970–971. Martin 1981. Luna 19. 23. 346 n. 353. pp. which has the Nemean Lion created from a chest filled with foam. 43 [41] Kerenyi. For an example of Selene driving the less usual four horses see Morford.7. 2. p. pp. instead of being her daughter. p. 221. Pausanias.191. pp. Hyginus. among many others. 2. NOTES [25] Hymn to Selene (32) 15–16. Luna 4. Luna 21. 10. p.8. “Selene”. 23. Obbink. Smith. e. For Selene driving another pair of winged horses see Zschietzschmann. [48] For an example of Selene depicted on a coin see British Museum. Luna 15. LIMC Mithras 113. Vol. R. “SELENE”. [51] Neils. 70. 177–179. LIMC Selene. “White-armed": Hymn to Selene. 442–443. 156–157. 2. Graves. 63.9. 370. Morford. 733. 5. For another example of the framing of a scene. the goddess on the right could be Nyx or Eos. [29] Hesiod. On Rivers 18.11. pp. [34] Plato. Olympian 3. 49 (Edmonds. Walters..3. p. Aelian.19–20. Burkert 1972. two in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (c. 47.498) pp.364e. [18] "Πρόφρον".. 457 note. 336 ff. 123 c. 96. 170. p. 415. Ovid. Burkert 1972. 1999). p. [49] Cohen. Quintus Smyrnaeus. Luna 35. 47–48. p. but see Hyginus. “Les représentations figurées de Jupiter Dolichénien à Rome. De pietate P. see Robertson. Luna 10.” in La terra sigillata tardo-italica decorata del Museo nazionale romano. in this case the Judgement of Paris. [53] Morris. p. [27] Cook. Fabulae 30. but some have suggested that instead of Selene. [47] Orphic Hymns 8. LIMC Selene. p. Republic 2. Luna 9. p.214 ff. Rudin. 271. p. 243 Fragment 6 (Obbink. 236–237. 5. p. Fasti 4. Fabulae Preface. Grimal. pp. 732 says that it seems probable that.7.0401. 96.408 ff. p. [54] Thomas. p. Philodemus. Georgics 3. [55] Savignoni. 19 describes Pandia as an “obscure figure [who] featured in an Attic genealogy: she was the wife of Antiochos. p.336 ff.15. Murray (1892) p. 970–971. Hard. Valerius Flaccus.244. Hansen. [59] Examples. [40] Pindar. p.199.199.11.185 ff. 220 AD). 160 AD and c. fragment A77 (Scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes 1. “Pandia was originally an epithet of Selene”. West 2003. p. Seneca. Pausanias. Nonnus. Kerenyi. Gantz. with Selene this time entering the sea on horseback. p. 46: “this is really no more than an allegorical fancy referring to the heavy dew-fall associated with clear moonlit nights”. the eponymous hero of the Antiochid phylē. Nonnus. Metamorphoses 2.0401. Cook p. 353). “Selene” p. [38] Cohen. 415. p. [52] Robertson. “Benevolent": Allen. 12. Theocritus. p. LIMC Selene. pp. p. p. p. see: Allen. p. p.373–374. 970–971. Seven against Thebes 390. [39] Grimal.Herc. Mitchell. see also Anaxagoras. Palagia. [35] Stefania Sorrenti. «L'Erma» di Bretschneider. and one in Palazzo Doria Pamphilj Rome (c. Morford. figs. 92. [15] "ΠανδείηΝ". 157. Luna 2.391–93. Martin 1981. Martin 1992. Luna 34. Euripides. For the use of “golden” in reference to the moon. “SELENE”.17. 36. [26] Alcman. Idyll 2. see Robertson.19–20. 104–105. Hard. [45] “Winged": Hymn to Selene. 48.163 ff. pp. This is the usual interpretation. Hammond. [6] "χρυσέου". see Allen. 310 AD). Olympian 3. p. 84–85). Fasti 4. 196. (32) 18. 11. Hard. 94–95. fragments 48.” Cook p. p. pp.7248. 353. p. [42] Ovid. 46. [43] Hammond. LIMC Selene. “SELENE”. [50] Savignoni. 48. LIMC Selene. 346 n. 732. 196. Zschietzschmann. [37] Hymn to Selene (32) 5–14. p. see Hurwit. Argonautica 5. LIMC Selene.. Cohen. LIMC Selene. 22. p. 1-7. [44] Evelyn-White. Hercules Furens 83 ff. 111–112. p. 272. p. 79. For an image of Selene driving cattle. [56] British Museum 1923. 175. 270–271. 255. p. see LIMC Selene.. 256. Either Selene or her daughter may have been connected to the Athenian festival Pandia. for images see Sorabella.109–110. [32] Virgil. [58] Sorabella. [31] Hammond.. [33] Gantz. (1903) p. Statius. Luna 7. 1. pp. Thebaid 1.405 ff. “Selene”. Pausanias. 3. LIMC Selene. The Suppliant Women. 208 ff. Luna 61. For the close association between the crescent moon and horns see Cashford. The same pair also appear on the North Metopes of the Parthenon. [36] Pindar. calls the confusion “frequent”. Cook p.g. for an example of a gem see the British Museum 1923. 25. 34.373–374. says that Pandia was “elsewhere unknown as a daughter of Selene”. LIMC Selene. pp. . Hymn to Selene.

Evelyn-White. 178– 179. Jules. Yonge. “Time and Greek Religion”. Walter (1991). Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. Roman Erotic Elegy: Selections from Tibullus. London.. • Davidson. Hugh. translated by H. • Euripides.B. • Cohen. Greek Religion. Cambridge. 447. • Cox. London. in two volumes. Leonard C. P. 178. Loeb Classical Library. London. ISBN 978-0631156246. 142. Vol. Beth. Cambridge. 1922. [63] Willetts. 2010. Homeric Hymns.A. C. • Cicero. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-80185360-9 (Vol. William Heinemann. “SELENE” pp. Seaton. Basic Books. 2003. Harpers & Brothers. ISBN 9780892369423.39a. 732. “Pandia”. 292). 75 note 109. 1914. SELENE [60] Hammond. Aelian: On the Characteristics of Animals. Heinemann. [66] Robertson. with preface. p. p. Smith. Harpers. 1996. Books 12-17. Cook. James.Harvard University Press. [65] Parker 2005.S. [64] Cox. 21. Translation by A. with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer. translated. ISBN 9780674991576.and Red-figure Vase-painting”. Volume I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky. 100. . ISBN 9781444334173. London. William Heinemann Ltd. Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion. “Selene”. F. • Apollonius of Rhodes. Arthur. 2. Noel 1996. Rackham. 970–971. 1904. 1894. Harvard University Press. p. in 2 Volumes. 138. F. translated by C. Πάνδια (Bekker. Cook. MA. edited. publishers. • Aristotle. no. Willets. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations Part Two. Cambridge University Press 1914. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. W. Greek Greek Lyric Poetry: Volume I. 174. and Sulpicia. Aristotle in 23 Volumes. Wiley-Blackwell. Sikes. p. Sappho and Alcaeus. Johns Hopkins University Press. Apollodorus. The Phoenissae. with an English translation by R. 1938. 732.. 1888. p. Jon. 2). The Mythology of Greece and Rome. Lyra Graeca. • Allen. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. • Corelis. Smithers. 1). F. • Anaxagoras. Volume III. The Homeric Hymns.26. [61] Plutarch. Casford p. • Bekker. Immanuel. John Maxwell.org • Aelian. edited by Daniel Ogden. and appendices. E. The Complete Greek Drama'. D. Propertius. Timothy. Lexicon s. The Moon: Myth and Image. Online version at openlibrary. Ovid. The Carmina of Gaius Valerius Catullus.44 CHAPTER 9. 2006.. 2007. George W. MA. ISBN 3705204246. 1996. John Wiley & Sons. 9. edited by Whitney J. D. notes. Thomas W. Loeb Classical Library (January 1. E. D. • Evelyn-White. Pierre. 1959) ISBN 978-0674994942. ed. The Library. translated by E. Scholiast on Demosthenes. Πάνδια. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. apparatus criticus. 1907. New York. • Fairbanks. 19. Random House. 6. Scholfield. Anecdota Graeca: Lexica Segueriana. Roscher. Jr. New York. 176 • Cashford. • Catullus. 1912.24. Burkert 1991. Lexica Segueriana s. WileyBlackwell. William Heinemann Ltd. Harvard University Press. London. Walter (1972).R. Nauckium. 2004. (1982). p. in The Colors of Clay: Special Techniques in Athenian Vases. Apud G. p. MA. Patricia Curd. • Campbell. Cambridge. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: Fragments and Testimonia : a Text and Translation with Notes and Essays. with an Introduction . Agis 9. • Burkert. ISBN 978-0674539181.8 References • Cook. William Heinemann Ltd. p. Smithers.v. • Apollodorus. ISBN 9780766189409. 1995. • Edmonds. MA. Oates and Eugene O'Neill. Pausanias. Cambridge. Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations. in A Companion to Greek Religion. Kessinger Publishing. “Outline as a Special Technique in Black.6. ISBN 9780631201021. Macmillan. Universität Salzburg. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1921. Photius. pp. [62] Pausanias. Appleton–Century Company. Argonautica.C. Notes. • Grimal.v. 3. • Burkert. Arthur Bernard. Getty Publications.1. Harvard University Press. and Glossary.A. ISBN 9781568582658. Coleridge. University of Toronto Press. • Gantz. 1934. 1814. ISBN 9780802093257.

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translated by Arthur Sanders Way. Hackett Publishing Company (September 30. Leizig 1890. Samuel Birch. • Robertson. MA. 1928. B. Esq. W. 9. Mythology. Boston. Wilhelm Heinrich. Harvard University Press. • Weigal. Henry Beauchamp. Argonautica. The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens.M. Ginn & Co. Oskar Seyffert. Loeb Classical Library Volume 28. Oskar. Cambridge University Press. London (1873).46 • Plato.A. ISBN 978-0893144159. “A Roman Sarcophagus and Its Patron. Taylor & Francis. • Zschietzschmann. from the German of Dr. H. SELENE • Theocritus. PDF • Statius.com: Selene Passages from Greek and Roman texts. ISBN 9781428655447.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 19: pp. • West. 36 (2001). Cambridge. • Virgil. Harvard University Press. Tragedies. Über Selene und Verwandtes. MA. J M. 1928. J H. Noel (1996). 2006. William. The Fall of Troy. MA. Martin (1981). The Hymns of Orpheus. Cambridge. London. (1983). R. M. The University of Wisconsin Press. Arthur. George Bell & Sons. William Heinemann Ltd. 1905. Homeric Hymns. Cambridge. London. ISBN 9780521338813. Philosophical Research Society. translated by Sarah Rudin. Sappho of Lesbos: Her Life and Times. Heinemann. 1899. 1912. • Smith. J H. Aeneid. Plato in Twelve Volumes. • Thomas. W. 1901. Loeb Classical Library Volumes . ISBN 9780754608080. Religion. Lives of Homer. Oxford: Clarendon Press. MA. 1917.. Harvard University Press. and Georgics Of Vergil.” Metropolitan Museum Journal. Frank Justus. MA. Editors. ISBN 9780299151140. Translated by Mozley. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. Martin (1992). London. Limited edition (June 1987). Hellas and Rome: The Classical World in Pictures. Cambridge. 1980. 1 translated by Harold North Fowler. translated by Miller. Loeb Classical Library Volume 286. Sarah. William Heinemann Ltd. Thomas. 2004. 265–272 • Seyffert. Greenwood Press. 2005) ISBN 978-0872207257. Thebaid. F. History of Ancient Pottery: Greek. Jean. 1966 • Quintus Smyrnaeus. • Walters. in translation . • Rudin. Kessinger Publishing. Ashgate Publishing. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1913 • Strabo. • Roscher. Edmund. Falconer. Etruscan. • Seneca. John Murray. Martin L. Cambridge. Volume 2. Translated by Mozley. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. Sonnenschein. MA. Cretan Cults and Festivals.. Ltd. Vol. ISBN 9780521280846. William Heinemann Ltd. Translated by Edmonds. Bucolics. London. G. 496. (2003). and Roman. A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Literature and Art. • Savignoni L. The Orphic Poems. 1900 • Robertson. A Shorter History of Greek Art. • Taylor. Homeric Hymns.C. “From the panteon of the gods to the Pantheon of Rome” in Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea. Vol. Homeric Apocrypha. “Athena’s Shrines and Festivals” in Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. “On Representations of Helios and of Selene. Introduction by W. 1932. Geography. S. • Sorabella.. ISBN 9780313220500. Harvard University Press.R. W. 1903. Martin L. Hamilton. Teubner. Greenough. ISBN 0198148542 • West. The Greek Bucolic Poets. B. Cambridge University Press.9 External links • Theoi. London. ISBN 978-0-674-996069 • Willetts. J. Lamb. Loeb Classical Library. • Valerius Flaccus. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library • Robertson.. no. CHAPTER 9. William Heinemann Ltd.

running back to his mother. Ker (Fate. Pain. where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn).1 Mythology and literature 10. Destiny). Nyx. in fear. Nyx is born of Chaos. Roman-era bronze statuette of Nyx velificans or Selene (Getty Villa) ding of Hera. Momus (Blame). Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx.[8] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda.Zeus by appealing to his powerful mother. Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation.2 Homer fury at bay and in this way Hypnos escaped the wrath of At Iliad 14. A shadowy figure. the Hesperides (Evening. and was the mother of other personified deities such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death). Apate (Deceit). For other uses.1. She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses. see Neck (water spirit). Distress). see NYX (disambiguation).[3] With Erebus (Darkness). Hypnos. Oizys (Woe. the Moirai (Fates). the Oneiroi (Dreams).[6] and the homes of her children Hypnos and Thanatos. on her own. Sunset).[4] Later.[1] Greek: Νύξ. his mother. He disturbed minds Hera of an old favor after she asks him to put Zeus Zeus only a few times after that always fearing Zeus and to sleep. Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day). Geras (Old Age).249–61. but reveal her as a figure of such exceptional power and beauty. when Hemera returned. Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom. allowing her to cause Heracles (who was returning by sea from Laomedon's Troy) great misfortune.1 Hesiod In Hesiod's Theogony. and Eris (Strife). Destruction. Homer goes on to say that Zeus. Zeus was furious and would have smitten Hypnos into the sea if he had not fled to Nyx. Her appearances are sparse in surviving mythology.[5] In his description of Tartarus. fearing to anger Nyx. Death). Nyx left. Thanatos (Death).Chapter 10 Nyx For the water spirit Nix. the minor deity of sleep. that she is feared by Zeus himself. 10. Retribution).1. Love). left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it. who is Nyx’s daughter. Philotes (Friendship. Nemesis (Indignation. “Night”)[2] – Roman (in Latin): Nox – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. He had once before put Zeus to sleep at the bid. who would have con47 . continuing cyclicly. held his 10. the Keres.[7] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day). Nyx (/nɪks/. re. Hypnos (Sleep).

More often. asleep and drunk on honey – dreams and prophesies. Theogony 744–745. see Chaos (cosmogony) and Cosmogony and cosmology.2.48 CHAPTER 10. Nyx occupies a cave or adyton. Theogony 124–125.40. in which she gives oracles. which may be Orphic in inspiration. must remain tentative. Here she is also the mother of Eros. Theogony 123. moving the entire universe in an ecstatic dance to the rhythm of Nyx’s chanting. 4–5. pp. Nyx. she had an oracle on the acropolis at Megara. Nyx was only rarely the focus of cults. The classical scholar Walter Burk. Theogony 758–759. Nyx lurked in the background of other cults. the International Astronomical Union ert has speculated that the house of the goddess to which renamed one of Pluto's recently discovered moons the philosopher is transported is the palace of Nyx. Theogony 746–750. Cronus – who is chained within. [12] Pausanias 1. [9] Pausanias 1.2 Nyx in society 10.[10] The Spartans had a cult of Sleep and Death. p. [4] Hesiod. In them. rather than Chaos. [5] Hesiod. Its di(as in later Orphism) may be echoed in the philosophical ameter is 875 km. monstrous. Robert.[13] 10. [10] Pausanias.On June 21. in honor of Nyx. Gantz. the International Astronomical Union approved the name Nyx for a mons (mountain/peak) feature on the The theme of Nyx’s cave or mansion.[9] Others Nyx took on an even more important role in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus. NYX fronted Zeus with a maternal fury. Outside the cave. [7] Hesiod.38.1 Cults 10. poem of Parmenides. spelled with an “i” instead of a “y”. Nyx. The name was hypothesis. 10.1. [8] Hesiod. Liddell.3 In Greece. For other mythical aspects connected with Nyx.[11] Cult titles composed of compounds of nyx.1. Nyx is also the first principle in the opening chorus of Aristophanes' The Birds. however. beyond the ocean planet Venus. Nyx Mons is located at latitude 30° North (as in Hesiod) or somewhere at the edge of the cosmos and longitude 48. most notably Dionysus Nyktelios “nocturnal”[12] and Aphrodite Philopannyx “who loves the whole night”. is the first principle from which all creation emerges. According to Pausanias. trans.org. 4. 1918.18. The Birds .1). [6] Hesiod.2.2 Astronomy In 1997. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. [11] Pausanias 3. Thus there was a statue called “Nyx” in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 2006. 10. Adrasteia clashes cymbals and beats upon her tympanon. Jones and Ormerod.3 Notes [1] Oxford dictionary [2] νύξ.are attested for several deities.5° East on the Venusian surface. [3] Hesiod. to avoid conflict with the asteroid 3908 Nyx. from perseus. conceived of as twins. Gantz. Phanes – the strange. Henry George. this (S/2005 P 2) to Nix. 10. as represented in the 10th-century Paris Psalter at the side of the Prophet Isaiah References • Aristophanes.6) [13] Orphic Hymn 55. hermaphrodite Orphic demiurge – was the child or father of Nyx.40.6. Scott. Theogony 212–225.

1914. London (1873). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. • Otto Kern ed. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. • Smith. in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. “Nyx” 10.Harvard University Press. • Simmons. 1996.10. Evelyn-White. 1).4. “Nyx” p. Cambridge. Pierre. • Pausanias.4 External links Media related to Nyx at Wikimedia Commons • “Nyx” from Theoi. William Heinemann Ltd. • Grimal.. 1996. Johns Hopkins University Press. William. 314 • Hesiod. MA. London. Theogony.com 49 . Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-63120102-1. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources.. EXTERNAL LINKS • Gantz. Olympos. 2). Descriptions of Greece. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Orphicorum Fragmenta.

html 50 .Chapter 11 Philotes (mythology) Philotes (Greek: Φιλότης) is a minor Greek goddess. She was a daughter of Nyx. She is the goddess of affection and friendship.com/Daimon/Philotes. 11.theoi.1 External links • http://www.

dismal and dejected. Leonhard (1867). bloody cheeks. ed. and her shoulders thickly covered with dust.5 Sources Nonnus. and weeping. she was the personification of misery and sadness. saw from on high the everchanging shape of Lyaios [Dionysos].2 Nonnus’ Account 12. see Achlys (plant). green and pale. etc. fallen in on herself with hunger. from the temples cow’s horns sprouted out. Rouse) (Greek epic 5th century AD): [Hera spies the nurses of the infant god Dionysos:] Hera. grinning forever. Shield of Heracles 264 ff (trans. Here. long white teeth grew out of their jaws.4 References [1] Scut. MA. She procured from Thessalian Akhlys (Achlys. William. with chattering teeth. Death-Mist) treacherous flowers of the field. “Achlys”. 12. the hair ran across their heads in tuft. knee-swollen. and as such she was represented on the shield of Heracles: pale. p.[2] 12. a strange kind of mane grew of itself. Then they took the form of a creature with long ears. 12 12. to every place.and changed their earlier human shape. .[1] If she was a daughter of Nyx (Night) then she may have been numbered amongst the Keres. their eyes widened under the horned forehead. covering their necks with rough hair. Then she was angry with the guardians of Bromios. According to Hesiod. Dionysiaca 14. and the dust that had gathered and lay in heaps on her shoulders was muddy with tears. she distilled poisoned drugs over their hair. Achlys (Greek language: Ἀχλύς “mist”) was. and from her nostrils the drip kept running. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 264.Chapter 12 Achlys For the plant genus named Achlys. long nails on her fingers. which fell before the eyes preceding death). and she stood there. according to some ancient cosmogonies. swollen knees.1 Hesiod’s Account Hesiod. she smeared a subtle magical ointment over their faces . and the nails were grown long on her hands. in Smith. and knew all. William. (1870). and shed a sleep of enchantment over their heads. Boston. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. the eternal Night (perhaps the Mist of Death. 143 ff (trans. and the first created being which existed even before Chaos. [2] Schmitz. and a horse’s tail sticking out straight from the loins and flogging the flanks of its shaggy-crested owner. "article name needed ". and ran down from the loins to feet underneath. emaciated. In Greek mythology. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic 8th or 7th century BC): And beside them [the Keres (Deaths) and the Moirai (Fates) on the battlefield] was standing Akhlys (Achlys).3 See also • List of Greek mythological figures 12. who turns her all-seeing eye 51 • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith. dirty-dry. and off her cheeks the blood dribbled to the ground.

Akhlys CHAPTER 12.52 12.6 External links • Theoi Project . ACHLYS .

so she devised a plot to trick him. So she went and washed herself with ambrosia and anointed herself with oil. he was furious when feared entering her realm. which awoke he was furious and went on a rampage looking for is Greek for “dreams. and even Zeus putting Zeus to sleep. Hera 53 . She then called for Aphrodite. the dreams. Zeus. but she needed the help of Hypnos. When Zeus Hypnos’ three sons were known as the Oneiroi. and offer. and donned a wondrous robe. Hypnos used his powers to trick Zeus. His dwelling had no door or gate so that he might not be awakened by the creaking of hinges. see Hypnos (disambiguation). however. Aphrodite willingly agreed. The underworld is translated into English as Hell in the Septuagint Bible. in the underworld. who is the goddess of son. before they could do their work and send out [4] first Hypnos had to put the recipient to sleep. Phobetor is his mother. made especially for her to make herself impossible to resist for Zeus. Hera loathed her brother and husband. Hera was almost ready to trick Zeus. nor the setting sun. Hypnos (/ˈhɪpnɒs/. Nyx. who had tricked Zeus once before. was one of the youngest of the Graces the first time as well. In order to procure the charm. Phantasos was known for creating apart and a footstool to go with it. Phobetor. This made Hypnos reluctant to accept the personification of nightmares and created frightening Hera’s proposal and help her trick Zeus again. Pasithea. She told Aphrodite that she wanted the charm to help her parents stop fighting. the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. “Night”).offered him a beautiful golden seat that can never fall ing bears and tigers. put on three brilliant pendants for earrings. [1] “sleep”) was the personification of sleep. Thanatos (Θάνατος. For the thoroughbred race. and asked her for a charm that would ensure that her trick would not fail. During the war. The Oneiroi horse. nor does it see the “lightsome noon. She wove flowers through her hair.1 Dwelling place According to Greek mythology Hypnos lived in a cave. sea while Heracles was still sailing home. He refused this first fake dreams full of illusions. remembering the last time he tricked Zeus. In Greek mythology. and his father was Erebus. Hypnos managed to avoid Zeus by hiding with Dreams and can take human form in dreams. lived in a cave at the shores of the Ocean in the West. the deity of Night. The river Lethe. “death personified”) in the underworld. She decided that in order to trick him she needed to make him so enamoured with her that he would fall for the trick. It was Hera who had asked him to trick Zeus His wife. Hypnos was reluctant because the last time he had put the god to sleep. The For other uses. Hypnos’ mother was Nyx (Νύξ. the deity of Darkness. the goddess of love. flowed through his cave.” At the entrance were a number of poppies and other hypnotic plants.Phantasos appeared in the dreams of kings.Chapter 13 Hypnos “Somnus” redirects here. one made from ivory and the other from buckhorn. Hera first dreams. So she had Hypnos marriage and birth. see Somnus (horse). However. whose mansion does not see the rising. he could take the shape of any animal includ.[3] This river is known as the river of forgetfulness. Hera called on Hypnos and asked him to help her by Nyx was a dreadful and powerful goddess. Hypnos was able to trick him and help the Danaans win the Trojan war. 13. and set blasts of angry winds upon the or relaxation. She was furious that Hercules. she lied to Aphrodite because they sided on opposites sides of the war. Greek: Ὕπνος. cave had two gates with which to send people dreams.2 Family Hypnos lived next to his twin brother. Zeus’ and was promised to him by Hera. sacked the city of the Trojans.[2] 13.3 Hypnos in the Iliad 13. he awoke. Pasithea is the deity of hallucination put Zeus to sleep.” Morpheus is the Winged God of Hypnos. Morpheus.

com. Liddell. Retrieved 2014-01-27. N. Zeus asked Hera what she was doing there and why she had come there from Olympus and she told him the same lie she told her daughter Aphrodite. Scott.p. the English word "insomnia" comes from the name of his Latin counterpart. are vases. “Book the Eleventh.[10] as well as a few less-common words such as “somnolent”. Zeus said that she could go any time. Hypnos made her swear by the river Styx and call on gods of the underworld to be witnesses so that he would be ensured that he would marry Pasithea. N. Robert Fagles. from Civitella d'Arna near Perugia in Italy. Robert. n. the topmost peak of Mount Ida. Hypnos traveled to the ships of the Achaeans to tell Poseidon. n.[9] Additionally. Dictionary. She told him that she wanted to go help her parents stop quarreling and she stopped there to consult him because she didn't want to go without his knowledge and have him be angry with her when he found out. whom he had always wanted to marry. Caldwell. the war changed its course to Hera’s favor.54 finally got him to agree by promising that he would be married to Pasithea.reference.[6] [8] “Bronze Head of Hypnos. Zeus was extremely taken by her and suspected nothing as Hypnos was shrouded in a thick mist and hidden upon a pine tree that was close to where Hera and Zeus were talking. which is part of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston’s collection.d. that he could now help the Danaans and give them a victory while Zeus was sleeping. Now. Web.com”.” British Museum −. The Iliad. 1987. Cambridge. Dictionary. Cambridge.” Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus.4 Hypnos in art CHAPTER 13. most of which nary. meaning sleepy or tending to cause sleep. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. with Hera in his arms.com”. dripping Lethean water upon the head of Ariadne as she . Thanks to Hypnos helping to trick Zeus. [3] Richard S. Dictio- Hypnos appears in numerous works of art. John Dryden.com”. leaving Poseidon eager to help the Dananns. This bronze head has wings sprouting from his temples and the hair is elaborately arranged.” [10] “Insomnia | Define Insomnia at Dictionary.” Trans. Ed. Trans. 1717.6 See also • Aergia. Bronze Head of Hypnos in the British Museum. Hera went to see Zeus on Gargarus. [4] Ovid. Hypnos is shown as a winged god [11] “Somnolent | Define Somnolent at Dictionary.p. [2] James H. [5] Homer.. 1962.com. Metemorphoses. Hesiod’s Theogony.7 References [1] ὕπνος. New York: Philosophical Library. Sir Samuel Garth.[11] 13.reference. In this vase. God of the Sea. and Zeus never found out that Hypnos had tricked him one more time. He told her that he was never in love with anyone as much as he loved her at that moment.reference. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 15 Oct.. a goddess of sloth and attendant of Hypnos • Hesiod’s Theogony • Morpheus.[5] 13. a person is put into a sleep-like state (hypnos “sleep” + -osis “condition”). An example of one vase that Hypnos is featured on is called “Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. 1st-2nd Century AD. Trans. [6] British Museum Highlights [7] “Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. Somnus.d. 2013. 2013. 15 Oct. 1990.5 Words derived from Hypnos The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name. (in. Bernard Knox.[8] 13. Concise Dictionary of Greek Literature. god of dreams 13.“not” + somnus “sleep”). MA: Focus Information Group. Henry George. some tying in knots and some hanging freely from his head. Web. referring to the fact that when hypnotized. with Hypnos’ help. and that she should postpone her visit and stay there with him so they could enjoy each other’s company.com. This is where Hypnos leaves the story. one of the youngest Graces. While this went on. HYPNOS sleeps.[7] One of the most famous works of art featuring Hypnos is a bronze head of Hypnos himself. Retrieved 2014-01-27. [9] “Hypnosis | Define Hypnosis at Dictionary. New York: Viking. Mantinband. He took her in his embrace and Hypnos went to work putting him to sleep. now kept in the British Museum in London.

