Está en la página 1de 145

NIGHT DEITIES

Contents
1

2

3

Chthonic

1

1.1

Chthonic and Olympian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.1

Cult type versus function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.2

Ambiguities in assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

References in psychology and anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

References in structural geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

List of night deities

3

2.1

Arabian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.2

Aztec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.3

Canaanite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.4

Egyptian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.5

Etruscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.6

Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.7

Hindu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.8

Lithuanian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.9

Māori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.10 Norse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.11 Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.12 Slavic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Nephthys

5

3.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.2

Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.3

Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.4

Nephthys and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.5

The saving sister of Osiris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.6

New Kingdom cults of Nephthys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

3.7

Chief goddess of Nome VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

i

ii

CONTENTS
3.8

4

5

6

7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Asteria

10

4.1

Daughter of Coeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.2

Amazon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.3

Heliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.4

Danaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.5

Alkyonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.6

Consort of Phocus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.7

Consort of Bellerophon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.8

Daughter of Coronus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.9

Daughter of Teucer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.10 Athenian maiden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.11 In Gluck opera

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Erebus

12

5.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

5.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Artume

13

6.1

Artume in popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Hecate

14

7.1

Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.2

Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.3

Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.4

Other names and epithets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.4.1

Goddess of the crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.5

Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.6

Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

7.7

Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8

Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8.1

The Deipnon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Modern expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.11 Cross-cultural parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.12 Nature of her cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.14 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

7.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Adonis . . . . . . .1 Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . .10 Niobe . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .12 Atalanta. . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . .7 The Aloadae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Polyphonte . . . . . . 41 . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . 26 Artemis 28 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Callisto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .8 References and sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .3. . .2. . .2 Childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Actaeon . . . . . 40 9.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . .3. . . .11 Chione . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 38 8. 32 Worship of Artemis . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . .3 Lovers and offspring . . . . . . . . . . .2 Artemis in mythology . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The moon chariot . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 37 8. . . . . . . . .3 Modern . . .3 Intimacy . . . . . . . . .9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Artemis in astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oeneus and the Meleagrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . .5 Depictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . .1 Epithets . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . .4 9 iii Selene 39 9. . . . .CONTENTS 8 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 External links . . . . . .2 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Orion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Festivals . 31 8. . . . . . . .2 Secondary sources . . .1 Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Others . . . . . . . . . 33 8. 34 Artemis in art . . . . . . .1 Attributes . . . . . . 28 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Aura . . . . .15 Trojan War . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . .1 Endymion . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv CONTENTS 9. . . . . . . .3 Hypnos in the Iliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . 55 14 Diana (mythology) 56 14. . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . 56 14. . . . . . . .5 Sanctuaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Achlys 50 50 51 12. . .7 References . . . . . . . . . .1 Hesiod’s Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . .8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Words derived from Hypnos . . .2 Homer . . . . .1 External links . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Others . . 46 10 Nyx 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Physical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . .1 Dwelling place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology and literature .3 Notes . . . . . 51 12. . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2 Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 13 Hypnos 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nonnus’ Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . .6 Cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hypnos in art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 11 Philotes (mythology) 11. . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 54 13. . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nyx in society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hesiod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Luna (goddess) 67 67 68 17. . . . .4 Chthonic assailants . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . .3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . .6. . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Leto of the golden spindle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Lycian peasants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . .1 Summanus and Mount Summano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18.7 See also . . . . 62 14.6. . . . . . . . . . .1 Ugaritic inscriptions . . . .2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Leto in Crete . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Chariot of the moon . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Niobe . . . . . . . . 59 14.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . .6 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Lycian Letoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 19 Shalim 75 19. . . . . . . 75 .1 Cult and temples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 16 Trivia (mythology) 16. . . . . . 70 18 Leto 71 18. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . . .3 In the arts . .11Notes . . . 64 15 Summanus 65 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Juno as moon goddess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .12External links . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10External links . . . . . . . .1 In religion . . . 75 19. . . . . .4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS v 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .3 Legend . . . . . . 86 25 Yohaulticetl 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Aztec Reverence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . . .1 See also . 76 20 Al-Qaum 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . 83 24. . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . .10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Tezcatlipoca 83 24. . . . . .6 Mythical stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ritual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . . .1 Representations of Tezcatlipoca . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . .2 References . . . . . . .3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . .1 Sources . . . . . . . . 22 Itzpapalotl 78 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Black Sun (mythology) 87 87 88 . .3 Mythology . . 85 24. . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mexican traces . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . .5 Aztec religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . .11External links . . . .9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Iconography . . . . . . . . .1 Otomi mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 23 Metztli 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 21 Lords of the Night 78 21. .8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 29 Apep 95 29. . . . . . . . . . 92 28 Tzitzimitl 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dark spot on the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Ratri 98 98 99 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Variations and alternative myths 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Further reading . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Legend 90 . . .1 Other views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS vii 26. . . . . . . . . 103 32. .6 References . . . . . . . .2 Other aspects . . . . . . . .5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Battles with Ra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 32 Chandra 100 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 33 Rahu 104 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 27 Five Suns 27. 91 27. . . . . .4 In popular culture . . . . . . . .3 In popular culture . . . . . . . . .1 Development . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . .3 Brief summation . . . . . . . .1 Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . .3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . 88 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 26. . . . . . . 97 30 Kuk (mythology) 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. 99 31. . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship .4 References . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 32. . . .

. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Names from folklore myths and legends . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rahu dan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buddhism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . 106 34 Varuna 108 34. . . . . . . . . 114 35. . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Myths . . . . . .3 Maciej Stryjkowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Martynas Mažvydas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . .1 In the Vedas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures 111 35. . . . 118 36 Hine-nui-te-pō 119 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Matthäus Prätorius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Jan Łasicki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2 Names by written sources . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . .6 Theodor Narbutt . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 In modern age . . . . . . . . . . . .4 In Zoroastrianism . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Earliest Russian chronicles . . . . . . .3 Local and nature spirits . . . . . . .7 Other written sources . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Holy places and things . . .5 Demonic beings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .8 Other names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .4 Rahu Mantra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii CONTENTS 33. . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Further reading . .2. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heroes and heroines . . 109 34. . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 106 33. 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 34. . . . 110 34. . 112 35. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Various lower beings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In the Ramayana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 33. . . . . . . . . . 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Gods . . . . . . 106 33. . . 109 34. . . . . . . . . . . 115 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1 Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In contemporary Hinduism . . . . .1.

.1 Attestations . . . . contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 37.1 Morning Star . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Prose Edda .3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 References 37 Nótt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 38. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Text and image sources. . . . .2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Notes . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS ix 36.1 Text . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . .2 Evening Star . . . . . . . . . 124 38. . . 123 38. 119 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . 121 38 Zorya 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Poetic Edda . . . . . .3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In art and literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . .6. . and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 119 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and women associated with the below. For Cthulhu mythos creatures. “sunken chamber”). it typically refers to the interior of the soil. which often happened at night time. in cultural anthropology.1 In analytical psychology. however. or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does). Demeter was worshipped alongside Persephone 1 . also received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations. US /ˈθɒnɪk/ from Greek χθόνιος khthonios [kʰtʰónios]. completely separate. such as Hermes and Zeus. men associated with the above. 1. khthonios had a more precise and technical meaning in Hecate is generally classed as chthonic. the unconscious earthly impulses of the Self. When the sacrifice was a living creature. As well. depending on the site and the time of origin of the myth. see also anima and animus or shadow. the words khthonie and phone or the heroes. Also.1.2 References in psychology and anthropology Some chthonic cults practised ritual sacrifice. For other uses. see Chthonian (Cthulhu mythos).[2] 1. under. Greek mythology likewise has female deities associated with the sky. with the earth. In some Greek chthonic cults. a few deities aren't easily classifiable under these terms. water of the underground. the animal was placed in a bothros (βόθρος. otherwise known as the sky. referring primarily to the manner of offering sacrifices to the deity in question. The deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes. was typically offered puppies at crossroads—a practice neither typical of an While terms such as “Earth deity” or Earth mother have Olympian sacrifice nor of a chthonic sacrifice to Persesweeping implications in English. “pit”) or megaron (μέγαρον. Moreover. from χθών khthōn “earth”)[1] literally means “subterranean”. and the chthonic deities.Chapter 1 Chthonic This article is about the Greek deities. The absorption of some earlier cults into the newer pantheon versus those that resisted being absorbed is suggested as providing the later myths. The translation of meaning discusses deities or spirits of the underworld. Hecate. the term chthonic was often used to describe the spirit of nature within.1 Chthonic and Olympian 1. the chthonic has connotations with regard to gender. 1. with identical rites. the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos (βωμός.”[3] This was by no means universal. Offerings usually were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers. Some Olympian deities. such as Dike. simultaneously. Because of her underworld roles.1. It evokes. rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does). in Ancient Egypt the main deity of the earth was the male god Geb. Thus Demeter and Persephone both watched over aspects of the fertility of land. The Greek word khthon is one of several for “earth". Chthonic (UK /ˈkθɒnɪk/. however not necessarily with negative connotations. abundance and the grave. yet Demeter had a typically Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one. “in. especially in Greek religion.. see Chthon (disambiguation). goddess of justice who sits on the right side Cult type versus function The myths associating the underworld chthonic deities and fertility was not exclusive. for instance. "altar"). see Chthonic (band). Myths about the later Olympian deities also described an association with the fertility and the prosperity of Earth. del Valle’s Gendered Anthropology describes there being “male and female deities at every level. the sky. Greek. or beneath the earth”. and yet occasionally was classified as an “Olympian” in late poetry and myth. For the band. his female consort was Nut. that is one’s material depths..2 Ambiguities in assignment The categories Olympian and chthonic were not.

Therefore they were funnel-shaped and open at the bottom. not.4 See also • Chthonic law • Earth mother • Geomancy • Life-death-rebirth deities • Sky father 1. It was offered on altars of a peculiar shape: they were lower than the ordinary altar bomos. Gendered Anthropology. Chthonic deities. [2] “The sacrifice for gods of the dead and for heroes was called enagisma.” (Source The Heroes of the Greeks. C. and also libations. at Perseus. [3] Teresa del Valle. The 'gods of the dead' are. as for the celestial gods. CHTHONIC of Zeus as his advisor. Routledge. The victim was held over the trench with its head down. 1. 1993.6 External links • The dictionary definition of chthonic at Wiktionary . 1. 108. which was the portion especially of the celestial deities. For this kind of sacrifice did not lead up to a joyous feast in which the gods and men took part. in contradistinction to thysia.5 References [1] Chthonios. ISBN 0-415-06127-X. p. of course. goddess of dawn—and Hades as god of the underworld. and it was burned entirely. usually by low angle thrust faulting. Robert Scott. A Greek– English Lexicon. Henry George Liddell. and Eos. with its neck bent back and the head uplifted.2 CHAPTER 1. Through them the blood of the victims. 1.3 References in structural geology The term Allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation. 'hearth'. From the Greek “allo” meaning other and “chthon” designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus “under the earth”. Thames & Hudson 1978). were to flow into the sacrificial trench. and their name was ischara. Kerenyi pub.

discord.3 Canaanite • Shalim. 2. deification of evil and darkness • Kuk. temptation. personification of the primordial darkness The Norse night goddess Nótt riding her horse. god or goddess of the moon.4 Egyptian • Apep. in a 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo • Nephthys. the north. goddess of magic. primordial goddess of night 3 .Chapter 2 List of night deities • Metztli. god of the night sky. Etruscan goddess of night Arabian 2.6 • Al-Qaum. sorcery. the night sky.5 • Artume. They commonly feature in polytheistic religions. obsidian. lunar goddess known as the “Lady of the Night” 2. war and strife • Yohaulticetl. witchcraft. (also called Aritimi. primordial god of darkness and consort of Nyx Aztec • Lords of the Night. the night winds. moon.fearsome skeletal goddess of the stars • Nyx. and guardian of caravans 2. goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars • Erebus. beauty.2 Etruscan Greek • Asteria.1 2. enmity. The following is a list of night deities in various mythologies. or darkness. ghosts and necromancy • Itzpapalotl . the earth. the night. the serpent god. a group of nine gods. Artames. goddess of night as well as death and birth A night deity is a god or goddess in mythology associated with night. hurricanes. god of dusk 2. each of whom ruled over a particular night • Hecate. Nabatean god of war and the night. divination. jaguars. or Artumes). rulership. night and farmers • Tezcatlipoca.

goddess of the moon. god of dreams. death.9 Māori • Hine-nui-te-pō.13 See also • Chthonic (underworld) deities . a celestial deity of darkness and eclipse • Varuna (Hindu mythology) 2. associated with the night. equivalent to Hypnus. goddess of the moon. 2.7 Hindu • Ratri. primordial goddess of eternal night. • Latona.4 CHAPTER 2. equivalent to Hecate. goddess of sorcery.11 Roman • Nox. LIST OF NIGHT DEITIES • Achlys. two guardian goddesses. and the wild. hunting. 2. female personification of night 2. god of the moon • Rahu. who protects people from sunset to sunrise 2.and young women. 2. equivalent to Artemis. ghosts. goddess of the moon.8 Lithuanian • Breksta. tombs. primordial goddess of night. misery and sorrow • Artemis. • Somnus. an equivalent to the goddesses Leto and Asteria. goddess of night • Chandra. • Selene. god of nocturnal thunder • Diana. goddess of night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori mythology 2. • Trivia. goddess of twilight and dreams. representing the morning and evening stars. goddess of the moon. equivalent to Selene.10 Norse • Nótt. equivalent to the Greek goddess Nyx • Summanus. hunting. • Luna. and torches.12 Slavic • Zorya.

She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity.1 Etymology 3. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris. from Egyptian hieroLightweight Rowing Club.gerous divinity.The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as “Lady of the House.” which has caused some to mistak[1] Nephthys /ˈnɛpθɨs/ (Greek: Νέφθυς) or Nebthet /ˈnɛbˌθɛt/ (Arabic: ‫ نيفتيس‬Nyftys) is a member of enly identify her with the notion of a “housewife. probably indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual. which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name. Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function. France thys is sometimes featured as a rather ferocious and danNephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliter. and Nebt-het. This entrance way symbolised the horizon or akhet. Paris. see Oxford University ated as Nebet-het.[8] Though other goddesses could assume this role. sister-wife of Set.2 Function At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts. Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the “Useful Goddess” or the “Excellent Goddess”. capable of incinerating the enemies of 5 .Musée du Louvre. 3. This the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology. Her name means quite specifically.” or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household.Chapter 3 Nephthys For Nephthys Boat Club.[3] These late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship. In contrast NephNephthys .[4][5] Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet[6] or Isis. with her sister Isis in funerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the “Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure” which associates her with the role of priestess. just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience. glyphs). Horus. a daughter of Nut and Geb. Along with her sister Isis. Set. Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis (Inpu) in some myths. Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience. Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh himself.[7] As the primary “nursing mother” of the incarnate Pharaonic-god. Nephthys was typically paired is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. This title.

Nephthys plays an important role in the Osirian mythstretched as a symbol of protection. the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys.[10] CHAPTER 3. the benevolent figure who was the killer of Apophis. or twilight. was a force before whom demons trembled in fear. In this capacity. along with the sign for neb. “Ascend and descend.cycle. ascend with Isis.” Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210. or as a woman with falcon wings. it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. and Harpocrates. Early Greco-Roman. Isis was Ra’s companion at the coming of dawn. the majestic sun god. Nephthys’s associ.[9] New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs.. Less well understood than her sister Isis. it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts. According to the Pyramid Texts. 3. . The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead. who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion. Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. Walters Museum Levai notes that while Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity’s marriage. Nephthys was also seen in the Pyramid Texts as a supportive cosmic force occupying the night-bark on the journey of Ra. Nephthys.[14] 3. or mistress (Lady). rise with the Day-bark. and whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various levels of Duat. but rather as a different reflection of the same reality: eternal life in transition.e. particularly when he entered Duat at the transitional time of dusk. almost without fail. She was. on top of the enclosure sign. as is attested in various stelae and a wealth of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor. which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (hwt). in particular. She argues that the later evidence suggests that: mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Seth. there is very little specifically Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in fu. It should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed as the polar opposite of Isis.[11] along with the work of several noted scholars. sink into darkness with the Night-bark.4 Nephthys and Set Though it commonly has been assumed that Nephthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis. cent Egyptological research has called this into question. Nephthys often was depicted as a kite. but with Set’s other aspect. Thus. Hornung. Nephthys.[12] 3.linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian nerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the sources.[13] Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition. descend with Nephthys. NEPHTHYS ation with the kite or the Egyptian hawk (and its piercing. usually out. where Nephthys was a member of that great city’s Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex. as the region of the afterlife was termed. where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler.5 The saving sister of Osiris In the funerary role. i. reTriad of Isis.3 Symbolism while Nephthys’s marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology. along with Isis.6 the Pharaoh with her fiery breath. mournful cries) evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women. This was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period. She was not paired with Set the villain. depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name. Ascend and descend. were enamored of Mother Nephthys.

Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud .Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud . as her sister in “words of power. midway between Oxyrhynchos and . Thus we find Nephthys endowed with the epithet. and Heqet as traveling dancers in disguise. one of the Sons of Horus. As a mortuary goddess (along with Isis.” Elsewhere at Edfu. assisting the wife of a priest of Amun-Re as she prepares to bring forth sons who are destined for fame and fortune. Nephthys is depicted receiving lavish beer-offerings from the Pharaoh. a temple of Nephthys called the “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” was built or refurbished in the town of Sepermeru. for example.3. In various reliefs at Edfu. The Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the “birth-mother” and to Nephthys as the “nursing-mother” of Horus. Meskhenet. NEW KINGDOM CULTS OF NEPHTHYS 7 at the holy city of Abydos. 300-200 B. though she certainly figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted. “Nephthys of the Bed of Life.c.C. . Nephthys was one of the protectresses of the Canopic jars of the Hapi.C. Nephthys. Dendera. guarded the embalmed lungs. and by her presence in a variety of magical papyri that sought to summon her famously altruistic qualities to the aid of mortals.c. There.[16] These "Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys" were ritual elements of many such Osirian rites in major ancient Egyptian cult-centers. 300-200 B.6. Nephthys could also appear as one of the goddesses who assists at childbirth. Nephthys was attested as one of the four “Great Chiefs” ruling in the Osirian cult-center of Busiris. or the perilous edges of the desert. which she would “return”. and Behbeit. No cult is attested for her there. in the Delta[15] and she appears to have occupied an honorary position Nephthys’s healing skills and status as direct counterpart of Isis. Nephthys joined Isis as a mourner in the shrine known as the Osireion.” and there associated with the jackal-headed god Anubis as patron. steeped. One ancient Egyptian myth preserved in the Papyrus Westcar recounts the story of Isis. Nephthys is a goddess who gives the Pharaoh power to see “that which is hidden by moonlight.[19] 3.Metropolitan Museum of Art It is Nephthys who assists Isis in gathering and mourning the dismembered portions of the body of Osiris. using her power as a beergoddess “that [the pharaoh] may have joy with no hangover.” This fits well with more general textual themes that consider Nephthys to be a goddess whose unique domain was darkness. in the 19th Dynasty.”[17] in direct reference to her regenerative priorities on the embalming table. at Abydos. . Nephthys was duly honored with the title “Queen of the Embalmer’s Shop. after his murder by the envious Set.” are evidenced by the abundance of faience amulets carved in her likeness. In the city of Memphis. Nephthys also serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus.Metropolitan Museum of Art Nephthys was also considered a festive deity whose rites could mandate the liberal consumption of beer.[18] Nephthys .6 New Kingdom cults of Nephthys The Ramesside Pharaohs were particularly devoted to Set’s prerogatives and. wherein two chosen females or priestesses played the roles of Isis and Nephthys and performed the elaborate 'Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys’. Isis . Hapi. Neith. and Serqet).

He notes his obvious administration of the “House of Set” and adds: “I am also responsible for the ship. A Delta-man in Yebu.[23] There can be little doubt that a cult of Nephthys existed in the temple and great town of Herakleopolis.[26] In most cases. as Papyrus Wilbour notes in its wealth of taxation records and land assessments. 1997 [4] G. on the outskirts of the Fayyum and quite near to the modern site of Deshasheh.uk The funerary art of Ancient Egypt: a bridge to the realm of the hereafter (106 pages) American University in Cairo Press. Nephthys found her typical place as part of a triad alongside Osiris and Isis. In this role. Page 219 in the article On a Topos in Egyptian Medical History by Hedvig Györy [7] Donald B.” A “prophet of Nephthys” is indeed attested for the town of Herakleopolis in the 30th Dynasty. 'A Ptolemaic Lexikon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu'. Ex. ii 1-10). Deir el-Hagar. Marshall Cavendish.. 14. . or as part of a quartet of deities. (Feb. 26.” and a wealth of temple texts from Edfu. or the Bennu Bird. north of Sepermeru. 2007. as her primary epithets reflect. and Nephthys” for the ultimate resolution of this issue by the royal Vizier.”[22] As “Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun.[24] CHAPTER 3. Letopolis. Sebennytos. Another temple of Nephthys seems to have existed in the town of Punodjem. where another shrine existed in honor of the Bennu. Diospolis Parva). Here. Vol. K. the prophet (named Pra'emhab) laments his workload. Foremost of the Sed [Festival] in the Booth of Annals” (at Medinet-Habu). Wilson. the House of Nephthys was one of fifty individual.co.” the goddess and her shrines were under the particular endorsement of Ramesses II. Philae. located in close proximity to (or within) the precinct of the enclosure of Set. Vol. the god Neferhotep. Numen. OLA 78. Koptos. Dendera.google. or Isis and Min. NEPHTHYS 3.[25] Nephthys was most widely and usually worshipped in ancient Egypt as part of a consortium of temple deities. the temple of Nephthys was a specific foundation by Ramesses II. It is perhaps in this way that Nephthys best fulfilled her role as an important national deity whose ideal function was to provide powerful assistance to her associates in a great variety of temple cults— a truly “Useful” and “Excellent” goddess. Dakleh Oasis. 3. Heliopolis. land-owning temples delineated for this portion of the Middle Egyptian district in Papyrus Wilbour. To be certain. Seshat and the Pharaoh. The cult-image’s inscription originally pertained to “Nephthys. or Isis and Horus. El Qa'la. The foundations of the Set and Nephthys temples at Sepermeru finally were discovered and identified in the 1980s. along with a heap of other temples. Kom Ombo. Thebes. Philae. A. and of the local Horus/Osiris manifestation. and the Nephthys temple was a selfsustaining temple complex within the Set enclosure. of the Bennu Bird. Fasc. it should not surprise us that her cult images could likely be found as part of the divine entourage in temples at Kharga. as part of the cultic celebration of the Pharaonic “Sed-Festival. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.” but was transferred at some point to Herakleopolis and the temple of Herishef. The fields and other holdings belonging to Nephthys’s temple were under the authority of two Nephthys-prophets (named Penpmer and Merybarse) and one (mentioned) wa'ab priest of the goddess. There. closer to the Fayyum region.8 Herakleopolis. Universal-Publishers. 3.[21] another “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” seems to have existed to the north. A near life-sized statue of Nephthys (currently housed in the Louvre) boasts a curiously altered inscription. 30-40 [5] Virginia Schomp. Shenhur.[20] The Nephthys temple was a unique establishment in its own right. but was re-inscribed or re-dedicated to “Nephthys. El Qa'la. Eyma. Kellis. [2] Abeer El-Shahawy books. 2005 ISBN 977-17-2353-7 [Retrieved 2011-12-12] [3] P. Dendera. 27 [6] A. pp. Therefore. This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis. The Ancient Egyptians. 1941). Nephthys was the primary protectress of the resident Osirian relic. p. The Papyrus Bologna records a complaint lodged by a prophet of the temple of Set in that town regarding undue taxation in his regard. and I am responsible likewise for the House of Nephthys. Esna. After making an introductory appeal to “Re-Horakhte. Abydos. According to Papyrus Wilbour. Set. and others corroborate the late identification of Nephthys as the supreme goddess of Upper Egyptian Nome VII. Nephthys was given the name “Nephthys-Kheresket. The basalt image originally was stationed at Medinet-Habu. 2003. Redford.” the Nephthys temple at Sepermeru and its apportioned lands (several acres) clearly were under administration distinct from the Set institution. Foremost of the [Booths of] Herakleopolis. The Literary Motif of the Exposed Child (cf. the chief city of Nome VII.7 Chief goddess of Nome VII Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Sacred Phoenix. an independent entity. in the town of Su. Wainwright. Busiris. While certainly affiliated with the “House of Set. and indeed throughout Egypt. which was renowned for its “House of the Bennu” temple.8 References [1] Or /ˈnɛfθɨs/. (Nov. Nephthys also was the goddess of the “Mansion of the Sistrum" in Hwt-Sekhem (Gr.

46 n.La stèle de Parâherounemyef. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112 [26] BIFAO website 9 . Lloyd [Hrsg. Cauville. I' Sanctuaire central. 41-62. The discussion of Isis as the mother of Anubis appears on pages 222 and 223 [8] K. Allen. Jessica. 5. Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. Ohio. London 1992. 184 n.7 [10] B. Wyndham Toledo Hotel. 8-7. 155-157 [25] Sauneron. 28 [22] Papyrus Bologna 1094. 1984 [20] 'Land Tenure in the Ramesside Period' by S. G. 2. université de Montpellier. Beitrage Bf. Faullkner.http: //www.O. Theban Recension [16] Byron Esely Shafer. 'Pretres Isiaques. Relevés des scènes et des textes.d. Apr 20. Moss. Griffiths.3. Dynasty XVIII [18] J.' 152 n. 2005 [14] Levai. Gutbub. Paper presented at The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt. Publications de la recherche. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. Traunecker. Sanctuaire nord. Traunecker. 2007.' BIFAO 84. Theban Temples. pp. R. Berlandini. REFERENCES 1967). Peter Der Manuelian. Nephthys découverte dans un papyrus magique in Mélanges. BIFAO 82 [19] A.html [15] The Book of the Dead. Durocher-Champollion [24] Forgeau.]. Karnak VII. and Paintings. [13] James P.allacademic. Reliefs. Montpellier. 1 [23] 'Les Deesses de l'Egypte Pharaonique'. Beitrage Bf. Dieter Arnold. 1989 [21] Section 1. Kitchen. R. LaChaud. 1992. B.. 6. Ramesside Inscriptions. C. 186-188 [12] Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. “Nephthys and Seth: Anatomy of a Mythical Marriage”. 46. 112. 6. Oxford Second Edition [11] Versuch über Nephthys. 'The Pyramid Texts’ SBL. J.A. Elephantine. Porter/R. Le temple d'El-Qal'a. FRANCE. p. Varia Memphitica. 'Essai. in: A. Temples in Ancient Egypt. Blackwell [9] Sauneron. Toledo. 1993. VI .8.com/meta/p176897_index. Katary. 209-228. p. II. Bergman. 2005 [17] Tomb of Tuthmosis III. Oxford University Press 1969.

4. was the mother of Hydissos nant with Zeus’s children.7 Consort of Bellerophon fied with the island of Delos. For the type of gemstone. see Asteria Medievale. she flung herself into the sea and was transformed into a kingfisher.2 Amazon ensemble. Along with her sis“Telemaco”. the bride of Chaetus.[2] Panopeus by Phocus. ters. She married the river god Hydaspes (the modern Jhelum River) and became mother of Deriades.4 Danaid Asteria and Phoebe on the Pergamon Altar. Danaid.3 Heliad Asteria or Astris was a daughter of Helios and Clymene or Ceto.[10] Hera. The Titan goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. Asteria (/əˈstɪəriə/. one of the Heliades. briefly. Heliad. the consort of 4.[7] 4. Ancient he came for Hippolyte's girdle.[6] Greek: Ἀστερία. with one exception. Each of these is detailed below.[5] 4. and a character in the opera Asteria was one of the Alkyonides.Asteria. Alkyonides. “of the stars. Her son is known for having founded a city in Caria which was named after him. daughters of Danaus who. she was pursued by vengeful by Bellerophon.Chapter 4 Asteria For the band. the daughter of Coronus. preg.[3] This then became identi. She was. the Consort of Phocus. an Amazon woman. Asteria was the ninth Amazon killed by Heracles when In Greek mythology. Asteria was one of the Danaids. murdered their husbands on their wedding nights. and became the “quail island” of Ortygia. the daughter of Teucer. which was the only piece on earth to give refuge to the fugitive Leto when. see Star stone.[1] According to Hesiod. For the medieval music 4. by Perses she Asteria[8] or Asterodia[9] was the mother of Crisus and had a daughter Hecate.4. Asteria flung herself into the Aegean Sea in the form of a quail in order to escape the advances of Zeus.[4] 10 .6 Consort of Phocus Asteria was the daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe and sister of Leto. see Asteria (band). an Athenian maiden.5 Alkyonides Bellerophon. king in India. starry one”) was a name attributed to the following eleven individuals: the daughter of Coeus. daughter of Hydeus.1 Daughter of Coeus 4.

daughter of Coronus. 404ff. though the name did not appear in Homer's Odyssey on which the opera was based. 139.[11] 4. Hydissos [11] Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius.9 Daughter of Teucer The daughter of Teucer and Eune of Cyprus also bore the name Asteria.3 (on-line text) [6] Bibliotheca 2. [3] John Tzetzes. 5 [7] Suda s. Argonautica. 53 [9] Tzetzes on Lycophron. [2] Theogony 409–11. Theogony. 1. Library of History. s.10 Athenian maiden Asteria was one of the would-be sacrificial victims of Minotaur. v. 16.11 In Gluck opera Christoph Willibald Gluck gave the name Asteria to one of the characters in his 1765 opera "Telemaco".[12] 4.12 References [1] Hesiod. 939 [10] Stephanus of Byzantium.13 External links • Theoi Project: Asteria 11 .13. 1. and Apollo were possible parents of the seer Idmon.8 Daughter of Coronus Asteria. citing Pherecydes of Leros [12] Tzetzes on Lycophron.[13] 4. EXTERNAL LINKS 4. Alkyonides [8] Tzetzes on Lycophron. 4. [4] Theoi Project .4.Titanis Asteria [5] Diodorus Siculus. portrayed in a vase painting. 8185 (painting on François Vase) 4. 4. v. 450 [13] Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum 4.

2 External links [1] Ἔρεβος.[1] was often conceived as a primordial deity. see Erebus (disambiguation). the god of old age.[1] Library. 84.” Hesiod. [4] Morford. 170. London (1873). The ceived and bore from union in love with Erebus. ISBN 0-19-514338-8. Scott. Theogony 116–124. “deep darkness. Fabulae 1–49”. “Theogony”. 263. Patricia (2001). this union includes Aether. Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Hypnos. Burdett and Company. Geras.. depending on the source of the mythology. shadow”). “Hyginus. but is said to have fathered several other deities with Nyx. “E'rebos” 5. “Online Etymology Dictionary: Erebus”.Chapter 5 Erebus For other uses. Liddell. Theoi E-Texts riqis. 52. [6] Rengel.[3] However. the [8] Harper. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. but of Night were born Aether and Day. Sanskrit rájas. Retrieved 1 July 2011. Old Norse røkkr).. ISBN 9780195143386 [5] Peck. • The Theoi Project. p. Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. According to the Greek oral poet Hesiod's Theogony. Semitic forms such as He. Erebus /ˈɛrəbəs/. an Indo-European origin for the name Ἔρεβος itself is possible from PIE *h1 regʷ-es/os. (1914). Hemera. Gothic [11] Atsma. Robert.1 References Notes 5.[11] • Smith. Hesiod’s Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence. “Erebos” [2] Hesiod. brew ‫( ֶעֶרב‬ˤerev) 'sunset.. (1999). described Erebus as the father of Geras. p. New York: Harper. p. Brill. and Thanatos.[2] Erebus features little in Greek mythological tradition and literature. S. in his Fabulae. and brother to Nyx: Sources “From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night. ISBN 9780195145045 The perceived meaning of Erebus is “darkness". [3] Elizabeth. pp. “darkness”[8][9] “darkness” (cf. Beekes. for instance. representing the personification of darkness. Henry George. Evelyn-White. In Greek mythology. Charon. Retrieved 1 July 2011. The Roman writer Hyginus. Hugh G. whom she con• Evelyn-White. Marian (2009).[9] R. ISBN 0-19-514504-6. 12 . O. Mark P. P. New York: Silver. Styx. Erebus is the offspring of Chaos. ISBN 9781604134124 In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying. as a source. 620. Harry Thurston (1897). evening' are sometimes cited 2009. pp. New York: Oxford University Press US.[10] Evelyn-White (1914) . Aaron. William. also Erebos (Greek: Ἔρεβος. Alice (1896). Perseus Digital Library Project (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). 51. 36. born of Chaos. p. 271. 253. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-60413-412-7. Dictionary of Ancient Deities. Volume 1. the Hesperides. 451. first recorded instance of it was “place of darkness between earth and Hades”. and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus. Classical Mythology: Sixth Edition. the Moirai. The Sources of Spenser’s Classical Mythology.[3][4][5][6][7] [7] Turner. Infobase Publishing. Douglas. 55. Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Theogony (120–125)[10] Translation by Hugh G.

12. 51. 13 . Sacred History. Artames. et al. Greg. Fred. of the moon (like another goddess. Retrieved 26 April 2010. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. nature. woods and fertility. ISBN 978-1-93170786-2.2 References [1] Thomson de Grummond.1 Artume in popular culture Artume appeared as a recurring character in Marvel Comics. 6. Nancy (2006). and Legend. 130–32. Referred to as “Artumes”. 2008). 99–103. 158. (December 31. “Incredible Hercules #124”.[1] Aritimi was also considered the founder of the Etruscan town Aritie.[2] 6. 149. Etruscan Myth. Marvel Universe. She was associated with the Greek goddess Artemis in later history. which is today the Italian town Arezzo.Chapter 6 Artume Artume (also called Aritimi. [2] Van Lente. Losna). Pak. pp. or Artumes) was an Etruscan goddess who was the goddess of night. death. 141.

[9] This has been translated as “she that operates from afar”. knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants. Hekátē) is not known .[12] The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced.[15] 7.1 Name The etymology of the name Hecate (Ἑκάτη. has been compared. even when spelled with final e. ghosts.[13] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the ElizabethanJacobean period.[8] • From Ἑκατός Hekatos. witchcraft. 7. the name was also pronounced not three-formed. Greek Ἑκάτη.[2][3] In the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles (2nd3rd century CE) she was regarded with (some) rulership over earth. Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul. The spelling Hecat is due to Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Hecate or Hekate (/ˈhɛkətiː.”[7] She also closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia. an obscure epithet of Apollo. well into the 19th century. Suggested derivations include: • From the Greek word for 'will'. Hekátē) is a goddess in Greek religion and mythology. It remained com. dogs. In Early Modern English. it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat. ˈhɛkɪt/. where variants of her name are found as names given to children. as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira).[4][5] She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family. William Berg observes. and sorcery.2 Representations Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia.[11] Statuette of Triple-bodied Hekate. ink and light brown and • the name of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth.[14] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the influence of Shakespeare for the thenpredominant disyllabic pronunciation of the name. Farnell states: “The evidence of the disyllabic and sometimes spelled Hecat. necromancy. “Since children are not called after spooks. the moon. sea and sky.Chapter 7 Hecate For other uses. Heqet. with whom she was identified in Rome. She was variously associated with crossroads. entrance-ways. see Hecate (disambiguation). light. “she that removes or drives off”. Pen.[6] mon practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables.[10] “the far reaching one” or “the far-darter”.monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate 14 . most often shown holding two torches or a key[1] and in later periods depicted in triple form.refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens. magic. grey wash.

lay close to the originally Macedonian colony . but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace.[24] Lagina.[19] It shows Hecate. also of Hecate.”[16] and numerous other items. her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water. where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. wherein she is shown with three bodies. shows three single images against a column. In the Argolid. daggers and mystic nature. Attic. then to retreat from the site without looking back. and one horse. where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year. even if he hears the sound of footsteps or barking dogs. He is told to sweeten the offering with a libation of honey.3. near the shrine of the Dioscuri. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head. MYTHOLOGY 15 is almost as full as that of the literature.[18] Hecate’s triplicity is elsewhere expressed in a more Hellenic fashion in the vast frieze of the great Pergamon Altar.3 Mythology Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess.22. “This one is of stone. Jason is to dig a round pit and over it cut the throat of a ewe. Some classical portrayals show her as a tripthe later period that they come to express her manifold licate goddess holding a torch. as well as occasional four in Athens. son of Mothon. But it is only in Charites. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar. and in magical papyri of Late Antiquity she is described as having three heads: one dog.[21] In the Argonautica. left). with a hound beside her. and when she is depicted alongside the god Hermes and the goddess Kybele in reliefs.” (Description of Greece 2.[22] Jason placates Hecate in a ritual prescribed by Medea. Pausanias saw the temple of Hecate opposite the sanctuary of Eileithyia.[24] Her most important sanctuary was Lagina.7. which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription. while the bronze images opposite.7) A 4th-century BCE marble relief from Crannon in Thessaly was dedicated by a race-horse owner. He reported the image to be the work of Scopas. in writing of the headed descriptions continued throughout her history. sacrificing it and then burning it whole on a pyre next to the pit as a holocaust. a key. with a dedication to Hecate. and the main historical value of this work. and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion. she is altogether without attributes and character. were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes. placing a wreath on the head of a mare. now in Berlin. serpents. stating further. a 3rd-century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early material. Images of her attended by a dog [20] are also found at times when she is shown as in her role as mother goddess with child. round the column of Hecate dance the 7. style of the 6th century. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony. Triple Hecate and the Charites.[17] Depictions of both a single The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found form Hekate and triple formed. The place of origin of her following is uncertain. and dressed in dark robes. a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. Greek anthropomorphic conventions of art resisted representing her with three faces: a votive sculpture from Attica of the 3rd century BCE (illustration. one serpent. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs. is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form.[16] In Egyptian-inspired Greek esoteric writings connected with Hermes Trismegistus. and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. taking part in the battle with the Titans. 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek. Munich) The 2nd-century travel writer Pausanias stated that Hecate was first depicted in triplicate by the sculptor Alkamenes in the Greek Classical period of the late 5th century BCE [3] which was placed before the temple of the Wingless Nike in Athens.[23] All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity.

[29] However. whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom. the daughter of Perses and Asteria. Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. and surviving evidence. For to this day. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep. easily the glorious goddess gives great catch. or makes many to be less. privilege both in earth. while the testimony of other writers. And she is good to stand by horsemen. She received honor also in starry heaven. to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea.[25] In According to Hesiod. he calls upon Hecate. Greek goddess of the crossroads. and these Hecate. it is clear that the special position given to Hecate by Zeus is upheld throughout her history by depictions found on coins depicting Hecate on the hand of Zeus [30] as highlighted in more recent research presented by d'Este and Rankine. Hesiod: Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon. she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. in that he seems to hold her in high regard. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds. if so she will.[27] Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship. where she was the city’s patroness.[31] . as the division was at the first from the beginning. and in sea. drawing by Stéphane are her honours. Good is she also when men contend at the games. and she bestows wealth upon him. and brings glory to his parents. and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household. 1880 Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child. and easily she takes it away as soon as seen. suggests that this may have been exceptional. for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy. and who pray to Hecate and the loudcrashing Earth-Shaker. namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young. and in heaven.[26] Mallarmé in Les Dieux Antiques. One theory is that Hesiod's original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn.[26] Hesiod’s inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably. He gave her splendid gifts. HECATE of Stratonikeia. and Apollo. she held sway over many things: Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes. whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea. for the power surely is with her. Hestia. then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will.16 CHAPTER 7. a star-goddess who was The first literature mentioning Hecate is the Theogony by the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). Hermes. if she will. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. then. nouvelle mythologie illustrée in Paris. along with Zeus.[28] In Athens Hecate. albeit her mother’s only child. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement. she increases from a few. So. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock.

[1] The modern understanding of Hecate has been strongly influenced by syncretic Hellenistic interpretations. MYTHOLOGY Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia. or wheel. a euphemism perhaps intended to emphasize her concern with the disappearance of Persephone.”[38] Hecate is the primary feminine figure in the Chaldean Oracles (2nd-3rd century CE). or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness. but as for the significance says only that it is ineffable and that the ritual is sacred to Hecate.[39] where she is associated in fragment 194 with a strophalos (usually translated as a spinning top. such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus. For example.] speaks of a bullroarer. Likewise. the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage.[37] One interesting passage exists suggesting that the word “jinx” might have originated in a cult object associated with Hecate. Hecate by Richard Cosway If Hecate’s cult spread from Anatolia into Greece. used in magic) “Labour thou around the Strophalos of Hecate. There was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter.3. He adds that such an instrument is called a iunx (hence “jinx”). at her unrivalled[33] cult site in Lagina. it has been argued that “Hecate must have been a Greek goddess. it is possible it presented a conflict. and a mighty helper and protector of humans. are attested. megabyzi. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time. in the magical papyri of Ptolemaic Egypt. she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians. when she assisted Demeter with her search for Persephone following her abduction by Hades. “The Byzantine polymath Michael Psellus [. Hecate is called the “tender-hearted”. the dead and sorcery.. consisting of a golden sphere.. Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits. shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils. and her presence is signified by the barking of dogs. In gratitude the Byzantines erected . Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries. In late imagery she also has two ghostly dogs as servants by her side. officiated. Helios. were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros (the tale is preserved in the Suda). where the priests. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. above all by Artemis and Selene.”[34] The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date.[32] and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times. Subsequently she became Persephone’s companion on her yearly journey to and from the realms of Hades. who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal’s suicide.[35] 17 the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins. In two fragments of Aeschylus she appears as a great goddess. Many of the attributes she was assigned in this period appear to have an older basis.[41] Variations in interpretations of Hecate’s role or roles can be traced in 5th-century Athens. Her continued presence was explained by asserting that. alongside Demeter and Persephone. In Sophocles and Euripides she is characterized as the mistress of witchcraft and the Keres. One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis.[27] Here.[36] Hecate also came to be associated with ghosts. Because of this association. because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans. her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world.”[40] This appears to refer to a variant of the device mentioned by Psellus.[24] the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate. saving the city. Other than in the Theogony. the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack. She scorns and insults Artemis. she is called the 'she-dog' or 'bitch'. Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon. infernal spirits. suggesting that Demeter should speak to the god of the sun. However. the father of Mausolus.7. decorated throughout with symbols and whirled on an oxhide thong.

