Está en la página 1de 145

NIGHT DEITIES

Contents
1

2

3

Chthonic

1

1.1

Chthonic and Olympian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.1

Cult type versus function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.2

Ambiguities in assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

References in psychology and anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

References in structural geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

List of night deities

3

2.1

Arabian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.2

Aztec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.3

Canaanite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.4

Egyptian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.5

Etruscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.6

Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.7

Hindu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.8

Lithuanian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.9

Māori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.10 Norse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.11 Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.12 Slavic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Nephthys

5

3.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.2

Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.3

Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.4

Nephthys and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.5

The saving sister of Osiris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.6

New Kingdom cults of Nephthys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

3.7

Chief goddess of Nome VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

i

ii

CONTENTS
3.8

4

5

6

7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Asteria

10

4.1

Daughter of Coeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.2

Amazon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.3

Heliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.4

Danaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.5

Alkyonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.6

Consort of Phocus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.7

Consort of Bellerophon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.8

Daughter of Coronus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.9

Daughter of Teucer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.10 Athenian maiden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.11 In Gluck opera

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Erebus

12

5.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

5.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Artume

13

6.1

Artume in popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Hecate

14

7.1

Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.2

Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.3

Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.4

Other names and epithets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.4.1

Goddess of the crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.5

Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.6

Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

7.7

Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8

Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8.1

The Deipnon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Modern expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.11 Cross-cultural parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.12 Nature of her cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.14 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

7.9

. . . . . . . . 29 8. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . .4 The moon chariot .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . .6 Artemis in astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Adonis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Childhood . . . . . . . . . .16 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . .5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . .3 Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Orion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . 41 . . . . . . . . . .15.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Endymion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Artemis in art . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Aura . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Attributes . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .3.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Trojan War . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Aloadae . . . . . . . . . .3 Intimacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Depictions .8 Callisto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9. 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . .4 Actaeon . . . . . . .2 Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Artemis 28 8. . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. .4 9 iii Selene 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8. . . . . . . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . 32 Worship of Artemis .2 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8. . Oeneus and the Meleagrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Atalanta. . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .11 Chione . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Names . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .2. . . . .9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis . . 35 8. 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . .1 Epithets . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 34 8. . 26 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . 38 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Artemis in mythology . . . . . . . . .14 Polyphonte . . . .10 Niobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . 40 9. . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lovers and offspring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References and sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2. .1 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 8 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 29 8. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 26 7.

. . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . 44 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Homer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . .2 Family . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 11 Philotes (mythology) 11. . . . . . . . . . .1 Hesiod . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nonnus’ Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Notes . . . .iv CONTENTS 9. 48 10. . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . .3 Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . 56 14. . . . . . 48 10. . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . .2. . 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 14 Diana (mythology) 56 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . .1. . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . .3 Physical description . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . .2 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hesiod’s Account . . . . 12 Achlys 50 50 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology and literature . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. .5 Sanctuaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dwelling place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . 52 13 Hypnos 53 13. . . . . . . . . . .4 Hypnos in art . . .4 External links . . . . .5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hypnos in the Iliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nyx in society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Words derived from Hypnos . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10 Nyx 47 10. . .7 References . . . . . . . .6 Cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . 56 14. . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References . .

17 Luna (goddess) 67 67 68 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 18 Leto 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19.2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo . . . 64 15 Summanus 65 15. . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Leto of the golden spindle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Notes and references . . .6 Legacy . .11Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ugaritic inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 15. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .1 Summanus and Mount Summano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Chthonic assailants . . . . .10Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . .9 Niobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 16 Trivia (mythology) 16. .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . . . . . . 64 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . .3 Bibliography . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS v 14. . . . . . .9 Bibliography . . . . .6 Leto in Crete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Juno as moon goddess . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . 74 19 Shalim 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In the arts . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Lycian peasants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Chariot of the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . 72 18. . . . . 72 18. . . . . . .7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cult and temples . . . . . . . . . .5 The Lycian Letoon . . . 75 . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . .2 Mexican traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Mythical stories . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . 83 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Iconography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10References . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Notes . . . . .3 Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mythology . . . . . . 76 20 Al-Qaum 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . .11External links . . . .4 Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Otomi mythology . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . 26 Black Sun (mythology) 87 87 88 . . . 85 24. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . 77 21 Lords of the Night 78 21. . . . . . . . . . . 81 23 Metztli 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Tezcatlipoca 83 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . 86 25 Yohaulticetl 25. . . . . . .4 Other uses . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . .5 References 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . .2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . .1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Itzpapalotl 78 80 22. . . . . . . .8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Aztec religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Aztec Reverence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 See also . . .8 See also . . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Representations of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ritual . 85 24. . . . . . .1 In Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . 81 22.3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 96 29. . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 28 Tzitzimitl 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dark spot on the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Ratri 98 98 99 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Variations and alternative myths 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 32 Chandra 100 32.1 In astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 30 Kuk (mythology) 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . 94 29 Apep 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . .7 Further reading . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notes . . . . . . . . 101 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Legend 90 . . . 88 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS vii 26. . . . . . . 89 27 Five Suns 27. . . . . 88 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. .1 Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 References .1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 27. . .1 Mythology . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . 102 32. . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Brief summation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In popular culture . . . 96 29. . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Other aspects . . . . . . . 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Battles with Ra . . . . . . . . 100 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 31. . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other views . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 33 Rahu 104 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Holy places and things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . .1 Names from folklore myths and legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buddhism . . . . . . . . 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rahu Mantra . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . .2 Martynas Mažvydas . . . . . . . . .1 Hinduism . . 114 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heroes and heroines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Jan Łasicki . . . . . .1 Earliest Russian chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .6 Theodor Narbutt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Gods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Other written sources . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In contemporary Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii CONTENTS 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 112 35. . 115 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Matthäus Prätorius . . 118 36 Hine-nui-te-pō 119 36. . . . . 110 34. . . . 109 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . 109 34. .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 In modern age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Names by written sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . .2 In the Ramayana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . .1 In the Vedas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 34 Varuna 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . . . .5 Demonic beings . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . .8 Other names . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . .1 Rahu dan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Maciej Stryjkowski . . . . 108 34. . . . . . . . . .4 In Zoroastrianism . . . . . . . . . . .3 Local and nature spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 34. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . .1. .2. . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 33. . . . .2 Astrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . 108 34. . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Various lower beings . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . 130 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38.1 Poetic Edda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In art and literature . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . 119 120 37. . . . . .2 Notes . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . contributors. . . . . . . .2 Evening Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . 119 36. . . . . . . . . . . . 120 37. . . . 121 38 Zorya 122 38. . . . 121 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS ix 36. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Text and image sources. . . . . . . . . . . 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Morning Star . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . 135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Attestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 See also . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 References 37 Nótt . . . . . . . . . .2 Prose Edda . . . .

with the earth. US /ˈθɒnɪk/ from Greek χθόνιος khthonios [kʰtʰónios]. Thus Demeter and Persephone both watched over aspects of the fertility of land. Greek. Because of her underworld roles. For the band.1 Chthonic and Olympian 1. or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does). from χθών khthōn “earth”)[1] literally means “subterranean”. or beneath the earth”. For other uses. see Chthonic (band). The Greek word khthon is one of several for “earth". As well. that is one’s material depths. which often happened at night time. and yet occasionally was classified as an “Olympian” in late poetry and myth.1. goddess of justice who sits on the right side Cult type versus function The myths associating the underworld chthonic deities and fertility was not exclusive. the animal was placed in a bothros (βόθρος. depending on the site and the time of origin of the myth.2 References in psychology and anthropology Some chthonic cults practised ritual sacrifice.. The absorption of some earlier cults into the newer pantheon versus those that resisted being absorbed is suggested as providing the later myths. such as Hermes and Zeus. del Valle’s Gendered Anthropology describes there being “male and female deities at every level. his female consort was Nut. Offerings usually were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers. 1. was typically offered puppies at crossroads—a practice neither typical of an While terms such as “Earth deity” or Earth mother have Olympian sacrifice nor of a chthonic sacrifice to Persesweeping implications in English. Chthonic (UK /ˈkθɒnɪk/. the sky. however not necessarily with negative connotations. khthonios had a more precise and technical meaning in Hecate is generally classed as chthonic. with identical rites. The translation of meaning discusses deities or spirits of the underworld. and women associated with the below. It evokes. and the chthonic deities. simultaneously.. for instance. Moreover. men associated with the above. the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos (βωμός. referring primarily to the manner of offering sacrifices to the deity in question. Also. however. the chthonic has connotations with regard to gender. under.[2] 1. “sunken chamber”). in cultural anthropology. it typically refers to the interior of the soil. see also anima and animus or shadow.”[3] This was by no means universal. the words khthonie and phone or the heroes. "altar"). yet Demeter had a typically Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one. such as Dike. Greek mythology likewise has female deities associated with the sky. Some Olympian deities. Myths about the later Olympian deities also described an association with the fertility and the prosperity of Earth. especially in Greek religion.Chapter 1 Chthonic This article is about the Greek deities. In some Greek chthonic cults. rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does).2 Ambiguities in assignment The categories Olympian and chthonic were not. Demeter was worshipped alongside Persephone 1 . Hecate. a few deities aren't easily classifiable under these terms. 1.1. in Ancient Egypt the main deity of the earth was the male god Geb. also received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations. abundance and the grave. “in.1 In analytical psychology. For Cthulhu mythos creatures. When the sacrifice was a living creature. “pit”) or megaron (μέγαρον. the term chthonic was often used to describe the spirit of nature within. see Chthon (disambiguation). The deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes. water of the underground. otherwise known as the sky. the unconscious earthly impulses of the Self. see Chthonian (Cthulhu mythos). completely separate.

4 See also • Chthonic law • Earth mother • Geomancy • Life-death-rebirth deities • Sky father 1. [2] “The sacrifice for gods of the dead and for heroes was called enagisma. A Greek– English Lexicon. and Eos. 1. Therefore they were funnel-shaped and open at the bottom.6 External links • The dictionary definition of chthonic at Wiktionary . 1. Kerenyi pub. not. Routledge. 1993. p.3 References in structural geology The term Allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation. Henry George Liddell. Through them the blood of the victims. From the Greek “allo” meaning other and “chthon” designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus “under the earth”. The 'gods of the dead' are. [3] Teresa del Valle. as for the celestial gods. in contradistinction to thysia. C. Thames & Hudson 1978). Gendered Anthropology. Robert Scott. were to flow into the sacrificial trench. For this kind of sacrifice did not lead up to a joyous feast in which the gods and men took part. goddess of dawn—and Hades as god of the underworld. and their name was ischara. with its neck bent back and the head uplifted. of course. usually by low angle thrust faulting. The victim was held over the trench with its head down.” (Source The Heroes of the Greeks. 108. 1. CHTHONIC of Zeus as his advisor.5 References [1] Chthonios.2 CHAPTER 1. and it was burned entirely. 'hearth'. which was the portion especially of the celestial deities. at Perseus. It was offered on altars of a peculiar shape: they were lower than the ordinary altar bomos. and also libations. ISBN 0-415-06127-X. Chthonic deities.

2. goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars • Erebus. deification of evil and darkness • Kuk. discord. the earth. Nabatean god of war and the night. personification of the primordial darkness The Norse night goddess Nótt riding her horse.6 • Al-Qaum.5 • Artume. or darkness. god of dusk 2. primordial goddess of night 3 . The following is a list of night deities in various mythologies. the night winds. a group of nine gods. each of whom ruled over a particular night • Hecate. hurricanes. the night sky. god of the night sky. moon. lunar goddess known as the “Lady of the Night” 2. They commonly feature in polytheistic religions. or Artumes).2 Etruscan Greek • Asteria. the night. divination. jaguars. in a 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo • Nephthys. temptation.3 Canaanite • Shalim. sorcery. enmity. goddess of magic. rulership. (also called Aritimi.4 Egyptian • Apep. witchcraft. Artames. the north. ghosts and necromancy • Itzpapalotl . goddess of night as well as death and birth A night deity is a god or goddess in mythology associated with night. night and farmers • Tezcatlipoca. beauty. Etruscan goddess of night Arabian 2. obsidian.fearsome skeletal goddess of the stars • Nyx. primordial god of darkness and consort of Nyx Aztec • Lords of the Night. war and strife • Yohaulticetl. god or goddess of the moon. and guardian of caravans 2.1 2.Chapter 2 List of night deities • Metztli. the serpent god.

2.and young women. goddess of the moon. goddess of the moon. equivalent to Hypnus. associated with the night. misery and sorrow • Artemis. hunting.9 Māori • Hine-nui-te-pō. 2. equivalent to the Greek goddess Nyx • Summanus. 2. a celestial deity of darkness and eclipse • Varuna (Hindu mythology) 2. god of nocturnal thunder • Diana. representing the morning and evening stars. death. goddess of night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori mythology 2. ghosts.7 Hindu • Ratri. god of the moon • Rahu.11 Roman • Nox. two guardian goddesses. goddess of night • Chandra. and torches. an equivalent to the goddesses Leto and Asteria. primordial goddess of night. • Latona. goddess of the moon.8 Lithuanian • Breksta. equivalent to Artemis. • Selene. female personification of night 2. goddess of the moon.4 CHAPTER 2. god of dreams. equivalent to Hecate.12 Slavic • Zorya.13 See also • Chthonic (underworld) deities . goddess of twilight and dreams. • Somnus. tombs. equivalent to Selene. LIST OF NIGHT DEITIES • Achlys. who protects people from sunset to sunrise 2. • Trivia. and the wild. primordial goddess of eternal night. goddess of sorcery. • Luna. hunting.10 Norse • Nótt.

2 Function At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts. Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh himself. Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function. 3. just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience. see Oxford University ated as Nebet-het. This entrance way symbolised the horizon or akhet.[8] Though other goddesses could assume this role.Musée du Louvre.” or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. This title. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris. Her name means quite specifically. In contrast NephNephthys . Along with her sister Isis. Nephthys was typically paired is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. with her sister Isis in funerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the “Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure” which associates her with the role of priestess.[4][5] Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet[6] or Isis.[7] As the primary “nursing mother” of the incarnate Pharaonic-god. glyphs). Horus. from Egyptian hieroLightweight Rowing Club. Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff.” which has caused some to mistak[1] Nephthys /ˈnɛpθɨs/ (Greek: Νέφθυς) or Nebthet /ˈnɛbˌθɛt/ (Arabic: ‫ نيفتيس‬Nyftys) is a member of enly identify her with the notion of a “housewife. Paris. Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the “Useful Goddess” or the “Excellent Goddess”. sister-wife of Set. Set. which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis (Inpu) in some myths. Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. This the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology.The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as “Lady of the House. capable of incinerating the enemies of 5 . Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity.1 Etymology 3. probably indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual.Chapter 3 Nephthys For Nephthys Boat Club.[3] These late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship. a daughter of Nut and Geb. and Nebt-het.gerous divinity. France thys is sometimes featured as a rather ferocious and danNephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliter.

Nephthys was also seen in the Pyramid Texts as a supportive cosmic force occupying the night-bark on the journey of Ra. the benevolent figure who was the killer of Apophis. or mistress (Lady). reTriad of Isis. Nephthys often was depicted as a kite. Walters Museum Levai notes that while Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity’s marriage. the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys.[14] 3.3 Symbolism while Nephthys’s marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology. It should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed as the polar opposite of Isis.4 Nephthys and Set Though it commonly has been assumed that Nephthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis. NEPHTHYS ation with the kite or the Egyptian hawk (and its piercing.[9] New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs. which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (hwt). or twilight.6 the Pharaoh with her fiery breath. Nephthys. She was not paired with Set the villain. In this capacity. where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler. depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name. usually out. rise with the Day-bark. the majestic sun god. it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts. Nephthys. She was.. and whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various levels of Duat. 3. “Ascend and descend.cycle. was a force before whom demons trembled in fear. as the region of the afterlife was termed. .[10] CHAPTER 3. but rather as a different reflection of the same reality: eternal life in transition. as is attested in various stelae and a wealth of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor.[11] along with the work of several noted scholars. Hornung. She argues that the later evidence suggests that: mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Seth. The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead. cent Egyptological research has called this into question. were enamored of Mother Nephthys. Thus.[12] 3. Isis was Ra’s companion at the coming of dawn. ascend with Isis. along with Isis.e. Less well understood than her sister Isis. According to the Pyramid Texts.5 The saving sister of Osiris In the funerary role. in particular. sink into darkness with the Night-bark. This was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period. Nephthys’s associ. i. mournful cries) evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women.[13] Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition. it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. there is very little specifically Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in fu. on top of the enclosure sign.linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian nerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the sources. and Harpocrates.Nephthys plays an important role in the Osirian mythstretched as a symbol of protection. Early Greco-Roman. descend with Nephthys. Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion. along with the sign for neb. but with Set’s other aspect. Ascend and descend.” Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210. particularly when he entered Duat at the transitional time of dusk. where Nephthys was a member of that great city’s Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex. almost without fail. or as a woman with falcon wings.

and Serqet). wherein two chosen females or priestesses played the roles of Isis and Nephthys and performed the elaborate 'Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys’.[18] Nephthys .Metropolitan Museum of Art It is Nephthys who assists Isis in gathering and mourning the dismembered portions of the body of Osiris. Nephthys. In the city of Memphis. Isis . . “Nephthys of the Bed of Life.c. though she certainly figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted.6. NEW KINGDOM CULTS OF NEPHTHYS 7 at the holy city of Abydos.” This fits well with more general textual themes that consider Nephthys to be a goddess whose unique domain was darkness.[19] 3. Nephthys joined Isis as a mourner in the shrine known as the Osireion. 300-200 B. Nephthys is a goddess who gives the Pharaoh power to see “that which is hidden by moonlight.”[17] in direct reference to her regenerative priorities on the embalming table.C. Nephthys was attested as one of the four “Great Chiefs” ruling in the Osirian cult-center of Busiris. in the 19th Dynasty. assisting the wife of a priest of Amun-Re as she prepares to bring forth sons who are destined for fame and fortune.6 New Kingdom cults of Nephthys The Ramesside Pharaohs were particularly devoted to Set’s prerogatives and. Thus we find Nephthys endowed with the epithet.” and there associated with the jackal-headed god Anubis as patron. after his murder by the envious Set. and Behbeit. one of the Sons of Horus.” are evidenced by the abundance of faience amulets carved in her likeness. using her power as a beergoddess “that [the pharaoh] may have joy with no hangover. in the Delta[15] and she appears to have occupied an honorary position Nephthys’s healing skills and status as direct counterpart of Isis. One ancient Egyptian myth preserved in the Papyrus Westcar recounts the story of Isis. Nephthys is depicted receiving lavish beer-offerings from the Pharaoh. Nephthys could also appear as one of the goddesses who assists at childbirth. Nephthys was one of the protectresses of the Canopic jars of the Hapi. a temple of Nephthys called the “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” was built or refurbished in the town of Sepermeru. and by her presence in a variety of magical papyri that sought to summon her famously altruistic qualities to the aid of mortals. or the perilous edges of the desert. As a mortuary goddess (along with Isis. 300-200 B. . and Heqet as traveling dancers in disguise.c.Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud . The Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the “birth-mother” and to Nephthys as the “nursing-mother” of Horus.[16] These "Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys" were ritual elements of many such Osirian rites in major ancient Egyptian cult-centers.Metropolitan Museum of Art Nephthys was also considered a festive deity whose rites could mandate the liberal consumption of beer. There. at Abydos. for example. midway between Oxyrhynchos and .Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud . guarded the embalmed lungs.3. Hapi. Nephthys was duly honored with the title “Queen of the Embalmer’s Shop. Nephthys also serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus. Meskhenet. which she would “return”. No cult is attested for her there. Neith. Dendera.” Elsewhere at Edfu.C. steeped. In various reliefs at Edfu. as her sister in “words of power.

Another temple of Nephthys seems to have existed in the town of Punodjem. Ex. closer to the Fayyum region. as her primary epithets reflect. NEPHTHYS 3. or Isis and Horus. OLA 78.. El Qa'la. Koptos. and indeed throughout Egypt. Kom Ombo. The basalt image originally was stationed at Medinet-Habu. land-owning temples delineated for this portion of the Middle Egyptian district in Papyrus Wilbour. Kellis. 3. 27 [6] A. and I am responsible likewise for the House of Nephthys.”[22] As “Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun. the god Neferhotep.uk The funerary art of Ancient Egypt: a bridge to the realm of the hereafter (106 pages) American University in Cairo Press. on the outskirts of the Fayyum and quite near to the modern site of Deshasheh. Page 219 in the article On a Topos in Egyptian Medical History by Hedvig Györy [7] Donald B. Redford. Nephthys found her typical place as part of a triad alongside Osiris and Isis. A Delta-man in Yebu. the chief city of Nome VII. To be certain.[25] Nephthys was most widely and usually worshipped in ancient Egypt as part of a consortium of temple deities. and of the local Horus/Osiris manifestation. 1941). Philae. the House of Nephthys was one of fifty individual. The fields and other holdings belonging to Nephthys’s temple were under the authority of two Nephthys-prophets (named Penpmer and Merybarse) and one (mentioned) wa'ab priest of the goddess. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 'A Ptolemaic Lexikon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu'. 14. an independent entity. Deir el-Hagar. 1997 [4] G. and the Nephthys temple was a selfsustaining temple complex within the Set enclosure. Diospolis Parva). After making an introductory appeal to “Re-Horakhte. The Ancient Egyptians.co.[24] CHAPTER 3. located in close proximity to (or within) the precinct of the enclosure of Set. A. Busiris. Foremost of the [Booths of] Herakleopolis.” but was transferred at some point to Herakleopolis and the temple of Herishef. Letopolis. Set. where another shrine existed in honor of the Bennu. (Feb. The foundations of the Set and Nephthys temples at Sepermeru finally were discovered and identified in the 1980s.” the goddess and her shrines were under the particular endorsement of Ramesses II. Esna. Fasc.[26] In most cases. The cult-image’s inscription originally pertained to “Nephthys. Marshall Cavendish. K.8 References [1] Or /ˈnɛfθɨs/. Heliopolis. The Papyrus Bologna records a complaint lodged by a prophet of the temple of Set in that town regarding undue taxation in his regard.” and a wealth of temple texts from Edfu. Wilson. He notes his obvious administration of the “House of Set” and adds: “I am also responsible for the ship. Nephthys was given the name “Nephthys-Kheresket. as part of the cultic celebration of the Pharaonic “Sed-Festival. While certainly affiliated with the “House of Set. or as part of a quartet of deities. Thebes. According to Papyrus Wilbour. . Abydos. Shenhur. or the Bennu Bird. Vol. Dendera. but was re-inscribed or re-dedicated to “Nephthys. The Literary Motif of the Exposed Child (cf. 26. north of Sepermeru. 2005 ISBN 977-17-2353-7 [Retrieved 2011-12-12] [3] P.8 Herakleopolis.[20] The Nephthys temple was a unique establishment in its own right.[21] another “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” seems to have existed to the north.google. Nephthys also was the goddess of the “Mansion of the Sistrum" in Hwt-Sekhem (Gr. A near life-sized statue of Nephthys (currently housed in the Louvre) boasts a curiously altered inscription. There. Here.[23] There can be little doubt that a cult of Nephthys existed in the temple and great town of Herakleopolis.” the Nephthys temple at Sepermeru and its apportioned lands (several acres) clearly were under administration distinct from the Set institution. which was renowned for its “House of the Bennu” temple. Seshat and the Pharaoh. 2003. In this role. as Papyrus Wilbour notes in its wealth of taxation records and land assessments. Numen. Vol. [2] Abeer El-Shahawy books. Dakleh Oasis. of the Bennu Bird. 30-40 [5] Virginia Schomp. 2007. Foremost of the Sed [Festival] in the Booth of Annals” (at Medinet-Habu). Nephthys was the primary protectress of the resident Osirian relic. Therefore. (Nov. along with a heap of other temples. Dendera. Philae. El Qa'la. Sebennytos. 3. ii 1-10). it should not surprise us that her cult images could likely be found as part of the divine entourage in temples at Kharga. This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis. Universal-Publishers. the prophet (named Pra'emhab) laments his workload. pp. and Nephthys” for the ultimate resolution of this issue by the royal Vizier. the temple of Nephthys was a specific foundation by Ramesses II. or Isis and Min. Wainwright. p.7 Chief goddess of Nome VII Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Sacred Phoenix. in the town of Su. It is perhaps in this way that Nephthys best fulfilled her role as an important national deity whose ideal function was to provide powerful assistance to her associates in a great variety of temple cults— a truly “Useful” and “Excellent” goddess.” A “prophet of Nephthys” is indeed attested for the town of Herakleopolis in the 30th Dynasty. Eyma. and others corroborate the late identification of Nephthys as the supreme goddess of Upper Egyptian Nome VII.

6. 1984 [20] 'Land Tenure in the Ramesside Period' by S. Faullkner. Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. VI . 2.3.La stèle de Parâherounemyef. B. Traunecker. université de Montpellier. Oxford Second Edition [11] Versuch über Nephthys. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112 [26] BIFAO website 9 .http: //www. Theban Temples.com/meta/p176897_index.allacademic. 5. R. Nephthys découverte dans un papyrus magique in Mélanges. Theban Recension [16] Byron Esely Shafer.]. Bergman. Temples in Ancient Egypt. Varia Memphitica. 155-157 [25] Sauneron. Beitrage Bf. LaChaud. Durocher-Champollion [24] Forgeau. REFERENCES 1967). 8-7. Toledo. 46 n. 112. C. and Paintings. Dieter Arnold. 28 [22] Papyrus Bologna 1094. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. Griffiths. Dynasty XVIII [18] J. Apr 20. 1989 [21] Section 1. 2007. Wyndham Toledo Hotel. 209-228. 41-62. Oxford University Press 1969. pp. Kitchen. London 1992. Blackwell [9] Sauneron. 184 n. 1 [23] 'Les Deesses de l'Egypte Pharaonique'. 'Pretres Isiaques. The discussion of Isis as the mother of Anubis appears on pages 222 and 223 [8] K. Peter Der Manuelian.8. Beitrage Bf. Montpellier. FRANCE. 6. p.' BIFAO 84. Ohio. Berlandini. Relevés des scènes et des textes. J. Reliefs. 46. “Nephthys and Seth: Anatomy of a Mythical Marriage”. Publications de la recherche.7 [10] B. Lloyd [Hrsg.d. Le temple d'El-Qal'a.. [13] James P.O. 1992. 2005 [17] Tomb of Tuthmosis III. BIFAO 82 [19] A. p. Katary. Karnak VII. 'Essai.html [15] The Book of the Dead. 'The Pyramid Texts’ SBL. in: A. II. Gutbub. Paper presented at The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt. 2005 [14] Levai.A. Moss. R. Porter/R. Elephantine. Jessica. Ramesside Inscriptions. Sanctuaire nord. 186-188 [12] Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts.' 152 n. Allen. G. Cauville. 1993. I' Sanctuaire central. Traunecker.

briefly. with one exception. an Athenian maiden.5 Alkyonides Bellerophon. For the type of gemstone. Along with her sis“Telemaco”. daughter of Hydeus. she flung herself into the sea and was transformed into a kingfisher.3 Heliad Asteria or Astris was a daughter of Helios and Clymene or Ceto.Asteria. see Asteria Medievale.[4] 10 . which was the only piece on earth to give refuge to the fugitive Leto when. murdered their husbands on their wedding nights. For the medieval music 4. Asteria was the ninth Amazon killed by Heracles when In Greek mythology. starry one”) was a name attributed to the following eleven individuals: the daughter of Coeus.[2] Panopeus by Phocus. was the mother of Hydissos nant with Zeus’s children.[1] According to Hesiod. Heliad. the consort of 4. ters.[10] Hera. the bride of Chaetus. king in India. 4.6 Consort of Phocus Asteria was the daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe and sister of Leto. “of the stars. see Star stone. Danaid.4 Danaid Asteria and Phoebe on the Pergamon Altar. daughters of Danaus who.[7] 4. see Asteria (band). She married the river god Hydaspes (the modern Jhelum River) and became mother of Deriades. Each of these is detailed below. one of the Heliades.[3] This then became identi. she was pursued by vengeful by Bellerophon. Alkyonides.Chapter 4 Asteria For the band. She was. Asteria was one of the Danaids. preg. the Consort of Phocus. Ancient he came for Hippolyte's girdle. and a character in the opera Asteria was one of the Alkyonides. by Perses she Asteria[8] or Asterodia[9] was the mother of Crisus and had a daughter Hecate.7 Consort of Bellerophon fied with the island of Delos. and became the “quail island” of Ortygia. Her son is known for having founded a city in Caria which was named after him.[5] 4.4.[6] Greek: Ἀστερία.2 Amazon ensemble. Asteria (/əˈstɪəriə/. an Amazon woman.1 Daughter of Coeus 4. The Titan goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. the daughter of Coronus. Asteria flung herself into the Aegean Sea in the form of a quail in order to escape the advances of Zeus. the daughter of Teucer.

1.[13] 4.13 External links • Theoi Project: Asteria 11 . 450 [13] Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum 4. Hydissos [11] Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius. 4. Alkyonides [8] Tzetzes on Lycophron. though the name did not appear in Homer's Odyssey on which the opera was based. [4] Theoi Project . and Apollo were possible parents of the seer Idmon. v. 1. [2] Theogony 409–11.Titanis Asteria [5] Diodorus Siculus.9 Daughter of Teucer The daughter of Teucer and Eune of Cyprus also bore the name Asteria. 8185 (painting on François Vase) 4. Argonautica. daughter of Coronus. citing Pherecydes of Leros [12] Tzetzes on Lycophron.8 Daughter of Coronus Asteria. 139.13.[12] 4. 4. Theogony.4. [3] John Tzetzes.11 In Gluck opera Christoph Willibald Gluck gave the name Asteria to one of the characters in his 1765 opera "Telemaco".10 Athenian maiden Asteria was one of the would-be sacrificial victims of Minotaur. v. 16. portrayed in a vase painting.3 (on-line text) [6] Bibliotheca 2.[11] 4. 5 [7] Suda s. 404ff.12 References [1] Hesiod. EXTERNAL LINKS 4. s. 939 [10] Stephanus of Byzantium. 53 [9] Tzetzes on Lycophron. Library of History.

“darkness”[8][9] “darkness” (cf. Geras. 55. see Erebus (disambiguation). Volume 1. [4] Morford. Charon. Hemera.. Classical Mythology: Sixth Edition.. and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus. p. The Roman writer Hyginus. 12 . Infobase Publishing. • The Theoi Project.Chapter 5 Erebus For other uses. Brill. the god of old age. for instance. ISBN 0-19-514504-6. Liddell. in his Fabulae. Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z. Burdett and Company. described Erebus as the father of Geras. 451.[2] Erebus features little in Greek mythological tradition and literature. Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Theogony (120–125)[10] Translation by Hugh G.[11] • Smith. New York: Oxford University Press US. Hypnos.[1] Library. 52. Aaron. the [8] Harper. Mark P. Scott. shadow”). Erebus is the offspring of Chaos. Styx. 271. but is said to have fathered several other deities with Nyx. Douglas. Alice (1896). pp. Dictionary of Ancient Deities.” Hesiod. the Hesperides. [3] Elizabeth.1 References Notes 5. Oxford University Press. also Erebos (Greek: Ἔρεβος.[10] Evelyn-White (1914) . ISBN 9780195145045 The perceived meaning of Erebus is “darkness". ISBN 0-19-514338-8. “E'rebos” 5. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.[9] R. “deep darkness. representing the personification of darkness. 84. William.2 External links [1] Ἔρεβος.[1] was often conceived as a primordial deity. and Thanatos. 620. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. “Theogony”. 263. (1999). New York: Harper.[3] However. S. first recorded instance of it was “place of darkness between earth and Hades”. Retrieved 1 July 2011. Old Norse røkkr). Robert. evening' are sometimes cited 2009. Perseus Digital Library Project (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). but of Night were born Aether and Day. Marian (2009). Harry Thurston (1897). “Erebos” [2] Hesiod.. Hugh G. 51. Patricia (2001). In Greek mythology. Fabulae 1–49”.[3][4][5][6][7] [7] Turner. Hesiod’s Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence. Henry George. Theogony 116–124. Semitic forms such as He. Erebus /ˈɛrəbəs/. “Hyginus. ISBN 9780195143386 [5] Peck. the Moirai. p. Evelyn-White. O. According to the Greek oral poet Hesiod's Theogony. Theoi E-Texts riqis. and brother to Nyx: Sources “From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night. The Sources of Spenser’s Classical Mythology. Beekes. pp. Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. New York: Silver. [6] Rengel. an Indo-European origin for the name Ἔρεβος itself is possible from PIE *h1 regʷ-es/os. The ceived and bore from union in love with Erebus. whom she con• Evelyn-White. 170. Gothic [11] Atsma. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. 36. this union includes Aether. “Online Etymology Dictionary: Erebus”. brew ‫( ֶעֶרב‬ˤerev) 'sunset. p. Sanskrit rájas. Retrieved 1 July 2011. ISBN 9781604134124 In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying. as a source. ISBN 1-60413-412-7. depending on the source of the mythology. p. 253. born of Chaos. London (1873). (1914). P.

nature. She was associated with the Greek goddess Artemis in later history. (December 31. and Legend. or Artumes) was an Etruscan goddess who was the goddess of night.[1] Aritimi was also considered the founder of the Etruscan town Aritie. 99–103. 12. Losna). Etruscan Myth. 13 . of the moon (like another goddess. 2008). 6. death. Referred to as “Artumes”. ISBN 978-1-93170786-2.1 Artume in popular culture Artume appeared as a recurring character in Marvel Comics. 51. 149. pp. 158. Fred.Chapter 6 Artume Artume (also called Aritimi. Artames. Pak.2 References [1] Thomson de Grummond. 130–32.[2] 6. Greg. 141. Marvel Universe. [2] Van Lente. Sacred History. woods and fertility. Nancy (2006). which is today the Italian town Arezzo. et al. “Incredible Hercules #124”. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Retrieved 26 April 2010.

with whom she was identified in Rome. ghosts. and sorcery. The spelling Hecat is due to Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul. grey wash. Hekátē) is a goddess in Greek religion and mythology.1 Name The etymology of the name Hecate (Ἑκάτη.monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate 14 . most often shown holding two torches or a key[1] and in later periods depicted in triple form. the name was also pronounced not three-formed. entrance-ways. Hecate or Hekate (/ˈhɛkətiː. has been compared.2 Representations Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia.”[7] She also closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia. dogs. where variants of her name are found as names given to children. Pen. the moon. Hekátē) is not known . sea and sky. light. an obscure epithet of Apollo. ink and light brown and • the name of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth. Heqet. In Early Modern English. Farnell states: “The evidence of the disyllabic and sometimes spelled Hecat. 7. It remained com. magic.refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens. She was variously associated with crossroads. see Hecate (disambiguation). knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants.[15] 7. even when spelled with final e.[9] This has been translated as “she that operates from afar”. Greek Ἑκάτη.[4][5] She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family.[2][3] In the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles (2nd3rd century CE) she was regarded with (some) rulership over earth.[10] “the far reaching one” or “the far-darter”.[11] Statuette of Triple-bodied Hekate. well into the 19th century. necromancy. it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat. witchcraft. ˈhɛkɪt/.[14] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the influence of Shakespeare for the thenpredominant disyllabic pronunciation of the name. “she that removes or drives off”. as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira). “Since children are not called after spooks.[8] • From Ἑκατός Hekatos. William Berg observes.[6] mon practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables.Chapter 7 Hecate For other uses.[12] The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced.[13] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the ElizabethanJacobean period. Suggested derivations include: • From the Greek word for 'will'.

He is told to sweeten the offering with a libation of honey. MYTHOLOGY 15 is almost as full as that of the literature. stating further.[18] Hecate’s triplicity is elsewhere expressed in a more Hellenic fashion in the vast frieze of the great Pergamon Altar. Attic.[21] In the Argonautica. lay close to the originally Macedonian colony . near the shrine of the Dioscuri. and in magical papyri of Late Antiquity she is described as having three heads: one dog. daggers and mystic nature. placing a wreath on the head of a mare. but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. sacrificing it and then burning it whole on a pyre next to the pit as a holocaust.3 Mythology Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. shows three single images against a column. In the Argolid. Greek anthropomorphic conventions of art resisted representing her with three faces: a votive sculpture from Attica of the 3rd century BCE (illustration. a key. a 3rd-century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early material.[22] Jason placates Hecate in a ritual prescribed by Medea. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar. even if he hears the sound of footsteps or barking dogs. Images of her attended by a dog [20] are also found at times when she is shown as in her role as mother goddess with child.[16] In Egyptian-inspired Greek esoteric writings connected with Hermes Trismegistus. taking part in the battle with the Titans. and one horse. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head. style of the 6th century. is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form. Some classical portrayals show her as a tripthe later period that they come to express her manifold licate goddess holding a torch. now in Berlin. and dressed in dark robes.[23] All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity.[19] It shows Hecate. and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. son of Mothon. serpents. Jason is to dig a round pit and over it cut the throat of a ewe. where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year. then to retreat from the site without looking back. a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. and the main historical value of this work. left). she is altogether without attributes and character. one serpent. and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion. where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. with a hound beside her.3. Pausanias saw the temple of Hecate opposite the sanctuary of Eileithyia.[17] Depictions of both a single The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found form Hekate and triple formed.22. round the column of Hecate dance the 7. Triple Hecate and the Charites.[24] Lagina. which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription.” (Description of Greece 2. while the bronze images opposite.7) A 4th-century BCE marble relief from Crannon in Thessaly was dedicated by a race-horse owner. with a dedication to Hecate. and when she is depicted alongside the god Hermes and the goddess Kybele in reliefs. But it is only in Charites. as well as occasional four in Athens. The place of origin of her following is uncertain. in writing of the headed descriptions continued throughout her history. wherein she is shown with three bodies. “This one is of stone. He reported the image to be the work of Scopas. were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes.”[16] and numerous other items. Munich) The 2nd-century travel writer Pausanias stated that Hecate was first depicted in triplicate by the sculptor Alkamenes in the Greek Classical period of the late 5th century BCE [3] which was placed before the temple of the Wingless Nike in Athens. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs.[24] Her most important sanctuary was Lagina. 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek.7. also of Hecate. her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony.