8.8 External links • Hypnos at theoi. 55 .com • 3D model of Bronze head of Hypnos via laser scan of a cast of British Museum’s bronze.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 13.

According to Georges Dumézil[4] it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods.[1] though she had an independent origin in Italy. a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography 14. deity Artemis). and having the power to talk to and control animals. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman however. dies. 14.Chapter 14 Diana (mythology) deities: Egeria the water nymph. meaning bright sky or daylight. is named for her. daylight). inaccessibility. she is seen as active in ensuring the succession 56 .[5] since they did retain a particular sort of influence over the world and mankind. who swore never to marry.[3] The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. the moon and childbirth. “heavenly” or “divine”) was the goddess of the hunt. erence for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred Oak groves were especially sacred to her. Minerva and Vesta. (day. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her conwomen. The Diana of Versailles. 'dius’.1 Etymology Diana (pronounced with long 'ī' and 'ā') is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios. and " diurnal”. from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus. while keeping the original features of celestial divinities. being associated with wild animals and woodland. supremacy. corresponding to later 'divus’. transcendent heavenly power and abstention from direct rule in worldly matters. She was one of the three maiden goddesses. In Roman mythology. Diana was born with her twin brother impassibility. her servant and assistant midwife. daughter of Jupiter and ters as the fates of mortals and states. Diana (lt.nection with light. i. referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. did not share the fate of other celestial gods in Indoeuropean religions—that of becoming dei otiosi or gods without practical purpose. (daytime). She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis. Latona.2 Mythology The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. and her prefana. a largely feminist form of the practice. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. the woodland god. and Virbius. (god). At the same time. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια (diwia) is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Such gods. Di.[2] It is rooted in Indoeuropean *d(e)y(e)w.e. Dea Dia and in the neuter form dium meaning the sky. as in Dius Fidius. Dianic Wicca. and indifference towards such secular matApollo on the island of Delos. Diana therefore reflects the heavenly world (dimythology (in common with the Greek religion and their uum means sky or open air) in its sovereignty. According to woods. virginity.

bestowing on him worn as a diadem. accompanied by a [10] Like Venus. the institution of the Rex Nemorensis and related ritual should be seen as related to the theme of the dying god and the kings of May. who links Diana with the male a moon goddess. He too gives as beautiful and youthful.4.14. sometimes origin to kingship and the first king. The crescent moon. 14.[9] 14. the figure of Janus.[6] Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire. Iuno. function: he is born first and will die last. BC. supplanting Titan goddess Luna.g. Pairault in her essay on Diana qualifies Dumézil’s theory as "impossible to verify". supreme heavenly couple Jupiter-Juno and additionally ties in these figures to the overarching Indoeuropean religious complex. he attained the status of an im. she was portrayed The Scandinavian god Heimdallr performs an analogous deer or hunting dogs. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations. Catullus wrote a poem to Diana in which she than one alias: Latonia. Diana’s sacerdos (priest) in the Arician wood. It is noteworthy that the list includes Luna and Diana Lucina as separate entities. Being placed on the Aventine. prayed for an easy delivery. e. has exactly the same functions. WORSHIP 57 of kings and in the preservation of humankind through the protection of childbirth. Another testimony to the high antiquity of her cult is to be found in the lex regia of king Tullus Hostilius that condemns those guilty of incest to the sacratio to the goddess. Diana often wears a short tunic her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century and hunting boots. is a major attribute of the goddess. The institution of the rex Nemorensis. This looks odd as Dumézil’s also became the goddess of childbirth and ruled over the definition of the concept of frame god would fit well countryside. She also later became that of James G. Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13.3 Physical description In Rome the cult of Diana should have been almost as old as the city itself as Varro mentions her in the list of deities to whom king Titus Tatius vowed a shrine. Frazer. Diana. She is often portrayed holding a bow. In this interpretative schema. This regality is also linked to the cult of trees. regal prerogatives. preserving mankind through childbirth and royal succession. and thus outside the . H. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. Diana was initially just the hunting goddess. This form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who. associated Dumezil’s interpretation appears deliberately to ignore with wild animals and woodlands. She god Janus as a divine couple. after breaking a branch from a certain tree of the wood. and carrying a quiver on her shoulder. Trivia. Ovid.[12] when King Servius Tullius.[8] Frazer identifies the two with the has more [11] Luna. 1. once pregnant.4 Worship F. in his roles of father and king. Lucina.Gallo-Roman bronze statuette of Diana (latter 1st century) mortal being while retaining the duty of ensuring that his dynasty is preserved and that there is always a new king for each generation. although a female deity. Having renounced the world. who held the position until someone else challenged and killed him in a duel. particularly oaks. dedicated As a goddess of hunting.[7] 2.[6] According to Dumezil the forerunner of all frame gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image (avatar) of the Vedic god Dyaus. himself born a slave.

slaves could receive asylum in her temples. i. lend support to this interpretation of an archaic The origin of the ritual of the rex Nemorensis should Diana Trivia. called plebeians. it has not as its leader the rex Nemorensis but a dictator pomerium.[13] where her priest. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) atic goddess with lunar attributes. he said. Latinus. Ephesian metal smiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. Georg Wissowa proposed the explanation that it might be because the first slaves of the Romans must have been Latins of the neighbouring tribes.[35] Cuma too had a [20] Aristodemos and is probably connected to the politHecate and certainly had strict contacts ical events at end of the 6th century narrated by Livy cult of a chthonic with Latium. “Men of Ephesus.e.extremity. all united by a both Diana of the Aventine and Diana Nemorensis were horizontal bar. what person is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper (guardian) of the temple of the great Diana and of her image that fell from . Temple of Artemis stood.[27] According to the legend Orestes founded Nemi together with Iphigenia.[18] his. who was her priestess in Taurid and her human paragon. Strabo’s version looks to be the most authoritative as he had access to first hand primary sources on the sanctuaries of Artemis.58 CHAPTER 14. The formation of the Latin should be related to the presence of the cult in Campania. like that of Bacchus. The literary amplification[23] reveals a confused religious background: different Artemis were conflated under the epithet. which in turn passed it models. the priest of Artemis Artemidoros of Ephesus. If she is accompagroups of Etruscans who fought for supremacy. master of wildlife. and slaves. Tauropolos is an ancient epithet attached to Hecate. Diana of the wood was soon thoroughly Hellenized.[21] It should thence be considered a political for.[32] It represents Artemis with the bow at one According to Françoise Hélène Pairault’s study. she was never officially transferred to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. jealously rioted in her defense.[22] The cult introduced by Orestes own hunting dogs to kill him. back. Octavius Verus. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes. by Strabo[25] and Servius Honoratus. fact which would support the assumption that Artemis Tauropolos had a real ancient alliance with the heroine. at Nemi is apparently that of the Artemis Tauropolos. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BC has been acknowledged as representing the archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis.[29] Hesiod[30] and Stesichorus[31] tell the story according to which after her death Iphigenia was divinised under the name of Hecate. Diana transformed Acteon into a stag and set his the temple of Saturn. Vulci and Caere (allied with the Greeks above right) this is because Diana was the patroness of of Capua) and those of Clusium. The deer may also offer a covert reference to the legend of the coming of Orestes to Nemi and of the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon). It is remarkable that the composition of this ana looks very elaborated and certainly Hellenic.[26] The only possible interpretatio graeca of high antiquity concerning Diana Nemorensis could have been the one based upon this ancient aspect of deity of light. A coin minted by P. as Diana Tifatina was appelled Trivia in an imperial League led by Laevius (or Baebius) Egerius[19] happened Virbialis dedunder the influence of an alliance with the tyrant of Cuma age inscription which mentions a flamen icated by eques C. This religious complex is in turn supported by the triple statue of Artemis-Hecate. meant that Diana’s cult essentially remained a foreign one. Two heads found in the sanctuary[33] and the over to the Etruscans and the Latins by the 6th and 5th Roman theatre at Nemi.[24] As far as Nemi’s Diana is concerned there are two different versions. The presence of a Hellenised Diana at Nemi more than that of Hippolitos. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia. This fact is of difficult interpretation.[15] “a process which culminated with the appearance of Diana beside Apollo in the first lectisternium at Rome”. The meaning of Tauropolos denotes an Asi- Worship of Diana is mentioned in the Bible.[36] The theological complex present in Diand Dionysius. In Acts of the Apostles.[34] which have a hollow on their centuries BC. such as the siege of Aricia by Porsenna's son Arruns. Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a torical and archaeological evidence point to the fact that central deity not immediately identifiable.[16] Diana was regarded with great reverence and was a patroness of lower-class citizens. New English Bible). lady of the herds. the product of the direct or indirect influence of the cult of The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this imArtemis spread by the Phoceans among the Greek towns age to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan of Campania Cuma and Capua. as Latin [37] goddess.Though some Roman patrons ordered marble replicas of mation and not a traditional society founded on links of the specifically Anatolian “Diana” of Ephesus.[28] At Cuma the Sybil is the priestess of both Phoibos and Trivia. shouting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28. the Rex Nemorensis remained.[14] which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct. as in the Diana of Versailles (illustration. while an analogous Latin concept of Diana Trivia seems uncerleague does not reflect that of the Latin people who took sources reflect a Hellenised character of the part in the Latiar or Feriae Latinae given by Pliny and tain. This is reflected in hunting. where the blood. who saw her bathing the inhumation of his bones in the Roman Forum near naked. those nied by a deer. from Tarquinia. Diana was usually depicted for It looks as if the confrontation happened between two educated Romans in her Greek guise. After the city secretary (γραμματεύς) quieted the crowd.[17] However in Ephesus too there was the same custom of the asylum (ασυλιον). in whom three different elements are ashave to be traced to the legend of Orestes and Iphigenia sociated. Artemis and even Athena.

Portugal. Bronze.1 In religion Both the Romanian words for "fairy" Zânǎ[50] and Diana’s cult has been related in Early Modern Europe Sânzianǎ.6 Legacy 14. She was related to myths of a female and "morning call" (diana) seem to come from the name Wild Hunt. Perchta. according to tradition dedicated by king Servius Tullius. New York City. which is characterized by an exclusive focus on the feminine aspect of the Divine. Other sanctuaries we know about are listed below: Diana (1892 .[42] • At Lavinium.e. Diana was believed to have loved and ruled with her brother Apollo. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Apollo.“Isis Astarte Diana Hecate Demeter Kali Inanna”.6.6.[40] • At Évora. i. the light. keeping for Ephesus and the temple Artemision used to be one herself the darkness of creation and creating her brother of world’s seven wonders. the Leonese and Portuguese word for “water to the cult of Nicevenn (a. original territory of the city.[43] Today there is a branch of Wicca named for her.k. Therefore many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins. of Diana. .[46] created the world of her own being having in herself the seeds of all creation yet to come.93). etc. and the Spanish word for “shooting target” Herodiana. It was said that out of • In Ephesus.6. Its location is remarkable as the Aventine is situated outside the pomerium.[48] • At Tibur (Tivoli).[49] 14. The Arician wood sanctuary near the lake of Nemi was Latin confederal as testified by the dedicatory epigraph quoted by Cato. near Capua in Campania.[38] She had a shrine in Rome on the Aventine hill.5 Sanctuaries See also: Diana Nemorensis Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes. • Colle di Corne near Tusculum.[44] Stregheria • A sacred wood mentioned by Livy[45] ad compitum Anagninum (near Anagni). witches being the wise women healers of the time. Diana was said to have • On Mount Tifata.). where she was worshipped as Diana of herself she divided the darkness and the light.a. in order to comply with the tradition that Diana was a goddess common to all Latins and not exclusively of the Romans.14. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba Longa before the town was destroyed by the Romans. LEGACY 59 heaven ?" (Acts 19:36) 14. nymph” xana.[41] • Mount Algidus.[39] where she is referred to with the archaic Latin name of deva Cornisca and where existed a collegium of Wicca worshippers. Augustus Saint-Gaudens.[47] Diana’s name is also used as the third divine name in a Wiccan energy chant. where she is referred to as Diana Opifera Nemorensis. also near Tusculum. Dame Habond. In Italy the old religion of Stregheria embraced the goddess Diana as Queen of the Witches.2 In language 14. the god of the Sun.

where he and his people settle. At Versailles she was incorporated into the Olympian iconography with which Louis XIV. Falstaff styles himself and his highway-robbing friends as “Diana’s foresters. including the opera L'arbore di Diana. telling him to go to her temple and tell his story to her followers.60 14. Diana is also a character in the 1876 Léo Delibes ballet Sylvia. • Diana is referred to in Twelfth Night when Orsino compares Viola (in the guise of Cesario) to Diana.” • There is a reference to Diana in Much Ado About Nothing where Hero is said to seem like 'Dian in her orb'. Since the Renaissance the myth of Diana has often been represented in the visual and dramatic arts. ". one of Diana’s nymphs and sworn to chastity../ that would suffer her poor knight surprised. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) In the arts • In the sonnet “To Science” by Edgar Allan Poe. In literature • In "The Knight’s Tale" in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. Diana is used in comparison to the 17th/early 18th century everyday woman Swift satirically writes about. the Apollo-like “Sun King” liked to surround himself. minions of the moon” who are governed by their “noble and chase mistress the moon under whose countenance [they] steal”.” and ". • In Henry IV. and Diana’s assault on Sylvia’s affections for the shepherd Amyntas. from thy altar do I fly. identified by the crescent moon in her hair and the bow and quiver at her side. & at Anet.” The Steward also says. the main character in Carlos Fuentes' novel Diana o la cazadora soltera (Diana. Othello the Moor says. reclines on a blue drapery. such as. The plot deals with Sylvia. Diana’s image figured prominently at the châteaus of Fontainebleau.. 1796. is now begrim'd and black as my own face. In the 16th century.. France. c. he writes 'Browsed by none but Dian’s fawns’ (line 12) • Speaking of his wife.. in terms of her chastity. Chenonceau. gentlemen of the shade. • In Jonathan Swift’s poem: “The Progress of Beauty”.. Dian no queen of virgins. “Now. The nude goddess. as goddess of the moon. is described as having the same personality as the goddess. science is said to have “dragged Diana from her car”. • In All’s Well That Ends Well Diana appears as a figure in the play and Helena makes multiple allusions to her.6. “Diana’s lip is not more smooth and rubious” A chariot clock depicting the goddess. • Diana is referenced in As You Like It to describe how Rosalind feels about marriage.. that your Dian/was both herself and love. Diana leads the Trojan Brutus to Britain. Dian.[51] . without/ rescue in the first assault or ransom afterward.. • In “Ode” by John Keats. mistress of Henri of France.” (Line 128) Diana Reposing by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry.wish chastely and love dearly. women who claim they are virtuous despite never having been tempted are referred to as “Dianas. in deference to Diane de Poitiers. Emily prays to Diana to be spared from marriage to either Palamon or Arcite. Starts: 'When first Diana leaves her bed..' • In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”).” It can be assumed that 'Dian' is simply a shortening of 'Diana' since later in the play when Parolles’ letter to Diana is read aloud it reads 'Dian'. • In “Castaway” by Augusta Webster... Desdemona. or The Lone Huntress). Part 1. In Shakespeare • In Shakespeare’s Pericles. • Diana Soren. Prince of Tyre Diana appears to Pericles in a vision. “Her name that was as fresh as Diana’s visage.3 CHAPTER 14..

goddess of the moon. and Diana Getting Out of Bath by François Boucher. It now is on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art • A sculpture by French sculptor François-Léon Sicard in the Archibald Fountain. Brunelli. saying that “She hath Dian’s wit”. • “Diana of the Tower” a copper statue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens was created as the weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden in 1893. representing Commerce. • A sculpture by Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain can be seen at the Musée du Louvre. 61 In painting and sculpture Diana has been one of the most popular themes in art. In beaux arts Diana as the Huntress. On the mantel he painted an image of Diana riding in a chariot possibly pulled by a stag. • Diana and Endymion by Johann Michael Rottmayr. depicting Diana being surprised by Acteon.6. like to a silver bow new bent in Heaven”. Diana Resting After Bath. He refers to her becoming a nun. Some famous work of arts with a Diana theme are : • Diana and Actaeon. Pietro Solari. Nicholas Poussin made use of her myth as a major theme. Sydney NSW Australia • In Parma at the convent of San Paolo. Diana and Her Nymph Departing From Hunt. or Callisto. created by Paolo Persico. who is often depicted with a silver hunting bow. Romeo describes Rosaline. . Italy. with the goddesse Diana having connotations of chastity. She refers to Diana. Peter Paul Rubens. Two of the most popular of the period were of Pomona (goddess of orchards) as a metaphor for Agriculture.ii) • In Romeo and Juliet.or depicted her resting after hunting.14. He was commissioned in 1519 to paint the ceiling and mantel of the fireplace. Diana and Her Nymphs Surprised By A Faun by Rubens. which is a perpetual hunt for advantage and profits. and Diana. • Diana Bathing With Her Nymphs by Rembrandt. (I. Painters like Titian. • In The Merchant of Venice Portia states “I will die as chaste as Diana. Diana and Callisto. unless I be obtained by the manner of my father’s will”. In the same play the character Hermia is told by the Duke Theseus that she must either wed the character Demetrius “Or on Diana’s alter to protest for aye austerity and single life”. François Boucher. • Diana and Endymion by Poussin. and Death of Actaeon by Titian. The character Hippolyta states “And then the moon. LEGACY • The goddess is also referenced indirectly in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. • Diana and Callisto. • The famous fountain at Palace of Caserta. Beaux Arts architecture and garden design (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used classic references in a modernized form. by Giampietrino. Most depictions of Diana in art featured the stories of Diana and Actaeon. Antonio Allegri da Correggio painted the chamber of the Abbess Giovanna Piacenza’s apartment. • Diana and Callisto.

played by Jeanne Moreau. part 3. magic and the divine king Routledge. • William Moulton Marston used the Diana myth as a basis for Wonder Woman. poses as Diana/Artemis for the artist Fergus. Geza Roheim Animism. 14.Dumézil La religion Romaine archaique Paris.7 See also • Artemis • Diana Nemorensis • Dianic Wicca • Janus • Domus de Janas • Pachamama In opera • Diana is a character in Hippolytus and Aricia.4 • The character of Diana is the principal character in the children’s novel The Moon Stallion by Brian Hayles (1978) and the BBC Television series of the same name Diana is played by the actress Sarah Sutton. chap. 16. 12. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris 1974.G. . and Diana (symbolizing commerce) as building decoration. • In the manga and anime series Sailor Moon. chaps. • Diana/Artemis appears at the end of the 'Pastoral Symphony' segment of Fantasia. Frazer The golden bough 1922. Julie Kohler. symbolizing agriculture). who help Marius Titus. She poses with a bow and arrow. is named after Diana. an airgun company. an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau. part 3.[53] [9] J.KG. 1974. 14. [4] G. All of these characters are advisers to rulers of the kingdom of the moon and therefore have moonassociated names. [3] H. F. The theme of Diana is carried throughout the album. Other • In the funeral oration of Diana. • In his 1968 film La Mariée était en noir François Truffaut plays on this mythological symbol. Pomona (left.1. Diana is the daughter of Artemis and Luna. a character beset by revenge. 14. Frazer Dying gods. [11] “Latin Oration”. • For the album art of progressive metal band Protest the Hero's second studio album Fortress. (in particular chapter “The king of May”). [6] Ovid Fasti III. 1912. Diana is the feline companion to Chibiusa. London. while wearing white. [8] J. part 3. 1954. [2] G.6.com. chap. the main character. [5] Mircea Eliade Traite' d'histoire des religions Paris. p. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) • The character of Diana from the video game League of Legends is largely based on the goddess. 1972. fulfill his duty to Rome. 215.8 References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. Haydock. 1995. Usagi’s daughter.62 CHAPTER 14. 262-271. This choice seems fitting for Julie. 1.“the most hunted person of the modern age”. Retrieved 2012-11-11. The Book People. [10] “Artemis”. In film • In Jean Cocteau's 1946 film La Belle et la Bête it is Diana’s power which has transformed and imprisoned the beast. 1. Rousseau. [7] Titus Livius Ab Urbe Condita 1:31-1:60. • She also is one of the main gods in the popular video game Ryse. her brother drew an analogy between the ancient goddess of hunting and his sister . scribd. the goddess of hunting. of which Fergus becomes the fourth victim. Princess of Wales in 1997. Diana is depicted protected by rams and other animals. • DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. Contrary G.[52] • The Royal Netherlands Air Force 323rd Squadron is named Diana and uses a depiction of Diana with her bow in its badge. Pairault below cites three.

[17] as quoted by Dumézil La religion romaine archaique Paris. 91. Ardeatis. Blue Moon [50] Zânǎ in DEX '98 and NODEX [51] Cross. P. 322-328. Carmen Saeculare.8.v. 1-4. 259-261 platesVI a-b. Wilbur L. [33] Excavation of 1791 by cardinal Despuig not mentioned in the report: cf.2633. Suidas above. Lucidi Memorie storiche dell'antichissimo municipio ora terra dell'Ariccia e delle sue colonie Genzano e Nemi Rome 1796 p. chap. Tuaropolos. From The Witches Voice. E. [14] commune Latinorum Dianae templum in Varro.part 3. CIL XIV. II 22. [45] Livy Ab Urbe Condita XXVII 4. (accessed November 27. [42] Horace. Hymni magici V in Selenen 4. Joyce. R. 63 [31] Orestia cited by Philodemos Περι εύσεβείας 24 Gomperz II 52: fragment 38 B. Pairault p. Hi populi communiter: Tusculanus. 97 ff. :η Άρτεμις εν Ταύροις της Σκυθίας τιμωμένη. Wicca. Arthur E. Riis who cites E. 2010 [28] Servius ad Aeneidem VI 136. Darehnberg -Saglio-Pottier Dictionnaire des antiquités s.CLASS 8”.v. 1919. 3537. Leland. xliv. Alföldi"Diana Nemorensis” in American journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. Supposed Greek origins for the Aricia cult are strictly a literary topos. (Gordon 1932:178 note. η ότι η αυτη τη σελήνη εστι καί εποχειται ταύροις. VIII 362. 4. REFERENCES [12] The date coincides with the founding dates celebrated at Aricium. [22] Servius ad Aeneidem II 116. West Fragmenta Hesiodea Oxonii 1967. Retrieved 17 July 2014. pp. 448 citing Jean Bayet Origines de l' Hercule romain p. United States of America: Barnes & Noble. [32] A. 99. [26] Suidas s. f-16.KG THE DIANA TRADEMARK. Dionysius Halicarnasseus V 36. Coranus. finds at Valle Giardino. déesse hellénisée” in Mélanges d' archéologie et d'histoire 81 1969 p. Pausanias I 43. 1974. [20] Livy II 14.” [19] The historicity of this character is questioned by Dumézil as the name Egerius looks suspect to him. Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome. Hymni I in Hecaten 7. in the 5th century BC. 76 text 82. [44] CIL.net. M. Silius Italicus Punica IV 367. Aricinus. Ennius apud Varro De Lingua Latina VII 16. [47] Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition. [29] Aeneis VI 35. Hyginus Fabulae 261. US. Carmina I 21. “On the Origin of Diana”. [24] Jean Bayet “Les origines de l'Arcadisme romain” p. [37] Servius Ad Aeneidem IV 511. [49] Charles G. 425-471. [27] Hesichius s.43.v. [13] Her cult at Aricia was first attested in Latin literature by Cato the Elder. [52] “DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. [18] “Diana Nemorensis. Greek cities of Magna Graecia. déesse latine. [15] The Potnia Theron aspect of Hellenic Artemis is represented in Capua and Signia. Photius Lexicon s. 7. in a surviving quote by the late grammarian Priscian. Valerius Flaccus Argonauticae II 305. [16] Gordon 1932:179. fragment 23. [23] Ovid Metamorphoses XIV 331-2 Scythicae regnum nemorale Dianae. VII 6. [21] Pliny Naturalis Historia III 5 68-70. Catullus 34. and p. [38] Cato Origins fr. pp. Lingua Latina V.v. [48] “TRADITIONAL WICCA . 365–399. M. 975. 181). 4: the people of Aricia help Aristdemos in bringing home the Etruscan booty. Tiburtis. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 63 (1932. Tauropolai. 1. 485 ff. [35] CIL X 3795. 5-9. [43] CIL XIV. (accessed November 27. Pometius. [53] “F-16 Units . [30] Hesiod Catalogueedited by Augusto Traversa. VI 136. H. ISBN 1-56619-104-1. 177-192) p 178. [40] CIL.” COMPANY | THE DIANA TRADEMARK. “The Goddess Diana. Merkelbach. pp. Rutulus.RNLAF 323rd squadron”. L. N. 1.2112. Diana fig. 242 and Ovid’s Fasti III 327-331. . Nilson Griechische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1955 p. 242. Naples 1951 p. [41] Hifler. [46] Roy Merle Peterson The cults of Campania Rome. (1993). 62: “Lucum Dianum In nemore Aricino Egerius Baebius (some scholars prefer to read Laevius) Tusculanus dedicavit dictator Latinus. των ποιμνίων επστάσις. The Yale Shakespeare: the complete works. 2357. η από μέρους.. Theophania Publishing. 15. [39] Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia XVI.135.14. Abel Orphica. [36] Dionysius Hal. Scholiasta ad Aristophanem Lysistrata 447. the cult there was of antiqua religione in Pliny’s Natural History. [34] NSA 1931 p. 5-6. F. Laurens. Gordon. 137-144. 280 n. Aradia: The Gospel of Witches. Retrieved 2007-05-23. P. Lucanus Pharsalia III 86 “qua sublime nemus Scythicae qua regna Dianae”. [25] Strabo V 249: αφιδρύματα της ταυροπόλου. " Witches Of The Craft. Yalouris Athena als Herrin der Pferde in Museum Helveticum 7 1950 p. 2012). 2012).