[9] It has been claimed that her association with dogs is “suggestive of her connection with birth. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog. She had the power to create or hold back storms. In what appears to be a 7th-century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort.[43] • Trimorphe (three-formed)[48] • Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads)[48] • Trivia (Roman form) 7..[52] and.”[54] The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate is attested for Thrace. she remained unmarried and had no regular consort. HECATE a statue in her honor. Samothrace.[44] 7. The dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal. which influenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors.[42] • Soteira (savior)[51] As a virgin goddess. Although in later times Hecate’s dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who . and was often eaten in solemn sacrament. she ruled over three kingdoms. where three roads meet.1 Goddess of the crossroads Cult images and altars of Hecate in her triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at three-way crossroads (though they also appeared before private homes and in front of city gates).4. for the dog was sacred to Eileithyia.5 Animals Triple Hecate Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene.4 Other names and epithets • Apotropaia (that turns away/protects) [45] • Chthonia (of the earth/underworld)[46] • Enodia (on the way)[47] • Klêidouchos (holding the keys)[48] • Kourotrophos (nurse of children)[48] • Melinoe[49] • Phosphoros (bringing or giving light)[48] • Propolos (who serves/attends)[48] • Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate)[50] The Triple Hecate. according to Saint Ouen would urge them “No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium. though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla. the earth.[53] 7. Genetyllis. and other birth goddesses. “In art and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog. 1795 William Blake Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world.. Colophon.18 CHAPTER 7. the sea. in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted flock in Flanders against putting “devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads”.[9] In this form she came to be known as the goddess Trivia “the three ways” in Roman mythology. Saint Eligius.”. and Athens. and the sky.

“I have mentioned to you before a certain young girl whom Hecate. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature. Parker observes. Pliny. and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since.”[57] Athenaeus (writing in the 1st or 2nd century BCE. Trioditis / With three forms and three faces / Propitiated with mullets”.[63] In her three-headed representations. Horace. kept Alkmene in continuous birth pangs. the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens. The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe. for that the goddess is trimorphos. particularly female dogs. dog and twin torches. and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires. At all this. PLANTS 19 Aelian told a different story of a woman transformed into a polecat: ""I have heard that the polecat was once a human being. to whom the red mullet was offered in sacrifice. The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size. in the Argonautica mentions that Medea was taught by Hecate.”[60] At Athens. boar. Juvenal.”[65] . daughter of Elektryon.[64] 7. the Moirai (Fates) and Eileithyia (Birth-Goddess). its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog’s connection with birth than the dog’s underworld associations. discussed above. They remained seated. From Antoninus Liberalis: “At Thebes Proitos had a daughter Galinthias. dog. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. daughter of Perses. a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity. being but a mortal. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then. that she was extremely incontinent. As the birth throes for Herakles were pressing on Alkmene. Martial. significantly a creature that can cross between two elements. making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating. as a favour to Hera. probably Hekate or else Artemis.6 Plants Hecate was closely associated with plant lore and the concoction of medicines and poisons. “The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet (trigle). could be explained by a metamorphosis myth. May the goddess be gracious to me : fables and their telling I leave to others. Alan Davidson writes. Alkmene’s pangs ceased at once and Herakles was born.' and 'would eat the corpse of a fish or a man'. Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire. ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished. including cow. who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar. is depicted with a bow. which fits neatly into the pattern. that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress (Pharmakis). It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep. of a triple form”. Hecate often has one or more animal heads.” [62] The frog.7. Galinthias. also has become sacred to Hecate in modern Pagan literature. The Greek word for mullet was trigle and later trigla. fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad. serpent and horse. “on account of the resemblance of their names. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. It 'delighted in polluted things.[56] Another metamorphosis myth explains why the polecat is also associated with Hecate.[61] After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate. has taught to work in drugs. each keeping their arms crossed.[59] In relation to Greek concepts of pollution. They turned her into a deceitful weasel (or polecat). it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate. accompanied her.”[58] A goddess. and drawing on the etymological speculation of Apollodorus of Athens) notes that the red mullet is sacred to Hecate.”[55] The association with dogs. He goes on to quote a fragment of verse “O mistress Hecate. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene. consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. she had deceived the gods. Apollonius of Rhodes. Blood-coloured itself.6. “Cicero. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. it is said there stood a statue of Hecate Triglathena.

In Greek. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison. “Hecate mediated between regimes — Olympian and Titan —. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection. doorways. which is hauntingly similar to toxon. for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city. and with her pack of dogs. which was closely associated with her cult. city walls.8 Festivals Hecate was worshipped by both the Greeks and the Romans who had their own festivals dedicated to her.[75] This function would appear to have some relationship with the iconographic association of Hecate with keys. there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic. Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads). The yawning gates of Hades were guarded by the monstrous watchdog Cerberus. twining through branches of oak. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans. and hence sacred to a number of chthonic deities.[74] The yew in particular was sacred to Hecate. raised an alarm when intruders approached.[70] These include aconite (also called hecateis).”[78] 7.[77] Like Hecate. medicinal and/or psychoactive) are associated with Hecate..1 The Deipnon The Athenian Greeks honored Hekate during the Deipnon. which served as her constant companions. etc.”[67] Hecate was said to favor offerings of garlic. a tree symbolic of death and the underworld. Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate). or even drive them on against unfortunate individuals. a Thessalian goddess. Hekate’s Deipnon is. and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier.”[73] This liminal role is reflected in a number of her cult titles: Apotropaia (that turns away/protects). and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death. Hecate would naturally become known as a goddess who could also refuse to avert the demons. Klêidouchos (holding the keys). It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate.[69] A number of other plants (often poisonous. usually noted on modern calendars as the . with realms outside or beyond the world of the living. at its most basic. crossroads and. HECATE The goddess is described as wearing oak in fragments of Sophocles’ lost play The Root Diggers (or The Root Cutters). When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. but also between mortal and divine spheres. taxus. She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a "liminal" goddess. their word for bow and toxicon. Enodia’s very name (“In-the-Road”) suggests that she watched over entrances.. “In Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. and an ancient commentary on Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica (3.[68] She is also sometimes associated with cypress. The yew was associated with the alphabet and the scientific name for yew today. which when positioned on either side of a gate or door illuminated the immediate area and allowed visitors to be identified. dittany.8.7 Places Hecate was associated with borders. and mandrake. whose function was to prevent the living from entering the underworld. keeping an eye on all who entered. toxos. and the dead from leaving it. deipnon means the evening meal. by extension.[66] which she stood guard and to protect the individual as she or he passed through dangerous liminal places. Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres.[72] 7. particularly at night.20 CHAPTER 7. their word for poison. “Greeks held the yew to be sacred to Hecate.[71] belladonna. Enodia (on the way). a meal served to Hekate and the restless dead once a lunar month on the night when there is no visible moon. and in the road in front of private houses. "[t]he dog is a creature of the threshold. As a goddess expected to avert harmful or destructive spirits from the house or city over It was probably her role as guardian of entrances that led to Hecate’s identification by the mid fifth century with Enodia. according to the legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever present torches. 7. who. since at least as early as the 1st century CE.”[76] This suggests that Hecate’s close association with dogs derived in part from the use of watchdogs. was probably derived from the Greek word for yew. and might also relate to her appearance with two torches.1214) describes her as having a head surrounded by serpents. usually the largest meal of the day. indeed. the guardian of doors and portals. protecting their inhabitants.

in William Shakespeare's play of the same name: “Witchcraft celebrates pale Hecate’s offerings. the moon. in this portrayal she is known as “Mistress of Animals”. the principal of the Gods celestial.11 Cross-cultural parallels that parallel. Modern Hellenic polytheists honor Hecate during the Deipnon. and then the Agathos Diamon the day after that. for Hecate has three faces. Historical depictions and descriptions show her facing in three different directions. Lucius Apuleius (c. mistress and governess of all the elements.7. Hecate was identified with Ereshkigal. conflated with the figure of Diana. and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me. and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine. my divinity is adored throughout all the world in divers manners. which derives from PIE *kagh. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient. The Deipnon consists of three main parts: 1) the meal that was set out at a crossroads..”[81] A secondary purpose was to purify the household and to atone for bad deeds a household member may have committed that offended Hekate. who in some traditions identify her with the Triple Goddess’ aspect of the "Crone".[91] was made popular in modern times by writers such as Robert Graves in The White Goddess.”.. in variable customs and in many names. usually in a shrine outside the entryway to the home [82] 2) an expiation sacrifice. the wholesome winds of the Seas. Aleister Crowley. and witchcraft that eventually became established “in the area of Northern Italy.[89] with Isis: 7. who was skeptical of theories proposing non-Germanic origins for German folklore traditions.9 Modern expressions Hecate is mentioned in Act 2. the initial progeny of worlds. Scene 1 by the character Macbeth. the light of the goddesses: at my will the planets of the air.10.. c.[85] which draws heavily on folkloric traditions[86] associating Hecate with 'The Wild Hunt'. others Bellona of the Battles. 123 — revived the indigenous polytheist religion of Greece. vanish.[99] and the second Hecate is now firmly established as a figure in perhaps from *dhewes.[97] Modern etymology reconstructs Proto-Germanic *hagatusjon.“hedge. [.] Some call me Juno.[79] The Deipnon is always followed the next day by the Noumenia.. chief of powers divine. and many others.[84] Strmiska notes that Hecate. enclosure”.from haegtesse and hagazussa.[95] Such derivations are today proposed only by a minority[96] since being refuted by Grimm. such as the 20th century occultist and author.[98] the first element is probably cognate with hedge. my name.”[98] Neopaganism. and the silences of hell be disposed. which many modern-day Wiccans associate with the concept of “the Maiden. southern Germany. or the “Mother” aspects as well. but are not explicitly attested in. known as the 'Dagger' soliloquy. the later Greek Magical Papyri sometimes refer to her as also having the heads of animals. Her role as a tripartite goddess. appears in late antiquity and in the early medieval period as part of an “emerging legend complex” associated with gatherings of women. causing her to withhold her favor from them. and still others Hecate. and this can be seen as a reference to her aspect of Motherhood.[83] and 3) purification of the household. 170 CE) in his work The Golden Ass associates Hecate Hellenismos. or phases.”[93] This theory of the Roman origins of many European folk traditions related to Diana or Hecate was explicitly advanced at least as early as 1807[94] and is reflected in numerous etymological claims by lexicographers from the 17th to the 19th century. Queen of heaven.[92] 'I am she that is the natural mother of all things. The figure of Hecate can often be associated with the figShe is worshiped by people who have reconstructed and ure of Isis in Egyptian myth.[. be smoke. Classical sources.]'[100] In the syncretism during Late Antiquity of Hellenistic and late Babylonian ("Chaldean") elements.. In other circles Wiccan witches associate her with the “Maiden”. hedges and 'hedge-riding'.“fly about.[87] witches. the Mother and the Crone”.[80] when the first sliver of moon is visible. In the Michigan . deriving “hag” and/or “hex” from Hecate by way of haegtesse (AngloSaxon) and hagazussa (Old High German).[88] and other themes 7. do call me Queen Isis.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore The main purpose of the Deipnon was to honor Hekate and to placate the souls in her wake who “longed for vengeance. such as groups like Hellenion and YSEE..[90] Hecate is also one of the “patron” goddesses of many Wiccans. 7. and the western Balkans. SURVIVAL IN PRE-MODERN FOLKLORE 21 new moon. a clear and precise reference to the tripartite nature of this ancient Goddess. the underworld counterpart of Inanna in the Babylonian cosmography.

Theoi. p.brynmawr. HECATE mentioned. Derossi (1975)). 135.22 CHAPTER 7. danger-stricken outside world”.14 Notes Isis and her various other names and symbols from The Golden Ass. Antony. and Plutarch’s observation that in Boeotia dogs were killed in purificatory rites. New York: Oxford University Press. dated to the late 3rd or early 4th century CE. “The use of dog sacrifices at the gates and doors of the living and the dead as well as its use in travel sacrifices suggest that dogs were perceived as daemonic animals operating in the liminal or transitory realm between the domestic and the unknown. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. p.britannica. Avalonia. it has been remarked.[104] 7. 7). 'she who works her will'" [9] Hornblower. domestic spaces. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. she had many similarities with Artemis (wilderness. Dogs. Simon. pp. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous. 129. [5] Sarah Iles Johnston.12 Nature of her cult Regarding the nature of her cult.06.11”. Jenny Strauss (2003). and as protective spirits appropriate when transcending geographic and spatial boundaries. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology. They played a similar symbolic role in ancient China. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 671. . No. Sorita & Rankine. [8] At least in the case of Hesiod's use. 3 (Jul. Walcot (1958). 307-318 [2] “HECATE : Greek goddess of witchcraft. mythology . “she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. [4] “Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02. eds. Retrieved 2012-09-24. Neitzel (1975). com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate [7] Berg 1974. see Clay. As Roel Sterckx observes. (1996). 2009. [6] Encyclopedia Britannica. were offered to Hecate at crossroads. p. purification. Hecate Ereschigal is invoked against fear of punishment in the afterlife. Hesiod’s Cosmos. 1990. magical papyrus (inv.). Clay lists a number of researchers who have advanced some variant of the association between Hecate’s name and will (e. which were sacred to the goddess. Scholars Press. Hekate Soteira. in the entry for Hecate. Vol. A Greek English Lexicon. and spirits of the dead.edu. which is glossed as “lit. Dogs were also sacrificed to the road. where dogs were conceived as representative of the household sphere. ISBN 0-521-82392-7. David.. with puppies often [1] The Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of Hekate by Charles M. pictures : HEKATE”.com.[103] This can be compared to Pausanias’ report that in the Ionaian city of Colophon in Asia Minor a sacrifice of a black female puppy was made to Hecate as “the wayside goddess”. http://www. Bmcr. ghosts & magic .13 See also • Asura (Buddhism) • Janus • Amphisbaena • Lampade 7. The researcher is led to identify “the name and function of Hecate as the one 'by whose will' prayers are accomplished and fulfilled.”[9] 7. 90. Hecate.[101] Before she became associated with Greek mythology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1986). [3] d'Este. Hekate Liminal Rites. she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition. Spawforth.” This interpretation also appears in Liddell-Scott.g. and watching over wedding ceremonies)[102] Dogs were sacred to Hecate and associated with roads.

[36] Strabo. [19] This statue is in the British Museum. University of California Press. Hecate. ed. Blackwell.” observes Peter Green. 2. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Introduction.. [28] Household and Family Religion in Antiquity by John Bodel and Saul M. Simon. The Cults of the Greek States. 21. Arthur (1567). Theoi. 2007. Kings. line 384: “By the triple Hecat’s team”. eds. Olyan. The Sad Shepherd. A Classical Dictionary. have followed the actors in this world. [27] Johnston. [31] d'Este & Rankine. The material seems to have provided background and explanation related to the meaning of these pronouncements. Hekate Liminal Rites. New York: Oxford University Press. Macbeth. 316.gr/index.2. Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1894): "Hec'ate (3 syl. Berg’s argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1.9: "Hecate. University of Chicago Press. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. ancient coins index with thumbnails”. [13] Golding. Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names”. Griechenland (Heidelberg) 1960. P. He concludes. published by John Wiley & Sons. Shakespeare. 2000. and appear to have been related to the practice of theurgy. The Argonautika.). pagan magic that later became closely associated with Neoplatonism. p. in English is universally contracted into two. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. [26] Hesiod.php?l=householdworship#1 [30] “Baktria. britannica. as he has now confirmed. how now. 2009 [29] Encyclopedia Britannica. Julian the Theurgist. Guillaume. [39] The Chaldean Oracles is a collection of literature that date from somewhere between the 2nd century and the late 3rd century. Sarah Iles. Act III. http://www. 195. and in the same number in the Greek word Ἑκάτη. this pronunciation. Avalonia. WildWinds.23 [37] “CULT OF HEKATE : Ancient Greek religion”. Eidola. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. (1987) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. NOTES 23 [10] Anthon.eu. 2009 [32] Theodor Kraus.7. Bilde der Göttin in Kleinasien u. [20] [21] “Images”.com. Harper & Brothers. Oxford. Neoplatonic saints: the Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by their Students. (1896). edited and translated by Lesley Madytinou & Rathamanthys Madytinos http://www. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. p. by sinking the final e. Roman and European Mythologies. Antony. pronounced in three syllables when in Latin. “Arguments for Hecate’s “Anatolian” origin are not in accord with evidence. [17] Hekate Her Sacred Fires. (1996). by so adapting the word in Macbeth. p. . Liverpool University Press. 3. Act V. p. who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people. 128: Berg comments on Hecate’s endorsement of Roman hegemony in her representation on the pediment at Lagina solemnising a pact between a warrior (Rome) and an amazon (Asia) [34] Berg 1974. Wendy Doniger. Act III. Scene 1. Scene 3. Shakespeare. Retrieved 2012-09-24. page 221. p. Geography 14. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 [12] McKechnie. p. Oxford. and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. 1603-07). [33] Berg 1974.. Retrieved 2012-09-24. William (c. Book Seven. 2 in Eng. A Dictionary of the English Language (10th ed.. Charles (1869). [14] Marlowe. In Asia Minor only one monument can be associated with Hecate prior to the 2nd century BCE. and the rest of the world have followed them. [38] Mark Edwards. the recording of which is traditionally attributed to Julian the Chaldaean or his son. list pp. Christopher (first published 1604. p.)" [16] Lewis Richard Farnell.. inventory number 816. Scene 5. p. Act II. Agathokles. Philippe (2008). [23] Apollonios Rhodios (tr. Spawforth. Cf.166ff. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested “Carian theophoric names” is not convincing. 2010-02-28. 14. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland. Oxford University Press.. Bloomington. ISBN 978-90-04-17089-6.. And the play-going world. (1975). p. 1594-96). and especially from Attica—all of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. performed earlier). 100. 134. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. 171.com. p. line 668: “our dame Hecat”.14. Sorita d'Este. 579. Paul.labrys. Noah (1866). in Greek. “Hecate in Art”. Avalonia. Shakespeare seems to have begun. ISBN 0-253-20122-5. Hekate: Studien zu Wesen u. p. 52. 133. p. Evelyn-White) [11] Wheelwright. printed 1641). William (c. 1637. Ben (c. line 21: “Pluto’s blue fire and Hecat’s tree”.). Retrieved 2012-0924. Theogony. 2007. Hecat!" Jonson.1. 144. p140 [24] Walter Burkert. Leiden: Brill. Doctor Faustus.com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate also Hellenic Household Worship by Christos Pandion Panopoulos.25. 2010 [18] Yves Bonnefoy. [22] “The legend of the Argonauts is among the earliest known to the Greeks. [25] Strabo. Geography. ISBN 0-631-15624-0.” [35] Kraus 1960. Scene 2. seeHornblower. E. (1991). [15] Webster. The Argonautika. Peter Green). Kraus 1960. 1992. (English Translation by Hugh G. line 1: “Why. Metaphor and Reality.

Wendy Doniger. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. p. 2. p67 [55] Sarah Iles Johnston. The Learned Banqueters. 1974. 76. To commemorate this timely phenomenon. Divine Heiress. Philip of Macedon. 1993.. Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins. 1990. Goddess Gift: Meet the Goddesses Here. University of California Press.C. translation by Francis Celoria. 1921. this story apparently survived in the works Hesychius of Miletus. [Diviners] spin this sphere and make invocations. Roscher.H.). 370529. 72. 126-127. Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (C.. Encyclopædia Britannica. Metamorphoses 29. Mediterranean Seafood. 68. 1981). [41] “A top of Hekate is a golden sphere enclosing a lapis lazuli in its middle that is twisted through a cow-hide leather thong and having engraved letters all over it. 16. Trombley. or a triangular one. 1992 [58] On the Characteristics of Animals by Aelian.com/Text/LycophronAlexandra. pp. 319. It is called the top of Hekate because it is dedicated to her. [46] Jon D. that is the movement of the top. 362-363. The Age of Justinian and Theodora. The Argonautica of Apollonius. H. in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. it is related. Vita Eligii book II. Von den Toren des Hades zu den Hallen des Olymp (Brill. Oxford University Press. Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner. “Hecate” article. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece.” As quoted in Frank R. with the aid of the Athenians. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. tr. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 1994. 1924.” Vasiliki Limberis. startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. Oxford University Press. 1841. In her right hand she held the source of the virtues. Cambridge University Press. Creatures in the Mist: Little People. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium and Eustathius. p. vol. they call out unintelligible or beast-like sounds. Greek Goddess of the Crossroads”. Gary R. 207.]" William Gordon Holmes. Lycophron of Chalcis was a Greek poet in the 3rd century BCE The poem can be read here: http://www. [61] William Martin Leake. a Byzantine lexicon of the 10th century CE. Since Hecate was the guardian of “liminal places”. Roman and European Mythologies. 1958 [59] Charles Duke Yonge. The Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster. The Lupercalia. p. pp. Columbia University. p. [60] Robert Parker. or some other shape. they erected a public statue to that goddess [. 2007). New York: Algora Publishing. [42] “In 340 B. London. [56] The poem Alexandra by Lycophron 1174 ff. Ten Speed Press. 1890–94). Restless Dead. [52] Amanda Porterfield.. 96. Healing in the history of Christianity.). Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. [48] Liddell-Scott. p. and with her pack of dogs. Biblo & Tannen Publishers. [50] Sarah Iles Johnston. While spinning them. 2. as if it had an ineffable power. Scholars Press. it was Hecate. University of California Press. A Greek-English Lexicon. 1921. who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian. translated by Alwyn Faber Scholfield. 1990. 195. [49] Ivana Petrovic. pp. “If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople.html [57] Antoninus Liberalis. Hunter. UNC Press. but were foiled by reason of a bright light which. translation by Mair. University of Chicago Press. 5-6. Columbia University. Routledge. [Hekate] teaches the taketes to operate. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. 1823. Like Byzas in one legend. Stählin. 211-212. Brill. vol. 2005.24 [40] English translation used here from: William Wynn Wescott (tr. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. theoi. p. which served as her constant companions. p. however. 2. The Lupercalia. p. an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros’ was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate’s defensive aid. Hekate Soteira. 1999.H. Athenian Popular Religion. Psychology Press. Wild Men and Spirit Beings Around the World: A Study in Comparative Mythology. p. according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her everpresent torches. CHAPTER 7. she had her origins in Thrace. pp. 982. citing Apollonius of Rhodes. withstood a siege successfully. 2002. p. W. p. [54] Alberta Mildred Franklin. [51] Sarah Iles Johnston. Hellenic Religion and Christianization. 135. [65] R. (2007). 1895. whether it is the matter of a spherical object. p. Beck. But it is all nonsense. laughing and flailing at the air. Harvard University Press. on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise.16.G. [43] Joseph Eddy Fontenrose. p. L. 208-209. The Topography of Athens. 1999. Bohn. 94. 1987. [62] Alan Davidson. 2005. 92. 142. 1854. . pt. Such things they call charms. [53] Saint Ouen. Retrieved 18 April 2011. pt. [44] “Hecate. the Byzantines. 1992. appearing suddenly in the heavens. In the course of this beleaguerment. ISBN 0-87586-546-1. 1999. 2. Mikalson. 492. p. which was attributed to Hecate. [64] Yves Bonnefoy. C. Schmid and O. 2003. W. [45] Alberta Mildred Franklin. University of California Press. HECATE [47] Sarah Iles Johnston. [63] Varner. pp. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the Suda.

264 f. Bilardi. (i. Com.sparknotes. p. ii. Fragkiska Megaloudi. 19 K). Thryon (Atropa belladona). pp 303-304. Aristophanes. Spawforth. Archaeopress. Alkaloids: Biochemistry. p. University of Wisconsin Press. and note. 1889. Lewis. Melanthius. 1996. […] most see in goddess worship a rediscovery of folk practices that persisted in rural Europe throughout the Christian era and up to recent times. Simon. p79 [86] “Neo-paganism/witchcraft is a spiritual orientation and a variety of ritual practices using reconstructed mythological structures and pre-Christian rites primarily from ancient European and Mediterranean sources. N111. pp 10-23 (De Vries also mentions Hecate in this liminal context). Smith. in Athenaeus. p339. and 358 F.]" Margaret F.14. Hegesander. 79. Mekon (Papaver somniferum). 647. Heckenbach. 121-124. New York: Oxford University Press. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Judith Fletcher. Vol. [71] Robert Graves. http://hellenion. The Red Church or The Art of Pennsylvania German Braucherei.” Timothy Miller (Ed. Virginity Revisited: Configurations of The Unpossessed Body.A Documentary History of Religion In America Since 1877. 28. 2003. Henry. 1992 [89] Hellenion is a 501c3 religious organization based in the USA dedicated to reviving the religions indigenous to Greece. [78] Richard Cavendish. Plants of Death. [84] Roscher. Witching Culture: Folklore and Neopaganism in America. [70] “Hecate had a “botanical garden” on the island of Colchis where the following alkaloid plants were kept: Akoniton (Aconitum napellus). Diktamnon (Dictamnus albus). Noll (Eds. “Neopaganism sees itself as a revival of ancient pre-Christian religion: the old nature religions of Greece and Rome. [83] Hekate’s Suppers. 2009. Rohde. Simoons. 1998. p. For a 'moon magick' reference to Hecate as “Lady of the Wild Hunt and witchcraft” see: D. 2781.org/ The Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes is an umbrella group based in Greece that is a legally recognized Non Profit Organization (NPO) and was “founded in June of 1997 aiming to the morale and physical protection and restoration of the Polytheistic. and notes. 424-425). America’s Alternative Religions. (1996). p. p.). Valckenaer) [68] Frederick J.html . Melanthius. Apollodorus. 14. F. 411-413. Moon Magick: Myth & Magic. 2008 and Rae Beth. Hale. 154. Dennison. Antiphanes.). Hedge-Rider: Witches and the Underworld. Plants and Diet in Greece From Neolithic to Classic Periods. 1975.7. 126-127. 275-277. p157 [88] For an extensive discussion of the symbolism of the hedge and hedge-riding as it relates to contemporary witchcraft see: Eric De Vries. 1994. 1998.2. 2008. The Greek Myths. Crafts & Recipes. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 143.” James R. [82] Antiphanes. n. [77] Hornblower. 394 K). pp 127-129.. J. [75] Sarah Iles Johnston.com/macbeth/page_50.).). 1998. Walter (1902). Springer. Magic and Folk Belief. hedge-riding and witches in German folklore see: C. Llewellyn. New York: American Book Company. 1972 pages 291-297 [81] These are the biaiothanatoi. and Medicinal Applications. R. [76] Vasiliki Limberis. Eerdmans. State University of New York Press. 1999. 1999. 62. 16. Plants of Death. 2004. [69] Freize. 2007. State University of New York Press. 1995. [79] [5] The play Plutus by Aristophanes (388BCE). Ecology. As a general indicator of the currency of the association of hedge and witch see titles such as: Silver Ravenwolf. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. Michael Wink. [85] For Hecate as a protector deity of a contemporary (midnineties) neopagan coven see: Sabina Magliocco. Chapter in the book The Goddess Hekate: Studies in Ancient Pagan and Christian Philosophy edited by Stephen Ronan.. p303 [87] For a summary of the wild hunt as a neopagan 'tradition' see the entry in James R. University of California Press. Pages 57 to 64 [67] Matthew Suffness (Ed. and for the relation between hedges.” Gaustad. [90] http://nfs. Magic. NOTES 25 [66] Daniel Ogden. p. pp. the quasi-technical word designating their longing for vengeance. Melaina (Claviceps pupurea). University of Wisconsin Press. Chariclides (iii. See Heckenbach. 358 F. 2776 and references. Witchcraft. University of Pennsylvania Press. in Athenaeus.. was much dreaded. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Conway. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary And The Creation of Christian Constantinople. 313 B (2. Oxford University Press. University of Toronto Press. by K. Taxol: Science and Applications. p603. whose enthumion. Llewellyn. of the wandering Teutonic tribes and of others as well. pp. tradition and way of life in the “modern” Greek Society from which is oppressed due to its institutional intolerance and theocracy”. also Ammonius (p. eds. 362. Simoons. 209. Hedge Witch: Guide To Solitary Witchcraft. Hedge Witch: Spells. p. The Powers of Evil in Western Religion. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. Antony. 79. Plants of Life. 2006. line 594 any translation will do or Benjamin Bickley Rogers is fine [80] Harvard Theological Review. 1999. 208. 39 K). Plants of Life. Pendraig Publishing. 1. 65. Rituals & Spells. No. in Athenaeus. pp. Mandragores (Mandragora officinarum). Pendraig Publishing. [74] Sarah Iles Johnston. Plutus. p. 596. 1977. 2002. 1995. Rohde. aoroi and ataphoi (cf. 325 B. Routledge. Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions. Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft. 1995. 71. University of California Press. and Cochicum [. Lewis. “A second theme in the Neo-Pagan combination is the pre-Christian European folk religion or Paganism. p. p. Roberts. p. i. Plato. Virgil’s Aeneid. [73] Bonnie MacLachlan. Routledge. 82-83. Crafts & Rituals for Natural Magick. CRC Press. ii. 490. pp. Penguin Books. Ethnic Hellenic religion. [72] Frederick J.

p. Numen 21. 2004. 235-243. Karl.” (Footnote 113. The Day of Yahweh: A Study of Sacred Days and Ritual Forms in the Ancient Near East. [95] John Minsheu and William Somner (17th century). A work which views Hekate from the perspective of Mircea Eliade's archetypes and substantiates its claims through cross-cultural comparisons. Cures. p. Wilshire. p. • Kerenyi. Walter Whiter. VT: Inner Traditions International. & Witchery. Modern paganism in world cultures. Geography 7. entry 'hag'. Metamorphoses.com/site/hellenionstemenos/Home/ festivals/hekatesdeipnon CHAPTER 7. “Hecate in Art”. Robert. ABC-CLIO. Johann Georg Wachter. [92] https://sites.g. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) Published in the UK as Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. and how should the word have spread through all German lands?" Jacob Grimm. accessed 8/23/09 [99] Mallory. in American Folk Medicine: A Symposium Ed. [103] Roel Sterckx. of Tennessee Press. Hecate.16 External links • Myths of the Greek Goddess Hecate • Encyclopædia Britannica 1911: “Hecate” . The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures. The Gods of the Greeks. 213. Radbill.26 [91] E. Hand. 2005. contrary to the laws of change. 514. D. Edward Lye of Oxford (1694-1767). Simoons.google. p. • Ovid.15.15. The Cults of the Greek States. 2007. • Lewis Richard Farnell. Signs. [102] Heidel. and of Ancient Manners. Oxford. Rochester. J. 1951. Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them. The Golden Ass 11. 223 [100] Apuleius. Oxford University Press. Theogony. History of Religions 19. (Oxford: Blackwell) ISBN 0-631-15624-0. Sarah Iles. William Arthur (1929).Q. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 • Mallarmé.2 Secondary sources • Berg.P. Leo. Wayland D. “Hecate: Greek or “Anatolian"?". Donna (1994). American Historical Association. The Animal and The Daemon In Early China. Horned Owl Publishing (July 1999) 7. nouvelle mythologie illustrée. Sterckx explicitly recognizes the similarities between these ancient Chinese views of dogs and those current in Greek and Roman antiquity. p. State University of New York Press. Teutonic Mythology. Lat. 241. Gerald Milnes. pp 232-233.g.2 (August 1974:128-40) • Burkert. pp 233-234 • Strabo. 1976. Etymologicon Universale (1822) [96] e. Adams. Stéphane. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows: A Complete History. 68. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate’s Role in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature. HECATE 7. p. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. or Romance writings in the sense of witch. Hekate in Early Greek Religion. (English translation 1900) [98] Etymology Online. • Johnston. 2002. 1807.15 References 7. Illustrations of Shakspeare. XIV 44. An English translation is available online [93] Michael Strmiska. 174. 177. University of Wisconsin Press. • Ruickbie. Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess. William. [97] “Many have been caught by the obvious resemblance of the Gr. [101] Hans Dieter Betz. 1985. (1991). Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. • Pausanias. Oxford University Press. Description of Greece [94] Francis Douce. (1880). some dismissing Rabinowitz as a neo-pagan. but the letters agree to closely. “Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus”. 1987. 1835. Sarah Iles. no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M. Walter. Glossarium Germanicum (1737). • Von Rudloff. “The Role of Animals in Infant Feeding”. Univ. The work has been sharply criticized by Classics scholars. 2006.4 (May 1980):287-295). 405. p318) [104] Frederick J. 1994. ISBN 0-89281-494-2. 194. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. (1896). VII 74. • Johnston. Samuel X. 116. • Rabinovich. (1990). Works and Days. and goes on to note “Dog sacrifice was also a common practice among the Greeks where the dog figured prominently as a guardian of the underworld. The Rotting Goddess. Berkeley: University of California Press.47. Robert Hale. Yakov. and the Mid. 94. 1990.1 Primary sources • Hesiod. Les Dieux Antiques. VI 140.

Oxford. Hecate Classical literary sources and art • Hekate in Greek esotericism: Ptolemaic and Gnostic transformations of Hecate • The Covenant of Hekate • Cast of the Crannon statue. EXTERNAL LINKS • The Rotting Goddess by Yakov Rabinovich. complete book included in the anthology “Junkyard of the Classics” published under the pseudonym Ellipsis Marx. • Theoi Project.16. at the Ashmolean Museum.7. • The Hekate/Iphigenia Myth 27 .

According to Charles An.g. see Artemis (disambiguation). Beekes suggested that the have been proposed.[8] The name could also be possibly related to Greek árktos "bear" (from PIE *h₂ŕ̥tḱos). feminine) is of unknown or un. While connection with Anatolian names has Didrachm from Ephesus. excellent. was originally pre-Greek. In later Hellenistic times. *arte.e. It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting.[5] In the classical period of Greek mythology.[11] this cult was a survival of very old totemic and shamanistic rituals and formed part of a larger bear cult found further afield in other Indo-European cultures (e.[15] Artemis [16] For example according to Jablonski.[4] The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. childbirth. Gaulish Artio). S.1 Etymology Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Greek king Artemidoros (whose name means “gift of Artemis”). even as she was worshipped at Ephesus”. and indeed the goddess herself.[12][13] the earliest attested forms of the . by way of folk etymology.te. “to shake. Artemis (Ancient Greek: Ἄρτεμις.[1] Some scholars[2] believe that the name. have linked Artemis (Doric Arthon the primitive root of the name is probably of Per.mis] in Classical Attic) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto. virginity and protector of young girls. which was originally about Artemis (Arcadian epithet kallisto).[9][10] e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin.. i. she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth. 85 BCE. holy.[10] the name is also was venerated in Lydia as Artimus. representing the goddess Artemis been suggested. P. c. Potnia Theron: “Artemis of the wildland.[10] Anton Goebel “suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ. supported by the bear cult that the goddess had in Attica (Brauronia) and the Neolithic remains at the Arkoudiotissa Cave.[6] The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. Britomartis.” thus Artemis “becomes identical with the great mother of Nature. Ionia. *art.[9] Babiniotis while accepting that the etymology is unknown.” and makes Artemis mean the thrower of the dart or the shooter”. Artemis /ˈɑrtɨmɨs/ was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. and the twin sister of Apollo.some modern scholars. states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of pre-Hellenic origin. 28 . Mistress of Animals”. Phrygian and could be “compared with the royal appel. pronounced [ár. she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/. all meaning “great.Ancient Greek writers. bringing and relieving disease in women.to /Artemitos/ and . as well as the story about Callisto. written certain origin and etymology[7][8] although various ones in Linear B at Pylos. artamos. and lation Artemas of Xenophon. a-te-miname Artemis are the Mycenaean Greek The name Artemis (noun.Chapter 8 Artemis For other uses. “butcher”[17][18] or. wild animals. 8. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt. wilderness.tamis) to ἄρταμος.[3] Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera.[14] R. featuring Artemis with a drawn bow and a quiver on her back on the reverse of the coin sian origin from *arta.

2. dating to approximately 25 BC Various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother. “pure”.8. and for the ability to help women in the pains of childbirth. Both of lovely shape like none of the heavenly gods. Most stories depict Artemis as born first. her husband. to have many names to set her apart from her brother Apollo. holding a lyre) from Myrina. with a deer) and Apollo (on the right. “unharmed”. Briseis Painter. to be her choir. lines 918–920 (written in the 7th century BCE) 8.e. 8. Artemis at the islands known today as the Paximadia. Brygos (potter. and for twenty Amnisides Nymphs as handmaidens to watch her dogs and bow while she rested. signed). “uninjured”. however.2 Childhood Artemis (on the left. Theogony. artemḗs. A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. to be the Phaesporia or Light Bringer.1 Birth Apollo (left) and Artemis.[22] The myths also differ as to whether Artemis was born first. Zeus.2. All accounts agree. The Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl.2. and Kenneth McLeish suggested further that in quail form Leto would have given birth with as few birth-pains as a mother quail suffers when it lays an egg. Artemis. 470 BC. at three years old. “the stainless maiden”. —Hesiod.2 Artemis in mythology Leto bore Apollon and Artemis. delighting in arrows. while sitting on the knee of her father. that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and that she was the twin sister of Apollo. ca. but to rule the mountains. to have sixty “daughters of Okeanos". “safe”. and Leto gave birth there. As she joined in love to the Aegis-bearing ruler.[23] A poem of Callimachus to the goddess “who amuses herself on mountains with archery” imagines some charming vignettes: according to Callimachus. having been thrashed by Hera. all nine years of age. Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup. An account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra firma (the mainland) or on an island. i.[24] In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates . Apollo. She wished for no city dedicated to her. to ἀρτεμής. who. Louvre. becoming her mother’s mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo. or Apollo.[20] The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth. climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY 29 like Plato did in Cratylus. But the island of Delos (or Ortygia in the Homeric Hymn to Artemis) disobeyed Hera. to have a bow and arrow and a knee-length tunic so that she could hunt. 72 accounts for the island’s archaic name Ortygia[21] by asserting that Zeus transformed Leto into a quail (ortux) in order to prevent Hera from finding out his infidelity. asked him to grant her six wishes: to remain always a virgin. Hera was angry with Zeus.[9][10][19] 8. because he had impregnated Leto.

Usually the dogs are his own. she covers her face with mud so that the river Orion was Artemis’ hunting companion. Callimachus tells[26] how Artemis spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress. he is killed by Artemis. However. Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis’ temple. Artemis had interested many gods and men. Different tellings also diverge in the hunter’s transgression. Bouphagos. but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. who was a late addition to Greek mythology during the Hellenistic period. who. the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who. particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother. or even merely being a rival of Zeus for the affections of Semele. Gaia. The details vary but at the core they involve a great hunter. Alphaeus sions. Artemis. the hunting dog. a river god. Artemis killed Adonis to avenge Hippolytus’s but only her hunting companion. Okeanus’ daughters were filled with fear. In other versions.5 Adonis In some versions of the story of Adonis. who no longer recognize their master. Orion. to be a midwife. Artemis Alphaea in Letrini. ARTEMIS tries to rape Artemis’ attendant Arethusa. the stag. in some surviving versions Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her.2. For this hubris he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. sometimes boasting he is a better hunter than she. Artemis killed Adonis for revenge.2. and Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytus. In some vergod does not recognize her. won her heart. In another story. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by In yet another version. As a virgin. but.8. Alpheus. Adonis was not killed by Artemis. Therefore. Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot. how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Lipara. was in love with Artemis. where Hephaestus and the Cyclops worked.2. Lamar Ronald Lacey’s The Myth of Aktaion: Literary and Iconographic Studies. the god of the forest. though many are fragmentary. who had been a favorite of Artemis. the son of the Titan Iapetos. 8. sees Artemis and thinks about raping her. and the moon. death. attempts to force himself on her. is turned into a girl by the goddess. suspicious of his motives. Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe. Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Pan.3 Intimacy of Aphrodite. In later myths. Apollo. who gave her seven bitches and six dogs.[26] According to the standard modern text on the work. Reading his sinful thoughts.[25] All of her companions remained virgins.2. Sipriotes is a boy. So he decides to capture her. and Artemis closely guarded her own chastity. either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her. who is with her com. Adonis had been related as a favorite 8. but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows. Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than she. goes to Alpheus. 8. which is sometimes merely seeing the virgin goddess naked.30 CHAPTER 8. as punishment for being with Aphrodite.4 Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon myth survive. seeing her naked in her sacred spring. where the goddess and her attendant drink.6 Orion panions at Letrenoi. but by Ares. Sometimes they are Artemis’ hounds. Roman marble Bust of Artemis after Kephisodotos (Musei Capitolini). while in others he is killed . Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow. Rome. Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts.