16 CHAPTER 7. whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea. and brings glory to his parents. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. Hestia. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds. she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. the daughter of Perses and Asteria. were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household. So. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men. easily the glorious goddess gives great catch. albeit her mother’s only child. as the division was at the first from the beginning. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all.[27] Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship.[29] However. along with Zeus.[25] In According to Hesiod.[31] . HECATE of Stratonikeia. nouvelle mythologie illustrée in Paris. and she bestows wealth upon him. she increases from a few. Good is she also when men contend at the games. He gave her splendid gifts. and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. drawing by Stéphane are her honours. for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy.[26] Hesiod’s inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars. if she will. and Apollo. Greek goddess of the crossroads. privilege both in earth. for the power surely is with her. while the testimony of other writers. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young. and who pray to Hecate and the loudcrashing Earth-Shaker. For to this day. or makes many to be less. where she was the city’s patroness. then. then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. One theory is that Hesiod's original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers. and in sea. if so she will. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement.[28] In Athens Hecate.[26] Mallarmé in Les Dieux Antiques. namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably. in that he seems to hold her in high regard. She received honor also in starry heaven. he calls upon Hecate. to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. Hesiod: Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon. whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom. and easily she takes it away as soon as seen. and these Hecate. a star-goddess who was The first literature mentioning Hecate is the Theogony by the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). Hermes. and in heaven. and surviving evidence. it is clear that the special position given to Hecate by Zeus is upheld throughout her history by depictions found on coins depicting Hecate on the hand of Zeus [30] as highlighted in more recent research presented by d'Este and Rankine. she held sway over many things: Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes. 1880 Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child. and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep. And she is good to stand by horsemen. suggests that this may have been exceptional.

above all by Artemis and Selene. MYTHOLOGY Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia. it is possible it presented a conflict. saving the city. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins. she is called the 'she-dog' or 'bitch'. and her presence is signified by the barking of dogs. In Sophocles and Euripides she is characterized as the mistress of witchcraft and the Keres. the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack. were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros (the tale is preserved in the Suda). or wheel. she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians.[39] where she is associated in fragment 194 with a strophalos (usually translated as a spinning top. alongside Demeter and Persephone. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time.. shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils. Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries. as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon. Other than in the Theogony. For example. who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal’s suicide. used in magic) “Labour thou around the Strophalos of Hecate. One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis.”[38] Hecate is the primary feminine figure in the Chaldean Oracles (2nd-3rd century CE).] speaks of a bullroarer. suggesting that Demeter should speak to the god of the sun.7.3. However. Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits. She scorns and insults Artemis. because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans.[27] Here. Many of the attributes she was assigned in this period appear to have an older basis. the dead and sorcery. at her unrivalled[33] cult site in Lagina. but as for the significance says only that it is ineffable and that the ritual is sacred to Hecate. “The Byzantine polymath Michael Psellus [.”[40] This appears to refer to a variant of the device mentioned by Psellus.”[34] The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date. There was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Helios. the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage. Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. where the priests.[41] Variations in interpretations of Hecate’s role or roles can be traced in 5th-century Athens. such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus. In late imagery she also has two ghostly dogs as servants by her side. decorated throughout with symbols and whirled on an oxhide thong. consisting of a golden sphere.. it has been argued that “Hecate must have been a Greek goddess.[37] One interesting passage exists suggesting that the word “jinx” might have originated in a cult object associated with Hecate. Because of this association. when she assisted Demeter with her search for Persephone following her abduction by Hades. Subsequently she became Persephone’s companion on her yearly journey to and from the realms of Hades. or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness.[1] The modern understanding of Hecate has been strongly influenced by syncretic Hellenistic interpretations.[32] and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times.[24] the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate. a euphemism perhaps intended to emphasize her concern with the disappearance of Persephone. megabyzi. infernal spirits. In gratitude the Byzantines erected . Her continued presence was explained by asserting that. Hecate is called the “tender-hearted”. In two fragments of Aeschylus she appears as a great goddess. are attested. and a mighty helper and protector of humans. Hecate by Richard Cosway If Hecate’s cult spread from Anatolia into Greece.[36] Hecate also came to be associated with ghosts. the father of Mausolus. officiated. her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world. Likewise. He adds that such an instrument is called a iunx (hence “jinx”). This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. in the magical papyri of Ptolemaic Egypt.[35] 17 the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.

where three roads meet. Samothrace. the sea. HECATE a statue in her honor. Genetyllis... for the dog was sacred to Eileithyia.[43] • Trimorphe (three-formed)[48] • Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads)[48] • Trivia (Roman form) 7. Although in later times Hecate’s dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who . and was often eaten in solemn sacrament.”. 1795 William Blake Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. She had the power to create or hold back storms.[9] In this form she came to be known as the goddess Trivia “the three ways” in Roman mythology. she remained unmarried and had no regular consort. Colophon.4.[52] and. the earth. according to Saint Ouen would urge them “No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium.1 Goddess of the crossroads Cult images and altars of Hecate in her triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at three-way crossroads (though they also appeared before private homes and in front of city gates). though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla. The dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal. Saint Eligius. “In art and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog.[44] 7. which influenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors. In what appears to be a 7th-century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort. and Athens.[9] It has been claimed that her association with dogs is “suggestive of her connection with birth.5 Animals Triple Hecate Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene.”[54] The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate is attested for Thrace. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog. in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted flock in Flanders against putting “devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads”. and the sky. she ruled over three kingdoms.[42] • Soteira (savior)[51] As a virgin goddess.18 CHAPTER 7. and other birth goddesses.[53] 7.4 Other names and epithets • Apotropaia (that turns away/protects) [45] • Chthonia (of the earth/underworld)[46] • Enodia (on the way)[47] • Klêidouchos (holding the keys)[48] • Kourotrophos (nurse of children)[48] • Melinoe[49] • Phosphoros (bringing or giving light)[48] • Propolos (who serves/attends)[48] • Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate)[50] The Triple Hecate.

Juvenal. particularly female dogs. Parker observes. Alan Davidson writes. “The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet (trigle). ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature. the Moirai (Fates) and Eileithyia (Birth-Goddess). Apollonius of Rhodes. The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe. it is said there stood a statue of Hecate Triglathena. He goes on to quote a fragment of verse “O mistress Hecate.[61] After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate. each keeping their arms crossed.[64] 7. to whom the red mullet was offered in sacrifice. It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep.' and 'would eat the corpse of a fish or a man'. They turned her into a deceitful weasel (or polecat). The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size. daughter of Elektryon. They remained seated. Hecate often has one or more animal heads.6 Plants Hecate was closely associated with plant lore and the concoction of medicines and poisons. Alkmene’s pangs ceased at once and Herakles was born. a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity. The Greek word for mullet was trigle and later trigla. including cow.[63] In her three-headed representations. Trioditis / With three forms and three faces / Propitiated with mullets”. has taught to work in drugs. daughter of Perses. who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar. that she was extremely incontinent. kept Alkmene in continuous birth pangs. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. May the goddess be gracious to me : fables and their telling I leave to others. could be explained by a metamorphosis myth.[56] Another metamorphosis myth explains why the polecat is also associated with Hecate. discussed above. also has become sacred to Hecate in modern Pagan literature. that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress (Pharmakis). “Cicero. Martial.”[65] . she had deceived the gods.”[58] A goddess. it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. serpent and horse. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene. dog. fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad. PLANTS 19 Aelian told a different story of a woman transformed into a polecat: ""I have heard that the polecat was once a human being. Horace. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then. From Antoninus Liberalis: “At Thebes Proitos had a daughter Galinthias.6. Pliny. in the Argonautica mentions that Medea was taught by Hecate. which fits neatly into the pattern. and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change. Blood-coloured itself. making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating. accompanied her.”[60] At Athens. Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire.” [62] The frog. being but a mortal. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat.”[55] The association with dogs. significantly a creature that can cross between two elements. Galinthias. boar.7. and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires. consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. As the birth throes for Herakles were pressing on Alkmene. It 'delighted in polluted things. At all this. as a favour to Hera.”[57] Athenaeus (writing in the 1st or 2nd century BCE. and drawing on the etymological speculation of Apollodorus of Athens) notes that the red mullet is sacred to Hecate. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since. probably Hekate or else Artemis. the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens. its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog’s connection with birth than the dog’s underworld associations. for that the goddess is trimorphos. of a triple form”. dog and twin torches. “on account of the resemblance of their names. is depicted with a bow. “I have mentioned to you before a certain young girl whom Hecate.[59] In relation to Greek concepts of pollution.

8 Festivals Hecate was worshipped by both the Greeks and the Romans who had their own festivals dedicated to her.”[78] 7. and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death. doorways. which served as her constant companions. a Thessalian goddess.20 CHAPTER 7.. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection.[70] These include aconite (also called hecateis). She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a "liminal" goddess. The yew was associated with the alphabet and the scientific name for yew today. taxus. toxos. “Hecate mediated between regimes — Olympian and Titan —. particularly at night. was probably derived from the Greek word for yew. and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier.”[73] This liminal role is reflected in a number of her cult titles: Apotropaia (that turns away/protects).[69] A number of other plants (often poisonous. etc. and might also relate to her appearance with two torches. and the dead from leaving it. Hecate would naturally become known as a goddess who could also refuse to avert the demons. protecting their inhabitants. The yawning gates of Hades were guarded by the monstrous watchdog Cerberus. and an ancient commentary on Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica (3. their word for poison. Hekate’s Deipnon is. their word for bow and toxicon. and in the road in front of private houses. “Greeks held the yew to be sacred to Hecate. which is hauntingly similar to toxon. which was closely associated with her cult.[77] Like Hecate. and mandrake.8. As a goddess expected to avert harmful or destructive spirits from the house or city over It was probably her role as guardian of entrances that led to Hecate’s identification by the mid fifth century with Enodia. Klêidouchos (holding the keys). Enodia’s very name (“In-the-Road”) suggests that she watched over entrances. which when positioned on either side of a gate or door illuminated the immediate area and allowed visitors to be identified.[68] She is also sometimes associated with cypress. HECATE The goddess is described as wearing oak in fragments of Sophocles’ lost play The Root Diggers (or The Root Cutters). Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate). city walls. according to the legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever present torches. keeping an eye on all who entered. since at least as early as the 1st century CE.. In Greek. the guardian of doors and portals. “In Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. by extension.”[67] Hecate was said to favor offerings of garlic. Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads). crossroads and. a meal served to Hekate and the restless dead once a lunar month on the night when there is no visible moon.7 Places Hecate was associated with borders. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans. whose function was to prevent the living from entering the underworld. twining through branches of oak.[74] The yew in particular was sacred to Hecate. Enodia (on the way).[72] 7. a tree symbolic of death and the underworld. and hence sacred to a number of chthonic deities. but also between mortal and divine spheres. medicinal and/or psychoactive) are associated with Hecate.”[76] This suggests that Hecate’s close association with dogs derived in part from the use of watchdogs. dittany. indeed. at its most basic. or even drive them on against unfortunate individuals. It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate.1 The Deipnon The Athenian Greeks honored Hekate during the Deipnon. usually noted on modern calendars as the . there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic. Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. raised an alarm when intruders approached. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city. with realms outside or beyond the world of the living. and with her pack of dogs.1214) describes her as having a head surrounded by serpents.[66] which she stood guard and to protect the individual as she or he passed through dangerous liminal places. "[t]he dog is a creature of the threshold. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison.[75] This function would appear to have some relationship with the iconographic association of Hecate with keys. who.[71] belladonna. deipnon means the evening meal. 7. usually the largest meal of the day.

be smoke.[. and the western Balkans. Classical sources. Modern Hellenic polytheists honor Hecate during the Deipnon. the wholesome winds of the Seas. and this can be seen as a reference to her aspect of Motherhood. my name. which derives from PIE *kagh. 170 CE) in his work The Golden Ass associates Hecate Hellenismos. but are not explicitly attested in. and the silences of hell be disposed. or phases. such as the 20th century occultist and author.”[93] This theory of the Roman origins of many European folk traditions related to Diana or Hecate was explicitly advanced at least as early as 1807[94] and is reflected in numerous etymological claims by lexicographers from the 17th to the 19th century.. In other circles Wiccan witches associate her with the “Maiden”.[79] The Deipnon is always followed the next day by the Noumenia. others Bellona of the Battles. and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me.“fly about. Scene 1 by the character Macbeth. The figure of Hecate can often be associated with the figShe is worshiped by people who have reconstructed and ure of Isis in Egyptian myth.]'[100] In the syncretism during Late Antiquity of Hellenistic and late Babylonian ("Chaldean") elements.[84] Strmiska notes that Hecate. appears in late antiquity and in the early medieval period as part of an “emerging legend complex” associated with gatherings of women. and still others Hecate.. vanish. usually in a shrine outside the entryway to the home [82] 2) an expiation sacrifice. and many others. the light of the goddesses: at my will the planets of the air..[91] was made popular in modern times by writers such as Robert Graves in The White Goddess.11 Cross-cultural parallels that parallel.”[98] Neopaganism. in variable customs and in many names. and witchcraft that eventually became established “in the area of Northern Italy.[89] with Isis: 7.[87] witches. who was skeptical of theories proposing non-Germanic origins for German folklore traditions. the Mother and the Crone”. Historical depictions and descriptions show her facing in three different directions. causing her to withhold her favor from them.[90] Hecate is also one of the “patron” goddesses of many Wiccans. 123 — revived the indigenous polytheist religion of Greece.”. Queen of heaven. such as groups like Hellenion and YSEE. hedges and 'hedge-riding'. for Hecate has three faces. the later Greek Magical Papyri sometimes refer to her as also having the heads of animals.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore The main purpose of the Deipnon was to honor Hekate and to placate the souls in her wake who “longed for vengeance. In the Michigan .[80] when the first sliver of moon is visible.. c.9 Modern expressions Hecate is mentioned in Act 2. conflated with the figure of Diana.7. southern Germany.[85] which draws heavily on folkloric traditions[86] associating Hecate with 'The Wild Hunt'. who in some traditions identify her with the Triple Goddess’ aspect of the "Crone". Lucius Apuleius (c.[95] Such derivations are today proposed only by a minority[96] since being refuted by Grimm. or the “Mother” aspects as well. do call me Queen Isis. the principal of the Gods celestial. in William Shakespeare's play of the same name: “Witchcraft celebrates pale Hecate’s offerings.[97] Modern etymology reconstructs Proto-Germanic *hagatusjon.”[81] A secondary purpose was to purify the household and to atone for bad deeds a household member may have committed that offended Hekate.“hedge. the moon. mistress and governess of all the elements. the underworld counterpart of Inanna in the Babylonian cosmography.10. The Deipnon consists of three main parts: 1) the meal that was set out at a crossroads. Her role as a tripartite goddess.. chief of powers divine. [.[83] and 3) purification of the household. Aleister Crowley. enclosure”.[92] 'I am she that is the natural mother of all things.[88] and other themes 7. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient.from haegtesse and hagazussa. the initial progeny of worlds.] Some call me Juno. which many modern-day Wiccans associate with the concept of “the Maiden. deriving “hag” and/or “hex” from Hecate by way of haegtesse (AngloSaxon) and hagazussa (Old High German). 7. SURVIVAL IN PRE-MODERN FOLKLORE 21 new moon. in this portrayal she is known as “Mistress of Animals”. known as the 'Dagger' soliloquy. a clear and precise reference to the tripartite nature of this ancient Goddess.[99] and the second Hecate is now firmly established as a figure in perhaps from *dhewes.. my divinity is adored throughout all the world in divers manners. Hecate was identified with Ereshkigal. and then the Agathos Diamon the day after that. and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine.[98] the first element is probably cognate with hedge.

Sorita & Rankine. ISBN 0-521-82392-7. Derossi (1975)). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology. were offered to Hecate at crossroads. Bmcr.[101] Before she became associated with Greek mythology. pp.britannica. 1990. Retrieved 2012-09-24. and spirits of the dead. 90. where dogs were conceived as representative of the household sphere. eds. [8] At least in the case of Hesiod's use. pictures : HEKATE”. Hecate Ereschigal is invoked against fear of punishment in the afterlife. Walcot (1958).06. [3] d'Este. [5] Sarah Iles Johnston. The researcher is led to identify “the name and function of Hecate as the one 'by whose will' prayers are accomplished and fulfilled. Theoi. Hekate Soteira. magical papyrus (inv. ghosts & magic . she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition. Hesiod’s Cosmos. (1996).. “she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Dogs were also sacrificed to the road.brynmawr. which is glossed as “lit. No. 3 (Jul. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.” This interpretation also appears in Liddell-Scott. 1986). dated to the late 3rd or early 4th century CE. HECATE mentioned. . domestic spaces. p. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 671. A Greek English Lexicon. 7).”[9] 7. purification.13 See also • Asura (Buddhism) • Janus • Amphisbaena • Lampade 7.11”. mythology .12 Nature of her cult Regarding the nature of her cult.edu. and Plutarch’s observation that in Boeotia dogs were killed in purificatory rites. danger-stricken outside world”. Antony. 135. Simon.[104] 7. and as protective spirits appropriate when transcending geographic and spatial boundaries. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous. it has been remarked.com. Scholars Press. Neitzel (1975). Jenny Strauss (2003). p.g. They played a similar symbolic role in ancient China. Dogs.14 Notes Isis and her various other names and symbols from The Golden Ass. Avalonia. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. in the entry for Hecate. As Roel Sterckx observes. Clay lists a number of researchers who have advanced some variant of the association between Hecate’s name and will (e. Hekate Liminal Rites. New York: Oxford University Press. Vol. Spawforth. and watching over wedding ceremonies)[102] Dogs were sacred to Hecate and associated with roads. [6] Encyclopedia Britannica.22 CHAPTER 7. 129.). p. “The use of dog sacrifices at the gates and doors of the living and the dead as well as its use in travel sacrifices suggest that dogs were perceived as daemonic animals operating in the liminal or transitory realm between the domestic and the unknown. with puppies often [1] The Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of Hekate by Charles M. she had many similarities with Artemis (wilderness. Hecate. see Clay. David. 'she who works her will'" [9] Hornblower.[103] This can be compared to Pausanias’ report that in the Ionaian city of Colophon in Asia Minor a sacrifice of a black female puppy was made to Hecate as “the wayside goddess”. 307-318 [2] “HECATE : Greek goddess of witchcraft. 2009. [4] “Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02. com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate [7] Berg 1974. which were sacred to the goddess.

Macbeth. NOTES 23 [10] Anthon. 3.com. pronounced in three syllables when in Latin. Hekate: Studien zu Wesen u. [27] Johnston. “Arguments for Hecate’s “Anatolian” origin are not in accord with evidence. by sinking the final e. p.9: "Hecate. Retrieved 2012-0924. Geography 14. ed. 2000.. p. Bilde der Göttin in Kleinasien u. Berg’s argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1. 1603-07).23 [37] “CULT OF HEKATE : Ancient Greek religion”. (1987) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. ISBN 0-631-15624-0.14. William (c. Bloomington.com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate also Hellenic Household Worship by Christos Pandion Panopoulos. the recording of which is traditionally attributed to Julian the Chaldaean or his son. A Dictionary of the English Language (10th ed. [17] Hekate Her Sacred Fires. 195. Scene 3. Ben (c.. Evelyn-White) [11] Wheelwright. Arthur (1567). Act III. Olyan. Act V. (1991). 2009 [32] Theodor Kraus. Agathokles. as he has now confirmed. Doctor Faustus. Hecate. WildWinds. printed 1641). Shakespeare. Blackwell. Oxford. E. by so adapting the word in Macbeth. Sorita d'Este. Avalonia. Retrieved 2012-09-24. inventory number 816. p. line 384: “By the triple Hecat’s team”.7.. (English Translation by Hugh G. britannica. [13] Golding. University of Chicago Press.php?l=householdworship#1 [30] “Baktria. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Oxford. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 [12] McKechnie.” [35] Kraus 1960. A Classical Dictionary. [39] The Chaldean Oracles is a collection of literature that date from somewhere between the 2nd century and the late 3rd century. Book Seven. 171. Scene 2. Spawforth. Retrieved 2012-09-24. Liverpool University Press. In Asia Minor only one monument can be associated with Hecate prior to the 2nd century BCE. Introduction. and the rest of the world have followed them. p. (1996). p. Julian the Theurgist.). 52. 134. The Argonautika. Harper & Brothers. have followed the actors in this world. 1594-96). [19] This statue is in the British Museum. Griechenland (Heidelberg) 1960. Noah (1866). [26] Hesiod. Leiden: Brill. seeHornblower. Sarah Iles. p. [33] Berg 1974. Scene 5. in English is universally contracted into two. and especially from Attica—all of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. eds. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland. Oxford University Press. 2007. Hecat!" Jonson. p. Act II.com. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested “Carian theophoric names” is not convincing. who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people. ISBN 978-90-04-17089-6. performed earlier).166ff. Hekate Liminal Rites.gr/index. Simon. pagan magic that later became closely associated with Neoplatonism. Charles (1869). Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1894): "Hec'ate (3 syl. and appear to have been related to the practice of theurgy. Cf. Act III. Kraus 1960. And the play-going world. 2007.2. “Hecate in Art”. Kings. [36] Strabo. Scene 1. how now. P. [23] Apollonios Rhodios (tr. p. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 144. The material seems to have provided background and explanation related to the meaning of these pronouncements. [14] Marlowe. 100. Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names”. Shakespeare seems to have begun. Paul. New York: Oxford University Press. Antony. William (c. line 21: “Pluto’s blue fire and Hecat’s tree”. [28] Household and Family Religion in Antiquity by John Bodel and Saul M. Geography. ancient coins index with thumbnails”. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. [15] Webster. A Midsummer Night’s Dream.1. 133. [31] d'Este & Rankine. list pp. 579. 2. Shakespeare. edited and translated by Lesley Madytinou & Rathamanthys Madytinos http://www. 316. p..25.. page 221. [20] [21] “Images”. The Argonautika. p. (1975).labrys. published by John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-253-20122-5. Christopher (first published 1604. and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. this pronunciation. http://www. Eidola. Philippe (2008).” observes Peter Green. 14. 2010 [18] Yves Bonnefoy. Theogony. Theoi. Metaphor and Reality. Guillaume. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. Peter Green). 2 in Eng. University of California Press. in Greek. p. 128: Berg comments on Hecate’s endorsement of Roman hegemony in her representation on the pediment at Lagina solemnising a pact between a warrior (Rome) and an amazon (Asia) [34] Berg 1974. (1896). [25] Strabo.eu. The Cults of the Greek States. The Sad Shepherd.. He concludes. and in the same number in the Greek word Ἑκάτη.)" [16] Lewis Richard Farnell. 2010-02-28. p. p140 [24] Walter Burkert. .). line 1: “Why. 1992. Roman and European Mythologies. 2009 [29] Encyclopedia Britannica. [38] Mark Edwards. Neoplatonic saints: the Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by their Students. 1637. line 668: “our dame Hecat”. 21. Avalonia. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Wendy Doniger. [22] “The legend of the Argonauts is among the earliest known to the Greeks.

Hunter. Such things they call charms. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium and Eustathius. in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. But it is all nonsense. Divine Heiress. 2. Brill. A Greek-English Lexicon. 370529. Vita Eligii book II. as if it had an ineffable power. which was attributed to Hecate. p. that is the movement of the top. Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. Columbia University. 1924. p67 [55] Sarah Iles Johnston. 1921. “Hecate” article. 2. pp. Athenian Popular Religion. 94. 5-6. The Learned Banqueters. Roman and European Mythologies. 1999. The Lupercalia. p. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1854. In her right hand she held the source of the virtues.16. Greek Goddess of the Crossroads”.. University of California Press. Hellenic Religion and Christianization. 492. London. UNC Press. H. an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age. withstood a siege successfully. The Topography of Athens. p. Creatures in the Mist: Little People. pp.com/Text/LycophronAlexandra. p. Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (C. The Lupercalia. 1981). 1992. [56] The poem Alexandra by Lycophron 1174 ff. they erected a public statue to that goddess [. C. HECATE [47] Sarah Iles Johnston. pt. Scholars Press. To commemorate this timely phenomenon. 1994. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. [49] Ivana Petrovic. [50] Sarah Iles Johnston. Philip of Macedon. [53] Saint Ouen. 142. [42] “In 340 B. pt. 2.” Vasiliki Limberis. 1993. [65] R. Goddess Gift: Meet the Goddesses Here. In the course of this beleaguerment. Ten Speed Press. Since Hecate was the guardian of “liminal places”. 72. on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise. citing Apollonius of Rhodes. with the aid of the Athenians. Hekate Soteira.H. or a triangular one. 211-212.).C. 2007). [64] Yves Bonnefoy. they call out unintelligible or beast-like sounds. Biblo & Tannen Publishers. Stählin. this story apparently survived in the works Hesychius of Miletus. While spinning them. Roscher.html [57] Antoninus Liberalis. p. Schmid and O. Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins. 68. 319. however. [Diviners] spin this sphere and make invocations. the Byzantines. 76. [43] Joseph Eddy Fontenrose. [61] William Martin Leake. pp.H. [54] Alberta Mildred Franklin. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. but were foiled by reason of a bright light which. [46] Jon D. 1999. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. Wild Men and Spirit Beings Around the World: A Study in Comparative Mythology. The Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster. theoi. appearing suddenly in the heavens. The Age of Justinian and Theodora. and with her pack of dogs.” As quoted in Frank R. Mikalson. 16. 1987. Trombley. University of California Press. 2005. Mediterranean Seafood. W. [62] Alan Davidson. The Argonautica of Apollonius. 1990. Von den Toren des Hades zu den Hallen des Olymp (Brill.24 [40] English translation used here from: William Wynn Wescott (tr. Beck. CHAPTER 7. (2007). Oxford University Press. Bohn. [41] “A top of Hekate is a golden sphere enclosing a lapis lazuli in its middle that is twisted through a cow-hide leather thong and having engraved letters all over it. it is related. 2. translation by Francis Celoria. Cambridge University Press. Restless Dead. W. p. [51] Sarah Iles Johnston. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. [44] “Hecate. vol. 1921. p.). It is called the top of Hekate because it is dedicated to her. New York: Algora Publishing. 135. p. L. 1841. startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. 982.. 2002. Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner. University of Chicago Press. 92. pp. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros’ was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate’s defensive aid. Retrieved 18 April 2011. tr. [45] Alberta Mildred Franklin. Harvard University Press. [48] Liddell-Scott. vol. Metamorphoses 29. p. who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian. laughing and flailing at the air. Like Byzas in one legend. 1974. “If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople. 1992 [58] On the Characteristics of Animals by Aelian. 96. according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her everpresent torches. Gary R. Lycophron of Chalcis was a Greek poet in the 3rd century BCE The poem can be read here: http://www. it was Hecate. [60] Robert Parker. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the Suda. ISBN 0-87586-546-1. p. University of California Press. p. p. pp. 1890–94). translated by Alwyn Faber Scholfield. Psychology Press. p. Columbia University. 207.. 1823. p. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 1958 [59] Charles Duke Yonge. 1990.]" William Gordon Holmes. 1895. 1999. 208-209. whether it is the matter of a spherical object.G. 2003. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. or some other shape. Healing in the history of Christianity. 2005. 126-127. 195. [Hekate] teaches the taketes to operate. Wendy Doniger. . translation by Mair. Routledge. she had her origins in Thrace. which served as her constant companions. Oxford University Press. 362-363. [52] Amanda Porterfield. [63] Varner. a Byzantine lexicon of the 10th century CE.

Com. http://hellenion. 1994. 2008. […] most see in goddess worship a rediscovery of folk practices that persisted in rural Europe throughout the Christian era and up to recent times. Simon. Plato. 1998. Ecology. Witching Culture: Folklore and Neopaganism in America. pp. University of Toronto Press. pp. n. (i. Alkaloids: Biochemistry. 154. Archaeopress. Michael Wink. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Plants of Death. N111. 62. 19 K). University of Wisconsin Press. The Greek Myths.). Antony. 1977. 82-83. aoroi and ataphoi (cf. 424-425). 208. and Medicinal Applications. 647. University of Wisconsin Press. Plants of Death.]" Margaret F. 14. and Cochicum [. Vol. 362. Moon Magick: Myth & Magic. Hale. University of California Press. 394 K). in Athenaeus.A Documentary History of Religion In America Since 1877. 1998. Conway. also Ammonius (p. [82] Antiphanes. New York: American Book Company. 2009. Hedge Witch: Guide To Solitary Witchcraft. Mekon (Papaver somniferum). pp 10-23 (De Vries also mentions Hecate in this liminal context). 1975. 313 B (2. 2781. Llewellyn. [90] http://nfs. p. 596. New York: Oxford University Press. Crafts & Recipes. Virgil’s Aeneid. [84] Roscher. ii. 325 B.). [74] Sarah Iles Johnston.com/macbeth/page_50. Chariclides (iii. and notes. Aristophanes.sparknotes. Rohde. [72] Frederick J. Routledge. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary And The Creation of Christian Constantinople. [76] Vasiliki Limberis. p.2. No. 1995. Noll (Eds. [77] Hornblower. Crafts & Rituals for Natural Magick. [69] Freize. The Powers of Evil in Western Religion. “Neopaganism sees itself as a revival of ancient pre-Christian religion: the old nature religions of Greece and Rome. 65. 1999. Lewis. Magic. 2004.. 1. F. 2003. i. p. Plants of Life. Valckenaer) [68] Frederick J. Rohde. 2007. 126-127.org/ The Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes is an umbrella group based in Greece that is a legally recognized Non Profit Organization (NPO) and was “founded in June of 1997 aiming to the morale and physical protection and restoration of the Polytheistic. 1999. Taxol: Science and Applications. p157 [88] For an extensive discussion of the symbolism of the hedge and hedge-riding as it relates to contemporary witchcraft see: Eric De Vries. Springer. R. pp 127-129. [79] [5] The play Plutus by Aristophanes (388BCE). p339. p79 [86] “Neo-paganism/witchcraft is a spiritual orientation and a variety of ritual practices using reconstructed mythological structures and pre-Christian rites primarily from ancient European and Mediterranean sources. [85] For Hecate as a protector deity of a contemporary (midnineties) neopagan coven see: Sabina Magliocco. Rituals & Spells. State University of New York Press. of the wandering Teutonic tribes and of others as well. [73] Bonnie MacLachlan. 16. Hedge Witch: Spells. line 594 any translation will do or Benjamin Bickley Rogers is fine [80] Harvard Theological Review. 2006. [78] Richard Cavendish. 275-277. p. Bilardi. Virginity Revisited: Configurations of The Unpossessed Body. Diktamnon (Dictamnus albus). p. Plants and Diet in Greece From Neolithic to Classic Periods. 79. was much dreaded. Hedge-Rider: Witches and the Underworld. Penguin Books. Magic and Folk Belief.). America’s Alternative Religions. in Athenaeus. p603. (1996). CRC Press. ii. pp. Melaina (Claviceps pupurea). p. Smith. Heckenbach. NOTES 25 [66] Daniel Ogden. 1998. Simoons.. the quasi-technical word designating their longing for vengeance. J. Routledge. Ethnic Hellenic religion. The Red Church or The Art of Pennsylvania German Braucherei. As a general indicator of the currency of the association of hedge and witch see titles such as: Silver Ravenwolf. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. in Athenaeus. Plutus.). Hegesander. Fragkiska Megaloudi. 358 F. For a 'moon magick' reference to Hecate as “Lady of the Wild Hunt and witchcraft” see: D. 2776 and references. Llewellyn. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. Apollodorus.html . Roberts. State University of New York Press.” James R. 39 K).7. See Heckenbach.” Timothy Miller (Ed. pp 303-304. 1995. Chapter in the book The Goddess Hekate: Studies in Ancient Pagan and Christian Philosophy edited by Stephen Ronan. p303 [87] For a summary of the wild hunt as a neopagan 'tradition' see the entry in James R. University of California Press. 209. whose enthumion. 2008 and Rae Beth. [71] Robert Graves. Pages 57 to 64 [67] Matthew Suffness (Ed.” Gaustad. hedge-riding and witches in German folklore see: C. Eerdmans. Dennison. by K. Plants of Life. tradition and way of life in the “modern” Greek Society from which is oppressed due to its institutional intolerance and theocracy”. Simoons. Spawforth. p. Melanthius. 1996. Antiphanes. 1889. 2002. 1999. Walter (1902). Lewis. p. Pendraig Publishing. and for the relation between hedges. [75] Sarah Iles Johnston.14. Pendraig Publishing. 411-413. [70] “Hecate had a “botanical garden” on the island of Colchis where the following alkaloid plants were kept: Akoniton (Aconitum napellus). Judith Fletcher. 1972 pages 291-297 [81] These are the biaiothanatoi. [83] Hekate’s Suppers. 121-124. Thryon (Atropa belladona). 79. 1992 [89] Hellenion is a 501c3 religious organization based in the USA dedicated to reviving the religions indigenous to Greece. Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions. and note. 71. p. Henry. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds.. Mandragores (Mandragora officinarum). p. Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft. 264 f. and 358 F. Witchcraft. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 28. Melanthius. pp. Oxford University Press. eds. “A second theme in the Neo-Pagan combination is the pre-Christian European folk religion or Paganism. 490. 143. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 1995.

15. Gerald Milnes. Leo. 1987.Q. Etymologicon Universale (1822) [96] e. and how should the word have spread through all German lands?" Jacob Grimm. Oxford.2 Secondary sources • Berg. Oxford University Press. 116. 223 [100] Apuleius. VI 140. Hand. Metamorphoses. “Hecate: Greek or “Anatolian"?".4 (May 1980):287-295). some dismissing Rabinowitz as a neo-pagan. Samuel X. pp 233-234 • Strabo. William. in American Folk Medicine: A Symposium Ed. p. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 • Mallarmé. [101] Hans Dieter Betz.g. 2007. Glossarium Germanicum (1737). 2006. [97] “Many have been caught by the obvious resemblance of the Gr.26 [91] E. Adams. 1994. Hekate in Early Greek Religion. History of Religions 19. 1985. p. Johann Georg Wachter. Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess. Sarah Iles. Illustrations of Shakspeare. entry 'hag'. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows: A Complete History. “Hecate in Art”. “Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus”. • Lewis Richard Farnell. [92] https://sites.com/site/hellenionstemenos/Home/ festivals/hekatesdeipnon CHAPTER 7. The Golden Ass 11. Walter. pp 232-233. 405. Sterckx explicitly recognizes the similarities between these ancient Chinese views of dogs and those current in Greek and Roman antiquity. (1991). • Johnston. Univ. The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures. Sarah Iles. (English translation 1900) [98] Etymology Online. Simoons.1 Primary sources • Hesiod. but the letters agree to closely. A work which views Hekate from the perspective of Mircea Eliade's archetypes and substantiates its claims through cross-cultural comparisons. William Arthur (1929).” (Footnote 113. (1896). Teutonic Mythology. Cures. Description of Greece [94] Francis Douce. accessed 8/23/09 [99] Mallory. Berkeley: University of California Press. • Ovid. p. • Ruickbie. [102] Heidel.15 References 7. 2002. Karl. no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M.15. 2004. 235-243. Oxford University Press. “The Role of Animals in Infant Feeding”. Les Dieux Antiques. Modern paganism in world cultures. p. 68. 174. nouvelle mythologie illustrée. An English translation is available online [93] Michael Strmiska. VII 74. p. The Rotting Goddess. Robert. D. • Johnston. p. State University of New York Press. (Oxford: Blackwell) ISBN 0-631-15624-0. (1990). ABC-CLIO. The Gods of the Greeks. 2005.47. or Romance writings in the sense of witch. Wayland D. 1835. Robert Hale.16 External links • Myths of the Greek Goddess Hecate • Encyclopædia Britannica 1911: “Hecate” . 1976. • Kerenyi. (1880). Wilshire. 241. 94. Radbill. Geography 7. Yakov. The Animal and The Daemon In Early China. HECATE 7. 213.google. Horned Owl Publishing (July 1999) 7. and the Mid. Lat. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate’s Role in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature. • Rabinovich. Hecate. & Witchery. of Tennessee Press. American Historical Association.2 (August 1974:128-40) • Burkert. and goes on to note “Dog sacrifice was also a common practice among the Greeks where the dog figured prominently as a guardian of the underworld. contrary to the laws of change. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. • Von Rudloff. 514. [103] Roel Sterckx. University of Wisconsin Press. The Day of Yahweh: A Study of Sacred Days and Ritual Forms in the Ancient Near East. 177. 194. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) Published in the UK as Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. 1807.P. J. 1990. Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. XIV 44.g. Numen 21. p318) [104] Frederick J. Stéphane. Signs. Works and Days. The Cults of the Greek States. The work has been sharply criticized by Classics scholars. Rochester. • Pausanias. Walter Whiter. VT: Inner Traditions International. 1951. ISBN 0-89281-494-2. Donna (1994). Edward Lye of Oxford (1694-1767). Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them. Theogony. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. [95] John Minsheu and William Somner (17th century). and of Ancient Manners.

• Theoi Project. Hecate Classical literary sources and art • Hekate in Greek esotericism: Ptolemaic and Gnostic transformations of Hecate • The Covenant of Hekate • Cast of the Crannon statue. EXTERNAL LINKS • The Rotting Goddess by Yakov Rabinovich.16. Oxford.7. at the Ashmolean Museum. complete book included in the anthology “Junkyard of the Classics” published under the pseudonym Ellipsis Marx. • The Hekate/Iphigenia Myth 27 .

[8] The name could also be possibly related to Greek árktos "bear" (from PIE *h₂ŕ̥tḱos).[3] Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera. representing the goddess Artemis been suggested. featuring Artemis with a drawn bow and a quiver on her back on the reverse of the coin sian origin from *arta.Ancient Greek writers. P. artamos. all meaning “great.1 Etymology Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Greek king Artemidoros (whose name means “gift of Artemis”). and lation Artemas of Xenophon. holy. wild animals.[14] R. have linked Artemis (Doric Arthon the primitive root of the name is probably of Per. pronounced [ár.[12][13] the earliest attested forms of the . Beekes suggested that the have been proposed. “to shake. 85 BCE. Her Roman equivalent is Diana.e.some modern scholars. c.mis] in Classical Attic) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto. According to Charles An.[6] The deer and the cypress were sacred to her.[15] Artemis [16] For example according to Jablonski.[5] In the classical period of Greek mythology.[10] the name is also was venerated in Lydia as Artimus.[9] Babiniotis while accepting that the etymology is unknown. While connection with Anatolian names has Didrachm from Ephesus.” thus Artemis “becomes identical with the great mother of Nature.[11] this cult was a survival of very old totemic and shamanistic rituals and formed part of a larger bear cult found further afield in other Indo-European cultures (e. as well as the story about Callisto. 8. was originally pre-Greek. by way of folk etymology. she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth. bringing and relieving disease in women. a-te-miname Artemis are the Mycenaean Greek The name Artemis (noun. i.te. she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. Mistress of Animals”.to /Artemitos/ and . and the twin sister of Apollo.[4] The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter. 28 . which was originally about Artemis (Arcadian epithet kallisto). and indeed the goddess herself. *arte.[10] Anton Goebel “suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ. *art. Phrygian and could be “compared with the royal appel. It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting.. Gaulish Artio). excellent.[1] Some scholars[2] believe that the name. childbirth. S.Chapter 8 Artemis For other uses. “butcher”[17][18] or. Britomartis.g. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt. supported by the bear cult that the goddess had in Attica (Brauronia) and the Neolithic remains at the Arkoudiotissa Cave. a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/. feminine) is of unknown or un. states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of pre-Hellenic origin. Potnia Theron: “Artemis of the wildland. In later Hellenistic times. even as she was worshipped at Ephesus”.tamis) to ἄρταμος. Artemis /ˈɑrtɨmɨs/ was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. see Artemis (disambiguation).” and makes Artemis mean the thrower of the dart or the shooter”. Artemis (Ancient Greek: Ἄρτεμις. Ionia.[9][10] e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin. wilderness. written certain origin and etymology[7][8] although various ones in Linear B at Pylos. virginity and protector of young girls.

i. The Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl. She wished for no city dedicated to her. to be the Phaesporia or Light Bringer. to have a bow and arrow and a knee-length tunic so that she could hunt. and Leto gave birth there. at three years old. 470 BC. becoming her mother’s mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo.2.2 Artemis in mythology Leto bore Apollon and Artemis. because he had impregnated Leto. while sitting on the knee of her father. As she joined in love to the Aegis-bearing ruler. All accounts agree. holding a lyre) from Myrina. “the stainless maiden”. Brygos (potter.2. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY 29 like Plato did in Cratylus. and Kenneth McLeish suggested further that in quail form Leto would have given birth with as few birth-pains as a mother quail suffers when it lays an egg.[23] A poem of Callimachus to the goddess “who amuses herself on mountains with archery” imagines some charming vignettes: according to Callimachus. with a deer) and Apollo (on the right. her husband. 72 accounts for the island’s archaic name Ortygia[21] by asserting that Zeus transformed Leto into a quail (ortux) in order to prevent Hera from finding out his infidelity. to have sixty “daughters of Okeanos". and for twenty Amnisides Nymphs as handmaidens to watch her dogs and bow while she rested.[20] The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth. “safe”. Hera was angry with Zeus. asked him to grant her six wishes: to remain always a virgin. A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. “pure”. signed). having been thrashed by Hera.8.[24] In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates . Artemis. artemḗs. that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and that she was the twin sister of Apollo. But the island of Delos (or Ortygia in the Homeric Hymn to Artemis) disobeyed Hera. Most stories depict Artemis as born first. —Hesiod. An account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra firma (the mainland) or on an island. Briseis Painter. “uninjured”. ca. delighting in arrows.[22] The myths also differ as to whether Artemis was born first. Theogony. to be her choir. who.2.2 Childhood Artemis (on the left.[9][10][19] 8. dating to approximately 25 BC Various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother. 8. all nine years of age. Zeus.e. to ἀρτεμής. Artemis at the islands known today as the Paximadia. climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus. to have many names to set her apart from her brother Apollo. or Apollo. Both of lovely shape like none of the heavenly gods. Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup. and for the ability to help women in the pains of childbirth. however. “unharmed”. lines 918–920 (written in the 7th century BCE) 8. but to rule the mountains. Louvre.1 Birth Apollo (left) and Artemis. Apollo.