69 ff. Alföldi Early Rome and the Latins Ann Arbor 1964 p. • F. • A. 198 ff. • A.. 307 ff. 137-144. Collection Latomus 45 Bruxelles 1960 p. Bayet Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine Paris 1957 p. Heurgon in Magna Graecia 1969 Jan. Gagé “Apollon Romain” in BÉFAR 182 Paris 1955. • A. 302 ff. 300 ff.. Heurgon “Recherhes sur. • J.E. • L. • K. J. Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich 1912 p.. Latte Römische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1960 p. Feb.. 1ff. 39ff. 55. • J. Momigliano “Sul dies natalis del santuario federale di Diana sull' Aventino” in RAL 17 1962 p. 47-100.G. Alföldi “Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. 12 ff. 177ff. 650 ff. • A. Schilling “Une victime des vicissitudes politiques. Paribeni “A note on Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archeology 65 1961 p. Morpurgo “Nemus Aricinum” in MonAntLincei 13 1903 c. • J. Frazer Balder the Beautiful II London 1913 p. Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1966 p. 95 ff. p. • E. • G. 93-172.64 14. Capoue préromaine” in BÉFAR 154 Paris 1942 p. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) 14. Gordon Local Cults in Aricia University of California Publications in Classical Archaeology 2 1934 p.9 Bibliography • A. • A. Altheim Griechischen Götter im alten Rom Giessen 1930 p. • G.10 External links • Landscape with Diana and Callisto painting • Diana and her Nymphs painting • The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1150 images of Diana . • J. CHAPTER 14. • R. Gordon “On the Origin of Diana” in Transactions of the AMerican Philological Association 63 1932 p. Merlin “L'Aventin dans l'antiquité" Paris BÉFAR 97 1906.. Riis “The Cult Image of Diana Nemorensis” in Acta Archaeologica Kopenhagen 37 1966 p. March Apr. 1ff. 398 ff. 387 ff. 1969 p. • J. 169-173. • P. la Diane latine” in Hommages á Jean Bayet.E. 20 ff.

Summanus also received a sacrifice of two black oxen or wethers.[12] Paulus Diaconus considers him a The mountain top is frequently hit by lightningbolts. daylight and legalistic aspect. to the custom of ancient time pilgrims of bringing flowers whom king Titus Tatius dedicated altars (arae) in conse. where indeed it was found on the very spot indicated by them. see Brian Lumley deities#Summanus. offered to him as a token of propitiation: the wheel might [18] falls upon people and cities”. mysterious The temple of Summanus was dedicated during the aspect of sovereignty while the second ones would reflect Pyrrhic War c. but with the construction of a temple that was more magnificent than that of Summanus. however. Italy) is considered a site of the cult of god Pluto.[7] Saint Augustine records that in earlier times Summanus had been more exalted than Jupiter. the west of the Circus Maximus. quence of a votum. This identification is taken up by later writers roof of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been struck such as Camões (“If in Summanus’ gloomy realm / Sever[5] by a lightningbolt. the day before the [17] est punishment you now endure …") and Milton. perhaps on the slope [16] Summanus is anof the Aventine. The area was one of the last strongholds of ancient religion in Italy as is shown by the fact that Vicenza had no bishop until 590 CE. lists 4th century CE). milk and honey and shaped as wheels. as counterposed sovereign power would be reflected in the dichotomy Varuna-Mitra in Vedic religion and in Rome in the dito Jupiter. For Brian Lum. The haruspices announced that it had been hurled into the Tiber River. The god of lightning. Every June 20.). The double aspect of heavenly In ancient Roman religion. The first gods of these precise nature was unclear even to Ovid. “hand”. wrapped in a smoking whirlwind of blue flame. It seems the temple had been dedi. be a solar symbol. nocturnal. Summanus (Latin: Summānus) was the god of nocturnal thunder.[11] Varro. and one and was continuously active til late antiquity (at least the of the nine gods of thunder. other name for Pluto as the “highest” (summus) of the cated because the statue of the god which stood on the Manes. 278 BCE on June 20.[19] The content of this section is adapted from the entry Monte 65 . Dark victims were typically offered to chthonic deities.[8] Cicero recounts that the clay statue of the god which stood on the roof of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was struck by a lightningbolt: its head was nowhere to be seen.[1] His chotomy Summanus-Dius Fidius. made a simile to describe Satan visiting Rome: “Just so Sum[6] of flour. The story looks to be an adaptation manus.[14] or sub-. Jupiter became more honored.Chapter 15 Summanus This article is about the Roman deity.[10] that dates back to the first Iron Age (9th century BCE) Pliny thought that he was of Etruscan origin. violent and awe-inspiring element of the gods of the first function.which according to a local legend a young shepherdess got nium “the greatest of the Manes". located in the Alps near Vicenza (Veneto. The temple of Summanus itself was struck by lightning Archeological excavations have found a sanctuary area in 197 BCE. were manus.from their own native lands afar.[13] mountain has a deep grotto (named Bocca Lorenza) in The name Summanus is thought to be from Summus Ma. of the myth of Pluto and Proserpina. The local flora is very peculiar due to Summanus among gods he considers of Sabine origin.Georges Dumézil[15] has argued that Summanus would ley’s fictional god.[9] 15. the god of diurnal (daylight) thunder.1 Summanus and Mount Summano Traditionally Mount Summano (elevation 1291 m. represent the uncanny.[3][4] It stood at its reassuring. “under” + lost and disappeared. Iupiter Summanus and the Manes . connected to heavenly sovereignty. in summer solstice.[2] pairs would incarnate the violent. round cakes called summanalia.According to Martianus Capella.

English translation by John Bostock. Milano 1977 p. Iovem enim trina iaculari. Eric M. CIL I 2nd p. 98100 [6] Festus p. 1 [11] Natural History 2. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome Baltimore 1928 p. 1977. p. translated as The Lusiad by Thomas Moore Musgrave (1826). Summano templa feruntur): Ovid. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. and that three of them are darted out by Jupiter. 14-15. 221.557 L [7] John Scheid. Venus... Mitra-Varuna: essai sur deux representations indoeuropeennes de la souverainetè Paris 1948 2nd. T. City of God IV 23 [9] Cicero De Divinatione I 10 [10] Livy AUC XXXII 29. rariora sane eadem de causa frigidioris caeli). 33.” in Essays on the History of Religions (Brill.57 (= 29. [19] Lucio Puttin Monte Summano: storia. and the nocturnal to Summanus. eaque esse undecim generum. III part 2 chapt. [2] “The temple is said to have been dedicated to Summanus. “The Wheel in the Ritual Symbolism of Some Indo-European Peoples. 2007).2 Notes and references [1] Paulus Festi epitome p.66 Summano of WP Italian. Ball Platner. in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. 408. Translation by James G. whoever he may be” (quisquis is est. For dedication year. . citing Cicero de Div. “Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule”. 5. “Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors”. [13] Entry on Dium above. CHAPTER 15.14). 107. Frazer.: ad XII Kal. Iordanes I 2. [3] Ovid fasti VI 729-731. Livy Periochae XIV. La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1974. Amit. that there are eleven different kinds of them. Vol. 184 [16] Martianus Capella. tr. see Orlin. SUMMANUS [17] Os Lusíadas. [8] Augustine. [14] Summanus. 731. via Perseus Digital Library. nocturna Summano. [5] S. this latter kind being more rare. diurna attribuentes Iovi. ascribing the diurnal kind to Jupiter. 320 [4] Pliny Nat. Pliny mentions the temple at Natural History 29.188 L 2nd. Fasti 6. IV.243.164. 1967).. [12] Varro Lingua Latina V 74. Of these the Romans retained only two. Livy Periochae XIV. Romani duo tantum ex iis servavere. I 10. [15] Myth et epopée vol. It. Hist.. 3. Loeb Classical Library. 264. [18] In the Latin poem “In Quintum Novembris” (lines 23– 24): Talibus infestat populos Summanus et urbes / cinctus caeruleae fumanti turbine flammae. p. De nuptiis 2. in consequence of the heavens being colder” (Tuscorum litterae novem deos emittere fulmina existimant. arte e tradizioni Schio. Iul. 15. p. 47 (2002). XXIX 14.53 (alternative numbering 52 or 138): “The Tuscan books inform us. Raffaele Pettazzoni. that there are nine Gods who discharge thunder-storms. Fasti Esquil. 211.

(1964). “Trivia”. “TRIVIA”. she was known as the Queen of Ghosts. Inc. Although she helped Ceres to find her daughter. She was a friend of Ceres and helped her to find her daughter Proserpina. De rerum natura. i. Potter. and was the goddess of sorcery and witchcraft.1 References [1] Zimmerman. Dictionary of Classical Mythology. graveyards. New York: Clarkson N. she was also known to steal young maidens to assist her in her powers. 16. New York: Harper & Row. [3] Lucretius. ISBN 0-517-52746-4. the goddess of witchcraft. p. the three-way crossroads and the harvest moon. 67 . 278. These women later became nymphs. 231.Chapter 16 Trivia (mythology) Trivia in Roman mythology was the goddess who “haunted crossroads. [2] Kravitz. 84. she wandered about at night and was seen only by the barking of dogs who told of her approach. David (1975). J E. Her association for Romans of the first century BCE with Artemis was so thorough that Lucretius[3] identifies the altar of the goddess at the sacrifice of Iphianassa (Iphigeneia) in Aulis as Triviai virginis aram.[2] She was an underworld Titan-goddess who assisted Jove in the Titanomachy and was therefore able to keep her powers.”[1] She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Hecate. Who’s Who in Greek and Roman Mythology. As a part of her role as an underworld goddess. p.

[2] Varro categorized Luna and Sol among the visible gods. since both Diana and Juno are identified as moon goddesses. Juno of the crescent moon.[6] with the epithet Lucina. bidding her to listen to the girls singing as Apollo listens to the boys. Horace invokes her as the “two-horned queen of the stars” (siderum regina bicornis). 2nd–5th centuries AD) The Romans dated the cultivation of Luna as a goddess at Rome to the semi-legendary days of the kings. cf. it was struck by lightning.[8] Varro also lists Luna among twenty principal gods of Rome (di selecti). which Varro described as shining or glowIn Roman art. English “lunar”). myths of Selene are adapted under the name of ored as Juno Covella. but sometimes rather an epithet that specializes a goddess.[15] In ancient Roman religion and myth. which crashed into the Temple of Ceres below it on the slope. Luna is the divine embodiment of the Moon (Latin luna. Luna’s attributes are the crescent moon ing by night.[14] The Aventine temple may have been destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome during the reign of Nero. Sol and Luna can represent the extent of Roman rule over the world. Ox-drawn biga of Luna on the Parabiago plate (ca. and deified mortals such as Hercules.[5] calendar the new moon occurred.Chapter 17 Luna (goddess) 17.[18] Both Luna. Luna is not always a distinct goddess. and and the two-yoke chariot (biga). in which he refers to Luna and Sol as clarissima mundi lumina. In Roman art and all Ides were to Jupiter.[3] She was one of 17. with the aim of The Kalends of every month. for instance. was sacred to Juno. performed in 17 BC. was a popular Juno and Diana were invoked as childbirth goddesses subject for Roman wall painting. Luna is distinguished from both Diana and Juno. the same day the popularist leader Cinna was murdered by his troops.[9] In this list.[7] as does Vergil in a different list of twelve.[16] ulare.[13] In 84 BC.[11] The anniversary of the temple founding (dies natalis) was celebrated annually on March 31.2 Juno as moon goddess the deities Macrobius proposed as the secret tutelary of Rome. In the Carmen Saecit is unclear what Varro meant. when according to the lunar guaranteeing peace.[12] It first appears in Roman literature in the story of how in 182 BC a windstorm of exceptional power blew off its doors. who also appear on it. the world’s clearest sources of light.[4] In Imperial cult.[10] but Servius Tullius was credited with the creation of her temple on the Aventine Hill. along with Proserpina and Hecate. She is often presented as the female complement of the Sun (Sol) conceived of as a god. just below a temple of Diana.[17] On the Nones.[1] As Noctiluna (“Night-Shiner”) Luna had a temple on the Palatine Hill. The myth of Endymion. she was honliterature. as Luna’s Greek counterpart was Selene. Nothing else is known about the temple. Luna is also sometimes represented as an aspect of the Roman triple goddess (diva triformis).1 Cult and temples Varro lists Luna among twelve deities who are vital to agriculture. as distinguished from invisible gods such as Neptune.[19] 68 . Titus Tatius was supposed to have imported the cult of Luna to Rome from the Sabines.

68. [10] Varro.2. while the Sun drives a horse-drawn quadriga (left) [3] Varro. A New Topographical Dictionary. [7] Varro.”[20] Luna in her biga was an element of Mithraic iconography. three-form Hecate (trimorphos) was identified by Servius [23] with Luna. p. 383. A New Topographical Dictiowith the sun. 188. as preserved by Augustine of Hippo. Ill. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Johns Luna is regularly paired with the Sun driving a four-horse Hopkins University Press.” in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. “Religion and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the Second Century AD: The Creation of a Common Religious Language. the charioteer [11] Orosius 5.5 References [1] C. A biga of oxen was also driven by Hecate.2. p. and underworld.4 See also • List of Roman deities 17. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 2..883–84. and sea. SEE ALSO 17. the sun’s course through the four seasons. 73. 238. 2006). “because it travels on a twin course [13] Livy 40. 73. drawn by horses or oxen.4. Ad nationes 2. 238. 2007). Luna drives a biga drawn by oxen (right). 133. Fasti 3. 238. 65. p. A New Topographical Dictionary. Etymologies 18. p. p. Richardson.78.C. [6] Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann. not as in the later tradition bridge University Press. De lingua latina 5. p.1.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. De re rustica 1. 368 online. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. “horned” or crescent-crowned Diana and Luna.2. .74. Luna is often depicted driving a two-yoke chariot (biga). land. [15] Tacitus. 2007). 238.3 Chariot of the moon 69 heaven. A New Topofocuses on Luna alone shows one of the horses of the team graphical Dictionary.50.3–10. and Proserpina.M. 23 (Cardauns) = Tertullian. p. p. In Roman art. De Vir. usually in the context of the tauroctony. Archaic Greek poet Hesiod. with the other a dark brown. Richardson. earth.5–25. white.14–2-. as translated by Stephen A. Carmen Saeculare. 238. Attilio Mastrocinque. p.[22] The [19] Green. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. Hecate originally had power Barney et al. Maria Capua Vetere.[21] [17] Green.2. In this relief depicting a Mithraic tauroctony. 94. De lingua latina 6. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Camover the heavens. According to the [20] Isidore.12. p. Green.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. chariot (quadriga). night—for they yoke together one black horse and one [14] Appian.17. In the mithraeum of S. De lingua latina 5. Diana. [4] Jörg Rüpke. while the biga represents the moon. Bellum Civile 1. p. the chthonic aspect of the triple goddess in complement with the [18] Varro. De Civitate Dei 7.41. [5] William Van Andringa. p. “Religion in the House. [8] Vergil. frg. 73.3.27. Richardson. Lawrence Richardson. Georgics 1. Annales 15. 1992). Luna (top right corner) paired with the Sun (top left) in another depiction of the tauroctony [9] Varro. p.26. Religion of the Romans. lines 33–36. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at Aricia (Cambridge University Press. Isidore of Seville explains that the quadriga represents [12] Ovid. as light in color. “Creating One’s Own Religion: Intellectual Choices.4–6.[24] 17. [2] Horace. a wall painting that uniquely [16] Varro. Richardson. or because it is visible both by day and by nary.

Vermaseren. Plato. Contra Symmachum 733 (Migne). p. 17. [22] Prudentius.6 External links Media related to Luna (mythology) at Wikimedia Commons CHAPTER 17. [24] Hesiod. 248. Friedrich Solmsen.J. Theogony 413f.70 [21] M. Mithraica I: The Mithraeum at S.4 (1965). 14. 1971). [23] Servius.” Vigiliae Christianae 19. “The Powers of Darkness in Prudentius’ Contra Symmachum: A Study of His Poetic Imagination. note to Aeneid 6. pp–15. Phaedrus 246. Maria Capua Vetere (Brill. LUNA (GODDESS) .118.

bright”).[12] There was.midwifery she afterwards gave birth to Apollo. etymology and meaning “Phoebe” (Φοίβη — literally “pure. Other scholars (Paul Kretschmer. the most conservative of goddesses — for cult. Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων. till she came to Dedated Hellenic influence in the region.[19] the north of Lycia. since Hera in her jealousy had caused all lands to shun her. which she renamed to honthe sun and moon. or any place under the sun. of course. influenced by Etruscan Letun. Zeus is the father of her twins. by the help of whose united the Lycian confederacy of city-states.” and our wolves that had befriended her[20] for her denning. The Hel. Spyridon Marinatos uncov. Lātṓ in Dorian Greek. to remain a dim[5] and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus. or that she sought out the “wolf-country” of Lyof her father and mother.[15] In 20th-century sources Leto is traditionally derived from Lycian lada.[13] he is in one Roman source given the name Polus. Classical Greek myths record little about Leto other than her pregnancy and her search for a place where she could give birth to Apollo and Artemis. the mainsanctuary. Leto withdraws. formerly called Tremilis. “wife”. Beekes) have In Crete. P. at the city of Dreros.[4] This is her one active mythic role: once Apollo and Artemis are grown. Leto’s equivalent is Latona. Λατώ.[6] 18. Finally. as her earliest cult was centered in Lycia. Her Titan father is called “Coeus. the Letoon near Xanthos pre. down from the land of the Hyperboreans in the guise of a Leto’s primal nature may be deduced from the natures she-wolf. Leto (/ˈliːtoʊ/. Greek: Λητώ Lētṓ.Chapter 18 Leto For other uses.[10] Her sanctuary. It would thus mean “the hidden one”. Older sources speculated that the name is related to the Greek λήθη lḗthē (oblivion) and λωτός lotus (the fruit that brings oblivion to those who eat it). Artemis and Leto made of brass sheeting hammered over 18. “Latona for her intrigue with Zeus was country.[14] which may relate him to the sphere of In Greek mythology. the Letoides. who may have been Titans of cia.[9] In Greek inscriptions.[16] ered an eighth-century post-Minoan hearth house temple in which there were found three unique figures of Apollo.[2] In the Olympian scheme. ture uncertain. Aelian.[7] Walter Burkert notes[8] that in Phaistos she appears in connection with an initiation When Hera. she finds an island that isn't attached to the ocean floor so it isn't considered land and she can give birth. In Roman mythology. a further Antoninus Liberalis is not alone in hinting that Leto came Letoon at Delos.”[18] Hera lenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own.[11] and los and brought forth first Artemis.2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo a shaped core (sphyrelata). which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus. The name of Leto’s mother. her part already played.[3] Apollo and Artemis. however. Lycian lada may also be the origin of the Greek name Λήδα Leda. Erich Bethe. S.1 Etymology Several explanations have been put forward to explain the origin of the goddess and the meaning of her name. Another banned Leto from giving birth on “terra firma”.suggested a Pre-Greek origin. she had the most to lose in changes to the order of naLeto was identified from the fourth century onwards with ture —[17] discovered that Leto was pregnant and that the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia. she realized that the offspring would the region became Hellenized. also links Leto with wolves 71 . Another late source. was at Oenoanda in land.hunted by Hera over the whole earth. a Latinization of her name. cement the new order. is identidisputed) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe cal to the epithet of her son Apollo. and the sister of Asteria. as her birthplace. Pierre Chantraine and R. more recently identified. any island at sea. She was powerless to stop the the Letoides are referred to as the “national gods” of the flow of events. heaven from pole to pole.[1] The island of Kos is claimed throughout Homer. see Leto (disambiguation) and Latona though Herbert Jennings Rose considers his name and na(disambiguation). as Zeus was the father.

[23] The dynasty that is so concerned about be. and these became the enemies of Apollo and Artemis. Apollo slew it but had to do penance and be surrounded by swans. records her cult image as sitting on 18.[31] “The conception of a goddess enthroned like her mother Rhea attends. on the island of Ortygia.[27] Veneration of a local Leto is attested at Phaistos[28] (where it is purported that she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis According to the Homeric hymn. states that Artemis was born before Apollo. He attempted to rape Leto near Delphi under the orders of Hera. promising the island wealth from the was the dragon Pytho. Wolves are not easily delivered of their young. Asia Minor.Pindar calls the goddess Leto Chryselakatos. Only Hera kept apart. Another version. as Pindar recalled in a Pythian Most accounts agree that she found the barren floating ode. or Python. which also included a temple to an Egyptian god Greeks identified by interpretatio graeca as Apollo. Herodotus was given to understand. Homer.5 The Lycian Letoon Leto was intensely worshipped in Lycia.3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo .6 Leto in Crete Leto was also worshipped in Crete. assisted with the birth of Apollo. As a gesture of gratitude. the goddesses who as. 18. Aphrodite is not present either. without travail. Ichnaea. and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth there to Apollo. perhaps to kidnap Eileithyia. and Another ancient earth creature that had to be overcome gave birth there. but a lucky survival of an inscribed inventory inine form of Zeus (see entry Dodona): if this were so. Herodotus reported[25] a temple to her in Egypt supposedly attached to a floating island[26] called "Khemmis" in Buto.as Letoai in ancient Crete) and at Lato.[30] an epithet los who bear witness to the rightness of the birth are the that was attached to her daughter Artemis as early as great goddesses of the old order. Instead Artemis. as Callimachus wrote. By contrast. The dynastic rite of the witnessed birth must have been familiar to the hymn’s hearers. the cobra-headed goddess of Lower Egypt. Themis and the “loud-moaning” sea-goddess Amphitrite. where the authenticity of the child must be established beyond doubt from the first moment. for the people of Delos maintain that this was the length of time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyperboreoi to Delos. LETO and Hyperboreans: 18. Brensometimes taken by later mythographers as a mere fem. the elder twin. influenced by the Minoan goddess”.18. only after twelve days and twelve nights. Demeter is not present. Rhea.72 CHAPTER 18. of her temple on Delos. name. the goddess whom Greeks recognised as Leto was worshipped in the form of Wadjet. since though Python was a child of was secured with four pillars and later became sacred to Gaia. or Greek goddesses in their Cretan form. Delos cleansed afterwards.[24] In Delos and Athens she was worshipped primarily as an adjunct to her children. O.del notes. Leto labored for nine nights and nine days for Apollo. according to the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo. Apollo.[29] As Leto Phytia she was a mother-deity. having been born first. and the goddesses at De. There. which lived in a cleft of worshippers who would flock to the obscure birthplace the mother-rock beneath Delphi and beside the Castalian of the splendid god who was to come.”[21] It is remarkable that Leto brought forth Artemis. 18. The island was Spring. a queen and equipped with a spindle seems to have origiThe goddess Dione (in her name simply the “Goddess”) is nated in Asiatic worship of the Great Mother". whether one of “certain Cretan goddesses.4 Chthonic assailants Leto was threatened and assailed in her wanderings by chthonic monsters of the ancient earth and old ways. it was necessary that the ancient Delphic Oracle passed to the protection of the new god. in the presence of all the first among the deathless goddesses as witnesses: Dione. of the Delian trinity. a phallic being who grew so vast that he split his mother’s womb and had to be carried to term by Gaia herself. the goddess of childbirth. to prevent Leto from going into labor. which was neither mainland nor a real island. but was laid low by the arrows of Apollo and/or Artemis.at the islands known today as the Paximadia (also known sembled to be witnesses at the birth of Apollo were re. still bearing its archaic name of Asterios.7 Leto of the golden spindle ing authenticated in this myth is the new dynasty of Zeus and the Olympian Pantheon. One was the giant Tityos.[22] as if she were merely revealing another manifestation of herself. island of Delos. which bore her sponding to a public occasion in the rites of a dynasty. where she was the central figures she would not have assembled here. in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo and in an Orphic hymn.

and Artemis her daughters. where Latona (Leto) has demanded the women of Thebes to go to her temple and burn incense. 1605. p. boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids). [9] The process is discussed by T. she is more fit to be worshipped than the goddess. Annual of the British School at Athens 62 (1967) p. Theodora Hadzisteliou Price. . A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1991:21). To Leto [6] Letun noted is passing in Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling. the twins slay Niobe’s seven sons and seven daughters. This scene. Historia: Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte. in the garden terrace of Versailles. “Double and Multiple Representations in Greek Art and Religious Thought” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 91 (1971:pp.[33] when Leto was wandering the earth after giving birth to Apollo and Artemis. usually called Latona and the Lycian Peasants or Latona and the Frogs. there. leaving her childless. ca. other sources instead give separate birthplaces for the siblings. queen of Thebes. the Bassin de Latone. while Leto had only two. Her tears formed the river Achelous. though according to some versions a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris.10 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Latona and the Lycian Peasants. Amphion. Leto’s introduction into Lycia was met with resistance. she attempted to drink water from a pond in Lycia. 18. 72. Leto turned them into frogs for their inhospitality. 18. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them.365).[32] (Book VI). Niobe. “His twin sister is usually already on the scene. [7] Marinatos’ publications on Dreros are listed by Burkert 1985. and her body is transported to a high mountain peak in her native land. [13] Herbert Jennings Rose. Greek Religion 1985.9 Niobe Niobe.10. clothed in a linen chiton and a linen The Niobe narrative appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses himation. To punish this insolence. when the gods themselves entombed them. It is represented in the central fountain. enters in the midst of the worship and insults the goddess. “dark-veiled Leto” (Orphic Hymn 35. [12] Alan Hall.47. Obedient to their mother.” [5] Hesiod. I.[34] The peasants there refused to allow her to do so by stirring the mud at the bottom of the pond. at the sight of his dead sons. plate III. was popular in Northern Mannerist art. thus combining history painting and genre painting. by Jan Brueghel the Elder. Niobe is unable to move from grief and seemingly turns to marble.[35] allowing a combination of mythology with landscape painting and peasant scenes. Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics. R. Theogony 403. “The Arrival of the Goddess Leto in Lycia”. a queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion.18.11 Notes [1] Hesiod. GENEALOGY OF THE OLYMPIANS IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY 73 a wooden throne. 61. either killed himself or was killed by Zeus after swearing revenge.8 The Lycian peasants better parentage and more children than Latona. Theogony 406. 18. Diodorus Siculus 2. [10] Bryce 1983:1 and note 2. Etruscan Myths (series: The Legendary Past) (British Museum/University of Texas Press) 2006. and her husband Amphion kills himself. [3] Pindar consistently refers to Apollo and Artemis as twins.4 note 16 (p.5a-b. [11] Bryce 1983. sect. according to Ovid's Metamorphoses. 321 (1983:1–13). 48–69). [2] Herodotus 2. A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylus in Asia Minor and either turned to stone as she wept or killed herself. [4] Karl Kerenyi notes. seven sons and seven daughters. 18. For her hubris. Bryce. forever doomed to swim in the murky waters of ponds and rivers.2. “A Sanctuary of Leto at Oenoanda” Anatolian Studies 27 (1977) pp 193–197. The Gods of the Greeks 1951:130. usually). Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death. [8] Burkert. claiming that having beauty. though she continues to weep.98. John Boardman. Latona begs Apollo and Artemis to avenge her against Niobe and to uphold her honor. summarizing the archaeology of the Letoon.