8.2. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY

31

Diana and Callisto by Titian.

8.2.8 Callisto
Callisto was the daughter of Lycaon, King of Arcadia and
also was one of Artemis’s hunting attendants. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus apThe Death of Adonis, by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709 - Hermitage
peared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories
Museum.
Apollo, gained her confidence, then took advantage of
her (or raped her, according to Ovid). As a result of this
encounter she conceived a son, Arcas.
by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries Enraged, Hera or Artemis (some accounts say both)
to seduce Opis,[27] one of Artemis’ followers, and she changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but
kills him. In a version by Aratus,[28] Orion takes hold Zeus stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus placed
of Artemis’ robe and she kills him in self-defense.
Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of CalIn yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion. According to Hyginus[29] Artemis once loved Orion (in spite
of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos did), but was tricked into killing him by her
brother Apollo, who was “protective” of his sister’s maidenhood.

8.2.7

The Aloadae

listo the Bear as a constellation. Some stories say that he
placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears,
forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations.

8.2.9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis
Artemis punished Agamemnon after he killed a sacred
stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess. When the Greek fleet was
preparing at Aulis to depart for Troy to begin the Trojan
War, Artemis becalmed the winds. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis
was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then
snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer.
Various myths have been told around what happened after Artemis took her. Either she was brought to Tauros
and led the priests there, or became Artemis’ immortal
companion.[30]

These twin sons of Iphidemia and Poseidon, Otos and
Ephialtes, grew enormously at a young age. They were
aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless
they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae never
stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach
heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take
them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for
Artemis who captured a fine deer (or in another version 8.2.10 Niobe
of the story, she changed herself into a doe) and jumped
out between them. The Aloadae threw their spears and A Queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted
of her superiority to Leto because while she had fourteen
so mistakenly killed each other.

32

CHAPTER 8. ARTEMIS

children (Niobids), seven boys and seven girls, Leto had
only one of each. When Artemis and Apollo heard this
impiety, Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics,
and Artemis shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to
kill them, though according to some versions two of the
Niobids were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at
the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated
Niobe and her remaining children were turned to stone
by Artemis as they wept. The gods themselves entombed
them.

8.2.11

Chione

Chione was a princess of Pokis. She was beloved by two
gods, Hermes and Apollo, and boasted that she was prettier than Artemis because she made two gods fall in love
with her at once. Artemis was furious and killed Chione
with her arrow or struck her dumb by shooting off her
tongue. However, some versions of this myth say Apollo
and Hermes protected her from Artemis’ wrath.

8.2.12

Atalanta, Oeneus and the Meleagrids

Artemis saved the infant Atalanta from dying of exposure
after her father abandoned her. She sent a female bear to
suckle the baby, who was then raised by hunters. But
she later sent a bear to hurt Atalanta because people said Artemis pouring a libation, c. 460-450 BC.
Atalanta was a better hunter. This is in some stories.
Among other adventures, Atalanta participated in the
hunt for the Calydonian Boar, which Artemis had sent
to destroy Calydon because King Oeneus had forgotten
her at the harvest sacrifices. In the hunt, Atalanta drew
the first blood, and was awarded the prize of the skin.
She hung it in a sacred grove at Tegea as a dedication to
Artemis.
Meleager was a hero of Aetolia. King Oeneus had him
gather heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian
Boar. After the death of Meleager, Artemis turned
his grieving sisters, the Meleagrids into guineafowl that
Artemis loved very much.

8.2.13

Artemis. Iakhos later became an attendant of Demeter
and the leader of Eleusinian Mysteries.

8.2.14 Polyphonte
Polyphonte was a young woman who fled home preferring
the idea of a virginal life with Artemis to the conventional
life of marriage and children favoured by Aphrodite. As
a punishment Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have
children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and
Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of
Zeus. Ultimately the whole family were transformed into
birds and more specifically ill portents for mankind.[32]

Aura
8.2.15 Trojan War

In Nonnus Dionysiaca,[31] Aura was Greek goddess of
breezes and cool air, daughter of Lelantos and Periboia.
She was a virgin huntress, just like Artemis and proud of
her maidenhood. One day, she claimed that the body of
Artemis was too womanly and she doubted her virginity.
Artemis asked Nemesis for help to avenge her dignity and
caused the rape of Aura by Dionysus. Aura became a mad
and dangerous killer. When she bore twin sons, she ate
one of them while the other one, Iakhos, was saved by

Artemis may have been represented as a supporter of
Troy because her brother Apollo was the patron god of
the city and she herself was widely worshipped in western Anatolia in historical times. In the Iliad[33] she came
to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks
and Trojans engaged each other in conflict. Hera struck
Artemis on the ears with her own quiver, causing the arrows to fall out. As Artemis fled crying to Zeus, Leto

8.3. WORSHIP OF ARTEMIS
gathered up the bow and arrows.
Artemis played quite a large part in this war. Like her
mother and brother, who was widely worshiped at Troy,
Artemis took the side of the Trojans. At the Greek’s
journey to Troy, Artemis becalmed the sea and stopped
the journey until an oracle came and said they could win
the goddess’ heart by sacrificing Iphigenia, Agamemnon's
daughter. Agamemnon once promised the goddess he
would sacrifice the dearest thing to him, which was Iphigenia, but broke the promise. Other sources said he
boasted about his hunting ability and provoked the goddess’ anger. Artemis saved Iphigenia because of her bravery. In some versions of the myth, Artemis made Iphigenia her attendant or turned her into Hecate, goddess of
night, witchcraft, and the underworld.

33
the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron to serve the Goddess
for one year. During this time, the girls were known as
arktoi, or little she-bears. A myth explaining this servitude states that a bear had formed the habit of regularly
visiting the town of Brauron, and the people there fed it,
so that, over time, the bear became tame. A girl teased
the bear, and, in some versions of the myth, it killed her,
while, in other versions, it clawed out her eyes. Either
way, the girl’s brothers killed the bear, and Artemis was
enraged. She demanded that young girls “act the bear” at
her sanctuary in atonement for the bear’s death.

Virginal Artemis was worshipped as a fertility/childbirth
goddess in some places, assimilating Ilithyia, since, according to some myths, she assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin. During the Classical period in Athens,
Aeneas was helped by Artemis, Leto, and Apollo. Apollo she was identified with Hecate. Artemis also assimilated
found him wounded by Diomedes and lifted him to Caryatis (Carya).
heaven. There, the three of them secretly healed him in
a great chamber.

8.3.1 Epithets

8.3 Worship of Artemis

Roman Temple of Artemis in Jerash, Jordan, built during the
reign of Antoninus Pius.

Main article: Brauronia
Artemis, the goddess of forests and hills, was worshipped
throughout ancient Greece.[34] Her best known cults were
on the island of Delos (her birthplace), in Attica at
Brauron and Mounikhia (near Piraeus), and in Sparta.
She was often depicted in paintings and statues in a forest
setting, carrying a bow and arrows, and accompanied by
a deer.
The ancient Spartans used to sacrifice to her as one of
their patron goddesses before starting a new military campaign.
Athenian festivals in honor of Artemis included
Elaphebolia, Mounikhia, Kharisteria, and Brauronia.
The festival of Artemis Orthia was observed in Sparta.

Color reconstruction of a first century AD statue of Artemis found
in Pompeii. Reconstructed using analysis of trace pigments. It
was an imitation of Greek statues of the sixth century BC. Part
of Gods in Color.

As Aeginaea, she was worshiped in Sparta; the name
means either huntress of chamois, or the wielder of
the javelin (αἰγανέα).[35][36] She was worshipped at
Naupactus as Aetole; in her temple in that town there
was a statue of white marble representing her throwing a
javelin.[37] This “Aetolian Artemis” would not have been
introduced at Naupactus, anciently a place of Ozolian
Locris, until it was awarded to the Aetolians by Philip II
of Macedon. Strabo records another precinct of “Aetolian Artemos” at the head of the Adriatic.[38] As Agoraea
she was the protector of the agora.

Pre-pubescent and adolescent Athenian girls were sent to As Agrotera, she was especially associated as the pa-

Homer used this title.[47] • Kharisteria Festival on 6 of Boidromion (third month) to celebrate the victory of Marathon and also known as the Athenian “Thanksgiving”. The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis. or Amarynthia from a festival in her honor originally held at Amarynthus in Euboea. or sometimes a leopard and a lion. She was sometimes identified by the name Phoebe. In Athens Artemis was often associated with the local Aeginian goddess. or Ἀλφειοῦσα) was an epithet that Artemis derived from the river god Alpheius. honey and sesame-seeds. Ἀλφεαία. As Locheia. On the altar. Aphaea. she is shown in the shooting pose. • In Orchomenus. A goat was being sacrificed to her.34 CHAPTER 8.[43] Artemis Alphaea was associated with the wearing of masks. made from dough.[41][42] and in Ortygia. tall and slim. dressed in saffron robes and The oldest representations of Artemis in Greek Archaic played the bear to appease the goddess after she sent art portray her as Potnia Theron (“Queen of the Beasts”): a winged goddess holding a stag and leopard in her hands.[39] Alphaea. however. Artemis’ traditional mode of transportation (see below). piling earth upon the altar steps. young. The willow tree appears in several ancient Greek myths and rituals. they construct a smooth ascent to the altar. When portrayed . and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a chariot yoked to four deer.[46] • At the 16 of Metageitnio (second month on Athenian calendar). the plague when her bear was killed. a team of close by Sparta. where girls.3.[50] • Day 6 of Thargelion (eleventh month) the 'birthday' of the goddess. she was the goddess of childbirth and midwives. the feminine form of her brother Apollo’s solar epithet Phoebus. ARTEMIS tron goddess of hunters. As Kourotrophos. Sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron. who was said to have been in love with her. and is named Saron built a sanctuary for the goddess after accompanied by a hunting dog or stag. each of them sixteen cubits long. Often.[44] 8. not until the next day that the sacrifice is offered. Swiss and Greek archaeologists found the ruin of In Greek classical art she is usually portrayed as a maiden Artemis Amarysia Temple. The procession started by setting the logs of wood around the altar. In Sparta the Artemis Lygodesma was worshipped. a town in Argolis.3 Modern Artemis was born at the sixth day. lygos (λυγός. or Alpheiusa (Gr.[52] with hunting boots. It is. aged between five and ten.3. a festival to celebrate skirt. 8. a quiver. bond). As Potnia Theron. Just before the time of the festival. largely because of the legend that while fleeing the advances of Alpheius.2 Festivals the goddess saved his life when he went on hunting and swept by the wave and held a festival for her. at Euboea. people sacrifice to Artemis and Hecate at deme of Erchia. she was the patron of wild animals.[51] • A festival for Artemis Diktynna (of the net) in Hypsous. a bow[53] and arArtemis in Trozeinos. • Laphria. she and her nymphs escaped him by covering their faces.[40] It was under this name that she was worshiped at Letrini in Elis. clothed in a girl’s short • Festival of Artemis Saronia. She was sometimes known as Cynthia.[48] • Day six of Elaphobolia (ninth month) festival of Artemis the Deer Huntress where she was offered cakes shaped like stags. with a sanctuary Artemis Amarysia in Attica. within the circle.[49] • Day 6 of 16 of Mounikhion (tenth month) a celebration of her as the goddess of nature and animal. the reason why it was sacred for her. she was the nurse of youths. This epithet means “willow-bound” from the Gr.4 Artemis in art • Festival of Artemis in Brauron. Alpheaea. Ἀλφαῖα. a festival for Artemis in Patrai. is placed the driest of their wood. willow) and desmos (δεσμός.[45] huntress. 8. A king rows. Greece. a sanctuary was built for Artemis Hymnia where her festival was celebrated every year. In 2007. This winged Artemis • Festival of Amarysia is a celebration to worship lingered in ex-votos as Artemis Orthia. from her birthplace on Mount Cynthus on Delos. while the seventh was Apollo’s.

Artemis was sometimes represented in Classical art with Fauna the crown of the crescent moon. the bow became the symbol of waxing reddish ones. while Artemis with a fishing spear [56] with her cult as a patron goddess of fishing. found at Issa (Vis. Her cult in Aetolia. Artemis forgave him but targeted Eurystheus for golden bow and arrows. Artemis’ chariot was made of gold and was pulled by four golden horned deer (Elaphoi Khrysokeroi). Croatia). a Roman era bronze sculpture of Artemis and the Stag was sold at Sotheby’s auction house Deer were the only animals held sacred to Artemis herin New York state by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery for self.8.[54] to hunt even lions.[55] • Spears. She caught five golden horned deer called Elaphoi 8. and lyre Although quite seldom.As a goddess of maiden dances and songs.these dogs were able moon. and one spotted one .[58] lakatos.5 million. Artemis only ever • Chariots brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time. where she is shown as the death. times a veil covered her head. The arrows of Artemis could also bring sud• Hunting dog den death and disease to girls and women. such as the daughters of Niobe. Her darker side is revealed in some vase paintings. In later cult.[59] . shining. However. Artemis is sometimes portrayed with a hunting spear. Pan also gave Artemis seven bitches of the finest Arcadian race. On seeing a deer larger than a bull with horns $25. 2007. and Iokheira (Showered by Arrows). Heracles begged Artemis for forgiveness and promised to return According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis. as the one she asked from her father. as her epithet was Khryseher wrath. such as also found on Luna and others.4.[57] women.cadia. ARTEMIS IN ART 35 The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. “of the Golden Shaft”. showed her with a hunting spear. Deer were also the first animals she captured. nets. commanded by Eurystheus. con• Bow and arrow sisted in catching the Cerynitian Hind alive.4. Pan gave Artemis two black-and-white dogs. The description about Artemis’ spear can be found in Ovid’s Metaconnected as a moon goddess. Artemis got her bow and arrow for the first time from The Kyklopes. Fourth century Praxitelean bronze head of a goddess wearing a lunate crown.[55] The third labour of Heracles. The bridles of her chariot were also made of gold. Artemis is ofbringing goddess whose arrows fell young maidens and ten portrayed with a lyre. Artemis wore a long robe and some. she fell in love with these creatures and held them sacred.morphosis. three ity. • Deer On June 7. the Artemis Aetolian. she had it alive.1 Attributes Khrysokeroi and harnessed them to her chariot. The bow of Artemis Artemis got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Aralso became the witness of Callisto’s oath of her virgin.

her temple became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. in an ancient sanctuary where her cult image depicted the “Lady of Ephesus” adorned with multiple rounded breast-like protuberances on her chest. A brother of one of the girls killed the bear. still stands as a marker of the temple’s locaArtemis included. and forts. They have been variously interpreted as multiple accessory breasts.5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus Main article: Temple of Artemis At Ephesus in Ionia. Flora Palm and Cypress were issued to be her birthplace. fragments. They touched it and played with it until one day a group of girls poked the bear until it attacked them. acorns.7 See also • Artemisia • Diana (mythology) . and also hard to tame. The Athenians consulted an oracle to understand how to end the plague.[66] In Acts of the Apostles. roads. no Athenian virgin should be allowed to marry until she had served Artemis in her temple ('played the bear for the goddess’). in payment for the bear’s blood.[62] 8. so she transformed them into tear-shaped amber beads that had adorned the ancient wooden xoanon.[68] 8.36 CHAPTER 8.[60] • Boar The boar is one of the favorite animals of the hunters. The oracle suggested that.[61] • Guinea fowl The Artemis of Ephesus. Artemis is the acronym for “Architectures de bolometres pour des Telescopes a grand champ de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol”. shout• Buzzard hawk ing “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”[67] Of the 121 columns of her temple. so Artemis sent a plague in revenge. There the Lady whom the Ionians associated with Artemis through interpretatio graeca was worshiped primarily as a mother goddess. Oineus and Adonis were both killed by Artemis’ boar. Turkey. a large bolometer camera in the submillimeter range that was installed in 2010 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). 105 Artemis. 1st century AD (Ephesus Archaeological Museum) Artemis felt pity for the Meleagrids as they mourned for their lost brother. A bear was tamed by Artemis and introduced to the people of Athens. Meleagor. ARTEMIS • Bear The sacrifice of a bear for Artemis started with the Brauron cult. only one composite. jealously rioted in her defense. The rest were used for making churches. the Artemis Chasma and the Artemis Corona have all been named for her. Every year a girl between five and ten years of age was sent to Artemis’ temple at Brauron. as eggs. tion. they sacrificed it to her. It was probably the best known center of her worship except for Delos.[64][65] Excavation at the site of the Artemision in 1987-88 identified a multitude of 8. The Byzantine writer Suidos relayed the legend in Arktos e Brauroniois. metalsmiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. Ephesian Guinea Fowl to be her favorite animals.[63] or even bull testes.6 Artemis in astronomy A minor planet. Other plants sacred to Artemis are Amaranth and Asphodel. grapes. In honor of Artemis’ skill. located in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. made up of Hawks were the favored birds of many of the gods. akin to the Phrygian goddess Cybele. a lunar crater.

[26] Callimachus. [4] Homer. Charles (1855). Brill. K. C. the lord Apollon and Artemis who delights in arrows. Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. 251ff. W. [19] ἀρτεμής. The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera during the Hellenistic Period (Leiden) 1961:166. The Gods of the Greeks (1951:204). Liddell. The Book People. Christidis. de Gruyter. Scott. 251: Artemis. [8] Babiniotis. 286. [6] “Her proper sphere is the earth. [11] Michaël Ripinsky-Naxon. p. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor (Albany. Theoi. Oswyn Murray (1 January 2009). References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. p. Immerwahr. W. [13] Edwin L. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. “Aeginaea”. [37] Pausanias. 1994. are graphically depicted by ancient sources. της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Haydock.” Hammond. pp. Henry George. [14] John Chadwick and Lydia Baumbach. J. Georgios (2005). A Handbook of Greek Mythology. Metamorphoses. Iliad xxi 470 f. Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. [29] Hyginus. 210. William. H. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.com. 26. and Religion. In Smith. 1993). 597-598. 41. § 2. (1963:157-271) p. 14. Infobase Publishing. [12] Campanile. pp. [21] Or as a separate island birthplace of Artemis— “Rejoice. Brown. Λεξικό Κέντρο [9] Lang. [28] Aratus. ISBN 978-1-4381-1020-2. Aevum 37 :307. 126. Poeticon astronomicon. Kadmos 11 :125-28. 38. Geburtstag (Studies in Indo-European language and culture). Ἂρτεμις. Retrieved 15 March 2015.8. a goddess universally worshiped in historical Greece. “Further remarks on A-TE-MI-TO and A-TIMI-TE”. p. Restelli. Henry George. 112. ii. and specifically the uncultivated parts. . Souvinous. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. [35] Pausanias.(genitive). Robert. x. "Άρτεμις". Andrew (1887). Liddell. however. Beacon 1955. [30] Aaron J. 312. p. 176f. 1995. iii. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. [31] Aura does not appear elsewhere in surviving literature and appears to have been offered no cult.34. Hesperia Supplements 33 (2004:243-257) p. s. [23] Iliad xxi. Online Etymology Dictionary. Ritual. [3] Rose. 142. Robert. blessed Leto. but in all likelihood pre-Hellenic. Dutton 1959. A Classical dictionary. [5] “Artemis”. “In Search of Anatolian Apollo”. p. is discussed pp. C. Myth. [20] Hammond. T. noted in this context by Brown 2004:252. forests and hills. Leonhard (1867).8. 21 [33] Homer. 2009. Oxford Classical Dictionary. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. . Palaeolexicon.8 References and sources [17] ἄρταμος. [2] David Sacks. . Oxford Classical Dictionary. “A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE”. [15] . Henry George. Children of the Gods pp 33f. for you bare glorious children. p. “FAVOUR OF ARTEMIS : Greek mythology”./4. 209–210. Karl Kerenyi observes. [22] Kenneth McLeish. Leto’s birth-pangs. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. her in Ortygia. the etymology Ortygia.505-13. [24] Hymn Around Artemis’ Childhood [25] On-line English translation. p.3. [34] “. NY: State University of New York Press. Word study tool of ancient languages. where wild beasts are plentiful” Hammond and Scullard (editors). [36] Schmitz. The Greeks and Their Gods. Ann. Iliad 21. 215. 56–. “The Mycenaean Greek Vocabulary” Glotta. as Apollo’s inseparable twin. quoting the Greek poet Istrus. Scuola Pisa 28 :305. 213–214. Retrieved 2012-04-26. [18] Ἄρτεμις. 638 [10] Anthon. Etyma Graeca. “Artemis”. Houwink ten Cate. Boston. Green and Co. Scott. Athens: Λεξικολογίας. a-te-mi-to. London: Longmans. New York: Harper & Brothers. [32] Antoninus Liberalis.v. on Google books. Liddell. 32. Atsma. Kadmos 9 1970:42-47. Guthrie. Retrieved 2011-01-28. [7] “Artemis”. Scott. REFERENCES AND SOURCES 37 • Janus [16] Indogermanica et Caucasica: Festschrift fur Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65.470 ff). 99. “Isle of Quail”.” says the Homeric Hymn. § 6. • Artemas • Bendis 8. and him in rocky Delos. Robert. 1970) 126. is not supported by modern scholars. pp. Hymn III to Artemis 46 [27] “Another name for Artemis herself”.

p. “Terracotta Masks”. Brown and Company. “Alphaea”. E.blogspot. Retrieved 2011-01-28. blog by Monica Bowen. Leonhard (1867). Geographica viii. 2009 • Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1. Nemean Odes i. indeed. Greek Mythology Index”.1.Artemis”. The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: Supplementary Papers. • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. 1985. Retrieved 2009-03-19. [47] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?". Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (1929).38 [38] “Among the Heneti certain honours have been decreed to Diomedes. Apex-telescope. 343 [65] “In Search of Diana of Ephesus”. [51] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”.com. [48] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. [50] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. 133. Winterscapes. [55] “Chariot”... Retrieved 2011-01-28. Morris [44] Dickins. 3 [66] “Potnia Aswia: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion” by Sarah P. Hill Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 1992. [68] “APEX . Collegium Hyperboreum and Museum Tusculanum Press. 22. [58] “Kerynitian”.com. Winterscapes. and. Winterscapes. Description of Greece vi. Hymn 3 to Artemis). p. [67] Acts 19:28. (Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan) Athena-Artemis [49] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. Brill.150 images of Artemis . 2007-07-24. 1951. LLD. 2010-01-11.com.org. p.9 External links • Theoi Project. New York Times. 2007-07-24. Passionateabouthistory. G. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Retrieved 2011-01-28.” (Homeric Hymn to Artemis). Copenhagen. [63] “Ancient Art and Artemis: Toward Explaining the Polymastic Nature of the Figurine” by Andrew E. [46] “SARON. and two precincts are still to be seen — one of them sacred to the Argive Hera and the other to the Aetolian Artemis. 1994. § 5 CHAPTER 8. Retrieved 2011-01-28. England: Macmillan Publishers. [62] “Plants”. 8. [40] Schmitz. [56] “Spears”. Mythindex.9 on-line text). August 21. 2011 [42] Strabo. In William Smith. 187. where her nymph’s is of horn. Sources • Walter Burkert. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) • Robert Graves (1955) 1960. 172. [60] “Cult”. Retrieved 2011-01-28. (Strabo. “And how often goddess. [61] “Animals”. information on Artemis from original Greek and Roman sources. William Wayte) • Fischer-Hansen T. Winterscapes. the Bible and the Ancient Near East.com. (eds. G. Artemis. Retrieved 2011-0128. [53] Greek poets could not decide whether her bow was silver or gold: “Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she draws her golden bow. and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid. William Smith. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Poulsen B. a white horse is still sacrificed to him. Boston: Little. The Greek Myths (Penguin) • Karl Kerenyi. The Gods of the Greeks • Seppo Telenius (2005) 2006. [64] “Diana of Ephesus: Keeping Abreast with Iconography” (see footnote 1). [57] “Dance”.com.) From Artemis to Diana: the goddess of man and beast. ARTEMIS [59] “Pack”. p. [52] Homer portrayed Artemis as girlish in the Iliad. 2007-07-24. Netherlands. Alberti’s Window. 2007-07-24. 12. asks Callimachus for whom it is a Cydonian bow that the Cyclopes make for her (Callimachus. [41] Pausanias. 2007-07-24. (2008) Greek Religion and Culture. [45] mharrsch (2007-11-04).693. [54] “Bow”. images from classical art. [43] Scholiast on Pindar's Pythian Odes ii.com. Winterscapes. Marindin. Metamorphoses 1. v. [39] Bremmer Jan N. Retrieved 2013-03-25. “Passionate about History: Search continues for temple of Artemis Amarysia”. London.com. February 5th.

for passionate love drew down the immortal stainless Queen of Night. fraught with many sighs. and all three were regarded as lunar goddesses. and Eos.”[8] Quintus Smyrnaeus' The Fall of Troy tells that. rising Selene was also called Mene. the moon. while Endymion slept in his cave beside his cattle. goddess of the dawn. much as her brother.) is the goddess of the moon. She drives her moon chariot across the heavens. beheld her [Medea] as she fled distraught. Selene. and sister of the sun-god Helios. the Titaness mother of Leto and Asteria. who gave birth to “great Helios and clear Selene and Eos who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven. to take up thy burden of pain. who bare him lovely children. Artemis. and fiercely exulted over her. perion wedded glorious Euryphaëssa. from her identification with Artemis. is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe (feminine form). Greek Σελήνη [10] [selɛ̌ ːnɛː] 'moon'.[6] The word men (feminine mene). which tells of Selene’s “mad passion” and her visiting the “fair Endymion” in a cave on The etymology of Selene is uncertain. And now thou thyself too hast part in a like mad passion. is called Phoebus (“bright”). Helios. meant the moon. Selene (/sɨˈliːni/.[17] but exactly how this eternal sleep came 39 . rosy-armed Eos and rich-tressed Selene and tireless Helios. and some god of affliction has given thee Jason to be thy grievous woe. and the mortal Endymion. was identified with Apollo.[1] Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate. In the Theogony. and Hecate.[13] The late 7th-century – early 6th-century BC poet Sappho apparently mentioned Selene and Endymion.' " 9.[12] Just as Helios. In classical times.[5] from a far land. the first direct account comes from the third-century BC Argonautica of 9. his own sister. Selene was often identified with Artemis.[7] 9. the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia.”[9] Here Euryphaëssa (“wideIn Greek mythology. and the lunar month.2 Origin The usual account of Selene’s origin is given by Hesiod. the sun-god Hyperion espoused his sister Theia. it is likely connected to the word selas (σέλας).[3] “And the Titanian goddess.3. It was also the name of the Phrygian moon-god Men.Chapter 9 Selene This article is about the Greek goddess. even the deeds dear to thee. in order that in the darkness of night thou mightest work thy sorcery at ease.[4] The original Phoebe of Greek mythology is Selene’s aunt. Several lovers are attributed to her in various myths.”[16] The eternally sleeping Endymion was proverbial. The Homeric Hymn to Helios follows this tradition: “Hysee Selene (disambiguation).1 Names Apollonius of Rhodes. nor do I alone burn with love for fair Endymion. Well. and steel thy heart.[2] Other accounts make Selene the daughter of the Titan Pallas[11] or of Helios. and grandmother of Apollo. “Selene watched him from on high. but if the name is Mount Latmus:[15] of Greek origin. She is shining”) is probably an epithet of Theia. although only Selene was regarded as the personification of the moon itself.3 Lovers and offspring 9. meaning “light”. wise though thou be. and slid from heaven to earth. from his identification with Apollo. Pan. Selene was sometimes called “Cynthia”. Also from Artemis. Her Roman equivalent is Luna. including Zeus.[14] However. and thus spake to her own heart: 'Not I alone then stray to the Latmian cave.1 Endymion Selene is best known for her affair with the beautiful mortal Endymion. oft times with thoughts of love have I been driven away by thy crafty spells. For other uses. go on.

and their parents are Zeus and Themis. who in a fearful shudder shook off the savage lion in Nemea.7. the Nemean Lion was born to Echidna and raised by Hera. and where the Nemean Games were held. Narcissus was the son of Cephissus and Liriope. and brought him forth at the bidding of Queen Hera. Endymion and Selene.[21] From Pausanias we hear that Selene was supposed to have had by Endymion fifty daughters.[29] other accounts have Selene involved in some way in its birth or rearing. who seduced her with a “snowy bribe of wool”.[34] 9. but this may be the result of confusing Semele. the Moon fell in love with him. the usual mother of Dionysus. but in other accounts. Endymion.[26] Selene and Zeus were also supposed by some to be the parents of Nemea. Selene may have had in it is unclear. having fallen in love with Hera.[20] Cicero seems to make Selene responsible for Endymion’s sleep.[24] “exceeding lovely amongst the deathless gods”.[27] Some accounts also make Selene and Zeus the parents of Dionysus. the eponymous nymph of Nemea. and Zeus granted him the right to choose when he would die. On Animals 12.2 Others According to the Homeric Hymn to Selene. England about and what role. who drives his char- .[19] However. according to Epimenides. SELENE 9. who possibly represented the fifty lunar months of the Olympiad. Selene also had a tryst with the great god Pan.[25] Alcman makes Ersa (“dew”). remaining deathless and ageless”. Pandia (“all-brightness”). shown with her characteristic attributes of lunate crown and billowing veil (velificatio) [35] Like her brother Helios. asked Zeus to grant him eternal sleep.[22] Nonnus has Selene and Endymion as the parents of the beautiful Narcissus.[32] Scholia on Virgil add that the god wrapped himself in a sheepskin.4 The moon chariot Detail of a sarcophagus depicting Endymion and Selene. if any. with Selene because of the similarity of their names. so that “she might kiss him while sleeping”. According to the Catalogue of Women. Endymion was the son of Aethlius (a son of Zeus). the daughter of Selene and Zeus. states: “They say that the Lion of Nemea fell from the moon”.[28] Whereas for Hesiod. and quotes Epimenides as saying: “For I am sprung from fair-tressed Selene the Moon.[18] A scholiast on Apollonius says that. but in most accounts their number is three. the goddess bore Zeus a daughter.[31] Smyrnaeus describes them as the four handmaidens of Hera. by Sebastiano Ricci (1713). goddesses of the seasons.40 CHAPTER 9. and he chose to sleep for ever. and Zeus allowed him to choose what he would.3.”[30] Quintus Smyrnaeus makes Helios and Selene (the Sun and Moon) the parents of the Horae. Aelian. Chiswick House. including Ovid’s Metamorphoses. where Heracles slew the Nemean Lion. the Sun god.[23] According to Virgil. Apollodorus says that because of Endymion’s “surpassing beauty.[33] Selene was also said to be the mother of the legendary Greek poet Musaeus.

[39] for Pindar it was golden. whensoever bright Selene having bathed her lovely body in the waters of Ocean. “bright”.[51] From oxen or a pair of horses. she is depicted only as a bust. or ram). .[54] Selene is commonly depicted with a crescent moon.[55] Often a crescent moon rests on her brow. who slumbers at her feet. describing her as “all-seeing”. and from the Hellenistic period onwards. or in profile against a lunar disk. “all-wise”.[58] As frequently depicted on Roman sarcophagi. and Nyx (“night”). or from behind her head or shoulders.5 Depictions Surviving descriptions of Selene’s physical appearance and character. coins. CULT 41 iot across the sky each day. the love of Selene for Endymion and his eternal sleep was a popular subject for artists. Three early sources mention Selene’s hair.[38] Though the moon chariot is often described as being silver. a lover of horses and of vigilance. variously translated as “rich”.6. artistic representations of Selene included sculptural reliefs.[42] or was drawn by oxen or bulls. glows with the light of her golden crown. Selene rides across the heavens.[45] Aeschylus calls Selene “the eye of night”. holding a billowing veil forming a crescent over her head.[56] Selene’s head is sometimes surrounded by a nimbus.[53] Selene also appears on horseback as part of the Gigantomachy frieze of the Pergamon Altar. driving a silver chariot pulled either by a yoke of her chariot descending into the sea on the right. a lunar disc is used. vase paintings. like other celestial divinities. descends from her chariot [59] Paired with her brother Helios.[46] The Orphic Hymns give Selene horns and a torch. Selene. unlit before. are scant.[52] There are indications of a similar framing by Selene and Helios of the birth of Pandora on the base of the Athena Parthenos. at eventime in the mid-month: then her great orbit is full and then her beams shine brightest as she increases. or riding sidesaddle on horseback (or sometimes on an ox or bull. She is usually portrayed either driving a chariot. mule.[36] The Hymn to Selene. lustrous black chariot rising from the ocean on the left. and yoked her strong-necked. and her rays beam clear. from her head. calling her “white-armed” and “benevolent”. and Epimenides uses the epithet “lovely-haired”. with Helios driving his beautiful woman with a pale face and long. pediment of the Parthenon. we learn that Selene and Helios also framed the birth of Aphrodite on the base of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. apart from those which would apply to the moon itself. Selene adorned the east to join her lover.[49] In later art. drawn by two winged horses. Selene’s usually has two. such as Helios. or “beautiful haired”. and donned her far-gleaming raiment.[40] And while the sun chariot has four horses. provides a description: The air. instead of a crescent.[41] described as “snow-white” by Ovid. and Selene and hair. shining team. with long wings and a golden diadem.[48] In red-figure pottery before the early 5th century BC. drives on her long-maned horses at full speed.[44] The Hymn to Selene describes the goddess as very beautiful. sometimes. she is sometimes pictured with a torch.[43] Statue of Luna 9. showing Selene plunging her chariot.[47] In antiquity. horn-like.[50] Pausanias. Selene is also said to drive across the heavens. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men. Both the Hymn to Helios and the Hymn to Selene use the word εὐπλόκαμος. often accompanied by stars. Eos. into the sea.[57] In later second and third century AD Roman funerary art. where the two framed a scene In post-Renaissance art. or the cusps of a crescent moon protrude. and a “foe of strife” who “giv’st to Nature’s works their destin'd end”.9. and gems.[37] The earliest known depiction of Selene driving a chariot is inside an early 5th century BC red-figure cup attributed to the Brygos Painter. Selene is generally depicted as a depicting the birth of Athena.

1. 3. 41. each of whom bore a son to Heracles (Apollodorus.38. and his love for Hera). [18] Catalogue of Women. discussing Selene’s role. Plato. Cicero. and likely enough (given its role in some quarters as a punishment. 96. p. 196–197. and poetry.7 Notes [1] Hard.6 Cult Moon figures are found on Cretan rings and gems (perhaps indicating a Minoan moon cult).2.213 ff. Davidson.125 ff.8). Hyginus.325 ff. 167.89 ff.[20] Apollodorus. Tusculan Disputations 1. Dionysiaca 48. it contained statues of Pasiphaë and Helios.57. 46. Phaedra 309 ff. Morford. described by Pausanias. 14. pp. says that “no source claims that the sleep was her idea. [3] Kerenyi. Valerius Flaccus. and drown'd in dewy sleep..2. see Campbell. pp. Ovid.” Gantz. 215. Mayerson p. saying that “Endymion was carried up by Zeus to heaven. and Thespius had fifty daughters. p. and that because of this desire he was thrown out and went down to Hades”. Tusculan Disputations 1. [14] This is according to a scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes 4.28 ff..4. Pandia had become a daughter of Zeus and Selene. 7..5. Nonnus. she was not always a part of the story. Selene from an altar piece 9.7. Weigal..[66] Ovid. Pandia (or Pandia Selene) may have personified the full moon. “Selene”. p.. 204– 205. [23] Nonnus. “Endymion” p.4. Theocritus. 281 [15] Apollonius of Rhodes.. Morford. 422 ff.553 ff. [16] Quintus Smyrnaeus. the Nereids were fifty sea nymphs born to Nereus and Doris (Hesiod. 46.10. 72c.1. Hyginus. “Selene”. Argonautica 8. p. 64..[60] An oracular sanctuary existed near Thalamai in Laconia.50.. Most.581 ff. Here Pasiphaë is used as an epithet of Selene. The same scholiast gives another story involving Endymion’s love for Hera. Phaedo. p. 48. p.[61] Pausanias also described seeing two stone images in the market-place of Elis. Ovid.. one of the sun and the other of the moon.54 ff. Theogony 240–264). Nonnus.13: “See how the moon does her 9.. Argonautica 4. Smith.7. Metamorphoses 3. 970–971. usually considered to be a festival for Zeus. but apart from the role played by the moon itself in magic. “SELENE” pp. West 2003. pp.. called the Pandia. Kerenyi. there was relatively little worship of Selene. Dionysiaca 44. 34. Theogony 371 ff. Propertius.5. 64. 13. There are other accounts of fifty daughters in Greek mythology. [10] Morford. fragment 198. instead of referring to the daughter of Helios and wife of Minos. but that he was seized by desire for Hera and was deceived by the phantom of a cloud. [19] Gantz.. Originally Pandia may have been an epithet of Selene. “SELENE”. 970–971. 42.195 ff. Strabo.. “SELENE” pp. [6] Smith.” [22] Pausanias. p.. Nicomachean Ethics 10.[64] and an Athenian festival. 162. from the heads of which projected the rays of the sun and the horns of the crescent moon. pp. 196–197.. note 61 p. 786 ff. p.50. Hammond. 4. p. 35.8. 10. Hammond.92.[65] was perhaps cele. 99–100.. [17] Frazer’s note to Apollodorus. [5] Pannen. . “Selene” Endymion keep / In night conceal'd. The Phoenician Women 175 ff.379 ff. Hard. [8] Hesiod. Aristotle. Amores. pp.50. See also with Selene.15. SELENE [7] Kerenyi. p. pp.1. this time attributed to the Great Ehoiai. Hammond.516 ff.[63] but by at least the time of the late Homeric Hymn. pp..[62] [13] Catullus.8. fragment 10.342.59 ff.7.92.266 ff. Smith. p. 970– 971. 2. lines 58–62.38. [9] Hymn to Helios (31) 4–7. See also Apollodorus 1. [24] Fairbanks. Carmina 66. Dionysiaca 2. Cashford. Seneca. [11] Hymn to Hermes (4). Fabulae 271. “Selene”. 5. p. 196–197. and despite the later worship of the Phrygian moongod Men. 2. 57. 1. Elegies 2. 64. pp..7. p.237 ff. [4] Morford. 61. 18. For example see Ovid. 219–220.582 ff. Seyffert. 48. Heroides 15. 197. p. p. brated on the full-moon and may have been associated [21] Cicero.191. 428–429..89 ff. see Most. 275. Heroides 15. 5. [2] Smith.5.42 CHAPTER 9...667 ff. 1. 213. Fabulae Preface. [12] Euripides. 4. 219–221. Lucian Aphrodite and Selene. 137. folklore.