[25] All of her companions remained virgins. In another story. Artemis. but. The details vary but at the core they involve a great hunter. sometimes boasting he is a better hunter than she. who was a late addition to Greek mythology during the Hellenistic period. attempts to force himself on her. Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis’ temple. Rome. For this hubris he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who. Okeanus’ daughters were filled with fear. As a virgin. Orion. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by In yet another version. a river god. he is killed by Artemis. Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Pan. Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow. Sipriotes is a boy. she covers her face with mud so that the river Orion was Artemis’ hunting companion. Sometimes they are Artemis’ hounds. suspicious of his motives. In later myths. and Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytus. Artemis Alphaea in Letrini. or even merely being a rival of Zeus for the affections of Semele. and Artemis closely guarded her own chastity. 8. ARTEMIS tries to rape Artemis’ attendant Arethusa.6 Orion panions at Letrenoi. seeing her naked in her sacred spring. Alphaeus sions. is turned into a girl by the goddess. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot. Therefore. Reading his sinful thoughts. Artemis had interested many gods and men. Artemis killed Adonis for revenge. 8. Usually the dogs are his own. who no longer recognize their master.8. and the moon. but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. Adonis was not killed by Artemis. Different tellings also diverge in the hunter’s transgression.2. where the goddess and her attendant drink. particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother. but by Ares.2. death.2. was in love with Artemis.5 Adonis In some versions of the story of Adonis. goes to Alpheus. where Hephaestus and the Cyclops worked. In other versions. to be a midwife. who had been a favorite of Artemis. Callimachus tells[26] how Artemis spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress.30 CHAPTER 8. sees Artemis and thinks about raping her. So he decides to capture her. who. Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts. in some surviving versions Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her. Bouphagos. won her heart.4 Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon myth survive. Adonis had been related as a favorite 8. However.[26] According to the standard modern text on the work. Artemis killed Adonis to avenge Hippolytus’s but only her hunting companion. who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. the son of the Titan Iapetos. either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her. In some vergod does not recognize her. the god of the forest. Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe. Gaia.3 Intimacy of Aphrodite. though many are fragmentary. how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Lipara. who is with her com. Roman marble Bust of Artemis after Kephisodotos (Musei Capitolini). which is sometimes merely seeing the virgin goddess naked. but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows. Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than she. while in others he is killed . Apollo.2. as punishment for being with Aphrodite. the stag. Alpheus. the hunting dog. Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs. Lamar Ronald Lacey’s The Myth of Aktaion: Literary and Iconographic Studies.

8.2. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY

31

Diana and Callisto by Titian.

8.2.8 Callisto
Callisto was the daughter of Lycaon, King of Arcadia and
also was one of Artemis’s hunting attendants. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus apThe Death of Adonis, by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709 - Hermitage
peared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories
Museum.
Apollo, gained her confidence, then took advantage of
her (or raped her, according to Ovid). As a result of this
encounter she conceived a son, Arcas.
by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries Enraged, Hera or Artemis (some accounts say both)
to seduce Opis,[27] one of Artemis’ followers, and she changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but
kills him. In a version by Aratus,[28] Orion takes hold Zeus stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus placed
of Artemis’ robe and she kills him in self-defense.
Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of CalIn yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion. According to Hyginus[29] Artemis once loved Orion (in spite
of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos did), but was tricked into killing him by her
brother Apollo, who was “protective” of his sister’s maidenhood.

8.2.7

The Aloadae

listo the Bear as a constellation. Some stories say that he
placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears,
forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations.

8.2.9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis
Artemis punished Agamemnon after he killed a sacred
stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess. When the Greek fleet was
preparing at Aulis to depart for Troy to begin the Trojan
War, Artemis becalmed the winds. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis
was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then
snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer.
Various myths have been told around what happened after Artemis took her. Either she was brought to Tauros
and led the priests there, or became Artemis’ immortal
companion.[30]

These twin sons of Iphidemia and Poseidon, Otos and
Ephialtes, grew enormously at a young age. They were
aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless
they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae never
stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach
heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take
them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for
Artemis who captured a fine deer (or in another version 8.2.10 Niobe
of the story, she changed herself into a doe) and jumped
out between them. The Aloadae threw their spears and A Queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted
of her superiority to Leto because while she had fourteen
so mistakenly killed each other.

32

CHAPTER 8. ARTEMIS

children (Niobids), seven boys and seven girls, Leto had
only one of each. When Artemis and Apollo heard this
impiety, Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics,
and Artemis shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to
kill them, though according to some versions two of the
Niobids were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at
the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated
Niobe and her remaining children were turned to stone
by Artemis as they wept. The gods themselves entombed
them.

8.2.11

Chione

Chione was a princess of Pokis. She was beloved by two
gods, Hermes and Apollo, and boasted that she was prettier than Artemis because she made two gods fall in love
with her at once. Artemis was furious and killed Chione
with her arrow or struck her dumb by shooting off her
tongue. However, some versions of this myth say Apollo
and Hermes protected her from Artemis’ wrath.

8.2.12

Atalanta, Oeneus and the Meleagrids

Artemis saved the infant Atalanta from dying of exposure
after her father abandoned her. She sent a female bear to
suckle the baby, who was then raised by hunters. But
she later sent a bear to hurt Atalanta because people said Artemis pouring a libation, c. 460-450 BC.
Atalanta was a better hunter. This is in some stories.
Among other adventures, Atalanta participated in the
hunt for the Calydonian Boar, which Artemis had sent
to destroy Calydon because King Oeneus had forgotten
her at the harvest sacrifices. In the hunt, Atalanta drew
the first blood, and was awarded the prize of the skin.
She hung it in a sacred grove at Tegea as a dedication to
Artemis.
Meleager was a hero of Aetolia. King Oeneus had him
gather heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian
Boar. After the death of Meleager, Artemis turned
his grieving sisters, the Meleagrids into guineafowl that
Artemis loved very much.

8.2.13

Artemis. Iakhos later became an attendant of Demeter
and the leader of Eleusinian Mysteries.

8.2.14 Polyphonte
Polyphonte was a young woman who fled home preferring
the idea of a virginal life with Artemis to the conventional
life of marriage and children favoured by Aphrodite. As
a punishment Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have
children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and
Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of
Zeus. Ultimately the whole family were transformed into
birds and more specifically ill portents for mankind.[32]

Aura
8.2.15 Trojan War

In Nonnus Dionysiaca,[31] Aura was Greek goddess of
breezes and cool air, daughter of Lelantos and Periboia.
She was a virgin huntress, just like Artemis and proud of
her maidenhood. One day, she claimed that the body of
Artemis was too womanly and she doubted her virginity.
Artemis asked Nemesis for help to avenge her dignity and
caused the rape of Aura by Dionysus. Aura became a mad
and dangerous killer. When she bore twin sons, she ate
one of them while the other one, Iakhos, was saved by

Artemis may have been represented as a supporter of
Troy because her brother Apollo was the patron god of
the city and she herself was widely worshipped in western Anatolia in historical times. In the Iliad[33] she came
to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks
and Trojans engaged each other in conflict. Hera struck
Artemis on the ears with her own quiver, causing the arrows to fall out. As Artemis fled crying to Zeus, Leto

8.3. WORSHIP OF ARTEMIS
gathered up the bow and arrows.
Artemis played quite a large part in this war. Like her
mother and brother, who was widely worshiped at Troy,
Artemis took the side of the Trojans. At the Greek’s
journey to Troy, Artemis becalmed the sea and stopped
the journey until an oracle came and said they could win
the goddess’ heart by sacrificing Iphigenia, Agamemnon's
daughter. Agamemnon once promised the goddess he
would sacrifice the dearest thing to him, which was Iphigenia, but broke the promise. Other sources said he
boasted about his hunting ability and provoked the goddess’ anger. Artemis saved Iphigenia because of her bravery. In some versions of the myth, Artemis made Iphigenia her attendant or turned her into Hecate, goddess of
night, witchcraft, and the underworld.

33
the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron to serve the Goddess
for one year. During this time, the girls were known as
arktoi, or little she-bears. A myth explaining this servitude states that a bear had formed the habit of regularly
visiting the town of Brauron, and the people there fed it,
so that, over time, the bear became tame. A girl teased
the bear, and, in some versions of the myth, it killed her,
while, in other versions, it clawed out her eyes. Either
way, the girl’s brothers killed the bear, and Artemis was
enraged. She demanded that young girls “act the bear” at
her sanctuary in atonement for the bear’s death.

Virginal Artemis was worshipped as a fertility/childbirth
goddess in some places, assimilating Ilithyia, since, according to some myths, she assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin. During the Classical period in Athens,
Aeneas was helped by Artemis, Leto, and Apollo. Apollo she was identified with Hecate. Artemis also assimilated
found him wounded by Diomedes and lifted him to Caryatis (Carya).
heaven. There, the three of them secretly healed him in
a great chamber.

8.3.1 Epithets

8.3 Worship of Artemis

Roman Temple of Artemis in Jerash, Jordan, built during the
reign of Antoninus Pius.

Main article: Brauronia
Artemis, the goddess of forests and hills, was worshipped
throughout ancient Greece.[34] Her best known cults were
on the island of Delos (her birthplace), in Attica at
Brauron and Mounikhia (near Piraeus), and in Sparta.
She was often depicted in paintings and statues in a forest
setting, carrying a bow and arrows, and accompanied by
a deer.
The ancient Spartans used to sacrifice to her as one of
their patron goddesses before starting a new military campaign.
Athenian festivals in honor of Artemis included
Elaphebolia, Mounikhia, Kharisteria, and Brauronia.
The festival of Artemis Orthia was observed in Sparta.

Color reconstruction of a first century AD statue of Artemis found
in Pompeii. Reconstructed using analysis of trace pigments. It
was an imitation of Greek statues of the sixth century BC. Part
of Gods in Color.

As Aeginaea, she was worshiped in Sparta; the name
means either huntress of chamois, or the wielder of
the javelin (αἰγανέα).[35][36] She was worshipped at
Naupactus as Aetole; in her temple in that town there
was a statue of white marble representing her throwing a
javelin.[37] This “Aetolian Artemis” would not have been
introduced at Naupactus, anciently a place of Ozolian
Locris, until it was awarded to the Aetolians by Philip II
of Macedon. Strabo records another precinct of “Aetolian Artemos” at the head of the Adriatic.[38] As Agoraea
she was the protector of the agora.

Pre-pubescent and adolescent Athenian girls were sent to As Agrotera, she was especially associated as the pa-

however. A king rows. largely because of the legend that while fleeing the advances of Alpheius. with a sanctuary Artemis Amarysia in Attica. When portrayed .3. She was sometimes known as Cynthia. Ἀλφεαία. The procession started by setting the logs of wood around the altar. honey and sesame-seeds. As Kourotrophos. dressed in saffron robes and The oldest representations of Artemis in Greek Archaic played the bear to appease the goddess after she sent art portray her as Potnia Theron (“Queen of the Beasts”): a winged goddess holding a stag and leopard in her hands.[52] with hunting boots. or sometimes a leopard and a lion. a sanctuary was built for Artemis Hymnia where her festival was celebrated every year. Artemis’ traditional mode of transportation (see below). or Ἀλφειοῦσα) was an epithet that Artemis derived from the river god Alpheius.[45] huntress. young. is placed the driest of their wood. Greece.[50] • Day 6 of Thargelion (eleventh month) the 'birthday' of the goddess. This winged Artemis • Festival of Amarysia is a celebration to worship lingered in ex-votos as Artemis Orthia.[49] • Day 6 of 16 of Mounikhion (tenth month) a celebration of her as the goddess of nature and animal. she was the nurse of youths.4 Artemis in art • Festival of Artemis in Brauron. made from dough. Alpheaea. In Sparta the Artemis Lygodesma was worshipped. In Athens Artemis was often associated with the local Aeginian goddess. or Amarynthia from a festival in her honor originally held at Amarynthus in Euboea. a quiver. • In Orchomenus.[48] • Day six of Elaphobolia (ninth month) festival of Artemis the Deer Huntress where she was offered cakes shaped like stags. Just before the time of the festival. who was said to have been in love with her. a team of close by Sparta. she is shown in the shooting pose. Homer used this title. from her birthplace on Mount Cynthus on Delos. a festival to celebrate skirt.[51] • A festival for Artemis Diktynna (of the net) in Hypsous. bond).[43] Artemis Alphaea was associated with the wearing of masks. Often. Swiss and Greek archaeologists found the ruin of In Greek classical art she is usually portrayed as a maiden Artemis Amarysia Temple. lygos (λυγός. The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis. ARTEMIS tron goddess of hunters. willow) and desmos (δεσμός. and is named Saron built a sanctuary for the goddess after accompanied by a hunting dog or stag.[41][42] and in Ortygia. 8.3. Sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron. clothed in a girl’s short • Festival of Artemis Saronia. not until the next day that the sacrifice is offered. each of them sixteen cubits long.34 CHAPTER 8.[46] • At the 16 of Metageitnio (second month on Athenian calendar). She was sometimes identified by the name Phoebe. people sacrifice to Artemis and Hecate at deme of Erchia. • Laphria. tall and slim. This epithet means “willow-bound” from the Gr. a town in Argolis. she was the goddess of childbirth and midwives. piling earth upon the altar steps. In 2007. within the circle. As Potnia Theron. or Alpheiusa (Gr. where girls. Aphaea. and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a chariot yoked to four deer.3 Modern Artemis was born at the sixth day. they construct a smooth ascent to the altar. As Locheia. Ἀλφαῖα. A goat was being sacrificed to her. On the altar. The willow tree appears in several ancient Greek myths and rituals. aged between five and ten.[47] • Kharisteria Festival on 6 of Boidromion (third month) to celebrate the victory of Marathon and also known as the Athenian “Thanksgiving”. while the seventh was Apollo’s. she was the patron of wild animals. the reason why it was sacred for her. 8. she and her nymphs escaped him by covering their faces.[39] Alphaea.[44] 8. It is. at Euboea. the feminine form of her brother Apollo’s solar epithet Phoebus.2 Festivals the goddess saved his life when he went on hunting and swept by the wave and held a festival for her. a festival for Artemis in Patrai. the plague when her bear was killed.[40] It was under this name that she was worshiped at Letrini in Elis. a bow[53] and arArtemis in Trozeinos.

the Artemis Aetolian. The bridles of her chariot were also made of gold. However.8.[55] • Spears. Artemis was sometimes represented in Classical art with Fauna the crown of the crescent moon. • Deer On June 7. The description about Artemis’ spear can be found in Ovid’s Metaconnected as a moon goddess. Artemis is sometimes portrayed with a hunting spear. The arrows of Artemis could also bring sud• Hunting dog den death and disease to girls and women.5 million.[55] The third labour of Heracles. commanded by Eurystheus. times a veil covered her head. and one spotted one . while Artemis with a fishing spear [56] with her cult as a patron goddess of fishing. 2007. as her epithet was Khryseher wrath.As a goddess of maiden dances and songs. Pan also gave Artemis seven bitches of the finest Arcadian race. such as the daughters of Niobe. she had it alive. con• Bow and arrow sisted in catching the Cerynitian Hind alive. Fourth century Praxitelean bronze head of a goddess wearing a lunate crown.4. shining. the bow became the symbol of waxing reddish ones. Her darker side is revealed in some vase paintings.cadia. a Roman era bronze sculpture of Artemis and the Stag was sold at Sotheby’s auction house Deer were the only animals held sacred to Artemis herin New York state by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery for self. Pan gave Artemis two black-and-white dogs. Heracles begged Artemis for forgiveness and promised to return According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis.4. Deer were also the first animals she captured. Artemis is ofbringing goddess whose arrows fell young maidens and ten portrayed with a lyre. Artemis got her bow and arrow for the first time from The Kyklopes. Artemis forgave him but targeted Eurystheus for golden bow and arrows. nets. She caught five golden horned deer called Elaphoi 8. ARTEMIS IN ART 35 The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The bow of Artemis Artemis got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Aralso became the witness of Callisto’s oath of her virgin. as the one she asked from her father.these dogs were able moon. On seeing a deer larger than a bull with horns $25. where she is shown as the death. Croatia). Artemis wore a long robe and some.[57] women.1 Attributes Khrysokeroi and harnessed them to her chariot.[58] lakatos.morphosis. “of the Golden Shaft”. showed her with a hunting spear. and lyre Although quite seldom. found at Issa (Vis.[59] . and Iokheira (Showered by Arrows). three ity. Artemis’ chariot was made of gold and was pulled by four golden horned deer (Elaphoi Khrysokeroi). she fell in love with these creatures and held them sacred. In later cult.[54] to hunt even lions. Artemis only ever • Chariots brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time. such as also found on Luna and others. Her cult in Aetolia.

fragments. they sacrificed it to her. and also hard to tame. 105 Artemis. They touched it and played with it until one day a group of girls poked the bear until it attacked them. Oineus and Adonis were both killed by Artemis’ boar. her temple became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The Byzantine writer Suidos relayed the legend in Arktos e Brauroniois. Meleagor. Other plants sacred to Artemis are Amaranth and Asphodel.[62] 8. akin to the Phrygian goddess Cybele. The oracle suggested that. in payment for the bear’s blood. jealously rioted in her defense.36 CHAPTER 8. shout• Buzzard hawk ing “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”[67] Of the 121 columns of her temple. only one composite. acorns. located in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. Ephesian Guinea Fowl to be her favorite animals.[63] or even bull testes. A bear was tamed by Artemis and introduced to the people of Athens. and forts.[68] 8. grapes. There the Lady whom the Ionians associated with Artemis through interpretatio graeca was worshiped primarily as a mother goddess.7 See also • Artemisia • Diana (mythology) . 1st century AD (Ephesus Archaeological Museum) Artemis felt pity for the Meleagrids as they mourned for their lost brother. the Artemis Chasma and the Artemis Corona have all been named for her. Flora Palm and Cypress were issued to be her birthplace. They have been variously interpreted as multiple accessory breasts. Artemis is the acronym for “Architectures de bolometres pour des Telescopes a grand champ de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol”. made up of Hawks were the favored birds of many of the gods. a lunar crater. metalsmiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. no Athenian virgin should be allowed to marry until she had served Artemis in her temple ('played the bear for the goddess’).6 Artemis in astronomy A minor planet.[64][65] Excavation at the site of the Artemision in 1987-88 identified a multitude of 8. tion.5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus Main article: Temple of Artemis At Ephesus in Ionia. In honor of Artemis’ skill.[66] In Acts of the Apostles. Turkey. ARTEMIS • Bear The sacrifice of a bear for Artemis started with the Brauron cult. so Artemis sent a plague in revenge.[60] • Boar The boar is one of the favorite animals of the hunters. still stands as a marker of the temple’s locaArtemis included. roads. The Athenians consulted an oracle to understand how to end the plague. It was probably the best known center of her worship except for Delos. Every year a girl between five and ten years of age was sent to Artemis’ temple at Brauron. a large bolometer camera in the submillimeter range that was installed in 2010 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). as eggs. The rest were used for making churches. in an ancient sanctuary where her cult image depicted the “Lady of Ephesus” adorned with multiple rounded breast-like protuberances on her chest.[61] • Guinea fowl The Artemis of Ephesus. so she transformed them into tear-shaped amber beads that had adorned the ancient wooden xoanon. A brother of one of the girls killed the bear.

Oswyn Murray (1 January 2009). Scuola Pisa 28 :305. de Gruyter./4. Dutton 1959. Robert. as Apollo’s inseparable twin. . blessed Leto. (1963:157-271) p. 14. [19] ἀρτεμής. Andrew (1887). s.470 ff). 1970) 126. [4] Homer. [3] Rose. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor (Albany. 312. In Smith. for you bare glorious children. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. [6] “Her proper sphere is the earth. her in Ortygia. 99. The Book People. Houwink ten Cate. Leonhard (1867).com. 176f. Karl Kerenyi observes. NY: State University of New York Press. [11] Michaël Ripinsky-Naxon. . 1994. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 1995. [23] Iliad xxi. 251: Artemis. Henry George. Children of the Gods pp 33f. [35] Pausanias. [12] Campanile. Robert. [2] David Sacks. Atsma. Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. T. K. 597-598. Λεξικό Κέντρο [9] Lang. “Isle of Quail”. “Further remarks on A-TE-MI-TO and A-TIMI-TE”. the lord Apollon and Artemis who delights in arrows. [32] Antoninus Liberalis. “In Search of Anatolian Apollo”. Athens: Λεξικολογίας. but in all likelihood pre-Hellenic. της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. forests and hills. C. The Gods of the Greeks (1951:204). Oxford Classical Dictionary. W. [31] Aura does not appear elsewhere in surviving literature and appears to have been offered no cult. Liddell. Hesperia Supplements 33 (2004:243-257) p. noted in this context by Brown 2004:252. Theoi. Guthrie. Green and Co. Oxford Classical Dictionary. [5] “Artemis”. 41. Iliad xxi 470 f. p. London: Longmans. pp. Scott. 1993). Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. “A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE”. 209–210. Scott. [20] Hammond. quoting the Greek poet Istrus. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. p. 638 [10] Anthon. 112. p. Geburtstag (Studies in Indo-European language and culture). Boston. Souvinous.” says the Homeric Hymn. ii. [22] Kenneth McLeish. p. 38.8. [34] “.v. p. [29] Hyginus. a-te-mi-to. William. [37] Pausanias. [8] Babiniotis. Retrieved 2012-04-26. Immerwahr. Restelli. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Henry George. Kadmos 9 1970:42-47. pp. is discussed pp. C. Georgios (2005). Etyma Graeca. Online Etymology Dictionary. 251ff. [15] . Ritual. a goddess universally worshiped in historical Greece. Ἂρτεμις. is not supported by modern scholars. [21] Or as a separate island birthplace of Artemis— “Rejoice. Robert. The Greeks and Their Gods. A Handbook of Greek Mythology. Aevum 37 :307. Iliad 21. The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera during the Hellenistic Period (Leiden) 1961:166. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. and specifically the uncultivated parts. 26. p. p. J. and him in rocky Delos. Liddell. [18] Ἄρτεμις. are graphically depicted by ancient sources. Brown. on Google books. 21 [33] Homer. [28] Aratus.8. (Oxford: Clarendon Press.8 References and sources [17] ἄρταμος. Henry George. 126. Beacon 1955. A Classical dictionary. [24] Hymn Around Artemis’ Childhood [25] On-line English translation. § 2. and Religion. Palaeolexicon. 32. [7] “Artemis”. however.505-13. Hymn III to Artemis 46 [27] “Another name for Artemis herself”. “FAVOUR OF ARTEMIS : Greek mythology”. REFERENCES AND SOURCES 37 • Janus [16] Indogermanica et Caucasica: Festschrift fur Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. pp. New York: Harper & Brothers. 213–214. 142. W. Brill.3. Word study tool of ancient languages. Kadmos 11 :125-28. . 2009. Scott.34. iii. § 6. [26] Callimachus. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. 56–. "Άρτεμις". “Artemis”. Metamorphoses. ISBN 978-1-4381-1020-2. the etymology Ortygia. References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. 210. [13] Edwin L. Myth. Liddell. x. 286. [30] Aaron J. [36] Schmitz. Charles (1855).(genitive). Infobase Publishing. • Artemas • Bendis 8. “Aeginaea”. Poeticon astronomicon. Haydock. [14] John Chadwick and Lydia Baumbach. where wild beasts are plentiful” Hammond and Scullard (editors). Ann. “The Mycenaean Greek Vocabulary” Glotta. 215.” Hammond. Christidis. Retrieved 15 March 2015. H. Leto’s birth-pangs.

Retrieved 2011-01-28. E.1.com. [56] “Spears”. [63] “Ancient Art and Artemis: Toward Explaining the Polymastic Nature of the Figurine” by Andrew E. England: Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved 2011-01-28. [53] Greek poets could not decide whether her bow was silver or gold: “Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she draws her golden bow. Retrieved 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2009-03-19. [54] “Bow”.blogspot. Copenhagen. didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?". “And how often goddess. [61] “Animals”. Morris [44] Dickins. § 5 CHAPTER 8. Winterscapes.. p. a white horse is still sacrificed to him.. [67] Acts 19:28. Artemis. Retrieved 2011-01-28.org. Geographica viii. The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: Supplementary Papers. 2007-07-24. p. Retrieved 2011-0128. p. Marindin. Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (1929). [47] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. Metamorphoses 1. (Strabo.” (Homeric Hymn to Artemis). Winterscapes. and.com. 343 [65] “In Search of Diana of Ephesus”.com. Winterscapes. [55] “Chariot”. Hill Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 1992. William Smith.150 images of Artemis . [40] Schmitz. 12. 1951. 1985. New York Times. Netherlands.693. Greek Mythology Index”. Nemean Odes i. 133. v. Apex-telescope. where her nymph’s is of horn. Brill. 2009 • Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1.com. Poulsen B. Mythindex. Description of Greece vi. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) • Robert Graves (1955) 1960. [43] Scholiast on Pindar's Pythian Odes ii. Hymn 3 to Artemis). [48] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. 2010-01-11. 2007-07-24.com. 2007-07-24. Winterscapes. p. and two precincts are still to be seen — one of them sacred to the Argive Hera and the other to the Aetolian Artemis. [58] “Kerynitian”. 2011 [42] Strabo. LLD. 22. [51] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. 172. information on Artemis from original Greek and Roman sources. [46] “SARON. Sources • Walter Burkert. [39] Bremmer Jan N. blog by Monica Bowen. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Winterscapes. G. [57] “Dance”. Retrieved 2011-01-28. William Wayte) • Fischer-Hansen T. ARTEMIS [59] “Pack”.9 External links • Theoi Project. February 5th. (Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan) Athena-Artemis [49] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. the Bible and the Ancient Near East. The Gods of the Greeks • Seppo Telenius (2005) 2006. and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid. Alberti’s Window. [52] Homer portrayed Artemis as girlish in the Iliad. [68] “APEX . 1994. Collegium Hyperboreum and Museum Tusculanum Press. 3 [66] “Potnia Aswia: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion” by Sarah P. [41] Pausanias. Passionateabouthistory. [62] “Plants”.Artemis”. August 21. [50] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. 8. “Alphaea”. Leonhard (1867). 187. (eds. • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. asks Callimachus for whom it is a Cydonian bow that the Cyclopes make for her (Callimachus. “Terracotta Masks”. indeed. [45] mharrsch (2007-11-04). The Greek Myths (Penguin) • Karl Kerenyi. Boston: Little. [64] “Diana of Ephesus: Keeping Abreast with Iconography” (see footnote 1). Brown and Company. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1.com. “Passionate about History: Search continues for temple of Artemis Amarysia”. G.9 on-line text). 2007-07-24. London. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 2007-07-24. In William Smith.38 [38] “Among the Heneti certain honours have been decreed to Diomedes. [60] “Cult”.) From Artemis to Diana: the goddess of man and beast.com. images from classical art. (2008) Greek Religion and Culture.

Several lovers are attributed to her in various myths.' " 9.2 Origin The usual account of Selene’s origin is given by Hesiod. perion wedded glorious Euryphaëssa.[6] The word men (feminine mene). She is shining”) is probably an epithet of Theia.1 Names Apollonius of Rhodes. meant the moon. much as her brother. “Selene watched him from on high. Helios.[2] Other accounts make Selene the daughter of the Titan Pallas[11] or of Helios.[14] However. and grandmother of Apollo. is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe (feminine form). and slid from heaven to earth. was identified with Apollo. the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia.3. from her identification with Artemis. Pan. In classical times. Artemis.[4] The original Phoebe of Greek mythology is Selene’s aunt. and the mortal Endymion. Selene (/sɨˈliːni/.3 Lovers and offspring 9. Also from Artemis. Selene. his own sister. rising Selene was also called Mene.[12] Just as Helios. fraught with many sighs.”[16] The eternally sleeping Endymion was proverbial. nor do I alone burn with love for fair Endymion. and some god of affliction has given thee Jason to be thy grievous woe.[13] The late 7th-century – early 6th-century BC poet Sappho apparently mentioned Selene and Endymion. the first direct account comes from the third-century BC Argonautica of 9. to take up thy burden of pain. wise though thou be. Selene was often identified with Artemis. from his identification with Apollo. and Hecate. rosy-armed Eos and rich-tressed Selene and tireless Helios.) is the goddess of the moon. Greek Σελήνη [10] [selɛ̌ ːnɛː] 'moon'.Chapter 9 Selene This article is about the Greek goddess. while Endymion slept in his cave beside his cattle. which tells of Selene’s “mad passion” and her visiting the “fair Endymion” in a cave on The etymology of Selene is uncertain.[7] 9. it is likely connected to the word selas (σέλας). And now thou thyself too hast part in a like mad passion. oft times with thoughts of love have I been driven away by thy crafty spells. and Eos. including Zeus. the sun-god Hyperion espoused his sister Theia. Her Roman equivalent is Luna. and fiercely exulted over her. goddess of the dawn.1 Endymion Selene is best known for her affair with the beautiful mortal Endymion.[1] Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate. Selene was sometimes called “Cynthia”. and all three were regarded as lunar goddesses. and steel thy heart. although only Selene was regarded as the personification of the moon itself. For other uses. the moon. and thus spake to her own heart: 'Not I alone then stray to the Latmian cave. and the lunar month. In the Theogony.[3] “And the Titanian goddess.”[9] Here Euryphaëssa (“wideIn Greek mythology. meaning “light”. in order that in the darkness of night thou mightest work thy sorcery at ease.”[8] Quintus Smyrnaeus' The Fall of Troy tells that. She drives her moon chariot across the heavens. for passionate love drew down the immortal stainless Queen of Night.[17] but exactly how this eternal sleep came 39 . the Titaness mother of Leto and Asteria. beheld her [Medea] as she fled distraught. even the deeds dear to thee. but if the name is Mount Latmus:[15] of Greek origin. go on. It was also the name of the Phrygian moon-god Men. The Homeric Hymn to Helios follows this tradition: “Hysee Selene (disambiguation). who gave birth to “great Helios and clear Selene and Eos who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven.[5] from a far land. is called Phoebus (“bright”). Well. and sister of the sun-god Helios. who bare him lovely children.

but this may be the result of confusing Semele. by Sebastiano Ricci (1713). the usual mother of Dionysus.[34] 9.[22] Nonnus has Selene and Endymion as the parents of the beautiful Narcissus. Selene may have had in it is unclear. so that “she might kiss him while sleeping”.7. goddesses of the seasons. including Ovid’s Metamorphoses. the eponymous nymph of Nemea. and where the Nemean Games were held. and brought him forth at the bidding of Queen Hera. who seduced her with a “snowy bribe of wool”.[26] Selene and Zeus were also supposed by some to be the parents of Nemea. Selene also had a tryst with the great god Pan. with Selene because of the similarity of their names. and he chose to sleep for ever. according to Epimenides.[25] Alcman makes Ersa (“dew”). who drives his char- .[27] Some accounts also make Selene and Zeus the parents of Dionysus. but in other accounts. Pandia (“all-brightness”). if any.[24] “exceeding lovely amongst the deathless gods”. states: “They say that the Lion of Nemea fell from the moon”.[33] Selene was also said to be the mother of the legendary Greek poet Musaeus. who in a fearful shudder shook off the savage lion in Nemea. remaining deathless and ageless”.[29] other accounts have Selene involved in some way in its birth or rearing. According to the Catalogue of Women. the Nemean Lion was born to Echidna and raised by Hera. Apollodorus says that because of Endymion’s “surpassing beauty.[23] According to Virgil.[21] From Pausanias we hear that Selene was supposed to have had by Endymion fifty daughters. Endymion and Selene.[19] However.40 CHAPTER 9. and Zeus granted him the right to choose when he would die. but in most accounts their number is three.3. Aelian. On Animals 12.”[30] Quintus Smyrnaeus makes Helios and Selene (the Sun and Moon) the parents of the Horae.[32] Scholia on Virgil add that the god wrapped himself in a sheepskin. Chiswick House. the Sun god. and quotes Epimenides as saying: “For I am sprung from fair-tressed Selene the Moon. the goddess bore Zeus a daughter. and their parents are Zeus and Themis. Endymion. England about and what role. where Heracles slew the Nemean Lion.[20] Cicero seems to make Selene responsible for Endymion’s sleep.[28] Whereas for Hesiod.[31] Smyrnaeus describes them as the four handmaidens of Hera. the Moon fell in love with him. and Zeus allowed him to choose what he would. SELENE 9.2 Others According to the Homeric Hymn to Selene. asked Zeus to grant him eternal sleep. shown with her characteristic attributes of lunate crown and billowing veil (velificatio) [35] Like her brother Helios. who possibly represented the fifty lunar months of the Olympiad.4 The moon chariot Detail of a sarcophagus depicting Endymion and Selene.[18] A scholiast on Apollonius says that. having fallen in love with Hera. the daughter of Selene and Zeus. Narcissus was the son of Cephissus and Liriope. Endymion was the son of Aethlius (a son of Zeus).

shining team. horn-like. with Helios driving his beautiful woman with a pale face and long. Both the Hymn to Helios and the Hymn to Selene use the word εὐπλόκαμος. and from the Hellenistic period onwards.[54] Selene is commonly depicted with a crescent moon. such as Helios. unlit before.5 Depictions Surviving descriptions of Selene’s physical appearance and character. calling her “white-armed” and “benevolent”. with long wings and a golden diadem. sometimes.6.[58] As frequently depicted on Roman sarcophagi.[56] Selene’s head is sometimes surrounded by a nimbus. whensoever bright Selene having bathed her lovely body in the waters of Ocean.[50] Pausanias.[57] In later second and third century AD Roman funerary art. and Nyx (“night”). and Epimenides uses the epithet “lovely-haired”.[49] In later art. and yoked her strong-necked. Three early sources mention Selene’s hair. she is sometimes pictured with a torch. the love of Selene for Endymion and his eternal sleep was a popular subject for artists.[40] And while the sun chariot has four horses. often accompanied by stars.[48] In red-figure pottery before the early 5th century BC.[39] for Pindar it was golden. or the cusps of a crescent moon protrude. variously translated as “rich”. a lover of horses and of vigilance. Selene is generally depicted as a depicting the birth of Athena. from her head. Selene is also said to drive across the heavens. Eos. who slumbers at her feet. drawn by two winged horses. instead of a crescent. Selene adorned the east to join her lover. are scant. . apart from those which would apply to the moon itself.[55] Often a crescent moon rests on her brow. and donned her far-gleaming raiment. pediment of the Parthenon. or in profile against a lunar disk. and a “foe of strife” who “giv’st to Nature’s works their destin'd end”. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men. artistic representations of Selene included sculptural reliefs.[36] The Hymn to Selene. “all-wise”. or riding sidesaddle on horseback (or sometimes on an ox or bull. or “beautiful haired”.[44] The Hymn to Selene describes the goddess as very beautiful.[51] From oxen or a pair of horses.[38] Though the moon chariot is often described as being silver.9. or from behind her head or shoulders. descends from her chariot [59] Paired with her brother Helios. and Selene and hair. Selene’s usually has two. and gems. drives on her long-maned horses at full speed. mule. “bright”.[45] Aeschylus calls Selene “the eye of night”.[37] The earliest known depiction of Selene driving a chariot is inside an early 5th century BC red-figure cup attributed to the Brygos Painter. where the two framed a scene In post-Renaissance art.[53] Selene also appears on horseback as part of the Gigantomachy frieze of the Pergamon Altar. provides a description: The air. CULT 41 iot across the sky each day. we learn that Selene and Helios also framed the birth of Aphrodite on the base of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia.[52] There are indications of a similar framing by Selene and Helios of the birth of Pandora on the base of the Athena Parthenos. driving a silver chariot pulled either by a yoke of her chariot descending into the sea on the right.[42] or was drawn by oxen or bulls.[41] described as “snow-white” by Ovid. holding a billowing veil forming a crescent over her head.[46] The Orphic Hymns give Selene horns and a torch. into the sea. She is usually portrayed either driving a chariot. Selene rides across the heavens. like other celestial divinities. or ram).[43] Statue of Luna 9. lustrous black chariot rising from the ocean on the left. Selene.[47] In antiquity. and her rays beam clear. coins. she is depicted only as a bust. describing her as “all-seeing”. showing Selene plunging her chariot. at eventime in the mid-month: then her great orbit is full and then her beams shine brightest as she increases. glows with the light of her golden crown. a lunar disc is used. vase paintings.