com.1. Handbook of Classical Mythology. 35. 2009. Antoninus Liberalis also relates a version of this myth. The Mirror of the Gods.” remarks Alan B. Mithridates. P.317-81.R. [16] R. [35] Bull. Metamorphoses vi. at least among Athenians. 4 (A. 18. gave birth in the midst of a crowd of the women of the household. [27] D. [28] “the citizens of Phaistos on Crete performed sacrifices to Leto the Grafter because she had grafted male organs onto a maiden (Antoninus Liberalis 17)" notes William F. pp. reviewing L. 36 [31] O. [23] Greek women. Hansen.F. [22] Artemis speaks: “my mother suffered no pain either when she gave me birth or when she carried me in her womb. Fabulae 140). [24] Appian tells of Mithridates’ intention to cut down the sacred grove at the Letoon to serve in his siege of Patara on the Lycian coast. On the Nature of Animals 4. vi.” CHAPTER 18.com [32] O. ed. [34] The spring Melite. tr.12 External links • Theoi. Metamorphoses. Koios is translated literally. 2.317-81 provides another late literary source. [18] Pseudo-Apollodorus. The Greek World (Routledge) 1995:190. modern scholars now suggest a source in the "Lukka lands" of Hittite inscriptions (Bryce 1983:5). Ovid. noting Pierre Roussel. ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1873. Histories. Smith. but without travail put me from her body.155-56 [26] “The claim that it floated is rightly dismissed by Herodotus — it probably reflects nothing more than contamination by Greek traditions on the floating island of Ortygia/Delos associated with Leto. 1963:87–91.” (Callimachus. Brill. [17] See Hera. in “The Corbridge Lanx” The Journal of Roman Studies 31 (1941). at Theoi. according to Kerenyi 1951:131. Brendel.). pp. [20] Antoninus Liberalis’ etiological myth reflects Greek misunderstanding of a Greek origin for the place-name Lycia. 2004: “Sexchangers”. “Cretan Eileithyia'. [25] Herodotus. 855 and 858–9. [33] Ovid. Palmer. Gray. How Renaissance Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods.F. Sixth Nemean Ode. Metamorphoses. as Polus: “From Polus and Phoebe: Latone. 285. to Artemis). S. 266-268. a nightmare warned him to desist.4. 13. Hymn 3. colonie athénienne (Paris: Boccard) 1916. [29] Noted by R. [21] Aelian. LETO [15] W. Leto • Pictures of the sanctuary for Leto at Letoum . 51 (1936). the article is a discussion of the seated female figure he identifies as Leto on the Roman silver tray (lanx) at Alnwick Castle. Oxford UP. Mycenaeans and Minoans: Aegean Prehistory in the Light of the Linear B Tablets in The Classical Review. pp. giving as his sources Menecrates of Xanthos (4th century BCE) and Nicander of Colophon. 27). (Appian.H. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Antoninus Liberalis. Lloyd. [30] Pindar.74 [14] In the surviving summary of the preface to Gaius Julius Hyginus. 1958. p 221. 100– 127) p 113ff. The Classical Quarterly. Délos. Asterie. p 60ff. Scholfield.. in Anton Powell. “The temple of Leto (Wadjet) at Buto”. Bibliotheke 1. Römische Mitt. Willetts. Beekes. Brendel. 2005. Malcolm.F. ISBN 100195219236 [19] Hyginus.

]" 19. šalām šamši. or Salem. [5] N.. Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths (Reprint ed. Pieter Willem (1999). cf. Wm. Eerdmans Publishing. likely Anat (Athirat or Asherah). 'sunset' and 'peace'. Israel. van der Horst.. and Shahar as god of the dawn.[1] Many scholars believe that the name of Shalim is preserved in the name of the city Jerusalem.[1] [3] Albright. Na'aman.4 Other uses Shalem is also the name of the 4-D cinematic presentation at the Jerusalem Time Elevator in Jerusalem.3 Bibliography • Albright. Bob. Ethnic groups in Jerusalem. perhaps as a divine name or epithet. 75 . Ugarit-Forschungen Vol.com/books?id=63BP9RPm26sC& pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=god+of+peace+ugaritic+ shalim&source=bl&ots=kFmXA0htEw&sig= ovNpxhbuiBv1k4jiuSR34176GZI&hl=en&sa= X&ei=GM08UZ-hM42Q7Aa0rIC4Aw&ved= 0CE0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=god%20of% 20peace%20ugaritic%20shalim&f=false 19.. • van der Toorn.[1] Another inscription is a sentence repeated three times in a para-mythological text. the “Morning Star”. the voracious gods of ym. and also romanized as Shalem.). pp275-291. pp. Sheffield Academic Press 2002. in Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (Clark International. ISBN 9780802824912. mentioned in inscriptions found in Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria. [6] L.. Ariel Golan (Original from the University of Virginia. They are both nursed by “The Lady”. describes Shalim and his brother Shahar as offspring of El through two women he meets at the seashore. symbolism.. and have appetites as large as "(one) lip to the earth and (one) lip to the heaven. Becking. p180 A Ugaritic myth known as The Gracious and Most Beautiful Gods.” In other Ugaritic texts. B. Eisenbrauns. revised ed. p. Salem.” Ym in most Semitic languages means “day. were conceived of as its beginning and end. Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd.] The names [of Sahar and Salim] are rendered in modern scholarly texts as Shakhar and Shalim [.[8] • Golan.p. 1999. 222.2 References [1] van der Toorn et al.1 Ugaritic inscriptions [7] John Day.E.[3] In the Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible. 24 (1992). 19. “The name of the Canaanite deity of the setting sun Salim.[1][2] William F. Grabbe. 1999. Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan.[1][5][6][7] The god Shalim may have been associated with dusk and the evening star in the etymological senses of a 'completion' of the day. ISBN 978-0-931464-01-0. and Salim) was the name of a god in the Canaanite religion pantheon. 755-6 [2] Golan.. p. “Let me invoke the gracious gods.. 82. [4] van der Toorn et al. 2003) pp145-163. [. Prehistoric religion: mythology. 187.” and Shahar. K. Albright identified Shalim as the god of dusk. William Foxwell (1968 / 1990). ISBN 978-965-90555-0-0.” and Shalim and Shahar.Chapter 19 Shalim Shalim (derived from the triconsonantal Semitic root SL-M. the Akkadian word for sunset. Shalim is also identified as the deity representing Venus or the “Evening Star.C. Check date values in: |date= (help) Shalim is also mentioned separately in the Ugaritic god lists and forms of his name also appear in personal names.). the two are associated with the sun goddess.. Canaanite Jerusalem and its central hill country neighbours in the second millennium B. 1990. 19. Ariel (2003).[4] [8] http://books. twin deities of the dusk and dawn. 2003.google.

76 19.5 See also • Almaqah • Wadd • Shahar CHAPTER 19. SHALIM .

Retrieved 31 January 2013. [2] Phillips.2 References [1] “NABATAEAN PANTHEON”. and archaeologists believe that he was a major god of the Nabataean pantheon. Retrieved 31 January 2013.[1] Al-Qaum however also literally translates to 'the people' in formal Arabic.1 In Popular Culture A black metal band in Saudi Arabia.Chapter 20 Al-Qaum Al-Qaum (Arabic: ‫ )القوم‬was the Nabataean god of war and the night. 20. 2012). it might just be referring to a group of people at the time as an entity..[2] 20. “AL-NAMROOD Heavy Metal Underground”.[1] Large numbers of inscriptions bearing his name have been found. uses this pantheon as inspiration for its music. Al-Namrood. Alex (October 11. 77 . and guardian of caravans.

approximately. The only Mayan light lord that has been identified is the God G9. 2005. these glyphs are frequently used with a fixed glyph coined F. Harvard University Press p. (2a) Centeotl. The actual reading order of the panels is boustrophedon and begins in the bottom right: 3c.Chapter 21 Lords of the Night Further information: List of Aztec deities names are glossed in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis and See also: Lords of the Day Codex Tudela. Chalchiuhtlicue (“Jade Is Her Skirt”) Tlazolteotl (“Filth God[dess]") Tepeyollotl (“Mountain Heart”) Tlaloc (Rain God) are a set of nine gods who each ruled over every ninth night forming a calendrical cycle. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World. p. 1c. this argument has not generally been accepted.org/Calendar/gglyph. Hernández. (3a) Piltzintecuhtli. 259 [4] http://www. Skywatchers: A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico.1 Sources The lords of the night are known in both the Aztec and Maya calendar. 2c. 9 vague lunations of 29 days each. and also.[6] The cycle of the Nine Lords of the Night held special relation to the Mesoamerican ritual calendar of 260-days and nights or -night which includes exactly 29 groups of 9 nights each. 2010. the G series. and Priests: Intellectual Interchange Between the Northern Maya Lowlands and Highland Mexico in the Late Postclassic Period. Foster. (2c) Chalchiuhtlicue.html Gods discussion in Pauahtun Night . 1b.[5] Zelia Nuttall argued that the Nine Lords of the Night represented the nine moons of the Lunar year. 2001. 2b. (3b) Itztli. 3a. 3b. Christine L. 1a.[3][4] [2] Gabrielle Vail. pp. The Nine Lords of the Night in Aztec mythology are:[5] Xiuhtecuhtli (“Turqoise/Year/Fire Lord”) Itztli/Tecpatl (“Obsidian"/"Flint”) Piltzintecuhtli (“Prince Lord”) Centeotl (“Maize God”) Mictlantecuhtli (“Underworld Lord”) Lords of the Night in Codex Borgia (1a) Tlaloc. Seler argued that the 9 lords each correIn Mesoamerican mythology the Lords of the Night sponded to one of the nine levels of the under world and ruled the corresponding hour of the night time. Oxford University Press. that was an omen for the night that they ruled over. (1c) Tlazolteotl.pauahtun. Each lord was associated with a particular fortune. bad or good. (3c) Xiuhtecuhtli. Generally.Pauahtun the Aged Quadripartite God.[1] 21. (2b) Mictlantecuhtli.[2] [1] Anthony F. University of Texas Press. Aveni. although the specific names of the Maya Night Lords are unknown. since the evidence suggests that the lord of a given night ruled over that entire night. 2a. 291 The existence of a 9 nights cycle in Mesoamerican calendrics was first discovered in 1904 by Eduard Seler. Scribes. (1b) Tepeyollotl. 156-57 The glyphs corresponding to the night gods are known and mayanists identify them with labels G1 to G9. The Aztec names of the Deities are known because their 78 [3] Lynn V. Astronomers.

2007. No.1. SOURCES [5] Elizabeth Hill Boone. Cycles of Time and Meaning in the Mexican Books of Fate. 6. 4 pp. University of Texas Press pp. American Anthropologist . New Series. 486-500 79 . Vol. 44-45 [6] Zelia Nuttall.21. 1904. The Periodical Adjustments of the Ancient Mexican Calendar.

“In folklore. In many instances Goddess 2J. but she was also one of the tzitzimime. she can also appear with clear butterfly or eagle attributes. section VII. the Zapotec deity named Goddess 2J by Alfonso Caso and Ignacio Bernal may be a Classic Zapotec form of Itzpapalotl. Her fingers tapered into the claws of a jaguar. and her toes into eagle’s claws. It’s quite possible that clawed butterfly refers to the bat and in some instances Itzpapalotl is depicted with bat wings. The Trecena 1 House is one of the five western trecena dates dedicated to the cihuateteo.[3] Depiction of Itzpapalotl from the Codex Borgia. see Acamapichtli.2 Ritual Itzpapalotl is the patron of the day and associated with the stars Cozcuauhtli and Trecena 1 House in the Aztec calendar. Itzpapalotl was one of two divine 2-headed doe-deers (the other one being Chimalman) who temporarily transformed themselves into women in order to seduce men. Some of her associations include birds and fire. Itzpapalotl said ""Drink. Her wings are obsidian or tecpatl (flint) knife tipped. 22. the latter meaning seems most likely. she was said to have dressed up like a lady of the Mexican Court. caking her face with white powder and lining her cheeks with strips of rubber. sidian Butterfly”) was a fearsome skeletal warrior goddess who ruled over the paradise world of Tamoanchan. whose image is found on ceramic urns. ͡ ͡ (“ObIn Aztec mythology. formed themselves into men (so as to disguise themselves when all the others of the Centzonmimixcoa had been slain in the ambush?).1 Iconography Itzpapalotl’s name can either mean “obsidian butterfly” or “clawed butterfly”. seductive woman or terrible goddess with a skeletal head and butterfly wings supplied with stone blades. and they took the white and wrapped it in a bun- According to the Manuscript of 1558. Itzpapalotl approached the two “cloud serpents named ͡ who transXiuhnel /ˈʃiwnel/ and Mimich /ˈmimitʃ/". To Xiuhnel. Ītzpāpālōtl /iːtspaːˈpaːlot ɬ/ dle.3 Mythology 22.[4] 22.[3] (In the Manuscript of 1558. Itzpapalotl is described as having “blossomed into the white flint. However. As the legend goes.[2] Her nagual was a deer. or women who had died in childbirth.[1] She is the mother of Mixcoatl and is particularly associated with the moth Rothschildia orizaba from the family Saturniidae.” Xiuhnel drank the blood and then im- 80 . Itzpapalotl wore an invisible cloak so that no one could see her. Xiuhnel. Although the identity remains inconclusive.”) She could appear in the form of a beautiful. Not only was Itzpapalotl considered one of the cihuateteo herself. Itzpapalotl fell from heaven along with Tzitzimime and several other shapes such as scorpions and toads. the paradise of victims of infant mortality and the place identified as where humans were created. At some times.Chapter 22 Itzpapalotl For the Aztec ruler. bats are sometimes called “black butterflies"". is identified with bats. star demons that threatened to devour people during solar eclipses.

Charles E. U of Chicago Pr.. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. In :LATIN AMERICAN INDIAN LITERATURES JOURNAL.Elsie Clews Parsons : Mitla. part 2.. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. and Beliefs of Mexico and Central America. and the woman fell down after him. Primeros Memoriales. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) Sahagún. with H. p. Karl Taube (1993).B. p. the Obsidian or Clawed Butterfly [2] Itzpapalotl: Itzpapalotl. and Wayne Ruwet (completion.. 200.6 Notes [1] Itzpapalotl.. Arthur J.8 External links • An image of Rothschildia orizaba . OCLC 27667317. 22. Nicholson. descended into a thorny barrel cactus. Then Mimich . Mythology [3] Miller & Taube. EXTERNAL LINKS mediately lay down with her. 100 [4] Elizabeth Benson : “The Maya and the Bat”. Dibble. Bernardino de (1997) [ca. revisions. ran and .8. 318 [5] Miguel León-Portilla & Earl Shorris : In the Language of Kings.). . Rituals. Suddenly she . She also runs a nightclub named Obsidian Butterfly. Goddess of Fire and Birds in Aztec Religion. 1936.1558–61].”[5] 22. London: Thames 81 & Hudson. Hamilton’s Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series..O. and ed. vol 4 (1988). Heroes. Citing :. ISBN 0-19-514909-2. p. ISBN 978-0-80612909-9. Jason J González (2002). Kay Almere.. tore open his breast. fell into it. and paleography of Nahuatl text). the ninth book is named Obsidian Butterfly and involves a vampire named Itzpapalotl. OCLC 77857686.7 References Miller. Civilization of the American Indians series vol. Invalid |namelist-format=scap (help) Read. 61 22.5 See also • Aztec mythology in popular culture • Black Sun (mythology) • Cihuateteo • Cihuacoatl • Tzitzimime • Mixcoatl • Tamoanchan • Woman warrior • List of women warriors in folklore 22. 2001. Anderson. Mary. who was once an Aztec priestess and believes herself actually to be the goddess of that name.. Sullivan (English trans. OCLC 35848992. Thelma D. NY. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) 22. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology: A Guide to the Gods. Eloise Quiñones Keber. Norton & Co.. devoured him. p. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion.22.. 113.4 Popular culture In Laurel K.

the Old Father.4 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Mextli 82 • Galindo Trejo. he/she feared the sun because he/she feared its fire. and the one struck darkened to become today’s moon. the night. Jesús (1994). his face darkened by a rabbit. Henceforth it’s possible to distinguish a figure of a rabbit on the moon’s surface.1 Otomi mythology For the Otomi people. the “Rabbit in the Moon” becomes readily visible.3 Legend The Moon and Sun were at one time equally bright. Metzi) was a god or goddess of the moon.A. They called her the Old Mother. He/she was probably the same deity as Yohaulticetl and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl. The Otomi counted lunar months as a period from new moon to new moon. • Tecciztecatl 23. the Queen of the Night. was the god of fire. 23. probably the main deity. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Esperanza Carrasco Licea & Alberto Carramiñana Alonso.2 Mexican traces The origin of the name of the Mexica probably derived from Metztli. La Luna”.Chapter 23 Metztli In Aztec mythology. They were giving every month 30 days. “Metztli. For more detailed explanation see Toponymy of Mexico. México: Equipo Sirius. Her spouse. Zäna was the Moon. ISBN 84-86639-66-2. like the latter. It not being appropriate for gods to be equals. Also referred to as the lowly god of worms who failed to sacrifice himself to become the sun. Metztli (also Meztli. one of them threw a rabbit in the face of the other. Arqueoastronomía en la américa antigua. During a full moon. Diario Síntesis. 23.5 References 23. who represented both Moon and Earth simultaneously. and became the moon instead. S. 28 de Mayo de 1996 . 23. and farmers.

and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May. and tinker bells either around yellow stripe painted across his face. jaguars. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists Tezcatlipoca as depicted in the Codex Borgia.[8] The Tezcatlipoca figure goes back to earlier Mesoamerican deities worshipped by the Olmec and Maya. he is associated with a of Tezwide range of concepts. Depending on the site half of Both Sides”). wear(“Possessor of the Sky and Earth”). the fact that many images are difman related to Tezcatlipoca was a disc worn as a chest ficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that pectoral. his animal counterpart. One of the four sons of Ometeotl. the night 24.site to site. Most Ome Acatl[6] (“Two Reed”).Chapter 24 Tezcatlipoca For other uses. and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. rulership.[9] deity in Aztec religion. was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl (“Mountainheart”). catlipoca discord.1 Representations winds.[4][5] bands across his face especially in black and yellow. the majority of his and the Nigh”) and Yohualli Èhecatl (“Night. He is often shown his neck or ankles. legs. Wind”).pearance.ble god'. obsidian. enmity. or any combination there of can be depicted. Tezcatlipoca’s nagual.[7] ing a heron feather headdress. Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest. However. divination. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca’s apand depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tez. In the Aztec ritual calendar the Tonalpohualli Tezcatlipoca ruled the trecena 1 Ocelotl (“1 Jaguar”)—he was also patron of the days with the name Acatl (“reed”). temptation.[11] There are also portrayals of his body also nemoani (“He by whom we live”). beauty. including the night sky. Tloque Nahuaque (“Lord of the Near of his leg. the material from into the present day. war and strife. hurricanes. the full length of his arms. The color black is strongly associated with Tezcatlipoca and he is often portrayed as having horizontal catlipoca in codex illustrations. which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica which were some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisi[10] used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. the earth.[3] Another talis. a loincloth. Classical Nahuatl: his foot battling with the Earth Monster. as "God K". His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as “Smoking Mirror”[2] and There are few surviving representations of Tezcatlipoca alludes to his connection to obsidian.[12] Tezcatlipoca is often shown carwith his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror or a rying a shield with balls of either feathers or cotton and 83 . A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means “obsidian” and who was associated with sacrifice. or the “Manikin Scepter” and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian Tezcatlipōca pronounced /teskatɬiˈpoːka/[1] ) was a central knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake. Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. bone—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses Tezcatlipoca (/ˌtɛzˌkætliˈpoʊkə/. but He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects the many different codices vary on which two colors from of his deity: Titlacauan (“We are his Slaves”). and knotted When depicted he was usually drawn with a black and a sandals with an armband. the north. Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque commonly he is shown with horizontal face bands. Necoc Yaotl (“Enemy being black in certain places. see Tezcatlipoca (disambiguation). sorcery. Ipal. Due to the lack of surviving images.

lady and hall. Karl Taube and Mary Miller. Bedown Quetzalcoatl. the first creation. His cult was associated with royalty. in the same manner of the Great Temple was.[16] Another common city and forces him into exile.[18] When the ritual called for it.recounted in the legends of Tollan where Tezcatlipoca dedresses. their façades being towards the West”. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs. the White. write that.The rivalry between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca is also als. Eighty stroyed the third creation “The Sun of Wind” by striking steps led to a landing twelve or fourteen feet wide.[14] There are also several reference to momoztli. According to Fray sequent creation “Sun of Water”. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan. But it is interesting to practice was to cover themselves in black soot or ground note that Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collabocharcoal while they were involved in priestly activities at rated in the creation of the different creations and that the temple or during rituals. a paper loincloth. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl. Tlaxcala and Chalco. TEZCATLIPOCA holding arrows or a spear in his right hand with a fan of feathers surrounding a mirror.”[8] Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page similarly outfitted gods or goddesses. Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black. Tezcatlipoca was also worshipped in many other Nahua cities such as Texcoco.”. Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown. specifically mentioned as “his [Tezcatlipoca’s] viewing place”.84 CHAPTER 24. In one version of the Aztec creation account[19] the myth of the Five Suns. yond it stood a wide.4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl rites of kingship.. Quetzalcoatl. there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods.[13] 24. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the sub.ceives Quetzalcoatl who was the ruler of the legendary lar feathers and paper decorations. the four gods who created the world.2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West. darkness. as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: “the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun. long chamber the size of a great In later myths. among them the ones called “Tlacochcalco” and “Huitznahuatl”. Quetzalcoatl.3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca lord of the duality. with definitions varying from “mound”.Diego Durán it was “lofty and magnificently built. and were the creators of all the other The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of gods. Each temple had a statue .located south of the Great Temple. as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex. “stone seat” and “temple”.[20] There were several smaller temples dedicated to Tezcatlipoca in the city.5 Aztec religion was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was into a jaguar. the god and wore specific garments for different ritu.. Tezcatlipoca. and Tezcatlipoca de. and a tzanatl stick with simi. the culture hero. and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the 24.[15] Tezcatlipoca depicted in the codex Rios in the aspect of a Jaguar—in this form he was called Tepeyollotl. in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of later. specialists in a black ointment to encourage an association with the Mesoamerican Studies.of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the act rituals. as well as the world and all humanity.[17] They would also cover the both of them were seen as instrumental in the creation sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with of life. 24. as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. “More than anything god. priests would also Tezcatlipoca appears to be the embodiment of change dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other through conflict.[16] More on the ex. “The Sun of the Earth” 24. the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned calendar. Common ornaments were white turkey feather head.

allels. characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were “to pay homage” to Tezcatlipoca. as well as during the Panquetzaliztli “Raising of Banners” ceremony in the 15th month. During the feast where he was worshipped as the deity he personified he climbed the stairs to the top of the temple on his own where the priests seized him. his body being eaten later. For the next year he lived like a god.7 Aztec Reverence then captured her.24. made it rain fire with what people survived turning into birds.” the hansome young man “worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity” [24] He would marry four young women. with what people survived In one of the Aztec accounts of creation. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month. He did not make it rain for several years until.” and then was sacrificed.[25] Chalchihuitlicue the Water Goddess became the sun. Tezcatlipoca used his foot as bait. when a young man was chosen by the priests. others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. this “patron deity” missing foot. in a fit of rage. feasting and dancing. Because of this. so he knocked Tezcatlipoca out of the sky with a stone club. when the Miccailhuitontli “Little Feast of the Dead” was celebrated to honour the dead. But had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. and spent his last week singing. and the people who survived were turned into monkeys. AZTEC REVERENCE 85 of the god for which copal incense was burned four times a day. Turquoise mask representing the god Tezcatlipoca.” the new king fasted and meditated. others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca. but Quetzalcoatl was furious possibly because they are enemies. the fifth month of the Aztec calendar.[22] Tezcatlipoca’s main feast was during Toxcatl. or where “citizens waited expectantly” for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of “shell trumpets. After that. from the British Museum. Tezcatlipoca turned into tified by religion during this time.[24] “For one year he lived a life of honor. Tezcatlipoca is depicted with a Tezcatlipoca.6 Mythical stories just pretending to be kind.[24] Immediately after he died a new victim for the next year’s ceremony was chosen.” . Quetzalcoatl replaced him and started the second age of the world and it became populated again. and distorted her to make the land from her body. a jaguar and destroyed the world. “On his installation.[25] Angered. Aztec folklore is rife with parple had to offer sacrifices to comfort Cipactli for her suf. the patron deity of the royal house”.[21] Tezcatlipocas priests were offered into his service by their parents as children. became the sun. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility.[21] Extreme reverence and respect. She cried for many years and floods. the god of rain. But was crushed with Tezcatlipoca’s words saying that she is 24. These children would then have their skin painted black and be adorned with quail feathers in the image of the god. Tlaloc. he is a night god or of his missing foot. Before their act there was only the sea and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli.[25] The two gods 24.[25] For Aztec nobility.[25] To attract her. Quetzalcoatl and world was destroyed by[25] being turned into fish. Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the world. much of the time depicted in deities such as ferings.As discussed above. one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl". wearing expensive jewellery and having eight attendants. to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca. “which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca.[23] The preparations began a year earlier. a time in which he proceeded to symbolically crush “one by one the clay flutes on which he had played in his brief moment of glory.[25] is fundamental in the social and natural phenomena jusAnother story of creation goes that Tezcatlipoca turned himself into the sun. and peo. often because they were sick.[25] Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl making him send a great wind that devastated the world.7. and Cipactli ate it. they created the people.