2. 970–971. p. e. Murray (1892) p. 48. p. 12.” Cook p. p. 271. two in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (c. 456. For an image of Selene driving cattle. 196. LIMC Selene. 46. pp.. Ovid. [34] Plato. [53] Morris. “Les représentations figurées de Jupiter Dolichénien à Rome.163 ff. 36. LIMC Selene. For an example of Selene driving the less usual four horses see Morford. West 2003. Graves. see also Anaxagoras. 63. 1-7. Allen. R. 415. 34. 70. Rudin. p. [56] British Museum 1923. Fasti 4. 65.. “Selene”. «L'Erma» di Bretschneider. 442–443. (32) 18. Pausanias. see Allen. among many others. see Robertson. Theocritus. For the close association between the crescent moon and horns see Cashford. 456–457. 208 ff. 111–112. Cook p.4 (PDF).408 ff. [39] Grimal. p. Morford. 270–271. [40] Pindar. 457 note. 19 describes Pandia as an “obscure figure [who] featured in an Attic genealogy: she was the wife of Antiochos.3 has Asopus as the father of Nemea. 25. [1] "τανυσίπτερον").373–374. [54] Thomas. see LIMC Selene. De pietate P. [28] Cook. 346 n.214 ff. “SELENE”. Burkert 1972. 3. 2. LIMC Mithras 113. Theogony 327 [30] Cook. Hard. LIMC Selene. Martin 1981. LIMC Selene. LIMC Selene.. the eponymous hero of the Antiochid phylē. 79. see Hurwit. 47. 5. LIMC Selene.17. On Animals. p. 87. Morford. [49] Cohen. 94–95. [52] Robertson. 96. figs. 220 AD). [46] Aeschylus. 135 AD ). 255. instead of being her daughter. for an example of a gem see the British Museum 1923. [43] Hammond. 23. 732. pp. p. include sarcophagi in the Capitoline Museum in Rome (c. but some have suggested that instead of Selene. For Selene driving another pair of winged horses see Zschietzschmann. see Robertson. p. [36] Pindar.0401.498) pp.199. “SELENE”. see: Allen. Hymn to Selene. Walters.7248. [26] Alcman. pp. 733. [31] Hammond. p. [45] “Winged": Hymn to Selene. 990–991. p. 160 AD and c.11. [59] Examples. pp. XII. 11. Idyll 2. but see Hyginus. 178–179. 353. “Benevolent": Allen. in this case the Judgement of Paris.373–374. Pausanias. LIMC Selene. p. p. Cohen. p. says that Pandia was “elsewhere unknown as a daughter of Selene”. LIMC Selene. pp. Luna 7. Fasti 4. Georgics 3. (32) 1 (a winged Selene seems to be unique to this Hymn. 196. Palagia. 336 ff. p. calls the confusion “frequent”. 22. p. [15] "ΠανδείηΝ". 48.8. Luna 2. This is the usual interpretation. [58] Sorabella. Hard. 970–971. For another example of the framing of a scene. Luna 21.8. 243 Fragment 6 (Obbink. p. Martin 1981. 64. The same pair also appear on the North Metopes of the Parthenon.9. 1. 157.7. 12. Hansen. [32] Virgil. Nonnus. NOTES [25] Hymn to Selene (32) 15–16. 256.191. 96. 370. Hyginus. p.g. pp. 415.109–110. [47] Orphic Hymns 8. “White-armed": Hymn to Selene. 84–85). Vol. 177–179. [57] Parisinou. [29] Hesiod. 175. Republic 2. and one in Palazzo Doria Pamphilj Rome (c.0401. The Suppliant Women. Philodemus. pp. p. Zschietzschmann. Luna 34.19–20. “Selene” p. 732 says that it seems probable that. p. p.15. [55] Savignoni. Compare with Pseudo-Plutarch. . Hercules Furens 83 ff.Herc. (1903) p. p. [44] Evelyn-White.244. 346 n. 46: “this is really no more than an allegorical fancy referring to the heavy dew-fall associated with clear moonlit nights”. pp.11. with Selene this time entering the sea on horseback. [50] Savignoni. Euripides.3.7. 156–157. 123 c. [6] "χρυσέου". p. 104–105. Luna 9. 92.” in La terra sigillata tardo-italica decorata del Museo nazionale romano. Seven against Thebes 390. Fabulae 30.405 ff.199. Smith. Grimal. 2. Luna 15. p. p. Morford. fragments 48. “Pandia was originally an epithet of Selene”. Nonnus. Hymn to Helios (31) 6.364e. Dionysiaca 7. Luna 4. p.. 310 AD). 5. p. p.391–93.19–20. On Rivers 18. [42] Ovid. Metamorphoses 2. [18] "Πρόφρον". Kerenyi. Gantz. 970–971. 221.. 47–48. p. Seneca. p. pp. p. “Selene”. Aelian. Valerius Flaccus. West 1983. p. p. p. [27] Cook. fragment A77 (Scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes 1. p. Statius. [33] Gantz. Luna 10. 236–237. Hammond. Olympian 3. [37] Hymn to Selene (32) 5–14.185 ff. p. [35] Stefania Sorrenti. Pausanias. Fabulae Preface. Either Selene or her daughter may have been connected to the Athenian festival Pandia. pp. Luna 19. Argonautica 5. Luna 35. 49 (Edmonds. Dionysiaca 44. 170. 10.. Quintus Smyrnaeus. pp. for images see Sorabella. Luna 61. Hard. Thebaid 1. [38] Cohen. 43 [41] Kerenyi. LIMC Selene. Martin 1992. p. 353). “SELENE”. which has the Nemean Lion created from a chest filled with foam. Mitchell. 5. 272. (32) 17. For the use of “golden” in reference to the moon. p. Burkert 1972. 1999). pp. Obbink. pp. LIMC Selene. Olympian 3. 353.336 ff. the goddess on the right could be Nyx or Eos. Cook p. [48] For an example of Selene depicted on a coin see British Museum. 23. [51] Neils.

1888. and appendices. [65] Parker 2005. p. Roscher. Harvard University Press. F. Agis 9. p. 447. Heinemann. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-80185360-9 (Vol. 2010. Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations. Cook. p. London. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Πάνδια (Bekker. pp. p. apparatus criticus. MA. 1922. • Allen. Walter (1972). 1907. Anecdota Graeca: Lexica Segueriana. Homeric Hymns. “Pandia”. p. and Glossary. in 2 Volumes. ISBN 978-0674539181. P. Oates and Eugene O'Neill.. Jr. Propertius. 1894. 75 note 109. • Edmonds. [64] Cox. London. Smithers.v. William Heinemann Ltd. Pierre. Jon. James. 178. translated by H. translated by E.v. • Bekker.. Smith. Lexicon s. Translation by A. MA.S. 2). translated. Cambridge University Press 1914.R. William Heinemann Ltd. Scholfield.26. The Complete Greek Drama'. C. “Time and Greek Religion”. Sikes.8 References • Cook. 6. Leonard C. and Sulpicia. p. Cambridge. no. ISBN 9780674991576. Volume I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky. with preface. Harpers. • Catullus. 1912. Harpers & Brothers. Lexica Segueriana s. Smithers. John Maxwell.C. with an Introduction . London. with an English translation by R. 292). . William Heinemann. Photius. Cambridge. 100. • Aristotle. 1). Appleton–Century Company. in A Companion to Greek Religion. The Phoenissae. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. W. 138. Burkert 1991. Wiley-Blackwell. F. Aristotle in 23 Volumes. University of Toronto Press. George W. Timothy. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1959) ISBN 978-0674994942.6. in two volumes.1.24. edited by Whitney J. 1921. “Outline as a Special Technique in Black.Harvard University Press. Greek Greek Lyric Poetry: Volume I.B. Πάνδια. MA. 732.. 2006. The Mythology of Greece and Rome. [66] Robertson.and Red-figure Vase-painting”. ISBN 9780631201021. Apud G. Lyra Graeca. p. 9. Seaton.44 CHAPTER 9. ISBN 9781444334173. London. Harvard University Press. E. • Cicero. notes. The Moon: Myth and Image. ISBN 3705204246. Cambridge. New York. 1814. Online version at openlibrary. 1914. Random House. WileyBlackwell. Hugh. 3. 2004. (1982). F. “Selene”. Vol. Cambridge. Apollodorus. p. • Gantz. with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer. 732. [63] Willetts. • Campbell. Evelyn-White. • Burkert. Thomas W. Arthur. Patricia Curd. • Apollodorus. Scholiast on Demosthenes. D. London. • Burkert. 176 • Cashford. Nauckium. The Carmina of Gaius Valerius Catullus. The Library. William Heinemann Ltd. Immanuel. Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik. 1995. Loeb Classical Library. Arthur Bernard. ed. D. Getty Publications.org • Aelian. translated by C. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. “SELENE” pp. The Homeric Hymns. Aelian: On the Characteristics of Animals. Coleridge. 2. • Anaxagoras. Loeb Classical Library (January 1. 1996. [62] Pausanias. in The Colors of Clay: Special Techniques in Athenian Vases. MA. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations Part Two. Books 12-17. 2007. Pausanias. Macmillan. Ovid. Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion. SELENE [60] Hammond. Kessinger Publishing. Basic Books.39a. Jules. • Evelyn-White. publishers. 174.A. Yonge. ISBN 9780892369423.A. 21. 2003. [61] Plutarch. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: Fragments and Testimonia : a Text and Translation with Notes and Essays. Harvard University Press. edited by Daniel Ogden. 1934. Casford p. ISBN 9780766189409. Notes. • Cox. 178– 179. Greek Religion. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 142. Cook. Noel 1996. ISBN 9780802093257. 1996. • Cohen. E. ISBN 9781568582658. Willets. Roman Erotic Elegy: Selections from Tibullus. 1904. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. • Euripides. Argonautica. 19. 1938. Walter (1991). Volume III. • Davidson. New York. Universität Salzburg. ISBN 978-0631156246. D. • Corelis. Beth. edited. 970–971. • Apollonius of Rhodes. Sappho and Alcaeus. John Wiley & Sons. Rackham. • Grimal. • Fairbanks.

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(1983).46 • Plato. Samuel Birch. Lives of Homer. Arthur. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library • Robertson. “On Representations of Helios and of Selene. MA. London.. 265–272 • Seyffert. Kessinger Publishing. The Hymns of Orpheus. “A Roman Sarcophagus and Its Patron. MA. Ltd. J M. Sonnenschein. Homeric Hymns. Vol. ISBN 978-0893144159. A Shorter History of Greek Art. George Bell & Sons. 2006. The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens. Oskar. • Virgil. 1905. 1980. 1928. F. R. Cambridge. London. Oskar Seyffert. Homeric Apocrypha. no. • Valerius Flaccus. John Murray. Translated by Mozley. Aeneid. ISBN 9780521280846. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. London (1873). 9. • Walters.. • Roscher. Esq. Taylor & Francis. Henry Beauchamp. The University of Wisconsin Press. Boston. translated by Miller. translated by Arthur Sanders Way. 1917. W. Sarah. History of Ancient Pottery: Greek. Jean. William Heinemann Ltd. Harvard University Press. The Greek Bucolic Poets. • Savignoni L. William Heinemann Ltd. • Weigal. Vol. Hackett Publishing Company (September 30. • Taylor.M. Argonautica. Loeb Classical Library Volumes . MA. 1912. ISBN 9780299151140. Cretan Cults and Festivals. ISBN 0198148542 • West. B. Philosophical Research Society. London. Limited edition (June 1987). Wilhelm Heinrich. Harvard University Press. CHAPTER 9. S. Homeric Hymns. translated by Sarah Rudin. Harvard University Press. MA. J H. Heinemann. Noel (1996). W. Etruscan. J. Translated by Mozley. Cambridge. in translation . Hellas and Rome: The Classical World in Pictures. and Roman. Greenough. Introduction by W. Sappho of Lesbos: Her Life and Times. Teubner. Thebaid. The Orphic Poems. Cambridge. • Rudin. M. 1900 • Robertson. ISBN 9781428655447. Ashgate Publishing. • West. Leizig 1890. Ginn & Co. 36 (2001). MA. Literature and Art.C. and Georgics Of Vergil. “Athena’s Shrines and Festivals” in Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. G. Harvard University Press. Hamilton. “From the panteon of the gods to the Pantheon of Rome” in Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea. Edmund. • Thomas. W. Thomas. 1903. • Sorabella. 1901. William Heinemann Ltd. (2003). Lamb. • Seneca. Loeb Classical Library Volume 28. MA. Falconer. Bucolics. Cambridge. Geography. Loeb Classical Library. 1 translated by Harold North Fowler. Cambridge University Press. Mythology. Frank Justus. Cambridge.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 19: pp. Religion. William Heinemann Ltd. Editors. Tragedies. 2004.. 1899. Harvard University Press. Translated by Edmonds. Cambridge. Volume 2. London. • Robertson. • Zschietzschmann. from the German of Dr. London. J H. 2005) ISBN 978-0872207257. 496. Plato in Twelve Volumes. B. Martin (1981). ISBN 9780521338813. ISBN 9780313220500. Über Selene und Verwandtes..R. William. 1913 • Strabo. Loeb Classical Library Volume 286. Martin L. ISBN 978-0-674-996069 • Willetts. ISBN 9780754608080. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1932. Martin L. Greenwood Press.A. PDF • Statius. H. Cambridge University Press. 1966 • Quintus Smyrnaeus.com: Selene Passages from Greek and Roman texts. • Smith.9 External links • Theoi.” Metropolitan Museum Journal. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. SELENE • Theocritus. A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Martin (1992). 1928. The Fall of Troy.

and Eris (Strife). 10. Roman-era bronze statuette of Nyx velificans or Selene (Getty Villa) ding of Hera. Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation. and was the mother of other personified deities such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death). Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx. allowing her to cause Heracles (who was returning by sea from Laomedon's Troy) great misfortune. Her appearances are sparse in surviving mythology.[6] and the homes of her children Hypnos and Thanatos. see Neck (water spirit). Thanatos (Death).2 Homer fury at bay and in this way Hypnos escaped the wrath of At Iliad 14. who is Nyx’s daughter.[8] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda. Hypnos (Sleep). For other uses. Momus (Blame). Nyx.1 Mythology and literature 10. the Oneiroi (Dreams).[7] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day).1 Hesiod In Hesiod's Theogony. A shadowy figure. the Keres. Sunset). but reveal her as a figure of such exceptional power and beauty. Distress). Hypnos. He disturbed minds Hera of an old favor after she asks him to put Zeus Zeus only a few times after that always fearing Zeus and to sleep. Homer goes on to say that Zeus.1. see NYX (disambiguation). on her own. Oizys (Woe. his mother.[3] With Erebus (Darkness). Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day). He had once before put Zeus to sleep at the bid. Nemesis (Indignation.[4] Later. in fear. Pain. the Hesperides (Evening. Nyx is born of Chaos. Nyx (/nɪks/. that she is feared by Zeus himself. fearing to anger Nyx. Philotes (Friendship.running back to his mother. when Hemera returned. Ker (Fate. Nyx left. Apate (Deceit).[5] In his description of Tartarus. Destiny). Geras (Old Age). Love). Death).[1] Greek: Νύξ.Chapter 10 Nyx For the water spirit Nix. She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses. “Night”)[2] – Roman (in Latin): Nox – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it. who would have con47 . Retribution). Destruction.249–61. re.Zeus by appealing to his powerful mother. the Moirai (Fates). held his 10. continuing cyclicly.1. Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom. where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn). Zeus was furious and would have smitten Hypnos into the sea if he had not fled to Nyx. the minor deity of sleep.

monstrous. pp. rather than Chaos.1).[13] 10. 10. According to Pausanias.3 Notes [1] Oxford dictionary [2] νύξ. Nyx.5° East on the Venusian surface.40. however. NYX fronted Zeus with a maternal fury. [5] Hesiod.6) [13] Orphic Hymn 55. 10.2. Outside the cave. Here she is also the mother of Eros. in which she gives oracles. The Birds . she had an oracle on the acropolis at Megara. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. [8] Hesiod. trans. Nyx Mons is located at latitude 30° North (as in Hesiod) or somewhere at the edge of the cosmos and longitude 48. see Chaos (cosmogony) and Cosmogony and cosmology. 4.2 Nyx in society 10. this (S/2005 P 2) to Nix. Theogony 212–225. Nyx lurked in the background of other cults. beyond the ocean planet Venus. Nyx was only rarely the focus of cults.On June 21.1 Cults 10. [4] Hesiod. p. which may be Orphic in inspiration. Jones and Ormerod. [12] Pausanias 1. must remain tentative. [11] Pausanias 3. Phanes – the strange.3 In Greece. In them.are attested for several deities. is the first principle from which all creation emerges. spelled with an “i” instead of a “y”.1. [3] Hesiod. to avoid conflict with the asteroid 3908 Nyx. 4–5. Theogony 124–125. hermaphrodite Orphic demiurge – was the child or father of Nyx. the International Astronomical Union ert has speculated that the house of the goddess to which renamed one of Pluto's recently discovered moons the philosopher is transported is the palace of Nyx. Theogony 123. in honor of Nyx. as represented in the 10th-century Paris Psalter at the side of the Prophet Isaiah References • Aristophanes. For other mythical aspects connected with Nyx. Thus there was a statue called “Nyx” in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. most notably Dionysus Nyktelios “nocturnal”[12] and Aphrodite Philopannyx “who loves the whole night”. Robert. Nyx occupies a cave or adyton. 10. [9] Pausanias 1. Theogony 746–750. poem of Parmenides.[11] Cult titles composed of compounds of nyx. conceived of as twins. moving the entire universe in an ecstatic dance to the rhythm of Nyx’s chanting. More often. Cronus – who is chained within. asleep and drunk on honey – dreams and prophesies. Theogony 744–745. 1918. Henry George.38.2. Scott.1.org. 2006. Nyx is also the first principle in the opening chorus of Aristophanes' The Birds. [6] Hesiod. Adrasteia clashes cymbals and beats upon her tympanon.48 CHAPTER 10.6. from perseus. The classical scholar Walter Burk. Liddell. Gantz.18.40. [10] Pausanias.2 Astronomy In 1997. [7] Hesiod. Theogony 758–759. The name was hypothesis. Its di(as in later Orphism) may be echoed in the philosophical ameter is 875 km. Gantz. the International Astronomical Union approved the name Nyx for a mons (mountain/peak) feature on the The theme of Nyx’s cave or mansion.[9] Others Nyx took on an even more important role in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus. Nyx.[10] The Spartans had a cult of Sleep and Death.

. London. Theogony. Orphicorum Fragmenta. • Simmons.. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. William. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. “Nyx” p. 314 • Hesiod.com 49 . Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. • Otto Kern ed. • Grimal. Pierre. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-63120102-1. “Nyx” 10.Harvard University Press. London (1873). MA. 1996. • Pausanias. Cambridge. 1).4. EXTERNAL LINKS • Gantz. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1914. • Smith. Descriptions of Greece. 2). in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G.10. Evelyn-White. Olympos.4 External links Media related to Nyx at Wikimedia Commons • “Nyx” from Theoi. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1996. William Heinemann Ltd.

Chapter 11 Philotes (mythology) Philotes (Greek: Φιλότης) is a minor Greek goddess.html 50 .com/Daimon/Philotes. 11.theoi.1 External links • http://www. She is the goddess of affection and friendship. She was a daughter of Nyx.

143 ff (trans. to every place. which fell before the eyes preceding death). ed. and knew all. Achlys (Greek language: Ἀχλύς “mist”) was. Death-Mist) treacherous flowers of the field. with chattering teeth. in Smith. Here. and the first created being which existed even before Chaos. and from her nostrils the drip kept running. [2] Schmitz.3 See also • List of Greek mythological figures 12.[1] If she was a daughter of Nyx (Night) then she may have been numbered amongst the Keres. according to some ancient cosmogonies. covering their necks with rough hair. and weeping. and she stood there. 264. p.2 Nonnus’ Account 12. their eyes widened under the horned forehead. the eternal Night (perhaps the Mist of Death. Boston. she distilled poisoned drugs over their hair. Then she was angry with the guardians of Bromios. long nails on her fingers. see Achlys (plant). “Achlys”. green and pale. she was the personification of misery and sadness. emaciated.and changed their earlier human shape. William. bloody cheeks.[2] 12. MA. fallen in on herself with hunger.5 Sources Nonnus. knee-swollen. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic 8th or 7th century BC): And beside them [the Keres (Deaths) and the Moirai (Fates) on the battlefield] was standing Akhlys (Achlys). (1870). dirty-dry.1 Hesiod’s Account Hesiod. and the nails were grown long on her hands. She procured from Thessalian Akhlys (Achlys. and ran down from the loins to feet underneath. from the temples cow’s horns sprouted out. Then they took the form of a creature with long ears. . long white teeth grew out of their jaws. Rouse) (Greek epic 5th century AD): [Hera spies the nurses of the infant god Dionysos:] Hera. who turns her all-seeing eye 51 • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith. and as such she was represented on the shield of Heracles: pale. she smeared a subtle magical ointment over their faces . William. etc.4 References [1] Scut. 12. In Greek mythology. grinning forever. a strange kind of mane grew of itself. and a horse’s tail sticking out straight from the loins and flogging the flanks of its shaggy-crested owner. Leonhard (1867). and shed a sleep of enchantment over their heads. Dionysiaca 14. According to Hesiod. saw from on high the everchanging shape of Lyaios [Dionysos]. and off her cheeks the blood dribbled to the ground. the hair ran across their heads in tuft. swollen knees. 12 12.Chapter 12 Achlys For the plant genus named Achlys. Shield of Heracles 264 ff (trans. "article name needed ". dismal and dejected. and the dust that had gathered and lay in heaps on her shoulders was muddy with tears. and her shoulders thickly covered with dust. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

52 12.6 External links • Theoi Project . ACHLYS .Akhlys CHAPTER 12.

and even Zeus putting Zeus to sleep. and offer. however. flowed through his cave. before they could do their work and send out [4] first Hypnos had to put the recipient to sleep. was one of the youngest of the Graces the first time as well. He refused this first fake dreams full of illusions.Chapter 13 Hypnos “Somnus” redirects here. Hypnos was able to trick him and help the Danaans win the Trojan war.2 Family Hypnos lived next to his twin brother. in the underworld. she lied to Aphrodite because they sided on opposites sides of the war. see Somnus (horse). who had tricked Zeus once before.offered him a beautiful golden seat that can never fall ing bears and tigers. In Greek mythology. Aphrodite willingly agreed. and donned a wondrous robe. he awoke. one made from ivory and the other from buckhorn. who is the goddess of son. the deity of Darkness.1 Dwelling place According to Greek mythology Hypnos lived in a cave. Morpheus. Hera first dreams. So she had Hypnos marriage and birth. Greek: Ὕπνος. However. and asked her for a charm that would ensure that her trick would not fail. She wove flowers through her hair. the goddess of love. “death personified”) in the underworld. [1] “sleep”) was the personification of sleep.” At the entrance were a number of poppies and other hypnotic plants. made especially for her to make herself impossible to resist for Zeus.[3] This river is known as the river of forgetfulness. the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. She was furious that Hercules. so she devised a plot to trick him. and set blasts of angry winds upon the or relaxation. When Zeus Hypnos’ three sons were known as the Oneiroi. but she needed the help of Hypnos. Pasithea is the deity of hallucination put Zeus to sleep. which awoke he was furious and went on a rampage looking for is Greek for “dreams. he was furious when feared entering her realm. Zeus’ and was promised to him by Hera. lived in a cave at the shores of the Ocean in the West. and his father was Erebus. Phobetor. 13. Hypnos used his powers to trick Zeus. During the war. whose mansion does not see the rising.Phantasos appeared in the dreams of kings. She told Aphrodite that she wanted the charm to help her parents stop fighting.3 Hypnos in the Iliad 13. see Hypnos (disambiguation). nor the setting sun. Hypnos managed to avoid Zeus by hiding with Dreams and can take human form in dreams. put on three brilliant pendants for earrings. the dreams. His dwelling had no door or gate so that he might not be awakened by the creaking of hinges. Nyx. he could take the shape of any animal includ. The Oneiroi horse. Pasithea. This made Hypnos reluctant to accept the personification of nightmares and created frightening Hera’s proposal and help her trick Zeus again.[2] 13. sacked the city of the Trojans. Hera was almost ready to trick Zeus. Hera loathed her brother and husband. nor does it see the “lightsome noon. “Night”). The river Lethe. Zeus. Phantasos was known for creating apart and a footstool to go with it. She decided that in order to trick him she needed to make him so enamoured with her that he would fall for the trick. It was Hera who had asked him to trick Zeus His wife. Thanatos (Θάνατος. Hypnos’ mother was Nyx (Νύξ. Hypnos (/ˈhɪpnɒs/. remembering the last time he tricked Zeus. In order to procure the charm. cave had two gates with which to send people dreams. The For other uses. For the thoroughbred race. So she went and washed herself with ambrosia and anointed herself with oil. Hera 53 .” Morpheus is the Winged God of Hypnos. She then called for Aphrodite. sea while Heracles was still sailing home. The underworld is translated into English as Hell in the Septuagint Bible. Hera called on Hypnos and asked him to help her by Nyx was a dreadful and powerful goddess. Hypnos was reluctant because the last time he had put the god to sleep. Phobetor is his mother. the deity of Night.

[8] 13. Scott. Dictionary. Dictionary.p. 1987. meaning sleepy or tending to cause sleep. Zeus was extremely taken by her and suspected nothing as Hypnos was shrouded in a thick mist and hidden upon a pine tree that was close to where Hera and Zeus were talking. While this went on.[10] as well as a few less-common words such as “somnolent”. Hypnos traveled to the ships of the Achaeans to tell Poseidon. [2] James H. Thanks to Hypnos helping to trick Zeus. 1990. Web. Henry George.. God of the Sea. 15 Oct. n. the topmost peak of Mount Ida.5 Words derived from Hypnos The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name. An example of one vase that Hypnos is featured on is called “Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. Metemorphoses. MA: Focus Information Group. Caldwell. Liddell.” British Museum −. New York: Viking.com”. Dictio- Hypnos appears in numerous works of art. Retrieved 2014-01-27. [5] Homer. Retrieved 2014-01-27. some tying in knots and some hanging freely from his head. Trans. Robert. referring to the fact that when hypnotized.com”. 2013.“not” + somnus “sleep”). 2013. Now. Hera went to see Zeus on Gargarus. [3] Richard S. He took her in his embrace and Hypnos went to work putting him to sleep. Somnus.com.reference. Cambridge.[11] 13. the war changed its course to Hera’s favor. 1st-2nd Century AD.com. 1717. dripping Lethean water upon the head of Ariadne as she . [9] “Hypnosis | Define Hypnosis at Dictionary. Sir Samuel Garth.” Trans. This bronze head has wings sprouting from his temples and the hair is elaborately arranged. Web. and Zeus never found out that Hypnos had tricked him one more time. Retrieved 2014-01-27. The Iliad. Hypnos is shown as a winged god [11] “Somnolent | Define Somnolent at Dictionary.d. Hypnos made her swear by the river Styx and call on gods of the underworld to be witnesses so that he would be ensured that he would marry Pasithea.reference.54 finally got him to agree by promising that he would be married to Pasithea.[6] [8] “Bronze Head of Hypnos. with Hypnos’ help. which is part of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston’s collection. Mantinband. Cambridge. HYPNOS sleeps. In this vase. a goddess of sloth and attendant of Hypnos • Hesiod’s Theogony • Morpheus.. Zeus asked Hera what she was doing there and why she had come there from Olympus and she told him the same lie she told her daughter Aphrodite. now kept in the British Museum in London. John Dryden.[5] 13.” [10] “Insomnia | Define Insomnia at Dictionary. Bronze Head of Hypnos in the British Museum. [4] Ovid. (in. [6] British Museum Highlights [7] “Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. whom he had always wanted to marry. She told him that she wanted to go help her parents stop quarreling and she stopped there to consult him because she didn't want to go without his knowledge and have him be angry with her when he found out. This is where Hypnos leaves the story. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. with Hera in his arms. Hesiod’s Theogony. N.4 Hypnos in art CHAPTER 13.com”.” Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus.6 See also • Aergia. Trans. “Book the Eleventh. Robert Fagles.reference. and that she should postpone her visit and stay there with him so they could enjoy each other’s company.7 References [1] ὕπνος. from Civitella d'Arna near Perugia in Italy. 1962. 15 Oct. god of dreams 13. one of the youngest Graces. most of which nary.[7] One of the most famous works of art featuring Hypnos is a bronze head of Hypnos himself. that he could now help the Danaans and give them a victory while Zeus was sleeping. Zeus said that she could go any time. Bernard Knox. the English word "insomnia" comes from the name of his Latin counterpart. N. are vases. New York: Philosophical Library.[9] Additionally. n.p.com. a person is put into a sleep-like state (hypnos “sleep” + -osis “condition”). Concise Dictionary of Greek Literature.d. Ed. He told her that he was never in love with anyone as much as he loved her at that moment. leaving Poseidon eager to help the Dananns.

EXTERNAL LINKS 13.8.8 External links • Hypnos at theoi.com • 3D model of Bronze head of Hypnos via laser scan of a cast of British Museum’s bronze. 55 .13.

Dianic Wicca. Minerva and Vesta. According to woods. from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus. the woodland god. Diana (lt.Chapter 14 Diana (mythology) deities: Egeria the water nymph. did not share the fate of other celestial gods in Indoeuropean religions—that of becoming dei otiosi or gods without practical purpose.nection with light. her servant and assistant midwife. a largely feminist form of the practice. supremacy. deity Artemis). and " diurnal”. 14.e. referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. According to Georges Dumézil[4] it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods.[5] since they did retain a particular sort of influence over the world and mankind. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis. and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was one of the three maiden goddesses. The Diana of Versailles. virginity. being associated with wild animals and woodland.[1] though she had an independent origin in Italy. daylight). Dea Dia and in the neuter form dium meaning the sky. i. and her prefana. daughter of Jupiter and ters as the fates of mortals and states.2 Mythology The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography 14. erence for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred Oak groves were especially sacred to her. meaning bright sky or daylight. Diana was born with her twin brother impassibility. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman however. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια (diwia) is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. corresponding to later 'divus’. In Roman mythology. (daytime). inaccessibility. the moon and childbirth. Diana therefore reflects the heavenly world (dimythology (in common with the Greek religion and their uum means sky or open air) in its sovereignty. Latona. and indifference towards such secular matApollo on the island of Delos. Such gods. dies. (god).[2] It is rooted in Indoeuropean *d(e)y(e)w.1 Etymology Diana (pronounced with long 'ī' and 'ā') is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios. “heavenly” or “divine”) was the goddess of the hunt. who swore never to marry.[3] The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. while keeping the original features of celestial divinities. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her conwomen. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. is named for her. Di. transcendent heavenly power and abstention from direct rule in worldly matters. At the same time. she is seen as active in ensuring the succession 56 . and Virbius. 'dius’. (day. as in Dius Fidius.

She god Janus as a divine couple.14. It is noteworthy that the list includes Luna and Diana Lucina as separate entities. supreme heavenly couple Jupiter-Juno and additionally ties in these figures to the overarching Indoeuropean religious complex. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. e. Being placed on the Aventine. She also later became that of James G. Iuno. she was portrayed The Scandinavian god Heimdallr performs an analogous deer or hunting dogs. particularly oaks. bestowing on him worn as a diadem.[12] when King Servius Tullius. has exactly the same functions.4. the figure of Janus. Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13. himself born a slave. Lucina. associated Dumezil’s interpretation appears deliberately to ignore with wild animals and woodlands. he attained the status of an im.[7] 2. supplanting Titan goddess Luna.Gallo-Roman bronze statuette of Diana (latter 1st century) mortal being while retaining the duty of ensuring that his dynasty is preserved and that there is always a new king for each generation. regal prerogatives. 14. and thus outside the . The crescent moon. 1.g. He too gives as beautiful and youthful. Pairault in her essay on Diana qualifies Dumézil’s theory as "impossible to verify". This looks odd as Dumézil’s also became the goddess of childbirth and ruled over the definition of the concept of frame god would fit well countryside. Another testimony to the high antiquity of her cult is to be found in the lex regia of king Tullus Hostilius that condemns those guilty of incest to the sacratio to the goddess. the institution of the Rex Nemorensis and related ritual should be seen as related to the theme of the dying god and the kings of May. preserving mankind through childbirth and royal succession. and carrying a quiver on her shoulder. function: he is born first and will die last.[9] 14. is a major attribute of the goddess. Diana often wears a short tunic her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century and hunting boots. in his roles of father and king.[8] Frazer identifies the two with the has more [11] Luna. sometimes origin to kingship and the first king. dedicated As a goddess of hunting. This regality is also linked to the cult of trees. prayed for an easy delivery. Diana was initially just the hunting goddess. although a female deity.4 Worship F. This form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources. H. She is often portrayed holding a bow. who held the position until someone else challenged and killed him in a duel. Having renounced the world. accompanied by a [10] Like Venus. after breaking a branch from a certain tree of the wood.[6] Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire. Frazer. BC. Diana.3 Physical description In Rome the cult of Diana should have been almost as old as the city itself as Varro mentions her in the list of deities to whom king Titus Tatius vowed a shrine. Diana’s sacerdos (priest) in the Arician wood. Trivia. The institution of the rex Nemorensis.[6] According to Dumezil the forerunner of all frame gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image (avatar) of the Vedic god Dyaus. once pregnant. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who. Catullus wrote a poem to Diana in which she than one alias: Latonia. In this interpretative schema. WORSHIP 57 of kings and in the preservation of humankind through the protection of childbirth. who links Diana with the male a moon goddess. Ovid. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations.

[15] “a process which culminated with the appearance of Diana beside Apollo in the first lectisternium at Rome”. who was her priestess in Taurid and her human paragon. and slaves. Octavius Verus. shouting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28.[18] his. back. Latinus.[27] According to the legend Orestes founded Nemi together with Iphigenia. Diana of the wood was soon thoroughly Hellenized.[36] The theological complex present in Diand Dionysius. In Acts of the Apostles. lady of the herds. lend support to this interpretation of an archaic The origin of the ritual of the rex Nemorensis should Diana Trivia. all united by a both Diana of the Aventine and Diana Nemorensis were horizontal bar. such as the siege of Aricia by Porsenna's son Arruns. master of wildlife.[17] However in Ephesus too there was the same custom of the asylum (ασυλιον).Though some Roman patrons ordered marble replicas of mation and not a traditional society founded on links of the specifically Anatolian “Diana” of Ephesus. the Rex Nemorensis remained.[22] The cult introduced by Orestes own hunting dogs to kill him. called plebeians. This fact is of difficult interpretation. This is reflected in hunting. Two heads found in the sanctuary[33] and the over to the Etruscans and the Latins by the 6th and 5th Roman theatre at Nemi. The literary amplification[23] reveals a confused religious background: different Artemis were conflated under the epithet. the product of the direct or indirect influence of the cult of The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this imArtemis spread by the Phoceans among the Greek towns age to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan of Campania Cuma and Capua.extremity.[32] It represents Artemis with the bow at one According to Françoise Hélène Pairault’s study. This religious complex is in turn supported by the triple statue of Artemis-Hecate. Temple of Artemis stood. slaves could receive asylum in her temples. Tauropolos is an ancient epithet attached to Hecate. i. jealously rioted in her defense.58 CHAPTER 14. in whom three different elements are ashave to be traced to the legend of Orestes and Iphigenia sociated. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia. New English Bible). The deer may also offer a covert reference to the legend of the coming of Orestes to Nemi and of the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon). A coin minted by P. the priest of Artemis Artemidoros of Ephesus.[34] which have a hollow on their centuries BC.[24] As far as Nemi’s Diana is concerned there are two different versions.[35] Cuma too had a [20] Aristodemos and is probably connected to the politHecate and certainly had strict contacts ical events at end of the 6th century narrated by Livy cult of a chthonic with Latium. “Men of Ephesus. while an analogous Latin concept of Diana Trivia seems uncerleague does not reflect that of the Latin people who took sources reflect a Hellenised character of the part in the Latiar or Feriae Latinae given by Pliny and tain. The meaning of Tauropolos denotes an Asi- Worship of Diana is mentioned in the Bible. as Diana Tifatina was appelled Trivia in an imperial League led by Laevius (or Baebius) Egerius[19] happened Virbialis dedunder the influence of an alliance with the tyrant of Cuma age inscription which mentions a flamen icated by eques C. as Latin [37] goddess. at Nemi is apparently that of the Artemis Tauropolos. he said. where the blood. as in the Diana of Versailles (illustration. by Strabo[25] and Servius Honoratus.[14] which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct. The formation of the Latin should be related to the presence of the cult in Campania. those nied by a deer. fact which would support the assumption that Artemis Tauropolos had a real ancient alliance with the heroine. Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a torical and archaeological evidence point to the fact that central deity not immediately identifiable. The presence of a Hellenised Diana at Nemi more than that of Hippolitos. from Tarquinia. Artemis and even Athena. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) atic goddess with lunar attributes. Diana transformed Acteon into a stag and set his the temple of Saturn. like that of Bacchus. Ephesian metal smiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. it has not as its leader the rex Nemorensis but a dictator pomerium. which in turn passed it models.[21] It should thence be considered a political for.[26] The only possible interpretatio graeca of high antiquity concerning Diana Nemorensis could have been the one based upon this ancient aspect of deity of light. who saw her bathing the inhumation of his bones in the Roman Forum near naked. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BC has been acknowledged as representing the archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis. Georg Wissowa proposed the explanation that it might be because the first slaves of the Romans must have been Latins of the neighbouring tribes. meant that Diana’s cult essentially remained a foreign one. Vulci and Caere (allied with the Greeks above right) this is because Diana was the patroness of of Capua) and those of Clusium.[16] Diana was regarded with great reverence and was a patroness of lower-class citizens.[28] At Cuma the Sybil is the priestess of both Phoibos and Trivia. what person is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper (guardian) of the temple of the great Diana and of her image that fell from . Diana was usually depicted for It looks as if the confrontation happened between two educated Romans in her Greek guise. It is remarkable that the composition of this ana looks very elaborated and certainly Hellenic.[29] Hesiod[30] and Stesichorus[31] tell the story according to which after her death Iphigenia was divinised under the name of Hecate. Strabo’s version looks to be the most authoritative as he had access to first hand primary sources on the sanctuaries of Artemis. she was never officially transferred to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. After the city secretary (γραμματεύς) quieted the crowd. If she is accompagroups of Etruscans who fought for supremacy.[13] where her priest.e.

.[43] Today there is a branch of Wicca named for her. the god of the Sun.[49] 14.6. also near Tusculum. Other sanctuaries we know about are listed below: Diana (1892 . and the Spanish word for “shooting target” Herodiana. Portugal. original territory of the city.6 Legacy 14.[38] She had a shrine in Rome on the Aventine hill.2 In language 14.[41] • Mount Algidus.[42] • At Lavinium. LEGACY 59 heaven ?" (Acts 19:36) 14.[44] Stregheria • A sacred wood mentioned by Livy[45] ad compitum Anagninum (near Anagni).a. i. The Arician wood sanctuary near the lake of Nemi was Latin confederal as testified by the dedicatory epigraph quoted by Cato. Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Therefore many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins.[39] where she is referred to with the archaic Latin name of deva Cornisca and where existed a collegium of Wicca worshippers. in order to comply with the tradition that Diana was a goddess common to all Latins and not exclusively of the Romans. where she is referred to as Diana Opifera Nemorensis. nymph” xana. Diana was said to have • On Mount Tifata. In Italy the old religion of Stregheria embraced the goddess Diana as Queen of the Witches. Bronze.).[48] • At Tibur (Tivoli).6.6.5 Sanctuaries See also: Diana Nemorensis Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes. New York City. Apollo. the light.93). She was related to myths of a female and "morning call" (diana) seem to come from the name Wild Hunt. • Colle di Corne near Tusculum. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba Longa before the town was destroyed by the Romans.e. where she was worshipped as Diana of herself she divided the darkness and the light.[46] created the world of her own being having in herself the seeds of all creation yet to come. witches being the wise women healers of the time. the Leonese and Portuguese word for “water to the cult of Nicevenn (a. Dame Habond. etc. according to tradition dedicated by king Servius Tullius.[47] Diana’s name is also used as the third divine name in a Wiccan energy chant. which is characterized by an exclusive focus on the feminine aspect of the Divine.k. of Diana.[40] • At Évora. It was said that out of • In Ephesus. near Capua in Campania. Metropolitan Museum of Art.“Isis Astarte Diana Hecate Demeter Kali Inanna”. Its location is remarkable as the Aventine is situated outside the pomerium. Diana was believed to have loved and ruled with her brother Apollo.1 In religion Both the Romanian words for "fairy" Zânǎ[50] and Diana’s cult has been related in Early Modern Europe Sânzianǎ. keeping for Ephesus and the temple Artemision used to be one herself the darkness of creation and creating her brother of world’s seven wonders.14. Perchta.

” It can be assumed that 'Dian' is simply a shortening of 'Diana' since later in the play when Parolles’ letter to Diana is read aloud it reads 'Dian'.wish chastely and love dearly. Othello the Moor says. “Diana’s lip is not more smooth and rubious” A chariot clock depicting the goddess. • Diana Soren. and Diana’s assault on Sylvia’s affections for the shepherd Amyntas.. one of Diana’s nymphs and sworn to chastity..6. that your Dian/was both herself and love. The nude goddess.. Diana is also a character in the 1876 Léo Delibes ballet Sylvia. where he and his people settle. “Her name that was as fresh as Diana’s visage.' • In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”). 1796. & at Anet. such as. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) In the arts • In the sonnet “To Science” by Edgar Allan Poe. without/ rescue in the first assault or ransom afterward. Diana is used in comparison to the 17th/early 18th century everyday woman Swift satirically writes about. In Shakespeare • In Shakespeare’s Pericles.” and ".. identified by the crescent moon in her hair and the bow and quiver at her side. • In Jonathan Swift’s poem: “The Progress of Beauty”. • In “Castaway” by Augusta Webster.. “Now. ". science is said to have “dragged Diana from her car”. from thy altar do I fly. Diana’s image figured prominently at the châteaus of Fontainebleau. Starts: 'When first Diana leaves her bed./ that would suffer her poor knight surprised. • Diana is referred to in Twelfth Night when Orsino compares Viola (in the guise of Cesario) to Diana.. c. • In All’s Well That Ends Well Diana appears as a figure in the play and Helena makes multiple allusions to her. gentlemen of the shade. Chenonceau. he writes 'Browsed by none but Dian’s fawns’ (line 12) • Speaking of his wife. the Apollo-like “Sun King” liked to surround himself.. as goddess of the moon. mistress of Henri of France. women who claim they are virtuous despite never having been tempted are referred to as “Dianas. Falstaff styles himself and his highway-robbing friends as “Diana’s foresters.. the main character in Carlos Fuentes' novel Diana o la cazadora soltera (Diana.. Dian. including the opera L'arbore di Diana. In the 16th century.. In literature • In "The Knight’s Tale" in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. is described as having the same personality as the goddess. France. • In Henry IV. Part 1.” • There is a reference to Diana in Much Ado About Nothing where Hero is said to seem like 'Dian in her orb'. is now begrim'd and black as my own face. The plot deals with Sylvia. • Diana is referenced in As You Like It to describe how Rosalind feels about marriage. Since the Renaissance the myth of Diana has often been represented in the visual and dramatic arts. in terms of her chastity. minions of the moon” who are governed by their “noble and chase mistress the moon under whose countenance [they] steal”.. or The Lone Huntress). Prince of Tyre Diana appears to Pericles in a vision.” The Steward also says. Diana leads the Trojan Brutus to Britain. Dian no queen of virgins.60 14.[51] . Desdemona.3 CHAPTER 14.” (Line 128) Diana Reposing by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry. Emily prays to Diana to be spared from marriage to either Palamon or Arcite. At Versailles she was incorporated into the Olympian iconography with which Louis XIV. reclines on a blue drapery. telling him to go to her temple and tell his story to her followers. • In “Ode” by John Keats. in deference to Diane de Poitiers.