92. 2. brated on the full-moon and may have been associated [21] Cicero. described by Pausanias.5.59 ff. Mayerson p. 99–100. 219–221..[63] but by at least the time of the late Homeric Hymn. p. Cicero. 167..582 ff.50. 428–429. [6] Smith. saying that “Endymion was carried up by Zeus to heaven. Seneca. 196–197. 64. Fabulae 271. pp. Valerius Flaccus.. pp. Propertius.. Hyginus.57. see Campbell. 196–197. Dionysiaca 2. pp. [17] Frazer’s note to Apollodorus.10. she was not always a part of the story.. 215. 72c.1. p.195 ff. 3. p. Lucian Aphrodite and Selene. [2] Smith. and his love for Hera).667 ff...[62] [13] Catullus. [12] Euripides. it contained statues of Pasiphaë and Helios.125 ff. [16] Quintus Smyrnaeus. Carmina 66. Theogony 371 ff.7.. [3] Kerenyi. discussing Selene’s role. lines 58–62. Argonautica 8.[20] Apollodorus. p. Phaedo. Nonnus.. [23] Nonnus..8). and Thespius had fifty daughters.266 ff. [9] Hymn to Helios (31) 4–7.2. “Endymion” p. Selene from an altar piece 9.581 ff. usually considered to be a festival for Zeus. 197. each of whom bore a son to Heracles (Apollodorus. 422 ff. called the Pandia. Argonautica 4.516 ff. [10] Morford. p. Ovid. There are other accounts of fifty daughters in Greek mythology. [4] Morford. [5] Pannen.7.6 Cult Moon figures are found on Cretan rings and gems (perhaps indicating a Minoan moon cult). Hammond. [8] Hesiod. 970–971. 970–971. Smith. Nicomachean Ethics 10. 196–197. Seyffert. 64.. p. 5. Pandia had become a daughter of Zeus and Selene. “Selene”. 57. 1. 96. says that “no source claims that the sleep was her idea. [18] Catalogue of Women. Hammond. Tusculan Disputations 1. 18. 4. p.89 ff. “SELENE” pp. 219–220. but apart from the role played by the moon itself in magic. 48.92. SELENE [7] Kerenyi. 13. 46.2. Fabulae Preface. from the heads of which projected the rays of the sun and the horns of the crescent moon. Phaedra 309 ff.7 Notes [1] Hard. Kerenyi..42 CHAPTER 9. Elegies 2. p. 46. 786 ff. 64. fragment 198. fragment 10. p. Morford. pp.342. Hyginus. p.[61] Pausanias also described seeing two stone images in the market-place of Elis. p. The same scholiast gives another story involving Endymion’s love for Hera. Theocritus. Cashford.” [22] Pausanias.. 1.8.4. Hammond.. p. Metamorphoses 3. p. p. “SELENE”. West 2003.50. pp. 970– 971..7. instead of referring to the daughter of Helios and wife of Minos. [24] Fairbanks. 61.. this time attributed to the Great Ehoiai. 5. 2.191. 10.28 ff. 35. Davidson. and that because of this desire he was thrown out and went down to Hades”. 7. pp. 34.379 ff.50.13: “See how the moon does her 9. 1. “Selene”.. Most.. 281 [15] Apollonius of Rhodes.237 ff. 275. [19] Gantz. Tusculan Disputations 1. 137. 41. and drown'd in dewy sleep. Hard.553 ff.. The Phoenician Women 175 ff. Weigal.5. Heroides 15. Ovid. Nonnus. p. “SELENE” pp.[64] and an Athenian festival. 42. Strabo. folklore.5. there was relatively little worship of Selene. Pandia (or Pandia Selene) may have personified the full moon.1. Heroides 15. pp. . 4. Dionysiaca 44. For example see Ovid. 213.54 ff. see Most. the Nereids were fifty sea nymphs born to Nereus and Doris (Hesiod. Plato. 14. Morford. Amores. pp. See also with Selene. Here Pasiphaë is used as an epithet of Selene.89 ff.[66] Ovid. Originally Pandia may have been an epithet of Selene. one of the sun and the other of the moon. Smith. and likely enough (given its role in some quarters as a punishment. and poetry. but that he was seized by desire for Hera and was deceived by the phantom of a cloud. [11] Hymn to Hermes (4). Dionysiaca 48..8.325 ff.38.[65] was perhaps cele..213 ff. [14] This is according to a scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes 4. “Selene” Endymion keep / In night conceal'd.15. 162. and despite the later worship of the Phrygian moongod Men. See also Apollodorus 1. Aristotle. “Selene”.38. note 61 p. 48.[60] An oracular sanctuary existed near Thalamai in Laconia.” Gantz. 204– 205. Theogony 240–264).7.4.

(32) 1 (a winged Selene seems to be unique to this Hymn. 970–971. p. (32) 18. calls the confusion “frequent”.9. [54] Thomas.8. p. Hard. [40] Pindar. p. for images see Sorabella. “SELENE”. p. For an image of Selene driving cattle. Luna 7. 170. Ovid. p. On Animals. Allen. Valerius Flaccus. pp. Hard. Burkert 1972. 2. p. p. Hard. Argonautica 5. 87. Hansen. The Suppliant Women. Theogony 327 [30] Cook. Hammond. [28] Cook. [1] "τανυσίπτερον"). [32] Virgil. 256. 370. Euripides. p. 236–237. 733.4 (PDF). 23. 178–179. Luna 9. pp. p. two in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (c. Luna 34. Philodemus. Quintus Smyrnaeus. 46. Compare with Pseudo-Plutarch. 46: “this is really no more than an allegorical fancy referring to the heavy dew-fall associated with clear moonlit nights”. Grimal. [49] Cohen. Either Selene or her daughter may have been connected to the Athenian festival Pandia. Burkert 1972. [44] Evelyn-White. 1999).336 ff. 208 ff. 84–85). “SELENE”. include sarcophagi in the Capitoline Museum in Rome (c. Hymn to Helios (31) 6. [39] Grimal. Metamorphoses 2. p. LIMC Selene. Fasti 4.3. the eponymous hero of the Antiochid phylē. Fasti 4. 104–105. for an example of a gem see the British Museum 1923.199. [58] Sorabella. 177–179. see: Allen. XII. 970–971. Luna 61. p. [27] Cook. Luna 10. “Selene”. [56] British Museum 1923.199. Gantz.498) pp. Hymn to Selene.g. 2. p. 36. p. p. [57] Parisinou. 92.7248. R. Thebaid 1. p. Luna 21. 456. “Selene” p. 10. Zschietzschmann. 270–271. 19 describes Pandia as an “obscure figure [who] featured in an Attic genealogy: she was the wife of Antiochos. NOTES [25] Hymn to Selene (32) 15–16. Martin 1981. says that Pandia was “elsewhere unknown as a daughter of Selene”. [29] Hesiod. Graves. Smith. [15] "ΠανδείηΝ". 25. (1903) p. 63. Morford. 123 c. Dionysiaca 44.405 ff. pp. pp. LIMC Selene. Olympian 3.191. p.214 ff. [59] Examples. [51] Neils. LIMC Selene. 70. [18] "Πρόφρον".109–110.364e. Vol. 310 AD). Kerenyi. For another example of the framing of a scene. Georgics 3. Pausanias. “SELENE”. p. p. 456–457. 96. p. 272. the goddess on the right could be Nyx or Eos. Luna 2. LIMC Selene. p. 48. 47. 353. p. 346 n. LIMC Mithras 113. For Selene driving another pair of winged horses see Zschietzschmann. Murray (1892) p.” in La terra sigillata tardo-italica decorata del Museo nazionale romano. [26] Alcman. 415.3 has Asopus as the father of Nemea. Hercules Furens 83 ff. De pietate P. 457 note. LIMC Selene.391–93. 34. p.163 ff. «L'Erma» di Bretschneider. Mitchell. Luna 4. p. but see Hyginus. instead of being her daughter. Martin 1992.. [52] Robertson. but some have suggested that instead of Selene. Walters.408 ff. 65. figs. Luna 35. [48] For an example of Selene depicted on a coin see British Museum. Republic 2. Nonnus. p. 22. pp. (32) 17. West 1983. LIMC Selene.15.. For the close association between the crescent moon and horns see Cashford. 353. Idyll 2. p. pp. [35] Stefania Sorrenti.7. p. which has the Nemean Lion created from a chest filled with foam.11. [46] Aeschylus. p. 96. 94–95. 442–443. pp. 196. Hyginus.0401. p. 336 ff. Fabulae Preface. For an example of Selene driving the less usual four horses see Morford. [37] Hymn to Selene (32) 5–14. pp. p. This is the usual interpretation. Morford. see LIMC Selene. pp.0401. Dionysiaca 7. 2. p. p. 49 (Edmonds. see Hurwit. .. Cook p. 732 says that it seems probable that. 970–971. 175. On Rivers 18. Seven against Thebes 390. [50] Savignoni. see also Anaxagoras. [45] “Winged": Hymn to Selene. “Les représentations figurées de Jupiter Dolichénien à Rome.7. 1-7. Nonnus. Pausanias. “Selene”. For the use of “golden” in reference to the moon. [43] Hammond. Cohen. pp.11.. e. 5.244. Palagia.. [33] Gantz. 415. 1. 5. see Robertson. 221. Statius. West 2003. 243 Fragment 6 (Obbink. “Benevolent": Allen. pp. in this case the Judgement of Paris. pp. [38] Cohen. Fabulae 30. pp. 64. 196. Aelian. LIMC Selene. p. 11. [31] Hammond. [34] Plato. [47] Orphic Hymns 8. Seneca. among many others. [42] Ovid. Martin 1981.373–374. 12. 353). Luna 15. Theocritus. 346 n. [36] Pindar. 47–48. [6] "χρυσέου".19–20.Herc.185 ff.17. 271. 12. and one in Palazzo Doria Pamphilj Rome (c.. 111–112.19–20. 23. The same pair also appear on the North Metopes of the Parthenon. Luna 19. 5. p. LIMC Selene. 157. p. 79. 43 [41] Kerenyi. Pausanias. [55] Savignoni. 3. Morford. LIMC Selene. 156–157. p. Rudin. 48. “White-armed": Hymn to Selene. [53] Morris. see Allen.” Cook p. 135 AD ). see Robertson. LIMC Selene. Obbink. Olympian 3. “Pandia was originally an epithet of Selene”. 990–991. 732. Cook p. p. 160 AD and c. fragment A77 (Scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.373–374. p. 220 AD). with Selene this time entering the sea on horseback.8. fragments 48. 255.

F. Harvard University Press. “Outline as a Special Technique in Black. Argonautica. Beth. Casford p. 970–971. Apollodorus. • Cohen. • Apollonius of Rhodes.26. • Fairbanks. Books 12-17. • Catullus. Online version at openlibrary. 732. 19.8 References • Cook. 75 note 109. Immanuel. • Burkert. Walter (1991). Arthur Bernard. • Apollodorus. [62] Pausanias.24. MA. James. The Mythology of Greece and Rome. Notes. “Selene”. 732. Anecdota Graeca: Lexica Segueriana. • Campbell. 2007. Cambridge. “SELENE” pp. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. publishers. Random House. Cambridge. Patricia Curd.and Red-figure Vase-painting”. Loeb Classical Library.B. Greek Religion. Scholfield. Lexica Segueriana s. SELENE [60] Hammond. p. 138. University of Toronto Press. Sikes. p. “Pandia”. Vol. 1904.C. 9. Smithers. Sappho and Alcaeus. Harvard University Press. 2010. 1938. Propertius. Timothy. Πάνδια (Bekker. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. F. 1912. Scholiast on Demosthenes.v. 2. The Phoenissae. . • Cox.. 1996. 100. Getty Publications. ISBN 9781568582658. Evelyn-White. Coleridge. notes. 1934. Lexicon s. [61] Plutarch. Seaton.Harvard University Press. Greek Greek Lyric Poetry: Volume I. Cambridge. Jon. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. Pierre. Walter (1972). ISBN 9781444334173. Heinemann. with an Introduction . 1959) ISBN 978-0674994942. 2). Cambridge University Press 1914. Loeb Classical Library (January 1. Apud G. [65] Parker 2005. • Bekker. 1894. pp. Arthur. Willets. with an English translation by R.39a. Nauckium.A. Oates and Eugene O'Neill. 178. 174. Roscher. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: Fragments and Testimonia : a Text and Translation with Notes and Essays. London. and Sulpicia. • Edmonds.A. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 3705204246. The Library. edited by Whitney J. MA. no. WileyBlackwell. p. edited by Daniel Ogden. [66] Robertson. D. Volume III. William Heinemann Ltd.R. John Maxwell. D. 178– 179. Volume I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky. ISBN 9780766189409. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1). with preface. 2004. • Davidson. 1995. Jules. D. p. MA. Aristotle in 23 Volumes. E. John Wiley & Sons. translated by C. ISBN 9780802093257. and appendices. 447. Universität Salzburg. 142. • Cicero. ISBN 978-0631156246. London. Πάνδια. ed. Pausanias. (1982). Smithers. in A Companion to Greek Religion. 176 • Cashford. Cook.. • Grimal. 2003. George W. Photius. • Allen. 1996. The Complete Greek Drama'. p. and Glossary. Harvard University Press. • Euripides. The Carmina of Gaius Valerius Catullus. MA. edited. E. Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik. New York. Macmillan. 2006. • Corelis. Roman Erotic Elegy: Selections from Tibullus.. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. ISBN 9780892369423. Harpers. F. ISBN 978-0674539181. “Time and Greek Religion”. 21.1. Thomas W. • Anaxagoras.44 CHAPTER 9.org • Aelian. in The Colors of Clay: Special Techniques in Athenian Vases. Leonard C. Cook. 292). Jr. Basic Books. Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion. The Moon: Myth and Image. New York. Homeric Hymns. Kessinger Publishing. [63] Willetts. in two volumes. apparatus criticus. Appleton–Century Company. • Aristotle. 1814. Lyra Graeca. 6. London. Ovid. Burkert 1991. Smith. p. • Gantz. Aelian: On the Characteristics of Animals. London. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-80185360-9 (Vol. William Heinemann.v. Agis 9.S. 3. with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer. William Heinemann Ltd. translated by E. Rackham. Noel 1996.6. Yonge. 1922. 1888. ISBN 9780631201021. ISBN 9780674991576. p. 1907. The Homeric Hymns. p. London. P. Harpers & Brothers. • Evelyn-White. Cambridge. in 2 Volumes. [64] Cox. Translation by A. Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations. William Heinemann Ltd. translated by H. 1914. • Burkert. Hugh. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations Part Two. translated. W. 1921. C.

the Remedy of Love. J. BRILL. Alexander Stuart. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. and Howard Hayes Scullard (editors). The Works of Lucian of Samosata. Amores in Ovid’s Art of Love (in three Books). Grant. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. the Court of Love. N. Anne Mahoney. in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. G. • Ovid. Ormerod. ISBN 9789004111981. Jeffery M. W H D. Thames & Hudson. 2005. • Pannen. Heroides. Cambridge.. Focus publishing. R. William Heinemann Ltd. Harvard University Press. ABC-CLIO.. William F. in 4 Volumes. MA. • Parker.G. ISBN 9780415186360. Cambridge. When the Bad Bleeds: Mantic Elements in English Renaissance Revenge Tragedy Volume 3 of Representations & Reflections. ISBN 0-19869117-3. Polytheism and Society at Athens. 14)" in Tracing Orpheus: Studies of Orphic Fragments. MA. • Most.. William Heinemann Ltd. Evelyn-White. Great-Queen-Street. 356. Robert J. Translated by Fowler. • Ovid. When the Bad Bleeds: Mantic Elements in English Renaissance Revenge Tragedy Volume 3 of Representations & Reflections. Art. Lucy M.S. • Murray. 2007. Pullins Company. Cambridge University Press. translated by Rouse. H W and F G. Oxford University Press. • Hurwit. London. “Sculptures of the Great Pergamon Altar” in The Century Magazine. Robert. 1931. V&R unipress GmbH. and H. Handbook of Greek Archæology. 503. MA. • Nonnus. Other Fragments. • Mitchell. the History of Love. 1905. The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology: Based on H. • Lucian. Metamorphoses. editors Emma Stafford. MA. (2007). • Palagia. • Obbink. Brookes More. Lea. 1960. Alexander Stuart. • Ovid. “56. ISBN 9781576072264. “The” Athenian Acropolis: History. Dirk.L. 1990.D. and J. Classical Greece: Ancient Histories and Modern Archaeologies. Rodwell. Catalogue. Gaius Julius. 1883. • Morris.. R. Imke. Greek-Street.9. Mark P. second edition. London. Boston. • Pausanias. • Pindar. The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. the Art of Beauty. O. HighHolborn. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. Olga. 1813. Litt. 1918. Cambridge. • Pannen. • Hesiod.. Edited and translated by Mary A.. Judith Herrin. Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W. Psychology Press. and Amours. and Gealogy (Mus. Theogony. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780754650317. 354. MA. Cornhill Publishing Co. James George. John Murray. Oxford University Press. edited for Perseus. R. New York. and Music. 1999. 1998. ISBN 9781585100361. Classical Mythology in Literature. Hesiod: The Shield. • Hard. Odes. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. REFERENCES • Hammond. “Brightness personified: light and devine image in ancient Greece” in Personification In The Greek World: From Antiquity To Byzantium. Mythology. 1892. Imke. 1922. The Pediments of the Parthenon. and Archaeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present. • Hyginus. Ltd. 2001. Rose’s “Handbook of Greek Mythology”. Diane Arnson Svarlien.A. 1992. Karl (1951). no.W. 2004. Dionysiaca. 1914. Nunn. Walter de Gruyter. London. Harvard University Press.A. ISBN 978-0-19927483-3. M.. 45 • Neils. Lenardon. London. 1855. ISBN 9780521820936. Cosmogony. ISBN 9783899716405 • Parisinou. in The Epistles of Ovid. V&R unipress GmbH. The Sculptures of the Parthenon. Cambridge. 143. Loeb Classical Library Volumes 344. 2005. 1940. Eva. The Myths of Hyginus. • Ovid. John Murray. Ashgate Publishing. • Hansen. ISBN 978-0-19-530805-1. Priestly. Classical Mythology. ISBN 9780521417860. ISBN 978-0-674-99623-6 . edited by Miguel Herrero de Jáuregui.Harvard University Press. ISBN 9783899716405 • Kerenyi. 2011. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. translated by Frazer. 1903. • Morford. Ian.8. Jones. CUP Archive.J. Fasti. Philip. ISBN 9780521456784. Soho. 1994. Calvin Blanchard. 2004. fr. 2010.H. The Gods of the Greeks. Robin. • Murray. 2005. Orphism. ISBN 9783110260533. Eighth Edition.. New-Bond-Street. • Mayerson. 2010. William Heinemann Ltd. Loeb Classical Library Volume. Oxford University Press. Loeb Classical Library. Handbook of classical mythology.

Thebaid.M. M. Aeneid. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. William Heinemann Ltd. (1983). B. The Fall of Troy. Lamb. translated by Sarah Rudin. Geography. Philosophical Research Society. The Orphic Poems. Esq. Bucolics. Henry Beauchamp. Homeric Apocrypha. • Virgil. Greenwood Press.. William Heinemann Ltd. Noel (1996). Oskar. Mythology. Homeric Hymns. Sarah. Harvard University Press. • Roscher. Ashgate Publishing. Introduction by W. Sonnenschein. F. London. Cambridge University Press. John Murray. Harvard University Press. Hellas and Rome: The Classical World in Pictures.” Metropolitan Museum Journal. William Heinemann Ltd. ISBN 9780313220500. 2004. Vol. J H. 265–272 • Seyffert. Oskar Seyffert. • Walters. Tragedies. 2005) ISBN 978-0872207257. Plato in Twelve Volumes. Edmund. and Georgics Of Vergil. A Shorter History of Greek Art. MA. 1 translated by Harold North Fowler. ISBN 9780754608080. Argonautica. Leizig 1890. Arthur. Cambridge. • Seneca. Loeb Classical Library Volume 28. W. Thomas. 1966 • Quintus Smyrnaeus. • West. London. Über Selene und Verwandtes. Translated by Mozley. Ltd. Etruscan. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.C. ISBN 978-0-674-996069 • Willetts. translated by Miller. Martin L. 1928. The Greek Bucolic Poets. S. Vol. MA. Cambridge..R. Religion. SELENE • Theocritus. William Heinemann Ltd. ISBN 9781428655447. • Valerius Flaccus. Harvard University Press. 496. in translation . Lives of Homer. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Cambridge. R.46 • Plato. W. 1901. The University of Wisconsin Press.com: Selene Passages from Greek and Roman texts. 1913 • Strabo. “A Roman Sarcophagus and Its Patron. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. • Rudin. H. Frank Justus. Kessinger Publishing. MA. translated by Arthur Sanders Way. Cambridge University Press. Literature and Art. 1980. 1899. Heinemann. Harvard University Press. 36 (2001). Martin (1981). London. • Thomas. • Taylor.A.. Martin (1992). William. 1932. A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. J H. Cretan Cults and Festivals. MA. History of Ancient Pottery: Greek. Limited edition (June 1987). London (1873). J M. 1905. G. The Hymns of Orpheus. London. The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens. 1900 • Robertson. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library • Robertson. MA. • Robertson. ISBN 0198148542 • West. Ginn & Co. (2003). Jean. ISBN 9780521280846. Wilhelm Heinrich. 2006. “Athena’s Shrines and Festivals” in Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. Loeb Classical Library Volumes . • Zschietzschmann. • Sorabella. • Smith. 1912. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780299151140. B. Teubner. Translated by Mozley. ISBN 978-0893144159. 1917. Translated by Edmonds. • Weigal. Cambridge. MA. London. Volume 2. ISBN 9780521338813. from the German of Dr.9 External links • Theoi. Editors. Hackett Publishing Company (September 30.. and Roman. Hamilton. Samuel Birch. W. • Savignoni L. no. “On Representations of Helios and of Selene. Sappho of Lesbos: Her Life and Times. J. Loeb Classical Library Volume 286. 1903. Greenough. Loeb Classical Library. CHAPTER 9. George Bell & Sons. 1928. Cambridge. 9. Falconer. Martin L. Boston. PDF • Statius.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 19: pp. Homeric Hymns. “From the panteon of the gods to the Pantheon of Rome” in Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea.

“Night”)[2] – Roman (in Latin): Nox – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it.2 Homer fury at bay and in this way Hypnos escaped the wrath of At Iliad 14. in fear. Nyx (/nɪks/. Thanatos (Death). the Keres. Distress). Sunset). the minor deity of sleep. Nyx is born of Chaos.1. Destruction. on her own.running back to his mother. Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day). Pain.Zeus by appealing to his powerful mother. He had once before put Zeus to sleep at the bid. Philotes (Friendship.[7] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day). She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses. continuing cyclicly. Hypnos. Momus (Blame). Love).249–61.[5] In his description of Tartarus.1 Mythology and literature 10.1. who would have con47 . allowing her to cause Heracles (who was returning by sea from Laomedon's Troy) great misfortune. Nyx left. Oizys (Woe. and was the mother of other personified deities such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death). Apate (Deceit). For other uses. Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation. and Eris (Strife). Ker (Fate. Hypnos (Sleep). Death). Retribution). that she is feared by Zeus himself. 10. Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom. Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx.Chapter 10 Nyx For the water spirit Nix. see NYX (disambiguation). Nemesis (Indignation. He disturbed minds Hera of an old favor after she asks him to put Zeus Zeus only a few times after that always fearing Zeus and to sleep. held his 10. but reveal her as a figure of such exceptional power and beauty. re. Homer goes on to say that Zeus. Roman-era bronze statuette of Nyx velificans or Selene (Getty Villa) ding of Hera. Her appearances are sparse in surviving mythology. where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn).[8] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda. the Oneiroi (Dreams). fearing to anger Nyx.[1] Greek: Νύξ. Destiny).[6] and the homes of her children Hypnos and Thanatos. A shadowy figure. Nyx. who is Nyx’s daughter. see Neck (water spirit). when Hemera returned. the Moirai (Fates).[3] With Erebus (Darkness). Geras (Old Age). his mother.[4] Later.1 Hesiod In Hesiod's Theogony. the Hesperides (Evening. Zeus was furious and would have smitten Hypnos into the sea if he had not fled to Nyx.

moving the entire universe in an ecstatic dance to the rhythm of Nyx’s chanting. The classical scholar Walter Burk. the International Astronomical Union ert has speculated that the house of the goddess to which renamed one of Pluto's recently discovered moons the philosopher is transported is the palace of Nyx. Liddell. [9] Pausanias 1. trans. The name was hypothesis. Here she is also the mother of Eros. [4] Hesiod. Nyx Mons is located at latitude 30° North (as in Hesiod) or somewhere at the edge of the cosmos and longitude 48. must remain tentative. Jones and Ormerod. Nyx lurked in the background of other cults. hermaphrodite Orphic demiurge – was the child or father of Nyx. According to Pausanias. Theogony 746–750. Robert. [8] Hesiod.1. spelled with an “i” instead of a “y”.are attested for several deities. Nyx occupies a cave or adyton. [3] Hesiod. from perseus. as represented in the 10th-century Paris Psalter at the side of the Prophet Isaiah References • Aristophanes. 10. Theogony 758–759.3 In Greece. monstrous. Theogony 744–745.6) [13] Orphic Hymn 55. Adrasteia clashes cymbals and beats upon her tympanon. For other mythical aspects connected with Nyx. Scott. 4–5. 2006. Nyx.On June 21.48 CHAPTER 10. Nyx is also the first principle in the opening chorus of Aristophanes' The Birds. Nyx was only rarely the focus of cults. Cronus – who is chained within. NYX fronted Zeus with a maternal fury.[13] 10. which may be Orphic in inspiration.1). p.40.3 Notes [1] Oxford dictionary [2] νύξ. 4. [11] Pausanias 3. in honor of Nyx. Theogony 123. [5] Hesiod. [6] Hesiod. Nyx.2 Nyx in society 10.[10] The Spartans had a cult of Sleep and Death. Gantz. rather than Chaos. she had an oracle on the acropolis at Megara. 10. More often.[11] Cult titles composed of compounds of nyx. most notably Dionysus Nyktelios “nocturnal”[12] and Aphrodite Philopannyx “who loves the whole night”.2. beyond the ocean planet Venus. In them. [7] Hesiod. pp. 10.40. asleep and drunk on honey – dreams and prophesies. see Chaos (cosmogony) and Cosmogony and cosmology. however.2 Astronomy In 1997. to avoid conflict with the asteroid 3908 Nyx.2. 1918. Theogony 124–125. The Birds .5° East on the Venusian surface. poem of Parmenides. [12] Pausanias 1. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.6. Thus there was a statue called “Nyx” in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. conceived of as twins. in which she gives oracles.1 Cults 10.[9] Others Nyx took on an even more important role in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus. [10] Pausanias. Theogony 212–225.org. Outside the cave. is the first principle from which all creation emerges. Its di(as in later Orphism) may be echoed in the philosophical ameter is 875 km.38. this (S/2005 P 2) to Nix.1. Phanes – the strange.18. the International Astronomical Union approved the name Nyx for a mons (mountain/peak) feature on the The theme of Nyx’s cave or mansion. Henry George. Gantz.

2). Theogony. • Pausanias. Descriptions of Greece. Evelyn-White. “Nyx” 10.Harvard University Press..com 49 . Pierre. Cambridge. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. MA. Wiley-Blackwell. • Smith. William Heinemann Ltd. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. 1996. Orphicorum Fragmenta. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol.4. London (1873). EXTERNAL LINKS • Gantz. London. ISBN 978-0-63120102-1. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1996. Johns Hopkins University Press.. in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Olympos. 314 • Hesiod.10. • Otto Kern ed.4 External links Media related to Nyx at Wikimedia Commons • “Nyx” from Theoi. William. • Grimal. 1). • Simmons. “Nyx” p. 1914. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol.

com/Daimon/Philotes.theoi.html 50 . She is the goddess of affection and friendship. 11.Chapter 11 Philotes (mythology) Philotes (Greek: Φιλότης) is a minor Greek goddess.1 External links • http://www. She was a daughter of Nyx.

a strange kind of mane grew of itself. “Achlys”. see Achlys (plant). Death-Mist) treacherous flowers of the field. Boston. Then she was angry with the guardians of Bromios. 143 ff (trans. William. Dionysiaca 14. William. saw from on high the everchanging shape of Lyaios [Dionysos]. In Greek mythology. Here. she distilled poisoned drugs over their hair. long white teeth grew out of their jaws. the eternal Night (perhaps the Mist of Death. (1870). which fell before the eyes preceding death). Leonhard (1867). and from her nostrils the drip kept running. 12. and as such she was represented on the shield of Heracles: pale. she smeared a subtle magical ointment over their faces . and a horse’s tail sticking out straight from the loins and flogging the flanks of its shaggy-crested owner.3 See also • List of Greek mythological figures 12.[2] 12. the hair ran across their heads in tuft. and shed a sleep of enchantment over their heads. in Smith. . p. According to Hesiod. to every place. Shield of Heracles 264 ff (trans. who turns her all-seeing eye 51 • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith. etc.1 Hesiod’s Account Hesiod. and her shoulders thickly covered with dust. long nails on her fingers. and the first created being which existed even before Chaos. with chattering teeth. grinning forever. she was the personification of misery and sadness. dirty-dry. covering their necks with rough hair. [2] Schmitz. dismal and dejected. and ran down from the loins to feet underneath. 12 12. green and pale. their eyes widened under the horned forehead. and off her cheeks the blood dribbled to the ground. Achlys (Greek language: Ἀχλύς “mist”) was.2 Nonnus’ Account 12. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. MA. emaciated. Rouse) (Greek epic 5th century AD): [Hera spies the nurses of the infant god Dionysos:] Hera. 264. "article name needed ". ed. according to some ancient cosmogonies. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic 8th or 7th century BC): And beside them [the Keres (Deaths) and the Moirai (Fates) on the battlefield] was standing Akhlys (Achlys). and she stood there. Then they took the form of a creature with long ears. and weeping. bloody cheeks.5 Sources Nonnus. from the temples cow’s horns sprouted out.Chapter 12 Achlys For the plant genus named Achlys. fallen in on herself with hunger. She procured from Thessalian Akhlys (Achlys. knee-swollen.and changed their earlier human shape. swollen knees.[1] If she was a daughter of Nyx (Night) then she may have been numbered amongst the Keres. and knew all.4 References [1] Scut. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. and the dust that had gathered and lay in heaps on her shoulders was muddy with tears. and the nails were grown long on her hands.

52 12.6 External links • Theoi Project . ACHLYS .Akhlys CHAPTER 12.

and even Zeus putting Zeus to sleep. flowed through his cave. Hypnos (/ˈhɪpnɒs/. She was furious that Hercules. Hera 53 .1 Dwelling place According to Greek mythology Hypnos lived in a cave. The Oneiroi horse. The river Lethe. Hera was almost ready to trick Zeus. the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. During the war. It was Hera who had asked him to trick Zeus His wife. Aphrodite willingly agreed. so she devised a plot to trick him. he awoke.” At the entrance were a number of poppies and other hypnotic plants. In order to procure the charm. which awoke he was furious and went on a rampage looking for is Greek for “dreams. and asked her for a charm that would ensure that her trick would not fail. and offer. She then called for Aphrodite. Hera first dreams. the deity of Night. one made from ivory and the other from buckhorn.[2] 13.Phantasos appeared in the dreams of kings. Hypnos managed to avoid Zeus by hiding with Dreams and can take human form in dreams. So she had Hypnos marriage and birth. cave had two gates with which to send people dreams. he could take the shape of any animal includ. put on three brilliant pendants for earrings. made especially for her to make herself impossible to resist for Zeus. however. Thanatos (Θάνατος. The For other uses. who had tricked Zeus once before. and set blasts of angry winds upon the or relaxation. Hypnos’ mother was Nyx (Νύξ. She wove flowers through her hair. She told Aphrodite that she wanted the charm to help her parents stop fighting. Greek: Ὕπνος.offered him a beautiful golden seat that can never fall ing bears and tigers. Hera loathed her brother and husband. Nyx. she lied to Aphrodite because they sided on opposites sides of the war.3 Hypnos in the Iliad 13. the deity of Darkness. Pasithea is the deity of hallucination put Zeus to sleep. was one of the youngest of the Graces the first time as well. Phobetor. So she went and washed herself with ambrosia and anointed herself with oil. Phobetor is his mother. When Zeus Hypnos’ three sons were known as the Oneiroi. the goddess of love. Hera called on Hypnos and asked him to help her by Nyx was a dreadful and powerful goddess. Hypnos used his powers to trick Zeus. whose mansion does not see the rising.2 Family Hypnos lived next to his twin brother. “Night”). Pasithea. For the thoroughbred race. Zeus. but she needed the help of Hypnos. 13. Phantasos was known for creating apart and a footstool to go with it. [1] “sleep”) was the personification of sleep. and donned a wondrous robe.Chapter 13 Hypnos “Somnus” redirects here. He refused this first fake dreams full of illusions. and his father was Erebus. sacked the city of the Trojans. Zeus’ and was promised to him by Hera. see Hypnos (disambiguation). “death personified”) in the underworld. In Greek mythology. Morpheus.[3] This river is known as the river of forgetfulness. nor does it see the “lightsome noon. Hypnos was able to trick him and help the Danaans win the Trojan war. The underworld is translated into English as Hell in the Septuagint Bible. His dwelling had no door or gate so that he might not be awakened by the creaking of hinges. This made Hypnos reluctant to accept the personification of nightmares and created frightening Hera’s proposal and help her trick Zeus again. see Somnus (horse). nor the setting sun. lived in a cave at the shores of the Ocean in the West. remembering the last time he tricked Zeus. he was furious when feared entering her realm. the dreams. sea while Heracles was still sailing home. However.” Morpheus is the Winged God of Hypnos. She decided that in order to trick him she needed to make him so enamoured with her that he would fall for the trick. Hypnos was reluctant because the last time he had put the god to sleep. before they could do their work and send out [4] first Hypnos had to put the recipient to sleep. in the underworld. who is the goddess of son.

“not” + somnus “sleep”). which is part of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston’s collection. N. This bronze head has wings sprouting from his temples and the hair is elaborately arranged.4 Hypnos in art CHAPTER 13.” [10] “Insomnia | Define Insomnia at Dictionary. whom he had always wanted to marry. God of the Sea..[11] 13. Retrieved 2014-01-27. n. Zeus was extremely taken by her and suspected nothing as Hypnos was shrouded in a thick mist and hidden upon a pine tree that was close to where Hera and Zeus were talking. [6] British Museum Highlights [7] “Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. Bernard Knox. from Civitella d'Arna near Perugia in Italy.p. N. This is where Hypnos leaves the story. referring to the fact that when hypnotized. John Dryden. The Iliad. meaning sleepy or tending to cause sleep. a person is put into a sleep-like state (hypnos “sleep” + -osis “condition”). Thanks to Hypnos helping to trick Zeus. Web.com”. 15 Oct.” British Museum −. In this vase. with Hypnos’ help. Hesiod’s Theogony. god of dreams 13.[9] Additionally.reference. the English word "insomnia" comes from the name of his Latin counterpart.com.[8] 13. Mantinband. 1st-2nd Century AD. Ed.[5] 13. He told her that he was never in love with anyone as much as he loved her at that moment. some tying in knots and some hanging freely from his head. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. leaving Poseidon eager to help the Dananns. Hypnos traveled to the ships of the Achaeans to tell Poseidon. Bronze Head of Hypnos in the British Museum.54 finally got him to agree by promising that he would be married to Pasithea. Hera went to see Zeus on Gargarus. He took her in his embrace and Hypnos went to work putting him to sleep. and that she should postpone her visit and stay there with him so they could enjoy each other’s company. Trans.reference.d. “Book the Eleventh. now kept in the British Museum in London. Dictionary. (in. [9] “Hypnosis | Define Hypnosis at Dictionary.” Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus.d. a goddess of sloth and attendant of Hypnos • Hesiod’s Theogony • Morpheus.[7] One of the most famous works of art featuring Hypnos is a bronze head of Hypnos himself. are vases. [4] Ovid. Dictionary. Caldwell. with Hera in his arms. HYPNOS sleeps.reference. Dictio- Hypnos appears in numerous works of art. An example of one vase that Hypnos is featured on is called “Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. Metemorphoses. Now. the war changed its course to Hera’s favor. New York: Philosophical Library. that he could now help the Danaans and give them a victory while Zeus was sleeping. [5] Homer. Zeus said that she could go any time. one of the youngest Graces. Liddell. Robert. Retrieved 2014-01-27.7 References [1] ὕπνος. 15 Oct. and Zeus never found out that Hypnos had tricked him one more time. Sir Samuel Garth. 2013. 1962. While this went on. Robert Fagles. Somnus.com.6 See also • Aergia. 1717.” Trans. Concise Dictionary of Greek Literature.com. [3] Richard S. Scott. New York: Viking. She told him that she wanted to go help her parents stop quarreling and she stopped there to consult him because she didn't want to go without his knowledge and have him be angry with her when he found out.. n. 1990. Cambridge. [2] James H.[10] as well as a few less-common words such as “somnolent”. most of which nary. Zeus asked Hera what she was doing there and why she had come there from Olympus and she told him the same lie she told her daughter Aphrodite. Hypnos made her swear by the river Styx and call on gods of the underworld to be witnesses so that he would be ensured that he would marry Pasithea.[6] [8] “Bronze Head of Hypnos. 2013.com”. dripping Lethean water upon the head of Ariadne as she . Web.com”. Cambridge. MA: Focus Information Group. Henry George. the topmost peak of Mount Ida. 1987. Trans. Retrieved 2014-01-27.p. Hypnos is shown as a winged god [11] “Somnolent | Define Somnolent at Dictionary.5 Words derived from Hypnos The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name.

55 . EXTERNAL LINKS 13.8.com • 3D model of Bronze head of Hypnos via laser scan of a cast of British Museum’s bronze.13.8 External links • Hypnos at theoi.

as in Dius Fidius. i. Di. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis. a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography 14.1 Etymology Diana (pronounced with long 'ī' and 'ā') is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman however. virginity. 14. At the same time. Latona. Diana was born with her twin brother impassibility.[3] The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. the woodland god. Dianic Wicca. and her prefana. deity Artemis). On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια (diwia) is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Diana therefore reflects the heavenly world (dimythology (in common with the Greek religion and their uum means sky or open air) in its sovereignty. inaccessibility. from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus. The Diana of Versailles. is named for her.[5] since they did retain a particular sort of influence over the world and mankind.e. meaning bright sky or daylight. dies.[1] though she had an independent origin in Italy. and " diurnal”.[2] It is rooted in Indoeuropean *d(e)y(e)w. daylight). In Roman mythology. Dea Dia and in the neuter form dium meaning the sky. referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. According to Georges Dumézil[4] it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods. erence for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred Oak groves were especially sacred to her. Minerva and Vesta. did not share the fate of other celestial gods in Indoeuropean religions—that of becoming dei otiosi or gods without practical purpose. daughter of Jupiter and ters as the fates of mortals and states. She was one of the three maiden goddesses. while keeping the original features of celestial divinities. and indifference towards such secular matApollo on the island of Delos. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. who swore never to marry. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her conwomen.Chapter 14 Diana (mythology) deities: Egeria the water nymph. her servant and assistant midwife. corresponding to later 'divus’. Diana (lt. being associated with wild animals and woodland. a largely feminist form of the practice. supremacy.2 Mythology The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features.nection with light. 'dius’. and having the power to talk to and control animals. she is seen as active in ensuring the succession 56 . transcendent heavenly power and abstention from direct rule in worldly matters. According to woods. Such gods. (god). and Virbius. (day. the moon and childbirth. (daytime). “heavenly” or “divine”) was the goddess of the hunt.