Missing or empty |title= (help). Rex (2008). ISBN 978-0-500-28755-2.86 were commonplace. TEZCATLIPOCA [9] Jun Raqan “the one-legged” was an epithet of this Classic Maya Deity of rulership and thunder which eventually led to the English word “Hurricane”. priests.[21] Utter respect from the highest position of Aztec nobility. p. Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another.. the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was por. I am deaf.[19] The Version as it is recounted in the Codex Ramirez— also called “Historia de Los mexicanos por sus Pinturas”. 174 [16] Olivier 2003 p. “Lord of the Smoking Mirror”. and in excrement. [5] http://5oymexico. [4] http://www.Tezcatlipoca Symposium .[21] The new king would claim his spiritual nakedness symbolically through words and physical vulnerability. [8] Taube & Miller 1993 p. Thames & Hudson Ltd. 1415. 54-55 [13] Olivier 2003 p. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (Sixth ed. perhaps thou seekest another in my stead”. 186 For kings. especially for this deity. 164 24. emphasizing his utter unworthiness.201 24.org/ arqueologos-del-inah-descubren-vasija-en-forma-de-tlaloc-y-cuchillos-en-ofrenda-del-templo-mayor/ ?lang=en''. 212 [25] Olivier 2003. translated by Michel Besson. O wind.Poor am I. but Full text of this Codex in English translation can be found utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they at FAMSI believed were the cause of these events. Karl Taube (1993).9 Notes [1] The vowel transliterated here as [i] may in fact have been long or followed by a glottal stop which is sometimes written as an ⟨h⟩ [2] For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp.8 See also [22] http://www. trayed not through science or philosophical debate. p. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. • Olivier.trinity. • List of night deities [24] Coe and Koontz. and thunderous war.edu/org/tricksters/trixway/current/ Vol%201/Vol%201_1/Tstocker. 24. representing both [20] Durán quoted from Olivier (2003) p. 183 [17] Olivier 2003 p.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ personified-knives''.mexicolore. and citizens alike.10 References • Coe. 185 [18] Olivier 2003 p. 167 [15] Olivier 2003 p.. 183. O lord of the near. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God: Tezcatlipoca. Tezcatlipoca stories 24. Koontz.” speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god’s will. In what manner shall I act for thy city? In what manner shall I act for the governed.. 52 [12] Olivier 2003 pp.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ smoking-mirrors''. praising Tezcatlipoca with lines such as: “O master. shown through the figurative and literal nakedness of his presence in front of Texcatlipoca. 48 [11] Olivier 2003 p. London. ISBN 0-87081-745-0. ISBN 0-500-05068-6.[21] The king would stand “naked. for the vassals (macehualtin)? For I am blind.mexicolore.[21] CHAPTER 24. [10] Olivier 2003 p. of the nigh.[25] [21] Coe and Koontz. University Press of Colorado. the king.11 External links • Mexicolore .co.html • Quetzalcoatl [23] For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6. • Miller. London: Thames and Hudson. O our lord.co. Missing or empty |title= (help). 51 [14] Olivier 2003 p. It was gods like Tezcatlipoca that solidified this notion. 166 the silent wind.. lords.. [3] http://www. Michael D. in filth hath my lifetime been. Missing or empty |title= (help). Guilhem (2003). [6] This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec “2 Reed” which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl [7] For a summary of Tezcatlipocas epithets and their siginificance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1. I am an imbecile. O night. Mary.).

25. was a moon goddess and guardian of infants. She may have been the same as Metztli and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl.1 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Five Suns (mythology) 87 . Yohualticetl. the “Lady of the Night”.Chapter 25 Yohaulticetl In Aztec mythology.

[3][4] whereas also seen in the figure of the frightening earth goddess Itzpapalotl. For the Mexicas there were two suns.[8] Sculpture of a Teotihuacan feathered serpent. is an archetypical symbol of the transcendent soul. it is the oneness that uniformly integrates unawareness. sorcery.[7] Another interpretation [8] holds that the sun god Huitzilopochtli crossed the underworld during the night bestowing light to the forgotten souls.[2][3] The butterfly. a forerunner of Quetzallcoatl. on its nightly journey through the underworld with the image of a butterfly. Some scholars regard the mythological Black Sun as the ancient female origin of all.[1] According to some authors. among them it is connected to the god Quetzalcoatl and his penetration in the Underworld through the west door after his diurnal passage on the sky.Chapter 26 Black Sun (mythology) The Black Sun in Mesoamerican mythology has many mystical meanings. the “Obsidian Butterfly. This way.1 Other views The Aztecs associated the passage of the Black Sun. According to the Codex Ríos. as well as the annual rotation of the heavens. In this manner the spinning of the sun and black sun shows a wheel crossing with an obfuscatory motion where four black rays move out of four yellow rays. which also had the entrance. death. and yet an expectation of fecundity. however.” that devoured people during the solar eclipses. which then reappeared as crepuscular moths on Earth. they represent the governance held by the gods over the human race since its infancy. The first level was the Earth’s surface. the underworld was made of nine layers. the young Day Sun and the ancient Dark Sun. The souls of the dead occupied the ninth level known as "Mictlan Opochcalocan. son of the primordial god Ometeotl who was a god of dualities such as light and darkness.”[6] The connection with nocturnal elements is also ascribed to the god Tezcatlipoca. he ruled over the north. in turn.” which reproduces the appearance of a wheel.[5] while the Aztec underworld was the eternal dwelling place of the souls.[1] 26. the Earth. it is both tomb and womb. and the universal rulership portrayed in the great dance called “Mitotiliztli. and judgment. the Plumed Serpent shows a 88 . these sets of four rays relate to the four cardinal points and the four quarters.2 See also • Black Sun (alchemy) • Black Sun (occult symbol) • Five Suns (mythology) • Lords of the Night (mythology) • Tzitzimitl (mythology) At archaeological scenes. as he was known.[1] 26. transformation and mystical rebirth. was one of the Five Suns of the creation myth of some Nahua peoples. night. the souls of women who had died in childbirth. Black Tezcatlipoca. at Museo Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico City man with a black sun within a yellow sun. he demanded human blood as payment to his tasks. Huitzilopochtli was accompanied from zenith to setting by the Ciuapipiltrins. Before his nightly effort. or the face of a gigantic toad that devoured the dead and gave access to the other eight lower levels.

Thomas Athol. Thomas Athol (1920). Kiberd. R. Lorenz. Guilhem (2003). Dougald. Routledge. Vincent. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Dick. Culture Industry (Hispanic Issues). (2007) pp 149. University Press of Colorado.S. ASIN B004183HZC.3 Notes [1] Dick. K. Mexican archaeology: an introduction to the archaeology of the Mexican and Mayan civilizations of preSpanish America. Teresa (2002).D. Guilhem. REFERENCES 26. Pablo Neruda and the U. Cardé. Encyclopedia of insects. ISBN 0-8153-3386-2. T. [7] Olivier. Resh. R. Vincent. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • O'Connell. [3] O'Connell.. ISBN 0-7548-1548-X. ISBN 0-12374144-0.4. ISBN 0-87081-745-0. Susan. [4] H. 26. Susan. Declan. Resh. Teresa (2002). 106. ISBN 0-19-533083-8. [2] Longo. McMillan (1989). 102.D. Manuel (2007).. (2003). Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Joyce. Essays for Richard Ellmann: Omnium Gatherum. (2007) pp 139.. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Longo. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) 89 . ISBN 0-7735-0707-8.T. Mark. University of Michigan Library. Airey. (2009) pp 239-240. Academic Press. (2005) pp 185.C. pp 187-188. [5] Aguilar-Moreno. The illustrated encyclopedia of signs & symbols. Raje (2005).4 References • Aguilar-Moreno. [6] Aguilar-Moreno. Mcgill Queens University Press. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Olivier.A. [8] Joyce.26. M. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • H.. (1989) pp 165-166. Mark. (1920) pp 52. Oxford University Press. Ring (2009).

flowers and corn. was Chalchiuhtlicue. The present world is the fifth sun. light and darkness. farming and Spring time. Tlaloc became the next sun.1 Legend From the void that was the rest of the universe. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca. cosmological and eschatological beliefs and traditions of earlier cultures from central Mexico and the Mesoamerican region in general. then destroyed by the catastrophic action of leading deity figures. night. The people’s prayers for rain annoyed the grieving sun and he refused to allow it to rain. It is primarily derived from the mythological. The gods then had to construct a whole new Earth from the ashes. deceit. Ometeotl gave birth to four children. but before they could create they had to destroy. Quetzalcoatl. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca. also the goddess of beauty. see Five Suns (album). before the present universe. this time they were of normal size. who each preside over one of the four cardinal directions.[1] 27. it would fall into the water beneath them and be eaten by Cipactli. judgment and forgiveness. Then. Tezcatlipoca demonstrated his power and authority as god of sorcery and judgment by turning the animalistic people into monkeys. the first god.” whose divine duty was to wage cosmic war in order to provide the sun with his tlaxcaltiliztli (“nourishment”). but Tezcatlipoca seduced and stole his wife Xochiquetzal. Ometeotl was both male and female. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca. fire and water. To give light. the god of judgment. the god of war. the goddess of lakes. the people of the Earth grew less and less civilized and stopped showing proper honor to the gods. rivers and oceans. Huitzilopochtli. As a result. who Quetzalcoatl knocked from the sky with a stone club. The next sun and also Tlaloc’s new wife. He then stepped down as the sun to create a new people. Thus the welfare and the very survival of the universe depended upon the offerings of blood and hearts to the sun. The term Five Suns in the context of creation myths. and the Aztec saw themselves as “the People of the Sun. the sun would disappear from the heavens. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca.[3] The gods created a new group of people to inhabit the Earth. Tlaloc then refused to do anything other than wallow in his own grief. for every time they attempted to create something. but the people continued to beg him. but either because he had lost a leg or because he was god of the night. She was very loving towards the people. Tezcatlipoca commanded his jaguars to eat all the people. sorcery and the Earth. the god of light. The world continued on in this way for some time. The four Tezcatlipocas descended the first people who were giants. so a great drought swept the world.Chapter 27 Five Suns For the Guapo album. the central tenet was that there had been four worlds.[1] In the creation myths which were preserved by the Aztec and other Nahua peoples. Quetzalcoatl became the new sun and as the years passed. Without it. With no sun. These earlier worlds and their inhabitants had been created. who had loved the flawed people as they were. the goddess of sex. while however modifying some aspects and supplying novel interpretations of their own. the god of duality. he only managed to become half a sun.[2] It was these four gods who eventually created all the other gods and the world we know today. created itself. It continued to rain fire until the entire Earth had burned away. the four Tezcatlipocas. Xipe Totec. they needed a god to become the sun and the Black Tezcatlipoca was chosen. but a sibling rivalry grew between Quetzalcoatl and his brother the mighty sun. mercy and wind. the giant earth crocodile. describes the doctrine of the Aztec and other Nahua peoples in which the present world was preceded by four other cycles of creation and destruction. Ometeotl. Quetzalcoatl. The Late Postclassic Aztec society inherited many traditions concerning Mesoamerican creation accounts. the world was totally black and in his anger. became upset and blew all of the monkeys from the face of the Earth with a mighty hurricane. but 90 . or “Suns”. also called simply Tezcatlipoca. who swam through the water with mouths at every one of her joints. They created the other gods. in a fit of rage he answered their prayers with a great downpour of fire. the god of rain and fertility and Chalchiuhtlicue. the god of gold. the most important of whom were the water gods: Tlaloc. good and evil.

Both the people and Chalchiuhtlicue felt his judgment when he told the water goddess that she was not truly loving and only faked kindness out of selfishness to gain the people’s praise. Tecuciztecatl. the sun and Tecuciztecatl became the much less spectacular earth goddess. or should mankind fail to please the gods for any other reason. It was pects to these gods and endowing them with aspects of believed that Nanauatzin was too old to make a good sun. causing a horrific flood that drowned everyone on Earth. the same action. Tecuciztecatl then foltime. and the Tzitzimitl will slay Huitzilopochtli and all of humanity.uhtlicue. The braver Nanauatzin became what is now the Other variations on this myth state that Coatlicue. Other variations of this myth claim that only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were born to Ometeotl. Huitzilopochtli then sprang forth from her womb wielding a serpent of fire and began his epic war with the Tzitzimitl. Huitzilopochtli. The order of the first four suns varies as well. Should these sacrifices cease. Older myths but both were given the opportunity to jump into the boncan be very similar to newer myths while contradicting fire. without the involvement of Tezcatlipoca. Their leader. followed by the Tzitzimitl and then Huitzilopochtli. but are beaten back by the mighty Huitzilopochtli who rules the daytime sky. who was sick. The Tzitzimitl then decapitated the pregnant Coatlicue. It is sometimes said that the male characteristic of Ometeotl is named Ometecutli and that the female characteristic is named Omecihualt. who reopened their eyes to a sky illuminated by the current sun. The of mouth and because the Aztecs adopted many of their two volunteers were the young son of Tlaloc and Chalchigods from other tribes. in thanks of his blood sacrifice for them and give offerings to many other gods for many purposes.2 Variations and alternative Xochiquetzal for the rain of fire. probably because myths changed in cor. VARIATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE MYTHS Tezcatlipoca was not. while she was still a virgin. before dismembering her. It Most of what is known about the ancient Aztecs comes is also said that Tezcatlipoca created half a sun. the Aztecs offer him the nourishment of human sacrifices. but rejuvewas born to her first. Much later she gave birth to Huitzilopochtli when a mysterious ball of feathers appeared to her. this fifth sun will go black. goddess of the moon. who was replaced by Coatlicue in this myth probably because it had absolutely no worshipers or temples by the time the Spanish arrived. who opposes fatal sacrifices. which his from the few codices to survive the Spanish conquest. though the loss of is not always identified as Tlaloc’s reason 27. Their myths can be confusing not only because of the The fifth sun however is sometimes said to be a god lack of documentation. Further variations on this myth state that it was only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca who pulled apart Cipactli. became jealous of their brighter. They also offer human sacrifices to Tezcatlipoca in fear of his judgment. often nated himself by burning himself alive and then became mentioning his twin brother Xolotl. and that Xipe Totec and Huitzilopochtli then constructed the world from her body. lead them in an assault on the sun and every night they come close to victory when they shine throughout the sky.Nanauatzin then walked slowly towards and then into relation to the popularity of each of the gods at a given the flames and was consumed. or stars. believing it to be insulting that she had given birth to another child. the gods popular myths that seem to contradict one another due convened in darkness to choose a new sun. who were also referred to as the Centzon Huitznahuas. Chalchiuhtlicue was so crushed by these words that she cried blood for the next fifty-two years.27. jaguars then ate before eating the giants. also known as Tlaltecuhtli. A god that bridges the gap between Nanauatzin and the Tzitzimitl. Coyolxauhqui. offer their own blood to Quetzalcoatl. lowed. To aid this all-important god in his continuing war. The most popular variation including Coatlicue depicts her giving birth first to the Tzitzimitl. 91 and god of fire. similar gods from various other cultures. Tecuciztecatl tried first but was not brave enough to one another by claiming that a different god performed walk through the heat near the flames and turned around. Each world’s end correlates consistently to the god that was the sun at the time throughout all variations of the myth. In this version of the myth. the Tzitzimitl.[2] Some of Ometeotl’s later children. Tezcatlipoca was then born to her by an obsidian knife. but also because there are many named Nanauatzin. He dipped these bones in his own blood to resurrect his people. who was to the fact that they were originally passed down by word sacrifice himself by jumping into a gigantic bonfire. Some versions say that Quetzalcoatl and Huitzilopochtli is Tonatiuh.2. though the above version is the most common. which is not otherwise given and it myths is sometimes said that Chalchiuhtlicue flooded the world on purpose. Sometimes he is said to have decapitated Coyolxauhqui and either used her head to make the moon or thrown it into a canyon. more important brother Huitzilopochtli. was the mother of the four Tezcatlipocas moon. both assigning their own new as. Quetzalcoatl would not accept the destruction of his people and went to the underworld where he stole their bones from the god Mictlantecuhtli. the world will be shattered by a catastrophic earthquake. and the old Nanauatzin. Some versions claim that Tezcatlipoca actually used his leg as bait for Cipactli. the guide of the dead the warrior sun and wandered through the heavens with . Further variations depict the ball of feathers as being the father of Huitzilopochtli or the father of Quetzalcoatl and sometimes Xolotl.

2001. Manuel (2006).We are the inhabitants of this world.3 Brief summation • Nahui-Ocelotl (Jaguar Sun) . Blackwell Publishing. Handbook to life in the Aztec World.Moreno.Michael E. where an ancient star-faring civilization (“people of the First Sun”) had disappeared and left the galaxy with many dangerous artifacts. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. The world was destroyed. 27. A Day in the Life of God.Inhabitants were destroyed by rain of fire. Los Angeles: California State University.6 References [1] Iroku.Inhabitants were giants who were devoured by jaguars. Manuel.7 Further reading • Aguilar. by Juan Mora Catlett. by Patricia Amlin. Chapter Seven. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Smith. FIVE SUNS 27.5 See also • Aztec mythology • Aztec religion • Aztec philosophy • Black Sun (mythology) • Mesoamerican creation accounts [2] Smith. • Nahui-Quiahuitl (Rain Sun) . CHAPTER 27. • Thomas Harlan's science fiction series “In the Time of the Sixth Sun” uses this myth as a central plot point. 27.Inhabitants were transformed into monkeys.This world was flooded turning the inhabitants into fish. Only birds survived (or inhabitants survived by becoming birds). A couple escaped but were transformed into dogs. 2006 27. • Nahui-Atl (Water Sun) . Los Angeles.4 In popular culture • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin serves as a framing device for the 1991 Mexican film. This world was destroyed by hurricanes. (2003). The Five Suns: A Sacred History of Mexico. California State University. • Nahui-Ehécatl (Wind Sun) . • Nahui-Ollin (Earthquake Sun) . refusing to move if not offered enough sacrifices. The Aztec World. • Rage Against the Machine refers to intercultural violence as “the fifth sunset” in their song People of the Sun. This world will be destroyed by earthquakes (or one large earthquake). Osita. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) . The Aztecs 2nd Ed. • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin is in the 1996 film.92 the souls of those who died in battle. published by the Enlil Institute 27. on the album Evil Empire. 2005 [3] Aguilar-Moreno. UK: Blackwell Publishing. Michael E. In Necuepaliztli in Aztlan (Retorno a Aztlán).

In Postconquest descriptions they are often described as "demons" or “devils” . they were associated with the Cihuateteo and other female deities such as Tlaltecuhtli.both were periods associated with the fear of change. this caused the belief that during a solar eclipse. They were also powerful and dangerous. p.[1] were protectresses of the feminine and progenitresses of mankind. Citlalicue and Cihuacoatl and they were worshipped by midwives and parturient women.but this does not necessarily reflect their The Tzitzimimeh had a double role in Aztec religion: they function in the prehispanic belief system of the Aztecs. 153: cenca nemauhtiloya mitoaya intla quitlamiz in quiqua tonatiuh quilmach çentlaiovaz valte- . Queen of the Tzitzimimeh. Coatlicue. Depiction of a Tzitzimitl from the Codex Magliabechiano.[3] lated to fertility. The leader of the tzitz. resided. the tzitzimime would descend to the earth and devour human beings. ing a solar eclipse.1 Notes imimeh was the Goddess Itzpapalotl who was the ruler of Tamoanchan . ͡ simit ͡ ͡ (plural TzIn Aztec mythology.Chapter 28 Tzitzimitl Depiction of Itzpapalotl.the paradise where the Tzitzimimeh [1] See Klein 2000 for an analysis of the nature of the Tzitzimimeh in relation to the Aztec belief system. and during the New Fire ceremony marking the beginning of a new calendar round .28. from the Codex Borgia. and as such recially in periods of cosmic instability. a Tzitzimitl /tsiˈt ɬ/ ͡ ͡ itzimimeh /tsitsiˈmimeʔ/) is a deity associated with stars. such as during the five unlucky days called Nemontemi which marked an unstable period of the year count. The Tzitzimimeh were also associated with the stars and especially the stars that can be seen around the Sun dur93 [2] Sahagún 1997. espeThe Tzitzimimeh were female deities. This was interpreted as the Tzitzimimeh attacking the Sun. They were depicted as skeletal female figures wearing skirts often with skull and crossbone designs.[2] The Tzitzimimeh were also feared during other ominous periods of the Aztec world.

TZITZIMITL mozque in ţiţimime techquazque There was great fear.94 CHAPTER 28. Bernardino de. B. Thelma D. H. Sullivan.2 References • Sahagún. they would devour us. so it was said. . • Klein. the Tzitzimimeh would descend here.. all would be in darkness. p. 153. Nicholson. [3] This is the conclusion reached by Cecelia Klein (2000) based on an investigation of the iconographical depictions of Tzitzimimeh by the Aztecs 28. (1997). “The Devil and the Skirt: an iconographic inquiry into the prehispanic nature of the Tzitzimime”. Primeros Memoriales. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Cecelia F (2000). Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mèxico) 31: 17–62. It was said that if [the moon] finished eating the sun.

and thus the upholder of Ma'at. 95 . gradually took on all the characteristics of Apep. he attempted to swallow the sun every day. every day. Some elaborations even said that he stretched 16 yards in length and had a head made of flint. bringer of light. Myths sometimes say that Apep was trapped there.[6] Since everyone can see that the sun is not attacked by a giant snake during the day.1 Development Ra was the solar deity. comparable hostile snakes as enemies of the sun god existed under other names (in the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts) already before the name Apep occurred. For the Apep by this translation of his name. and thus was given the title Enemy of Ra. because he had been the previous chief god overthrown by Ra. Apep was viewed as the greatest enemy of Ra.2 Battles with Ra was written pp(y) and survived in later Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph. (It is not to be confused with the verb ꜥpı͗/ꜥpp: 'to fly across the sky. A verb root ꜥꜣpp does at any rate not exist elsewhere in Ancient Egyptian. possibly a solar deity. His name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāpī. and Apep (/ˈæˌpɛp/ or /ˈɑːˌpɛp/) or Apophis (/ˈæpəfɨs/. see APEP F. who is invisibly hunting in a big rowing vessel. and also “the Lord of Chaos”. ConseAncient Greek: Ἄποφις. Already on a Naqada I (ca. Set eventually became thought of as the god of evil.Chapter 29 Apep This article is about an Ancient Egyptian deity.[4] in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). 29. and in others Apep lurked just before dawn. or because he was evil and had been imprisoned.. the Romans referred to Set speared Apep Tales of Apep’s battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom. In some stories Apep waited for Ra in a western mountain called Bakhu. golden snake known to be miles long. It was thought that his terrifying roar would cause the underworld to rumble. Apep was seen as a giant snake or serpent leading to such titles as Serpent from the Nile and Evil Lizard. The wide range of Apep’s possible location gained him the title World Encircler. in the Tenth region of the Night. 4000 BC) C-ware bowl (now in Cairo) a snake was painted on the inside rim combined with other desert and aquatic animals as a possible enemy of a deity. As the personification of all that was evil.C. and he was honored in the names of the Fourteenth Dynasty king 'Apepi and of the Greater Hyksos king Apophis.[1] Apep was first mentioned in the Eighth Dynasty. For other uses.[3] Also. to travel') Apep’s name much later came to be falsely connected etymologically in Egyptian with a different root meaning (he who was) spat out. This appropriately made him a part of the underworld. He appears in art as a giant serpent. Apophis was a large Cypriot football team. where the sun set. The etymology of his name (ꜥꜣpp) is perhaps to be sought in some west-semitic language where a word root ꜣpp meaning 'to slither' existed. also spelled Apepi or Aapep) quently. He was so large that see Apep (disambiguation). storytellers said that Apep must lie just below the horizon. Apep’s identity was eventually entirely subsumed was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗ zft by that of Set. as it 29.

Egyptian Mythology. Alcock (London. or small drawings. in a similar manner to modern rituals such as Zozobra. he was sometimes thought of as an Eater of Souls. 1057. by A. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH.[9] 29. Vol. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. and include: Spitting Upon Apep Defiling Apep with the Left Foot Taking a Lance to Smite Apep Fettering Apep Taking a Knife to Smite Apep Putting Fire Upon Apep • 99942 Apophis • Egyptian influence in popular culture • Ethnoherpetology • Jörmungandr • Mehen • Unut • Wadjet 29. 116. Te Velde. Ra’s victory each night was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshipers at temples. Leipzig: J. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. and burn it to protect everyone from Apep’s evil for another year. F. 1926– 1953. and aid Ra to continue his journey across the sky. Adolf. transl. Thus the dead also needed protection. J. Ra himself defeats Apep in the form of a cat. which would be spat on. 114–115. and his battles with Set may have been meant to explain the origin of thunderstorms. 1971). Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom. in the form of Great Cat. Hinrichs’schen Buchhandlungen. Seth. Fearing that even the image of Apep could give power to the demon any rendering would always include another deity to subdue the monster. The Egyptian priests even had a detailed guide to fighting Apep. As Apep was thought to live in the underworld. [8] Borghouts. of the serpent. F. 49-57. mutilated and burnt. and Hermann Grapow.3 Worship Ra was worshipped. [5] tomb of Inherkha. Pinch. I. God of Confusion (Leiden. pp. C. (1973). priests would build an effigy of Apep that was thought to contain all of the evil and darkness in Egypt. [3] C. in Jaarbericht van Ex Oriente Lux. whilst reciting spells that would kill Apep. 180. [9] G.37 (2002).[11] 29.[8] Apep’s movements were thought to cause earthquakes.[7] Ra was assisted by a number of defenders who travelled with him. (2004). The Egyptians practiced a number of rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apep. Only BD Spells 7 and 39 can be explained as such.Wolterman. Assmann. In some accounts. Deir el-Medina [6] J. 6 vols. [2] Hieroglyph as per Budge Gods of the Ancient Egyptians (1969). this guide had instructions for making wax models. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. and Apep worshipped against. in Greek). called the Banishing of Chaos.5 Notes [1] Erman. including Set[4] and possibly the Eye of Ra. eds. Leiden Nr. J. so they were sometimes buried with spells that could destroy Apep. (1973). APEP In addition to stories about Ra’s winnings. slays the snake Apep[5] The Coffin Texts imply that Apep used a magical gaze to overwhelm Ra and his entourage.4 See also The sun god Ra. In an annual rite. 1995). “The Evil Eye of Apopis”.[10] The chapters described a gradual process of dismemberment and disposal. 107–108 . referred to as The Books of Overthrowing Apep (or the Book of Apophis. [4] H. The Book of the Dead does not frequently describe occasions when Ra defeated the chaos snake explicitly called Apep. [7] Borghouts. 1977).96 CHAPTER 29.