• “Diana of the Tower” a copper statue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens was created as the weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden in 1893. Painters like Titian. It now is on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art • A sculpture by French sculptor François-Léon Sicard in the Archibald Fountain. (I. Antonio Allegri da Correggio painted the chamber of the Abbess Giovanna Piacenza’s apartment. • Diana Bathing With Her Nymphs by Rembrandt. Some famous work of arts with a Diana theme are : • Diana and Actaeon. Peter Paul Rubens. saying that “She hath Dian’s wit”.or depicted her resting after hunting. • Diana and Callisto. She refers to Diana. and Diana. Diana and Her Nymphs Surprised By A Faun by Rubens. Most depictions of Diana in art featured the stories of Diana and Actaeon. Two of the most popular of the period were of Pomona (goddess of orchards) as a metaphor for Agriculture. • The famous fountain at Palace of Caserta. He refers to her becoming a nun. with the goddesse Diana having connotations of chastity.14. representing Commerce. depicting Diana being surprised by Acteon. • In The Merchant of Venice Portia states “I will die as chaste as Diana. On the mantel he painted an image of Diana riding in a chariot possibly pulled by a stag. and Diana Getting Out of Bath by François Boucher. • Diana and Endymion by Johann Michael Rottmayr. • Diana and Endymion by Poussin. created by Paolo Persico. François Boucher. Diana and Her Nymph Departing From Hunt. who is often depicted with a silver hunting bow. In the same play the character Hermia is told by the Duke Theseus that she must either wed the character Demetrius “Or on Diana’s alter to protest for aye austerity and single life”. Romeo describes Rosaline. Italy. LEGACY • The goddess is also referenced indirectly in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. 61 In painting and sculpture Diana has been one of the most popular themes in art. which is a perpetual hunt for advantage and profits. • A sculpture by Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain can be seen at the Musée du Louvre. The character Hippolyta states “And then the moon. Brunelli. Pietro Solari. like to a silver bow new bent in Heaven”.6. Sydney NSW Australia • In Parma at the convent of San Paolo. by Giampietrino. Diana Resting After Bath. and Death of Actaeon by Titian. • Diana and Callisto. In beaux arts Diana as the Huntress. or Callisto.ii) • In Romeo and Juliet. goddess of the moon. Beaux Arts architecture and garden design (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used classic references in a modernized form. . Diana and Callisto. He was commissioned in 1519 to paint the ceiling and mantel of the fireplace. Nicholas Poussin made use of her myth as a major theme. unless I be obtained by the manner of my father’s will”.

Rousseau.[52] • The Royal Netherlands Air Force 323rd Squadron is named Diana and uses a depiction of Diana with her bow in its badge. 1974. Diana is the feline companion to Chibiusa. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) • The character of Diana from the video game League of Legends is largely based on the goddess. . [7] Titus Livius Ab Urbe Condita 1:31-1:60. [11] “Latin Oration”. who help Marius Titus. [8] J. an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau.8 References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia.com. [10] “Artemis”. 1954. 16. chaps. (in particular chapter “The king of May”). 1. [4] G. part 3. 14. chap. 1912. scribd. Usagi’s daughter. 1972. • She also is one of the main gods in the popular video game Ryse. Diana is the daughter of Artemis and Luna. part 3. Julie Kohler. • DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. poses as Diana/Artemis for the artist Fergus. She poses with a bow and arrow. F. 1995. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris 1974.62 CHAPTER 14.1. fulfill his duty to Rome. a character beset by revenge. The Book People. Princess of Wales in 1997. magic and the divine king Routledge. is named after Diana. chap. Pairault below cites three. The theme of Diana is carried throughout the album. 215.“the most hunted person of the modern age”. symbolizing agriculture). while wearing white. Retrieved 2012-11-11. Frazer The golden bough 1922. 14. Contrary G. [5] Mircea Eliade Traite' d'histoire des religions Paris. of which Fergus becomes the fourth victim.G. • Diana/Artemis appears at the end of the 'Pastoral Symphony' segment of Fantasia. [3] H.6. Frazer Dying gods. 12.Dumézil La religion Romaine archaique Paris. the goddess of hunting. 1. played by Jeanne Moreau. • For the album art of progressive metal band Protest the Hero's second studio album Fortress. Haydock.[53] [9] J. an airgun company. the main character.7 See also • Artemis • Diana Nemorensis • Dianic Wicca • Janus • Domus de Janas • Pachamama In opera • Diana is a character in Hippolytus and Aricia. 14. London. her brother drew an analogy between the ancient goddess of hunting and his sister . Diana is depicted protected by rams and other animals. In film • In Jean Cocteau's 1946 film La Belle et la Bête it is Diana’s power which has transformed and imprisoned the beast. • In his 1968 film La Mariée était en noir François Truffaut plays on this mythological symbol.KG. Other • In the funeral oration of Diana. [2] G.4 • The character of Diana is the principal character in the children’s novel The Moon Stallion by Brian Hayles (1978) and the BBC Television series of the same name Diana is played by the actress Sarah Sutton. part 3. • In the manga and anime series Sailor Moon. This choice seems fitting for Julie. Geza Roheim Animism. 262-271. and Diana (symbolizing commerce) as building decoration. [6] Ovid Fasti III. • William Moulton Marston used the Diana myth as a basis for Wonder Woman. Pomona (left. All of these characters are advisers to rulers of the kingdom of the moon and therefore have moonassociated names. p.

14. 63 [31] Orestia cited by Philodemos Περι εύσεβείας 24 Gomperz II 52: fragment 38 B. 365–399. (1993). Ardeatis.8. [49] Charles G. Gordon. [52] “DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. 137-144. N. in a surviving quote by the late grammarian Priscian. Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome. Ennius apud Varro De Lingua Latina VII 16. [21] Pliny Naturalis Historia III 5 68-70. 3537. Lucidi Memorie storiche dell'antichissimo municipio ora terra dell'Ariccia e delle sue colonie Genzano e Nemi Rome 1796 p. Suidas above. Carmen Saeculare. Catullus 34. R.” COMPANY | THE DIANA TRADEMARK.43.part 3.net. Coranus. L. Pausanias I 43. Hymni I in Hecaten 7. [24] Jean Bayet “Les origines de l'Arcadisme romain” p. [48] “TRADITIONAL WICCA . [18] “Diana Nemorensis. 4: the people of Aricia help Aristdemos in bringing home the Etruscan booty. [25] Strabo V 249: αφιδρύματα της ταυροπόλου. Aradia: The Gospel of Witches. 7. Nilson Griechische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1955 p. H. F. Hi populi communiter: Tusculanus. 15.v. [32] A. M. 448 citing Jean Bayet Origines de l' Hercule romain p. US. [37] Servius Ad Aeneidem IV 511.v. The Yale Shakespeare: the complete works. 181). [40] CIL. 4. Rutulus. [39] Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia XVI. Pometius. pp. E.CLASS 8”. [47] Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition. Blue Moon [50] Zânǎ in DEX '98 and NODEX [51] Cross. 99. [33] Excavation of 1791 by cardinal Despuig not mentioned in the report: cf. (accessed November 27.” [19] The historicity of this character is questioned by Dumézil as the name Egerius looks suspect to him. [13] Her cult at Aricia was first attested in Latin literature by Cato the Elder. [20] Livy II 14. [22] Servius ad Aeneidem II 116.v. REFERENCES [12] The date coincides with the founding dates celebrated at Aricium. Lingua Latina V. [42] Horace. f-16. [15] The Potnia Theron aspect of Hellenic Artemis is represented in Capua and Signia. 97 ff. United States of America: Barnes & Noble. 322-328. Greek cities of Magna Graecia. in the 5th century BC. 1. 242 and Ovid’s Fasti III 327-331. xliv. Laurens. [30] Hesiod Catalogueedited by Augusto Traversa. [41] Hifler. [45] Livy Ab Urbe Condita XXVII 4. [27] Hesichius s. 1. " Witches Of The Craft. P. pp. déesse latine. 280 n.KG THE DIANA TRADEMARK. 5-9. (Gordon 1932:178 note. Carmina I 21. 2012). West Fragmenta Hesiodea Oxonii 1967. Merkelbach. [53] “F-16 Units . Joyce. Tuaropolos. Hyginus Fabulae 261. M. Hymni magici V in Selenen 4. 975. 2357. Valerius Flaccus Argonauticae II 305. P. Supposed Greek origins for the Aricia cult are strictly a literary topos. 259-261 platesVI a-b. From The Witches Voice. [38] Cato Origins fr. 2010 [28] Servius ad Aeneidem VI 136. II 22. 62: “Lucum Dianum In nemore Aricino Egerius Baebius (some scholars prefer to read Laevius) Tusculanus dedicavit dictator Latinus. Naples 1951 p. [17] as quoted by Dumézil La religion romaine archaique Paris. Leland. déesse hellénisée” in Mélanges d' archéologie et d'histoire 81 1969 p. the cult there was of antiqua religione in Pliny’s Natural History.RNLAF 323rd squadron”. Wilbur L. [34] NSA 1931 p. 1919. CIL XIV. 76 text 82. 177-192) p 178. 242. “On the Origin of Diana”. Retrieved 17 July 2014. and p. Pairault p. 91. [26] Suidas s. . [29] Aeneis VI 35. Darehnberg -Saglio-Pottier Dictionnaire des antiquités s. [44] CIL. [23] Ovid Metamorphoses XIV 331-2 Scythicae regnum nemorale Dianae. 5-6. ISBN 1-56619-104-1.. η ότι η αυτη τη σελήνη εστι καί εποχειται ταύροις. 1974. η από μέρους. VI 136. fragment 23. (accessed November 27. [46] Roy Merle Peterson The cults of Campania Rome. των ποιμνίων επστάσις. Theophania Publishing. “The Goddess Diana. Silius Italicus Punica IV 367. Tiburtis. Yalouris Athena als Herrin der Pferde in Museum Helveticum 7 1950 p. Dionysius Halicarnasseus V 36. 1-4. Diana fig.2633. Wicca. pp.2112. 425-471. Alföldi"Diana Nemorensis” in American journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. [35] CIL X 3795. VIII 362. 485 ff. VII 6.135. Photius Lexicon s. 2012).v. Retrieved 2007-05-23. Lucanus Pharsalia III 86 “qua sublime nemus Scythicae qua regna Dianae”. Scholiasta ad Aristophanem Lysistrata 447. [43] CIL XIV. Tauropolai. Riis who cites E. Arthur E. Aricinus. chap. [14] commune Latinorum Dianae templum in Varro. [16] Gordon 1932:179. [36] Dionysius Hal. finds at Valle Giardino. Abel Orphica. :η Άρτεμις εν Ταύροις της Σκυθίας τιμωμένη. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 63 (1932.

J. Paribeni “A note on Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archeology 65 1961 p. • J. • F. Alföldi “Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. Morpurgo “Nemus Aricinum” in MonAntLincei 13 1903 c. 169-173. 1ff. Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich 1912 p. 95 ff. 650 ff. 177ff. 398 ff.. Bayet Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine Paris 1957 p. Merlin “L'Aventin dans l'antiquité" Paris BÉFAR 97 1906. • G..E. 39ff. Gordon “On the Origin of Diana” in Transactions of the AMerican Philological Association 63 1932 p. 137-144. Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1966 p. Feb. 20 ff. 302 ff.E. Riis “The Cult Image of Diana Nemorensis” in Acta Archaeologica Kopenhagen 37 1966 p. 69 ff. Altheim Griechischen Götter im alten Rom Giessen 1930 p.. la Diane latine” in Hommages á Jean Bayet. Heurgon “Recherhes sur. March Apr. Heurgon in Magna Graecia 1969 Jan. • G. • J. • A. • R. 47-100. • A. Capoue préromaine” in BÉFAR 154 Paris 1942 p. • A. • A. • J. Gagé “Apollon Romain” in BÉFAR 182 Paris 1955. 307 ff. 300 ff. Latte Römische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1960 p. Alföldi Early Rome and the Latins Ann Arbor 1964 p. • K.64 14.. 198 ff. 55. • P. • E.9 Bibliography • A. 93-172. Schilling “Une victime des vicissitudes politiques. • A. Momigliano “Sul dies natalis del santuario federale di Diana sull' Aventino” in RAL 17 1962 p. • J.10 External links • Landscape with Diana and Callisto painting • Diana and her Nymphs painting • The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1150 images of Diana . 1ff. 1969 p. Collection Latomus 45 Bruxelles 1960 p. CHAPTER 14. Gordon Local Cults in Aricia University of California Publications in Classical Archaeology 2 1934 p. Frazer Balder the Beautiful II London 1913 p. 12 ff. • L.. • J. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) 14.G. 387 ff. p.

which according to a local legend a young shepherdess got nium “the greatest of the Manes".[12] Paulus Diaconus considers him a The mountain top is frequently hit by lightningbolts. located in the Alps near Vicenza (Veneto. as counterposed sovereign power would be reflected in the dichotomy Varuna-Mitra in Vedic religion and in Rome in the dito Jupiter.[3][4] It stood at its reassuring. This identification is taken up by later writers roof of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been struck such as Camões (“If in Summanus’ gloomy realm / Sever[5] by a lightningbolt. offered to him as a token of propitiation: the wheel might [18] falls upon people and cities”.[10] that dates back to the first Iron Age (9th century BCE) Pliny thought that he was of Etruscan origin.). perhaps on the slope [16] Summanus is anof the Aventine. Italy) is considered a site of the cult of god Pluto.[7] Saint Augustine records that in earlier times Summanus had been more exalted than Jupiter. Summanus also received a sacrifice of two black oxen or wethers. The local flora is very peculiar due to Summanus among gods he considers of Sabine origin. quence of a votum. The god of lightning. 278 BCE on June 20. The temple of Summanus itself was struck by lightning Archeological excavations have found a sanctuary area in 197 BCE. The double aspect of heavenly In ancient Roman religion. and one and was continuously active til late antiquity (at least the of the nine gods of thunder. The haruspices announced that it had been hurled into the Tiber River. the west of the Circus Maximus. be a solar symbol. nocturnal. daylight and legalistic aspect. The area was one of the last strongholds of ancient religion in Italy as is shown by the fact that Vicenza had no bishop until 590 CE. For Brian Lum. the day before the [17] est punishment you now endure …") and Milton. round cakes called summanalia. see Brian Lumley deities#Summanus. Dark victims were typically offered to chthonic deities. violent and awe-inspiring element of the gods of the first function. made a simile to describe Satan visiting Rome: “Just so Sum[6] of flour.[2] pairs would incarnate the violent. “under” + lost and disappeared.According to Martianus Capella. other name for Pluto as the “highest” (summus) of the cated because the statue of the god which stood on the Manes.[11] Varro.[19] The content of this section is adapted from the entry Monte 65 . milk and honey and shaped as wheels.[9] 15. were manus. The story looks to be an adaptation manus.Georges Dumézil[15] has argued that Summanus would ley’s fictional god.Chapter 15 Summanus This article is about the Roman deity. Jupiter became more honored.from their own native lands afar. but with the construction of a temple that was more magnificent than that of Summanus. represent the uncanny. Every June 20. The first gods of these precise nature was unclear even to Ovid. lists 4th century CE). connected to heavenly sovereignty. Summanus (Latin: Summānus) was the god of nocturnal thunder.[1] His chotomy Summanus-Dius Fidius.[14] or sub-.[8] Cicero recounts that the clay statue of the god which stood on the roof of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was struck by a lightningbolt: its head was nowhere to be seen. where indeed it was found on the very spot indicated by them. the god of diurnal (daylight) thunder. “hand”. Iupiter Summanus and the Manes . It seems the temple had been dedi. mysterious The temple of Summanus was dedicated during the aspect of sovereignty while the second ones would reflect Pyrrhic War c. in summer solstice. to the custom of ancient time pilgrims of bringing flowers whom king Titus Tatius dedicated altars (arae) in conse.1 Summanus and Mount Summano Traditionally Mount Summano (elevation 1291 m. wrapped in a smoking whirlwind of blue flame.[13] mountain has a deep grotto (named Bocca Lorenza) in The name Summanus is thought to be from Summus Ma. however. of the myth of Pluto and Proserpina.

this latter kind being more rare. [19] Lucio Puttin Monte Summano: storia. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Translation by James G.2 Notes and references [1] Paulus Festi epitome p. via Perseus Digital Library. p. Raffaele Pettazzoni. Fasti Esquil. 184 [16] Martianus Capella. Pliny mentions the temple at Natural History 29. . “The Wheel in the Ritual Symbolism of Some Indo-European Peoples. Vol. see Orlin. p. rariora sane eadem de causa frigidioris caeli). 33.243. English translation by John Bostock. and the nocturnal to Summanus. 731. in consequence of the heavens being colder” (Tuscorum litterae novem deos emittere fulmina existimant. diurna attribuentes Iovi.164. Iovem enim trina iaculari. XXIX 14. It. 408. Romani duo tantum ex iis servavere. CHAPTER 15. T. Mitra-Varuna: essai sur deux representations indoeuropeennes de la souverainetè Paris 1948 2nd. in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. 1 [11] Natural History 2. that there are nine Gods who discharge thunder-storms. 2007).57 (= 29. “Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors”. [12] Varro Lingua Latina V 74. [2] “The temple is said to have been dedicated to Summanus.” in Essays on the History of Religions (Brill.557 L [7] John Scheid. 1977. p. Summano templa feruntur): Ovid. [8] Augustine. [5] S. III part 2 chapt. 320 [4] Pliny Nat. 221. [15] Myth et epopée vol. Frazer. SUMMANUS [17] Os Lusíadas. eaque esse undecim generum. 14-15. that there are eleven different kinds of them. and that three of them are darted out by Jupiter. For dedication year. La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1974. ascribing the diurnal kind to Jupiter. translated as The Lusiad by Thomas Moore Musgrave (1826).188 L 2nd. tr. citing Cicero de Div. “Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule”. [3] Ovid fasti VI 729-731. [13] Entry on Dium above. 5. Eric M. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome Baltimore 1928 p. 15.: ad XII Kal. 98100 [6] Festus p.. De nuptiis 2. Of these the Romans retained only two. Livy Periochae XIV. [14] Summanus. 47 (2002). Iordanes I 2.. Loeb Classical Library. nocturna Summano. arte e tradizioni Schio. 3. 264. 211. 1967). Milano 1977 p. Iul.. CIL I 2nd p.66 Summano of WP Italian. Venus. Amit. Livy Periochae XIV.53 (alternative numbering 52 or 138): “The Tuscan books inform us. 107.14).. I 10. [18] In the Latin poem “In Quintum Novembris” (lines 23– 24): Talibus infestat populos Summanus et urbes / cinctus caeruleae fumanti turbine flammae. Hist. Ball Platner. City of God IV 23 [9] Cicero De Divinatione I 10 [10] Livy AUC XXXII 29. Fasti 6. whoever he may be” (quisquis is est. IV.

“Trivia”. Who’s Who in Greek and Roman Mythology. “TRIVIA”.”[1] She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Hecate. Inc. she was also known to steal young maidens to assist her in her powers. Potter.Chapter 16 Trivia (mythology) Trivia in Roman mythology was the goddess who “haunted crossroads.[2] She was an underworld Titan-goddess who assisted Jove in the Titanomachy and was therefore able to keep her powers. p. Her association for Romans of the first century BCE with Artemis was so thorough that Lucretius[3] identifies the altar of the goddess at the sacrifice of Iphianassa (Iphigeneia) in Aulis as Triviai virginis aram. As a part of her role as an underworld goddess. New York: Clarkson N. David (1975). i. 67 . She was a friend of Ceres and helped her to find her daughter Proserpina. the goddess of witchcraft. (1964). 278. 231. she was known as the Queen of Ghosts. p. ISBN 0-517-52746-4. [2] Kravitz. New York: Harper & Row. graveyards. [3] Lucretius. she wandered about at night and was seen only by the barking of dogs who told of her approach. Although she helped Ceres to find her daughter. 16. De rerum natura. the three-way crossroads and the harvest moon. and was the goddess of sorcery and witchcraft. 84. These women later became nymphs.1 References [1] Zimmerman. J E. Dictionary of Classical Mythology.

as distinguished from invisible gods such as Neptune.[12] It first appears in Roman literature in the story of how in 182 BC a windstorm of exceptional power blew off its doors.[15] In ancient Roman religion and myth.[6] with the epithet Lucina. and deified mortals such as Hercules. she was honliterature.[7] as does Vergil in a different list of twelve. Luna is also sometimes represented as an aspect of the Roman triple goddess (diva triformis). but sometimes rather an epithet that specializes a goddess. Luna is the divine embodiment of the Moon (Latin luna. Ox-drawn biga of Luna on the Parabiago plate (ca. In the Carmen Saecit is unclear what Varro meant.Chapter 17 Luna (goddess) 17. in which he refers to Luna and Sol as clarissima mundi lumina. was a popular Juno and Diana were invoked as childbirth goddesses subject for Roman wall painting.[10] but Servius Tullius was credited with the creation of her temple on the Aventine Hill.[3] She was one of 17.[19] 68 . along with Proserpina and Hecate. Luna is distinguished from both Diana and Juno. as Luna’s Greek counterpart was Selene.[9] In this list. Sol and Luna can represent the extent of Roman rule over the world. Titus Tatius was supposed to have imported the cult of Luna to Rome from the Sabines. for instance.[1] As Noctiluna (“Night-Shiner”) Luna had a temple on the Palatine Hill. just below a temple of Diana. when according to the lunar guaranteeing peace. with the aim of The Kalends of every month.[13] In 84 BC. which Varro described as shining or glowIn Roman art.[17] On the Nones. Horace invokes her as the “two-horned queen of the stars” (siderum regina bicornis). the world’s clearest sources of light. Luna is not always a distinct goddess. performed in 17 BC. was sacred to Juno.[18] Both Luna.[4] In Imperial cult. She is often presented as the female complement of the Sun (Sol) conceived of as a god. the same day the popularist leader Cinna was murdered by his troops. Nothing else is known about the temple. it was struck by lightning. which crashed into the Temple of Ceres below it on the slope. English “lunar”). The myth of Endymion.1 Cult and temples Varro lists Luna among twelve deities who are vital to agriculture. myths of Selene are adapted under the name of ored as Juno Covella. 2nd–5th centuries AD) The Romans dated the cultivation of Luna as a goddess at Rome to the semi-legendary days of the kings. Juno of the crescent moon. since both Diana and Juno are identified as moon goddesses.[11] The anniversary of the temple founding (dies natalis) was celebrated annually on March 31. In Roman art and all Ides were to Jupiter.[8] Varro also lists Luna among twenty principal gods of Rome (di selecti). who also appear on it.[2] Varro categorized Luna and Sol among the visible gods. bidding her to listen to the girls singing as Apollo listens to the boys.[5] calendar the new moon occurred.[16] ulare. Luna’s attributes are the crescent moon ing by night.2 Juno as moon goddess the deities Macrobius proposed as the secret tutelary of Rome.[14] The Aventine temple may have been destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome during the reign of Nero. and and the two-yoke chariot (biga). cf.

[22] The [19] Green. a wall painting that uniquely [16] Varro. and sea. and Proserpina. with the other a dark brown. Archaic Greek poet Hesiod.2. In the mithraeum of S. 65.5–25. [2] Horace. Etymologies 18.4.41. the charioteer [11] Orosius 5. p.1. Richardson. [6] Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann. or because it is visible both by day and by nary.17.5 References [1] C. as light in color. 383. De lingua latina 5. De lingua latina 6. Ad nationes 2. while the biga represents the moon. 2007). lines 33–36. p. frg. the chthonic aspect of the triple goddess in complement with the [18] Varro. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Johns Luna is regularly paired with the Sun driving a four-horse Hopkins University Press..14–2-. Richardson.3–10. p. 238. 368 online. three-form Hecate (trimorphos) was identified by Servius [23] with Luna. p. De Vir. 238. the sun’s course through the four seasons.26. De lingua latina 5.” in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. p.4–6. A New Topographical Dictionary.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. Georgics 1. as preserved by Augustine of Hippo. Green. 238. 94.4 See also • List of Roman deities 17.3 Chariot of the moon 69 heaven. white.2. 133. Diana. . drawn by horses or oxen.78.[24] 17. “horned” or crescent-crowned Diana and Luna.2.68. Fasti 3. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. 2007).C. De Civitate Dei 7. “Religion and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the Second Century AD: The Creation of a Common Religious Language. [4] Jörg Rüpke.[21] [17] Green. [7] Varro. De re rustica 1. A New Topographical Dictiowith the sun.12. Lawrence Richardson.50. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 2. A biga of oxen was also driven by Hecate. night—for they yoke together one black horse and one [14] Appian. 73. 73. p. In this relief depicting a Mithraic tauroctony. p. usually in the context of the tauroctony. Bellum Civile 1. SEE ALSO 17. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Camover the heavens.883–84. In Roman art.27. [15] Tacitus. [8] Vergil. 1992). Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. [10] Varro. 2006). 238.2.3. and underworld. while the Sun drives a horse-drawn quadriga (left) [3] Varro. as translated by Stephen A. p. Isidore of Seville explains that the quadriga represents [12] Ovid. Richardson. p. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at Aricia (Cambridge University Press. p. Carmen Saeculare. 188. Hecate originally had power Barney et al. Annales 15. Luna (top right corner) paired with the Sun (top left) in another depiction of the tauroctony [9] Varro. Religion of the Romans. “because it travels on a twin course [13] Livy 40.”[20] Luna in her biga was an element of Mithraic iconography. p. 23 (Cardauns) = Tertullian. Attilio Mastrocinque. 73. Richardson. Luna is often depicted driving a two-yoke chariot (biga). p. [5] William Van Andringa. “Religion in the House. land. earth. According to the [20] Isidore. Ill. not as in the later tradition bridge University Press. 238. Luna drives a biga drawn by oxen (right). A New Topographical Dictionary. “Creating One’s Own Religion: Intellectual Choices.74. A New Topofocuses on Luna alone shows one of the horses of the team graphical Dictionary.M.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. p. chariot (quadriga). Maria Capua Vetere.

pp–15. Friedrich Solmsen. Plato.118. 17. [22] Prudentius.J. Contra Symmachum 733 (Migne). LUNA (GODDESS) . [24] Hesiod. 14. “The Powers of Darkness in Prudentius’ Contra Symmachum: A Study of His Poetic Imagination. note to Aeneid 6. Maria Capua Vetere (Brill.70 [21] M. p. 248. [23] Servius.” Vigiliae Christianae 19. Theogony 413f. Phaedrus 246. 1971).6 External links Media related to Luna (mythology) at Wikimedia Commons CHAPTER 17. Vermaseren. Mithraica I: The Mithraeum at S.4 (1965).

the Letoides.[19] the north of Lycia. The name of Leto’s mother.” and our wolves that had befriended her[20] for her denning.[3] Apollo and Artemis. bright”). till she came to Dedated Hellenic influence in the region. Finally. or that she sought out the “wolf-country” of Lyof her father and mother. as Zeus was the father. Λατώ. Leto’s equivalent is Latona.[16] ered an eighth-century post-Minoan hearth house temple in which there were found three unique figures of Apollo. by the help of whose united the Lycian confederacy of city-states. Artemis and Leto made of brass sheeting hammered over 18. the mainsanctuary. Lycian lada may also be the origin of the Greek name Λήδα Leda. she finds an island that isn't attached to the ocean floor so it isn't considered land and she can give birth. cement the new order. Her Titan father is called “Coeus. Leto withdraws. she realized that the offspring would the region became Hellenized. which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus. is identidisputed) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe cal to the epithet of her son Apollo. since Hera in her jealousy had caused all lands to shun her. Beekes) have In Crete. to remain a dim[5] and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus.[12] There was.Chapter 18 Leto For other uses. Another late source.[4] This is her one active mythic role: once Apollo and Artemis are grown. Greek: Λητώ Lētṓ.[14] which may relate him to the sphere of In Greek mythology. the Letoon near Xanthos pre. formerly called Tremilis. her part already played. and the sister of Asteria. influenced by Etruscan Letun.[15] In 20th-century sources Leto is traditionally derived from Lycian lada.suggested a Pre-Greek origin. at the city of Dreros. S. as her earliest cult was centered in Lycia. or any place under the sun. Older sources speculated that the name is related to the Greek λήθη lḗthē (oblivion) and λωτός lotus (the fruit that brings oblivion to those who eat it). of course. more recently identified. Another banned Leto from giving birth on “terra firma”.midwifery she afterwards gave birth to Apollo. down from the land of the Hyperboreans in the guise of a Leto’s primal nature may be deduced from the natures she-wolf. which she renamed to honthe sun and moon. P. “Latona for her intrigue with Zeus was country. see Leto (disambiguation) and Latona though Herbert Jennings Rose considers his name and na(disambiguation). heaven from pole to pole.[2] In the Olympian scheme. the most conservative of goddesses — for cult.hunted by Hera over the whole earth.[11] and los and brought forth first Artemis. was at Oenoanda in land. as her birthplace.1 Etymology Several explanations have been put forward to explain the origin of the goddess and the meaning of her name. who may have been Titans of cia. a further Antoninus Liberalis is not alone in hinting that Leto came Letoon at Delos. Erich Bethe. Classical Greek myths record little about Leto other than her pregnancy and her search for a place where she could give birth to Apollo and Artemis. Leto (/ˈliːtoʊ/. any island at sea.[7] Walter Burkert notes[8] that in Phaistos she appears in connection with an initiation When Hera.2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo a shaped core (sphyrelata). Zeus is the father of her twins. ture uncertain. It would thus mean “the hidden one”. “wife”. Lātṓ in Dorian Greek. Other scholars (Paul Kretschmer. etymology and meaning “Phoebe” (Φοίβη — literally “pure. She was powerless to stop the the Letoides are referred to as the “national gods” of the flow of events.[6] 18. Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων. however. Pierre Chantraine and R. Aelian.[10] Her sanctuary. In Roman mythology. Spyridon Marinatos uncov. she had the most to lose in changes to the order of naLeto was identified from the fourth century onwards with ture —[17] discovered that Leto was pregnant and that the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia.[1] The island of Kos is claimed throughout Homer.[9] In Greek inscriptions.[13] he is in one Roman source given the name Polus. also links Leto with wolves 71 .”[18] Hera lenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own. The Hel. a Latinization of her name.

the elder twin.5 The Lycian Letoon Leto was intensely worshipped in Lycia. records her cult image as sitting on 18. but a lucky survival of an inscribed inventory inine form of Zeus (see entry Dodona): if this were so. Instead Artemis. without travail. LETO and Hyperboreans: 18.”[21] It is remarkable that Leto brought forth Artemis. a queen and equipped with a spindle seems to have origiThe goddess Dione (in her name simply the “Goddess”) is nated in Asiatic worship of the Great Mother". The island was Spring. assisted with the birth of Apollo.as Letoai in ancient Crete) and at Lato. Another version. still bearing its archaic name of Asterios. whether one of “certain Cretan goddesses.[23] The dynasty that is so concerned about be. name. for the people of Delos maintain that this was the length of time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyperboreoi to Delos. As a gesture of gratitude. 18. Asia Minor.[29] As Leto Phytia she was a mother-deity. and these became the enemies of Apollo and Artemis.4 Chthonic assailants Leto was threatened and assailed in her wanderings by chthonic monsters of the ancient earth and old ways. which was neither mainland nor a real island. having been born first. Wolves are not easily delivered of their young.[31] “The conception of a goddess enthroned like her mother Rhea attends. or Greek goddesses in their Cretan form.del notes. One was the giant Tityos.Pindar calls the goddess Leto Chryselakatos. Demeter is not present. He attempted to rape Leto near Delphi under the orders of Hera. promising the island wealth from the was the dragon Pytho. but was laid low by the arrows of Apollo and/or Artemis. Homer. Rhea. Aphrodite is not present either. or Python.6 Leto in Crete Leto was also worshipped in Crete. a phallic being who grew so vast that he split his mother’s womb and had to be carried to term by Gaia herself. in the presence of all the first among the deathless goddesses as witnesses: Dione. the goddess of childbirth. Herodotus was given to understand. Only Hera kept apart. By contrast. Ichnaea. as Pindar recalled in a Pythian Most accounts agree that she found the barren floating ode. The dynastic rite of the witnessed birth must have been familiar to the hymn’s hearers. of her temple on Delos. and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth there to Apollo.[27] Veneration of a local Leto is attested at Phaistos[28] (where it is purported that she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis According to the Homeric hymn. O. states that Artemis was born before Apollo. which bore her sponding to a public occasion in the rites of a dynasty.[22] as if she were merely revealing another manifestation of herself. 18.7 Leto of the golden spindle ing authenticated in this myth is the new dynasty of Zeus and the Olympian Pantheon. island of Delos.72 CHAPTER 18. and Another ancient earth creature that had to be overcome gave birth there. according to the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo. the cobra-headed goddess of Lower Egypt. influenced by the Minoan goddess”. and the goddesses at De. the goddesses who as. Leto labored for nine nights and nine days for Apollo.[30] an epithet los who bear witness to the rightness of the birth are the that was attached to her daughter Artemis as early as great goddesses of the old order. since though Python was a child of was secured with four pillars and later became sacred to Gaia. Apollo slew it but had to do penance and be surrounded by swans. where the authenticity of the child must be established beyond doubt from the first moment. only after twelve days and twelve nights.[24] In Delos and Athens she was worshipped primarily as an adjunct to her children. where she was the central figures she would not have assembled here. Themis and the “loud-moaning” sea-goddess Amphitrite. perhaps to kidnap Eileithyia. Apollo.at the islands known today as the Paximadia (also known sembled to be witnesses at the birth of Apollo were re. Herodotus reported[25] a temple to her in Egypt supposedly attached to a floating island[26] called "Khemmis" in Buto. it was necessary that the ancient Delphic Oracle passed to the protection of the new god. which also included a temple to an Egyptian god Greeks identified by interpretatio graeca as Apollo. There. of the Delian trinity. as Callimachus wrote. to prevent Leto from going into labor. Brensometimes taken by later mythographers as a mere fem. which lived in a cleft of worshippers who would flock to the obscure birthplace the mother-rock beneath Delphi and beside the Castalian of the splendid god who was to come. on the island of Ortygia.18. the goddess whom Greeks recognised as Leto was worshipped in the form of Wadjet.3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . Delos cleansed afterwards. in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo and in an Orphic hymn.

[11] Bryce 1983. a queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion. 48–69). and Artemis her daughters. Amphion. forever doomed to swim in the murky waters of ponds and rivers. clothed in a linen chiton and a linen The Niobe narrative appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses himation.2. GENEALOGY OF THE OLYMPIANS IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY 73 a wooden throne. by Jan Brueghel the Elder. 18. seven sons and seven daughters. 1605.10. at the sight of his dead sons. ca. Theodora Hadzisteliou Price. “A Sanctuary of Leto at Oenoanda” Anatolian Studies 27 (1977) pp 193–197. “Double and Multiple Representations in Greek Art and Religious Thought” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 91 (1971:pp.” [5] Hesiod. Leto’s introduction into Lycia was met with resistance. [8] Burkert. Greek Religion 1985. though she continues to weep. summarizing the archaeology of the Letoon. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them. Theogony 403.365). Niobe is unable to move from grief and seemingly turns to marble. R. Theogony 406. “His twin sister is usually already on the scene. 61. enters in the midst of the worship and insults the goddess. Annual of the British School at Athens 62 (1967) p. was popular in Northern Mannerist art. I. there. though according to some versions a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris. other sources instead give separate birthplaces for the siblings. [2] Herodotus 2.98. [12] Alan Hall. she is more fit to be worshipped than the goddess. . [7] Marinatos’ publications on Dreros are listed by Burkert 1985. Leto turned them into frogs for their inhospitality. while Leto had only two.10 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Latona and the Lycian Peasants. Etruscan Myths (series: The Legendary Past) (British Museum/University of Texas Press) 2006.8 The Lycian peasants better parentage and more children than Latona. [9] The process is discussed by T. [4] Karl Kerenyi notes. the Bassin de Latone.4 note 16 (p. For her hubris.9 Niobe Niobe. and her body is transported to a high mountain peak in her native land.11 Notes [1] Hesiod. Diodorus Siculus 2. 18. 72. Latona begs Apollo and Artemis to avenge her against Niobe and to uphold her honor. John Boardman. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death. in the garden terrace of Versailles. Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics. according to Ovid's Metamorphoses. A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylus in Asia Minor and either turned to stone as she wept or killed herself. sect. boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids). This scene. usually called Latona and the Lycian Peasants or Latona and the Frogs. leaving her childless. “The Arrival of the Goddess Leto in Lycia”. usually). and her husband Amphion kills himself. p. A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1991:21). thus combining history painting and genre painting. [3] Pindar consistently refers to Apollo and Artemis as twins. “dark-veiled Leto” (Orphic Hymn 35. [13] Herbert Jennings Rose.[35] allowing a combination of mythology with landscape painting and peasant scenes.18. where Latona (Leto) has demanded the women of Thebes to go to her temple and burn incense. queen of Thebes. 18. The Gods of the Greeks 1951:130. It is represented in the central fountain. Obedient to their mother. claiming that having beauty. To Leto [6] Letun noted is passing in Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling.5a-b. Her tears formed the river Achelous. Historia: Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte. either killed himself or was killed by Zeus after swearing revenge. [10] Bryce 1983:1 and note 2.47.[34] The peasants there refused to allow her to do so by stirring the mud at the bottom of the pond.[33] when Leto was wandering the earth after giving birth to Apollo and Artemis. when the gods themselves entombed them. Bryce. she attempted to drink water from a pond in Lycia. the twins slay Niobe’s seven sons and seven daughters. Niobe. To punish this insolence.[32] (Book VI). plate III. 321 (1983:1–13). 18.

Hymn 3. 18. 2009.155-56 [26] “The claim that it floated is rightly dismissed by Herodotus — it probably reflects nothing more than contamination by Greek traditions on the floating island of Ortygia/Delos associated with Leto.4. “The temple of Leto (Wadjet) at Buto”. noting Pierre Roussel. On the Nature of Animals 4. Beekes.com. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. vi. in Anton Powell. Metamorphoses vi.F. Palmer. [25] Herodotus. Asterie. p 221.12 External links • Theoi. 2. Koios is translated literally. Mithridates. ISBN 100195219236 [19] Hyginus. Histories. tr. Brendel. giving as his sources Menecrates of Xanthos (4th century BCE) and Nicander of Colophon.com [32] O. [22] Artemis speaks: “my mother suffered no pain either when she gave me birth or when she carried me in her womb. Oxford UP. according to Kerenyi 1951:131. 2005. Antoninus Liberalis also relates a version of this myth. Leto • Pictures of the sanctuary for Leto at Letoum . Metamorphoses. Handbook of Classical Mythology.” (Callimachus. 855 and 858–9. Brill. 285. Brendel. (Appian. S.1. [17] See Hera.317-81 provides another late literary source. [21] Aelian. modern scholars now suggest a source in the "Lukka lands" of Hittite inscriptions (Bryce 1983:5). [20] Antoninus Liberalis’ etiological myth reflects Greek misunderstanding of a Greek origin for the place-name Lycia.H. pp. 100– 127) p 113ff. 13. Mycenaeans and Minoans: Aegean Prehistory in the Light of the Linear B Tablets in The Classical Review. [27] D. at least among Athenians. The Mirror of the Gods. [35] Bull.F. Bibliotheke 1. gave birth in the midst of a crowd of the women of the household. 266-268. Ovid. 27). Malcolm. Willetts. [29] Noted by R.). Römische Mitt. colonie athénienne (Paris: Boccard) 1916..74 [14] In the surviving summary of the preface to Gaius Julius Hyginus. [24] Appian tells of Mithridates’ intention to cut down the sacred grove at the Letoon to serve in his siege of Patara on the Lycian coast. The Greek World (Routledge) 1995:190. 1958.” remarks Alan B. as Polus: “From Polus and Phoebe: Latone. a nightmare warned him to desist. reviewing L. the article is a discussion of the seated female figure he identifies as Leto on the Roman silver tray (lanx) at Alnwick Castle. [23] Greek women. [30] Pindar.R. ed. [34] The spring Melite. 35. Lloyd. 36 [31] O. How Renaissance Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods. Scholfield. LETO [15] W. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1873. in “The Corbridge Lanx” The Journal of Roman Studies 31 (1941).317-81. [33] Ovid.F. Antoninus Liberalis. Metamorphoses. 4 (A. to Artemis). Sixth Nemean Ode. 2004: “Sexchangers”.” CHAPTER 18. ed. [16] R. p 60ff. “Cretan Eileithyia'. P. Hansen. [18] Pseudo-Apollodorus. Fabulae 140). 51 (1936). pp. 1963:87–91. at Theoi. but without travail put me from her body. Gray. [28] “the citizens of Phaistos on Crete performed sacrifices to Leto the Grafter because she had grafted male organs onto a maiden (Antoninus Liberalis 17)" notes William F. Délos. pp. Smith. The Classical Quarterly.