The institution of the rex Nemorensis. This regality is also linked to the cult of trees. Catullus wrote a poem to Diana in which she than one alias: Latonia. She also later became that of James G. function: he is born first and will die last. although a female deity. himself born a slave. the figure of Janus. Diana. Frazer. H. Another testimony to the high antiquity of her cult is to be found in the lex regia of king Tullus Hostilius that condemns those guilty of incest to the sacratio to the goddess.3 Physical description In Rome the cult of Diana should have been almost as old as the city itself as Varro mentions her in the list of deities to whom king Titus Tatius vowed a shrine.[6] Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire. Being placed on the Aventine.[6] According to Dumezil the forerunner of all frame gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image (avatar) of the Vedic god Dyaus. who links Diana with the male a moon goddess. after breaking a branch from a certain tree of the wood.[12] when King Servius Tullius. The crescent moon. particularly oaks. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. bestowing on him worn as a diadem. 14. Diana’s sacerdos (priest) in the Arician wood. BC. Ovid. sometimes origin to kingship and the first king. regal prerogatives. Having renounced the world. Trivia.4. associated Dumezil’s interpretation appears deliberately to ignore with wild animals and woodlands. dedicated As a goddess of hunting. who held the position until someone else challenged and killed him in a duel.[7] 2.[8] Frazer identifies the two with the has more [11] Luna.4 Worship F. This form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources. in his roles of father and king. the institution of the Rex Nemorensis and related ritual should be seen as related to the theme of the dying god and the kings of May. prayed for an easy delivery. This looks odd as Dumézil’s also became the goddess of childbirth and ruled over the definition of the concept of frame god would fit well countryside. Pairault in her essay on Diana qualifies Dumézil’s theory as "impossible to verify". and carrying a quiver on her shoulder. Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13. she was portrayed The Scandinavian god Heimdallr performs an analogous deer or hunting dogs.[9] 14. Iuno. preserving mankind through childbirth and royal succession. She is often portrayed holding a bow. Diana was initially just the hunting goddess. Diana often wears a short tunic her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century and hunting boots. She god Janus as a divine couple.Gallo-Roman bronze statuette of Diana (latter 1st century) mortal being while retaining the duty of ensuring that his dynasty is preserved and that there is always a new king for each generation.14. He too gives as beautiful and youthful. has exactly the same functions.g. he attained the status of an im. and thus outside the . In this interpretative schema. supreme heavenly couple Jupiter-Juno and additionally ties in these figures to the overarching Indoeuropean religious complex. It is noteworthy that the list includes Luna and Diana Lucina as separate entities. 1. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who. is a major attribute of the goddess. e. WORSHIP 57 of kings and in the preservation of humankind through the protection of childbirth. supplanting Titan goddess Luna. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations. once pregnant. accompanied by a [10] Like Venus. Lucina.

Octavius Verus. This fact is of difficult interpretation. all united by a both Diana of the Aventine and Diana Nemorensis were horizontal bar. Artemis and even Athena. what person is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper (guardian) of the temple of the great Diana and of her image that fell from . the product of the direct or indirect influence of the cult of The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this imArtemis spread by the Phoceans among the Greek towns age to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan of Campania Cuma and Capua.[28] At Cuma the Sybil is the priestess of both Phoibos and Trivia. Tauropolos is an ancient epithet attached to Hecate. The meaning of Tauropolos denotes an Asi- Worship of Diana is mentioned in the Bible. she was never officially transferred to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii.[14] which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct.[24] As far as Nemi’s Diana is concerned there are two different versions.[18] his. from Tarquinia. The formation of the Latin should be related to the presence of the cult in Campania.[29] Hesiod[30] and Stesichorus[31] tell the story according to which after her death Iphigenia was divinised under the name of Hecate.e. Ephesian metal smiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. Diana of the wood was soon thoroughly Hellenized. in whom three different elements are ashave to be traced to the legend of Orestes and Iphigenia sociated. If she is accompagroups of Etruscans who fought for supremacy. he said. It is remarkable that the composition of this ana looks very elaborated and certainly Hellenic. the priest of Artemis Artemidoros of Ephesus.extremity.[13] where her priest.[27] According to the legend Orestes founded Nemi together with Iphigenia. at Nemi is apparently that of the Artemis Tauropolos. fact which would support the assumption that Artemis Tauropolos had a real ancient alliance with the heroine. Diana was usually depicted for It looks as if the confrontation happened between two educated Romans in her Greek guise. and slaves. Two heads found in the sanctuary[33] and the over to the Etruscans and the Latins by the 6th and 5th Roman theatre at Nemi. as Diana Tifatina was appelled Trivia in an imperial League led by Laevius (or Baebius) Egerius[19] happened Virbialis dedunder the influence of an alliance with the tyrant of Cuma age inscription which mentions a flamen icated by eques C. Georg Wissowa proposed the explanation that it might be because the first slaves of the Romans must have been Latins of the neighbouring tribes. A coin minted by P.[17] However in Ephesus too there was the same custom of the asylum (ασυλιον).[15] “a process which culminated with the appearance of Diana beside Apollo in the first lectisternium at Rome”. The deer may also offer a covert reference to the legend of the coming of Orestes to Nemi and of the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon). lady of the herds. New English Bible). by Strabo[25] and Servius Honoratus. shouting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28. Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a torical and archaeological evidence point to the fact that central deity not immediately identifiable.[16] Diana was regarded with great reverence and was a patroness of lower-class citizens. “Men of Ephesus. lend support to this interpretation of an archaic The origin of the ritual of the rex Nemorensis should Diana Trivia. Strabo’s version looks to be the most authoritative as he had access to first hand primary sources on the sanctuaries of Artemis. while an analogous Latin concept of Diana Trivia seems uncerleague does not reflect that of the Latin people who took sources reflect a Hellenised character of the part in the Latiar or Feriae Latinae given by Pliny and tain. Diana transformed Acteon into a stag and set his the temple of Saturn. The literary amplification[23] reveals a confused religious background: different Artemis were conflated under the epithet.[21] It should thence be considered a political for. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia. like that of Bacchus.[36] The theological complex present in Diand Dionysius. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BC has been acknowledged as representing the archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis. jealously rioted in her defense. such as the siege of Aricia by Porsenna's son Arruns. where the blood.[34] which have a hollow on their centuries BC. as in the Diana of Versailles (illustration. slaves could receive asylum in her temples.[32] It represents Artemis with the bow at one According to Françoise Hélène Pairault’s study. back. In Acts of the Apostles. meant that Diana’s cult essentially remained a foreign one. This is reflected in hunting. This religious complex is in turn supported by the triple statue of Artemis-Hecate.Though some Roman patrons ordered marble replicas of mation and not a traditional society founded on links of the specifically Anatolian “Diana” of Ephesus. The presence of a Hellenised Diana at Nemi more than that of Hippolitos. it has not as its leader the rex Nemorensis but a dictator pomerium. who was her priestess in Taurid and her human paragon.58 CHAPTER 14. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) atic goddess with lunar attributes. which in turn passed it models. Latinus. After the city secretary (γραμματεύς) quieted the crowd. who saw her bathing the inhumation of his bones in the Roman Forum near naked.[35] Cuma too had a [20] Aristodemos and is probably connected to the politHecate and certainly had strict contacts ical events at end of the 6th century narrated by Livy cult of a chthonic with Latium. Temple of Artemis stood. i. those nied by a deer. Vulci and Caere (allied with the Greeks above right) this is because Diana was the patroness of of Capua) and those of Clusium.[22] The cult introduced by Orestes own hunting dogs to kill him.[26] The only possible interpretatio graeca of high antiquity concerning Diana Nemorensis could have been the one based upon this ancient aspect of deity of light. the Rex Nemorensis remained. called plebeians. master of wildlife. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes. as Latin [37] goddess.

the god of the Sun. Therefore many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins.14. Diana was said to have • On Mount Tifata. Dame Habond. where she was worshipped as Diana of herself she divided the darkness and the light. original territory of the city. Bronze.[40] • At Évora.a.[43] Today there is a branch of Wicca named for her. Diana was believed to have loved and ruled with her brother Apollo.[49] 14.“Isis Astarte Diana Hecate Demeter Kali Inanna”. of Diana. keeping for Ephesus and the temple Artemision used to be one herself the darkness of creation and creating her brother of world’s seven wonders. Its location is remarkable as the Aventine is situated outside the pomerium.6. LEGACY 59 heaven ?" (Acts 19:36) 14. In Italy the old religion of Stregheria embraced the goddess Diana as Queen of the Witches. the Leonese and Portuguese word for “water to the cult of Nicevenn (a. which is characterized by an exclusive focus on the feminine aspect of the Divine. also near Tusculum.[39] where she is referred to with the archaic Latin name of deva Cornisca and where existed a collegium of Wicca worshippers.6 Legacy 14.[46] created the world of her own being having in herself the seeds of all creation yet to come.[44] Stregheria • A sacred wood mentioned by Livy[45] ad compitum Anagninum (near Anagni). the light.6. Augustus Saint-Gaudens.1 In religion Both the Romanian words for "fairy" Zânǎ[50] and Diana’s cult has been related in Early Modern Europe Sânzianǎ.[48] • At Tibur (Tivoli). • Colle di Corne near Tusculum. in order to comply with the tradition that Diana was a goddess common to all Latins and not exclusively of the Romans. . i.k. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba Longa before the town was destroyed by the Romans. etc.93). New York City. and the Spanish word for “shooting target” Herodiana. The Arician wood sanctuary near the lake of Nemi was Latin confederal as testified by the dedicatory epigraph quoted by Cato.[42] • At Lavinium. Portugal. Other sanctuaries we know about are listed below: Diana (1892 .[38] She had a shrine in Rome on the Aventine hill. Perchta. where she is referred to as Diana Opifera Nemorensis. Apollo. near Capua in Campania. according to tradition dedicated by king Servius Tullius. It was said that out of • In Ephesus. nymph” xana.2 In language 14.). She was related to myths of a female and "morning call" (diana) seem to come from the name Wild Hunt. Metropolitan Museum of Art.[41] • Mount Algidus.e.6. witches being the wise women healers of the time.[47] Diana’s name is also used as the third divine name in a Wiccan energy chant.5 Sanctuaries See also: Diana Nemorensis Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes.

and Diana’s assault on Sylvia’s affections for the shepherd Amyntas. in terms of her chastity. as goddess of the moon. mistress of Henri of France. Starts: 'When first Diana leaves her bed./ that would suffer her poor knight surprised. he writes 'Browsed by none but Dian’s fawns’ (line 12) • Speaking of his wife. Diana is used in comparison to the 17th/early 18th century everyday woman Swift satirically writes about. The nude goddess. “Diana’s lip is not more smooth and rubious” A chariot clock depicting the goddess. Diana is also a character in the 1876 Léo Delibes ballet Sylvia. • In “Castaway” by Augusta Webster.[51] . Diana leads the Trojan Brutus to Britain. In literature • In "The Knight’s Tale" in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. minions of the moon” who are governed by their “noble and chase mistress the moon under whose countenance [they] steal”. • Diana Soren.wish chastely and love dearly. At Versailles she was incorporated into the Olympian iconography with which Louis XIV. Dian no queen of virgins.6. Falstaff styles himself and his highway-robbing friends as “Diana’s foresters... • In Henry IV. Prince of Tyre Diana appears to Pericles in a vision. • In All’s Well That Ends Well Diana appears as a figure in the play and Helena makes multiple allusions to her. including the opera L'arbore di Diana. the main character in Carlos Fuentes' novel Diana o la cazadora soltera (Diana. “Her name that was as fresh as Diana’s visage.' • In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”). 1796. In Shakespeare • In Shakespeare’s Pericles. or The Lone Huntress). DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) In the arts • In the sonnet “To Science” by Edgar Allan Poe. • Diana is referenced in As You Like It to describe how Rosalind feels about marriage.” (Line 128) Diana Reposing by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry.” The Steward also says. Emily prays to Diana to be spared from marriage to either Palamon or Arcite.. identified by the crescent moon in her hair and the bow and quiver at her side.” It can be assumed that 'Dian' is simply a shortening of 'Diana' since later in the play when Parolles’ letter to Diana is read aloud it reads 'Dian'. Othello the Moor says. is now begrim'd and black as my own face. where he and his people settle. Since the Renaissance the myth of Diana has often been represented in the visual and dramatic arts. • In Jonathan Swift’s poem: “The Progress of Beauty”. the Apollo-like “Sun King” liked to surround himself. science is said to have “dragged Diana from her car”. Part 1.. gentlemen of the shade. women who claim they are virtuous despite never having been tempted are referred to as “Dianas. that your Dian/was both herself and love. “Now. without/ rescue in the first assault or ransom afterward.. telling him to go to her temple and tell his story to her followers. The plot deals with Sylvia. Desdemona. & at Anet.. Diana’s image figured prominently at the châteaus of Fontainebleau.. one of Diana’s nymphs and sworn to chastity. In the 16th century.3 CHAPTER 14. Dian. such as.. from thy altar do I fly.. reclines on a blue drapery. France. • Diana is referred to in Twelfth Night when Orsino compares Viola (in the guise of Cesario) to Diana. Chenonceau. is described as having the same personality as the goddess. in deference to Diane de Poitiers. c..” and ".” • There is a reference to Diana in Much Ado About Nothing where Hero is said to seem like 'Dian in her orb'.. ". • In “Ode” by John Keats.60 14.

Brunelli. or Callisto. Nicholas Poussin made use of her myth as a major theme. Most depictions of Diana in art featured the stories of Diana and Actaeon. unless I be obtained by the manner of my father’s will”. • A sculpture by Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain can be seen at the Musée du Louvre. Some famous work of arts with a Diana theme are : • Diana and Actaeon. Diana and Her Nymph Departing From Hunt. depicting Diana being surprised by Acteon. and Diana Getting Out of Bath by François Boucher. • Diana and Callisto. saying that “She hath Dian’s wit”. On the mantel he painted an image of Diana riding in a chariot possibly pulled by a stag. goddess of the moon. Romeo describes Rosaline. 61 In painting and sculpture Diana has been one of the most popular themes in art. Antonio Allegri da Correggio painted the chamber of the Abbess Giovanna Piacenza’s apartment. The character Hippolyta states “And then the moon. Diana and Callisto. created by Paolo Persico. Diana and Her Nymphs Surprised By A Faun by Rubens. Diana Resting After Bath. representing Commerce. • Diana and Callisto. Beaux Arts architecture and garden design (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used classic references in a modernized form. Painters like Titian. François Boucher. (I. She refers to Diana. Italy. • In The Merchant of Venice Portia states “I will die as chaste as Diana. He was commissioned in 1519 to paint the ceiling and mantel of the fireplace. He refers to her becoming a nun. It now is on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art • A sculpture by French sculptor François-Léon Sicard in the Archibald Fountain. • The famous fountain at Palace of Caserta. • Diana and Endymion by Poussin. Sydney NSW Australia • In Parma at the convent of San Paolo. by Giampietrino. which is a perpetual hunt for advantage and profits. • Diana Bathing With Her Nymphs by Rembrandt. who is often depicted with a silver hunting bow.14. LEGACY • The goddess is also referenced indirectly in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. In beaux arts Diana as the Huntress. like to a silver bow new bent in Heaven”. • Diana and Endymion by Johann Michael Rottmayr. and Diana. Two of the most popular of the period were of Pomona (goddess of orchards) as a metaphor for Agriculture.or depicted her resting after hunting.6. with the goddesse Diana having connotations of chastity. Peter Paul Rubens. In the same play the character Hermia is told by the Duke Theseus that she must either wed the character Demetrius “Or on Diana’s alter to protest for aye austerity and single life”. . • “Diana of the Tower” a copper statue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens was created as the weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden in 1893.ii) • In Romeo and Juliet. and Death of Actaeon by Titian. Pietro Solari.

8 References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. 1972.[53] [9] J. [7] Titus Livius Ab Urbe Condita 1:31-1:60. • William Moulton Marston used the Diana myth as a basis for Wonder Woman.7 See also • Artemis • Diana Nemorensis • Dianic Wicca • Janus • Domus de Janas • Pachamama In opera • Diana is a character in Hippolytus and Aricia. [8] J. Pomona (left. who help Marius Titus. 12. poses as Diana/Artemis for the artist Fergus.[52] • The Royal Netherlands Air Force 323rd Squadron is named Diana and uses a depiction of Diana with her bow in its badge.62 CHAPTER 14. Diana is the feline companion to Chibiusa. 1954. . [10] “Artemis”. Pairault below cites three. • DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. symbolizing agriculture). is named after Diana. She poses with a bow and arrow. In film • In Jean Cocteau's 1946 film La Belle et la Bête it is Diana’s power which has transformed and imprisoned the beast. an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau. the goddess of hunting. The Book People. • In his 1968 film La Mariée était en noir François Truffaut plays on this mythological symbol. Diana is depicted protected by rams and other animals. Julie Kohler. The theme of Diana is carried throughout the album. 1. This choice seems fitting for Julie. fulfill his duty to Rome. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) • The character of Diana from the video game League of Legends is largely based on the goddess. (in particular chapter “The king of May”). 14. magic and the divine king Routledge. her brother drew an analogy between the ancient goddess of hunting and his sister . Frazer The golden bough 1922.“the most hunted person of the modern age”. Diana is the daughter of Artemis and Luna. 1. [3] H. 1995. • She also is one of the main gods in the popular video game Ryse. [6] Ovid Fasti III. 215. chaps. F. 14. chap. Haydock. Contrary G. Geza Roheim Animism. played by Jeanne Moreau. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris 1974. 1974. • In the manga and anime series Sailor Moon. and Diana (symbolizing commerce) as building decoration. [2] G. part 3. Princess of Wales in 1997. part 3. All of these characters are advisers to rulers of the kingdom of the moon and therefore have moonassociated names. 1912.Dumézil La religion Romaine archaique Paris. Rousseau. 14. Usagi’s daughter. a character beset by revenge. 16. • For the album art of progressive metal band Protest the Hero's second studio album Fortress.1. part 3. scribd. [5] Mircea Eliade Traite' d'histoire des religions Paris. London. [4] G. chap. Frazer Dying gods. • Diana/Artemis appears at the end of the 'Pastoral Symphony' segment of Fantasia. [11] “Latin Oration”. Retrieved 2012-11-11. Other • In the funeral oration of Diana. an airgun company. while wearing white.KG. of which Fergus becomes the fourth victim.G. p.com.6.4 • The character of Diana is the principal character in the children’s novel The Moon Stallion by Brian Hayles (1978) and the BBC Television series of the same name Diana is played by the actress Sarah Sutton. 262-271. the main character.

(accessed November 27. 425-471. Lucidi Memorie storiche dell'antichissimo municipio ora terra dell'Ariccia e delle sue colonie Genzano e Nemi Rome 1796 p.RNLAF 323rd squadron”. Catullus 34. [29] Aeneis VI 35. [36] Dionysius Hal. 76 text 82.v. “The Goddess Diana. Riis who cites E. United States of America: Barnes & Noble. Alföldi"Diana Nemorensis” in American journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. [30] Hesiod Catalogueedited by Augusto Traversa. 1. 63 [31] Orestia cited by Philodemos Περι εύσεβείας 24 Gomperz II 52: fragment 38 B. F. 2012). “On the Origin of Diana”. 1919. Carmen Saeculare. Dionysius Halicarnasseus V 36. [39] Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia XVI. Pometius.14. 448 citing Jean Bayet Origines de l' Hercule romain p. [42] Horace. Nilson Griechische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1955 p. [24] Jean Bayet “Les origines de l'Arcadisme romain” p. Theophania Publishing. P. Photius Lexicon s. Naples 1951 p. [52] “DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. 975. fragment 23. in a surviving quote by the late grammarian Priscian. [38] Cato Origins fr. Wilbur L. " Witches Of The Craft. [48] “TRADITIONAL WICCA . Abel Orphica. P. Blue Moon [50] Zânǎ in DEX '98 and NODEX [51] Cross. Retrieved 17 July 2014. Aradia: The Gospel of Witches. [45] Livy Ab Urbe Condita XXVII 4. [33] Excavation of 1791 by cardinal Despuig not mentioned in the report: cf. [47] Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition. Silius Italicus Punica IV 367. Leland. 2357. Diana fig.part 3. Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome. [18] “Diana Nemorensis. pp. N.8. 177-192) p 178. Lingua Latina V. The Yale Shakespeare: the complete works. II 22. L. VI 136. των ποιμνίων επστάσις. 242 and Ovid’s Fasti III 327-331.” [19] The historicity of this character is questioned by Dumézil as the name Egerius looks suspect to him. 485 ff. Pausanias I 43. 181). η από μέρους. 2010 [28] Servius ad Aeneidem VI 136. (accessed November 27. Darehnberg -Saglio-Pottier Dictionnaire des antiquités s. [20] Livy II 14. Tiburtis..v. 3537.KG THE DIANA TRADEMARK.2633. 280 n. [25] Strabo V 249: αφιδρύματα της ταυροπόλου.43. US. Ennius apud Varro De Lingua Latina VII 16. Arthur E. (Gordon 1932:178 note. Merkelbach. REFERENCES [12] The date coincides with the founding dates celebrated at Aricium. pp. Hymni magici V in Selenen 4. Aricinus. [15] The Potnia Theron aspect of Hellenic Artemis is represented in Capua and Signia. the cult there was of antiqua religione in Pliny’s Natural History. Laurens. [16] Gordon 1932:179. ISBN 1-56619-104-1. [13] Her cult at Aricia was first attested in Latin literature by Cato the Elder. Hyginus Fabulae 261. [49] Charles G. Coranus. Suidas above. Carmina I 21. Yalouris Athena als Herrin der Pferde in Museum Helveticum 7 1950 p. 365–399. [46] Roy Merle Peterson The cults of Campania Rome. Rutulus. and p. 62: “Lucum Dianum In nemore Aricino Egerius Baebius (some scholars prefer to read Laevius) Tusculanus dedicavit dictator Latinus. déesse latine. déesse hellénisée” in Mélanges d' archéologie et d'histoire 81 1969 p. [53] “F-16 Units . Supposed Greek origins for the Aricia cult are strictly a literary topos. [35] CIL X 3795. Joyce. Ardeatis. [41] Hifler. [17] as quoted by Dumézil La religion romaine archaique Paris. 97 ff. [44] CIL. Tauropolai. Hi populi communiter: Tusculanus.” COMPANY | THE DIANA TRADEMARK. West Fragmenta Hesiodea Oxonii 1967. [22] Servius ad Aeneidem II 116. [21] Pliny Naturalis Historia III 5 68-70. Gordon. H. xliv. [34] NSA 1931 p. chap. 322-328. Tuaropolos. 137-144. E. 5-9. 1-4. [40] CIL. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 242. M. 99.v. [43] CIL XIV. :η Άρτεμις εν Ταύροις της Σκυθίας τιμωμένη. η ότι η αυτη τη σελήνη εστι καί εποχειται ταύροις. Scholiasta ad Aristophanem Lysistrata 447. [26] Suidas s. CIL XIV.2112. [37] Servius Ad Aeneidem IV 511. Lucanus Pharsalia III 86 “qua sublime nemus Scythicae qua regna Dianae”. VII 6. 1. 4: the people of Aricia help Aristdemos in bringing home the Etruscan booty.CLASS 8”. 1974. Wicca. 91. Hymni I in Hecaten 7. 5-6. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 63 (1932. 15. 7. (1993). 2012). 259-261 platesVI a-b. [27] Hesichius s. [32] A. Valerius Flaccus Argonauticae II 305. From The Witches Voice. [14] commune Latinorum Dianae templum in Varro.net. Pairault p. finds at Valle Giardino. [23] Ovid Metamorphoses XIV 331-2 Scythicae regnum nemorale Dianae. f-16. in the 5th century BC. pp. 4. R.v. M. . VIII 362.135. Greek cities of Magna Graecia.

Gordon Local Cults in Aricia University of California Publications in Classical Archaeology 2 1934 p. • R. Frazer Balder the Beautiful II London 1913 p. 169-173. Collection Latomus 45 Bruxelles 1960 p.. Latte Römische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1960 p. • J. • K. Gordon “On the Origin of Diana” in Transactions of the AMerican Philological Association 63 1932 p. 93-172. • A. 1ff. Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich 1912 p. 300 ff. 307 ff. 69 ff. la Diane latine” in Hommages á Jean Bayet. Gagé “Apollon Romain” in BÉFAR 182 Paris 1955.. 398 ff. Feb. 55. Bayet Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine Paris 1957 p. • J.. • E.. 302 ff. • F.E. • G.E. 650 ff. Alföldi “Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. 12 ff. Morpurgo “Nemus Aricinum” in MonAntLincei 13 1903 c. 39ff. Momigliano “Sul dies natalis del santuario federale di Diana sull' Aventino” in RAL 17 1962 p. J. Capoue préromaine” in BÉFAR 154 Paris 1942 p. March Apr. • A. Paribeni “A note on Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archeology 65 1961 p. p. Alföldi Early Rome and the Latins Ann Arbor 1964 p. • L. Heurgon in Magna Graecia 1969 Jan. 198 ff. 20 ff. • P. • J. • A. • G. Altheim Griechischen Götter im alten Rom Giessen 1930 p. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) 14.10 External links • Landscape with Diana and Callisto painting • Diana and her Nymphs painting • The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1150 images of Diana . 387 ff..64 14. 1ff. 47-100. 95 ff. • J. • A. 137-144.9 Bibliography • A. 177ff. Heurgon “Recherhes sur. Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1966 p. Riis “The Cult Image of Diana Nemorensis” in Acta Archaeologica Kopenhagen 37 1966 p. CHAPTER 14. Schilling “Une victime des vicissitudes politiques. • J. 1969 p. Merlin “L'Aventin dans l'antiquité" Paris BÉFAR 97 1906. • A.G.

as counterposed sovereign power would be reflected in the dichotomy Varuna-Mitra in Vedic religion and in Rome in the dito Jupiter. lists 4th century CE). The god of lightning.[19] The content of this section is adapted from the entry Monte 65 . Summanus also received a sacrifice of two black oxen or wethers. The temple of Summanus itself was struck by lightning Archeological excavations have found a sanctuary area in 197 BCE.According to Martianus Capella. offered to him as a token of propitiation: the wheel might [18] falls upon people and cities”.[1] His chotomy Summanus-Dius Fidius. daylight and legalistic aspect. The first gods of these precise nature was unclear even to Ovid. the west of the Circus Maximus. and one and was continuously active til late antiquity (at least the of the nine gods of thunder. mysterious The temple of Summanus was dedicated during the aspect of sovereignty while the second ones would reflect Pyrrhic War c. The area was one of the last strongholds of ancient religion in Italy as is shown by the fact that Vicenza had no bishop until 590 CE. where indeed it was found on the very spot indicated by them. This identification is taken up by later writers roof of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been struck such as Camões (“If in Summanus’ gloomy realm / Sever[5] by a lightningbolt. be a solar symbol. Iupiter Summanus and the Manes . in summer solstice. the god of diurnal (daylight) thunder. connected to heavenly sovereignty. but with the construction of a temple that was more magnificent than that of Summanus. violent and awe-inspiring element of the gods of the first function. represent the uncanny. the day before the [17] est punishment you now endure …") and Milton. The double aspect of heavenly In ancient Roman religion. The local flora is very peculiar due to Summanus among gods he considers of Sabine origin. “hand”. round cakes called summanalia.[2] pairs would incarnate the violent. perhaps on the slope [16] Summanus is anof the Aventine.Georges Dumézil[15] has argued that Summanus would ley’s fictional god. located in the Alps near Vicenza (Veneto.[12] Paulus Diaconus considers him a The mountain top is frequently hit by lightningbolts.[9] 15. Dark victims were typically offered to chthonic deities. however. The haruspices announced that it had been hurled into the Tiber River. 278 BCE on June 20. were manus. Every June 20. made a simile to describe Satan visiting Rome: “Just so Sum[6] of flour.[10] that dates back to the first Iron Age (9th century BCE) Pliny thought that he was of Etruscan origin. of the myth of Pluto and Proserpina. It seems the temple had been dedi.[8] Cicero recounts that the clay statue of the god which stood on the roof of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was struck by a lightningbolt: its head was nowhere to be seen. to the custom of ancient time pilgrims of bringing flowers whom king Titus Tatius dedicated altars (arae) in conse. wrapped in a smoking whirlwind of blue flame.[14] or sub-. nocturnal.[3][4] It stood at its reassuring. For Brian Lum. Summanus (Latin: Summānus) was the god of nocturnal thunder. Jupiter became more honored.Chapter 15 Summanus This article is about the Roman deity. The story looks to be an adaptation manus.[13] mountain has a deep grotto (named Bocca Lorenza) in The name Summanus is thought to be from Summus Ma. quence of a votum. see Brian Lumley deities#Summanus. other name for Pluto as the “highest” (summus) of the cated because the statue of the god which stood on the Manes.[11] Varro.from their own native lands afar.[7] Saint Augustine records that in earlier times Summanus had been more exalted than Jupiter.1 Summanus and Mount Summano Traditionally Mount Summano (elevation 1291 m. “under” + lost and disappeared.). Italy) is considered a site of the cult of god Pluto.which according to a local legend a young shepherdess got nium “the greatest of the Manes". milk and honey and shaped as wheels.

320 [4] Pliny Nat. Loeb Classical Library. I 10. Iul. this latter kind being more rare. [15] Myth et epopée vol. p. Mitra-Varuna: essai sur deux representations indoeuropeennes de la souverainetè Paris 1948 2nd. 221. City of God IV 23 [9] Cicero De Divinatione I 10 [10] Livy AUC XXXII 29. nocturna Summano.14). that there are nine Gods who discharge thunder-storms. 47 (2002). [3] Ovid fasti VI 729-731. Livy Periochae XIV. see Orlin. Milano 1977 p. [19] Lucio Puttin Monte Summano: storia. English translation by John Bostock. 14-15. 211. 1967). Venus.557 L [7] John Scheid. [18] In the Latin poem “In Quintum Novembris” (lines 23– 24): Talibus infestat populos Summanus et urbes / cinctus caeruleae fumanti turbine flammae. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome Baltimore 1928 p. For dedication year. Fasti Esquil. diurna attribuentes Iovi. Hist. and that three of them are darted out by Jupiter. 98100 [6] Festus p.57 (= 29. Of these the Romans retained only two. .. 3. that there are eleven different kinds of them. via Perseus Digital Library. Fasti 6. De nuptiis 2.66 Summano of WP Italian. Romani duo tantum ex iis servavere. rariora sane eadem de causa frigidioris caeli). 5. Iovem enim trina iaculari. III part 2 chapt. arte e tradizioni Schio. Vol. and the nocturnal to Summanus.243. tr. 264. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. ascribing the diurnal kind to Jupiter. Raffaele Pettazzoni. in consequence of the heavens being colder” (Tuscorum litterae novem deos emittere fulmina existimant.: ad XII Kal. Pliny mentions the temple at Natural History 29.” in Essays on the History of Religions (Brill. La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1974. [2] “The temple is said to have been dedicated to Summanus. 107. 33. eaque esse undecim generum. 15.. SUMMANUS [17] Os Lusíadas. 1 [11] Natural History 2. translated as The Lusiad by Thomas Moore Musgrave (1826). CHAPTER 15. CIL I 2nd p. It. 2007). Livy Periochae XIV. [5] S. “Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors”. Frazer. Translation by James G. XXIX 14. citing Cicero de Div. IV. 1977. 184 [16] Martianus Capella. Summano templa feruntur): Ovid. p. Amit.164.188 L 2nd. [12] Varro Lingua Latina V 74. 408.. Iordanes I 2. T. “The Wheel in the Ritual Symbolism of Some Indo-European Peoples. in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell.. 731. whoever he may be” (quisquis is est. [13] Entry on Dium above. p. “Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule”. [8] Augustine.53 (alternative numbering 52 or 138): “The Tuscan books inform us. [14] Summanus. Eric M.2 Notes and references [1] Paulus Festi epitome p. Ball Platner.

278. (1964). 16. “TRIVIA”. She was a friend of Ceres and helped her to find her daughter Proserpina. p. the three-way crossroads and the harvest moon. Her association for Romans of the first century BCE with Artemis was so thorough that Lucretius[3] identifies the altar of the goddess at the sacrifice of Iphianassa (Iphigeneia) in Aulis as Triviai virginis aram. New York: Clarkson N.Chapter 16 Trivia (mythology) Trivia in Roman mythology was the goddess who “haunted crossroads. Although she helped Ceres to find her daughter.[2] She was an underworld Titan-goddess who assisted Jove in the Titanomachy and was therefore able to keep her powers. and was the goddess of sorcery and witchcraft. 84. 231. New York: Harper & Row. she wandered about at night and was seen only by the barking of dogs who told of her approach. These women later became nymphs. graveyards. “Trivia”.”[1] She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Hecate. ISBN 0-517-52746-4. Inc. David (1975). Dictionary of Classical Mythology. i. she was known as the Queen of Ghosts. she was also known to steal young maidens to assist her in her powers. p. the goddess of witchcraft.1 References [1] Zimmerman. 67 . De rerum natura. [3] Lucretius. J E. As a part of her role as an underworld goddess. Who’s Who in Greek and Roman Mythology. [2] Kravitz. Potter.

[10] but Servius Tullius was credited with the creation of her temple on the Aventine Hill.2 Juno as moon goddess the deities Macrobius proposed as the secret tutelary of Rome.[16] ulare. In Roman art and all Ides were to Jupiter. bidding her to listen to the girls singing as Apollo listens to the boys. Nothing else is known about the temple.[8] Varro also lists Luna among twenty principal gods of Rome (di selecti).1 Cult and temples Varro lists Luna among twelve deities who are vital to agriculture. as Luna’s Greek counterpart was Selene. Luna is also sometimes represented as an aspect of the Roman triple goddess (diva triformis). performed in 17 BC. for instance.[11] The anniversary of the temple founding (dies natalis) was celebrated annually on March 31. Luna is distinguished from both Diana and Juno.[7] as does Vergil in a different list of twelve. Juno of the crescent moon.[3] She was one of 17. and deified mortals such as Hercules.[2] Varro categorized Luna and Sol among the visible gods. Sol and Luna can represent the extent of Roman rule over the world. was sacred to Juno. 2nd–5th centuries AD) The Romans dated the cultivation of Luna as a goddess at Rome to the semi-legendary days of the kings. when according to the lunar guaranteeing peace.[6] with the epithet Lucina. the world’s clearest sources of light. which crashed into the Temple of Ceres below it on the slope. who also appear on it.[14] The Aventine temple may have been destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome during the reign of Nero.[19] 68 . as distinguished from invisible gods such as Neptune.[13] In 84 BC. Horace invokes her as the “two-horned queen of the stars” (siderum regina bicornis). Luna is the divine embodiment of the Moon (Latin luna. Luna’s attributes are the crescent moon ing by night. Luna is not always a distinct goddess. Ox-drawn biga of Luna on the Parabiago plate (ca.[5] calendar the new moon occurred. in which he refers to Luna and Sol as clarissima mundi lumina. since both Diana and Juno are identified as moon goddesses. cf. was a popular Juno and Diana were invoked as childbirth goddesses subject for Roman wall painting.[9] In this list. she was honliterature. along with Proserpina and Hecate.[18] Both Luna.[4] In Imperial cult.[1] As Noctiluna (“Night-Shiner”) Luna had a temple on the Palatine Hill.[12] It first appears in Roman literature in the story of how in 182 BC a windstorm of exceptional power blew off its doors.[15] In ancient Roman religion and myth. which Varro described as shining or glowIn Roman art. with the aim of The Kalends of every month. The myth of Endymion. and and the two-yoke chariot (biga). In the Carmen Saecit is unclear what Varro meant.[17] On the Nones. She is often presented as the female complement of the Sun (Sol) conceived of as a god. it was struck by lightning. myths of Selene are adapted under the name of ored as Juno Covella. Titus Tatius was supposed to have imported the cult of Luna to Rome from the Sabines. but sometimes rather an epithet that specializes a goddess. just below a temple of Diana. the same day the popularist leader Cinna was murdered by his troops.Chapter 17 Luna (goddess) 17. English “lunar”).

Richardson. In Roman art.. 238. [10] Varro. with the other a dark brown. 2006).C. Ill. p. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana.4 See also • List of Roman deities 17. Attilio Mastrocinque. p.12. 23 (Cardauns) = Tertullian. p. “because it travels on a twin course [13] Livy 40. .[22] The [19] Green. Fasti 3.4–6. p.14–2-. De lingua latina 5. not as in the later tradition bridge University Press. SEE ALSO 17. [2] Horace.78. A New Topographical Dictionary. Isidore of Seville explains that the quadriga represents [12] Ovid. Bellum Civile 1.[24] 17. Hecate originally had power Barney et al. 94.5–25. [15] Tacitus. Richardson. Lawrence Richardson. 2007). In this relief depicting a Mithraic tauroctony. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana.3–10. chariot (quadriga). p. De Civitate Dei 7. Green. 73.17. as light in color. [7] Varro. [4] Jörg Rüpke. lines 33–36. drawn by horses or oxen. “Creating One’s Own Religion: Intellectual Choices.50.[21] [17] Green.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. land.5 References [1] C.”[20] Luna in her biga was an element of Mithraic iconography. Luna drives a biga drawn by oxen (right). p. A biga of oxen was also driven by Hecate. earth. Maria Capua Vetere.883–84.M. night—for they yoke together one black horse and one [14] Appian. p. De Vir. and underworld. or because it is visible both by day and by nary. 238. p. According to the [20] Isidore. Archaic Greek poet Hesiod. and Proserpina. p. 368 online. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at Aricia (Cambridge University Press. Ad nationes 2. “Religion and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the Second Century AD: The Creation of a Common Religious Language.” in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. Etymologies 18. In the mithraeum of S. 188. p. p. [6] Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann.2.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. A New Topographical Dictionary.2. three-form Hecate (trimorphos) was identified by Servius [23] with Luna. De re rustica 1. A New Topofocuses on Luna alone shows one of the horses of the team graphical Dictionary. [5] William Van Andringa. and sea.3.1. Diana. p. 1992). The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Camover the heavens. 2007). while the Sun drives a horse-drawn quadriga (left) [3] Varro. p. 73. De lingua latina 6. 238.3 Chariot of the moon 69 heaven.74. Richardson. Luna (top right corner) paired with the Sun (top left) in another depiction of the tauroctony [9] Varro. frg. white.27. the chthonic aspect of the triple goddess in complement with the [18] Varro. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Johns Luna is regularly paired with the Sun driving a four-horse Hopkins University Press. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 2. 383.2. Religion of the Romans. “horned” or crescent-crowned Diana and Luna. Georgics 1. De lingua latina 5. 238. as translated by Stephen A. Carmen Saeculare. [8] Vergil. 65.26. 238. the charioteer [11] Orosius 5. usually in the context of the tauroctony. Luna is often depicted driving a two-yoke chariot (biga). 73. the sun’s course through the four seasons.2. 133. Richardson. “Religion in the House. as preserved by Augustine of Hippo.41. a wall painting that uniquely [16] Varro.68.4. while the biga represents the moon. Annales 15. A New Topographical Dictiowith the sun.

Phaedrus 246.J. Vermaseren. [24] Hesiod. LUNA (GODDESS) . “The Powers of Darkness in Prudentius’ Contra Symmachum: A Study of His Poetic Imagination.118.6 External links Media related to Luna (mythology) at Wikimedia Commons CHAPTER 17.70 [21] M.4 (1965). 248. Maria Capua Vetere (Brill. Theogony 413f. [22] Prudentius. Plato. 17. Friedrich Solmsen.” Vigiliae Christianae 19. Contra Symmachum 733 (Migne). [23] Servius. note to Aeneid 6. 1971). 14. p. Mithraica I: The Mithraeum at S. pp–15.