Magic and Religion as Performative Theological Unity: the Apotropaic Ritual of Overthrowing Apophis. 2007)..6 External links • Apep. Water Snake-Demon of Chaos. [11] J..D. dissertation. Book of the Dead [39]: From Shouting to Structure (Studien zum Altaegyptischen Totenbuch 10. 1999). 29. Ph. Wiesbaden. EXTERNAL LINKS [10] P.F. Enemy of Ra.Kousoulis. University of Liverpool (Liverpool.6.29.Borghouts. chapters 3-5.Apep 97 . • ancient Egypt: The Mythology .

As a symbol of darkness.Chapter 30 Kuk (mythology) This article is about a concept in ancient Egyptian mythology. For other uses. or a snake-headed woman. Huh and Hauhet. As a concept. In the Ogdoad cosmogony. Obscurity and Night”. Kuk also represented obscurity and the unknown. Kuk was viewed as androgynous. “Kek and Kauket. 30. Kuk was seen as that which occurred before light. thus was known as the bringer-in of light. and the female form as a snake.. or as a frog-headed man. and thus chaos. Retrieved 2008-08-22. Kuk’s male form was depicted as a frog. For the abbreviation describing the AustroHungarian Empire. The other members of the Ogdoad are Nu and Naunet. Amun and Amaunet. Also. Deities of Darkness.[1] Like all four dualistic concepts in the Ogdoad. which is simply the female form of the word Kuk. He was the god of the darkness of chaos 98 .1 References [1] Seawright. his female form being known as Kauket (also spelled as Keket).u. his name meant darkness. see Kuk. see k. Caroline.k. Kuk (also spelled as Kek and Keku) is the deification of the primordial concept of darkness in ancient Egyptian religion.

is the goddess of night in the Vedas and the mythology of India and Hinduism. Tamil.2 Further reading • Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-03795) by David Kinsley 99 .Chapter 31 Ratri Ratri. Telugu. 31. often also called Ratridevi. Her name is the common/ordinary word for nighttime in Indian languages like Kannada. Malayalam.1 Fiction The goddess Ratri is a minor character in Roger Zelazny's science fiction novel Lord of Light. 31. Bengali. She is sister to Ushas. who encounters and aids the protagonist in his battle against the other gods. the Vedic goddess of Dawn.

Chapter 32

Chandra
This article is about the Hindu moon deity. For other
uses, see Chandra (disambiguation).
In Hinduism, Chandra (Sanskrit चन्द्र lit, Kannada
, Telugu
, Tamil சந்திரன். “shining”)[1]
is a lunar god and a Graha. Chandra is also identified
with the Vedic lunar deity Soma (lit. “juice”).[2] The
Soma name refers particularly to the juice of sap in the
plants and thus makes the Moon the lord of plants and
vegetation.[1]
Chandra is described as young, beautiful, fair; two-armed
and having in his hands a club and a lotus.[3] He rides his
chariot across the sky every night, pulled by ten white
horses or an antelope. He is connected with dew, and as
such, is one of the gods of fertility. He is also called Rajanipati (lord of the night)[1] and Kshupakara (one who
illuminates the night),[4] and Indu (lit. the bright drop).[1]
As Soma, he presides over Somvar or Monday.
Chandra is the father of Budha, (planet Mercury) the
mother being Tara. He is married to 27 Nakshatras (constellations), who are known to be daughters of Daksha.

32.1 In astrology
Chandra with Rohini

In Vedic astrology Chandra represents brain and mind,
emotions, sensitivity, softness, imagination, queen and
mother. Chandra rules over the sign Karkaataka (Cancer), while he is exalted in Vrishabha (Taurus) and in his
fall in Vrishchika (Scorpio). The waxing moon is considered to be benefic, and the waning moon is considered
to be malefic. The bright moon is considered a benefic
of the highest order, while the dark moon is considered
a malefic. Chandra is lord of three nakshatras or lunar
mansions: Rohini, Hasta and Shravana. Chandra has the
following associations: the color white, the metal silver
and the gemstones pearl and moonstone. His element is
water, direction is north-west and season is winter. The
food grain associated with him (one of Nava Dhanyas) is
rice.

name meaning “illustrious”. In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the god of the moon. In Hindu astrology, the moon
is considered a planet, and it is considered to be one of
the best planets to be born under as it promises wealth and
) or
happiness. It is also referred as Shashi (Kannada:
Tingala (Kannada:
).
According to Hindu mythology Chandra has not been
very fortunate in life. Chandra was born in the Ocean of
Milk (the gods were churning it for millennia in order to
create immortal life), and nearly blinded the gods with his
bright, glowing body (hence the name that means “illustrious”). The gods unanimously decided to give Chandra
the status of a planet and sent him into the cosmos.

Chandra is known for having a series of disastrous love
affairs. His first lover, Tara, was the wife of Brihaspati,
Chandra (pronounced “CHUHN-drah”) is a Sanskrit the planet Jupiter. From their union, Tara became preg100

32.2. OTHER ASPECTS
nant gives birth to Budha (a.k.a. the planet Mercury, not
to be confused with the other Buddha). Because of how
he was conceived, Budha hated his father and as Chandra also knew that Budha is his illegitimate son, he began
to hate his son, and their rivalry continues to this day.
For the sin of abducting another god’s consort, Brahma
banished Chandra to the outer atmosphere. This story
illustrates allegorically the prohibition of intoxicants for
Brahmins.[5] After that, Chandra, set out to marry the
twenty-seven daughters of Daksha. Daksha allowed this
on the condition that the moon not favor any daughter
over the others. Chandra failed to do this, and Daksha
placed a curse on him that took away his luster, which
accounts for the moon’s waxing and waning.

32.1.1

Dark spot on the moon

One popular story to account for the dark spot on the
moon is that Ganesha, once filled with food, fell from his
mouse and broke his stomach. Chandra laughed at this,
at which Ganesha injured him by breaking off and throwing one of his tusks; and cursed him so that it would be
forbidden to behold Chandra on Ganesh Chaturthi.

32.2 Other aspects
Chandra is also the word in Sanskrit, Hindi and other
Indian languages for moon. It is also a common Indian
name, both male and female and exists as a name in many
South East Asian languages that originate from Sanskrit.
The god, the drink and the plant probably referred to the
same entity, or at least the differentiation was ambiguous. In this aspect, Soma is similar to the Greek ambrosia (cognate to amrita); it is what the gods drink, and
what made them deities. Soma is still coined as name for
an entheogenic brew (avestic: Haoma) still in ceremonial
use.
Indu, one of the other names for Chandra, is also the
name of the first chakra (group) of Melakarta ragas in
Carnatic music. The names of chakras are based on the
numbers associated with each name. In this case, there is
one moon and hence the first chakra is Indu.[6][7]
In India Chandra is a common surname for example
'Anurag Chandra ' and ' Tanuja Chandra' . But in America the name has been used as a girl’s name. It appeared
on the popularity charts in the 1950s, peaking in the
1970s, before disappearing in the 1990s. The name has
several variations including Chandrah, Chaundra, etc.

101
shown as dark spot on moon as a result of the curse of
rishi Gautama. His Egyptian counterpart is Khonsu.
Chandra the moon is actually a satellite of the planet
Earth. But in Indian astrology the moon and the Sun
are counted among the nine planets. Chandra is called ‘
ChandA’ or ‘ChAnd’ in Hindi and Urdu languages. Chandra is the most beloved God of the humans, at least in
the tropics. Children all over India and even elders call
him affectionately as ‘Chanda- mama’. Mama means the
maternal uncle in both North Indian and South Indian
languages. There is a very popular children’s magazine
called ‘Chanda mama’ which is published from Chennai
in more than twelve Indian languages, There are hundreds
of nursery songs in all languages of India sung by all the
mothers addressing their handsome brother Chand, while
feeding their children, requesting him to bring milk, butter and curds for his sister’s child. Similarly Chandra
or Chanda is the most favourite topic of songs sung by
lovers. They express their happiness while making love
and request Chanda mama to shine brightly and not to
pass on so quickly. so that the wonderful night may continue forever. Dozens of folk songs, film songs and even
titles of films are named after the Chandra or Chand.
There is an interesting episode regarding the lunar eclipse
in the Hindu mythology. Lunar eclipse is called ChandragrahaN (swallowing of Chandra). Even today people believe that two great serpents named Rahu and Ketu which
are counted as two other planets ( Uranus and Neptune)
nurture a grudge against the planets moon and the Sun and
both these serpents occasionally come and swallow the
moon and the Sun gradually. When moon is swallowed
partially or completely it is called Chandra GrahaN. People wait patiently for the total release of the moon and
take holy bath after the end of the eclipse. Moon is the
symbol of beauty in Indian literature. The beautiful face
of a woman is compared to the moon by almost all Indian poets. The moon and the lotus flower are the most
popular similes used while describing the face of a beautiful woman who is often called as’ Chandramukhi’- the
moonfaced beauty.. Name of Chandra is attached to various Gods. For example the full name of Lord Sri Ram is
Ramachandra. Similarly the full name of another Avatar
Lord Krishna is Krishna Chandra. Some scholars opine
that both these avatars were so called because they were
perhaps born on a full moon day, a day which is sacred
for Jains also Lord Shiva is called Chandrasekhar also,
because he wears a crescent moon on his forehead. The
crescent moon with a star is a sacred symbol of Islam
also. There are also many ancient explanations and stories connected with the spots on the face of the moon.
Some people say that a rabbit stays always on the face of
the moon. That is why the moon is also called Shashank
( one who has a mark of a rabbit on his lap ). Some people think that a cat is sitting on the face of the moon. In
Telugu language the moon is also called Jabilli.

There is another story about moon (Chandra), when Indra
was trying to rape Ahilya, wife of rishi Gautama, Chandra
was in the form of a peacock to alert Indra on Gautama’s
arrival . Gautama eventually beheld the act and cursed Under the sub-title ‘other aspects’ it is stated that ChanIndra with impotency and hit Chandra (in the form of dra is the middle name of the Hindu God RamaChanpeacock) with his wet cloth (Dhoti). Those marks are

102
drasekhara, which is erroneous. There seems to be a mix
up between the names of two different Gods Sri Ram and
Lord Shiva. Full name of Lord Sri Ram is Rama Chandra and not Rama Chandra Sekhara. Rama was named
as Rama Chandra for reasons that are not revealed to the
public. Some Scholars opine that Sri Ram was born on a
full moon day and that is why he was called Rama Chandra. There was a great discussion among scholars as to
why Sri Rama the illustrious son of the solar dynasty
was named as Rama Chandra, Chandra being the progenitor of the lunar dynasty. Similarly the name Chandra
Sekhara is given to Lord Shiva only, because he wears a
crescent moon on his forehead. Name of Lord Sri Rama
is definitely not Rama Chandra Sekhara, nor Chandra is
His middle name

CHAPTER 32. CHANDRA
dren. His wife was ‘Ningal’(the great lady). ‘Nusku’ the
God of Fire was his son. Even today the crescent moon
and the planet Venus in the middle, is the Universal symbol of Islam. It is reported in the Wikipedia that the crescent moon has been used by the Arab religions as far back
as the time of Abraham.

God Chandra and the tides: The Hindu mythology offers
an explanation for the high and low tides that occur in the
seas and oceans.The details areas follows.God Chandra
and Goddess Lakshmi are born from the ocean during
the churning of the milky ocean.( that part of the ocean
where the waters and waves are sparkling white and look
like milk). Being the father of Chandra the God of Ocean
is overjoyed to see his son rising from the eastern horizon
and rushes to greet him. Similarly the Sea God rushes
God Chandra is addressed by various names depend- towards the West when the moon God is going to set.
ing on his attributes. He is called Vidhu, Indu, Hi- Chandrama in Mantrapushpam: Mantrapushpam is a samansu, Subhranshu (whose rays are cool and clean), Ra- cred document available in the Taittareeya Aranyakam
janeesh,Rakesh ( Lord of the night ), Rajanikar, Nishakar in which the great Rishis have conceived the connection
( maker of the night), Shashi, Shashank ( one who bears between the human mind/ consciousness and various ela rabbit on his body),Sudha-nidhi, Sudhamaya (one who ements of nature like flower, water, moon, air, thunder
is full of nectar), Kumudesh ( lover of the esculent wa- etc. Giving great importance to the Moon God it informs
ter lily- Nymphaea esculent or the red lotus-Nymphaea in the first sloka itself that – Moon is the flower of Warubric), Kunda Pushpojjwala( as bright as the jasmine ters. He who knows this becomes endowed with flower,
flower-jasmine multiflora).
progeny and animals.
In the ‘Purusha Sukta’ of the Rigveda it is mentioned
“ Chandramaa va apaam pushpam pushpavaan, prathat Chandra was born from the mind of the virat Pu- jaavaan, pasumaan bhavati “
rusha(God symbolized as the entire universe) – ‘ChanLater the mantra says that - Moon is the support of waters.
drama manasojaatah’.
He becomes endowed with support who understands that
There is an episode explaining the waxing and waning Moon is the support of water, and similarly water is the
of the moon during a month. It was reported that God support of Moon. Thus Moon is the support of Water and
Chandra was paying more attention to one of his 27 wives. Water is the support of Moon.
The other 26 wives who are also the daughters of the great
Prajapati Daksha brought this fact to the attention of their “Yah Chandramasa aayatanam veda. aayatanavan bhafather. Daksha became very angry and cursed Chandra, vati. Aapo vai chandramasa aayatanam , aayatanavaan
his son in law’ to suffer from consumption. As a result the bhavati, Ya evam veda”
size of Chandra began to decrease gradually. Alarmed at The mantra says that the moon and water support each
this the daughters requested their father to take back his other and there is a similarity between the waxing and
curse. But since a curse which is delivered once, cannot waning of the moon and vacillation of mind between exbe taken back, Daksha modified his curse to the effect perience s of grief and happiness. Beyond this we cannot
that the size of Chandra will decrease from full moon to explain the meaning of this mantra because it is a Veda
new moon for a fortnight and then his size will gradually Mantra based purely on sound rather than meaning.
grow until the full Moon day, during the next fortnight.
Worship of the moon God in ancient Arabia: the Arabians who suffer from the excessive heat of the Sun preferred to worship the Moon God, who gives them cool
breeze and dew drops, thereby helping them in farming and development of green grass for their goats and
camels. That is why perhaps they were called Asuras 32.3 In popular culture
as opposed to the Indo-Aryans who called themselves
Suraas or Devas. The Suraas worshipped the Sun God.
The Indian mythology is full of wars between the Suras Chandra (and the gem supposedly on the forehead of
a statue of his at Somanath) plays an important role
and the Asuras.
in one of the first novel-length mystery stories in En'Sin' the moon God of ancient Arabia occupied the chief
glish, The Moonstone. The Sanskrit word for moon-craft
place in the astral triad. It’s other two members ‘Shamus’
Chandrayaan is used to refer to India’s lunar orbiters
the Sun god and ‘Ishtar’ the planet Venus were his chil(Chandrayan-1 and Chandrayaan-2).

P Sambamoorthy. 1990. p. ISBN 0-9709636-4-5.32. Published 1973. EXTERNAL LINKS 32.51 [2] Graha Sutras by Ernst Wilhelm. The Indian Music Publishing House [7] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr.0 [3] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p. published by Kala Occult Publishers.html [6] South Indian Music Book III.livejournal. CBH Publications 32. S.132 [5] http://2-0-1-2.131 [4] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p. by Prof.5 References [1] Graha Sutras By Ernst Wilhelm .6 External links • Media related to Chandra at Wikimedia Commons 103 . Published by Kala Occult Publishers ISBN 0-9709636-4-5 p. Bhagyalekshmy.6.com/211027. Pub. 5.4 See also • Navagraha • Soma 32.

Rahu is considered to be a rogue planet.[1] Astronomically. The time of day considered to be under the influence of Rahu is called Rahu kala and is considered inauspicious. ever-angry. the peacemaker. however. 33. the minister of was attracted by curiosity to the disembodied head. Sun. He is depicted in art as a serpent with no body riding a chariot drawn by eight black horses. flew towards the sun. Then. see Rahu (disambiguation). the tormentor. that swallows the sun causing eclipses. It is believed that this immortal head from time to time swallows the sun.Chapter 33 Rahu For the ascending lunar node Rahu. Rahu was considered as incarnation of Shakti in beastly form. the advisor of the demons. For other uses. The body also turned into Ketu due to a boon. the asura Rahu drank some of the amrita (divine nectar). Therefore. as it appeared to be a big fruit. and it in turn swallows the moon on timely basis to cause a lunar eclipse. bitter enemy of caught Rahu. the immortal (having drunk the divine nectar). in his childhood.1 Mythology Vishnu beheading Rahu with his Sudarshana chakra. The head. 33. seeing Rahu. Mohini cut off the asura’s head before the nectar could pass his throat. The other name of Rahu is Bhayanka. Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes.man is trying to swallow the sun. see Lunar node. In Hindu tradition. ending the eclipse. Rahu ( ) is a severed head of an asura. The fact that eclipses occur when the Sun and the Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the myth of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon by the demon snake. Hanuman and Rahu In ancient Tamil astrological scripts. when Rahu was to swallow up the sun. the luminaries.1.1 Hinduism According to legend. The day was solar eclipse day. Hanuman. Rahu is one of the navagrahas (nine planets) in Vedic astrology and is paired with Ketu. one who frightens the On another occasion. The sun and moon realized it and alerted Mohini (the female avatar of Vishnu). bestower of prosperity and wealth and ultimate knowledge. Rahu arrived and saw Hanuman also approaching and thought that HanuVarious names are assigned to Rahu in Vedic texts includ. lord of illusions. remained immortal due to the effect of amrita and became Rahu. the one who makes the Moon lustreless. the sun passes through the opening at the neck. during the Ramayana war. In Vedic astronomy. Rahu and Ketu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. and the demons. Hanuman. Ravana 104 . during the Samudra manthan. causing eclipses. ing: the chief.

ablaze with fire. Rahu is associated with the following: its color is smoky. they can be together considered as confers immense benefits to the worshipper. Svati and Shatabhisha. i.[2][3] The Buddha responds by enjoining Rahu to release them. he is the realm of existence.33. In his four arms he holds a bow and arrow. Rahu (or Rahula. He is wrathful in appearance. and cruelty.2. pleasures etc. and debilitation. becoming one of the principle protectors of the Dzogchen teachings. while if Jupiter and Venus are conjunct. it’s said that Rahu is at his apex of power when operating through this nakshatra. different systems assign Rahu differassociated with the world of material manifestation and ent signs regarding rulership.1. Sud33. pleasure seekers.[3] The verses recited by the two celestial deities and the Buddha have since been incorporated into Buddhist liturgy as protective verses (paritta) recited by monks as prayers of protection. a divinity having the attributes of anger and the like). they can as an asura or demon who does his best to plunge any area together be treated as Ketu. 33. abdominal ulcers. of life he controls into chaos. drug dealers. aspecting or controlling. It is the symbol of an irreligious person. Its element is air and its direction is southwest. . worldly desire.” All the grahas thanked Hanuman individually for releasing them. operators in foreign lands. Shatabhisha is his most Rahu is supposed to be a mighty and naughty child of Maya. Thus.lates to the Seventh Ray energy of esoteric astrology. Rahu attacks Chandra the moon deity and Surya the sun deity before being compelled to release them by their recitation of a brief stanza conveying their reverence for the Buddha. He is In Vedic astrology. It is a legendary master of deception who signifies cheaters.2 Astrology den changes in luck and fame are also linked to Rahu. as well as random. Ardra. Rahula is a sa. ASTROLOGY 105 imprisoned the Navagrahas. Rahu is one of the krodhadevatas (lit: Anger divinities. gza) is considered to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava. exaltation. which Rahu does rather than have his “head split into seven pieces”. and often a lasso and victory banner. it is believed that Rahu’s negative influence will be subdued when one worships Hanuman. poison dealers. as pending on which planet is controlling him and which it represents a force displaying all the possibilities within bhava or pattern of life like longevity. and its gemstone is honey-colored hessonite. Rahu is considered instrumental in strengthening one’s In Vedic astrology Rahu dasha can either be the best time power and converting even an enemy into a friend. metal is lead. an outcast. and transmigration. Hanuman arrived and released them. Worship of Lord Rama appeases Lord Hanuman the most. a class of deities associated with the heavenly bodies.2 Buddhism Rahu is mentioned explicitly in a pair of scriptures from the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon.e. insin- powerful nakshatra. He is usually depicted with nine heads and a Rahu with consort Karali thousand eyes all over his dark-colored body. uncontrolled growth Rahu is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: without wisdom or understanding. mystery. Tib. falsehoods. cere and immoral acts. They were grateful to Hanuman. It reof any person’s life or plunge him into deep trouble de.[4] In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. uncleanliness. Rahu is seen Rahu. In the Candima Sutta and the Suriya Sutta. and thus is associated with dualities resulting from its mayavi (illusory) nature. saying “people devoted to you are blessed by us too. Rahu dasa gives immense scope for obtaining spectacular results from worship or dhyana. and his lower body has the form of a snake. bones. harsh speech.. The astrological text Lal Kitab notes that if Saturn and Worship of Goddess Durga pleases Rahu the most and he Mars are conjunct. particularly the Longchen Nyingthik.

Madan (1990). [2] Candima Sutta [3] Suriya Sutta [4] Access to Insight. RAHU followed for over 1. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. as he is called in Thailand. India through the ages. 77. The ritual is a device to secure abundance of sunlight and prosperity by the community. radishes. sesame. blankets. p. whom they hold in the Bhairav Mahadev Sthan in Gyaneswor.2. One complex of this coffee. Thailand. K. The milk turns light blue when it flows down after touching the statue of Rahu. Articles that are donated in order to mitigate negative effects of Rahu include mustard. also exists in other items to propitiate Phra Rahu. exist in the Ganesh Temple in Manways of propitiating Rahu. people offer a plate of black offering—black Indian temple in Silom.5 See also • Ketu • Kirtimukha • Svarbhanu 33. Tamil Nadu. lead. 33. A glass fish-bowl Yannawa. Gautam. A prayer in the form of a three-day fast is offered by devotees. Government of India. ed. featuring statues of all nine planets.4 Rahu Mantra Mantras linked with Rahu include “Om Bhram Bhreem Bhroum Sah Rahave Namah” and “Om Rang Rahuve Namah Om”. Traimet near Chinatown in Bangkok. In all Hindu temples in Burma.7 External links • Things ruled by Rahu in Vedic Astrology . India. There is a shrine for Phra Rahu in Wat Nepal. and also in the courtyard of the South In Thailand. dalay. very high regard.S. black Coke. is worshipped in The other Phra Rahu statue is in the Wat Yannawa.ple for Phra Rahu worshipping in Thailand is in Nakhon uously is also kept in Thai businesses. The most famous temfilled with white sugar balls on which ants are fed contin.1 Rahu dan CHAPTER 33. satnaja (a mixture of seven grains). and coal. amongst other wats. a temple called Wat Srisathhong.[5] 33. black beans. The navagraha deities. see the summary in the Devaputtasamyutta section Phra Rahu in Thailand.Naganatha Temple at Thirunageswaram. Publication Division.106 33. This practice has been [5] Daan in Vedic Astrology 33. There is a dedicated temple to Rahu . near Wat Traimit in Bangkok’s Chinatown and also in Wat the Saphan Taksin sky train station.3 Worship Rahu is also worshipped by the Dusadh (Paswan) caste found in Bihar. “Om Dhoom Raam Rahave Namaha” 33. The bhagat (priest) assists the devotee in prayer by standing on a ladder made of swords and by fire-offering at which the bhagat walks through the fire. Kathmandu.500 years. Pathom Province. There is a milk abhishekam everyday during Rahu Kaalam to appease Rahu.6 Notes [1] Gopal. black biscuits amongst nature. saffron. Rahu is also worshipped along with the other 9 planets in Ants are considered of the favoured species of Rahu. feasome parts of India feeding ants is considered one of the turing nine planets. Myanmar. Phra Rahu.