Check date values in: |date= (help) Shalim is also mentioned separately in the Ugaritic god lists and forms of his name also appear in personal names. the two are associated with the sun goddess. were conceived of as its beginning and end. 2003.4 Other uses Shalem is also the name of the 4-D cinematic presentation at the Jerusalem Time Elevator in Jerusalem.. or Salem. Bob. 222. 1999. the Akkadian word for sunset.[1] Many scholars believe that the name of Shalim is preserved in the name of the city Jerusalem.1 Ugaritic inscriptions [7] John Day. 75 . Ariel (2003). 82. Becking. and have appetites as large as "(one) lip to the earth and (one) lip to the heaven. Ugarit-Forschungen Vol.com/books?id=63BP9RPm26sC& pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=god+of+peace+ugaritic+ shalim&source=bl&ots=kFmXA0htEw&sig= ovNpxhbuiBv1k4jiuSR34176GZI&hl=en&sa= X&ei=GM08UZ-hM42Q7Aa0rIC4Aw&ved= 0CE0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=god%20of% 20peace%20ugaritic%20shalim&f=false 19.[1] Another inscription is a sentence repeated three times in a para-mythological text. 19. Na'aman.[3] In the Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible.Chapter 19 Shalim Shalim (derived from the triconsonantal Semitic root SL-M.. p. Salem. Albright identified Shalim as the god of dusk.[8] • Golan. likely Anat (Athirat or Asherah).[1][2] William F.p.[1][5][6][7] The god Shalim may have been associated with dusk and the evening star in the etymological senses of a 'completion' of the day. Wm. They are both nursed by “The Lady”.C. ISBN 978-965-90555-0-0.” and Shalim and Shahar. 187.google.. and also romanized as Shalem.” and Shahar. pp. 1990. Sheffield Academic Press 2002. describes Shalim and his brother Shahar as offspring of El through two women he meets at the seashore. mentioned in inscriptions found in Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria. p. • van der Toorn.]" 19. 19.. Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths (Reprint ed. 24 (1992). ISBN 978-0-931464-01-0. Eisenbrauns.. Pieter Willem (1999). Shalim is also identified as the deity representing Venus or the “Evening Star. K. ISBN 9780802824912.. perhaps as a divine name or epithet.[1] [3] Albright.” In other Ugaritic texts. p180 A Ugaritic myth known as The Gracious and Most Beautiful Gods. [. Canaanite Jerusalem and its central hill country neighbours in the second millennium B. 'sunset' and 'peace'. 1999.[4] [8] http://books. Ethnic groups in Jerusalem. cf. revised ed.). [5] N. Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd.] The names [of Sahar and Salim] are rendered in modern scholarly texts as Shakhar and Shalim [. Ariel Golan (Original from the University of Virginia.). Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan. šalām šamši. the “Morning Star”. and Salim) was the name of a god in the Canaanite religion pantheon. pp275-291. 2003) pp145-163. Grabbe. symbolism. twin deities of the dusk and dawn..3 Bibliography • Albright. “The name of the Canaanite deity of the setting sun Salim. van der Horst. Eerdmans Publishing. “Let me invoke the gracious gods. 755-6 [2] Golan.2 References [1] van der Toorn et al. [4] van der Toorn et al. B.. Prehistoric religion: mythology. Israel. in Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (Clark International. William Foxwell (1968 / 1990). and Shahar as god of the dawn. the voracious gods of ym. [6] L.” Ym in most Semitic languages means “day.E.

5 See also • Almaqah • Wadd • Shahar CHAPTER 19. SHALIM .76 19.

[2] 20. Alex (October 11. uses this pantheon as inspiration for its music. [2] Phillips.. 77 . “AL-NAMROOD Heavy Metal Underground”. 2012). and archaeologists believe that he was a major god of the Nabataean pantheon.[1] Al-Qaum however also literally translates to 'the people' in formal Arabic.1 In Popular Culture A black metal band in Saudi Arabia.Chapter 20 Al-Qaum Al-Qaum (Arabic: ‫ )القوم‬was the Nabataean god of war and the night. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 20.2 References [1] “NABATAEAN PANTHEON”. Retrieved 31 January 2013. it might just be referring to a group of people at the time as an entity. Al-Namrood. and guardian of caravans.[1] Large numbers of inscriptions bearing his name have been found.

[5] Zelia Nuttall argued that the Nine Lords of the Night represented the nine moons of the Lunar year. (3a) Piltzintecuhtli. Scribes. The actual reading order of the panels is boustrophedon and begins in the bottom right: 3c. University of Texas Press. (2a) Centeotl. (2c) Chalchiuhtlicue.html Gods discussion in Pauahtun Night . 2005.[6] The cycle of the Nine Lords of the Night held special relation to the Mesoamerican ritual calendar of 260-days and nights or -night which includes exactly 29 groups of 9 nights each. 1b. 3b.org/Calendar/gglyph. 1a. 9 vague lunations of 29 days each. the G series. 2010. Christine L. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World. 156-57 The glyphs corresponding to the night gods are known and mayanists identify them with labels G1 to G9. Oxford University Press. 2b. this argument has not generally been accepted. The Nine Lords of the Night in Aztec mythology are:[5] Xiuhtecuhtli (“Turqoise/Year/Fire Lord”) Itztli/Tecpatl (“Obsidian"/"Flint”) Piltzintecuhtli (“Prince Lord”) Centeotl (“Maize God”) Mictlantecuhtli (“Underworld Lord”) Lords of the Night in Codex Borgia (1a) Tlaloc. that was an omen for the night that they ruled over. approximately. Each lord was associated with a particular fortune. Foster. 2001.pauahtun. 2a. (1c) Tlazolteotl. although the specific names of the Maya Night Lords are unknown. The Aztec names of the Deities are known because their 78 [3] Lynn V. bad or good. Hernández. Astronomers. Skywatchers: A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico.[1] 21.[2] [1] Anthony F. Aveni. 259 [4] http://www. these glyphs are frequently used with a fixed glyph coined F. Harvard University Press p. since the evidence suggests that the lord of a given night ruled over that entire night. (3c) Xiuhtecuhtli. (3b) Itztli. (1b) Tepeyollotl.Chapter 21 Lords of the Night Further information: List of Aztec deities names are glossed in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis and See also: Lords of the Day Codex Tudela. Chalchiuhtlicue (“Jade Is Her Skirt”) Tlazolteotl (“Filth God[dess]") Tepeyollotl (“Mountain Heart”) Tlaloc (Rain God) are a set of nine gods who each ruled over every ninth night forming a calendrical cycle. 1c.1 Sources The lords of the night are known in both the Aztec and Maya calendar. 291 The existence of a 9 nights cycle in Mesoamerican calendrics was first discovered in 1904 by Eduard Seler. p. 3a.[3][4] [2] Gabrielle Vail. and Priests: Intellectual Interchange Between the Northern Maya Lowlands and Highland Mexico in the Late Postclassic Period. and also. Seler argued that the 9 lords each correIn Mesoamerican mythology the Lords of the Night sponded to one of the nine levels of the under world and ruled the corresponding hour of the night time. The only Mayan light lord that has been identified is the God G9. pp. Generally. (2b) Mictlantecuhtli.Pauahtun the Aged Quadripartite God. 2c.

American Anthropologist .1. 2007. New Series. No. SOURCES [5] Elizabeth Hill Boone. 44-45 [6] Zelia Nuttall. 6. Cycles of Time and Meaning in the Mexican Books of Fate. The Periodical Adjustments of the Ancient Mexican Calendar. 486-500 79 . 1904. 4 pp. University of Texas Press pp.21. Vol.

Some of her associations include birds and fire. The Trecena 1 House is one of the five western trecena dates dedicated to the cihuateteo.1 Iconography Itzpapalotl’s name can either mean “obsidian butterfly” or “clawed butterfly”.” Xiuhnel drank the blood and then im- 80 . see Acamapichtli. Itzpapalotl said ""Drink. the paradise of victims of infant mortality and the place identified as where humans were created. Her fingers tapered into the claws of a jaguar. the latter meaning seems most likely. Not only was Itzpapalotl considered one of the cihuateteo herself. “In folklore. seductive woman or terrible goddess with a skeletal head and butterfly wings supplied with stone blades. and her toes into eagle’s claws. and they took the white and wrapped it in a bun- According to the Manuscript of 1558.Chapter 22 Itzpapalotl For the Aztec ruler.[3] Depiction of Itzpapalotl from the Codex Borgia. formed themselves into men (so as to disguise themselves when all the others of the Centzonmimixcoa had been slain in the ambush?). the Zapotec deity named Goddess 2J by Alfonso Caso and Ignacio Bernal may be a Classic Zapotec form of Itzpapalotl.[1] She is the mother of Mixcoatl and is particularly associated with the moth Rothschildia orizaba from the family Saturniidae.”) She could appear in the form of a beautiful.2 Ritual Itzpapalotl is the patron of the day and associated with the stars Cozcuauhtli and Trecena 1 House in the Aztec calendar. 22. star demons that threatened to devour people during solar eclipses. In many instances Goddess 2J. Xiuhnel. Itzpapalotl fell from heaven along with Tzitzimime and several other shapes such as scorpions and toads. bats are sometimes called “black butterflies"". As the legend goes. Her wings are obsidian or tecpatl (flint) knife tipped. Itzpapalotl was one of two divine 2-headed doe-deers (the other one being Chimalman) who temporarily transformed themselves into women in order to seduce men. she was said to have dressed up like a lady of the Mexican Court. whose image is found on ceramic urns. At some times. ͡ ͡ (“ObIn Aztec mythology. sidian Butterfly”) was a fearsome skeletal warrior goddess who ruled over the paradise world of Tamoanchan. she can also appear with clear butterfly or eagle attributes. section VII.[3] (In the Manuscript of 1558.[2] Her nagual was a deer. Although the identity remains inconclusive.3 Mythology 22. It’s quite possible that clawed butterfly refers to the bat and in some instances Itzpapalotl is depicted with bat wings. but she was also one of the tzitzimime. Ītzpāpālōtl /iːtspaːˈpaːlot ɬ/ dle. However. Itzpapalotl wore an invisible cloak so that no one could see her. Itzpapalotl is described as having “blossomed into the white flint. To Xiuhnel. Itzpapalotl approached the two “cloud serpents named ͡ who transXiuhnel /ˈʃiwnel/ and Mimich /ˈmimitʃ/".[4] 22. is identified with bats. caking her face with white powder and lining her cheeks with strips of rubber. or women who had died in childbirth.

Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.. ISBN 978-0-80612909-9. Anderson.4 Popular culture In Laurel K. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) Sahagún. revisions. Citing :. Mary. who was once an Aztec priestess and believes herself actually to be the goddess of that name. She also runs a nightclub named Obsidian Butterfly.22. In :LATIN AMERICAN INDIAN LITERATURES JOURNAL. Goddess of Fire and Birds in Aztec Religion. 22. and ed. London: Thames 81 & Hudson. Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology: A Guide to the Gods. vol 4 (1988). Eloise Quiñones Keber. p. U of Chicago Pr. 200. and Beliefs of Mexico and Central America. Invalid |namelist-format=scap (help) Read. descended into a thorny barrel cactus. ISBN 0-19-514909-2. Charles E.O. OCLC 35848992. Nicholson. and Wayne Ruwet (completion. Bernardino de (1997) [ca.8 External links • An image of Rothschildia orizaba . p. p. Heroes..5 See also • Aztec mythology in popular culture • Black Sun (mythology) • Cihuateteo • Cihuacoatl • Tzitzimime • Mixcoatl • Tamoanchan • Woman warrior • List of women warriors in folklore 22.Elsie Clews Parsons : Mitla..B. Rituals. Norton & Co. 2001.7 References Miller. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. 1936. 100 [4] Elizabeth Benson : “The Maya and the Bat”.1558–61]. ran and . with H. Mythology [3] Miller & Taube. Then Mimich ... Jason J González (2002). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Suddenly she . the Obsidian or Clawed Butterfly [2] Itzpapalotl: Itzpapalotl.6 Notes [1] Itzpapalotl. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) 22. part 2. and paleography of Nahuatl text).. the ninth book is named Obsidian Butterfly and involves a vampire named Itzpapalotl. Thelma D. OCLC 27667317. Dibble. EXTERNAL LINKS mediately lay down with her. Hamilton’s Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series. p.). NY. tore open his breast.8. Kay Almere. Civilization of the American Indians series vol. Primeros Memoriales.”[5] 22.. 318 [5] Miguel León-Portilla & Earl Shorris : In the Language of Kings. 61 22. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. devoured him.. Arthur J. 113. Sullivan (English trans.. . Karl Taube (1993). fell into it. and the woman fell down after him. OCLC 77857686.

La Luna”.1 Otomi mythology For the Otomi people. During a full moon. He/she was probably the same deity as Yohaulticetl and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl. They called her the Old Mother. and became the moon instead. his face darkened by a rabbit. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Esperanza Carrasco Licea & Alberto Carramiñana Alonso. the “Rabbit in the Moon” becomes readily visible. The Otomi counted lunar months as a period from new moon to new moon. the Old Father. probably the main deity.Chapter 23 Metztli In Aztec mythology.3 Legend The Moon and Sun were at one time equally bright.4 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Mextli 82 • Galindo Trejo. 23. Arqueoastronomía en la américa antigua. For more detailed explanation see Toponymy of Mexico. the night.A. Her spouse. • Tecciztecatl 23. S. one of them threw a rabbit in the face of the other.2 Mexican traces The origin of the name of the Mexica probably derived from Metztli. like the latter. he/she feared the sun because he/she feared its fire. was the god of fire. Also referred to as the lowly god of worms who failed to sacrifice himself to become the sun. Metzi) was a god or goddess of the moon. and the one struck darkened to become today’s moon. 23. Diario Síntesis. and farmers. “Metztli. Metztli (also Meztli. Zäna was the Moon.5 References 23. Henceforth it’s possible to distinguish a figure of a rabbit on the moon’s surface. ISBN 84-86639-66-2. It not being appropriate for gods to be equals. the Queen of the Night. México: Equipo Sirius. 28 de Mayo de 1996 . who represented both Moon and Earth simultaneously. 23. Jesús (1994). They were giving every month 30 days.

the full length of his arms.[4][5] bands across his face especially in black and yellow. and tinker bells either around yellow stripe painted across his face. legs. wear(“Possessor of the Sky and Earth”).ble god'. obsidian.1 Representations winds. However.Chapter 24 Tezcatlipoca For other uses. His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as “Smoking Mirror”[2] and There are few surviving representations of Tezcatlipoca alludes to his connection to obsidian. One of the four sons of Ometeotl. including the night sky. Classical Nahuatl: his foot battling with the Earth Monster. Tloque Nahuaque (“Lord of the Near of his leg. or the “Manikin Scepter” and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian Tezcatlipōca pronounced /teskatɬiˈpoːka/[1] ) was a central knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake. sorcery. and knotted When depicted he was usually drawn with a black and a sandals with an armband.pearance. Most Ome Acatl[6] (“Two Reed”). as "God K". a loincloth. the night 24. Due to the lack of surviving images. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca’s apand depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tez. Tezcatlipoca’s nagual.[7] ing a heron feather headdress. the north.[12] Tezcatlipoca is often shown carwith his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror or a rying a shield with balls of either feathers or cotton and 83 . Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest.[9] deity in Aztec religion. In the Aztec ritual calendar the Tonalpohualli Tezcatlipoca ruled the trecena 1 Ocelotl (“1 Jaguar”)—he was also patron of the days with the name Acatl (“reed”). Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. bone—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses Tezcatlipoca (/ˌtɛzˌkætliˈpoʊkə/. jaguars. divination.[11] There are also portrayals of his body also nemoani (“He by whom we live”). Ipal. He is often shown his neck or ankles. which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica which were some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisi[10] used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. see Tezcatlipoca (disambiguation). Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque commonly he is shown with horizontal face bands. enmity.site to site.[8] The Tezcatlipoca figure goes back to earlier Mesoamerican deities worshipped by the Olmec and Maya. the majority of his and the Nigh”) and Yohualli Èhecatl (“Night. Necoc Yaotl (“Enemy being black in certain places. A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means “obsidian” and who was associated with sacrifice. was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl (“Mountainheart”). temptation. Depending on the site half of Both Sides”). the material from into the present day. he is associated with a of Tezwide range of concepts.[3] Another talis. war and strife. and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. Wind”). rulership. catlipoca discord. beauty. the fact that many images are difman related to Tezcatlipoca was a disc worn as a chest ficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that pectoral. or any combination there of can be depicted. but He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects the many different codices vary on which two colors from of his deity: Titlacauan (“We are his Slaves”). and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May. The color black is strongly associated with Tezcatlipoca and he is often portrayed as having horizontal catlipoca in codex illustrations. hurricanes. the earth. his animal counterpart. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists Tezcatlipoca as depicted in the Codex Borgia.

a paper loincloth. specifically mentioned as “his [Tezcatlipoca’s] viewing place”. Bedown Quetzalcoatl.5 Aztec religion was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was into a jaguar.of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the act rituals.[20] There were several smaller temples dedicated to Tezcatlipoca in the city.. with definitions varying from “mound”. there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods. as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: “the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun.[13] 24.[16] Another common city and forces him into exile.ceives Quetzalcoatl who was the ruler of the legendary lar feathers and paper decorations. “The Sun of the Earth” 24. priests would also Tezcatlipoca appears to be the embodiment of change dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other through conflict. Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black. According to Fray sequent creation “Sun of Water”. long chamber the size of a great In later myths. Tezcatlipoca. specialists in a black ointment to encourage an association with the Mesoamerican Studies.recounted in the legends of Tollan where Tezcatlipoca dedresses. as well as the world and all humanity. Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown. as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex.”[8] Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page similarly outfitted gods or goddesses. the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. TEZCATLIPOCA holding arrows or a spear in his right hand with a fan of feathers surrounding a mirror.[18] When the ritual called for it. 24. the first creation.4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl rites of kingship. the culture hero. in the same manner of the Great Temple was. In one version of the Aztec creation account[19] the myth of the Five Suns.Diego Durán it was “lofty and magnificently built. and Tezcatlipoca de.[16] More on the ex. lady and hall.[14] There are also several reference to momoztli. such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned calendar. Eighty stroyed the third creation “The Sun of Wind” by striking steps led to a landing twelve or fourteen feet wide. the four gods who created the world.. “More than anything god.2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West. Common ornaments were white turkey feather head. Quetzalcoatl. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs.The rivalry between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca is also als. Tlaxcala and Chalco. write that. “stone seat” and “temple”.located south of the Great Temple. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the sub.”. His cult was associated with royalty. the White. in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of later. the god and wore specific garments for different ritu. and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the 24.[17] They would also cover the both of them were seen as instrumental in the creation sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with of life. yond it stood a wide. Tezcatlipoca was also worshipped in many other Nahua cities such as Texcoco. Karl Taube and Mary Miller. darkness. among them the ones called “Tlacochcalco” and “Huitznahuatl”.84 CHAPTER 24.[15] Tezcatlipoca depicted in the codex Rios in the aspect of a Jaguar—in this form he was called Tepeyollotl. Quetzalcoatl. But it is interesting to practice was to cover themselves in black soot or ground note that Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collabocharcoal while they were involved in priestly activities at rated in the creation of the different creations and that the temple or during rituals. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan. as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. Each temple had a statue . and were the creators of all the other The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of gods. and a tzanatl stick with simi.3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca lord of the duality. their façades being towards the West”. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl.

or where “citizens waited expectantly” for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of “shell trumpets. AZTEC REVERENCE 85 of the god for which copal incense was burned four times a day. He did not make it rain for several years until. “On his installation.[21] Extreme reverence and respect. others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca. the patron deity of the royal house”.6 Mythical stories just pretending to be kind.[25] is fundamental in the social and natural phenomena jusAnother story of creation goes that Tezcatlipoca turned himself into the sun. others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. a time in which he proceeded to symbolically crush “one by one the clay flutes on which he had played in his brief moment of glory.” the new king fasted and meditated. a jaguar and destroyed the world. the fifth month of the Aztec calendar. But was crushed with Tezcatlipoca’s words saying that she is 24. She cried for many years and floods. After that. one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl". they created the people. with what people survived In one of the Aztec accounts of creation.allels. but Quetzalcoatl was furious possibly because they are enemies. and the people who survived were turned into monkeys.[25] For Aztec nobility. Aztec folklore is rife with parple had to offer sacrifices to comfort Cipactli for her suf. the god of rain.[21] Tezcatlipocas priests were offered into his service by their parents as children. wearing expensive jewellery and having eight attendants. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month.[24] “For one year he lived a life of honor. so he knocked Tezcatlipoca out of the sky with a stone club. to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca.[25] The two gods 24. made it rain fire with what people survived turning into birds. Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the world. often because they were sick. this “patron deity” missing foot.[24] Immediately after he died a new victim for the next year’s ceremony was chosen. Tezcatlipoca used his foot as bait. During the feast where he was worshipped as the deity he personified he climbed the stairs to the top of the temple on his own where the priests seized him. from the British Museum. These children would then have their skin painted black and be adorned with quail feathers in the image of the god. and peo. he is a night god or of his missing foot.7 Aztec Reverence then captured her. when the Miccailhuitontli “Little Feast of the Dead” was celebrated to honour the dead.” and then was sacrificed.As discussed above. as well as during the Panquetzaliztli “Raising of Banners” ceremony in the 15th month.24. in a fit of rage.[25] Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl making him send a great wind that devastated the world. became the sun. Quetzalcoatl replaced him and started the second age of the world and it became populated again. and distorted her to make the land from her body. his body being eaten later. “which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca. when a young man was chosen by the priests.[23] The preparations began a year earlier. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility.[22] Tezcatlipoca’s main feast was during Toxcatl. and spent his last week singing.” . But had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. and Cipactli ate it. characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were “to pay homage” to Tezcatlipoca. Quetzalcoatl and world was destroyed by[25] being turned into fish. Tezcatlipoca turned into tified by religion during this time.7. feasting and dancing. Tezcatlipoca is depicted with a Tezcatlipoca. Before their act there was only the sea and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli.” the hansome young man “worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity” [24] He would marry four young women. Because of this.[25] Chalchihuitlicue the Water Goddess became the sun. For the next year he lived like a god. much of the time depicted in deities such as ferings. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca. Tlaloc.[25] To attract her.[25] Angered. Turquoise mask representing the god Tezcatlipoca.

11 External links • Mexicolore .edu/org/tricksters/trixway/current/ Vol%201/Vol%201_1/Tstocker. [8] Taube & Miller 1993 p.trinity. 164 24.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ personified-knives''. In what manner shall I act for thy city? In what manner shall I act for the governed. representing both [20] Durán quoted from Olivier (2003) p. Koontz.9 Notes [1] The vowel transliterated here as [i] may in fact have been long or followed by a glottal stop which is sometimes written as an ⟨h⟩ [2] For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp.html • Quetzalcoatl [23] For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6.co. I am deaf. Mary. the king. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God: Tezcatlipoca. 186 For kings. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. “Lord of the Smoking Mirror”.).[21] CHAPTER 24.201 24. Missing or empty |title= (help). in filth hath my lifetime been.[21] The new king would claim his spiritual nakedness symbolically through words and physical vulnerability. Thames & Hudson Ltd. Rex (2008). • List of night deities [24] Coe and Koontz.mexicolore. [10] Olivier 2003 p. 52 [12] Olivier 2003 pp.[19] The Version as it is recounted in the Codex Ramirez— also called “Historia de Los mexicanos por sus Pinturas”. and in excrement. but Full text of this Codex in English translation can be found utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they at FAMSI believed were the cause of these events.8 See also [22] http://www...Poor am I. [4] http://www.. 167 [15] Olivier 2003 p.mexicolore. London: Thames and Hudson. 51 [14] Olivier 2003 p. the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was por.[21] Utter respect from the highest position of Aztec nobility.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ smoking-mirrors''. O our lord.Tezcatlipoca Symposium . O lord of the near. emphasizing his utter unworthiness.” speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god’s will.86 were commonplace. praising Tezcatlipoca with lines such as: “O master. 166 the silent wind. 54-55 [13] Olivier 2003 p. O wind. perhaps thou seekest another in my stead”. [5] http://5oymexico. Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (Sixth ed. It was gods like Tezcatlipoca that solidified this notion. for the vassals (macehualtin)? For I am blind. • Olivier. [6] This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec “2 Reed” which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl [7] For a summary of Tezcatlipocas epithets and their siginificance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1. ISBN 978-0-500-28755-2.org/ arqueologos-del-inah-descubren-vasija-en-forma-de-tlaloc-y-cuchillos-en-ofrenda-del-templo-mayor/ ?lang=en''. TEZCATLIPOCA [9] Jun Raqan “the one-legged” was an epithet of this Classic Maya Deity of rulership and thunder which eventually led to the English word “Hurricane”. translated by Michel Besson.. and thunderous war. shown through the figurative and literal nakedness of his presence in front of Texcatlipoca.[25] [21] Coe and Koontz. 185 [18] Olivier 2003 p. 24.. 174 [16] Olivier 2003 p. • Miller. 183. trayed not through science or philosophical debate. p. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. 48 [11] Olivier 2003 p. I am an imbecile. [3] http://www. 212 [25] Olivier 2003. ISBN 0-87081-745-0. Tezcatlipoca stories 24. Guilhem (2003). priests.10 References • Coe. Karl Taube (1993). p. 183 [17] Olivier 2003 p. Missing or empty |title= (help). of the nigh. Missing or empty |title= (help). University Press of Colorado. especially for this deity.[21] The king would stand “naked. lords.co. London. and citizens alike. Michael D. O night. 1415.

1 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Five Suns (mythology) 87 . 25.Chapter 25 Yohaulticetl In Aztec mythology. was a moon goddess and guardian of infants. the “Lady of the Night”. Yohualticetl. She may have been the same as Metztli and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl.

at Museo Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico City man with a black sun within a yellow sun.” which reproduces the appearance of a wheel. or the face of a gigantic toad that devoured the dead and gave access to the other eight lower levels. and the universal rulership portrayed in the great dance called “Mitotiliztli.[7] Another interpretation [8] holds that the sun god Huitzilopochtli crossed the underworld during the night bestowing light to the forgotten souls.[1] 26.[5] while the Aztec underworld was the eternal dwelling place of the souls. Some scholars regard the mythological Black Sun as the ancient female origin of all. the souls of women who had died in childbirth. is an archetypical symbol of the transcendent soul. it is the oneness that uniformly integrates unawareness.”[6] The connection with nocturnal elements is also ascribed to the god Tezcatlipoca. Huitzilopochtli was accompanied from zenith to setting by the Ciuapipiltrins. the underworld was made of nine layers. According to the Codex Ríos. This way. and yet an expectation of fecundity. the Earth. For the Mexicas there were two suns.Chapter 26 Black Sun (mythology) The Black Sun in Mesoamerican mythology has many mystical meanings. which then reappeared as crepuscular moths on Earth. death.[3][4] whereas also seen in the figure of the frightening earth goddess Itzpapalotl. night. as he was known. sorcery. and judgment. was one of the Five Suns of the creation myth of some Nahua peoples. he demanded human blood as payment to his tasks. Black Tezcatlipoca. as well as the annual rotation of the heavens. In this manner the spinning of the sun and black sun shows a wheel crossing with an obfuscatory motion where four black rays move out of four yellow rays.[1] According to some authors.[1] 26. transformation and mystical rebirth. which also had the entrance.[8] Sculpture of a Teotihuacan feathered serpent. a forerunner of Quetzallcoatl.[2][3] The butterfly. he ruled over the north. the “Obsidian Butterfly. it is both tomb and womb.” that devoured people during the solar eclipses.2 See also • Black Sun (alchemy) • Black Sun (occult symbol) • Five Suns (mythology) • Lords of the Night (mythology) • Tzitzimitl (mythology) At archaeological scenes. The souls of the dead occupied the ninth level known as "Mictlan Opochcalocan. these sets of four rays relate to the four cardinal points and the four quarters. on its nightly journey through the underworld with the image of a butterfly.1 Other views The Aztecs associated the passage of the Black Sun. they represent the governance held by the gods over the human race since its infancy. among them it is connected to the god Quetzalcoatl and his penetration in the Underworld through the west door after his diurnal passage on the sky. in turn. Before his nightly effort. the Plumed Serpent shows a 88 . son of the primordial god Ometeotl who was a god of dualities such as light and darkness. however. the young Day Sun and the ancient Dark Sun. The first level was the Earth’s surface.

R. The illustrated encyclopedia of signs & symbols. (2007) pp 149. Pablo Neruda and the U. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Longo.A. [7] Olivier. 26. Cardé. Resh. [2] Longo. (2009) pp 239-240. ISBN 0-8153-3386-2. 102. Dougald. Raje (2005). ISBN 0-12374144-0. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Dick. M. Mexican archaeology: an introduction to the archaeology of the Mexican and Mayan civilizations of preSpanish America. Susan.. Culture Industry (Hispanic Issues).4. [8] Joyce. (2003). Mark. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Joyce. Guilhem.4 References • Aguilar-Moreno. University Press of Colorado. Manuel (2007). 106. Airey. Teresa (2002). Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • O'Connell. Thomas Athol (1920). Oxford University Press. REFERENCES 26. Guilhem (2003). Teresa (2002). Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • H.. [5] Aguilar-Moreno.. (2007) pp 139. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Olivier. [4] H. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) 89 .S. T. Mark. (1920) pp 52. Routledge. [6] Aguilar-Moreno. Academic Press. [3] O'Connell. ISBN 0-87081-745-0. Vincent. McMillan (1989). Resh. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God. ASIN B004183HZC. K. (1989) pp 165-166.26. ISBN 0-19-533083-8. ISBN 0-7735-0707-8. Ring (2009). Essays for Richard Ellmann: Omnium Gatherum.. Kiberd. R.D. Encyclopedia of insects. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. Vincent. University of Michigan Library. Lorenz. ISBN 0-7548-1548-X. pp 187-188.T.3 Notes [1] Dick. Declan. (2005) pp 185. Mcgill Queens University Press. Thomas Athol.C. Susan.D.

but a sibling rivalry grew between Quetzalcoatl and his brother the mighty sun. Quetzalcoatl. The people’s prayers for rain annoyed the grieving sun and he refused to allow it to rain. became upset and blew all of the monkeys from the face of the Earth with a mighty hurricane. As a result. Then. Thus the welfare and the very survival of the universe depended upon the offerings of blood and hearts to the sun. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca. while however modifying some aspects and supplying novel interpretations of their own.[2] It was these four gods who eventually created all the other gods and the world we know today.[3] The gods created a new group of people to inhabit the Earth. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca. the first god. deceit. Ometeotl. who had loved the flawed people as they were. the god of duality. before the present universe. the world was totally black and in his anger. Ometeotl was both male and female.[1] 27. the central tenet was that there had been four worlds. in a fit of rage he answered their prayers with a great downpour of fire. judgment and forgiveness. Quetzalcoatl became the new sun and as the years passed. The four Tezcatlipocas descended the first people who were giants. he only managed to become half a sun. the god of war. Ometeotl gave birth to four children. night. the sun would disappear from the heavens.1 Legend From the void that was the rest of the universe. created itself. the giant earth crocodile. the goddess of sex. Tlaloc became the next sun. rivers and oceans. who swam through the water with mouths at every one of her joints. also the goddess of beauty.” whose divine duty was to wage cosmic war in order to provide the sun with his tlaxcaltiliztli (“nourishment”). so a great drought swept the world. also called simply Tezcatlipoca. good and evil. It continued to rain fire until the entire Earth had burned away. the most important of whom were the water gods: Tlaloc. He then stepped down as the sun to create a new people. They created the other gods. She was very loving towards the people. but 90 . was Chalchiuhtlicue.Chapter 27 Five Suns For the Guapo album. farming and Spring time. Tlaloc then refused to do anything other than wallow in his own grief. Without it. but Tezcatlipoca seduced and stole his wife Xochiquetzal. mercy and wind. or “Suns”. Xipe Totec.[1] In the creation myths which were preserved by the Aztec and other Nahua peoples. who each preside over one of the four cardinal directions. but the people continued to beg him. and the Aztec saw themselves as “the People of the Sun. it would fall into the water beneath them and be eaten by Cipactli. The next sun and also Tlaloc’s new wife. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca. who Quetzalcoatl knocked from the sky with a stone club. the god of judgment. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca. These earlier worlds and their inhabitants had been created. but either because he had lost a leg or because he was god of the night. The gods then had to construct a whole new Earth from the ashes. then destroyed by the catastrophic action of leading deity figures. It is primarily derived from the mythological. flowers and corn. Tezcatlipoca commanded his jaguars to eat all the people. Tezcatlipoca demonstrated his power and authority as god of sorcery and judgment by turning the animalistic people into monkeys. Huitzilopochtli. The present world is the fifth sun. they needed a god to become the sun and the Black Tezcatlipoca was chosen. the god of rain and fertility and Chalchiuhtlicue. the four Tezcatlipocas. fire and water. The Late Postclassic Aztec society inherited many traditions concerning Mesoamerican creation accounts. see Five Suns (album). the people of the Earth grew less and less civilized and stopped showing proper honor to the gods. the goddess of lakes. To give light. describes the doctrine of the Aztec and other Nahua peoples in which the present world was preceded by four other cycles of creation and destruction. but before they could create they had to destroy. Quetzalcoatl. for every time they attempted to create something. this time they were of normal size. the god of gold. The term Five Suns in the context of creation myths. the god of light. With no sun. sorcery and the Earth. light and darkness. The world continued on in this way for some time. cosmological and eschatological beliefs and traditions of earlier cultures from central Mexico and the Mesoamerican region in general.

similar gods from various other cultures. Tecuciztecatl. who opposes fatal sacrifices. offer their own blood to Quetzalcoatl.Nanauatzin then walked slowly towards and then into relation to the popularity of each of the gods at a given the flames and was consumed. goddess of the moon. the gods popular myths that seem to contradict one another due convened in darkness to choose a new sun. Other variations of this myth claim that only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were born to Ometeotl. who was replaced by Coatlicue in this myth probably because it had absolutely no worshipers or temples by the time the Spanish arrived. Tezcatlipoca was then born to her by an obsidian knife. Further variations on this myth state that it was only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca who pulled apart Cipactli. both assigning their own new as. more important brother Huitzilopochtli. jaguars then ate before eating the giants. or should mankind fail to please the gods for any other reason. It Most of what is known about the ancient Aztecs comes is also said that Tezcatlipoca created half a sun. Older myths but both were given the opportunity to jump into the boncan be very similar to newer myths while contradicting fire. also known as Tlaltecuhtli. or stars. the same action. and the Tzitzimitl will slay Huitzilopochtli and all of humanity.2 Variations and alternative Xochiquetzal for the rain of fire. The order of the first four suns varies as well. Both the people and Chalchiuhtlicue felt his judgment when he told the water goddess that she was not truly loving and only faked kindness out of selfishness to gain the people’s praise. probably because myths changed in cor. and the old Nanauatzin. The braver Nanauatzin became what is now the Other variations on this myth state that Coatlicue. In this version of the myth. without the involvement of Tezcatlipoca.27. the Tzitzimitl. in thanks of his blood sacrifice for them and give offerings to many other gods for many purposes. the guide of the dead the warrior sun and wandered through the heavens with . who reopened their eyes to a sky illuminated by the current sun. causing a horrific flood that drowned everyone on Earth. Huitzilopochtli. this fifth sun will go black. the world will be shattered by a catastrophic earthquake. Some versions claim that Tezcatlipoca actually used his leg as bait for Cipactli. believing it to be insulting that she had given birth to another child. It is sometimes said that the male characteristic of Ometeotl is named Ometecutli and that the female characteristic is named Omecihualt. was the mother of the four Tezcatlipocas moon. Each world’s end correlates consistently to the god that was the sun at the time throughout all variations of the myth. Should these sacrifices cease. Quetzalcoatl would not accept the destruction of his people and went to the underworld where he stole their bones from the god Mictlantecuhtli. Much later she gave birth to Huitzilopochtli when a mysterious ball of feathers appeared to her.2. The of mouth and because the Aztecs adopted many of their two volunteers were the young son of Tlaloc and Chalchigods from other tribes. became jealous of their brighter. often nated himself by burning himself alive and then became mentioning his twin brother Xolotl. He dipped these bones in his own blood to resurrect his people. The most popular variation including Coatlicue depicts her giving birth first to the Tzitzimitl.[2] Some of Ometeotl’s later children. though the above version is the most common. but rejuvewas born to her first. but are beaten back by the mighty Huitzilopochtli who rules the daytime sky. the Aztecs offer him the nourishment of human sacrifices. lowed. while she was still a virgin. Their myths can be confusing not only because of the The fifth sun however is sometimes said to be a god lack of documentation. Tecuciztecatl tried first but was not brave enough to one another by claiming that a different god performed walk through the heat near the flames and turned around. followed by the Tzitzimitl and then Huitzilopochtli. A god that bridges the gap between Nanauatzin and the Tzitzimitl. Sometimes he is said to have decapitated Coyolxauhqui and either used her head to make the moon or thrown it into a canyon. Further variations depict the ball of feathers as being the father of Huitzilopochtli or the father of Quetzalcoatl and sometimes Xolotl. 91 and god of fire.uhtlicue. To aid this all-important god in his continuing war. but also because there are many named Nanauatzin. It was pects to these gods and endowing them with aspects of believed that Nanauatzin was too old to make a good sun. which is not otherwise given and it myths is sometimes said that Chalchiuhtlicue flooded the world on purpose. who was to the fact that they were originally passed down by word sacrifice himself by jumping into a gigantic bonfire. VARIATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE MYTHS Tezcatlipoca was not. They also offer human sacrifices to Tezcatlipoca in fear of his judgment. and that Xipe Totec and Huitzilopochtli then constructed the world from her body. Tecuciztecatl then foltime. Some versions say that Quetzalcoatl and Huitzilopochtli is Tonatiuh. Huitzilopochtli then sprang forth from her womb wielding a serpent of fire and began his epic war with the Tzitzimitl. lead them in an assault on the sun and every night they come close to victory when they shine throughout the sky. Coyolxauhqui. The Tzitzimitl then decapitated the pregnant Coatlicue. who was sick. before dismembering her. Their leader. Chalchiuhtlicue was so crushed by these words that she cried blood for the next fifty-two years. who were also referred to as the Centzon Huitznahuas. the sun and Tecuciztecatl became the much less spectacular earth goddess. which his from the few codices to survive the Spanish conquest. though the loss of is not always identified as Tlaloc’s reason 27.

We are the inhabitants of this world. CHAPTER 27. California State University. A Day in the Life of God. FIVE SUNS 27.This world was flooded turning the inhabitants into fish.6 References [1] Iroku. • Nahui-Ehécatl (Wind Sun) . 27. Michael E. 27.3 Brief summation • Nahui-Ocelotl (Jaguar Sun) . • Rage Against the Machine refers to intercultural violence as “the fifth sunset” in their song People of the Sun. 2001. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Smith. on the album Evil Empire. (2003). Only birds survived (or inhabitants survived by becoming birds). Manuel. 2005 [3] Aguilar-Moreno.92 the souls of those who died in battle.4 In popular culture • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin serves as a framing device for the 1991 Mexican film. In Necuepaliztli in Aztlan (Retorno a Aztlán).Inhabitants were transformed into monkeys. The Aztec World. Handbook to life in the Aztec World.Michael E. • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin is in the 1996 film. Manuel (2006). This world was destroyed by hurricanes. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) .7 Further reading • Aguilar.Moreno. • Nahui-Atl (Water Sun) . Blackwell Publishing. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. The Five Suns: A Sacred History of Mexico. by Juan Mora Catlett. Los Angeles: California State University. published by the Enlil Institute 27.Inhabitants were destroyed by rain of fire. UK: Blackwell Publishing. where an ancient star-faring civilization (“people of the First Sun”) had disappeared and left the galaxy with many dangerous artifacts. The world was destroyed. • Thomas Harlan's science fiction series “In the Time of the Sixth Sun” uses this myth as a central plot point. This world will be destroyed by earthquakes (or one large earthquake). by Patricia Amlin. • Nahui-Ollin (Earthquake Sun) . Chapter Seven. A couple escaped but were transformed into dogs. refusing to move if not offered enough sacrifices.5 See also • Aztec mythology • Aztec religion • Aztec philosophy • Black Sun (mythology) • Mesoamerican creation accounts [2] Smith. • Nahui-Quiahuitl (Rain Sun) . 2006 27. Osita.Inhabitants were giants who were devoured by jaguars. Los Angeles. The Aztecs 2nd Ed.

28. 153: cenca nemauhtiloya mitoaya intla quitlamiz in quiqua tonatiuh quilmach çentlaiovaz valte- . they were associated with the Cihuateteo and other female deities such as Tlaltecuhtli. p. espeThe Tzitzimimeh were female deities. from the Codex Borgia.both were periods associated with the fear of change. The Tzitzimimeh were also associated with the stars and especially the stars that can be seen around the Sun dur93 [2] Sahagún 1997. In Postconquest descriptions they are often described as "demons" or “devils” . a Tzitzimitl /tsiˈt ɬ/ ͡ ͡ itzimimeh /tsitsiˈmimeʔ/) is a deity associated with stars. They were also powerful and dangerous. and during the New Fire ceremony marking the beginning of a new calendar round . They were depicted as skeletal female figures wearing skirts often with skull and crossbone designs. Depiction of a Tzitzimitl from the Codex Magliabechiano. such as during the five unlucky days called Nemontemi which marked an unstable period of the year count. Citlalicue and Cihuacoatl and they were worshipped by midwives and parturient women. The leader of the tzitz.the paradise where the Tzitzimimeh [1] See Klein 2000 for an analysis of the nature of the Tzitzimimeh in relation to the Aztec belief system.[1] were protectresses of the feminine and progenitresses of mankind. Queen of the Tzitzimimeh. This was interpreted as the Tzitzimimeh attacking the Sun.[2] The Tzitzimimeh were also feared during other ominous periods of the Aztec world. the tzitzimime would descend to the earth and devour human beings. this caused the belief that during a solar eclipse.[3] lated to fertility.but this does not necessarily reflect their The Tzitzimimeh had a double role in Aztec religion: they function in the prehispanic belief system of the Aztecs. ing a solar eclipse. ͡ simit ͡ ͡ (plural TzIn Aztec mythology. and as such recially in periods of cosmic instability. Coatlicue.Chapter 28 Tzitzimitl Depiction of Itzpapalotl. resided.1 Notes imimeh was the Goddess Itzpapalotl who was the ruler of Tamoanchan .