Leto (/ˈliːtoʊ/. Zeus is the father of her twins. or that she sought out the “wolf-country” of Lyof her father and mother. cement the new order. Aelian. Her Titan father is called “Coeus. Greek: Λητώ Lētṓ.[7] Walter Burkert notes[8] that in Phaistos she appears in connection with an initiation When Hera. P.hunted by Hera over the whole earth. a Latinization of her name.[14] which may relate him to the sphere of In Greek mythology. who may have been Titans of cia. the Letoides. Another late source. bright”). a further Antoninus Liberalis is not alone in hinting that Leto came Letoon at Delos. In Roman mythology. as her earliest cult was centered in Lycia.” and our wolves that had befriended her[20] for her denning. Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων. ture uncertain.[13] he is in one Roman source given the name Polus. she realized that the offspring would the region became Hellenized. Λατώ. Artemis and Leto made of brass sheeting hammered over 18.[4] This is her one active mythic role: once Apollo and Artemis are grown. was at Oenoanda in land. S.[9] In Greek inscriptions. Beekes) have In Crete.1 Etymology Several explanations have been put forward to explain the origin of the goddess and the meaning of her name. down from the land of the Hyperboreans in the guise of a Leto’s primal nature may be deduced from the natures she-wolf. Leto withdraws.[3] Apollo and Artemis. she finds an island that isn't attached to the ocean floor so it isn't considered land and she can give birth. as her birthplace. the mainsanctuary. till she came to Dedated Hellenic influence in the region. She was powerless to stop the the Letoides are referred to as the “national gods” of the flow of events. Older sources speculated that the name is related to the Greek λήθη lḗthē (oblivion) and λωτός lotus (the fruit that brings oblivion to those who eat it). Finally.2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo a shaped core (sphyrelata). The name of Leto’s mother. Other scholars (Paul Kretschmer. Classical Greek myths record little about Leto other than her pregnancy and her search for a place where she could give birth to Apollo and Artemis. the Letoon near Xanthos pre. since Hera in her jealousy had caused all lands to shun her. see Leto (disambiguation) and Latona though Herbert Jennings Rose considers his name and na(disambiguation). Spyridon Marinatos uncov.[6] 18. Leto’s equivalent is Latona.[15] In 20th-century sources Leto is traditionally derived from Lycian lada.suggested a Pre-Greek origin. It would thus mean “the hidden one”. more recently identified.midwifery she afterwards gave birth to Apollo. “wife”.Chapter 18 Leto For other uses. etymology and meaning “Phoebe” (Φοίβη — literally “pure. her part already played. or any place under the sun. as Zeus was the father. the most conservative of goddesses — for cult. she had the most to lose in changes to the order of naLeto was identified from the fourth century onwards with ture —[17] discovered that Leto was pregnant and that the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia. formerly called Tremilis. Lycian lada may also be the origin of the Greek name Λήδα Leda. at the city of Dreros. which she renamed to honthe sun and moon. by the help of whose united the Lycian confederacy of city-states. Erich Bethe. The Hel. influenced by Etruscan Letun. Pierre Chantraine and R.[16] ered an eighth-century post-Minoan hearth house temple in which there were found three unique figures of Apollo. “Latona for her intrigue with Zeus was country. Lātṓ in Dorian Greek.”[18] Hera lenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own. which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus.[19] the north of Lycia. heaven from pole to pole.[2] In the Olympian scheme. any island at sea.[10] Her sanctuary.[11] and los and brought forth first Artemis. however. Another banned Leto from giving birth on “terra firma”. to remain a dim[5] and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus.[12] There was. and the sister of Asteria. of course.[1] The island of Kos is claimed throughout Homer. also links Leto with wolves 71 . is identidisputed) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe cal to the epithet of her son Apollo.

LETO and Hyperboreans: 18. Brensometimes taken by later mythographers as a mere fem. O. and Another ancient earth creature that had to be overcome gave birth there. a phallic being who grew so vast that he split his mother’s womb and had to be carried to term by Gaia herself. Demeter is not present. The dynastic rite of the witnessed birth must have been familiar to the hymn’s hearers. or Python. perhaps to kidnap Eileithyia. which was neither mainland nor a real island. only after twelve days and twelve nights. of the Delian trinity. a queen and equipped with a spindle seems to have origiThe goddess Dione (in her name simply the “Goddess”) is nated in Asiatic worship of the Great Mother".5 The Lycian Letoon Leto was intensely worshipped in Lycia. to prevent Leto from going into labor. Delos cleansed afterwards. states that Artemis was born before Apollo. since though Python was a child of was secured with four pillars and later became sacred to Gaia. which also included a temple to an Egyptian god Greeks identified by interpretatio graeca as Apollo. the goddesses who as.4 Chthonic assailants Leto was threatened and assailed in her wanderings by chthonic monsters of the ancient earth and old ways. and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth there to Apollo. records her cult image as sitting on 18.[31] “The conception of a goddess enthroned like her mother Rhea attends. Apollo slew it but had to do penance and be surrounded by swans.at the islands known today as the Paximadia (also known sembled to be witnesses at the birth of Apollo were re. Another version.72 CHAPTER 18. Herodotus was given to understand. Leto labored for nine nights and nine days for Apollo. the cobra-headed goddess of Lower Egypt. 18. Wolves are not easily delivered of their young. Ichnaea.del notes. according to the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo. The island was Spring. as Pindar recalled in a Pythian Most accounts agree that she found the barren floating ode. and the goddesses at De. having been born first.[30] an epithet los who bear witness to the rightness of the birth are the that was attached to her daughter Artemis as early as great goddesses of the old order. for the people of Delos maintain that this was the length of time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyperboreoi to Delos. which lived in a cleft of worshippers who would flock to the obscure birthplace the mother-rock beneath Delphi and beside the Castalian of the splendid god who was to come.[27] Veneration of a local Leto is attested at Phaistos[28] (where it is purported that she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis According to the Homeric hymn.Pindar calls the goddess Leto Chryselakatos. in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo and in an Orphic hymn. influenced by the Minoan goddess”. Apollo.as Letoai in ancient Crete) and at Lato. By contrast. Instead Artemis. without travail. He attempted to rape Leto near Delphi under the orders of Hera. Only Hera kept apart. where the authenticity of the child must be established beyond doubt from the first moment.”[21] It is remarkable that Leto brought forth Artemis. 18. Themis and the “loud-moaning” sea-goddess Amphitrite. Herodotus reported[25] a temple to her in Egypt supposedly attached to a floating island[26] called "Khemmis" in Buto.[23] The dynasty that is so concerned about be. Rhea.18. the elder twin. Homer. or Greek goddesses in their Cretan form. as Callimachus wrote. and these became the enemies of Apollo and Artemis. promising the island wealth from the was the dragon Pytho.[24] In Delos and Athens she was worshipped primarily as an adjunct to her children.6 Leto in Crete Leto was also worshipped in Crete. the goddess of childbirth. which bore her sponding to a public occasion in the rites of a dynasty. it was necessary that the ancient Delphic Oracle passed to the protection of the new god. of her temple on Delos. still bearing its archaic name of Asterios. As a gesture of gratitude. There. assisted with the birth of Apollo.[22] as if she were merely revealing another manifestation of herself. Asia Minor.[29] As Leto Phytia she was a mother-deity. where she was the central figures she would not have assembled here. but was laid low by the arrows of Apollo and/or Artemis. One was the giant Tityos.3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . name. Aphrodite is not present either. whether one of “certain Cretan goddesses. the goddess whom Greeks recognised as Leto was worshipped in the form of Wadjet.7 Leto of the golden spindle ing authenticated in this myth is the new dynasty of Zeus and the Olympian Pantheon. on the island of Ortygia. island of Delos. in the presence of all the first among the deathless goddesses as witnesses: Dione. but a lucky survival of an inscribed inventory inine form of Zeus (see entry Dodona): if this were so.

[10] Bryce 1983:1 and note 2.” [5] Hesiod. Historia: Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte. Diodorus Siculus 2. R. Etruscan Myths (series: The Legendary Past) (British Museum/University of Texas Press) 2006.10 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Latona and the Lycian Peasants. usually). Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics.8 The Lycian peasants better parentage and more children than Latona. [2] Herodotus 2.11 Notes [1] Hesiod. Theogony 406.365). “dark-veiled Leto” (Orphic Hymn 35. leaving her childless. 72. usually called Latona and the Lycian Peasants or Latona and the Frogs. 18. This scene. “His twin sister is usually already on the scene. . Bryce. [11] Bryce 1983. seven sons and seven daughters. [12] Alan Hall. Theogony 403. It is represented in the central fountain. either killed himself or was killed by Zeus after swearing revenge. A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylus in Asia Minor and either turned to stone as she wept or killed herself. Theodora Hadzisteliou Price. Niobe is unable to move from grief and seemingly turns to marble. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them. claiming that having beauty. Amphion. other sources instead give separate birthplaces for the siblings. according to Ovid's Metamorphoses. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death.2.5a-b. Leto’s introduction into Lycia was met with resistance. John Boardman.4 note 16 (p.9 Niobe Niobe. p. Greek Religion 1985.47. 18. boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids). 48–69). [13] Herbert Jennings Rose. [3] Pindar consistently refers to Apollo and Artemis as twins. she is more fit to be worshipped than the goddess.[35] allowing a combination of mythology with landscape painting and peasant scenes. “The Arrival of the Goddess Leto in Lycia”. Her tears formed the river Achelous. summarizing the archaeology of the Letoon. Niobe.[32] (Book VI). plate III. queen of Thebes. [8] Burkert.18. ca. enters in the midst of the worship and insults the goddess.98. while Leto had only two. and her body is transported to a high mountain peak in her native land. and Artemis her daughters. Annual of the British School at Athens 62 (1967) p. Latona begs Apollo and Artemis to avenge her against Niobe and to uphold her honor. when the gods themselves entombed them. she attempted to drink water from a pond in Lycia. a queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion. Leto turned them into frogs for their inhospitality. thus combining history painting and genre painting.10. where Latona (Leto) has demanded the women of Thebes to go to her temple and burn incense. To Leto [6] Letun noted is passing in Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling. “A Sanctuary of Leto at Oenoanda” Anatolian Studies 27 (1977) pp 193–197. Obedient to their mother. “Double and Multiple Representations in Greek Art and Religious Thought” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 91 (1971:pp.[34] The peasants there refused to allow her to do so by stirring the mud at the bottom of the pond. 18. there. forever doomed to swim in the murky waters of ponds and rivers. 321 (1983:1–13). [7] Marinatos’ publications on Dreros are listed by Burkert 1985. A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1991:21). [4] Karl Kerenyi notes. in the garden terrace of Versailles. For her hubris. by Jan Brueghel the Elder. 18. the Bassin de Latone. The Gods of the Greeks 1951:130. at the sight of his dead sons. 1605. sect. GENEALOGY OF THE OLYMPIANS IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY 73 a wooden throne. was popular in Northern Mannerist art. To punish this insolence.[33] when Leto was wandering the earth after giving birth to Apollo and Artemis. I. [9] The process is discussed by T. and her husband Amphion kills himself. the twins slay Niobe’s seven sons and seven daughters. though according to some versions a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris. 61. clothed in a linen chiton and a linen The Niobe narrative appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses himation. though she continues to weep.

ed. Gray. reviewing L. [18] Pseudo-Apollodorus. ISBN 100195219236 [19] Hyginus.12 External links • Theoi.R.. On the Nature of Animals 4. Antoninus Liberalis. the article is a discussion of the seated female figure he identifies as Leto on the Roman silver tray (lanx) at Alnwick Castle. Handbook of Classical Mythology. 266-268. tr. 13.317-81. Metamorphoses. Asterie.com [32] O. Palmer. The Greek World (Routledge) 1995:190. Metamorphoses vi. pp. 285. Lloyd. Mithridates. S. Délos. 36 [31] O. 855 and 858–9.com.74 [14] In the surviving summary of the preface to Gaius Julius Hyginus.155-56 [26] “The claim that it floated is rightly dismissed by Herodotus — it probably reflects nothing more than contamination by Greek traditions on the floating island of Ortygia/Delos associated with Leto. according to Kerenyi 1951:131. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. “Cretan Eileithyia'. at Theoi. Koios is translated literally.” remarks Alan B. 100– 127) p 113ff. ed. a nightmare warned him to desist. p 221. [27] D. giving as his sources Menecrates of Xanthos (4th century BCE) and Nicander of Colophon. Malcolm. Fabulae 140). at least among Athenians.F. Antoninus Liberalis also relates a version of this myth. 2. Ovid.). “The temple of Leto (Wadjet) at Buto”. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1873. The Mirror of the Gods. Beekes. Willetts. 1963:87–91.H. colonie athénienne (Paris: Boccard) 1916.317-81 provides another late literary source. Smith. but without travail put me from her body. 4 (A.” (Callimachus. noting Pierre Roussel. Sixth Nemean Ode.4. pp. Brendel. 2009. Hansen. (Appian. The Classical Quarterly. Hymn 3. 1958. How Renaissance Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods. [20] Antoninus Liberalis’ etiological myth reflects Greek misunderstanding of a Greek origin for the place-name Lycia. 18. Bibliotheke 1. [17] See Hera. Histories. [22] Artemis speaks: “my mother suffered no pain either when she gave me birth or when she carried me in her womb. Mycenaeans and Minoans: Aegean Prehistory in the Light of the Linear B Tablets in The Classical Review. Brendel. Scholfield. vi. modern scholars now suggest a source in the "Lukka lands" of Hittite inscriptions (Bryce 1983:5). [30] Pindar. gave birth in the midst of a crowd of the women of the household.1.F. [35] Bull.” CHAPTER 18. 27). LETO [15] W. [21] Aelian. as Polus: “From Polus and Phoebe: Latone.F. [16] R. 51 (1936). Leto • Pictures of the sanctuary for Leto at Letoum . p 60ff. pp. 35. [24] Appian tells of Mithridates’ intention to cut down the sacred grove at the Letoon to serve in his siege of Patara on the Lycian coast. to Artemis). [29] Noted by R. [25] Herodotus. in “The Corbridge Lanx” The Journal of Roman Studies 31 (1941). Oxford UP. in Anton Powell. 2005. P. [28] “the citizens of Phaistos on Crete performed sacrifices to Leto the Grafter because she had grafted male organs onto a maiden (Antoninus Liberalis 17)" notes William F. [23] Greek women. [33] Ovid. Römische Mitt. Brill. 2004: “Sexchangers”. Metamorphoses. [34] The spring Melite.

Becking. Wm. Check date values in: |date= (help) Shalim is also mentioned separately in the Ugaritic god lists and forms of his name also appear in personal names. mentioned in inscriptions found in Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria. ISBN 9780802824912. were conceived of as its beginning and end. ISBN 978-965-90555-0-0.). Ariel Golan (Original from the University of Virginia. pp275-291.. symbolism. Israel.]" 19. the “Morning Star”. p. “Let me invoke the gracious gods. and also romanized as Shalem. the two are associated with the sun goddess.[1][2] William F. Ethnic groups in Jerusalem. and have appetites as large as "(one) lip to the earth and (one) lip to the heaven. Bob. šalām šamši. 24 (1992). 187. cf. Eisenbrauns.[1][5][6][7] The god Shalim may have been associated with dusk and the evening star in the etymological senses of a 'completion' of the day. Ugarit-Forschungen Vol. 75 .[4] [8] http://books. They are both nursed by “The Lady”.” Ym in most Semitic languages means “day. [5] N. ISBN 978-0-931464-01-0.C..com/books?id=63BP9RPm26sC& pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=god+of+peace+ugaritic+ shalim&source=bl&ots=kFmXA0htEw&sig= ovNpxhbuiBv1k4jiuSR34176GZI&hl=en&sa= X&ei=GM08UZ-hM42Q7Aa0rIC4Aw&ved= 0CE0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=god%20of% 20peace%20ugaritic%20shalim&f=false 19. Salem.p.” and Shahar..” In other Ugaritic texts. the Akkadian word for sunset... 82. [. 'sunset' and 'peace'. 222. the voracious gods of ym. twin deities of the dusk and dawn. pp. Pieter Willem (1999).. p. • van der Toorn. Eerdmans Publishing. Grabbe. B.google.[1] Another inscription is a sentence repeated three times in a para-mythological text. William Foxwell (1968 / 1990). K.] The names [of Sahar and Salim] are rendered in modern scholarly texts as Shakhar and Shalim [. van der Horst. [6] L.[1] Many scholars believe that the name of Shalim is preserved in the name of the city Jerusalem. Shalim is also identified as the deity representing Venus or the “Evening Star.). perhaps as a divine name or epithet.3 Bibliography • Albright. Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths (Reprint ed.[8] • Golan.E. or Salem.” and Shalim and Shahar.. “The name of the Canaanite deity of the setting sun Salim.2 References [1] van der Toorn et al. Na'aman. 1999. Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan. Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd. and Shahar as god of the dawn. describes Shalim and his brother Shahar as offspring of El through two women he meets at the seashore. 1990.Chapter 19 Shalim Shalim (derived from the triconsonantal Semitic root SL-M. in Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (Clark International. revised ed. Canaanite Jerusalem and its central hill country neighbours in the second millennium B. 19. Sheffield Academic Press 2002. 2003) pp145-163.[1] [3] Albright. likely Anat (Athirat or Asherah).4 Other uses Shalem is also the name of the 4-D cinematic presentation at the Jerusalem Time Elevator in Jerusalem. and Salim) was the name of a god in the Canaanite religion pantheon. Ariel (2003). p180 A Ugaritic myth known as The Gracious and Most Beautiful Gods. [4] van der Toorn et al. 19. 755-6 [2] Golan.1 Ugaritic inscriptions [7] John Day. Albright identified Shalim as the god of dusk.[3] In the Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible. 2003.. 1999. Prehistoric religion: mythology.

SHALIM .5 See also • Almaqah • Wadd • Shahar CHAPTER 19.76 19.

Alex (October 11.2 References [1] “NABATAEAN PANTHEON”.Chapter 20 Al-Qaum Al-Qaum (Arabic: ‫ )القوم‬was the Nabataean god of war and the night. and guardian of caravans. it might just be referring to a group of people at the time as an entity.[2] 20. 77 . Al-Namrood. and archaeologists believe that he was a major god of the Nabataean pantheon. Retrieved 31 January 2013.1 In Popular Culture A black metal band in Saudi Arabia. “AL-NAMROOD Heavy Metal Underground”.[1] Large numbers of inscriptions bearing his name have been found. uses this pantheon as inspiration for its music.. 2012). Retrieved 31 January 2013. [2] Phillips.[1] Al-Qaum however also literally translates to 'the people' in formal Arabic. 20.

[2] [1] Anthony F. Astronomers.[3][4] [2] Gabrielle Vail. University of Texas Press. Foster. (3b) Itztli. Harvard University Press p. Aveni.[6] The cycle of the Nine Lords of the Night held special relation to the Mesoamerican ritual calendar of 260-days and nights or -night which includes exactly 29 groups of 9 nights each. (2b) Mictlantecuhtli. 2001.Pauahtun the Aged Quadripartite God. 2b. since the evidence suggests that the lord of a given night ruled over that entire night. 291 The existence of a 9 nights cycle in Mesoamerican calendrics was first discovered in 1904 by Eduard Seler.html Gods discussion in Pauahtun Night . approximately. and also.Chapter 21 Lords of the Night Further information: List of Aztec deities names are glossed in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis and See also: Lords of the Day Codex Tudela. 3b. Hernández. this argument has not generally been accepted. (2a) Centeotl. Christine L. and Priests: Intellectual Interchange Between the Northern Maya Lowlands and Highland Mexico in the Late Postclassic Period. Skywatchers: A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico.org/Calendar/gglyph. Each lord was associated with a particular fortune. Seler argued that the 9 lords each correIn Mesoamerican mythology the Lords of the Night sponded to one of the nine levels of the under world and ruled the corresponding hour of the night time. 1b. Chalchiuhtlicue (“Jade Is Her Skirt”) Tlazolteotl (“Filth God[dess]") Tepeyollotl (“Mountain Heart”) Tlaloc (Rain God) are a set of nine gods who each ruled over every ninth night forming a calendrical cycle. 259 [4] http://www. 3a. p. that was an omen for the night that they ruled over. 2010. (1b) Tepeyollotl. The Nine Lords of the Night in Aztec mythology are:[5] Xiuhtecuhtli (“Turqoise/Year/Fire Lord”) Itztli/Tecpatl (“Obsidian"/"Flint”) Piltzintecuhtli (“Prince Lord”) Centeotl (“Maize God”) Mictlantecuhtli (“Underworld Lord”) Lords of the Night in Codex Borgia (1a) Tlaloc. 2c. 1c. (3a) Piltzintecuhtli. The Aztec names of the Deities are known because their 78 [3] Lynn V. 1a.1 Sources The lords of the night are known in both the Aztec and Maya calendar. 156-57 The glyphs corresponding to the night gods are known and mayanists identify them with labels G1 to G9. although the specific names of the Maya Night Lords are unknown.pauahtun. Oxford University Press. these glyphs are frequently used with a fixed glyph coined F. 2005. (3c) Xiuhtecuhtli. 9 vague lunations of 29 days each. (2c) Chalchiuhtlicue. the G series. The actual reading order of the panels is boustrophedon and begins in the bottom right: 3c. Generally. 2a.[1] 21. (1c) Tlazolteotl. The only Mayan light lord that has been identified is the God G9. bad or good.[5] Zelia Nuttall argued that the Nine Lords of the Night represented the nine moons of the Lunar year. Scribes. pp. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World.

4 pp.1. The Periodical Adjustments of the Ancient Mexican Calendar. Vol. New Series. 1904. 6.21. University of Texas Press pp. American Anthropologist . 2007. 486-500 79 . SOURCES [5] Elizabeth Hill Boone. No. Cycles of Time and Meaning in the Mexican Books of Fate. 44-45 [6] Zelia Nuttall.

section VII. Itzpapalotl approached the two “cloud serpents named ͡ who transXiuhnel /ˈʃiwnel/ and Mimich /ˈmimitʃ/". caking her face with white powder and lining her cheeks with strips of rubber. At some times. she was said to have dressed up like a lady of the Mexican Court. Xiuhnel. and her toes into eagle’s claws.[2] Her nagual was a deer. Itzpapalotl fell from heaven along with Tzitzimime and several other shapes such as scorpions and toads. Itzpapalotl said ""Drink. she can also appear with clear butterfly or eagle attributes. Some of her associations include birds and fire. 22. whose image is found on ceramic urns.[3] Depiction of Itzpapalotl from the Codex Borgia. but she was also one of the tzitzimime.3 Mythology 22. It’s quite possible that clawed butterfly refers to the bat and in some instances Itzpapalotl is depicted with bat wings. Her fingers tapered into the claws of a jaguar. As the legend goes.[4] 22. seductive woman or terrible goddess with a skeletal head and butterfly wings supplied with stone blades. Ītzpāpālōtl /iːtspaːˈpaːlot ɬ/ dle. Not only was Itzpapalotl considered one of the cihuateteo herself.”) She could appear in the form of a beautiful.2 Ritual Itzpapalotl is the patron of the day and associated with the stars Cozcuauhtli and Trecena 1 House in the Aztec calendar. To Xiuhnel. sidian Butterfly”) was a fearsome skeletal warrior goddess who ruled over the paradise world of Tamoanchan. formed themselves into men (so as to disguise themselves when all the others of the Centzonmimixcoa had been slain in the ambush?). the Zapotec deity named Goddess 2J by Alfonso Caso and Ignacio Bernal may be a Classic Zapotec form of Itzpapalotl. star demons that threatened to devour people during solar eclipses. “In folklore. the paradise of victims of infant mortality and the place identified as where humans were created.” Xiuhnel drank the blood and then im- 80 . or women who had died in childbirth. Itzpapalotl wore an invisible cloak so that no one could see her. Itzpapalotl is described as having “blossomed into the white flint. Itzpapalotl was one of two divine 2-headed doe-deers (the other one being Chimalman) who temporarily transformed themselves into women in order to seduce men.1 Iconography Itzpapalotl’s name can either mean “obsidian butterfly” or “clawed butterfly”. Although the identity remains inconclusive.Chapter 22 Itzpapalotl For the Aztec ruler. bats are sometimes called “black butterflies"". In many instances Goddess 2J. is identified with bats. ͡ ͡ (“ObIn Aztec mythology. The Trecena 1 House is one of the five western trecena dates dedicated to the cihuateteo. and they took the white and wrapped it in a bun- According to the Manuscript of 1558.[3] (In the Manuscript of 1558. Her wings are obsidian or tecpatl (flint) knife tipped.[1] She is the mother of Mixcoatl and is particularly associated with the moth Rothschildia orizaba from the family Saturniidae. the latter meaning seems most likely. However. see Acamapichtli.

EXTERNAL LINKS mediately lay down with her.8. who was once an Aztec priestess and believes herself actually to be the goddess of that name. p. 113. with H. Rituals. p. Then Mimich . Primeros Memoriales.B. . descended into a thorny barrel cactus. Bernardino de (1997) [ca. revisions. devoured him. 22. Karl Taube (1993). Nicholson. Goddess of Fire and Birds in Aztec Religion. In :LATIN AMERICAN INDIAN LITERATURES JOURNAL. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. Arthur J. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. OCLC 35848992. vol 4 (1988). 2001.5 See also • Aztec mythology in popular culture • Black Sun (mythology) • Cihuateteo • Cihuacoatl • Tzitzimime • Mixcoatl • Tamoanchan • Woman warrior • List of women warriors in folklore 22. 1936. Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology: A Guide to the Gods.O.. Mary. London: Thames 81 & Hudson. Hamilton’s Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series. NY. part 2. and the woman fell down after him. the ninth book is named Obsidian Butterfly and involves a vampire named Itzpapalotl. Norton & Co. Eloise Quiñones Keber. 200.. and Wayne Ruwet (completion. Dibble. p. Charles E.. Citing :. Anderson. OCLC 77857686.1558–61]..7 References Miller. and ed..4 Popular culture In Laurel K.”[5] 22. Kay Almere.. the Obsidian or Clawed Butterfly [2] Itzpapalotl: Itzpapalotl.). and Beliefs of Mexico and Central America. 61 22. p.. tore open his breast. Heroes. Suddenly she . Civilization of the American Indians series vol. OCLC 27667317. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) Sahagún.6 Notes [1] Itzpapalotl.. Thelma D. Jason J González (2002).Elsie Clews Parsons : Mitla.. ISBN 978-0-80612909-9.22. ran and . She also runs a nightclub named Obsidian Butterfly. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. fell into it. ISBN 0-19-514909-2. 318 [5] Miguel León-Portilla & Earl Shorris : In the Language of Kings. Sullivan (English trans. U of Chicago Pr. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) 22. Mythology [3] Miller & Taube. Invalid |namelist-format=scap (help) Read. and paleography of Nahuatl text).8 External links • An image of Rothschildia orizaba . 100 [4] Elizabeth Benson : “The Maya and the Bat”.

the Queen of the Night. La Luna”. 28 de Mayo de 1996 . “Metztli.1 Otomi mythology For the Otomi people. Diario Síntesis. Her spouse. the “Rabbit in the Moon” becomes readily visible. was the god of fire. and became the moon instead. and farmers.A. the Old Father. He/she was probably the same deity as Yohaulticetl and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl. probably the main deity. 23. México: Equipo Sirius. 23.3 Legend The Moon and Sun were at one time equally bright. like the latter. 23. Metzi) was a god or goddess of the moon. Metztli (also Meztli. ISBN 84-86639-66-2. who represented both Moon and Earth simultaneously. Arqueoastronomía en la américa antigua. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Esperanza Carrasco Licea & Alberto Carramiñana Alonso. It not being appropriate for gods to be equals.2 Mexican traces The origin of the name of the Mexica probably derived from Metztli.4 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Mextli 82 • Galindo Trejo.Chapter 23 Metztli In Aztec mythology. his face darkened by a rabbit. They were giving every month 30 days. one of them threw a rabbit in the face of the other. They called her the Old Mother. Zäna was the Moon.5 References 23. For more detailed explanation see Toponymy of Mexico. and the one struck darkened to become today’s moon. During a full moon. the night. he/she feared the sun because he/she feared its fire. Also referred to as the lowly god of worms who failed to sacrifice himself to become the sun. Jesús (1994). The Otomi counted lunar months as a period from new moon to new moon. Henceforth it’s possible to distinguish a figure of a rabbit on the moon’s surface. S. • Tecciztecatl 23.

1 Representations winds.ble god'.[12] Tezcatlipoca is often shown carwith his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror or a rying a shield with balls of either feathers or cotton and 83 . the earth. The color black is strongly associated with Tezcatlipoca and he is often portrayed as having horizontal catlipoca in codex illustrations. Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest. Classical Nahuatl: his foot battling with the Earth Monster. including the night sky. Tloque Nahuaque (“Lord of the Near of his leg. He is often shown his neck or ankles. Tezcatlipoca’s nagual. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca’s apand depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tez. but He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects the many different codices vary on which two colors from of his deity: Titlacauan (“We are his Slaves”). rulership. obsidian. Necoc Yaotl (“Enemy being black in certain places.[8] The Tezcatlipoca figure goes back to earlier Mesoamerican deities worshipped by the Olmec and Maya. the fact that many images are difman related to Tezcatlipoca was a disc worn as a chest ficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that pectoral. the majority of his and the Nigh”) and Yohualli Èhecatl (“Night.[11] There are also portrayals of his body also nemoani (“He by whom we live”). his animal counterpart. or the “Manikin Scepter” and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian Tezcatlipōca pronounced /teskatɬiˈpoːka/[1] ) was a central knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake. His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as “Smoking Mirror”[2] and There are few surviving representations of Tezcatlipoca alludes to his connection to obsidian. Most Ome Acatl[6] (“Two Reed”). the night 24. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists Tezcatlipoca as depicted in the Codex Borgia. and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. However. temptation. and tinker bells either around yellow stripe painted across his face. catlipoca discord. In the Aztec ritual calendar the Tonalpohualli Tezcatlipoca ruled the trecena 1 Ocelotl (“1 Jaguar”)—he was also patron of the days with the name Acatl (“reed”). the full length of his arms. bone—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses Tezcatlipoca (/ˌtɛzˌkætliˈpoʊkə/. sorcery. Wind”).Chapter 24 Tezcatlipoca For other uses. the material from into the present day. Due to the lack of surviving images. wear(“Possessor of the Sky and Earth”). Depending on the site half of Both Sides”). A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means “obsidian” and who was associated with sacrifice.pearance. beauty. war and strife.[7] ing a heron feather headdress. was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl (“Mountainheart”). Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. as "God K". he is associated with a of Tezwide range of concepts. divination. and knotted When depicted he was usually drawn with a black and a sandals with an armband. Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque commonly he is shown with horizontal face bands. and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May. One of the four sons of Ometeotl. jaguars. see Tezcatlipoca (disambiguation). the north.[4][5] bands across his face especially in black and yellow.[9] deity in Aztec religion. which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica which were some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisi[10] used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. a loincloth.[3] Another talis.site to site. enmity. Ipal. hurricanes. legs. or any combination there of can be depicted.

Diego Durán it was “lofty and magnificently built. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs.The rivalry between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca is also als. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl. “stone seat” and “temple”.84 CHAPTER 24.recounted in the legends of Tollan where Tezcatlipoca dedresses. yond it stood a wide. a paper loincloth.[16] Another common city and forces him into exile.4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl rites of kingship. and a tzanatl stick with simi. Quetzalcoatl. “The Sun of the Earth” 24.3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca lord of the duality. the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. the culture hero. specifically mentioned as “his [Tezcatlipoca’s] viewing place”. But it is interesting to practice was to cover themselves in black soot or ground note that Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collabocharcoal while they were involved in priestly activities at rated in the creation of the different creations and that the temple or during rituals. lady and hall. specialists in a black ointment to encourage an association with the Mesoamerican Studies.[18] When the ritual called for it. in the same manner of the Great Temple was. as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: “the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun. Tlaxcala and Chalco. the White.. In one version of the Aztec creation account[19] the myth of the Five Suns. as well as the world and all humanity.[17] They would also cover the both of them were seen as instrumental in the creation sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with of life. TEZCATLIPOCA holding arrows or a spear in his right hand with a fan of feathers surrounding a mirror.. the god and wore specific garments for different ritu. priests would also Tezcatlipoca appears to be the embodiment of change dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other through conflict. 24.5 Aztec religion was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was into a jaguar. write that.2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West. “More than anything god. Quetzalcoatl. as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. long chamber the size of a great In later myths.located south of the Great Temple. Each temple had a statue . Common ornaments were white turkey feather head. His cult was associated with royalty. Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown.[14] There are also several reference to momoztli. and Tezcatlipoca de. the first creation. Tezcatlipoca was also worshipped in many other Nahua cities such as Texcoco. their façades being towards the West”.of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the act rituals. Karl Taube and Mary Miller. and were the creators of all the other The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of gods. as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex.[20] There were several smaller temples dedicated to Tezcatlipoca in the city. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the sub. Tezcatlipoca. Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black.[16] More on the ex. among them the ones called “Tlacochcalco” and “Huitznahuatl”. Eighty stroyed the third creation “The Sun of Wind” by striking steps led to a landing twelve or fourteen feet wide.”[8] Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page similarly outfitted gods or goddesses. the four gods who created the world. darkness. such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned calendar. and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the 24.[13] 24.[15] Tezcatlipoca depicted in the codex Rios in the aspect of a Jaguar—in this form he was called Tepeyollotl.ceives Quetzalcoatl who was the ruler of the legendary lar feathers and paper decorations. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan. According to Fray sequent creation “Sun of Water”. Bedown Quetzalcoatl.”. with definitions varying from “mound”. in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of later. there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods.

to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca.[23] The preparations began a year earlier.[25] The two gods 24.[25] To attract her. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility. when a young man was chosen by the priests. from the British Museum. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month. this “patron deity” missing foot. But had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl". with what people survived In one of the Aztec accounts of creation.[24] “For one year he lived a life of honor.[24] Immediately after he died a new victim for the next year’s ceremony was chosen. when the Miccailhuitontli “Little Feast of the Dead” was celebrated to honour the dead.7.[25] Angered.allels. feasting and dancing. Before their act there was only the sea and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli. the fifth month of the Aztec calendar.” and then was sacrificed.” the hansome young man “worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity” [24] He would marry four young women. But was crushed with Tezcatlipoca’s words saying that she is 24. Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the world. the god of rain. “which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca.As discussed above. so he knocked Tezcatlipoca out of the sky with a stone club. Tlaloc. and Cipactli ate it. others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca. Because of this. a time in which he proceeded to symbolically crush “one by one the clay flutes on which he had played in his brief moment of glory. wearing expensive jewellery and having eight attendants. or where “citizens waited expectantly” for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of “shell trumpets. others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. These children would then have their skin painted black and be adorned with quail feathers in the image of the god. the patron deity of the royal house”. he is a night god or of his missing foot. much of the time depicted in deities such as ferings. in a fit of rage. and the people who survived were turned into monkeys.[25] is fundamental in the social and natural phenomena jusAnother story of creation goes that Tezcatlipoca turned himself into the sun. AZTEC REVERENCE 85 of the god for which copal incense was burned four times a day.[22] Tezcatlipoca’s main feast was during Toxcatl.[25] For Aztec nobility. Quetzalcoatl replaced him and started the second age of the world and it became populated again. Tezcatlipoca turned into tified by religion during this time. After that. and spent his last week singing.” . Tezcatlipoca used his foot as bait. Turquoise mask representing the god Tezcatlipoca. During the feast where he was worshipped as the deity he personified he climbed the stairs to the top of the temple on his own where the priests seized him. and peo. became the sun. Quetzalcoatl and world was destroyed by[25] being turned into fish. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca. and distorted her to make the land from her body. “On his installation.7 Aztec Reverence then captured her. they created the people. Aztec folklore is rife with parple had to offer sacrifices to comfort Cipactli for her suf. He did not make it rain for several years until.6 Mythical stories just pretending to be kind.[25] Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl making him send a great wind that devastated the world. as well as during the Panquetzaliztli “Raising of Banners” ceremony in the 15th month. often because they were sick.” the new king fasted and meditated.24.[25] Chalchihuitlicue the Water Goddess became the sun.[21] Tezcatlipocas priests were offered into his service by their parents as children. his body being eaten later. For the next year he lived like a god. but Quetzalcoatl was furious possibly because they are enemies.[21] Extreme reverence and respect. a jaguar and destroyed the world. characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were “to pay homage” to Tezcatlipoca. Tezcatlipoca is depicted with a Tezcatlipoca. made it rain fire with what people survived turning into birds. She cried for many years and floods.

185 [18] Olivier 2003 p. [8] Taube & Miller 1993 p.[19] The Version as it is recounted in the Codex Ramirez— also called “Historia de Los mexicanos por sus Pinturas”. Missing or empty |title= (help). Mary.co.Tezcatlipoca Symposium . the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was por. for the vassals (macehualtin)? For I am blind.co. Missing or empty |title= (help). and in excrement. 167 [15] Olivier 2003 p.. Karl Taube (1993). • Olivier. p.mexicolore.201 24. 174 [16] Olivier 2003 p.mexicolore. and citizens alike. lords. priests. 54-55 [13] Olivier 2003 p. Tezcatlipoca stories 24. 212 [25] Olivier 2003. 48 [11] Olivier 2003 p.. O wind. 186 For kings. Missing or empty |title= (help). [3] http://www.[21] The new king would claim his spiritual nakedness symbolically through words and physical vulnerability.html • Quetzalcoatl [23] For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6. 183. [4] http://www.[21] CHAPTER 24. p.” speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god’s will. translated by Michel Besson. 164 24. Rex (2008).uk/aztecs/artefacts/ personified-knives''. 51 [14] Olivier 2003 p. [10] Olivier 2003 p. Michael D. perhaps thou seekest another in my stead”. 24. 52 [12] Olivier 2003 pp. 1415.org/ arqueologos-del-inah-descubren-vasija-en-forma-de-tlaloc-y-cuchillos-en-ofrenda-del-templo-mayor/ ?lang=en''.9 Notes [1] The vowel transliterated here as [i] may in fact have been long or followed by a glottal stop which is sometimes written as an ⟨h⟩ [2] For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp..10 References • Coe. in filth hath my lifetime been. Thames & Hudson Ltd. O our lord. the king. University Press of Colorado. I am deaf. TEZCATLIPOCA [9] Jun Raqan “the one-legged” was an epithet of this Classic Maya Deity of rulership and thunder which eventually led to the English word “Hurricane”. “Lord of the Smoking Mirror”. Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another. emphasizing his utter unworthiness. but Full text of this Codex in English translation can be found utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they at FAMSI believed were the cause of these events. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God: Tezcatlipoca.[25] [21] Coe and Koontz. London. trayed not through science or philosophical debate.edu/org/tricksters/trixway/current/ Vol%201/Vol%201_1/Tstocker. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (Sixth ed.. It was gods like Tezcatlipoca that solidified this notion. I am an imbecile.[21] The king would stand “naked. • Miller.86 were commonplace. especially for this deity.11 External links • Mexicolore .Poor am I. 183 [17] Olivier 2003 p. ISBN 0-87081-745-0. London: Thames and Hudson.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ smoking-mirrors''.). ISBN 978-0-500-28755-2. [6] This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec “2 Reed” which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl [7] For a summary of Tezcatlipocas epithets and their siginificance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1.trinity.8 See also [22] http://www. and thunderous war. [5] http://5oymexico. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. • List of night deities [24] Coe and Koontz. Guilhem (2003). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya.[21] Utter respect from the highest position of Aztec nobility. of the nigh.. Koontz. praising Tezcatlipoca with lines such as: “O master. shown through the figurative and literal nakedness of his presence in front of Texcatlipoca. 166 the silent wind. O lord of the near. In what manner shall I act for thy city? In what manner shall I act for the governed. representing both [20] Durán quoted from Olivier (2003) p. O night.