33.7. EXTERNAL LINKS • How Does rahu Operate in its Dasha • Hessonite the Jyotish Gemstone of Rahu 107 .

This may misrepresent the actual importance of Varuna in early Vedic society due to the focus of the Rigveda on fire and Soma ritual.12). watching every movement of men. considered the most powerful weapon capable of destroying all creation. Indra.1 In the Vedas such. With his bow and arrow. and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). He is attended by the nagas. The stars are his thousand-eyed spies. enraged by the God’s arrogance. however. catching liars in his snares. Varuna (/ˈvɜrʊnə. with moral and societal affairs than being a deification of nature. being the king of the Asuras. he angrily begins attacking the oceans with celestial weapons—burning up the waters and killing its life and creatures. Varuna with his omniscience and omnipotence in the affairs of men has many aspects of a supreme deity. as a yellow man ated with the night.g. fasting and meditating in perfect dhyana for three days and three nights. where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana. see Varuna (disambiguation). deity though. the Lord of Oceans. Varuna does not respond.[4] In Vedic religion. Just as Rama invokes the brahmastra. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e.[5] In post-Vedic texts Varuna became the god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned.Later art depicts Varuna as a lunar deity. particularly the oceans. he suggests that Rama re-direct the weapon at a demonic race that lives in the heart of the ocean.60. Varuna promises that he would keep the oceans still for all of Rama’s army to pass. RV 5. Soma being closely associated with Indra. who is mentioned 341 times. as well as a god of law of the underwater world. chief of the Devas. Lakshmana. he is mostly concerned from a snake. Varuna arises out of the oceans. representing the west. prays to calm Rama’s mind. as Indra-Varuna (when both cooperate at New Year in re-establishing order [2] ).[1] Sanskrit: Varuṇa व ण. Vedic Varuna is sometimes thought to be a reflex of the same Proto-Indo-European theonym as Greek Ouranos. Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element. RV 7. He bows to Rama. and Rama arises on the fourth morning. explaining that he himself was at a loss to answer Rama’s question. imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra. although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e. liberated environment there.2 In the Ramayana Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath. He rides the sea creature Makara.g. A Makara is his mount. In Hindu mythology. while Indra receives no mention. The Vanaras (Monkeys) are dazzled and fearful at witnessing the enraged Rama demolish the oceans. The Rigveda and Atharvaveda[3] portrays Varuna as omniscient. Rama’s arrows destroys the demons. change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos. Malay: Baruna). He is also one As chief of the Adityas. and establishes a purer. but no successful derivation has yet been produced that is consistent with known laws of sound change. As the wearing golden armor and holding a noose or lasso made most prominent Deva. Together with Mitra–originally 'agreement' (between tribes) personified—being master of ṛtá. ˈvɑːrə-/. based on similarities between both names and the respective gods’ attributes. Rama (an Avatar of Vishnu) performs a penance (tapasya) to Varuna. and can grant immortality.Chapter 34 Varuna For other uses.63. In the Rigveda. when opposed to Mitra. he is rather associ.3). 34. The daily Sandhyavandanam ritual of a dvija addresses Varuna in this aspect in its evening routine. is a god of the water and of the celestial ocean. asking him to forgive all sins. and Mitra with the daylight. is about six times more prominent than Varuna. As 34. and Nala con- 108 . he is the supreme keeper of order and god of the law. Varuna has aspects of a solar of the Guardians of the directions. Varuna is also twinned with Indra in the Rigveda. was adopted or made the Faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka. Begging him not to destroy the oceans with the missile. and his brother. Varuna. Varuna is also a god of the dead.

is in “common opinion” Zoroastrian tradition.Lord” Apam Napat. 1938:282ff) sees Varuna represented as the Amesha Spenta Asha Vahishta “Best Righteousness”. a dim-witted.together with a loss (Gray. easily tricked demon which the other Ahuras are *mitra and *varouna. 1965:12-13) also follow.in the 19th century esoteri. of a dvija Hindu.” Neither of these terms have any connection to Vedic Varuna.6. an opinion—with extensions—that Dumezil (Tarpeia 1947:33-113) and Widengren (Die Religionen Irans. Foundations. the proper name having been forgotten—a not un34. 1981:59-73). justifies his angry assault on the oceans as he followed the correct process of petitioning and worshipping Varuna. and the Baga” (Boyce.4).[6] tive that also appears in the Avesta (as baga). the third member of the Ahuric triad jarati script as 'vāruná'. Assuming that Vedic Varuna is not a purely Indian development (i. a term in the ambiguous the latter being unambiguously Ahura Berezainti.4 In Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda) explicitly naming them. Kuiper (IIJ I. which is the literal Middle Persian (Mithra the King and Varuna the Master. in the only two occurrences of the term where the late to be of relevance to a reconstruction of what might word does not refer to Ahura Mazda.g. generally understood to mean “the Wise [Mazda] ance of two names like 'Varuna' in the medieval texts of One and the (other) Ahuras”. 1929:15).3 In contemporary Hinduism common occurrence.'Rama Conquers Varuna' sight into the cosmic order” that Varuna grants his devotees. 2001) sees meaning of his name. This a predecessor figure existed) in Iran are the appear. IN ZOROASTRIANISM 109 cally interpreted as “deliverer from evil. Boyce of “backwards"-ness. While Ahura Mazda is uniformly “the mightiest Ahura” (e. Zimmer (Münchner Studien 1984:187-215) observed that Varuna has the byname (cult epithet) bhaga. In Kuiper’s view. It may then be that the Avestan adjective is likewise a cult epithet. there are several different theories on what might have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna in Iran: Nyberg (Die Religionen des alten Iran. assuming that he derives from an IndoIranian *vouruna).e.10 as the "(revealed) inRaja Ravi Varma Painting .9.11). Mithra. “High Pahlavi script was mis-transcribed into Pazand and Gu. (See Jhulelal) be a remnant of Varuna in those Gathic passages (generally presumed to have been composed by Zoroaster himself) refers to the ahuras (plural) without (aside from 34. This may be seen to be reflected in Artaxerxes III’s invocation of ahuramazda ura mithra Worship of Varuna is an integral part of the evening ritual baga “Ahura Mazda. Too 33. described in Rigveda 8. Acta of the Sandhyavandanam. popular worship is primarily limited to Hindus of Sindhi Another epithet of Vedic Varuna is asura. Rama negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna. Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the propitious characteristics of *mitra structs a bridge (Rama’s Bridge) across to Lanka. Also unrelated to Vedic Varuna are Avestan Vourukasha and Varena.phrase.equivalent (also Apam Napat) Vedic Varuna is closely as- . This theory is based on Vedic Varuna’s role as the principal protector of rta. The basis of Kuiper’s proposal is that the equivalent of Avestan mazda “wisdom” is Vedic medhira. an adjecbut obtaining the result by force for the greater good. 1957) proposes that none less than Ahura Mazda is a development from an earlier dvandva *vouruna-mitra. and with whose Indian of halant by typesetting -. 31. and there may origin. The former is the Avesta’s mythological sea that covers the earth. Iranica 21. The other instance appears in a this supported by the younger Avestan dvandvah expresreading of a medieval Zoroastrian reaction to Islam’s 99 sion mithra ahura berezanta “Mithra and the High Lord”. names of Allah.4. However. which then -. In that list. which in Iran is represented by asha [vahishta]. the poet uses the have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna (if at all such expression mazdasca ahurano (Yasna 30. One of these instances is as Mid. Yasna Varuna is not attested in the texts of the Avesta. while Varena is a mythological fourcornered fourteenth region of the world.34.(so Boyce 1984:159) recognized as being archaic and in dle Persian varun.

org/stable/1061926?origin= JSTOR-pdf [5] Anthony.5 In modern age • Asura • Ahura Mazda 34. the Wheel. J. CHAPTER 34. Varuna.7 Notes [1] “Varuna”. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. The Ramayana. USS Varuna (1861) & USS Varuna (1943) Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Varuna for Varuna. Kuiper. The Varuna class of ship of Indian Navy are sail training vessels.jstor. • INS Varuna • INS Tarangini • INS Sudarshini The dwarf planet candidate 20000 Varuna is named after Varuna. the Vedic god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. Princeton University Press. pp. They consist of the following three ships. [4] http://www. 376–81 • The first Varuna was a screw gunboat launched in 1861 and sunk by enemy action in April 1862. 30–31. and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. [6] Ramesh Menon (2004). commissioned in 1943 and decommissioned in 1946. (2010).16. VARUNA • Paravar • Shukra (guru of asuras. INS Varuna is a sail training vessel of the Indian Navy. Varuna was completed in April 1981 by AlcockAshdown in Bhavnagar. Ancient Idian Cosmopony.32. B. demons) 34. corresponding to Paippalada 5. 34. The Horse. [2] F. the Indian Neptune. • The second Varuna (AGP-5) was a motorboat tender. Beombay 1983 [3] Shaunakiya Atharvaveda 4. It can carry 26 cadets.6 See also • Rigvedic deities • Mitra (Vedic) • Adityas • Guardians of the directions • The king and the god . David W.110 sociated. pp.

• Mėnuo. Earliest written sources.Chapter 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures “Indraja” redirects here. He looks like an old traveling beggar. Other stars. the pagan religion received more attention from authors. probably of later literary origin. 35. the . folklore. sometimes. the Thunder. The cults of old deities transformed into folklore (individual tales. the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun (the Vedic Ashwins or the Greek Dioskouri). goddess of the Evening Star. 35. • Aušrinė. there is no accepted list of Lithuanian gods. and instigated war between people).1 Gods • Dievas. • Dievas Senelis (“Good Old Man”) he is a teacher of people and judge of their morality. like Vakarinė or Vakarė (the evening Venus. Audėja (the weaver). Lithuania converted to Christianity in 1387. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”) (Parjanya in Vedic religion). legends. a goddess. • Ašvieniai. • Perkūnas. Kannada. but they. • Žvaigždės (žvaigždė. Because of such difficulties obtaining data. Germanic Tiwaz and Greek Zeus). Pramžimas. Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine. a daughter of Dievas (“dievaitė"). Beginning in the 16th century. authored by foreigners and Christians. and fairy-tales. • Gabija. but elements of the Lithuanian mythology survived into the 19th century. but often their accounts were confused. Tamil. goddess of Fate and Luck (Laxmi in Hinduism). a goddess. Epithet of Dievas. songs. • Laima. etc. Deivės Valdytojos were associated with Dalia and Laima. goddess. Nukirpėja (who cut the cloth of life). and Išskalbėja (the laundress). For Indian actress in Telugu. and other personages from Lithuanian myths. goddess of fate and weaving. Aušrinė has many similarities with Vedic Ushas. a daughter of the Dievas (“dievaitė"). By that time the pagan mythology became fragmented and mixed with Christian traditions. Malayalam films. the Greek goddess Eos. • Praamžius. • Saulė.1 Names from folklore myths and legends • Vakarinė. This section includes the names of gods.) without associated rituals.[1] 111 • Žemyna. and heavily influenced by various religious agendas. Pramšans. divine or demonic beings. the Morning Star. Alternatively her name is given as Aušra (“dawn”). myths.1. only briefly mention the Lithuanian gods. Different authors present wildly contradictory reconstructions of Lithuanian pantheon. • Deivės Valdytojos (Lithuanian: Governing Goddesses). the Sun Goddess (Surya in Vedic religion). an epithet of Dievas (the chief god). Gadintoja (who broke the thread). the foster of the Holy Fire. One of the most important stars is Aušrinė. in singular). Collection and recording of folklore began in the 19th century. having the Sun as their mother and. the deified soil (Zamin in Persian and Hindi for “land”). the Moon as their father. She was the goddess of the morning. contradictory. one main chief god (whose name was cognate with the Vedic Dyaus. • Dalia. the Moon. see Indraja (actress). who makes the bed for Saulė. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”). and the Roman goddess Aurora. They were seven sisters: Verpiančioji (who spun the threads of life). They have similarities with the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns. were the goddesses who made garments from human’s lives. Aušrinė's sisters. Praamžimas. are less important. Sergėtoja (who scolded Gadintoja. The list of Lithuanian gods is reconstructed based on scarce written sources and late folklore. stars. Metančioji (who threw rims of life).

Earlier . • Nykštukas. • Ragana is an old-looking female or witch. While cutting grain. John the Baptist (Joninės). 35. and would say: Davei manei. • Bangpūtys. • Pinčiukas.1. Indra in Vedic religion). However. but a trickster. Pavietrė. women would leave a few grain tufts uncut. a spirit of lakes • Upinis. Ruginis (spirit of rye). Mostly has dark intentions and powers to control forces of nature. Indraja (Jupiter. Maumas (bugaboo). which would later be braided into plaits. Arklys (horse). Sometimes she was considered to be a sister of Laima (luck). which subsequently became popular. mostly because of its modern poetic interpretation by Maironis. Žebris. Bobas. Bubas. When crops in the phosphorescent skeleton. Kolera.1. Kupala in Polish mythology and Ivan Kupala in Russian mythology 35.4 Various lower beings • Kaukas. a household spirit bringing both good and bad luck • Baubas. misery or nightmare. The queen of the amber palace Jūratė may be considered a manifestation of the goddess of Sea in this legend. His function of shining this beacon makes him similar to Aušrinė.dweller or even god of bogs and marshes. • Vėlės. the legendary princess of Kernavė • Jūratė and Kastytis are heroes of a Lithuanian legend. or Norse Valhalla). There are aakis (green-eyed). Kiškis (hare). spirits similar to leprechauns.112 CHAPTER 35. an evil spirit with long lean arms. • Jievaras. spirits of dead human beings. Maro mergos. the god of the seas and storms ––he is two-faced like the Roman god Janus. Bubė.5 Demonic beings • Aitvaras. who were • Žiburinis. Mother Earth.6 Holy places and things Katinas (tomcat). Also it could be described as a black and dark creature living under the carpet or in some dark spot of the house. 35.3 Local and nature spirits • Ežerinis. He harasses people and tears their hair or stifles them. 35. . Kupolinės is also known as Rasos. Raudongerklis (red-throated). LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES sun). Papiokė. not the pure evil being of Christianity. a spirit of rivers • Auštaras (Auštra). Vilkas (wolf). Dau(red-headed). To children. Kapinių žmogus. a scary forest spirit that appears as a running through the fields. Smauglys (boa). also The Reaper. The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with Feast of St.[2] Her sacral bird is the owl. Compare this with Ziedu māte in Latvian mythology. Guda. Paplėštakis.1. • Slogutis means pain. • Javinė. Described as white and blue as the sky itself. a household spirit who protects grain.1. spirits. Laukų dvasios include Nuogalis. • Laumė. sometimes appear in mythic stories too. They probably were old ladies living by the forest. Maras (black death or the Plague). fields waved in the wind. some consider him to be her cousin. who stands at the gates of paradise and lights the way for those going to paradise. the spirit of springtime vegetation and flowers. devil. Meška (bear). the home of good souls. • Kupolė.1. • Laukų dvasios (spirits of fields). danced and sang songs. Žemele. duodame ir tau ([You] gave for us. A misbehaving child could be told by the parents: “Behave. wrinkly fingers and red eyes. In this festival. Good spirit. Raudongalvis • Dausos or Dangus. he is the equivalent of the boogeyman of the Englishspeaking countries. if anyone tried to use them. Babaužis.2 Heroes and heroines • Pajauta. Sacrifices to Jievaras are made after the rye harvest. • Giltinė – goddess of death. gnomes. we are giving for you too). a request for the land to continue to be fruitful. Žiezdrė (Mars) and Vaivora (Mercury). They would also leave some bread and salt under the plait. very friendly with the Earth and Nature gods. Dizikas. the punishment was grave. Lapė (fox). the god of the northeast wind. Pypalas. or baubas will come and get you”. 35. Žalisos is on a high mountain (Latvian Debeskalns. having a good knowledge of plants and their use for medical and other purposes. Baubas. Sėlija (Saturn). between two rivers. people saw them as being the actions of spirits. a fairy-like female creature (pixies). Also can mean fear or bad feelings. Other names include Kaulinyčia. Bubis. a household god who protects grain in barns. women picked sacral herbs.

Sovica was practicated not only by Lithuanians but also by other pagan tribes (Livonians. Kauriraris (Chaurirari) – deity of war and warhorses. There was mentioned in chronicle that she is a bitch. It may be euphemism of Dievas.2. Sutvaras (Sotwaros) – god of all cattle . by some scholars etimologized as Numadievis) is incorrectly written name of supreme god or just another euphemism. while Wilhelm Mannhardt argued it stems from karas (war). Stryjkowski pointed out that Prakorimas was similar to Prussian supreme god Okopirmas. The flesh would be dividing into three pieces: one for peasants. of the wind) or Vėjas (Wind) who is also one of • Diviriks is thought to be one of Perkūnas euthe oldest gods in Lithuanian mythology. Day in the • Perkūnas was the god of thunder. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 113 golden apple-trees in the Dausos garden. Rūgutis (Ruguczis) – god of fermentation and fermented foods 3. Stryjkowski provided two lists of gods.1 Earliest Russian chronicles Some names from Lithuanian mythology are also found in Russian chronicles of the 13th century.2 Names by written sources 35.2 Martynas Mažvydas Vėjas (Vėjopatis) blows bad souls into oblivion. • Nonadievis (Nunadievis. The mediaeval chronicles tells that this custom is very old and was called Sovica. Stryjkowski elaborated that people used to sacrifice white cocks to Prakorimas. 35. according to studies by Gintaras Beresnevičius. Lietuvonis (Lituwanis) – god of rain 6. 2. Estonians and others). Medeina also was mentioned in the 16th century by J. like K.2. 4. one Old Prussian and another Lithuanian. Master of Dausos is Vėjopatis (Lord and folk tales till the 20th century. Vėjas phemisms. Žemininkas (Ziemennik) – god of land and agriculture. Auštaras and Vėjopatis are keepers of Dausos’s gates (Dausų Vartai). Lithuania. is identical to Vayu of Hinduism. Lasicki. Some scholars. The cult of žaltys (grass snake) is associated with the cult of Žemininkas. Andojas. • Žvoruna(Zvoruna) was a euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess like Roman Diana. • Medeina (Medeinė) is another euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess. and third for burning.35. Samogitia and all Russia. • Andajus (Andajas. He listed 16 Lithuanian gods:[5] 1. Prakorimas (Prokorimos) – the supreme deity. Martynas Mažvydas in his Latin introduction to Catechismusa Prasty Szadei (1547) urged the people to abandon their pagan ways and mentioned the following gods:[3][4] • Perkūnas (Percuno) – god of thunder • Laukosargas (Laucosargus) – god of grains and other agricultural plants • Žemėpatis (Semepates) – god of cattle and other farm animals • Aitvaras and kaukas (Eithuaros and Caucos) – evil spirits 35. Perkūnas survived in people faith petual night.2. Her name is connected with wild animals. Russian chronicles are considered the best source of information about ancient Lithuanian pantheon worshiped by feodals and military. The name etymology is unclear. • Sovijus in 13th-century Russian chronicles was a person who introduced the pagan custom of burning bodies after death. it means that her zoomorphic shape is female dog. Krūminė (Kruminie Pradziu Warpu) – deity of ears. Vladimir Toporov suggested that it is derived from Lithuanian word kaurai (fur). While Auštaras shows the way for good souls. another for pagan priests (Lithuanian: žynys). There was mentioned in chronicle that warriors invoke Andajus in battle. She was worshiped by King Mindaugas and represented military interest of warriors. 35. meaning leader of gods. In this work.3 Maciej Stryjkowski Maciej Stryjkowski (1547–1593) was a Polish– Lithuanian historian and author of Chronicle of Poland.2.) was mentioned in medieval chronicles as supreme deity. etc. one of the most garden is perpetual but outside its confines is perpowerful deities. These deities were supposedly worshiped by King of Lithuania Mindaugas secretly after baptizing. • Teliavelis (Televelis) was a powerful smith who made the sun and threw it to the sky. Būga tried to prove that Televelis is incorrectly written Kalvelis (smith diminutive in Lithuanian).[6] 7. This myth survived in folk tales in the beginning of the 20th century. provider of crops 5. Teliavelis has connections with Finnish Ilmarinen.

Kelių dievas (Kielu Dziewos) – god of roads. Datanus 11. written ca. Derintojas (Derfintos) 24. Lavvkpatimo 26. Upinis dievas (Upinis Dewos) – god of rivers 8. 17. Šeimos dievas (Seimi Dewos) – god of family 7. mosses and lichens 15. Kriukis (Krukis) – deity of pigs 4. 10. Medeina (Modeina et Ragaina) – goddess of forest and hunting 14. This 18-page treatise contained a lists of 76 Lithuanian gods with brief description of their functions.2. Priparšis (Priparscis) 27. Łasicki was also not intimately familiar with Lithuanian culture or language. Aušra (Ausca) – the morning star (Venus). Therefore. Simonaitis and Ventis Rekičionis (Simonaitem. The list contained very minor deities. Prigirstytis (Prigirstitis) – can hear whispers 23. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES 8. There are doubts whether it was an actual god. Derived from ežeras (lake). Gintaras Beresnevičius noted that this deity could be the same medieval Teliavelis. People did not offer sacrifices to him as he was a free spirit. Ežerinis (Ezernim) – spirit or deity of lakes. 15. Bežlėja (Bezlea) 9. Ventis Rekicziouum) – spirits worshiped by individual noble families 20. Gardūnytis (Gardunithis) – protector of newlyborn lambs[10] 22. Sidzium. Bubilas – god of honey and bees 9. 19. The name is also known from hand-written collection of sermons from 1573. Žemėpatis (Zemopacios) 30. guardian angel 10. Ligyčius (Ligiczus) 11. songs. Sidžius.114 CHAPTER 35. Aukštėjas (Auxtheias Vissagistis) – an euphemism of the supreme god. other Sarmatians. Didis Lado (Dzidzis Lado) – the great god. Orthus 18. Festivities. He wrote a treatise on idolatry About gods of Samogitians. husband of Austėja 6. Łasicki obtained most of his information from Łaszkowski. Audros – god of storm 32. Karvaitis Ėraitinis (Kurvvaiczin Eraiczin) – deity of calves and lambs[9] 21. Gulbis (Gulbi Dzievos) – the good spirit of every human. Her other name was Aušrinė. Algis 33. 34. Also it could be a euphemism of Vakarė. Bentis 25.[7] 12. and false Christians (De diis Samagitarum caeterorumque Sarmatarum et falsorum Christianorum. living in bushes of sambucus and commanding chthonic dwarfs barstukas 35. Ratainyčia (Ratainicza) – god of horses[6] 28. Pyzius (Pizio) – god of spouses 13. Kremata – god of hogs[9] 13. Kirnis (Kirnus) – local god of cherries 12. a Polish lesser noble who worked as a royal land surveyor. trade and travel 16. Lazdona (Lasdona) – goddess of hazelnuts 5. 29. the academic opinion on the list ranges from a valuable resource to a practical joke designed to poke fun of Christian saints through an inverted mirror. Žemyna (Zemina) – goddess of land and agriculture . Perkūnas (Percunos) – god of thunder god 31. Deities mentioned by Jan Łasicki were:[8] 16. Derived from Lithuanian word aukštas (high). Pušaitis or Puškaitis (Puszajtis) – deity of land. Brėkšta (Breksta) – goddess of twilight. Ganiklis (Goniglis Dziewos) – god of herds and shepherds 14. Bubilas (Babilos) – household god of bees.[11] 3. Valgina (Walgina) – god of cattle[9] 1. Krikštas (Kriksthos) – protector of tombstones[9] 2. Tavalas (Tavvals) – deity of physical strength. 1582 and published in 1615). representing everyday household items.4 Jan Łasicki Jan Łasicki (Lasicius) was a Polish Protestant activist. Šventpaukštinis (Swieczpunscynis) – god of all domesticated and wild birds. Kerpyčius and Šilinytis (Kierpiczus and Siliniczus) – gods of forest. Apydėmė (Apidome) – deity of changed residence. and dances in his honor lasted from May 25 to June 25.

Vaižgantas (Waizganthos) – a god of flax • Viršaitis (Wirszajtos) – protected household.2. Prigirstytis / Girystis. • Žalius (Zallus) – god of disagreement • Žėlius (Zelus) – god of grass • Šulininis (Szullinnijs) – god of wells • Bangpūtys. Trotytojas kibirkščių (Tratitas Kirbixtu) – deity of However. 55. Kaukas (Kaukie) 39. Narbutt claimed that he was equivalent to Auxtejas Wissagistis mentioned by Łasicki and to Roman Saturn 63. Raugo Žemėpatis (Rauguzemapati) – deity of sourdough. Klamals – no function recorded by Łasicki. Smik smik per velėną (Smik Smik Perleuenu) – a phrase rather than a being 36. Gabija (Gabie) – goddess of household fire • Perkūnas (Perkunas) – thunder god 61. The name is possibly derived from šerti (feed).2. Warpulis 69. Beržulis (Birzulis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. domestic animals. Šeryčius (Siriczus) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Ligyčius / Lygėjus. Salaus – no function recorded by Łasicki. • Gabjauja (Gabvartas)[14] 49. The first Pesseias volume contained a description of Lithuanian mythology. Giltinė. Užpelenė (Aspelenie) 57. Ziemennik . fire some gods mentioned only by Narbutt and unknown from Alabathis other sources are usually treated as a figure of author’s imagination. determines the fate of people. Karvaitis. Dugnai – spirit of flour 52. Šluotražis (Szlotrazis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Atlaibas (Atlaibos) – no function recorded by Łasicki. and other gods 59. Veliuona (Vielona) – goddess of death 68.[12] Deities mentioned by Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704) 43. 42. world. Srutis and Miechutele – deities of paint and color[12] 41. 54. modern historians have accused Narbutt of falsifying historical facts and reporting speculations. Ėraitis. The name is derived from šluota 35. Gota.35. leaven and fermentation • Ukapirmas (Okkapirmas) – preceded time. Numeias 35. Matergabiae • Praamžius (Pramżimas) – highest god. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 115 35. 45. Luibegeldas 62. his feast is celebrated on December 25 60. spark. Tiklis – no function recorded by Łasicki. Based on etymology. Guboi and Tvverticos 67. Dvargantis (Dvvargonth) – no function recorded by Łasicki. were:[12] 44. Vetustis 66. Ublanyčia (Vblanicza) – patron of beggars[13] Polish historian Theodor Narbutt wrote the ten-volume work History of the Lithuanian Nation (Dzieje starożytne narodu litewskiego) between 1835 and 1841.2.Prussian Lithuanian 48. Deuoitis 65.5 Matthäus Prätorius (broom). • Drebkulis and Magyla . often presented as wife of Bubilas 64. Vėjopatis. Aitvaras (Aitvvaros) 38.6 Theodor Narbutt 50. 53.[12] 46. Kelio dievas / Kelukis 47. Gyvatė (Giuoitos) – black snake (see also žaltys) 40. Bičbirbis. Thus. Jaučių Baubis. Skalsa. 56. Austėja (Austheia) – household goddess of bees. Biržulis / Beržulis. it could be a god of birches and birch sap. Budintojas (Budintaia) Male deities 58. Polengabia 51. Ežiagalis (Ezagulis) – god of death 37.

doctors • Atrimpas (Atrimpos) – god of sea and water • Gardaitis (Gardeoldiis) – god of wind. and darkness • Patelas (Patelo) – flying god of air. pleasure. wife of Poklius • Luobo gelda (Lajbegelda) – goddess of knowledge and rumors • Alabatis – goddess of flax • Mėšlų boba (Mahslu baba) – goddess of garbage • Aušra (Ausssra) – morning goddess • Budintoja – spirit that wakes sleeping people . riches. National Museum in Warsaw • Bezelea – evening goddess • Brėkšta (Brekszta) – goddess of darkness and dreams • Kruonis (Kronis) – goddess of time • Užsparinė (Usparinia) – goddess of land borders • Verpėja (Werpeja) – weaver of the thread of life • Gondu – goddess of weddings • Upinė (Upine) – goddess of rivers. she was served by vaidilutės • Lada (Lado) – the great goddess. Rasos festival is dedicated to her • Budtė (Budte) – goddess of wisdom • Laima (Lajma) – goddess of fate • Pelenų Gabija (Polengabia) – goddess of fireplaces • Moterų Gabija (Matergabia) – goddess of bread and bakery • Perkūnaitėlė (Perkunatele) – wife of Perkūnas • Pilvytė (Pilwite) – goddess of money. afterlife • Pergrubė (Pergrubie) – goddess of spring. agriculture • Valginė (Walgina) – goddess protecting domestic animals • Nijolė (Nijola) – mistress of the underworld.116 CHAPTER 35. joy • Veliuona (Wellona) – goddess of eternity. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES • Kovas (Kawas) – god of war • Ragutis – god of beer. mead • Santvaras or Sotvaras (Sotwaros) – god of daylight. gardens • Milda – goddess of love. poets. vodka. and good luck • Lietuva (Liethua) – goddess of freedom. springs • Ratainyčia (Ratajniczu) – goddess protecting horses • Krūminė (Krumine) – goddess of grain. protector of ships • Poklius (Poklus) – god of death and underworld • Kriukis (Krugis) – god of smiths • Žiemininkas (Ziemienikas) – god of earth. similar to an angel • Šneibratas (Sznejbrato) – god of birds and hunting • Kibirai (Kabiry) – a trinity Female deities • Praurimė (Praurime) – goddess of sacred fire. courtship Goddess Milda by Kazimierz Alchimowicz (1910). storm. harvest. flowers.