[3] This is the conclusion reached by Cecelia Klein (2000) based on an investigation of the iconographical depictions of Tzitzimimeh by the Aztecs 28.2 References • Sahagún. Bernardino de. It was said that if [the moon] finished eating the sun. Thelma D. p.94 CHAPTER 28. . the Tzitzimimeh would descend here. all would be in darkness. 153. H.. so it was said. TZITZIMITL mozque in ţiţimime techquazque There was great fear. • Klein. Sullivan. Primeros Memoriales. Cecelia F (2000). Nicholson. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mèxico) 31: 17–62. they would devour us. B. “The Devil and the Skirt: an iconographic inquiry into the prehispanic nature of the Tzitzimime”. (1997).

gradually took on all the characteristics of Apep. and he was honored in the names of the Fourteenth Dynasty king 'Apepi and of the Greater Hyksos king Apophis. the Romans referred to Set speared Apep Tales of Apep’s battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom. where the sun set.[6] Since everyone can see that the sun is not attacked by a giant snake during the day. In some stories Apep waited for Ra in a western mountain called Bakhu. 4000 BC) C-ware bowl (now in Cairo) a snake was painted on the inside rim combined with other desert and aquatic animals as a possible enemy of a deity. who is invisibly hunting in a big rowing vessel. This appropriately made him a part of the underworld.C. Apep was seen as a giant snake or serpent leading to such titles as Serpent from the Nile and Evil Lizard. Some elaborations even said that he stretched 16 yards in length and had a head made of flint. His name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāpī. and in others Apep lurked just before dawn. also spelled Apepi or Aapep) quently. comparable hostile snakes as enemies of the sun god existed under other names (in the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts) already before the name Apep occurred. or because he was evil and had been imprisoned.[4] in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). Set eventually became thought of as the god of evil. 95 . he attempted to swallow the sun every day. It was thought that his terrifying roar would cause the underworld to rumble. to travel') Apep’s name much later came to be falsely connected etymologically in Egyptian with a different root meaning (he who was) spat out. because he had been the previous chief god overthrown by Ra. ConseAncient Greek: Ἄποφις.[3] Also. as it 29. every day. (It is not to be confused with the verb ꜥpı͗/ꜥpp: 'to fly across the sky. Apep was viewed as the greatest enemy of Ra. bringer of light.[1] Apep was first mentioned in the Eighth Dynasty. Apep’s identity was eventually entirely subsumed was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗ zft by that of Set. in the Tenth region of the Night. possibly a solar deity. and also “the Lord of Chaos”. and thus was given the title Enemy of Ra.2 Battles with Ra was written pp(y) and survived in later Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph. He was so large that see Apep (disambiguation). Already on a Naqada I (ca. He appears in art as a giant serpent. The wide range of Apep’s possible location gained him the title World Encircler. Myths sometimes say that Apep was trapped there. Apophis was a large Cypriot football team. golden snake known to be miles long. A verb root ꜥꜣpp does at any rate not exist elsewhere in Ancient Egyptian. storytellers said that Apep must lie just below the horizon. For other uses. and Apep (/ˈæˌpɛp/ or /ˈɑːˌpɛp/) or Apophis (/ˈæpəfɨs/. The etymology of his name (ꜥꜣpp) is perhaps to be sought in some west-semitic language where a word root ꜣpp meaning 'to slither' existed. For the Apep by this translation of his name.Chapter 29 Apep This article is about an Ancient Egyptian deity. As the personification of all that was evil.1 Development Ra was the solar deity. 29.. and thus the upholder of Ma'at. see APEP F.

“The Evil Eye of Apopis”. in the form of Great Cat. Only BD Spells 7 and 39 can be explained as such. Leipzig: J. Alcock (London. [8] Borghouts. 116. and his battles with Set may have been meant to explain the origin of thunderstorms. Vol.[10] The chapters described a gradual process of dismemberment and disposal. APEP In addition to stories about Ra’s winnings. C.[8] Apep’s movements were thought to cause earthquakes. and aid Ra to continue his journey across the sky. 114–115. eds. Assmann.37 (2002). so they were sometimes buried with spells that could destroy Apep.[11] 29. God of Confusion (Leiden. he was sometimes thought of as an Eater of Souls. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. [2] Hieroglyph as per Budge Gods of the Ancient Egyptians (1969). mutilated and burnt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. and Hermann Grapow. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. whilst reciting spells that would kill Apep. 1995). Adolf. of the serpent. F. pp. (1973).96 CHAPTER 29. In some accounts. F. The Egyptians practiced a number of rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apep. The Egyptian priests even had a detailed guide to fighting Apep. priests would build an effigy of Apep that was thought to contain all of the evil and darkness in Egypt. transl. 180. J. 1977).3 Worship Ra was worshipped. Pinch. slays the snake Apep[5] The Coffin Texts imply that Apep used a magical gaze to overwhelm Ra and his entourage. Leiden Nr. which would be spat on. [5] tomb of Inherkha. 49-57. Ra’s victory each night was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshipers at temples. Deir el-Medina [6] J. 1926– 1953. Ra himself defeats Apep in the form of a cat. by A.[7] Ra was assisted by a number of defenders who travelled with him. Fearing that even the image of Apep could give power to the demon any rendering would always include another deity to subdue the monster.Wolterman. Egyptian Mythology. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH. [7] Borghouts. (2004). Seth. Hinrichs’schen Buchhandlungen. J. Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom. and Apep worshipped against. including Set[4] and possibly the Eye of Ra. In an annual rite. or small drawings. “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. this guide had instructions for making wax models. Te Velde.4 See also The sun god Ra. I. [4] H.[9] 29. 6 vols. The Book of the Dead does not frequently describe occasions when Ra defeated the chaos snake explicitly called Apep. Thus the dead also needed protection. in Greek). in Jaarbericht van Ex Oriente Lux. 1057. in a similar manner to modern rituals such as Zozobra.5 Notes [1] Erman. 107–108 . 1971). [9] G. As Apep was thought to live in the underworld. referred to as The Books of Overthrowing Apep (or the Book of Apophis. and include: Spitting Upon Apep Defiling Apep with the Left Foot Taking a Lance to Smite Apep Fettering Apep Taking a Knife to Smite Apep Putting Fire Upon Apep • 99942 Apophis • Egyptian influence in popular culture • Ethnoherpetology • Jörmungandr • Mehen • Unut • Wadjet 29. [3] C. called the Banishing of Chaos. (1973). and burn it to protect everyone from Apep’s evil for another year.

• ancient Egypt: The Mythology .6.29. [11] J. 2007). dissertation. 1999).D.F.. Book of the Dead [39]: From Shouting to Structure (Studien zum Altaegyptischen Totenbuch 10. Wiesbaden. EXTERNAL LINKS [10] P.6 External links • Apep. 29. chapters 3-5..Apep 97 .Kousoulis. Water Snake-Demon of Chaos. Enemy of Ra. Magic and Religion as Performative Theological Unity: the Apotropaic Ritual of Overthrowing Apophis.Borghouts. Ph. University of Liverpool (Liverpool.

“Kek and Kauket. 30. see Kuk. his female form being known as Kauket (also spelled as Keket). Caroline.Chapter 30 Kuk (mythology) This article is about a concept in ancient Egyptian mythology.. and thus chaos. thus was known as the bringer-in of light. and the female form as a snake. Retrieved 2008-08-22. As a concept. In the Ogdoad cosmogony. Kuk (also spelled as Kek and Keku) is the deification of the primordial concept of darkness in ancient Egyptian religion. Kuk was viewed as androgynous. his name meant darkness. or a snake-headed woman. Obscurity and Night”. The other members of the Ogdoad are Nu and Naunet. Kuk was seen as that which occurred before light. Huh and Hauhet. see k.[1] Like all four dualistic concepts in the Ogdoad. Kuk also represented obscurity and the unknown.u. Kuk’s male form was depicted as a frog.k.1 References [1] Seawright. Deities of Darkness. As a symbol of darkness. Also. which is simply the female form of the word Kuk. He was the god of the darkness of chaos 98 . Amun and Amaunet. or as a frog-headed man. For other uses. For the abbreviation describing the AustroHungarian Empire.

Bengali. is the goddess of night in the Vedas and the mythology of India and Hinduism.2 Further reading • Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-03795) by David Kinsley 99 . who encounters and aids the protagonist in his battle against the other gods. She is sister to Ushas. the Vedic goddess of Dawn. often also called Ratridevi. Telugu. 31.Chapter 31 Ratri Ratri. Tamil. 31. Malayalam.1 Fiction The goddess Ratri is a minor character in Roger Zelazny's science fiction novel Lord of Light. Her name is the common/ordinary word for nighttime in Indian languages like Kannada.

Chapter 32

Chandra
This article is about the Hindu moon deity. For other
uses, see Chandra (disambiguation).
In Hinduism, Chandra (Sanskrit चन्द्र lit, Kannada
, Telugu
, Tamil சந்திரன். “shining”)[1]
is a lunar god and a Graha. Chandra is also identified
with the Vedic lunar deity Soma (lit. “juice”).[2] The
Soma name refers particularly to the juice of sap in the
plants and thus makes the Moon the lord of plants and
vegetation.[1]
Chandra is described as young, beautiful, fair; two-armed
and having in his hands a club and a lotus.[3] He rides his
chariot across the sky every night, pulled by ten white
horses or an antelope. He is connected with dew, and as
such, is one of the gods of fertility. He is also called Rajanipati (lord of the night)[1] and Kshupakara (one who
illuminates the night),[4] and Indu (lit. the bright drop).[1]
As Soma, he presides over Somvar or Monday.
Chandra is the father of Budha, (planet Mercury) the
mother being Tara. He is married to 27 Nakshatras (constellations), who are known to be daughters of Daksha.

32.1 In astrology
Chandra with Rohini

In Vedic astrology Chandra represents brain and mind,
emotions, sensitivity, softness, imagination, queen and
mother. Chandra rules over the sign Karkaataka (Cancer), while he is exalted in Vrishabha (Taurus) and in his
fall in Vrishchika (Scorpio). The waxing moon is considered to be benefic, and the waning moon is considered
to be malefic. The bright moon is considered a benefic
of the highest order, while the dark moon is considered
a malefic. Chandra is lord of three nakshatras or lunar
mansions: Rohini, Hasta and Shravana. Chandra has the
following associations: the color white, the metal silver
and the gemstones pearl and moonstone. His element is
water, direction is north-west and season is winter. The
food grain associated with him (one of Nava Dhanyas) is
rice.

name meaning “illustrious”. In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the god of the moon. In Hindu astrology, the moon
is considered a planet, and it is considered to be one of
the best planets to be born under as it promises wealth and
) or
happiness. It is also referred as Shashi (Kannada:
Tingala (Kannada:
).
According to Hindu mythology Chandra has not been
very fortunate in life. Chandra was born in the Ocean of
Milk (the gods were churning it for millennia in order to
create immortal life), and nearly blinded the gods with his
bright, glowing body (hence the name that means “illustrious”). The gods unanimously decided to give Chandra
the status of a planet and sent him into the cosmos.

Chandra is known for having a series of disastrous love
affairs. His first lover, Tara, was the wife of Brihaspati,
Chandra (pronounced “CHUHN-drah”) is a Sanskrit the planet Jupiter. From their union, Tara became preg100

32.2. OTHER ASPECTS
nant gives birth to Budha (a.k.a. the planet Mercury, not
to be confused with the other Buddha). Because of how
he was conceived, Budha hated his father and as Chandra also knew that Budha is his illegitimate son, he began
to hate his son, and their rivalry continues to this day.
For the sin of abducting another god’s consort, Brahma
banished Chandra to the outer atmosphere. This story
illustrates allegorically the prohibition of intoxicants for
Brahmins.[5] After that, Chandra, set out to marry the
twenty-seven daughters of Daksha. Daksha allowed this
on the condition that the moon not favor any daughter
over the others. Chandra failed to do this, and Daksha
placed a curse on him that took away his luster, which
accounts for the moon’s waxing and waning.

32.1.1

Dark spot on the moon

One popular story to account for the dark spot on the
moon is that Ganesha, once filled with food, fell from his
mouse and broke his stomach. Chandra laughed at this,
at which Ganesha injured him by breaking off and throwing one of his tusks; and cursed him so that it would be
forbidden to behold Chandra on Ganesh Chaturthi.

32.2 Other aspects
Chandra is also the word in Sanskrit, Hindi and other
Indian languages for moon. It is also a common Indian
name, both male and female and exists as a name in many
South East Asian languages that originate from Sanskrit.
The god, the drink and the plant probably referred to the
same entity, or at least the differentiation was ambiguous. In this aspect, Soma is similar to the Greek ambrosia (cognate to amrita); it is what the gods drink, and
what made them deities. Soma is still coined as name for
an entheogenic brew (avestic: Haoma) still in ceremonial
use.
Indu, one of the other names for Chandra, is also the
name of the first chakra (group) of Melakarta ragas in
Carnatic music. The names of chakras are based on the
numbers associated with each name. In this case, there is
one moon and hence the first chakra is Indu.[6][7]
In India Chandra is a common surname for example
'Anurag Chandra ' and ' Tanuja Chandra' . But in America the name has been used as a girl’s name. It appeared
on the popularity charts in the 1950s, peaking in the
1970s, before disappearing in the 1990s. The name has
several variations including Chandrah, Chaundra, etc.

101
shown as dark spot on moon as a result of the curse of
rishi Gautama. His Egyptian counterpart is Khonsu.
Chandra the moon is actually a satellite of the planet
Earth. But in Indian astrology the moon and the Sun
are counted among the nine planets. Chandra is called ‘
ChandA’ or ‘ChAnd’ in Hindi and Urdu languages. Chandra is the most beloved God of the humans, at least in
the tropics. Children all over India and even elders call
him affectionately as ‘Chanda- mama’. Mama means the
maternal uncle in both North Indian and South Indian
languages. There is a very popular children’s magazine
called ‘Chanda mama’ which is published from Chennai
in more than twelve Indian languages, There are hundreds
of nursery songs in all languages of India sung by all the
mothers addressing their handsome brother Chand, while
feeding their children, requesting him to bring milk, butter and curds for his sister’s child. Similarly Chandra
or Chanda is the most favourite topic of songs sung by
lovers. They express their happiness while making love
and request Chanda mama to shine brightly and not to
pass on so quickly. so that the wonderful night may continue forever. Dozens of folk songs, film songs and even
titles of films are named after the Chandra or Chand.
There is an interesting episode regarding the lunar eclipse
in the Hindu mythology. Lunar eclipse is called ChandragrahaN (swallowing of Chandra). Even today people believe that two great serpents named Rahu and Ketu which
are counted as two other planets ( Uranus and Neptune)
nurture a grudge against the planets moon and the Sun and
both these serpents occasionally come and swallow the
moon and the Sun gradually. When moon is swallowed
partially or completely it is called Chandra GrahaN. People wait patiently for the total release of the moon and
take holy bath after the end of the eclipse. Moon is the
symbol of beauty in Indian literature. The beautiful face
of a woman is compared to the moon by almost all Indian poets. The moon and the lotus flower are the most
popular similes used while describing the face of a beautiful woman who is often called as’ Chandramukhi’- the
moonfaced beauty.. Name of Chandra is attached to various Gods. For example the full name of Lord Sri Ram is
Ramachandra. Similarly the full name of another Avatar
Lord Krishna is Krishna Chandra. Some scholars opine
that both these avatars were so called because they were
perhaps born on a full moon day, a day which is sacred
for Jains also Lord Shiva is called Chandrasekhar also,
because he wears a crescent moon on his forehead. The
crescent moon with a star is a sacred symbol of Islam
also. There are also many ancient explanations and stories connected with the spots on the face of the moon.
Some people say that a rabbit stays always on the face of
the moon. That is why the moon is also called Shashank
( one who has a mark of a rabbit on his lap ). Some people think that a cat is sitting on the face of the moon. In
Telugu language the moon is also called Jabilli.

There is another story about moon (Chandra), when Indra
was trying to rape Ahilya, wife of rishi Gautama, Chandra
was in the form of a peacock to alert Indra on Gautama’s
arrival . Gautama eventually beheld the act and cursed Under the sub-title ‘other aspects’ it is stated that ChanIndra with impotency and hit Chandra (in the form of dra is the middle name of the Hindu God RamaChanpeacock) with his wet cloth (Dhoti). Those marks are

102
drasekhara, which is erroneous. There seems to be a mix
up between the names of two different Gods Sri Ram and
Lord Shiva. Full name of Lord Sri Ram is Rama Chandra and not Rama Chandra Sekhara. Rama was named
as Rama Chandra for reasons that are not revealed to the
public. Some Scholars opine that Sri Ram was born on a
full moon day and that is why he was called Rama Chandra. There was a great discussion among scholars as to
why Sri Rama the illustrious son of the solar dynasty
was named as Rama Chandra, Chandra being the progenitor of the lunar dynasty. Similarly the name Chandra
Sekhara is given to Lord Shiva only, because he wears a
crescent moon on his forehead. Name of Lord Sri Rama
is definitely not Rama Chandra Sekhara, nor Chandra is
His middle name

CHAPTER 32. CHANDRA
dren. His wife was ‘Ningal’(the great lady). ‘Nusku’ the
God of Fire was his son. Even today the crescent moon
and the planet Venus in the middle, is the Universal symbol of Islam. It is reported in the Wikipedia that the crescent moon has been used by the Arab religions as far back
as the time of Abraham.

God Chandra and the tides: The Hindu mythology offers
an explanation for the high and low tides that occur in the
seas and oceans.The details areas follows.God Chandra
and Goddess Lakshmi are born from the ocean during
the churning of the milky ocean.( that part of the ocean
where the waters and waves are sparkling white and look
like milk). Being the father of Chandra the God of Ocean
is overjoyed to see his son rising from the eastern horizon
and rushes to greet him. Similarly the Sea God rushes
God Chandra is addressed by various names depend- towards the West when the moon God is going to set.
ing on his attributes. He is called Vidhu, Indu, Hi- Chandrama in Mantrapushpam: Mantrapushpam is a samansu, Subhranshu (whose rays are cool and clean), Ra- cred document available in the Taittareeya Aranyakam
janeesh,Rakesh ( Lord of the night ), Rajanikar, Nishakar in which the great Rishis have conceived the connection
( maker of the night), Shashi, Shashank ( one who bears between the human mind/ consciousness and various ela rabbit on his body),Sudha-nidhi, Sudhamaya (one who ements of nature like flower, water, moon, air, thunder
is full of nectar), Kumudesh ( lover of the esculent wa- etc. Giving great importance to the Moon God it informs
ter lily- Nymphaea esculent or the red lotus-Nymphaea in the first sloka itself that – Moon is the flower of Warubric), Kunda Pushpojjwala( as bright as the jasmine ters. He who knows this becomes endowed with flower,
flower-jasmine multiflora).
progeny and animals.
In the ‘Purusha Sukta’ of the Rigveda it is mentioned
“ Chandramaa va apaam pushpam pushpavaan, prathat Chandra was born from the mind of the virat Pu- jaavaan, pasumaan bhavati “
rusha(God symbolized as the entire universe) – ‘ChanLater the mantra says that - Moon is the support of waters.
drama manasojaatah’.
He becomes endowed with support who understands that
There is an episode explaining the waxing and waning Moon is the support of water, and similarly water is the
of the moon during a month. It was reported that God support of Moon. Thus Moon is the support of Water and
Chandra was paying more attention to one of his 27 wives. Water is the support of Moon.
The other 26 wives who are also the daughters of the great
Prajapati Daksha brought this fact to the attention of their “Yah Chandramasa aayatanam veda. aayatanavan bhafather. Daksha became very angry and cursed Chandra, vati. Aapo vai chandramasa aayatanam , aayatanavaan
his son in law’ to suffer from consumption. As a result the bhavati, Ya evam veda”
size of Chandra began to decrease gradually. Alarmed at The mantra says that the moon and water support each
this the daughters requested their father to take back his other and there is a similarity between the waxing and
curse. But since a curse which is delivered once, cannot waning of the moon and vacillation of mind between exbe taken back, Daksha modified his curse to the effect perience s of grief and happiness. Beyond this we cannot
that the size of Chandra will decrease from full moon to explain the meaning of this mantra because it is a Veda
new moon for a fortnight and then his size will gradually Mantra based purely on sound rather than meaning.
grow until the full Moon day, during the next fortnight.
Worship of the moon God in ancient Arabia: the Arabians who suffer from the excessive heat of the Sun preferred to worship the Moon God, who gives them cool
breeze and dew drops, thereby helping them in farming and development of green grass for their goats and
camels. That is why perhaps they were called Asuras 32.3 In popular culture
as opposed to the Indo-Aryans who called themselves
Suraas or Devas. The Suraas worshipped the Sun God.
The Indian mythology is full of wars between the Suras Chandra (and the gem supposedly on the forehead of
a statue of his at Somanath) plays an important role
and the Asuras.
in one of the first novel-length mystery stories in En'Sin' the moon God of ancient Arabia occupied the chief
glish, The Moonstone. The Sanskrit word for moon-craft
place in the astral triad. It’s other two members ‘Shamus’
Chandrayaan is used to refer to India’s lunar orbiters
the Sun god and ‘Ishtar’ the planet Venus were his chil(Chandrayan-1 and Chandrayaan-2).

131 [4] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p. CBH Publications 32. Pub. 5.6.5 References [1] Graha Sutras By Ernst Wilhelm .132 [5] http://2-0-1-2.livejournal. p. Published by Kala Occult Publishers ISBN 0-9709636-4-5 p. EXTERNAL LINKS 32.com/211027.4 See also • Navagraha • Soma 32. 1990.html [6] South Indian Music Book III. published by Kala Occult Publishers. ISBN 0-9709636-4-5. Bhagyalekshmy. by Prof. P Sambamoorthy. Published 1973. S.6 External links • Media related to Chandra at Wikimedia Commons 103 .51 [2] Graha Sutras by Ernst Wilhelm.32. The Indian Music Publishing House [7] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr.0 [3] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p.

and it in turn swallows the moon on timely basis to cause a lunar eclipse. the luminaries. bestower of prosperity and wealth and ultimate knowledge. ending the eclipse. Sun. Rahu was considered as incarnation of Shakti in beastly form.1. seeing Rahu. see Lunar node. Rahu ( ) is a severed head of an asura. Hanuman. see Rahu (disambiguation). the minister of was attracted by curiosity to the disembodied head. the one who makes the Moon lustreless. Mohini cut off the asura’s head before the nectar could pass his throat. the peacemaker. The head. Hanuman. Then.1 Mythology Vishnu beheading Rahu with his Sudarshana chakra. Therefore. the asura Rahu drank some of the amrita (divine nectar). Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes. in his childhood. during the Samudra manthan. during the Ramayana war. Rahu and Ketu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. that swallows the sun causing eclipses. For other uses. It is believed that this immortal head from time to time swallows the sun. bitter enemy of caught Rahu. The sun and moon realized it and alerted Mohini (the female avatar of Vishnu). ing: the chief. causing eclipses. lord of illusions. Ravana 104 . The time of day considered to be under the influence of Rahu is called Rahu kala and is considered inauspicious. Rahu is considered to be a rogue planet.[1] Astronomically. the advisor of the demons. He is depicted in art as a serpent with no body riding a chariot drawn by eight black horses. as it appeared to be a big fruit.man is trying to swallow the sun. however. and the demons. The fact that eclipses occur when the Sun and the Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the myth of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon by the demon snake. 33. one who frightens the On another occasion. In Vedic astronomy. the immortal (having drunk the divine nectar).1 Hinduism According to legend. The day was solar eclipse day. Rahu arrived and saw Hanuman also approaching and thought that HanuVarious names are assigned to Rahu in Vedic texts includ. The other name of Rahu is Bhayanka. ever-angry. when Rahu was to swallow up the sun. 33. remained immortal due to the effect of amrita and became Rahu. Hanuman and Rahu In ancient Tamil astrological scripts. In Hindu tradition. the sun passes through the opening at the neck.Chapter 33 Rahu For the ascending lunar node Rahu. the tormentor. flew towards the sun. Rahu is one of the navagrahas (nine planets) in Vedic astrology and is paired with Ketu. The body also turned into Ketu due to a boon.

they can be together considered as confers immense benefits to the worshipper. Shatabhisha is his most Rahu is supposed to be a mighty and naughty child of Maya. mystery. Its element is air and its direction is southwest. In the Candima Sutta and the Suriya Sutta.1. He is wrathful in appearance.e. Rahu dasa gives immense scope for obtaining spectacular results from worship or dhyana. and debilitation.[4] In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. drug dealers. It is a legendary master of deception who signifies cheaters. pleasures etc.[3] The verses recited by the two celestial deities and the Buddha have since been incorporated into Buddhist liturgy as protective verses (paritta) recited by monks as prayers of protection.33. i. Ardra. Rahu (or Rahula. Rahu is seen Rahu. The astrological text Lal Kitab notes that if Saturn and Worship of Goddess Durga pleases Rahu the most and he Mars are conjunct. it’s said that Rahu is at his apex of power when operating through this nakshatra. it is believed that Rahu’s negative influence will be subdued when one worships Hanuman. while if Jupiter and Venus are conjunct. Sud33. a divinity having the attributes of anger and the like). uncleanliness. insin- powerful nakshatra. .” All the grahas thanked Hanuman individually for releasing them. Rahu is considered instrumental in strengthening one’s In Vedic astrology Rahu dasha can either be the best time power and converting even an enemy into a friend.[2][3] The Buddha responds by enjoining Rahu to release them. They were grateful to Hanuman. he is the realm of existence. and his lower body has the form of a snake. gza) is considered to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava.lates to the Seventh Ray energy of esoteric astrology. pleasure seekers.. as pending on which planet is controlling him and which it represents a force displaying all the possibilities within bhava or pattern of life like longevity. He is In Vedic astrology. In his four arms he holds a bow and arrow. It is the symbol of an irreligious person. falsehoods. Hanuman arrived and released them.2. and often a lasso and victory banner. as well as random. It reof any person’s life or plunge him into deep trouble de. Svati and Shatabhisha. and its gemstone is honey-colored hessonite. metal is lead. becoming one of the principle protectors of the Dzogchen teachings.2 Astrology den changes in luck and fame are also linked to Rahu. Rahu is one of the krodhadevatas (lit: Anger divinities. and thus is associated with dualities resulting from its mayavi (illusory) nature. Rahula is a sa. Worship of Lord Rama appeases Lord Hanuman the most. and transmigration. harsh speech. abdominal ulcers. exaltation. different systems assign Rahu differassociated with the world of material manifestation and ent signs regarding rulership. worldly desire. Tib. Rahu attacks Chandra the moon deity and Surya the sun deity before being compelled to release them by their recitation of a brief stanza conveying their reverence for the Buddha. uncontrolled growth Rahu is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: without wisdom or understanding. ASTROLOGY 105 imprisoned the Navagrahas. 33. an outcast. Thus. cere and immoral acts. of life he controls into chaos. He is usually depicted with nine heads and a Rahu with consort Karali thousand eyes all over his dark-colored body. Rahu is associated with the following: its color is smoky. a class of deities associated with the heavenly bodies. aspecting or controlling. and cruelty. they can as an asura or demon who does his best to plunge any area together be treated as Ketu.2 Buddhism Rahu is mentioned explicitly in a pair of scriptures from the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon. which Rahu does rather than have his “head split into seven pieces”. particularly the Longchen Nyingthik. operators in foreign lands. bones. poison dealers. saying “people devoted to you are blessed by us too. ablaze with fire.

6 Notes [1] Gopal. featuring statues of all nine planets. also exists in other items to propitiate Phra Rahu. lead.1 Rahu dan CHAPTER 33. Thailand. dalay. black Coke. people offer a plate of black offering—black Indian temple in Silom. 77. black biscuits amongst nature. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The navagraha deities. One complex of this coffee. feasome parts of India feeding ants is considered one of the turing nine planets.4 Rahu Mantra Mantras linked with Rahu include “Om Bhram Bhreem Bhroum Sah Rahave Namah” and “Om Rang Rahuve Namah Om”. India. very high regard. as he is called in Thailand.S. There is a milk abhishekam everyday during Rahu Kaalam to appease Rahu.Naganatha Temple at Thirunageswaram.500 years. A glass fish-bowl Yannawa. sesame. amongst other wats. exist in the Ganesh Temple in Manways of propitiating Rahu. India through the ages. “Om Dhoom Raam Rahave Namaha” 33. Kathmandu. In all Hindu temples in Burma. [2] Candima Sutta [3] Suriya Sutta [4] Access to Insight. This practice has been [5] Daan in Vedic Astrology 33. blankets. near Wat Traimit in Bangkok’s Chinatown and also in Wat the Saphan Taksin sky train station. There is a dedicated temple to Rahu . and coal. satnaja (a mixture of seven grains). Myanmar. Articles that are donated in order to mitigate negative effects of Rahu include mustard.[5] 33.3 Worship Rahu is also worshipped by the Dusadh (Paswan) caste found in Bihar. black beans.7 External links • Things ruled by Rahu in Vedic Astrology . RAHU followed for over 1. Tamil Nadu. whom they hold in the Bhairav Mahadev Sthan in Gyaneswor. p. and also in the courtyard of the South In Thailand. saffron. Pathom Province. K.2. Government of India. Madan (1990). Publication Division.ple for Phra Rahu worshipping in Thailand is in Nakhon uously is also kept in Thai businesses. The milk turns light blue when it flows down after touching the statue of Rahu. Rahu is also worshipped along with the other 9 planets in Ants are considered of the favoured species of Rahu. A prayer in the form of a three-day fast is offered by devotees.106 33. 33. There is a shrine for Phra Rahu in Wat Nepal. Phra Rahu. ed. Traimet near Chinatown in Bangkok. The ritual is a device to secure abundance of sunlight and prosperity by the community.5 See also • Ketu • Kirtimukha • Svarbhanu 33. is worshipped in The other Phra Rahu statue is in the Wat Yannawa. a temple called Wat Srisathhong. The most famous temfilled with white sugar balls on which ants are fed contin. Gautam. radishes. The bhagat (priest) assists the devotee in prayer by standing on a ladder made of swords and by fire-offering at which the bhagat walks through the fire. see the summary in the Devaputtasamyutta section Phra Rahu in Thailand.

33.7. EXTERNAL LINKS • How Does rahu Operate in its Dasha • Hessonite the Jyotish Gemstone of Rahu 107 .

The stars are his thousand-eyed spies. particularly the oceans. as Indra-Varuna (when both cooperate at New Year in re-establishing order [2] ). RV 7. The Rigveda and Atharvaveda[3] portrays Varuna as omniscient. prays to calm Rama’s mind. is about six times more prominent than Varuna. Begging him not to destroy the oceans with the missile. The daily Sandhyavandanam ritual of a dvija addresses Varuna in this aspect in its evening routine. was adopted or made the Faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka.[4] In Vedic religion. Varuna does not respond. The Vanaras (Monkeys) are dazzled and fearful at witnessing the enraged Rama demolish the oceans.[1] Sanskrit: Varuṇa व ण. who is mentioned 341 times. Rama’s arrows destroys the demons. Malay: Baruna). and Nala con- 108 . Varuna promises that he would keep the oceans still for all of Rama’s army to pass. Varuna has aspects of a solar of the Guardians of the directions. he suggests that Rama re-direct the weapon at a demonic race that lives in the heart of the ocean. He rides the sea creature Makara. and Rama arises on the fourth morning. Rama (an Avatar of Vishnu) performs a penance (tapasya) to Varuna. while Indra receives no mention. chief of the Devas. watching every movement of men. Soma being closely associated with Indra. In the Rigveda. In Hindu mythology.63. and establishes a purer. he is rather associ. and can grant immortality. Varuna. he is the supreme keeper of order and god of the law. liberated environment there. Lakshmana.1 In the Vedas such. He is also one As chief of the Adityas. This may misrepresent the actual importance of Varuna in early Vedic society due to the focus of the Rigveda on fire and Soma ritual. Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element. Varuna is also twinned with Indra in the Rigveda.Later art depicts Varuna as a lunar deity. and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). Varuna arises out of the oceans. fasting and meditating in perfect dhyana for three days and three nights. and Mitra with the daylight. he is mostly concerned from a snake. asking him to forgive all sins. Vedic Varuna is sometimes thought to be a reflex of the same Proto-Indo-European theonym as Greek Ouranos. however. Just as Rama invokes the brahmastra. He is attended by the nagas. A Makara is his mount. being the king of the Asuras. as well as a god of law of the underwater world.[5] In post-Vedic texts Varuna became the god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. enraged by the God’s arrogance. As 34. Together with Mitra–originally 'agreement' (between tribes) personified—being master of ṛtá.g.60. Varuna is also a god of the dead. he angrily begins attacking the oceans with celestial weapons—burning up the waters and killing its life and creatures. RV 5. imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra. see Varuna (disambiguation). With his bow and arrow. As the wearing golden armor and holding a noose or lasso made most prominent Deva. deity though. 34.g. is a god of the water and of the celestial ocean. Varuna with his omniscience and omnipotence in the affairs of men has many aspects of a supreme deity. as a yellow man ated with the night. catching liars in his snares. Varuna (/ˈvɜrʊnə.3). and his brother. based on similarities between both names and the respective gods’ attributes. with moral and societal affairs than being a deification of nature. representing the west. although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e. where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana.12). ˈvɑːrə-/. when opposed to Mitra. Indra. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e. the Lord of Oceans. considered the most powerful weapon capable of destroying all creation. explaining that he himself was at a loss to answer Rama’s question.2 In the Ramayana Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath. but no successful derivation has yet been produced that is consistent with known laws of sound change. change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos.Chapter 34 Varuna For other uses. He bows to Rama.

10 as the "(revealed) inRaja Ravi Varma Painting . (See Jhulelal) be a remnant of Varuna in those Gathic passages (generally presumed to have been composed by Zoroaster himself) refers to the ahuras (plural) without (aside from 34. This a predecessor figure existed) in Iran are the appear. an adjecbut obtaining the result by force for the greater good. 1957) proposes that none less than Ahura Mazda is a development from an earlier dvandva *vouruna-mitra. 31. In Kuiper’s view. described in Rigveda 8.e. the third member of the Ahuric triad jarati script as 'vāruná'. 1965:12-13) also follow.phrase. Mithra.6. IN ZOROASTRIANISM 109 cally interpreted as “deliverer from evil. which then -. It may then be that the Avestan adjective is likewise a cult epithet. and with whose Indian of halant by typesetting -.” Neither of these terms have any connection to Vedic Varuna.3 In contemporary Hinduism common occurrence. Kuiper (IIJ I. Boyce of “backwards"-ness. However. there are several different theories on what might have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna in Iran: Nyberg (Die Religionen des alten Iran. One of these instances is as Mid. The other instance appears in a this supported by the younger Avestan dvandvah expresreading of a medieval Zoroastrian reaction to Islam’s 99 sion mithra ahura berezanta “Mithra and the High Lord”. Too 33. justifies his angry assault on the oceans as he followed the correct process of petitioning and worshipping Varuna. the poet uses the have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna (if at all such expression mazdasca ahurano (Yasna 30. Also unrelated to Vedic Varuna are Avestan Vourukasha and Varena. of a dvija Hindu. “High Pahlavi script was mis-transcribed into Pazand and Gu. 1981:59-73). The former is the Avesta’s mythological sea that covers the earth. In that list.'Rama Conquers Varuna' sight into the cosmic order” that Varuna grants his devotees.11). a dim-witted. in the only two occurrences of the term where the late to be of relevance to a reconstruction of what might word does not refer to Ahura Mazda.34. Foundations. This may be seen to be reflected in Artaxerxes III’s invocation of ahuramazda ura mithra Worship of Varuna is an integral part of the evening ritual baga “Ahura Mazda. popular worship is primarily limited to Hindus of Sindhi Another epithet of Vedic Varuna is asura.together with a loss (Gray. easily tricked demon which the other Ahuras are *mitra and *varouna.9. Yasna Varuna is not attested in the texts of the Avesta. which is the literal Middle Persian (Mithra the King and Varuna the Master. Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the propitious characteristics of *mitra structs a bridge (Rama’s Bridge) across to Lanka.4 In Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda) explicitly naming them. while Varena is a mythological fourcornered fourteenth region of the world. and the Baga” (Boyce. Rama negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna. 1938:282ff) sees Varuna represented as the Amesha Spenta Asha Vahishta “Best Righteousness”. Acta of the Sandhyavandanam. assuming that he derives from an IndoIranian *vouruna). Zimmer (Münchner Studien 1984:187-215) observed that Varuna has the byname (cult epithet) bhaga. the proper name having been forgotten—a not un34. is in “common opinion” Zoroastrian tradition. 2001) sees meaning of his name.in the 19th century esoteri. 1929:15). names of Allah. Assuming that Vedic Varuna is not a purely Indian development (i.4. The basis of Kuiper’s proposal is that the equivalent of Avestan mazda “wisdom” is Vedic medhira. which in Iran is represented by asha [vahishta]. This theory is based on Vedic Varuna’s role as the principal protector of rta.[6] tive that also appears in the Avesta (as baga).(so Boyce 1984:159) recognized as being archaic and in dle Persian varun.4).Lord” Apam Napat. an opinion—with extensions—that Dumezil (Tarpeia 1947:33-113) and Widengren (Die Religionen Irans. a term in the ambiguous the latter being unambiguously Ahura Berezainti.equivalent (also Apam Napat) Vedic Varuna is closely as- . Iranica 21. generally understood to mean “the Wise [Mazda] ance of two names like 'Varuna' in the medieval texts of One and the (other) Ahuras”. While Ahura Mazda is uniformly “the mightiest Ahura” (e.g. and there may origin.

Ancient Idian Cosmopony.org/stable/1061926?origin= JSTOR-pdf [5] Anthony. Varuna was completed in April 1981 by AlcockAshdown in Bhavnagar. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. Princeton University Press. [2] F. • INS Varuna • INS Tarangini • INS Sudarshini The dwarf planet candidate 20000 Varuna is named after Varuna. the Indian Neptune. The Horse. 34. the Vedic god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. J.110 sociated. pp. (2010). CHAPTER 34. [6] Ramesh Menon (2004). It can carry 26 cadets. and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. • The second Varuna (AGP-5) was a motorboat tender. corresponding to Paippalada 5. [4] http://www. Beombay 1983 [3] Shaunakiya Atharvaveda 4. The Ramayana.6 See also • Rigvedic deities • Mitra (Vedic) • Adityas • Guardians of the directions • The king and the god .16.7 Notes [1] “Varuna”. pp. They consist of the following three ships. 376–81 • The first Varuna was a screw gunboat launched in 1861 and sunk by enemy action in April 1862. commissioned in 1943 and decommissioned in 1946. David W. the Wheel. demons) 34. The Varuna class of ship of Indian Navy are sail training vessels. USS Varuna (1861) & USS Varuna (1943) Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Varuna for Varuna.32.5 In modern age • Asura • Ahura Mazda 34. INS Varuna is a sail training vessel of the Indian Navy.jstor. Kuiper. Varuna. 30–31. B. VARUNA • Paravar • Shukra (guru of asuras.

are less important. • Aušrinė. etc. Nukirpėja (who cut the cloth of life). and fairy-tales. Deivės Valdytojos were associated with Dalia and Laima. stars. authored by foreigners and Christians. They have similarities with the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns. legends. Alternatively her name is given as Aušra (“dawn”). Aušrinė's sisters. • Deivės Valdytojos (Lithuanian: Governing Goddesses). Pramšans. and Išskalbėja (the laundress). and other personages from Lithuanian myths. but they. the . • Praamžius. They were seven sisters: Verpiančioji (who spun the threads of life). For Indian actress in Telugu. one main chief god (whose name was cognate with the Vedic Dyaus. the pagan religion received more attention from authors. Different authors present wildly contradictory reconstructions of Lithuanian pantheon. Malayalam films. only briefly mention the Lithuanian gods. contradictory.1 Gods • Dievas. and heavily influenced by various religious agendas. Germanic Tiwaz and Greek Zeus). Gadintoja (who broke the thread). having the Sun as their mother and. but often their accounts were confused. divine or demonic beings. • Ašvieniai. sometimes. and instigated war between people). who makes the bed for Saulė. the Moon. He looks like an old traveling beggar. • Žvaigždės (žvaigždė. Tamil. in singular). were the goddesses who made garments from human’s lives. • Mėnuo. By that time the pagan mythology became fragmented and mixed with Christian traditions. Metančioji (who threw rims of life). Collection and recording of folklore began in the 19th century. • Dievas Senelis (“Good Old Man”) he is a teacher of people and judge of their morality. Lithuania converted to Christianity in 1387.) without associated rituals. the Moon as their father. there is no accepted list of Lithuanian gods. the deified soil (Zamin in Persian and Hindi for “land”). a daughter of the Dievas (“dievaitė"). a daughter of Dievas (“dievaitė"). The cults of old deities transformed into folklore (individual tales.[1] 111 • Žemyna. a goddess. and the Roman goddess Aurora. This section includes the names of gods. the Sun Goddess (Surya in Vedic religion). goddess of Fate and Luck (Laxmi in Hinduism). goddess. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”) (Parjanya in Vedic religion). like Vakarinė or Vakarė (the evening Venus. probably of later literary origin. the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun (the Vedic Ashwins or the Greek Dioskouri). the Morning Star. Epithet of Dievas. Other stars. Aušrinė has many similarities with Vedic Ushas. myths. Pramžimas. 35. goddess of fate and weaving. folklore. Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine. Praamžimas. She was the goddess of the morning. Beginning in the 16th century. One of the most important stars is Aušrinė.1. an epithet of Dievas (the chief god). see Indraja (actress). the Thunder. the Greek goddess Eos. Audėja (the weaver). the foster of the Holy Fire. a goddess. Because of such difficulties obtaining data. goddess of the Evening Star. 35. • Perkūnas. • Dalia.Chapter 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures “Indraja” redirects here. Kannada. Earliest written sources. The list of Lithuanian gods is reconstructed based on scarce written sources and late folklore. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”). • Gabija. • Laima. • Saulė.1 Names from folklore myths and legends • Vakarinė. but elements of the Lithuanian mythology survived into the 19th century. songs. Sergėtoja (who scolded Gadintoja.