1 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Five Suns (mythology) 87 . 25.Chapter 25 Yohaulticetl In Aztec mythology. Yohualticetl. She may have been the same as Metztli and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl. was a moon goddess and guardian of infants. the “Lady of the Night”.

the underworld was made of nine layers. In this manner the spinning of the sun and black sun shows a wheel crossing with an obfuscatory motion where four black rays move out of four yellow rays. death.[1] 26. which also had the entrance. the “Obsidian Butterfly. or the face of a gigantic toad that devoured the dead and gave access to the other eight lower levels.[8] Sculpture of a Teotihuacan feathered serpent. the souls of women who had died in childbirth. the Earth. the young Day Sun and the ancient Dark Sun.” that devoured people during the solar eclipses. Black Tezcatlipoca. This way. which then reappeared as crepuscular moths on Earth. and yet an expectation of fecundity. For the Mexicas there were two suns. The souls of the dead occupied the ninth level known as "Mictlan Opochcalocan. in turn. as he was known. Huitzilopochtli was accompanied from zenith to setting by the Ciuapipiltrins. and the universal rulership portrayed in the great dance called “Mitotiliztli. was one of the Five Suns of the creation myth of some Nahua peoples.[2][3] The butterfly. as well as the annual rotation of the heavens. a forerunner of Quetzallcoatl. at Museo Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico City man with a black sun within a yellow sun. According to the Codex Ríos. these sets of four rays relate to the four cardinal points and the four quarters. it is both tomb and womb. he demanded human blood as payment to his tasks. Before his nightly effort. The first level was the Earth’s surface. on its nightly journey through the underworld with the image of a butterfly.Chapter 26 Black Sun (mythology) The Black Sun in Mesoamerican mythology has many mystical meanings. among them it is connected to the god Quetzalcoatl and his penetration in the Underworld through the west door after his diurnal passage on the sky. the Plumed Serpent shows a 88 .[3][4] whereas also seen in the figure of the frightening earth goddess Itzpapalotl.” which reproduces the appearance of a wheel. however. he ruled over the north. night. is an archetypical symbol of the transcendent soul.2 See also • Black Sun (alchemy) • Black Sun (occult symbol) • Five Suns (mythology) • Lords of the Night (mythology) • Tzitzimitl (mythology) At archaeological scenes.[5] while the Aztec underworld was the eternal dwelling place of the souls. they represent the governance held by the gods over the human race since its infancy.[7] Another interpretation [8] holds that the sun god Huitzilopochtli crossed the underworld during the night bestowing light to the forgotten souls. sorcery. and judgment.1 Other views The Aztecs associated the passage of the Black Sun. son of the primordial god Ometeotl who was a god of dualities such as light and darkness. it is the oneness that uniformly integrates unawareness. Some scholars regard the mythological Black Sun as the ancient female origin of all. transformation and mystical rebirth.[1] According to some authors.”[6] The connection with nocturnal elements is also ascribed to the god Tezcatlipoca.[1] 26.

ISBN 0-87081-745-0. [3] O'Connell.26. Dougald. Culture Industry (Hispanic Issues). Airey. ISBN 0-7548-1548-X. Oxford University Press. M. Teresa (2002). (1920) pp 52. Resh.A. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Olivier. R. (2007) pp 149. Guilhem. REFERENCES 26. (2009) pp 239-240. Guilhem (2003). T.4 References • Aguilar-Moreno.4. McMillan (1989). University Press of Colorado.D.. Raje (2005). Lorenz. 102. Vincent. Declan. Pablo Neruda and the U. The illustrated encyclopedia of signs & symbols. ISBN 0-8153-3386-2. ASIN B004183HZC..S. Teresa (2002). Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • O'Connell. (2003). Vincent. University of Michigan Library. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Dick.. Resh. [2] Longo. ISBN 0-7735-0707-8. pp 187-188. R. Encyclopedia of insects. Essays for Richard Ellmann: Omnium Gatherum. Susan.C. [6] Aguilar-Moreno. Thomas Athol.. ISBN 0-12374144-0. Manuel (2007). Routledge. (1989) pp 165-166. Ring (2009). Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God. [8] Joyce.3 Notes [1] Dick.D. (2005) pp 185. Mark. Mark. [5] Aguilar-Moreno. Mcgill Queens University Press. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) 89 .T. 26. [4] H. 106. Kiberd. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Joyce. Susan. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • H. Thomas Athol (1920). Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Longo. Mexican archaeology: an introduction to the archaeology of the Mexican and Mayan civilizations of preSpanish America. K. Academic Press. [7] Olivier. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. (2007) pp 139. Cardé. ISBN 0-19-533083-8.

And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca. for every time they attempted to create something. who swam through the water with mouths at every one of her joints. while however modifying some aspects and supplying novel interpretations of their own. the god of duality. The gods then had to construct a whole new Earth from the ashes. who had loved the flawed people as they were. he only managed to become half a sun. the first god. also called simply Tezcatlipoca. light and darkness. so a great drought swept the world. but 90 .[2] It was these four gods who eventually created all the other gods and the world we know today. Then. the god of light. He then stepped down as the sun to create a new people. The four Tezcatlipocas descended the first people who were giants. The people’s prayers for rain annoyed the grieving sun and he refused to allow it to rain. but the people continued to beg him. fire and water. The term Five Suns in the context of creation myths. the most important of whom were the water gods: Tlaloc. describes the doctrine of the Aztec and other Nahua peoples in which the present world was preceded by four other cycles of creation and destruction. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca.[1] 27.1 Legend From the void that was the rest of the universe. good and evil. created itself. To give light. was Chalchiuhtlicue. Huitzilopochtli. deceit. rivers and oceans. and the Aztec saw themselves as “the People of the Sun.[3] The gods created a new group of people to inhabit the Earth. but Tezcatlipoca seduced and stole his wife Xochiquetzal. sorcery and the Earth. The world continued on in this way for some time. the god of rain and fertility and Chalchiuhtlicue. Quetzalcoatl. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca. the giant earth crocodile. With no sun. night. Without it. became upset and blew all of the monkeys from the face of the Earth with a mighty hurricane. the goddess of sex. These earlier worlds and their inhabitants had been created. Thus the welfare and the very survival of the universe depended upon the offerings of blood and hearts to the sun. the sun would disappear from the heavens. the people of the Earth grew less and less civilized and stopped showing proper honor to the gods. cosmological and eschatological beliefs and traditions of earlier cultures from central Mexico and the Mesoamerican region in general.” whose divine duty was to wage cosmic war in order to provide the sun with his tlaxcaltiliztli (“nourishment”). Tlaloc then refused to do anything other than wallow in his own grief. It is primarily derived from the mythological. Quetzalcoatl became the new sun and as the years passed. The Late Postclassic Aztec society inherited many traditions concerning Mesoamerican creation accounts. flowers and corn. Xipe Totec. The next sun and also Tlaloc’s new wife. it would fall into the water beneath them and be eaten by Cipactli. Quetzalcoatl. but a sibling rivalry grew between Quetzalcoatl and his brother the mighty sun. the god of war. Tezcatlipoca commanded his jaguars to eat all the people. who Quetzalcoatl knocked from the sky with a stone club. this time they were of normal size. the world was totally black and in his anger. farming and Spring time.[1] In the creation myths which were preserved by the Aztec and other Nahua peoples. the goddess of lakes. the god of judgment. Tlaloc became the next sun. She was very loving towards the people. It continued to rain fire until the entire Earth had burned away. Ometeotl. Ometeotl gave birth to four children. or “Suns”. Ometeotl was both male and female. but either because he had lost a leg or because he was god of the night. the four Tezcatlipocas. As a result. judgment and forgiveness. the god of gold. the central tenet was that there had been four worlds. Tezcatlipoca demonstrated his power and authority as god of sorcery and judgment by turning the animalistic people into monkeys.Chapter 27 Five Suns For the Guapo album. but before they could create they had to destroy. The present world is the fifth sun. They created the other gods. then destroyed by the catastrophic action of leading deity figures. before the present universe. who each preside over one of the four cardinal directions. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca. in a fit of rage he answered their prayers with a great downpour of fire. they needed a god to become the sun and the Black Tezcatlipoca was chosen. also the goddess of beauty. mercy and wind. see Five Suns (album).

offer their own blood to Quetzalcoatl. though the loss of is not always identified as Tlaloc’s reason 27. the Aztecs offer him the nourishment of human sacrifices. Further variations on this myth state that it was only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca who pulled apart Cipactli. who were also referred to as the Centzon Huitznahuas. which is not otherwise given and it myths is sometimes said that Chalchiuhtlicue flooded the world on purpose. Further variations depict the ball of feathers as being the father of Huitzilopochtli or the father of Quetzalcoatl and sometimes Xolotl. It was pects to these gods and endowing them with aspects of believed that Nanauatzin was too old to make a good sun. though the above version is the most common. the sun and Tecuciztecatl became the much less spectacular earth goddess.2.uhtlicue. the world will be shattered by a catastrophic earthquake. but also because there are many named Nanauatzin. Huitzilopochtli. believing it to be insulting that she had given birth to another child. the guide of the dead the warrior sun and wandered through the heavens with . To aid this all-important god in his continuing war. Tezcatlipoca was then born to her by an obsidian knife. who was sick.2 Variations and alternative Xochiquetzal for the rain of fire. before dismembering her. and the Tzitzimitl will slay Huitzilopochtli and all of humanity. Tecuciztecatl then foltime. It is sometimes said that the male characteristic of Ometeotl is named Ometecutli and that the female characteristic is named Omecihualt. but rejuvewas born to her first. this fifth sun will go black. causing a horrific flood that drowned everyone on Earth. Some versions say that Quetzalcoatl and Huitzilopochtli is Tonatiuh. Should these sacrifices cease. Quetzalcoatl would not accept the destruction of his people and went to the underworld where he stole their bones from the god Mictlantecuhtli. and the old Nanauatzin. Chalchiuhtlicue was so crushed by these words that she cried blood for the next fifty-two years. jaguars then ate before eating the giants. and that Xipe Totec and Huitzilopochtli then constructed the world from her body. Other variations of this myth claim that only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were born to Ometeotl. The of mouth and because the Aztecs adopted many of their two volunteers were the young son of Tlaloc and Chalchigods from other tribes. often nated himself by burning himself alive and then became mentioning his twin brother Xolotl. who reopened their eyes to a sky illuminated by the current sun. In this version of the myth. while she was still a virgin. Each world’s end correlates consistently to the god that was the sun at the time throughout all variations of the myth. 91 and god of fire. They also offer human sacrifices to Tezcatlipoca in fear of his judgment. both assigning their own new as. Older myths but both were given the opportunity to jump into the boncan be very similar to newer myths while contradicting fire. Some versions claim that Tezcatlipoca actually used his leg as bait for Cipactli. VARIATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE MYTHS Tezcatlipoca was not. or should mankind fail to please the gods for any other reason. more important brother Huitzilopochtli. The braver Nanauatzin became what is now the Other variations on this myth state that Coatlicue. goddess of the moon. Tecuciztecatl. A god that bridges the gap between Nanauatzin and the Tzitzimitl. the gods popular myths that seem to contradict one another due convened in darkness to choose a new sun.[2] Some of Ometeotl’s later children. who was to the fact that they were originally passed down by word sacrifice himself by jumping into a gigantic bonfire. also known as Tlaltecuhtli. or stars. Their leader. Coyolxauhqui. The most popular variation including Coatlicue depicts her giving birth first to the Tzitzimitl. followed by the Tzitzimitl and then Huitzilopochtli. lead them in an assault on the sun and every night they come close to victory when they shine throughout the sky.27. probably because myths changed in cor. without the involvement of Tezcatlipoca. who was replaced by Coatlicue in this myth probably because it had absolutely no worshipers or temples by the time the Spanish arrived. He dipped these bones in his own blood to resurrect his people. Both the people and Chalchiuhtlicue felt his judgment when he told the water goddess that she was not truly loving and only faked kindness out of selfishness to gain the people’s praise. Much later she gave birth to Huitzilopochtli when a mysterious ball of feathers appeared to her. became jealous of their brighter. but are beaten back by the mighty Huitzilopochtli who rules the daytime sky. which his from the few codices to survive the Spanish conquest. who opposes fatal sacrifices. Sometimes he is said to have decapitated Coyolxauhqui and either used her head to make the moon or thrown it into a canyon. The Tzitzimitl then decapitated the pregnant Coatlicue. Their myths can be confusing not only because of the The fifth sun however is sometimes said to be a god lack of documentation. lowed. The order of the first four suns varies as well. the same action.Nanauatzin then walked slowly towards and then into relation to the popularity of each of the gods at a given the flames and was consumed. Huitzilopochtli then sprang forth from her womb wielding a serpent of fire and began his epic war with the Tzitzimitl. the Tzitzimitl. Tecuciztecatl tried first but was not brave enough to one another by claiming that a different god performed walk through the heat near the flames and turned around. It Most of what is known about the ancient Aztecs comes is also said that Tezcatlipoca created half a sun. was the mother of the four Tezcatlipocas moon. in thanks of his blood sacrifice for them and give offerings to many other gods for many purposes. similar gods from various other cultures.

• Nahui-Ollin (Earthquake Sun) . This world will be destroyed by earthquakes (or one large earthquake). Osita. • Nahui-Quiahuitl (Rain Sun) . by Patricia Amlin. The Aztecs 2nd Ed.6 References [1] Iroku. 2001. The Five Suns: A Sacred History of Mexico. where an ancient star-faring civilization (“people of the First Sun”) had disappeared and left the galaxy with many dangerous artifacts. on the album Evil Empire. This world was destroyed by hurricanes. Los Angeles. (2003). The Aztec World.Inhabitants were destroyed by rain of fire. Chapter Seven. Los Angeles: California State University. published by the Enlil Institute 27. A Day in the Life of God. UK: Blackwell Publishing.3 Brief summation • Nahui-Ocelotl (Jaguar Sun) . 2005 [3] Aguilar-Moreno.7 Further reading • Aguilar.We are the inhabitants of this world. California State University. CHAPTER 27. A couple escaped but were transformed into dogs. 27. 2006 27. FIVE SUNS 27. by Juan Mora Catlett. Michael E. 27. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. Blackwell Publishing. • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin is in the 1996 film. • Nahui-Ehécatl (Wind Sun) . The world was destroyed.Moreno.This world was flooded turning the inhabitants into fish. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) . Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Smith. • Rage Against the Machine refers to intercultural violence as “the fifth sunset” in their song People of the Sun.5 See also • Aztec mythology • Aztec religion • Aztec philosophy • Black Sun (mythology) • Mesoamerican creation accounts [2] Smith. Manuel (2006). • Nahui-Atl (Water Sun) .Inhabitants were transformed into monkeys.Inhabitants were giants who were devoured by jaguars. • Thomas Harlan's science fiction series “In the Time of the Sixth Sun” uses this myth as a central plot point. In Necuepaliztli in Aztlan (Retorno a Aztlán).92 the souls of those who died in battle.4 In popular culture • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin serves as a framing device for the 1991 Mexican film.Michael E. Handbook to life in the Aztec World. refusing to move if not offered enough sacrifices. Only birds survived (or inhabitants survived by becoming birds). Manuel.

[1] were protectresses of the feminine and progenitresses of mankind. and during the New Fire ceremony marking the beginning of a new calendar round . 153: cenca nemauhtiloya mitoaya intla quitlamiz in quiqua tonatiuh quilmach çentlaiovaz valte- . the tzitzimime would descend to the earth and devour human beings. ing a solar eclipse.[2] The Tzitzimimeh were also feared during other ominous periods of the Aztec world. Citlalicue and Cihuacoatl and they were worshipped by midwives and parturient women.28. In Postconquest descriptions they are often described as "demons" or “devils” . This was interpreted as the Tzitzimimeh attacking the Sun. The leader of the tzitz.but this does not necessarily reflect their The Tzitzimimeh had a double role in Aztec religion: they function in the prehispanic belief system of the Aztecs.[3] lated to fertility. They were depicted as skeletal female figures wearing skirts often with skull and crossbone designs. ͡ simit ͡ ͡ (plural TzIn Aztec mythology. resided. The Tzitzimimeh were also associated with the stars and especially the stars that can be seen around the Sun dur93 [2] Sahagún 1997. they were associated with the Cihuateteo and other female deities such as Tlaltecuhtli. from the Codex Borgia.both were periods associated with the fear of change. such as during the five unlucky days called Nemontemi which marked an unstable period of the year count. They were also powerful and dangerous. and as such recially in periods of cosmic instability.Chapter 28 Tzitzimitl Depiction of Itzpapalotl. espeThe Tzitzimimeh were female deities. this caused the belief that during a solar eclipse. p.1 Notes imimeh was the Goddess Itzpapalotl who was the ruler of Tamoanchan . Coatlicue.the paradise where the Tzitzimimeh [1] See Klein 2000 for an analysis of the nature of the Tzitzimimeh in relation to the Aztec belief system. a Tzitzimitl /tsiˈt ɬ/ ͡ ͡ itzimimeh /tsitsiˈmimeʔ/) is a deity associated with stars. Depiction of a Tzitzimitl from the Codex Magliabechiano. Queen of the Tzitzimimeh.

94 CHAPTER 28. [3] This is the conclusion reached by Cecelia Klein (2000) based on an investigation of the iconographical depictions of Tzitzimimeh by the Aztecs 28.. all would be in darkness. 153. Bernardino de. they would devour us. • Klein. Sullivan. Cecelia F (2000). Thelma D. . so it was said. B. (1997). Primeros Memoriales. p. H. Nicholson. “The Devil and the Skirt: an iconographic inquiry into the prehispanic nature of the Tzitzimime”. It was said that if [the moon] finished eating the sun. the Tzitzimimeh would descend here.2 References • Sahagún. Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mèxico) 31: 17–62. TZITZIMITL mozque in ţiţimime techquazque There was great fear. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

2 Battles with Ra was written pp(y) and survived in later Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph. Apep’s identity was eventually entirely subsumed was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗ zft by that of Set.[1] Apep was first mentioned in the Eighth Dynasty. A verb root ꜥꜣpp does at any rate not exist elsewhere in Ancient Egyptian. bringer of light. Apophis was a large Cypriot football team.[3] Also.[4] in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). It was thought that his terrifying roar would cause the underworld to rumble. The etymology of his name (ꜥꜣpp) is perhaps to be sought in some west-semitic language where a word root ꜣpp meaning 'to slither' existed. Myths sometimes say that Apep was trapped there. This appropriately made him a part of the underworld. possibly a solar deity. to travel') Apep’s name much later came to be falsely connected etymologically in Egyptian with a different root meaning (he who was) spat out. In some stories Apep waited for Ra in a western mountain called Bakhu. and thus was given the title Enemy of Ra. in the Tenth region of the Night. and in others Apep lurked just before dawn.. Apep was viewed as the greatest enemy of Ra. also spelled Apepi or Aapep) quently. Set eventually became thought of as the god of evil. because he had been the previous chief god overthrown by Ra.1 Development Ra was the solar deity. 29. As the personification of all that was evil. as it 29. gradually took on all the characteristics of Apep. he attempted to swallow the sun every day. Apep was seen as a giant snake or serpent leading to such titles as Serpent from the Nile and Evil Lizard. Already on a Naqada I (ca. and Apep (/ˈæˌpɛp/ or /ˈɑːˌpɛp/) or Apophis (/ˈæpəfɨs/. and he was honored in the names of the Fourteenth Dynasty king 'Apepi and of the Greater Hyksos king Apophis. who is invisibly hunting in a big rowing vessel. every day. the Romans referred to Set speared Apep Tales of Apep’s battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom. or because he was evil and had been imprisoned. The wide range of Apep’s possible location gained him the title World Encircler. For other uses. His name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāpī.Chapter 29 Apep This article is about an Ancient Egyptian deity. see APEP F. He was so large that see Apep (disambiguation). For the Apep by this translation of his name. 4000 BC) C-ware bowl (now in Cairo) a snake was painted on the inside rim combined with other desert and aquatic animals as a possible enemy of a deity. (It is not to be confused with the verb ꜥpı͗/ꜥpp: 'to fly across the sky. and also “the Lord of Chaos”. ConseAncient Greek: Ἄποφις. golden snake known to be miles long. Some elaborations even said that he stretched 16 yards in length and had a head made of flint. comparable hostile snakes as enemies of the sun god existed under other names (in the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts) already before the name Apep occurred. He appears in art as a giant serpent.[6] Since everyone can see that the sun is not attacked by a giant snake during the day. 95 . where the sun set. storytellers said that Apep must lie just below the horizon. and thus the upholder of Ma'at.C.

Deir el-Medina [6] J. so they were sometimes buried with spells that could destroy Apep. [4] H. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH. Pinch. this guide had instructions for making wax models. in the form of Great Cat.5 Notes [1] Erman. (1973).Wolterman. [3] C. Ra himself defeats Apep in the form of a cat. called the Banishing of Chaos. “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. by A. In an annual rite. 114–115. In some accounts. [2] Hieroglyph as per Budge Gods of the Ancient Egyptians (1969). Fearing that even the image of Apep could give power to the demon any rendering would always include another deity to subdue the monster. Adolf. 1971). which would be spat on. F. Assmann. F. Seth. C. Egyptian Mythology. The Egyptian priests even had a detailed guide to fighting Apep. 6 vols. Ra’s victory each night was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshipers at temples. [7] Borghouts. referred to as The Books of Overthrowing Apep (or the Book of Apophis. Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom. God of Confusion (Leiden.3 Worship Ra was worshipped. and his battles with Set may have been meant to explain the origin of thunderstorms.[9] 29. 107–108 . 1977).96 CHAPTER 29. of the serpent. [8] Borghouts. he was sometimes thought of as an Eater of Souls.[8] Apep’s movements were thought to cause earthquakes. pp.[11] 29.[10] The chapters described a gradual process of dismemberment and disposal. Leiden Nr. Only BD Spells 7 and 39 can be explained as such. in Jaarbericht van Ex Oriente Lux. including Set[4] and possibly the Eye of Ra. Hinrichs’schen Buchhandlungen. “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. slays the snake Apep[5] The Coffin Texts imply that Apep used a magical gaze to overwhelm Ra and his entourage. The Egyptians practiced a number of rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apep. (2004). Vol. whilst reciting spells that would kill Apep. 180. Te Velde. and include: Spitting Upon Apep Defiling Apep with the Left Foot Taking a Lance to Smite Apep Fettering Apep Taking a Knife to Smite Apep Putting Fire Upon Apep • 99942 Apophis • Egyptian influence in popular culture • Ethnoherpetology • Jörmungandr • Mehen • Unut • Wadjet 29. mutilated and burnt. transl. J. Alcock (London. and Hermann Grapow. 1057.37 (2002). and burn it to protect everyone from Apep’s evil for another year. in a similar manner to modern rituals such as Zozobra. and Apep worshipped against. eds.[7] Ra was assisted by a number of defenders who travelled with him. 1926– 1953. The Book of the Dead does not frequently describe occasions when Ra defeated the chaos snake explicitly called Apep. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. priests would build an effigy of Apep that was thought to contain all of the evil and darkness in Egypt. 49-57. [5] tomb of Inherkha. 116. Leipzig: J. APEP In addition to stories about Ra’s winnings. Thus the dead also needed protection. J. As Apep was thought to live in the underworld. 1995). and aid Ra to continue his journey across the sky.4 See also The sun god Ra. (1973). The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. [9] G. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. or small drawings. in Greek). I.

Enemy of Ra. chapters 3-5. Wiesbaden. Magic and Religion as Performative Theological Unity: the Apotropaic Ritual of Overthrowing Apophis..29. 2007).Borghouts. 29. Book of the Dead [39]: From Shouting to Structure (Studien zum Altaegyptischen Totenbuch 10. University of Liverpool (Liverpool.6 External links • Apep.D.Apep 97 . Water Snake-Demon of Chaos. • ancient Egypt: The Mythology .. 1999).Kousoulis. EXTERNAL LINKS [10] P. [11] J. dissertation.F.6. Ph.

Kuk’s male form was depicted as a frog. Also.Chapter 30 Kuk (mythology) This article is about a concept in ancient Egyptian mythology. As a concept. his female form being known as Kauket (also spelled as Keket).u. see Kuk. see k. The other members of the Ogdoad are Nu and Naunet. Huh and Hauhet. “Kek and Kauket. Kuk was seen as that which occurred before light. Deities of Darkness.1 References [1] Seawright. In the Ogdoad cosmogony. and the female form as a snake. his name meant darkness. Kuk was viewed as androgynous.k. For other uses. Kuk (also spelled as Kek and Keku) is the deification of the primordial concept of darkness in ancient Egyptian religion. or a snake-headed woman. or as a frog-headed man. 30. As a symbol of darkness. He was the god of the darkness of chaos 98 . Kuk also represented obscurity and the unknown. Amun and Amaunet.. thus was known as the bringer-in of light. Retrieved 2008-08-22. Caroline.[1] Like all four dualistic concepts in the Ogdoad. Obscurity and Night”. For the abbreviation describing the AustroHungarian Empire. and thus chaos. which is simply the female form of the word Kuk.

who encounters and aids the protagonist in his battle against the other gods. is the goddess of night in the Vedas and the mythology of India and Hinduism. Malayalam. Tamil.1 Fiction The goddess Ratri is a minor character in Roger Zelazny's science fiction novel Lord of Light.2 Further reading • Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-03795) by David Kinsley 99 . 31. Telugu. Her name is the common/ordinary word for nighttime in Indian languages like Kannada. 31.Chapter 31 Ratri Ratri. often also called Ratridevi. Bengali. the Vedic goddess of Dawn. She is sister to Ushas.

Chapter 32

Chandra
This article is about the Hindu moon deity. For other
uses, see Chandra (disambiguation).
In Hinduism, Chandra (Sanskrit चन्द्र lit, Kannada
, Telugu
, Tamil சந்திரன். “shining”)[1]
is a lunar god and a Graha. Chandra is also identified
with the Vedic lunar deity Soma (lit. “juice”).[2] The
Soma name refers particularly to the juice of sap in the
plants and thus makes the Moon the lord of plants and
vegetation.[1]
Chandra is described as young, beautiful, fair; two-armed
and having in his hands a club and a lotus.[3] He rides his
chariot across the sky every night, pulled by ten white
horses or an antelope. He is connected with dew, and as
such, is one of the gods of fertility. He is also called Rajanipati (lord of the night)[1] and Kshupakara (one who
illuminates the night),[4] and Indu (lit. the bright drop).[1]
As Soma, he presides over Somvar or Monday.
Chandra is the father of Budha, (planet Mercury) the
mother being Tara. He is married to 27 Nakshatras (constellations), who are known to be daughters of Daksha.

32.1 In astrology
Chandra with Rohini

In Vedic astrology Chandra represents brain and mind,
emotions, sensitivity, softness, imagination, queen and
mother. Chandra rules over the sign Karkaataka (Cancer), while he is exalted in Vrishabha (Taurus) and in his
fall in Vrishchika (Scorpio). The waxing moon is considered to be benefic, and the waning moon is considered
to be malefic. The bright moon is considered a benefic
of the highest order, while the dark moon is considered
a malefic. Chandra is lord of three nakshatras or lunar
mansions: Rohini, Hasta and Shravana. Chandra has the
following associations: the color white, the metal silver
and the gemstones pearl and moonstone. His element is
water, direction is north-west and season is winter. The
food grain associated with him (one of Nava Dhanyas) is
rice.

name meaning “illustrious”. In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the god of the moon. In Hindu astrology, the moon
is considered a planet, and it is considered to be one of
the best planets to be born under as it promises wealth and
) or
happiness. It is also referred as Shashi (Kannada:
Tingala (Kannada:
).
According to Hindu mythology Chandra has not been
very fortunate in life. Chandra was born in the Ocean of
Milk (the gods were churning it for millennia in order to
create immortal life), and nearly blinded the gods with his
bright, glowing body (hence the name that means “illustrious”). The gods unanimously decided to give Chandra
the status of a planet and sent him into the cosmos.

Chandra is known for having a series of disastrous love
affairs. His first lover, Tara, was the wife of Brihaspati,
Chandra (pronounced “CHUHN-drah”) is a Sanskrit the planet Jupiter. From their union, Tara became preg100

32.2. OTHER ASPECTS
nant gives birth to Budha (a.k.a. the planet Mercury, not
to be confused with the other Buddha). Because of how
he was conceived, Budha hated his father and as Chandra also knew that Budha is his illegitimate son, he began
to hate his son, and their rivalry continues to this day.
For the sin of abducting another god’s consort, Brahma
banished Chandra to the outer atmosphere. This story
illustrates allegorically the prohibition of intoxicants for
Brahmins.[5] After that, Chandra, set out to marry the
twenty-seven daughters of Daksha. Daksha allowed this
on the condition that the moon not favor any daughter
over the others. Chandra failed to do this, and Daksha
placed a curse on him that took away his luster, which
accounts for the moon’s waxing and waning.

32.1.1

Dark spot on the moon

One popular story to account for the dark spot on the
moon is that Ganesha, once filled with food, fell from his
mouse and broke his stomach. Chandra laughed at this,
at which Ganesha injured him by breaking off and throwing one of his tusks; and cursed him so that it would be
forbidden to behold Chandra on Ganesh Chaturthi.

32.2 Other aspects
Chandra is also the word in Sanskrit, Hindi and other
Indian languages for moon. It is also a common Indian
name, both male and female and exists as a name in many
South East Asian languages that originate from Sanskrit.
The god, the drink and the plant probably referred to the
same entity, or at least the differentiation was ambiguous. In this aspect, Soma is similar to the Greek ambrosia (cognate to amrita); it is what the gods drink, and
what made them deities. Soma is still coined as name for
an entheogenic brew (avestic: Haoma) still in ceremonial
use.
Indu, one of the other names for Chandra, is also the
name of the first chakra (group) of Melakarta ragas in
Carnatic music. The names of chakras are based on the
numbers associated with each name. In this case, there is
one moon and hence the first chakra is Indu.[6][7]
In India Chandra is a common surname for example
'Anurag Chandra ' and ' Tanuja Chandra' . But in America the name has been used as a girl’s name. It appeared
on the popularity charts in the 1950s, peaking in the
1970s, before disappearing in the 1990s. The name has
several variations including Chandrah, Chaundra, etc.

101
shown as dark spot on moon as a result of the curse of
rishi Gautama. His Egyptian counterpart is Khonsu.
Chandra the moon is actually a satellite of the planet
Earth. But in Indian astrology the moon and the Sun
are counted among the nine planets. Chandra is called ‘
ChandA’ or ‘ChAnd’ in Hindi and Urdu languages. Chandra is the most beloved God of the humans, at least in
the tropics. Children all over India and even elders call
him affectionately as ‘Chanda- mama’. Mama means the
maternal uncle in both North Indian and South Indian
languages. There is a very popular children’s magazine
called ‘Chanda mama’ which is published from Chennai
in more than twelve Indian languages, There are hundreds
of nursery songs in all languages of India sung by all the
mothers addressing their handsome brother Chand, while
feeding their children, requesting him to bring milk, butter and curds for his sister’s child. Similarly Chandra
or Chanda is the most favourite topic of songs sung by
lovers. They express their happiness while making love
and request Chanda mama to shine brightly and not to
pass on so quickly. so that the wonderful night may continue forever. Dozens of folk songs, film songs and even
titles of films are named after the Chandra or Chand.
There is an interesting episode regarding the lunar eclipse
in the Hindu mythology. Lunar eclipse is called ChandragrahaN (swallowing of Chandra). Even today people believe that two great serpents named Rahu and Ketu which
are counted as two other planets ( Uranus and Neptune)
nurture a grudge against the planets moon and the Sun and
both these serpents occasionally come and swallow the
moon and the Sun gradually. When moon is swallowed
partially or completely it is called Chandra GrahaN. People wait patiently for the total release of the moon and
take holy bath after the end of the eclipse. Moon is the
symbol of beauty in Indian literature. The beautiful face
of a woman is compared to the moon by almost all Indian poets. The moon and the lotus flower are the most
popular similes used while describing the face of a beautiful woman who is often called as’ Chandramukhi’- the
moonfaced beauty.. Name of Chandra is attached to various Gods. For example the full name of Lord Sri Ram is
Ramachandra. Similarly the full name of another Avatar
Lord Krishna is Krishna Chandra. Some scholars opine
that both these avatars were so called because they were
perhaps born on a full moon day, a day which is sacred
for Jains also Lord Shiva is called Chandrasekhar also,
because he wears a crescent moon on his forehead. The
crescent moon with a star is a sacred symbol of Islam
also. There are also many ancient explanations and stories connected with the spots on the face of the moon.
Some people say that a rabbit stays always on the face of
the moon. That is why the moon is also called Shashank
( one who has a mark of a rabbit on his lap ). Some people think that a cat is sitting on the face of the moon. In
Telugu language the moon is also called Jabilli.

There is another story about moon (Chandra), when Indra
was trying to rape Ahilya, wife of rishi Gautama, Chandra
was in the form of a peacock to alert Indra on Gautama’s
arrival . Gautama eventually beheld the act and cursed Under the sub-title ‘other aspects’ it is stated that ChanIndra with impotency and hit Chandra (in the form of dra is the middle name of the Hindu God RamaChanpeacock) with his wet cloth (Dhoti). Those marks are

102
drasekhara, which is erroneous. There seems to be a mix
up between the names of two different Gods Sri Ram and
Lord Shiva. Full name of Lord Sri Ram is Rama Chandra and not Rama Chandra Sekhara. Rama was named
as Rama Chandra for reasons that are not revealed to the
public. Some Scholars opine that Sri Ram was born on a
full moon day and that is why he was called Rama Chandra. There was a great discussion among scholars as to
why Sri Rama the illustrious son of the solar dynasty
was named as Rama Chandra, Chandra being the progenitor of the lunar dynasty. Similarly the name Chandra
Sekhara is given to Lord Shiva only, because he wears a
crescent moon on his forehead. Name of Lord Sri Rama
is definitely not Rama Chandra Sekhara, nor Chandra is
His middle name

CHAPTER 32. CHANDRA
dren. His wife was ‘Ningal’(the great lady). ‘Nusku’ the
God of Fire was his son. Even today the crescent moon
and the planet Venus in the middle, is the Universal symbol of Islam. It is reported in the Wikipedia that the crescent moon has been used by the Arab religions as far back
as the time of Abraham.

God Chandra and the tides: The Hindu mythology offers
an explanation for the high and low tides that occur in the
seas and oceans.The details areas follows.God Chandra
and Goddess Lakshmi are born from the ocean during
the churning of the milky ocean.( that part of the ocean
where the waters and waves are sparkling white and look
like milk). Being the father of Chandra the God of Ocean
is overjoyed to see his son rising from the eastern horizon
and rushes to greet him. Similarly the Sea God rushes
God Chandra is addressed by various names depend- towards the West when the moon God is going to set.
ing on his attributes. He is called Vidhu, Indu, Hi- Chandrama in Mantrapushpam: Mantrapushpam is a samansu, Subhranshu (whose rays are cool and clean), Ra- cred document available in the Taittareeya Aranyakam
janeesh,Rakesh ( Lord of the night ), Rajanikar, Nishakar in which the great Rishis have conceived the connection
( maker of the night), Shashi, Shashank ( one who bears between the human mind/ consciousness and various ela rabbit on his body),Sudha-nidhi, Sudhamaya (one who ements of nature like flower, water, moon, air, thunder
is full of nectar), Kumudesh ( lover of the esculent wa- etc. Giving great importance to the Moon God it informs
ter lily- Nymphaea esculent or the red lotus-Nymphaea in the first sloka itself that – Moon is the flower of Warubric), Kunda Pushpojjwala( as bright as the jasmine ters. He who knows this becomes endowed with flower,
flower-jasmine multiflora).
progeny and animals.
In the ‘Purusha Sukta’ of the Rigveda it is mentioned
“ Chandramaa va apaam pushpam pushpavaan, prathat Chandra was born from the mind of the virat Pu- jaavaan, pasumaan bhavati “
rusha(God symbolized as the entire universe) – ‘ChanLater the mantra says that - Moon is the support of waters.
drama manasojaatah’.
He becomes endowed with support who understands that
There is an episode explaining the waxing and waning Moon is the support of water, and similarly water is the
of the moon during a month. It was reported that God support of Moon. Thus Moon is the support of Water and
Chandra was paying more attention to one of his 27 wives. Water is the support of Moon.
The other 26 wives who are also the daughters of the great
Prajapati Daksha brought this fact to the attention of their “Yah Chandramasa aayatanam veda. aayatanavan bhafather. Daksha became very angry and cursed Chandra, vati. Aapo vai chandramasa aayatanam , aayatanavaan
his son in law’ to suffer from consumption. As a result the bhavati, Ya evam veda”
size of Chandra began to decrease gradually. Alarmed at The mantra says that the moon and water support each
this the daughters requested their father to take back his other and there is a similarity between the waxing and
curse. But since a curse which is delivered once, cannot waning of the moon and vacillation of mind between exbe taken back, Daksha modified his curse to the effect perience s of grief and happiness. Beyond this we cannot
that the size of Chandra will decrease from full moon to explain the meaning of this mantra because it is a Veda
new moon for a fortnight and then his size will gradually Mantra based purely on sound rather than meaning.
grow until the full Moon day, during the next fortnight.
Worship of the moon God in ancient Arabia: the Arabians who suffer from the excessive heat of the Sun preferred to worship the Moon God, who gives them cool
breeze and dew drops, thereby helping them in farming and development of green grass for their goats and
camels. That is why perhaps they were called Asuras 32.3 In popular culture
as opposed to the Indo-Aryans who called themselves
Suraas or Devas. The Suraas worshipped the Sun God.
The Indian mythology is full of wars between the Suras Chandra (and the gem supposedly on the forehead of
a statue of his at Somanath) plays an important role
and the Asuras.
in one of the first novel-length mystery stories in En'Sin' the moon God of ancient Arabia occupied the chief
glish, The Moonstone. The Sanskrit word for moon-craft
place in the astral triad. It’s other two members ‘Shamus’
Chandrayaan is used to refer to India’s lunar orbiters
the Sun god and ‘Ishtar’ the planet Venus were his chil(Chandrayan-1 and Chandrayaan-2).

EXTERNAL LINKS 32.6 External links • Media related to Chandra at Wikimedia Commons 103 . Pub. by Prof.132 [5] http://2-0-1-2. Bhagyalekshmy.livejournal. published by Kala Occult Publishers. p.html [6] South Indian Music Book III. P Sambamoorthy. 1990.51 [2] Graha Sutras by Ernst Wilhelm.32.131 [4] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p. Published by Kala Occult Publishers ISBN 0-9709636-4-5 p.0 [3] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p.5 References [1] Graha Sutras By Ernst Wilhelm .6. CBH Publications 32. 5.com/211027. ISBN 0-9709636-4-5. The Indian Music Publishing House [7] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Published 1973.4 See also • Navagraha • Soma 32.

Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes. the sun passes through the opening at the neck. bitter enemy of caught Rahu. see Lunar node. 33.1 Mythology Vishnu beheading Rahu with his Sudarshana chakra. ever-angry. flew towards the sun. bestower of prosperity and wealth and ultimate knowledge. causing eclipses. Ravana 104 . Rahu and Ketu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. In Hindu tradition. during the Samudra manthan. that swallows the sun causing eclipses. For other uses. The other name of Rahu is Bhayanka. see Rahu (disambiguation). ing: the chief. Hanuman.[1] Astronomically. the tormentor. Rahu arrived and saw Hanuman also approaching and thought that HanuVarious names are assigned to Rahu in Vedic texts includ. Then. one who frightens the On another occasion. He is depicted in art as a serpent with no body riding a chariot drawn by eight black horses.1. in his childhood. and it in turn swallows the moon on timely basis to cause a lunar eclipse. the immortal (having drunk the divine nectar). The day was solar eclipse day. during the Ramayana war. when Rahu was to swallow up the sun. Sun. and the demons. however. Therefore.1 Hinduism According to legend.Chapter 33 Rahu For the ascending lunar node Rahu. Hanuman. seeing Rahu. The fact that eclipses occur when the Sun and the Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the myth of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon by the demon snake. the one who makes the Moon lustreless. The time of day considered to be under the influence of Rahu is called Rahu kala and is considered inauspicious. lord of illusions. In Vedic astronomy. Rahu was considered as incarnation of Shakti in beastly form. It is believed that this immortal head from time to time swallows the sun. the asura Rahu drank some of the amrita (divine nectar). remained immortal due to the effect of amrita and became Rahu. Hanuman and Rahu In ancient Tamil astrological scripts. the minister of was attracted by curiosity to the disembodied head. as it appeared to be a big fruit. ending the eclipse. Rahu is considered to be a rogue planet.man is trying to swallow the sun. the luminaries. the advisor of the demons. The head. 33. the peacemaker. Rahu ( ) is a severed head of an asura. Rahu is one of the navagrahas (nine planets) in Vedic astrology and is paired with Ketu. The sun and moon realized it and alerted Mohini (the female avatar of Vishnu). The body also turned into Ketu due to a boon. Mohini cut off the asura’s head before the nectar could pass his throat.