35.3. SEE ALSO

117

• Austėja (Austheja) – goddess of bees

35.2.8 Other names

• Ragutiene Pati (Ragutenapati) – wife of Ragutis

The names, that were more marginal in Lithuanian
mythology or less known from existing sources are put
here. In fact they denote some spirits or local deities, that
don't play a main role in the mythology of Lithuanians.

• Žemės Motina (Zemmes mahti) – goddess of underground, responsible for lost items
• Gaila (Gajla) – spirit torturing people and animals
• Neris – nymph of Neris River

• Blizgulis, a god of snow. His name means “that who
glitters.”
• Junda, Goddess of War

• Dugnė (Dugna) – nymph of rivers

• Baubis, a household god of meat and cattle.

• Ragana – goddess of trees

• Divytis, a god-like hero of fishermen legends. Fishermen at sea sang songs about Divytis.

• Lazdona – goddess of hazelnut

• Gardaitis, a god (a spirit?) of ships and sailors.

• Medziojna – goddess of forests

• Jagaubis, a household spirit of fire and the furnace.

• Pajauta – worshiped woman, daughter of Duke
Kernius, wife of Živinbudas

• Rasa, Kupolė's and Kaupolis’ daughter. She is the
goddess of summer’s greenage and flowers.

• Birutė (Biruta) – worshiped woman, wife of
Kęstutis

• Mokas, a stone with an ability to teach people,
sometimes they are found in families - with wife
Mokienė and children Mokiukas

35.2.7

Other written sources

35.3 See also

This section contains those names of Lithuanian and
Prussian gods or other mythical beings that are mentioned
in old treatises on history or philosophy, sometimes accompanied by brief descriptions, and which are known
from a few independent sources or from their counterparts under different names in later collections of myths
and tales.
• Dimstipatis (mentioned by Jokūbas Lavinskis), is a
masculine deity (genius loci). It is a household god,
the guardian of houses and caretaker of the hearth.
People sacrificed roosters and black hens to the deity. The birds were boiled; later people would gather
around the kettle and eat the birds. The bones were
burned. Sometimes Dimstipatis is reconstructed as
a god of housewives, to whom pigs were sacrificed.
Dimstipatis was also seen as a power protecting from
fires.[3]
• Dirvolika, Nosolus (Jesuit reports from 1605)[15]

• Baukuris (Kraziu kolegijos)[16]
• Velinas (mentioned by Konstantinas Sirvydas)

[2]

• Laima (Daniel Klein in 1666)[17]

• Lithuanian mythology
• Slavic mythology
• Romuva (temple)

35.4 References
[1] “Praamžius”. Mitologijos enciklopedija, vol. 2. Vilnius.
Vaga. 1999. 291 p.
[2] Balsys, Rimantas (2005).
“Prūsų ir lietuvių mirties (požemio, mirusiųjų) dievybės: nuo Patulo iki
Kaulinyčios” (PDF). Lietuvininkai ir lietuviai. Etninė
kultūra (in Lithuanian) IV: 27–51.
[3] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (2006-12-16). “Laukpatis ir
Dimstipatis. Lauko ir namų dievai”. Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (825). ISSN 1392-7760.
[4] Adalbert Bezzenberger, ed. (1874). Litauische und Lettische Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Göttingen: Robert
Peppmüler. p. 3.

• Pagirnis (Jesuit reports from 1605)[3]

• Javinė (Jawinne by Jacob Brodowski)[15]

• Latvian mythology

[5] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (August 2006). “M. Strijkovskio
“Kronikos” lietuvių dievų sąrašas (1)". Metai (in Lithuanian) 8–9 (89). ISSN 0134-3211.
[6] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). "Žirgų (arklių) dievybės rašytiniuose šaltiniuose”. Žemaičių žemė (in Lithuanian) (3):
17–19. ISSN 1392-2610.

118

CHAPTER 35. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES

[7] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). “Lada (Didis Lado) in Baltic
and Slavic Written Sources”. Acta Baltico-Slavica. Archeologia, Historia, Ethnographia, et Linguarum Scientia
(30): 597–609. ISSN 0065-1044.
[8] Łasicki, Jan (1868) [1615]. De diis samagitarum libellus (in Latin). Riga: J. Bacmeister. pp. 10–16. OCLC
60605501.
[9] Mitchel, B. W. (April 1919). “The Early Centuries of
Kultur”. The Classical Journal 7 (14): 421.
[10] Paulauskytė, Teresė (2004-08-21). “Ką garbino žemaičiai
XVI amžiuje dievus ar demonus?". Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (713). ISSN 1392-7760.
[11] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Apydėmė".
Encyclopedia Lituanica I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas
Kapočius. pp. 113–114. LCC 74-114275.
[12] Balsys, Rimantas (2007). “Kai kurios Motiejaus Pretorijaus hipotezės ir jų interpretacijos XX a. pabaigos – XXI
a. pradžios mitologų darbuose” (PDF). Res Humanitariae
(in Lithuanian) I: 76–94. ISSN 1822-7708.
[13] Razauskas, Dainius (2009-12-04). “Krosnis – aukuras,
namų šventovė". Šiaurės Atėnai (in Lithuanian) (967).
ISSN 1392-7760.
[14] http://www.aidai.us/index.php?option=com_content&
task=view&id=892&Itemid=127
[15] Ona Verseckienė, ed. (2004). “Namų dievai. Baltiškieji
namų dievai”. Lietuvių etninė kultūra. Namai etninėje
kultūroje (in Lithuanian). Elektroninės leidybos namai.
ISBN 9955-606-04-5.
[16] Zinkus
[17] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Laima”.
Encyclopedia Lituanica III. Boston, Massachusetts:
Juozas Kapočius. pp. 269–270. LCC 74-114275.

35.5 Further reading
• Lithuanian Religion and Mythology by Gintaras
Beresnevičius
• Jūrate Baranova et al., eds. (2001). “Chapter iv:
Lithuanian mythology by Gintaras Beresnevičius”.
Lithuanian philosophy: persons and ideas Lithuanian philosophical studies, ii. Cultural heritage and
contemporary change series IVa, Eastern and Central Europe, volume 17. The Council For Research
In Values And Philosophy. ISBN 1-56518-137-9.
Retrieved 2007-09-07.
• Gintaras Beresnevičius on periodisation and Gods in
Lithuanian mythology.
• Algirdas Julien Greimas, “Of Gods and Men: Studies in Lithuanian Mythology”, Indiana Univ. Press
(November 1992)

Chapter 36

Hine-nui-te-pō
Hine-nui-te-pō (“Great woman of night") is a goddess of
night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori
mythology. She is a daughter of Tāne. She fled to the
underworld because she discovered that Tāne, whom she
had married, was also her father. The red colour of sunset
comes from her.

36.2 See also
• Vagina dentata
• Persephone
• Incest
• Māui (Māori mythology)

36.1 Myths

36.3 References

All of the children of Rangi and Papa were male. It
was Tāne who first felt the need for a wife and began to
look for a companion. His mother showed him how to
make a female form from red earth. Then Tāne breathed
life into Hine-ahuone, the earth-formed-maid, and mated
with her. Their child was Hine-ata-uira, maid-of-theflashing-dawn (a.k.a. Hine-tītama), and Tāne took her
to wife (Biggs 1966:449).
One day, while Tāne was away, Hine-ata-uira began to
wonder who her father was. She was disgusted and
ashamed when she heard that her husband was also her
father, and she ran away. When Tāne came back he was
told that she had run off to the spirit-world, and he quickly
followed after. But he was stopped from entering by Hine
herself, in her new role as goddess of the underworld.
“Go back, Tāne”, she said to him, “and raise our children. Let me remain here to gather them in.” So Tāne
came back to the upper world, while Hine stayed below,
waiting only for Māui to bring death into the world, and
begin the never-ending procession of mortals to her realm
(Biggs 1966:449).
Māui did the last of his tricks on her, attempting to make
mankind immortal by trying to crawl through her body,
entering in her vagina and leaving by her mouth while
she slept, to reverse the path of birth. But one of his bird
friends, the Pīwakawaka, laughed at the ridiculousness of
the situation, seeing Māui turned into a worm squirming to enter the goddess, and woke her. To punish the
demi-god, she crushed him with the obsidian teeth in her
vagina; Māui was the first man to die (Alpers 1964:70).
Her other husband is her paternal uncle Ruaumoko.
119

• B.G. Biggs, 'Maori Myths and Traditions’ in
A.H. McLintock (editor), Encyclopaedia of New
Zealand, 3 Volumes.
(Government Printer:
Wellington), 1966, II:447-454.
• Anthony Alpers, Maori Myths and Tribal Legends.
Anckland : Longman Paul, 1964. ISBN 0-58271674-8.

and then Sigrdrifa says a heathen prayer. while the Prose Edda features information about Nótt’s ancestry. the new and waning moons the beneficent powers created. The first verse of this prayer features a reference to the “sons of Dagr” and the “daughter of Nótt": 37. and the Prose Edda. “joy-of-sleep” by the elves. and the night and its tides. the personified day (although some manuscript variations list Jörð as Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother instead). Nótt’s third marriage was to the god Dellingr and this resulted in their son Dagr. “unlight” by the jötunn. In Norse mythology. but night was of Nörvi born. In stanza 14 of the Vafþrúðnismál. In both the Poetic Edda. the word nótt appears throughout Old Norse literature.1 Attestations 120 Hail to the Day! Hail to the sons of Day! To Night and her daughter hail! With placid eyes behold us here. Nótt is listed as the daughter of a figure by the name of Nörvi (with variant spellings) and is associated with the horse Hrímfaxi. As a proper noun. Hail to the Æsir! Hail to the Asyniur! Hail to the bounteous earth! Words and wisdom give to us noble twain.1. from which dew comes to the valleys.[2] Nótt rides her horse in this 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson.[3] In stanza 30 of the poem Alvíssmál. the god Odin (disguised as "Gagnráðr") asks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir from where the day comes. “darkness” by the gods. compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. Alvíss responds that night is referred as “night” by mankind. Nótt (Old Norse “night”[1] ) is night personified.1 Poetic Edda In stanza 24 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. and healing hands while we live![5] . Vafþrúðnir responds: Delling hight he who the day’s father is. grandmother of Thor.Chapter 37 Nótt 37. after the valkyrie Sigrdrífa is woken from her sleep curse by the hero Sigurd. and here sitting give us victory. In stanza 25. “the masker by the mighty Powers”. and she gives him a “memory-drink” of a drinking horn full of mead. Sigurd asks her name. to count the years for men. the god Thor asks the dwarf Alvíss to tell him what night is called in each of the nine worlds. including her three marriages. whom "Nórr" birthed. while dwarves call her “dream-Njörun" (meaning “dream-goddess”).[4] In Sigrdrífumál. Odin states that the horse Hrímfaxi “draws every night to the beneficent gods” and that he lets foam from his bit fall every morning.

• Jónsson. Oxford World’s Classics. scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt. Jesse (Trans.) (1999). [5] Thorpe (1907:181). Larrington glosses draumNjörun (Jónsson (1931:84. In other words. and foam from her horse Hrímfaxi’s bit sprinkles the earth. ISBN 0-304-34520-2 In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. • Faulkes. In chapter 10.[8] Chapter 58 states that “Hrimfaxi or Fiorsvartnir draw the night”.) (2006).) (1907). Anthony (Trans. REFERENCES 37. and Dellingr.37. [8] Faulkes (1995:90). who takes after his “father’s people” in brightness and fairness.2 Notes [1] Orchard (1997:120). L. Nótt marries the god Dellingr. [7] Haukur (2008:159—168). Andy (1997). “nótt” is stated as one of various words for time and a version of the Alvíssmál passage is cited. [6] Byock (2005:19). Lexicon poeticum. Odin took Nótt and her son Dagr. Norrœna Society. [3] Larrington (1996:42).1. Nótt’s second marriage was to Annar. R. Dagr. U. Jörð. • Haukur Thorgeirsson (2008). Nótt is described as “black and swarthy”. Møllers bogtrykkeri. including “daughter of Nótt”. Cassell. The Elder Edda of Saemund Sigfusson. Benjamin (Trans.[7] • Orchard. ISBN 0-460-87616-3 Edda. and they ride around the earth every 24 hours. and the two produced a son by the name of Auðr. “Hinn fagri foldar son” as published in Gripla XIX. [9] Faulkes (1995:137). ISBN 0-14-044755-5 However. depending on the manuscript. .[9] and in chapter 64. placed them into the sky with a chariot and a horse each. and the couple have Dagr.3.[6] • Byock. Carolyne (Trans.[10] 37. pages 159—168. means of referring to Jörð are provided.3 References In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning. Penguin Classics.) (1995). and has had three marriages. and argues that “the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT. The Poetic Edda. [4] Translation of all of this section minus “dream-Njörun” from Larrington (1996:113). S. Everyman. the enthroned figure of High states that Nótt is the daughter of a jötunn from Jötunheimr by the name of "Norfi or Narfi". Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. • Larrington. Finally. The results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition”. the personified earth. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Her first marriage was with Naglfari. W and T. Old Norse “dream-Njörun”) as “dream-goddess”. cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother”. [2] Thorpe (1907:13).2 Prose Edda 121 37. Nótt is again personified. Finnur (1931). Haukur details that “the oldest manuscript. [10] Faulkes (1995:144). Nótt rides before Dagr. offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts. The Prose Edda. ISBN 0-19283946-2 • Thorpe. either Jörð or Nátt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. resulting in their daughter Jörð.

but other accounts cast both Zorya as virgin goddesses. Zore = “dawn".[3] • The Zorja appear in the novel American Gods by English author Neil Gaiman. see desses. At dusk. 38. who opens the gates of Dažbog’s palace each morning so that the Sun may begin his journey. Simargl.[1] 38. the Morning Star. but Gaiman has stated he invented her for his work. Zvezda Zornitsa. . They guard and watch over the doomsday hound. Zwezda. the “Midnight Star”. who is chained to the star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor. while describing Myesyats as an unrelated female Zorya. Zwezda Wieczoniaia. and the planet Venus. exorcism. In Slavic mythology. Danica = “star”) are the two guardian goddesses. meaning “evening". Zarja. The Zorja represent the Morning Star and the Evening Star. West and East winds. A third sister is described in some versions of the myth. Zornička). Zora. The Zorja serve the sun god Dažbog. She was associated with the planet Venus or Mercury. Zory. known as the Auroras. Zvezda Dennitsa. meaning “morning".[2] She is a patroness of horses.2 Evening Star The Evening Star is Zorja Vechernjaja (from Russian vecher. moon goddess. opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sun-chariot’s departure. Zornica. Zorja Utrennjaja. both she and Zorja Vechernjaja were the wives of the male Myesyats. Večernja Zvezda. Večernica). an oceanic island paradise where the Sun dwelt along with his attendants.[4][5] • The Zorya appear in Kevin Hearne's series of urban fantasy novels The Iron Druid Chronicles. two wolves that chase the sun and the moon. Zwezda Wieczernica. the North. Rannia Zoria. after sunset and Dažbog’s return.[2][3] 38. Some myths described both her and her sister Zorya Utrennyaya as the wives of the moon god Myesyats and the mothers of the stars. Vechirnia Zoria. who closes the palace gates at dusk. and by him bore all of the stars. also known as Zvijezda Danica. Zvezda Vechernaya. the hound will devour the constellation and the universe will end. Here Gaiman includes a third sister. In some myths. Zorja Polunochnaya. also known as Večernja Zvijezda. the moon god. In other accounts.4 See also Conflicting accounts exist of her marital situation. and Slavs would pray to her each morning as the sun rose. Zvezda. bassoon and string quartet by Australian composer Julian Cochran. some have both Zorya as virgin god122 • Hecate • List of night deities • Zaria (goddess) • Hati and Sköll.[2] However. Zvezda Vechernitsa.Chapter 38 Zorya This article is about mythology.1 Morning Star The Morning Star is Zorja Utrennjaja (from Russian utro. Gwiazda Wieczorna. The home of the Zorja was sometimes said to be on Bouyan (or Buyan). Gwiazda Poranna. Zvezda Danica. the Zorja (alternately. If the chain ever breaks. Zorja Vechernjaja—the Evening Star—closes the palace gates once more after his return. In this role she was known to protect those warriors she favoured against death by letting down her veil. Večernjača. Zwezda Dnieca. 38. she is described as the wife of Perun and would accompany her husband into battle. protection. For other uses. the “little bear”. who in some myths is described as their father.3 In art and literature • Zorja Vechernyaya is a sextet for oboe.

AuthorHouse. Mike (1998).A. 6/28/11 pt3 (YouTube). 48.5 References [1] Dixon-Kennedy.5. 6/28/11 pt2 (YouTube). Retrieved 5 August 2011. ISBN 978-1-42591838-5. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. [2] Dixon-Kennedy. [5] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. 123 . Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. 321–325. Retrieved 5 August 2011. a Unique Country & Its People. 4 August 2011. Poland. pp. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. [4] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. p.38.A. 4 August 2011. Alicja (2006). ABC-CLIO. REFERENCES 38. ABC-CLIO. Mike (1998). Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. [3] Deck-Partyka. p. 281.

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Unoknows.org/wiki/Summanus?oldid=651508724 Contributors: TUF-KAT. Velella. Pstanton. Franzeska. George The Dragon. B. Javert. Stemonitis. Flamarande. Donner60. Lamro. Mr. D'ohBot. Kriiiiis. ChrisGualtieri and Anonymous: 14 • Trivia (mythology) Source: http://en. ClueBot. Daylight15. Stregamama. Gscshoyru. Ericl. Captin Shmit. Infrogmation. Gerakibot. O. EmausBot. Clifflandis. Deucalionite. West. TaBOT-zerem. Lotje. NawlinWiki. Longbow4u. Norman21. Onel5969. Gilliam. Frankenpuppy. Shakko. Looxix~enwiki. Heran et Sang'gres. Epriestess. CarsracBot. Bobo192. T@nn. Bigjimr. Bolowno. Thanatos666. Oskar71. RichardMills65. Magioladitis. Wahabijaz. Panairjdde. Debresser. JarlaxleArtemis. Eubot. Shikai shaw. Mentifisto.wikipedia. Startswithj.38. Che!. Sburke. Leonard G. Harlem Baker Hughes. Alansohn. EuroCarGT. Synthebot. Michael Goodyear. Agj. ChrisGualtieri. Bovineboy2008. Midasminus.wikipedia. Meiskam. MalafayaBot. Ahivarn. Caltas. HaeB. 17Drew. Str1977. Omnipedian. Vrenator. Natalie Erin. 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Cacaoatl.org/wiki/Tezcatlipoca?oldid=651871562 Contributors: Infrogmation. Excirial. Michaelmas1957. Martarius. The Singing Badger. RandyS0725. Woohookitty. Satanael. Luckas-bot. Classicfilms. Thayora. T@nn. Obersachsebot. Rickard Vogelberg. Holothurion. Gtrmp. Lesnail.wikipedia. KoshVorlon. Aviados. Vividonset2. Geraldshields11. Alansohn. Toshito.wikipedia. Xqbot. Simon Burchell. Athinaios. BillFlis. Killy mcgee. Aztlshamb.wikipedia. JFreeman. Kusunose. Comp25. Cynwolfe. ClueBot NG. CJLL Wright. AnomieBOT. KLBot2. Monique123456. SmackBot. Sampo Torgo. Light Bulb. Addbot. GeeJo. SmackBot. XL2D. SmackBot. Hajor. Jonesey95. Ptcamn. Eddietrich. Addbot.Koslowski. Rjwilmsi. Aztlshamb. Senor Cuete. TUFKAT. Majestic Pyre. GrouchoBot. DavidLeighEllis. Timwi. T@nn. Ellenois. Helpful Pixie Bot. Trappist the monk. Jeff G. Jalo. NSH002. Addbot. Cyfal. CJLL Wright. Frankgeo. J. TUF-KAT. EmausBot. Simon Burchell. Cocytus. Fiona CS. Pumpie. Magioladitis. Melaen. 21Franta65. ZORYA NinetyCharacters. CalicoCatLover. Lugia2453. Wikibot. Bacchiad. El-Ahrairah. Kakoui. Susvolans. Addbot. Josve05a. Damate. Robert Morning Sky and Anonymous: 15 • Al-Qaum Source: http://en. Robbot. GeeJo. Will Beback Auto. Wikiisawesome. The Wryter.Reding. Discospinster. MKar. Goldenrowley. Tomtheman5. Ptbotgourou. RodC. Kwamikagami. Erik9bot. Setsuna999. VoABot II. Arabani. D'ohBot. Veron. Omnipaedista. Yoma123. Xu Davella. Keenan Pepper. John254. Hajor. Helpful Pixie Bot. Maunus. XZeroBot. Brougham96. Local hero.wikipedia. YurikBot. BlazerKnight. Alexbot. Budelberger. AstroLynx. Nipsonanomhmata. SamplerInfo. JFHJr. EmausBot. Liastnir. Synchronism. Klemen Kocjancic. CmdrObot. Kirkesque. George Burgess. MartinBot. Carlo V. Ilya. Rob117. ClueBot NG. ClueBot.thomson. Tahir mq. Quetzalcoatl777. Maunus. Maunus. NewEnglandYankee. Missvain. Makalp. Luckas-bot. Alphachimpbot. Laubrau~enwiki. GrouchoBot. AllyUnion. Andre Engels. JorgeGG. Trappist the monk. Goldenbrook. Panellet. O. NSH002. Japf. Tecpaocelotl.DÄP. Mustaqbal. Tydaj. Tetraedycal. Erik9bot. NSH002. TX55. Logan. Rykan. RibotBOT. Maunus. TheEgyptian. ZéroBot. Omnipaedista. Mychele Trempetich. Palendrom. Publius02. WBardwin. Rich Farmbrough. Ale jrb. Mintrick. ChicXulub. Addbot. Helpful Pixie Bot. Rudi argento. ClueBot. WSaindon. Introvert. Thijs!bot. Sburke. Sir Anon. DumZiBoT. Z-m-k. Lugia2453. Alivemajor. Erik9bot. Letoan1980. Lumachoo. Drbreznjev. Ragestorm.org/wiki/Black%20Sun%20(mythology)?oldid=645460926 Contributors: Ogress. Glenn. Jorge Stolfi.wikipedia. TUF-KAT. Registrant. Wahrmund. GeeJo. NeilN. Someone else. Addbot. Zsinj. DrilBot. Barticus88. 0XQ. Xqbot. WriterHound. UltimatePyro.wikipedia. Metodicar. Kamezuki. TXiKiBoT. BCtl. Chris the speller. FrescoBot. TriniMuñoz. Goldenrowley. Firebrand stone. ESkog. Morki. Simon Peter Hughes. Ogress. ÄDA . RickK. Glengordon01. GeeJo. Roboto de Ajvol. JackofOz. Giggette and Anonymous: 8 • Itzpapalotl Source: http://en. Dger. Jalo. Gongshow. GoingBatty. RussBot. 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Peregrine981. AnomieBOT. Rjwilmsi. Robertsteadman. Simon Peter Hughes. ShelfSkewed. Pigman. Prime Entelechy. Renato Caniatti~enwiki. Mentifisto. Kubra. ChrisGualtieri and Anonymous: 5 • Leto Source: http://en. Ian. Terry Stocker. Mackplemons and Anonymous: 18 • Luna (goddess) Source: http://en. Николов. Thijs!bot. Whoop whoop pull up. Bluebot. ESkog. Hemeier. FlaBot. Stevertigo. Koveras. NSH002. Emperor of Europe. Danceswithzerglings. Eliz81. Ptcamn. Gtrmp. FF2010. DumZiBoT. Tiddly Tom. Hombre amigo. ZéroBot. Erik9bot and Aztlshamb • Black Sun (mythology) Source: http://en. Ephert.R. AliceSech. Marudubshinki. 2T. ClueBot NG. Z. MacKenzie Drake. GunnarRene. Rockero. Addbot. Ruby Murray. Idioma-bot. T@nn. Sburke. Ketiltrout. Lzur. SieBot. Tim1357. Davidlwinkler. Mike Rosoft. Trappist the monk. Simon Burchell. Spondylus. Jeepday. Monkbot and Anonymous: 17 • Metztli Source: http://en. Zrampold. Castanea dentata. Tucci528. Robodoc. Wetman. Missvain. The Thing That Should Not Be. LilHelpa. Pilotguy. Eequor. Pmanderson. Plushpuffin. Brentmichaelcox. Rmccloskey001. Ushishir. Goldenrowley. Shelby64. SmackBot.

Theelf29. CanisRufus. Discospinster. Modest Genius. SieBot.6.anand. Jmabel. Diablokrom. Jack Greenmaven. Vprashanth87. Ism schism.wikipedia. CapitalLetterBeginning. Rossen4. Robbot. Gabbe. Simon Burchell. KyraVixen.sukanthan. SmackBot. XLinkBot. JAnDbot. The PIPE.thomson. Veledan. MarcAurel. Tabletop. PamD. Ifrit. Wikibot. Rohitbd. VolkovBot. Askahrc. Dbachmann. M. Alamandrax. Asarelah. Ssriram mt.Eye of Ma'at. Rjwilmsi. Valentinian. Daniel. SieBot. Bhadani. Grell the Reaper. Dmthoth. ClueBot NG. Bhadani. Glane23. Edward321. Polveroj. Rossami. Caran Varr.wikipedia. Snake712. Taxman. ScottSteiner. Sankalpdravid. FinnWiki. Trust Is All You Need. Ronz. Sylvain1972. Mintrick. Michaelbusch. AlleborgoBot. Spitfire. Goldenrowley. Wikiborg.wikipedia. Dangerous-Boy. Sobreira. Parrot. Ptcamn. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. UtDicitur. Machine Elf 1735. Tom Lougheed. SnowFire. Sndeep81. A. SpBot. Krishnachandra. Kunoichi. ClueBot. Abecedare. Chandanti. SvartEld. GregKaye. Rockoprem. Quork. SundaLives. 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