4 Various lower beings • Kaukas. Maro mergos. Mostly has dark intentions and powers to control forces of nature. a household spirit who protects grain. very friendly with the Earth and Nature gods. Maras (black death or the Plague). Kapinių žmogus. Raudongalvis • Dausos or Dangus. Laukų dvasios include Nuogalis. mostly because of its modern poetic interpretation by Maironis. Kupolinės is also known as Rasos. spirits. Compare this with Ziedu māte in Latvian mythology. • Vėlės. between two rivers. also The Reaper. Bubas. spirits similar to leprechauns.5 Demonic beings • Aitvaras. They would also leave some bread and salt under the plait. • Ragana is an old-looking female or witch. • Kupolė. Kolera. which would later be braided into plaits.1. the god of the northeast wind. who were • Žiburinis. Bobas. 35.112 CHAPTER 35. • Jievaras. Bubė. not the pure evil being of Christianity. Vilkas (wolf). or baubas will come and get you”. danced and sang songs. a spirit of lakes • Upinis. Also it could be described as a black and dark creature living under the carpet or in some dark spot of the house.1. 35. the home of good souls. Dau(red-headed). or Norse Valhalla). but a trickster. His function of shining this beacon makes him similar to Aušrinė. Other names include Kaulinyčia. Sėlija (Saturn). Žemele. Žiezdrė (Mars) and Vaivora (Mercury). John the Baptist (Joninės). gnomes. Maumas (bugaboo). which subsequently became popular. a scary forest spirit that appears as a running through the fields.1. having a good knowledge of plants and their use for medical and other purposes. an evil spirit with long lean arms. Ruginis (spirit of rye). Indra in Vedic religion). • Laumė. he is the equivalent of the boogeyman of the Englishspeaking countries. women picked sacral herbs. • Slogutis means pain. Pypalas. we are giving for you too). • Pinčiukas. Earlier . a household spirit bringing both good and bad luck • Baubas. The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with Feast of St. • Giltinė – goddess of death. Mother Earth. They probably were old ladies living by the forest. Also can mean fear or bad feelings.2 Heroes and heroines • Pajauta. a spirit of rivers • Auštaras (Auštra). 35. Smauglys (boa). • Bangpūtys.1. the god of the seas and storms ––he is two-faced like the Roman god Janus. • Nykštukas. Raudongerklis (red-throated). Pavietrė. duodame ir tau ([You] gave for us. the spirit of springtime vegetation and flowers. Arklys (horse). However. Kupala in Polish mythology and Ivan Kupala in Russian mythology 35. fields waved in the wind. if anyone tried to use them. Sacrifices to Jievaras are made after the rye harvest.1. Good spirit.dweller or even god of bogs and marshes. women would leave a few grain tufts uncut. spirits of dead human beings. • Javinė. The queen of the amber palace Jūratė may be considered a manifestation of the goddess of Sea in this legend. Meška (bear). When crops in the phosphorescent skeleton. devil. who stands at the gates of paradise and lights the way for those going to paradise. and would say: Davei manei.[2] Her sacral bird is the owl. Babaužis. A misbehaving child could be told by the parents: “Behave. Described as white and blue as the sky itself. • Laukų dvasios (spirits of fields).3 Local and nature spirits • Ežerinis. Žalisos is on a high mountain (Latvian Debeskalns. sometimes appear in mythic stories too. the legendary princess of Kernavė • Jūratė and Kastytis are heroes of a Lithuanian legend. Kiškis (hare). Guda. a household god who protects grain in barns. To children. . Sometimes she was considered to be a sister of Laima (luck). Paplėštakis. Žebris. the punishment was grave. Indraja (Jupiter. Lapė (fox). some consider him to be her cousin. a fairy-like female creature (pixies). Bubis. a request for the land to continue to be fruitful. He harasses people and tears their hair or stifles them. people saw them as being the actions of spirits. 35. misery or nightmare.6 Holy places and things Katinas (tomcat). LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES sun). There are aakis (green-eyed). Dizikas. Papiokė. While cutting grain. Baubas. wrinkly fingers and red eyes. In this festival.

The name etymology is unclear. There was mentioned in chronicle that she is a bitch. 2. The cult of žaltys (grass snake) is associated with the cult of Žemininkas. Lietuvonis (Lituwanis) – god of rain 6. Master of Dausos is Vėjopatis (Lord and folk tales till the 20th century. • Žvoruna(Zvoruna) was a euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess like Roman Diana. It may be euphemism of Dievas.3 Maciej Stryjkowski Maciej Stryjkowski (1547–1593) was a Polish– Lithuanian historian and author of Chronicle of Poland. Perkūnas survived in people faith petual night. These deities were supposedly worshiped by King of Lithuania Mindaugas secretly after baptizing.2 Names by written sources 35. Martynas Mažvydas in his Latin introduction to Catechismusa Prasty Szadei (1547) urged the people to abandon their pagan ways and mentioned the following gods:[3][4] • Perkūnas (Percuno) – god of thunder • Laukosargas (Laucosargus) – god of grains and other agricultural plants • Žemėpatis (Semepates) – god of cattle and other farm animals • Aitvaras and kaukas (Eithuaros and Caucos) – evil spirits 35. Lithuania. The mediaeval chronicles tells that this custom is very old and was called Sovica. meaning leader of gods. is identical to Vayu of Hinduism. Žemininkas (Ziemennik) – god of land and agriculture. Teliavelis has connections with Finnish Ilmarinen. Auštaras and Vėjopatis are keepers of Dausos’s gates (Dausų Vartai).2 Martynas Mažvydas Vėjas (Vėjopatis) blows bad souls into oblivion.1 Earliest Russian chronicles Some names from Lithuanian mythology are also found in Russian chronicles of the 13th century. • Sovijus in 13th-century Russian chronicles was a person who introduced the pagan custom of burning bodies after death. like K. Lasicki. Krūminė (Kruminie Pradziu Warpu) – deity of ears. Estonians and others). Būga tried to prove that Televelis is incorrectly written Kalvelis (smith diminutive in Lithuanian). one Old Prussian and another Lithuanian. Stryjkowski elaborated that people used to sacrifice white cocks to Prakorimas. Russian chronicles are considered the best source of information about ancient Lithuanian pantheon worshiped by feodals and military.2.2. Medeina also was mentioned in the 16th century by J. Vėjas phemisms. He listed 16 Lithuanian gods:[5] 1. Vladimir Toporov suggested that it is derived from Lithuanian word kaurai (fur). • Teliavelis (Televelis) was a powerful smith who made the sun and threw it to the sky. She was worshiped by King Mindaugas and represented military interest of warriors. While Auštaras shows the way for good souls. Rūgutis (Ruguczis) – god of fermentation and fermented foods 3. Sutvaras (Sotwaros) – god of all cattle . • Andajus (Andajas. provider of crops 5. Kauriraris (Chaurirari) – deity of war and warhorses. according to studies by Gintaras Beresnevičius. 35.[6] 7. The flesh would be dividing into three pieces: one for peasants. There was mentioned in chronicle that warriors invoke Andajus in battle. of the wind) or Vėjas (Wind) who is also one of • Diviriks is thought to be one of Perkūnas euthe oldest gods in Lithuanian mythology. In this work. • Medeina (Medeinė) is another euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess. one of the most garden is perpetual but outside its confines is perpowerful deities. Samogitia and all Russia. Sovica was practicated not only by Lithuanians but also by other pagan tribes (Livonians.) was mentioned in medieval chronicles as supreme deity.35. Prakorimas (Prokorimos) – the supreme deity. • Nonadievis (Nunadievis. Some scholars.2. another for pagan priests (Lithuanian: žynys). by some scholars etimologized as Numadievis) is incorrectly written name of supreme god or just another euphemism. Stryjkowski provided two lists of gods. Day in the • Perkūnas was the god of thunder. and third for burning. while Wilhelm Mannhardt argued it stems from karas (war). NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 113 golden apple-trees in the Dausos garden. 4. etc.2. Andojas. 35. Stryjkowski pointed out that Prakorimas was similar to Prussian supreme god Okopirmas. it means that her zoomorphic shape is female dog. This myth survived in folk tales in the beginning of the 20th century. Her name is connected with wild animals.

Bubilas (Babilos) – household god of bees. songs. 15. Bubilas – god of honey and bees 9. Bentis 25. written ca. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES 8. The list contained very minor deities. Audros – god of storm 32. Karvaitis Ėraitinis (Kurvvaiczin Eraiczin) – deity of calves and lambs[9] 21. husband of Austėja 6. Kirnis (Kirnus) – local god of cherries 12. 34. Ežerinis (Ezernim) – spirit or deity of lakes. Aušra (Ausca) – the morning star (Venus). Simonaitis and Ventis Rekičionis (Simonaitem. Algis 33. other Sarmatians. Šeimos dievas (Seimi Dewos) – god of family 7. Festivities. Ventis Rekicziouum) – spirits worshiped by individual noble families 20. Derived from ežeras (lake). This 18-page treatise contained a lists of 76 Lithuanian gods with brief description of their functions. He wrote a treatise on idolatry About gods of Samogitians. Kremata – god of hogs[9] 13.2. Derintojas (Derfintos) 24. Bežlėja (Bezlea) 9. Also it could be a euphemism of Vakarė. Gulbis (Gulbi Dzievos) – the good spirit of every human. Orthus 18. 10. Gardūnytis (Gardunithis) – protector of newlyborn lambs[10] 22. Sidzium. Šventpaukštinis (Swieczpunscynis) – god of all domesticated and wild birds. Žemyna (Zemina) – goddess of land and agriculture . Didis Lado (Dzidzis Lado) – the great god. Pyzius (Pizio) – god of spouses 13.[11] 3. Kerpyčius and Šilinytis (Kierpiczus and Siliniczus) – gods of forest.[7] 12. Žemėpatis (Zemopacios) 30. Upinis dievas (Upinis Dewos) – god of rivers 8. Ratainyčia (Ratainicza) – god of horses[6] 28. trade and travel 16. a Polish lesser noble who worked as a royal land surveyor. mosses and lichens 15. Łasicki obtained most of his information from Łaszkowski. Priparšis (Priparscis) 27. Valgina (Walgina) – god of cattle[9] 1. 1582 and published in 1615). The name is also known from hand-written collection of sermons from 1573. There are doubts whether it was an actual god. 19. Therefore. Apydėmė (Apidome) – deity of changed residence. Derived from Lithuanian word aukštas (high). Medeina (Modeina et Ragaina) – goddess of forest and hunting 14. Perkūnas (Percunos) – god of thunder god 31. Brėkšta (Breksta) – goddess of twilight. 29. Lazdona (Lasdona) – goddess of hazelnuts 5. guardian angel 10. Aukštėjas (Auxtheias Vissagistis) – an euphemism of the supreme god. Prigirstytis (Prigirstitis) – can hear whispers 23. Deities mentioned by Jan Łasicki were:[8] 16. Sidžius. 17. Datanus 11. Her other name was Aušrinė. Łasicki was also not intimately familiar with Lithuanian culture or language. Pušaitis or Puškaitis (Puszajtis) – deity of land. and false Christians (De diis Samagitarum caeterorumque Sarmatarum et falsorum Christianorum. Krikštas (Kriksthos) – protector of tombstones[9] 2. Tavalas (Tavvals) – deity of physical strength. Ligyčius (Ligiczus) 11. Kriukis (Krukis) – deity of pigs 4. Lavvkpatimo 26.114 CHAPTER 35. Ganiklis (Goniglis Dziewos) – god of herds and shepherds 14. and dances in his honor lasted from May 25 to June 25. Kelių dievas (Kielu Dziewos) – god of roads. representing everyday household items.4 Jan Łasicki Jan Łasicki (Lasicius) was a Polish Protestant activist. the academic opinion on the list ranges from a valuable resource to a practical joke designed to poke fun of Christian saints through an inverted mirror. Gintaras Beresnevičius noted that this deity could be the same medieval Teliavelis. living in bushes of sambucus and commanding chthonic dwarfs barstukas 35. People did not offer sacrifices to him as he was a free spirit.

Dugnai – spirit of flour 52.5 Matthäus Prätorius (broom). world. Gabija (Gabie) – goddess of household fire • Perkūnas (Perkunas) – thunder god 61. Vetustis 66. Budintojas (Budintaia) Male deities 58. Ligyčius / Lygėjus. Raugo Žemėpatis (Rauguzemapati) – deity of sourdough. leaven and fermentation • Ukapirmas (Okkapirmas) – preceded time. Dvargantis (Dvvargonth) – no function recorded by Łasicki. The first Pesseias volume contained a description of Lithuanian mythology.[12] 46. Smik smik per velėną (Smik Smik Perleuenu) – a phrase rather than a being 36. 53. 56. Gyvatė (Giuoitos) – black snake (see also žaltys) 40. Narbutt claimed that he was equivalent to Auxtejas Wissagistis mentioned by Łasicki and to Roman Saturn 63. Giltinė. Trotytojas kibirkščių (Tratitas Kirbixtu) – deity of However.[12] Deities mentioned by Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704) 43. Ežiagalis (Ezagulis) – god of death 37. Ublanyčia (Vblanicza) – patron of beggars[13] Polish historian Theodor Narbutt wrote the ten-volume work History of the Lithuanian Nation (Dzieje starożytne narodu litewskiego) between 1835 and 1841. • Gabjauja (Gabvartas)[14] 49. Kaukas (Kaukie) 39. Ėraitis. Kelio dievas / Kelukis 47. Aitvaras (Aitvvaros) 38. Užpelenė (Aspelenie) 57. • Drebkulis and Magyla . modern historians have accused Narbutt of falsifying historical facts and reporting speculations. Bičbirbis. domestic animals. Tiklis – no function recorded by Łasicki. Ziemennik . 42. Numeias 35. spark. Thus. his feast is celebrated on December 25 60. Salaus – no function recorded by Łasicki. Atlaibas (Atlaibos) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Skalsa. 54. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 115 35. 45. Matergabiae • Praamžius (Pramżimas) – highest god. Biržulis / Beržulis. it could be a god of birches and birch sap. Warpulis 69. Luibegeldas 62. • Žalius (Zallus) – god of disagreement • Žėlius (Zelus) – god of grass • Šulininis (Szullinnijs) – god of wells • Bangpūtys.2.2.6 Theodor Narbutt 50. Polengabia 51. Beržulis (Birzulis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. The name is derived from šluota 35. Vaižgantas (Waizganthos) – a god of flax • Viršaitis (Wirszajtos) – protected household. fire some gods mentioned only by Narbutt and unknown from Alabathis other sources are usually treated as a figure of author’s imagination. The name is possibly derived from šerti (feed). Vėjopatis.35. Based on etymology. determines the fate of people. often presented as wife of Bubilas 64. Gota. Veliuona (Vielona) – goddess of death 68. 55. Klamals – no function recorded by Łasicki. Prigirstytis / Girystis. Deuoitis 65. Karvaitis. Srutis and Miechutele – deities of paint and color[12] 41. Jaučių Baubis. Šluotražis (Szlotrazis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. were:[12] 44. and other gods 59. Austėja (Austheia) – household goddess of bees.Prussian Lithuanian 48. Šeryčius (Siriczus) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Guboi and Tvverticos 67.2.

Rasos festival is dedicated to her • Budtė (Budte) – goddess of wisdom • Laima (Lajma) – goddess of fate • Pelenų Gabija (Polengabia) – goddess of fireplaces • Moterų Gabija (Matergabia) – goddess of bread and bakery • Perkūnaitėlė (Perkunatele) – wife of Perkūnas • Pilvytė (Pilwite) – goddess of money. National Museum in Warsaw • Bezelea – evening goddess • Brėkšta (Brekszta) – goddess of darkness and dreams • Kruonis (Kronis) – goddess of time • Užsparinė (Usparinia) – goddess of land borders • Verpėja (Werpeja) – weaver of the thread of life • Gondu – goddess of weddings • Upinė (Upine) – goddess of rivers. gardens • Milda – goddess of love. afterlife • Pergrubė (Pergrubie) – goddess of spring. she was served by vaidilutės • Lada (Lado) – the great goddess. protector of ships • Poklius (Poklus) – god of death and underworld • Kriukis (Krugis) – god of smiths • Žiemininkas (Ziemienikas) – god of earth. joy • Veliuona (Wellona) – goddess of eternity. flowers. storm. doctors • Atrimpas (Atrimpos) – god of sea and water • Gardaitis (Gardeoldiis) – god of wind. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES • Kovas (Kawas) – god of war • Ragutis – god of beer. and good luck • Lietuva (Liethua) – goddess of freedom. mead • Santvaras or Sotvaras (Sotwaros) – god of daylight. harvest. and darkness • Patelas (Patelo) – flying god of air. poets. vodka. similar to an angel • Šneibratas (Sznejbrato) – god of birds and hunting • Kibirai (Kabiry) – a trinity Female deities • Praurimė (Praurime) – goddess of sacred fire. pleasure.116 CHAPTER 35. riches. springs • Ratainyčia (Ratajniczu) – goddess protecting horses • Krūminė (Krumine) – goddess of grain. wife of Poklius • Luobo gelda (Lajbegelda) – goddess of knowledge and rumors • Alabatis – goddess of flax • Mėšlų boba (Mahslu baba) – goddess of garbage • Aušra (Ausssra) – morning goddess • Budintoja – spirit that wakes sleeping people . courtship Goddess Milda by Kazimierz Alchimowicz (1910). agriculture • Valginė (Walgina) – goddess protecting domestic animals • Nijolė (Nijola) – mistress of the underworld.

35.3. SEE ALSO

117

• Austėja (Austheja) – goddess of bees

35.2.8 Other names

• Ragutiene Pati (Ragutenapati) – wife of Ragutis

The names, that were more marginal in Lithuanian
mythology or less known from existing sources are put
here. In fact they denote some spirits or local deities, that
don't play a main role in the mythology of Lithuanians.

• Žemės Motina (Zemmes mahti) – goddess of underground, responsible for lost items
• Gaila (Gajla) – spirit torturing people and animals
• Neris – nymph of Neris River

• Blizgulis, a god of snow. His name means “that who
glitters.”
• Junda, Goddess of War

• Dugnė (Dugna) – nymph of rivers

• Baubis, a household god of meat and cattle.

• Ragana – goddess of trees

• Divytis, a god-like hero of fishermen legends. Fishermen at sea sang songs about Divytis.

• Lazdona – goddess of hazelnut

• Gardaitis, a god (a spirit?) of ships and sailors.

• Medziojna – goddess of forests

• Jagaubis, a household spirit of fire and the furnace.

• Pajauta – worshiped woman, daughter of Duke
Kernius, wife of Živinbudas

• Rasa, Kupolė's and Kaupolis’ daughter. She is the
goddess of summer’s greenage and flowers.

• Birutė (Biruta) – worshiped woman, wife of
Kęstutis

• Mokas, a stone with an ability to teach people,
sometimes they are found in families - with wife
Mokienė and children Mokiukas

35.2.7

Other written sources

35.3 See also

This section contains those names of Lithuanian and
Prussian gods or other mythical beings that are mentioned
in old treatises on history or philosophy, sometimes accompanied by brief descriptions, and which are known
from a few independent sources or from their counterparts under different names in later collections of myths
and tales.
• Dimstipatis (mentioned by Jokūbas Lavinskis), is a
masculine deity (genius loci). It is a household god,
the guardian of houses and caretaker of the hearth.
People sacrificed roosters and black hens to the deity. The birds were boiled; later people would gather
around the kettle and eat the birds. The bones were
burned. Sometimes Dimstipatis is reconstructed as
a god of housewives, to whom pigs were sacrificed.
Dimstipatis was also seen as a power protecting from
fires.[3]
• Dirvolika, Nosolus (Jesuit reports from 1605)[15]

• Baukuris (Kraziu kolegijos)[16]
• Velinas (mentioned by Konstantinas Sirvydas)

[2]

• Laima (Daniel Klein in 1666)[17]

• Lithuanian mythology
• Slavic mythology
• Romuva (temple)

35.4 References
[1] “Praamžius”. Mitologijos enciklopedija, vol. 2. Vilnius.
Vaga. 1999. 291 p.
[2] Balsys, Rimantas (2005).
“Prūsų ir lietuvių mirties (požemio, mirusiųjų) dievybės: nuo Patulo iki
Kaulinyčios” (PDF). Lietuvininkai ir lietuviai. Etninė
kultūra (in Lithuanian) IV: 27–51.
[3] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (2006-12-16). “Laukpatis ir
Dimstipatis. Lauko ir namų dievai”. Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (825). ISSN 1392-7760.
[4] Adalbert Bezzenberger, ed. (1874). Litauische und Lettische Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Göttingen: Robert
Peppmüler. p. 3.

• Pagirnis (Jesuit reports from 1605)[3]

• Javinė (Jawinne by Jacob Brodowski)[15]

• Latvian mythology

[5] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (August 2006). “M. Strijkovskio
“Kronikos” lietuvių dievų sąrašas (1)". Metai (in Lithuanian) 8–9 (89). ISSN 0134-3211.
[6] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). "Žirgų (arklių) dievybės rašytiniuose šaltiniuose”. Žemaičių žemė (in Lithuanian) (3):
17–19. ISSN 1392-2610.

118

CHAPTER 35. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES

[7] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). “Lada (Didis Lado) in Baltic
and Slavic Written Sources”. Acta Baltico-Slavica. Archeologia, Historia, Ethnographia, et Linguarum Scientia
(30): 597–609. ISSN 0065-1044.
[8] Łasicki, Jan (1868) [1615]. De diis samagitarum libellus (in Latin). Riga: J. Bacmeister. pp. 10–16. OCLC
60605501.
[9] Mitchel, B. W. (April 1919). “The Early Centuries of
Kultur”. The Classical Journal 7 (14): 421.
[10] Paulauskytė, Teresė (2004-08-21). “Ką garbino žemaičiai
XVI amžiuje dievus ar demonus?". Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (713). ISSN 1392-7760.
[11] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Apydėmė".
Encyclopedia Lituanica I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas
Kapočius. pp. 113–114. LCC 74-114275.
[12] Balsys, Rimantas (2007). “Kai kurios Motiejaus Pretorijaus hipotezės ir jų interpretacijos XX a. pabaigos – XXI
a. pradžios mitologų darbuose” (PDF). Res Humanitariae
(in Lithuanian) I: 76–94. ISSN 1822-7708.
[13] Razauskas, Dainius (2009-12-04). “Krosnis – aukuras,
namų šventovė". Šiaurės Atėnai (in Lithuanian) (967).
ISSN 1392-7760.
[14] http://www.aidai.us/index.php?option=com_content&
task=view&id=892&Itemid=127
[15] Ona Verseckienė, ed. (2004). “Namų dievai. Baltiškieji
namų dievai”. Lietuvių etninė kultūra. Namai etninėje
kultūroje (in Lithuanian). Elektroninės leidybos namai.
ISBN 9955-606-04-5.
[16] Zinkus
[17] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Laima”.
Encyclopedia Lituanica III. Boston, Massachusetts:
Juozas Kapočius. pp. 269–270. LCC 74-114275.

35.5 Further reading
• Lithuanian Religion and Mythology by Gintaras
Beresnevičius
• Jūrate Baranova et al., eds. (2001). “Chapter iv:
Lithuanian mythology by Gintaras Beresnevičius”.
Lithuanian philosophy: persons and ideas Lithuanian philosophical studies, ii. Cultural heritage and
contemporary change series IVa, Eastern and Central Europe, volume 17. The Council For Research
In Values And Philosophy. ISBN 1-56518-137-9.
Retrieved 2007-09-07.
• Gintaras Beresnevičius on periodisation and Gods in
Lithuanian mythology.
• Algirdas Julien Greimas, “Of Gods and Men: Studies in Lithuanian Mythology”, Indiana Univ. Press
(November 1992)

Chapter 36

Hine-nui-te-pō
Hine-nui-te-pō (“Great woman of night") is a goddess of
night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori
mythology. She is a daughter of Tāne. She fled to the
underworld because she discovered that Tāne, whom she
had married, was also her father. The red colour of sunset
comes from her.

36.2 See also
• Vagina dentata
• Persephone
• Incest
• Māui (Māori mythology)

36.1 Myths

36.3 References

All of the children of Rangi and Papa were male. It
was Tāne who first felt the need for a wife and began to
look for a companion. His mother showed him how to
make a female form from red earth. Then Tāne breathed
life into Hine-ahuone, the earth-formed-maid, and mated
with her. Their child was Hine-ata-uira, maid-of-theflashing-dawn (a.k.a. Hine-tītama), and Tāne took her
to wife (Biggs 1966:449).
One day, while Tāne was away, Hine-ata-uira began to
wonder who her father was. She was disgusted and
ashamed when she heard that her husband was also her
father, and she ran away. When Tāne came back he was
told that she had run off to the spirit-world, and he quickly
followed after. But he was stopped from entering by Hine
herself, in her new role as goddess of the underworld.
“Go back, Tāne”, she said to him, “and raise our children. Let me remain here to gather them in.” So Tāne
came back to the upper world, while Hine stayed below,
waiting only for Māui to bring death into the world, and
begin the never-ending procession of mortals to her realm
(Biggs 1966:449).
Māui did the last of his tricks on her, attempting to make
mankind immortal by trying to crawl through her body,
entering in her vagina and leaving by her mouth while
she slept, to reverse the path of birth. But one of his bird
friends, the Pīwakawaka, laughed at the ridiculousness of
the situation, seeing Māui turned into a worm squirming to enter the goddess, and woke her. To punish the
demi-god, she crushed him with the obsidian teeth in her
vagina; Māui was the first man to die (Alpers 1964:70).
Her other husband is her paternal uncle Ruaumoko.
119

• B.G. Biggs, 'Maori Myths and Traditions’ in
A.H. McLintock (editor), Encyclopaedia of New
Zealand, 3 Volumes.
(Government Printer:
Wellington), 1966, II:447-454.
• Anthony Alpers, Maori Myths and Tribal Legends.
Anckland : Longman Paul, 1964. ISBN 0-58271674-8.

“joy-of-sleep” by the elves.1. and the Prose Edda. Hail to the Æsir! Hail to the Asyniur! Hail to the bounteous earth! Words and wisdom give to us noble twain. “the masker by the mighty Powers”. the god Thor asks the dwarf Alvíss to tell him what night is called in each of the nine worlds. grandmother of Thor. while dwarves call her “dream-Njörun" (meaning “dream-goddess”). In both the Poetic Edda. Vafþrúðnir responds: Delling hight he who the day’s father is. The first verse of this prayer features a reference to the “sons of Dagr” and the “daughter of Nótt": 37. written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. the personified day (although some manuscript variations list Jörð as Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother instead).1 Poetic Edda In stanza 24 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. the word nótt appears throughout Old Norse literature. but night was of Nörvi born. the god Odin (disguised as "Gagnráðr") asks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir from where the day comes. and then Sigrdrifa says a heathen prayer. and healing hands while we live![5] . Alvíss responds that night is referred as “night” by mankind. and she gives him a “memory-drink” of a drinking horn full of mead. “unlight” by the jötunn. and here sitting give us victory.Chapter 37 Nótt 37. after the valkyrie Sigrdrífa is woken from her sleep curse by the hero Sigurd. Nótt’s third marriage was to the god Dellingr and this resulted in their son Dagr. to count the years for men. Nótt is listed as the daughter of a figure by the name of Nörvi (with variant spellings) and is associated with the horse Hrímfaxi. Nótt (Old Norse “night”[1] ) is night personified. Sigurd asks her name.[4] In Sigrdrífumál. compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. In stanza 14 of the Vafþrúðnismál. In Norse mythology.[2] Nótt rides her horse in this 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo.1 Attestations 120 Hail to the Day! Hail to the sons of Day! To Night and her daughter hail! With placid eyes behold us here. “darkness” by the gods. while the Prose Edda features information about Nótt’s ancestry.[3] In stanza 30 of the poem Alvíssmál. In stanza 25. Odin states that the horse Hrímfaxi “draws every night to the beneficent gods” and that he lets foam from his bit fall every morning. the new and waning moons the beneficent powers created. including her three marriages. and the night and its tides. from which dew comes to the valleys. whom "Nórr" birthed. As a proper noun.

Oxford World’s Classics. U. The Poetic Edda.[7] • Orchard.2 Prose Edda 121 37. resulting in their daughter Jörð. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. • Faulkes. offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts. the personified earth. and the couple have Dagr. S. the enthroned figure of High states that Nótt is the daughter of a jötunn from Jötunheimr by the name of "Norfi or Narfi". Nótt marries the god Dellingr.[8] Chapter 58 states that “Hrimfaxi or Fiorsvartnir draw the night”. [7] Haukur (2008:159—168). Carolyne (Trans. Odin took Nótt and her son Dagr. Jesse (Trans. who takes after his “father’s people” in brightness and fairness. including “daughter of Nótt”. [10] Faulkes (1995:144).1. Everyman. The Prose Edda. and foam from her horse Hrímfaxi’s bit sprinkles the earth. and Dellingr. Norrœna Society. Nótt rides before Dagr. Nótt’s second marriage was to Annar. Møllers bogtrykkeri. depending on the manuscript. either Jörð or Nátt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. means of referring to Jörð are provided. Penguin Classics. [5] Thorpe (1907:181). Cassell. [8] Faulkes (1995:90). W and T. • Larrington.) (1995). and has had three marriages. “Hinn fagri foldar son” as published in Gripla XIX. ISBN 0-14-044755-5 However. The Elder Edda of Saemund Sigfusson. and the two produced a son by the name of Auðr.[6] • Byock. Finally. placed them into the sky with a chariot and a horse each. [2] Thorpe (1907:13). Haukur details that “the oldest manuscript. [4] Translation of all of this section minus “dream-Njörun” from Larrington (1996:113). Dagr.2 Notes [1] Orchard (1997:120). Benjamin (Trans. In chapter 10. Her first marriage was with Naglfari.) (2006).[10] 37. ISBN 0-460-87616-3 Edda. ISBN 0-19283946-2 • Thorpe.) (1907). • Jónsson. Larrington glosses draumNjörun (Jónsson (1931:84.) (1999). Jörð. Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. Lexicon poeticum.37.3. The results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition”. scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt. Finnur (1931). L. In other words. [6] Byock (2005:19). and they ride around the earth every 24 hours. . • Haukur Thorgeirsson (2008). [3] Larrington (1996:42). [9] Faulkes (1995:137). pages 159—168.[9] and in chapter 64. Nótt is again personified. Andy (1997). and argues that “the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT. Nótt is described as “black and swarthy”.3 References In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning. Anthony (Trans. Old Norse “dream-Njörun”) as “dream-goddess”. ISBN 0-304-34520-2 In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. R. cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother”. REFERENCES 37. “nótt” is stated as one of various words for time and a version of the Alvíssmál passage is cited.

They guard and watch over the doomsday hound. bassoon and string quartet by Australian composer Julian Cochran.Chapter 38 Zorya This article is about mythology. and the planet Venus. the Morning Star. but other accounts cast both Zorya as virgin goddesses. Zwezda Dnieca. Zwezda.1 Morning Star The Morning Star is Zorja Utrennjaja (from Russian utro. and by him bore all of the stars. Zory. Here Gaiman includes a third sister. both she and Zorja Vechernjaja were the wives of the male Myesyats. Zora.3 In art and literature • Zorja Vechernyaya is a sextet for oboe. A third sister is described in some versions of the myth. protection. the “Midnight Star”. Zornička). who is chained to the star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor. moon goddess. Zorja Utrennjaja. In other accounts. but Gaiman has stated he invented her for his work. At dusk. Zvezda Vechernitsa. Vechirnia Zoria. also known as Večernja Zvijezda. and Slavs would pray to her each morning as the sun rose. If the chain ever breaks. see desses. exorcism. In this role she was known to protect those warriors she favoured against death by letting down her veil. while describing Myesyats as an unrelated female Zorya. West and East winds. Zvezda Zornitsa. who opens the gates of Dažbog’s palace each morning so that the Sun may begin his journey. Zwezda Wieczernica. opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sun-chariot’s departure. Gwiazda Wieczorna. known as the Auroras. also known as Zvijezda Danica.4 See also Conflicting accounts exist of her marital situation. Some myths described both her and her sister Zorya Utrennyaya as the wives of the moon god Myesyats and the mothers of the stars. Zwezda Wieczoniaia. The home of the Zorja was sometimes said to be on Bouyan (or Buyan). meaning “evening". the “little bear”. For other uses. meaning “morning". 38. the Zorja (alternately. 38. after sunset and Dažbog’s return. Zornica. Zvezda. Večernja Zvezda.[1] 38.[2][3] 38. the hound will devour the constellation and the universe will end.[2] However. Večernjača. an oceanic island paradise where the Sun dwelt along with his attendants. In Slavic mythology. Zorja Polunochnaya. Večernica). the North. two wolves that chase the sun and the moon. Simargl. Zvezda Dennitsa. she is described as the wife of Perun and would accompany her husband into battle. Zvezda Vechernaya. Zore = “dawn".[3] • The Zorja appear in the novel American Gods by English author Neil Gaiman. the moon god. Rannia Zoria. She was associated with the planet Venus or Mercury. The Zorja serve the sun god Dažbog. In some myths. Zvezda Danica.[2] She is a patroness of horses. Zorja Vechernjaja—the Evening Star—closes the palace gates once more after his return. who in some myths is described as their father. some have both Zorya as virgin god122 • Hecate • List of night deities • Zaria (goddess) • Hati and Sköll.[4][5] • The Zorya appear in Kevin Hearne's series of urban fantasy novels The Iron Druid Chronicles. The Zorja represent the Morning Star and the Evening Star. Danica = “star”) are the two guardian goddesses. Gwiazda Poranna. who closes the palace gates at dusk. . Zarja.2 Evening Star The Evening Star is Zorja Vechernjaja (from Russian vecher.

Mike (1998). [2] Dixon-Kennedy. ABC-CLIO.A. ISBN 978-1-42591838-5. ABC-CLIO. 6/28/11 pt2 (YouTube). 321–325. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. Poland.A. Alicja (2006).5. Mike (1998). Retrieved 5 August 2011. p. 4 August 2011. 48. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. [4] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. REFERENCES 38. a Unique Country & Its People. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. pp.38. Retrieved 5 August 2011. [5] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. 123 . 281. 6/28/11 pt3 (YouTube). AuthorHouse. [3] Deck-Partyka.5 References [1] Dixon-Kennedy. 4 August 2011. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. p.

Lambiam. FoekeNoppert. Secretlondon. Soul assassin~enwiki. Amirobot. Snow Blizzard. Flyer22. Pharos. Krea. SMC. Caiyu. Glenn. Strike Eagle. Margosbot~enwiki. VolkovBot. Robin Hood~enwiki. Dustynyfeathers. Hongooi. Katachthonios. Moe Epsilon. TUF-KAT. Mordicai. LeaveSleaves. Widr. Shanes. Rholton. LaaknorBot. Swarm. Bota47. Ceoil. Billabong2577. MTSbot~enwiki. Satanael. Davidiad. Cottonflop. MaxSem on AWB wheels. Moros~enwiki. Writtenright. Jumbuck. Bardsandwarriors. TreasuryTag. Godheval. UberCryxic. EmausBot. Tchoutoye. Paul August. Canonblack. Moritz. Tucci528. Ronhjones. Cydebot. McGeddon. Aloneinthewild. Helpful Pixie Bot. Waidanian. Goldenrowley. CalicoCatLover. FirstPrinciples. Bento00. 1812ahill. Khabs. Phlyaristis. Mackeriv. Jakegothic. LucienBOT. Attilios. Wknight94. Tawkerbot2. Petrb. Robertson-Glasgow. BD2412. TXiKiBoT. Khazar2. The MEGA user. AntiVandalBot. robot. R'n'B. SmackBot. St. Googipy. DCLXVI. Cyrius. Aranel. Qxz. RandyS0725. AvicAWB. AnomieBOT. RlyehRising. 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Rex Gentium. PerlKnitter. Nuno Tavares. Guy Peters. Imorthodox23. Fayenatic london. Pablo X. DanielCD. Raul654. Ashley Y. Cocytus. Hmains. AS. Guanaco. Brandmeister (old). Alai. Ninjaguy155. Glorious Goddess. Renato Caniatti~enwiki. Dr. Elb2000. CONTRIBUTORS. Aophite. Theranos. Tgeairn. YurikBot. Belovedfreak. ClaudiaM. Stegop. Fredrik. Venu62. Alatari.alyn. DukeDoom. Tadorne. Xandar. Zizikos. CharlotteWebb. Gtrmp. Mukadderat. Jon Harald Søby. Longhair. DerHexer. Kross. Carnun. Ulric1313. Theelf29. Starwed. DHN-bot~enwiki. Kwamikagami. Antandrus. Luk. Xqbot. TheKMan. FlaBot. Plastikspork. Cplakidas. Wild ste. Jan Hidders. Kavita9. Wisdom89. Hu12. Kbh3rd. The Thadman. Hadal.wikipedia. Lyonluv. Jyril. CanisRufus. Dysepsion. Lt-wiki-bot. Karl’s Wagon. Addbot. Ferkelparade. Adavies42. AND LICENSES 125 • Artume Source: http://en. Instinct. Deucalionite. Merinda. JAnDbot. Malleus Fatuorum. Ettrig. NotJackhorkheimer. Bemoeial. Hveziris. Ttony21. Midnightblueowl. Zeimusu. Joanjoc~enwiki. 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Goldenrowley. NSH002. Mintrick. Hveziris. Tempest67. Monique123456. ClueBot NG. Thijs!bot. SatanistSin and Anonymous: 8 • Five Suns Source: http://en.wikipedia. Yobot. Ptcamn. Erik9bot. Tim1357. NSH002. Heunir. Ilya. Liastnir. Goldenrowley. YurikBot. Addbot. ZéroBot. Ale jrb. Goldenbrook. Rahlgd. Giggette. Hajor. Shirahadasha. Tyranitar Man. CalicoCatLover. Setsuna999. Cynwolfe. Alansohn. Rjwilmsi. KocjoBot~enwiki. FrescoBot. BlazerKnight. ZéroBot. Mastrchf91. Goldenrowley. Macrakis. NSH002. Flaming Mustang. Jonesey95. T@nn. ClueBot. ShelfSkewed. Vividonset2. Xu Davella. Jeffq. WSaindon. Rtkat3. ZéroBot. ZéroBot. Johnbod. Tiddly Tom. WhisperToMe. ClueBot NG. Yoma123. Gtrmp. Luckas-bot. Barticus88. Damate. Frankgeo. JFreeman. Josve05a. Trappist the monk. Publius02. FrescoBot. Firebrand stone. Toshito.org/wiki/Leto?oldid=657031976 Contributors: Bryan Derksen. Eequor. SamplerInfo. AstroLynx. O. Nipsonanomhmata. XZeroBot. NSH002. T@nn. GrouchoBot. Mike Rosoft. E-Kartoffel. Badagnani. Saga City. VolkovBot. Rjwilmsi. Akhilleus. Hajor. Alphachimpbot. Wahrmund. Twofistedcoffeedrinker.

Leolaursen. Epicgenius. JW1805. Freedomji. AaronCarson. RedBot. Sundar2000. Modest Genius. Cydebot. FlaBot. OttoMäkelä. Crculver. Quarl. GoonerDP. XJaM. Tripping Nambiar. Nkaushik2. Llywrch. Sinaloa. LogicDictates.wikipedia. SpectrumDT. Dbachmann. Ian. Mintrick. Ian. JAnDbot. Via strass. Jmabel. Ekabhishek. CJLL Wright. Blair. Adam sk. Balster neb. Drmies. Bryan Derksen. SieBot.org/wiki/Ratri?oldid=571998138 Contributors: Tedernst. DaGizza. Closedmouth. Donner60. Captain panda. Daniel. Str1977. Whynowagain. ZéroBot. Dancing Meerkat. Deeptrivia. Wikiborg. Ifrit. Theelf29. Yobot. RebelRobot. Wighson. Sndeep81. Dmthoth. Vorziblix. Imc. Crystalzilla.lall. Chandra. John of Reading. Bluebot. Enti342. Stenvenhe. Addbot. Zerida. HandThatFeeds. Dinoceras. Al-qamar. Ptbotgourou. Raki sgy. Armbrust. Warut. Csernica. Rjwilmsi. TUFKAT. Escarbot. Maunus. T@nn. RussBot.Eye of Ma'at. From That Show!. Starkiller88. Huzzlet the bot. Sarangu 001. Pkousoulis. Wikibot. Lenn0r. Blademasterx. SpBot. A. 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