Rahu is associated with the following: its color is smoky. and its gemstone is honey-colored hessonite. pleasures etc. exaltation. of life he controls into chaos. Rahu is seen Rahu. and transmigration. which Rahu does rather than have his “head split into seven pieces”. particularly the Longchen Nyingthik. Sud33. mystery. Rahula is a sa. ASTROLOGY 105 imprisoned the Navagrahas. a class of deities associated with the heavenly bodies. and debilitation.2 Astrology den changes in luck and fame are also linked to Rahu. a divinity having the attributes of anger and the like). poison dealers. and his lower body has the form of a snake. The astrological text Lal Kitab notes that if Saturn and Worship of Goddess Durga pleases Rahu the most and he Mars are conjunct. cere and immoral acts. pleasure seekers.lates to the Seventh Ray energy of esoteric astrology. he is the realm of existence. saying “people devoted to you are blessed by us too. harsh speech. becoming one of the principle protectors of the Dzogchen teachings. aspecting or controlling. insin- powerful nakshatra. Tib. abdominal ulcers. . Shatabhisha is his most Rahu is supposed to be a mighty and naughty child of Maya. falsehoods. Rahu (or Rahula. In his four arms he holds a bow and arrow. He is wrathful in appearance. They were grateful to Hanuman. Rahu dasa gives immense scope for obtaining spectacular results from worship or dhyana. Rahu is considered instrumental in strengthening one’s In Vedic astrology Rahu dasha can either be the best time power and converting even an enemy into a friend. worldly desire. Rahu attacks Chandra the moon deity and Surya the sun deity before being compelled to release them by their recitation of a brief stanza conveying their reverence for the Buddha. Svati and Shatabhisha. operators in foreign lands. uncontrolled growth Rahu is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: without wisdom or understanding. bones. they can as an asura or demon who does his best to plunge any area together be treated as Ketu. He is In Vedic astrology. It reof any person’s life or plunge him into deep trouble de. and thus is associated with dualities resulting from its mayavi (illusory) nature. they can be together considered as confers immense benefits to the worshipper. It is a legendary master of deception who signifies cheaters. while if Jupiter and Venus are conjunct.[2][3] The Buddha responds by enjoining Rahu to release them. It is the symbol of an irreligious person. gza) is considered to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava.2 Buddhism Rahu is mentioned explicitly in a pair of scriptures from the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon. He is usually depicted with nine heads and a Rahu with consort Karali thousand eyes all over his dark-colored body. In the Candima Sutta and the Suriya Sutta. Rahu is one of the krodhadevatas (lit: Anger divinities. Its element is air and its direction is southwest. Thus. 33. Ardra. drug dealers. different systems assign Rahu differassociated with the world of material manifestation and ent signs regarding rulership. as well as random.1.. as pending on which planet is controlling him and which it represents a force displaying all the possibilities within bhava or pattern of life like longevity. i. Worship of Lord Rama appeases Lord Hanuman the most. it’s said that Rahu is at his apex of power when operating through this nakshatra. ablaze with fire.” All the grahas thanked Hanuman individually for releasing them. an outcast. and often a lasso and victory banner.e. Hanuman arrived and released them. metal is lead. uncleanliness. it is believed that Rahu’s negative influence will be subdued when one worships Hanuman. and cruelty.[3] The verses recited by the two celestial deities and the Buddha have since been incorporated into Buddhist liturgy as protective verses (paritta) recited by monks as prayers of protection.[4] In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.33.2.

3 Worship Rahu is also worshipped by the Dusadh (Paswan) caste found in Bihar. Madan (1990). see the summary in the Devaputtasamyutta section Phra Rahu in Thailand. Kathmandu. 33. exist in the Ganesh Temple in Manways of propitiating Rahu. The navagraha deities. Government of India.[5] 33. satnaja (a mixture of seven grains). Traimet near Chinatown in Bangkok. Myanmar. Publication Division. blankets. India through the ages. Rahu is also worshipped along with the other 9 planets in Ants are considered of the favoured species of Rahu.5 See also • Ketu • Kirtimukha • Svarbhanu 33.7 External links • Things ruled by Rahu in Vedic Astrology . amongst other wats. Thailand. [2] Candima Sutta [3] Suriya Sutta [4] Access to Insight.ple for Phra Rahu worshipping in Thailand is in Nakhon uously is also kept in Thai businesses. India. very high regard. lead. “Om Dhoom Raam Rahave Namaha” 33. 77. black biscuits amongst nature. as he is called in Thailand. RAHU followed for over 1. Phra Rahu.106 33. A prayer in the form of a three-day fast is offered by devotees.500 years. dalay. and coal.6 Notes [1] Gopal.Naganatha Temple at Thirunageswaram.1 Rahu dan CHAPTER 33. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. In all Hindu temples in Burma. and also in the courtyard of the South In Thailand. This practice has been [5] Daan in Vedic Astrology 33. There is a shrine for Phra Rahu in Wat Nepal. is worshipped in The other Phra Rahu statue is in the Wat Yannawa. radishes. also exists in other items to propitiate Phra Rahu.2. K.S. The milk turns light blue when it flows down after touching the statue of Rahu.4 Rahu Mantra Mantras linked with Rahu include “Om Bhram Bhreem Bhroum Sah Rahave Namah” and “Om Rang Rahuve Namah Om”. Tamil Nadu. saffron. The most famous temfilled with white sugar balls on which ants are fed contin. One complex of this coffee. There is a dedicated temple to Rahu . feasome parts of India feeding ants is considered one of the turing nine planets. a temple called Wat Srisathhong. p. Gautam. The ritual is a device to secure abundance of sunlight and prosperity by the community. Articles that are donated in order to mitigate negative effects of Rahu include mustard. The bhagat (priest) assists the devotee in prayer by standing on a ladder made of swords and by fire-offering at which the bhagat walks through the fire. whom they hold in the Bhairav Mahadev Sthan in Gyaneswor. Pathom Province. black beans. people offer a plate of black offering—black Indian temple in Silom. black Coke. ed. sesame. featuring statues of all nine planets. near Wat Traimit in Bangkok’s Chinatown and also in Wat the Saphan Taksin sky train station. There is a milk abhishekam everyday during Rahu Kaalam to appease Rahu. A glass fish-bowl Yannawa.

EXTERNAL LINKS • How Does rahu Operate in its Dasha • Hessonite the Jyotish Gemstone of Rahu 107 .7.33.

Varuna with his omniscience and omnipotence in the affairs of men has many aspects of a supreme deity. In the Rigveda. representing the west. being the king of the Asuras.[5] In post-Vedic texts Varuna became the god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned.Chapter 34 Varuna For other uses. Malay: Baruna). considered the most powerful weapon capable of destroying all creation. he is rather associ. Varuna. and can grant immortality. Varuna has aspects of a solar of the Guardians of the directions. chief of the Devas. Rama’s arrows destroys the demons. where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana. deity though. and Nala con- 108 . he suggests that Rama re-direct the weapon at a demonic race that lives in the heart of the ocean. and Rama arises on the fourth morning. ˈvɑːrə-/. is about six times more prominent than Varuna. when opposed to Mitra. based on similarities between both names and the respective gods’ attributes.12). enraged by the God’s arrogance. and establishes a purer. Varuna arises out of the oceans. although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e. Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element. In Hindu mythology. Varuna does not respond.3). Vedic Varuna is sometimes thought to be a reflex of the same Proto-Indo-European theonym as Greek Ouranos. fasting and meditating in perfect dhyana for three days and three nights. As 34. Just as Rama invokes the brahmastra.Later art depicts Varuna as a lunar deity. change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos. As the wearing golden armor and holding a noose or lasso made most prominent Deva.[1] Sanskrit: Varuṇa व ण. as well as a god of law of the underwater world. was adopted or made the Faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka. Together with Mitra–originally 'agreement' (between tribes) personified—being master of ṛtá. He bows to Rama. while Indra receives no mention. and his brother. Rama (an Avatar of Vishnu) performs a penance (tapasya) to Varuna. asking him to forgive all sins. watching every movement of men. who is mentioned 341 times.1 In the Vedas such. RV 5. 34. but no successful derivation has yet been produced that is consistent with known laws of sound change. particularly the oceans. and Mitra with the daylight. Soma being closely associated with Indra. Varuna promises that he would keep the oceans still for all of Rama’s army to pass. liberated environment there.2 In the Ramayana Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath. prays to calm Rama’s mind. Varuna (/ˈvɜrʊnə. see Varuna (disambiguation).g. with moral and societal affairs than being a deification of nature. he angrily begins attacking the oceans with celestial weapons—burning up the waters and killing its life and creatures. The Rigveda and Atharvaveda[3] portrays Varuna as omniscient. and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). however. The daily Sandhyavandanam ritual of a dvija addresses Varuna in this aspect in its evening routine. With his bow and arrow. This may misrepresent the actual importance of Varuna in early Vedic society due to the focus of the Rigveda on fire and Soma ritual. Indra. The stars are his thousand-eyed spies. RV 7.[4] In Vedic religion.63.g. as Indra-Varuna (when both cooperate at New Year in re-establishing order [2] ). imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra. He is also one As chief of the Adityas. catching liars in his snares. Varuna is also a god of the dead. Begging him not to destroy the oceans with the missile. is a god of the water and of the celestial ocean. the Lord of Oceans. The Vanaras (Monkeys) are dazzled and fearful at witnessing the enraged Rama demolish the oceans. he is mostly concerned from a snake. He is attended by the nagas. as a yellow man ated with the night. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e. A Makara is his mount. he is the supreme keeper of order and god of the law. Varuna is also twinned with Indra in the Rigveda.60. Lakshmana. He rides the sea creature Makara. explaining that he himself was at a loss to answer Rama’s question.

an adjecbut obtaining the result by force for the greater good. a dim-witted. the poet uses the have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna (if at all such expression mazdasca ahurano (Yasna 30. While Ahura Mazda is uniformly “the mightiest Ahura” (e.equivalent (also Apam Napat) Vedic Varuna is closely as- .'Rama Conquers Varuna' sight into the cosmic order” that Varuna grants his devotees. Zimmer (Münchner Studien 1984:187-215) observed that Varuna has the byname (cult epithet) bhaga. This a predecessor figure existed) in Iran are the appear. Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the propitious characteristics of *mitra structs a bridge (Rama’s Bridge) across to Lanka. Boyce of “backwards"-ness. of a dvija Hindu. and there may origin. Also unrelated to Vedic Varuna are Avestan Vourukasha and Varena. However. 1981:59-73). This may be seen to be reflected in Artaxerxes III’s invocation of ahuramazda ura mithra Worship of Varuna is an integral part of the evening ritual baga “Ahura Mazda. justifies his angry assault on the oceans as he followed the correct process of petitioning and worshipping Varuna.6.9. In that list. 1938:282ff) sees Varuna represented as the Amesha Spenta Asha Vahishta “Best Righteousness”. IN ZOROASTRIANISM 109 cally interpreted as “deliverer from evil. Acta of the Sandhyavandanam. Foundations. 31. One of these instances is as Mid. 1929:15). popular worship is primarily limited to Hindus of Sindhi Another epithet of Vedic Varuna is asura. easily tricked demon which the other Ahuras are *mitra and *varouna. Rama negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna.34. 2001) sees meaning of his name. the proper name having been forgotten—a not un34.4 In Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda) explicitly naming them.11).in the 19th century esoteri. Too 33. and with whose Indian of halant by typesetting -.” Neither of these terms have any connection to Vedic Varuna. a term in the ambiguous the latter being unambiguously Ahura Berezainti.[6] tive that also appears in the Avesta (as baga).g.(so Boyce 1984:159) recognized as being archaic and in dle Persian varun. Mithra. The former is the Avesta’s mythological sea that covers the earth.3 In contemporary Hinduism common occurrence. assuming that he derives from an IndoIranian *vouruna). Yasna Varuna is not attested in the texts of the Avesta. In Kuiper’s view. there are several different theories on what might have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna in Iran: Nyberg (Die Religionen des alten Iran. The other instance appears in a this supported by the younger Avestan dvandvah expresreading of a medieval Zoroastrian reaction to Islam’s 99 sion mithra ahura berezanta “Mithra and the High Lord”. while Varena is a mythological fourcornered fourteenth region of the world. This theory is based on Vedic Varuna’s role as the principal protector of rta. and the Baga” (Boyce.10 as the "(revealed) inRaja Ravi Varma Painting .phrase. in the only two occurrences of the term where the late to be of relevance to a reconstruction of what might word does not refer to Ahura Mazda.4. The basis of Kuiper’s proposal is that the equivalent of Avestan mazda “wisdom” is Vedic medhira.e. Assuming that Vedic Varuna is not a purely Indian development (i.4). “High Pahlavi script was mis-transcribed into Pazand and Gu. which is the literal Middle Persian (Mithra the King and Varuna the Master. 1957) proposes that none less than Ahura Mazda is a development from an earlier dvandva *vouruna-mitra. the third member of the Ahuric triad jarati script as 'vāruná'. which then -. It may then be that the Avestan adjective is likewise a cult epithet. generally understood to mean “the Wise [Mazda] ance of two names like 'Varuna' in the medieval texts of One and the (other) Ahuras”. an opinion—with extensions—that Dumezil (Tarpeia 1947:33-113) and Widengren (Die Religionen Irans. (See Jhulelal) be a remnant of Varuna in those Gathic passages (generally presumed to have been composed by Zoroaster himself) refers to the ahuras (plural) without (aside from 34. Kuiper (IIJ I.Lord” Apam Napat. described in Rigveda 8. 1965:12-13) also follow. is in “common opinion” Zoroastrian tradition. which in Iran is represented by asha [vahishta].together with a loss (Gray. Iranica 21. names of Allah.

The Horse. [4] http://www. Beombay 1983 [3] Shaunakiya Atharvaveda 4.jstor. USS Varuna (1861) & USS Varuna (1943) Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Varuna for Varuna. INS Varuna is a sail training vessel of the Indian Navy. (2010). [2] F. the Vedic god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. Varuna was completed in April 1981 by AlcockAshdown in Bhavnagar.32. VARUNA • Paravar • Shukra (guru of asuras. demons) 34. It can carry 26 cadets. commissioned in 1943 and decommissioned in 1946. The Ramayana. Varuna. Ancient Idian Cosmopony. pp. They consist of the following three ships. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. Kuiper.org/stable/1061926?origin= JSTOR-pdf [5] Anthony.6 See also • Rigvedic deities • Mitra (Vedic) • Adityas • Guardians of the directions • The king and the god . David W. pp. corresponding to Paippalada 5.16. • The second Varuna (AGP-5) was a motorboat tender. The Varuna class of ship of Indian Navy are sail training vessels.110 sociated. 34.5 In modern age • Asura • Ahura Mazda 34. J. 376–81 • The first Varuna was a screw gunboat launched in 1861 and sunk by enemy action in April 1862. the Wheel. the Indian Neptune. [6] Ramesh Menon (2004). CHAPTER 34. Princeton University Press.7 Notes [1] “Varuna”. 30–31. and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. • INS Varuna • INS Tarangini • INS Sudarshini The dwarf planet candidate 20000 Varuna is named after Varuna. B.

probably of later literary origin. Because of such difficulties obtaining data. a goddess. Audėja (the weaver). there is no accepted list of Lithuanian gods. • Deivės Valdytojos (Lithuanian: Governing Goddesses). and the Roman goddess Aurora. One of the most important stars is Aušrinė. Tamil. but often their accounts were confused. sometimes. Pramžimas. see Indraja (actress). a daughter of the Dievas (“dievaitė"). but they. Metančioji (who threw rims of life). authored by foreigners and Christians. Earliest written sources. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”). 35. the pagan religion received more attention from authors. in singular). She was the goddess of the morning. contradictory. Aušrinė's sisters. legends. • Laima. only briefly mention the Lithuanian gods. Praamžimas. The cults of old deities transformed into folklore (individual tales. He looks like an old traveling beggar. Epithet of Dievas. Sergėtoja (who scolded Gadintoja. Germanic Tiwaz and Greek Zeus). the deified soil (Zamin in Persian and Hindi for “land”). divine or demonic beings. Malayalam films. who makes the bed for Saulė. • Dievas Senelis (“Good Old Man”) he is a teacher of people and judge of their morality. the Thunder.1 Names from folklore myths and legends • Vakarinė. • Dalia. • Praamžius. Aušrinė has many similarities with Vedic Ushas. Beginning in the 16th century. and other personages from Lithuanian myths. By that time the pagan mythology became fragmented and mixed with Christian traditions. stars. the foster of the Holy Fire. Deivės Valdytojos were associated with Dalia and Laima. and fairy-tales. and heavily influenced by various religious agendas.1. Pramšans. • Gabija. are less important. • Žvaigždės (žvaigždė. myths. the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun (the Vedic Ashwins or the Greek Dioskouri). 35. Different authors present wildly contradictory reconstructions of Lithuanian pantheon. an epithet of Dievas (the chief god). goddess of the Evening Star. • Mėnuo. They were seven sisters: Verpiančioji (who spun the threads of life). goddess. the Moon. a daughter of Dievas (“dievaitė"). Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine. and instigated war between people). the Sun Goddess (Surya in Vedic religion). a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”) (Parjanya in Vedic religion). were the goddesses who made garments from human’s lives. but elements of the Lithuanian mythology survived into the 19th century. the Moon as their father.) without associated rituals. For Indian actress in Telugu. goddess of fate and weaving. Nukirpėja (who cut the cloth of life). Kannada. the .Chapter 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures “Indraja” redirects here. a goddess. like Vakarinė or Vakarė (the evening Venus. • Perkūnas. Gadintoja (who broke the thread). Collection and recording of folklore began in the 19th century. Alternatively her name is given as Aušra (“dawn”). the Greek goddess Eos. Lithuania converted to Christianity in 1387. • Ašvieniai. This section includes the names of gods. • Aušrinė. and Išskalbėja (the laundress). etc.1 Gods • Dievas. one main chief god (whose name was cognate with the Vedic Dyaus. goddess of Fate and Luck (Laxmi in Hinduism). • Saulė.[1] 111 • Žemyna. folklore. They have similarities with the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns. Other stars. the Morning Star. The list of Lithuanian gods is reconstructed based on scarce written sources and late folklore. having the Sun as their mother and. songs.

Indra in Vedic religion).112 CHAPTER 35. a household spirit who protects grain. very friendly with the Earth and Nature gods. a household spirit bringing both good and bad luck • Baubas. There are aakis (green-eyed).1. women picked sacral herbs. Also it could be described as a black and dark creature living under the carpet or in some dark spot of the house. or Norse Valhalla). His function of shining this beacon makes him similar to Aušrinė. Sacrifices to Jievaras are made after the rye harvest. • Pinčiukas. Meška (bear). He harasses people and tears their hair or stifles them. Bubė.1. • Vėlės. Compare this with Ziedu māte in Latvian mythology. Also can mean fear or bad feelings. devil. Pypalas. who were • Žiburinis. a spirit of rivers • Auštaras (Auštra). LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES sun). a household god who protects grain in barns. misery or nightmare. . Ruginis (spirit of rye). the legendary princess of Kernavė • Jūratė and Kastytis are heroes of a Lithuanian legend. but a trickster. if anyone tried to use them. Pavietrė. • Javinė. Maras (black death or the Plague). Kolera. When crops in the phosphorescent skeleton. which subsequently became popular. However. Laukų dvasios include Nuogalis.dweller or even god of bogs and marshes. Žebris. Maumas (bugaboo). Described as white and blue as the sky itself. 35. Other names include Kaulinyčia. the home of good souls. Paplėštakis. also The Reaper. Arklys (horse). gnomes. 35.[2] Her sacral bird is the owl. Raudongerklis (red-throated). Kupolinės is also known as Rasos. 35. the god of the seas and storms ––he is two-faced like the Roman god Janus. Lapė (fox). fields waved in the wind. and would say: Davei manei. • Jievaras. between two rivers. Kapinių žmogus. women would leave a few grain tufts uncut. Smauglys (boa).1. Indraja (Jupiter. In this festival. Babaužis. a fairy-like female creature (pixies).1. or baubas will come and get you”. spirits similar to leprechauns. wrinkly fingers and red eyes. danced and sang songs. • Slogutis means pain. Kiškis (hare). having a good knowledge of plants and their use for medical and other purposes. Good spirit. • Laukų dvasios (spirits of fields). Dau(red-headed). They probably were old ladies living by the forest. people saw them as being the actions of spirits. • Kupolė. Mostly has dark intentions and powers to control forces of nature. the god of the northeast wind. The queen of the amber palace Jūratė may be considered a manifestation of the goddess of Sea in this legend. 35. who stands at the gates of paradise and lights the way for those going to paradise. Bubis.6 Holy places and things Katinas (tomcat). Bubas. spirits of dead human beings. we are giving for you too). A misbehaving child could be told by the parents: “Behave. the punishment was grave. not the pure evil being of Christianity. a scary forest spirit that appears as a running through the fields. The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with Feast of St. mostly because of its modern poetic interpretation by Maironis. a request for the land to continue to be fruitful. Guda. which would later be braided into plaits. Papiokė.5 Demonic beings • Aitvaras.3 Local and nature spirits • Ežerinis. John the Baptist (Joninės). Raudongalvis • Dausos or Dangus. • Nykštukas. sometimes appear in mythic stories too. Žiezdrė (Mars) and Vaivora (Mercury). Žalisos is on a high mountain (Latvian Debeskalns. Kupala in Polish mythology and Ivan Kupala in Russian mythology 35. • Giltinė – goddess of death. Žemele. Vilkas (wolf). an evil spirit with long lean arms. They would also leave some bread and salt under the plait. • Laumė. a spirit of lakes • Upinis. Dizikas. Earlier . he is the equivalent of the boogeyman of the Englishspeaking countries. some consider him to be her cousin. • Bangpūtys. Bobas. duodame ir tau ([You] gave for us.4 Various lower beings • Kaukas. To children. Baubas. the spirit of springtime vegetation and flowers. Maro mergos. • Ragana is an old-looking female or witch. Sėlija (Saturn). Sometimes she was considered to be a sister of Laima (luck).2 Heroes and heroines • Pajauta. spirits. Mother Earth. While cutting grain.1.

of the wind) or Vėjas (Wind) who is also one of • Diviriks is thought to be one of Perkūnas euthe oldest gods in Lithuanian mythology. Russian chronicles are considered the best source of information about ancient Lithuanian pantheon worshiped by feodals and military. In this work. Estonians and others). 4. by some scholars etimologized as Numadievis) is incorrectly written name of supreme god or just another euphemism. Žemininkas (Ziemennik) – god of land and agriculture. etc. according to studies by Gintaras Beresnevičius. 35.2. like K. provider of crops 5. Sutvaras (Sotwaros) – god of all cattle . while Wilhelm Mannhardt argued it stems from karas (war). These deities were supposedly worshiped by King of Lithuania Mindaugas secretly after baptizing.3 Maciej Stryjkowski Maciej Stryjkowski (1547–1593) was a Polish– Lithuanian historian and author of Chronicle of Poland. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 113 golden apple-trees in the Dausos garden.2. one Old Prussian and another Lithuanian. The cult of žaltys (grass snake) is associated with the cult of Žemininkas. Lasicki. 35. Stryjkowski provided two lists of gods.2.1 Earliest Russian chronicles Some names from Lithuanian mythology are also found in Russian chronicles of the 13th century. Lietuvonis (Lituwanis) – god of rain 6. Stryjkowski elaborated that people used to sacrifice white cocks to Prakorimas. Vladimir Toporov suggested that it is derived from Lithuanian word kaurai (fur). and third for burning. 2. This myth survived in folk tales in the beginning of the 20th century. one of the most garden is perpetual but outside its confines is perpowerful deities. is identical to Vayu of Hinduism. While Auštaras shows the way for good souls.2 Names by written sources 35. Master of Dausos is Vėjopatis (Lord and folk tales till the 20th century. Sovica was practicated not only by Lithuanians but also by other pagan tribes (Livonians. Stryjkowski pointed out that Prakorimas was similar to Prussian supreme god Okopirmas. Kauriraris (Chaurirari) – deity of war and warhorses. He listed 16 Lithuanian gods:[5] 1. meaning leader of gods. Lithuania. • Andajus (Andajas. She was worshiped by King Mindaugas and represented military interest of warriors. The flesh would be dividing into three pieces: one for peasants.2. Rūgutis (Ruguczis) – god of fermentation and fermented foods 3. Some scholars.35. Martynas Mažvydas in his Latin introduction to Catechismusa Prasty Szadei (1547) urged the people to abandon their pagan ways and mentioned the following gods:[3][4] • Perkūnas (Percuno) – god of thunder • Laukosargas (Laucosargus) – god of grains and other agricultural plants • Žemėpatis (Semepates) – god of cattle and other farm animals • Aitvaras and kaukas (Eithuaros and Caucos) – evil spirits 35. There was mentioned in chronicle that she is a bitch. Krūminė (Kruminie Pradziu Warpu) – deity of ears. There was mentioned in chronicle that warriors invoke Andajus in battle.2 Martynas Mažvydas Vėjas (Vėjopatis) blows bad souls into oblivion. Day in the • Perkūnas was the god of thunder. It may be euphemism of Dievas. another for pagan priests (Lithuanian: žynys). Her name is connected with wild animals. Teliavelis has connections with Finnish Ilmarinen. • Medeina (Medeinė) is another euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess. Auštaras and Vėjopatis are keepers of Dausos’s gates (Dausų Vartai). Prakorimas (Prokorimos) – the supreme deity. Perkūnas survived in people faith petual night. • Žvoruna(Zvoruna) was a euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess like Roman Diana.) was mentioned in medieval chronicles as supreme deity. • Nonadievis (Nunadievis.[6] 7. it means that her zoomorphic shape is female dog. Būga tried to prove that Televelis is incorrectly written Kalvelis (smith diminutive in Lithuanian). • Teliavelis (Televelis) was a powerful smith who made the sun and threw it to the sky. The name etymology is unclear. Vėjas phemisms. • Sovijus in 13th-century Russian chronicles was a person who introduced the pagan custom of burning bodies after death. Samogitia and all Russia. The mediaeval chronicles tells that this custom is very old and was called Sovica. Andojas. Medeina also was mentioned in the 16th century by J.

[11] 3. 15. Ežerinis (Ezernim) – spirit or deity of lakes. Kremata – god of hogs[9] 13. Upinis dievas (Upinis Dewos) – god of rivers 8. Šventpaukštinis (Swieczpunscynis) – god of all domesticated and wild birds. and dances in his honor lasted from May 25 to June 25. Gintaras Beresnevičius noted that this deity could be the same medieval Teliavelis. Therefore. written ca. Derived from ežeras (lake). Lazdona (Lasdona) – goddess of hazelnuts 5. Žemyna (Zemina) – goddess of land and agriculture . Also it could be a euphemism of Vakarė. This 18-page treatise contained a lists of 76 Lithuanian gods with brief description of their functions. There are doubts whether it was an actual god. Bubilas – god of honey and bees 9. Medeina (Modeina et Ragaina) – goddess of forest and hunting 14. mosses and lichens 15. People did not offer sacrifices to him as he was a free spirit. 17. Prigirstytis (Prigirstitis) – can hear whispers 23. The list contained very minor deities. Karvaitis Ėraitinis (Kurvvaiczin Eraiczin) – deity of calves and lambs[9] 21. Derived from Lithuanian word aukštas (high). Simonaitis and Ventis Rekičionis (Simonaitem. 10. Kelių dievas (Kielu Dziewos) – god of roads. representing everyday household items. Žemėpatis (Zemopacios) 30. Šeimos dievas (Seimi Dewos) – god of family 7. Ganiklis (Goniglis Dziewos) – god of herds and shepherds 14. Kerpyčius and Šilinytis (Kierpiczus and Siliniczus) – gods of forest. Aukštėjas (Auxtheias Vissagistis) – an euphemism of the supreme god. Festivities. guardian angel 10. Valgina (Walgina) – god of cattle[9] 1. Audros – god of storm 32. Sidzium. Algis 33. 34. Her other name was Aušrinė. He wrote a treatise on idolatry About gods of Samogitians. Kirnis (Kirnus) – local god of cherries 12. Didis Lado (Dzidzis Lado) – the great god. Apydėmė (Apidome) – deity of changed residence. Ratainyčia (Ratainicza) – god of horses[6] 28. the academic opinion on the list ranges from a valuable resource to a practical joke designed to poke fun of Christian saints through an inverted mirror. Tavalas (Tavvals) – deity of physical strength. Pyzius (Pizio) – god of spouses 13. husband of Austėja 6. Łasicki obtained most of his information from Łaszkowski.114 CHAPTER 35. Kriukis (Krukis) – deity of pigs 4. Gulbis (Gulbi Dzievos) – the good spirit of every human. The name is also known from hand-written collection of sermons from 1573. Pušaitis or Puškaitis (Puszajtis) – deity of land. Bubilas (Babilos) – household god of bees. Deities mentioned by Jan Łasicki were:[8] 16. 29. Orthus 18. Sidžius. a Polish lesser noble who worked as a royal land surveyor.2. 19. trade and travel 16.[7] 12. Gardūnytis (Gardunithis) – protector of newlyborn lambs[10] 22. Łasicki was also not intimately familiar with Lithuanian culture or language. 1582 and published in 1615). Ventis Rekicziouum) – spirits worshiped by individual noble families 20. Perkūnas (Percunos) – god of thunder god 31. other Sarmatians. Priparšis (Priparscis) 27. Brėkšta (Breksta) – goddess of twilight. songs. Bežlėja (Bezlea) 9. living in bushes of sambucus and commanding chthonic dwarfs barstukas 35.4 Jan Łasicki Jan Łasicki (Lasicius) was a Polish Protestant activist. Derintojas (Derfintos) 24. Aušra (Ausca) – the morning star (Venus). Lavvkpatimo 26. Datanus 11. Bentis 25. Krikštas (Kriksthos) – protector of tombstones[9] 2. and false Christians (De diis Samagitarum caeterorumque Sarmatarum et falsorum Christianorum. Ligyčius (Ligiczus) 11. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES 8.

2. Jaučių Baubis. Gabija (Gabie) – goddess of household fire • Perkūnas (Perkunas) – thunder god 61. Karvaitis. Kaukas (Kaukie) 39. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 115 35. Klamals – no function recorded by Łasicki. Dvargantis (Dvvargonth) – no function recorded by Łasicki.[12] Deities mentioned by Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704) 43. Skalsa. Vaižgantas (Waizganthos) – a god of flax • Viršaitis (Wirszajtos) – protected household. Bičbirbis. Biržulis / Beržulis. Veliuona (Vielona) – goddess of death 68. domestic animals.6 Theodor Narbutt 50. spark.35. The name is possibly derived from šerti (feed). 45. 55. Kelio dievas / Kelukis 47. Gyvatė (Giuoitos) – black snake (see also žaltys) 40.5 Matthäus Prätorius (broom). Prigirstytis / Girystis. Ziemennik . Vėjopatis. Raugo Žemėpatis (Rauguzemapati) – deity of sourdough. Narbutt claimed that he was equivalent to Auxtejas Wissagistis mentioned by Łasicki and to Roman Saturn 63. Austėja (Austheia) – household goddess of bees. Ėraitis. it could be a god of birches and birch sap. Ligyčius / Lygėjus. Polengabia 51. his feast is celebrated on December 25 60. Tiklis – no function recorded by Łasicki. and other gods 59.[12] 46. Numeias 35.2. 42. • Žalius (Zallus) – god of disagreement • Žėlius (Zelus) – god of grass • Šulininis (Szullinnijs) – god of wells • Bangpūtys. Atlaibas (Atlaibos) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Aitvaras (Aitvvaros) 38. Warpulis 69. world. modern historians have accused Narbutt of falsifying historical facts and reporting speculations. Salaus – no function recorded by Łasicki. The name is derived from šluota 35.2. Matergabiae • Praamžius (Pramżimas) – highest god. Gota. The first Pesseias volume contained a description of Lithuanian mythology. Srutis and Miechutele – deities of paint and color[12] 41. Trotytojas kibirkščių (Tratitas Kirbixtu) – deity of However. Beržulis (Birzulis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Luibegeldas 62. Giltinė.Prussian Lithuanian 48. 54. Thus. Vetustis 66. Guboi and Tvverticos 67. 56. fire some gods mentioned only by Narbutt and unknown from Alabathis other sources are usually treated as a figure of author’s imagination. often presented as wife of Bubilas 64. Užpelenė (Aspelenie) 57. Budintojas (Budintaia) Male deities 58. were:[12] 44. 53. Smik smik per velėną (Smik Smik Perleuenu) – a phrase rather than a being 36. • Drebkulis and Magyla . Ublanyčia (Vblanicza) – patron of beggars[13] Polish historian Theodor Narbutt wrote the ten-volume work History of the Lithuanian Nation (Dzieje starożytne narodu litewskiego) between 1835 and 1841. Deuoitis 65. determines the fate of people. Šeryčius (Siriczus) – no function recorded by Łasicki. leaven and fermentation • Ukapirmas (Okkapirmas) – preceded time. Dugnai – spirit of flour 52. Based on etymology. Ežiagalis (Ezagulis) – god of death 37. • Gabjauja (Gabvartas)[14] 49. Šluotražis (Szlotrazis) – no function recorded by Łasicki.

riches. springs • Ratainyčia (Ratajniczu) – goddess protecting horses • Krūminė (Krumine) – goddess of grain.116 CHAPTER 35. gardens • Milda – goddess of love. courtship Goddess Milda by Kazimierz Alchimowicz (1910). doctors • Atrimpas (Atrimpos) – god of sea and water • Gardaitis (Gardeoldiis) – god of wind. harvest. wife of Poklius • Luobo gelda (Lajbegelda) – goddess of knowledge and rumors • Alabatis – goddess of flax • Mėšlų boba (Mahslu baba) – goddess of garbage • Aušra (Ausssra) – morning goddess • Budintoja – spirit that wakes sleeping people . afterlife • Pergrubė (Pergrubie) – goddess of spring. Rasos festival is dedicated to her • Budtė (Budte) – goddess of wisdom • Laima (Lajma) – goddess of fate • Pelenų Gabija (Polengabia) – goddess of fireplaces • Moterų Gabija (Matergabia) – goddess of bread and bakery • Perkūnaitėlė (Perkunatele) – wife of Perkūnas • Pilvytė (Pilwite) – goddess of money. agriculture • Valginė (Walgina) – goddess protecting domestic animals • Nijolė (Nijola) – mistress of the underworld. and darkness • Patelas (Patelo) – flying god of air. vodka. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES • Kovas (Kawas) – god of war • Ragutis – god of beer. flowers. joy • Veliuona (Wellona) – goddess of eternity. storm. similar to an angel • Šneibratas (Sznejbrato) – god of birds and hunting • Kibirai (Kabiry) – a trinity Female deities • Praurimė (Praurime) – goddess of sacred fire. National Museum in Warsaw • Bezelea – evening goddess • Brėkšta (Brekszta) – goddess of darkness and dreams • Kruonis (Kronis) – goddess of time • Užsparinė (Usparinia) – goddess of land borders • Verpėja (Werpeja) – weaver of the thread of life • Gondu – goddess of weddings • Upinė (Upine) – goddess of rivers. mead • Santvaras or Sotvaras (Sotwaros) – god of daylight. she was served by vaidilutės • Lada (Lado) – the great goddess. protector of ships • Poklius (Poklus) – god of death and underworld • Kriukis (Krugis) – god of smiths • Žiemininkas (Ziemienikas) – god of earth. and good luck • Lietuva (Liethua) – goddess of freedom. pleasure. poets.

35.3. SEE ALSO

117

• Austėja (Austheja) – goddess of bees

35.2.8 Other names

• Ragutiene Pati (Ragutenapati) – wife of Ragutis

The names, that were more marginal in Lithuanian
mythology or less known from existing sources are put
here. In fact they denote some spirits or local deities, that
don't play a main role in the mythology of Lithuanians.

• Žemės Motina (Zemmes mahti) – goddess of underground, responsible for lost items
• Gaila (Gajla) – spirit torturing people and animals
• Neris – nymph of Neris River

• Blizgulis, a god of snow. His name means “that who
glitters.”
• Junda, Goddess of War

• Dugnė (Dugna) – nymph of rivers

• Baubis, a household god of meat and cattle.

• Ragana – goddess of trees

• Divytis, a god-like hero of fishermen legends. Fishermen at sea sang songs about Divytis.

• Lazdona – goddess of hazelnut

• Gardaitis, a god (a spirit?) of ships and sailors.

• Medziojna – goddess of forests

• Jagaubis, a household spirit of fire and the furnace.

• Pajauta – worshiped woman, daughter of Duke
Kernius, wife of Živinbudas

• Rasa, Kupolė's and Kaupolis’ daughter. She is the
goddess of summer’s greenage and flowers.

• Birutė (Biruta) – worshiped woman, wife of
Kęstutis

• Mokas, a stone with an ability to teach people,
sometimes they are found in families - with wife
Mokienė and children Mokiukas

35.2.7

Other written sources

35.3 See also

This section contains those names of Lithuanian and
Prussian gods or other mythical beings that are mentioned
in old treatises on history or philosophy, sometimes accompanied by brief descriptions, and which are known
from a few independent sources or from their counterparts under different names in later collections of myths
and tales.
• Dimstipatis (mentioned by Jokūbas Lavinskis), is a
masculine deity (genius loci). It is a household god,
the guardian of houses and caretaker of the hearth.
People sacrificed roosters and black hens to the deity. The birds were boiled; later people would gather
around the kettle and eat the birds. The bones were
burned. Sometimes Dimstipatis is reconstructed as
a god of housewives, to whom pigs were sacrificed.
Dimstipatis was also seen as a power protecting from
fires.[3]
• Dirvolika, Nosolus (Jesuit reports from 1605)[15]

• Baukuris (Kraziu kolegijos)[16]
• Velinas (mentioned by Konstantinas Sirvydas)

[2]

• Laima (Daniel Klein in 1666)[17]

• Lithuanian mythology
• Slavic mythology
• Romuva (temple)

35.4 References
[1] “Praamžius”. Mitologijos enciklopedija, vol. 2. Vilnius.
Vaga. 1999. 291 p.
[2] Balsys, Rimantas (2005).
“Prūsų ir lietuvių mirties (požemio, mirusiųjų) dievybės: nuo Patulo iki
Kaulinyčios” (PDF). Lietuvininkai ir lietuviai. Etninė
kultūra (in Lithuanian) IV: 27–51.
[3] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (2006-12-16). “Laukpatis ir
Dimstipatis. Lauko ir namų dievai”. Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (825). ISSN 1392-7760.
[4] Adalbert Bezzenberger, ed. (1874). Litauische und Lettische Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Göttingen: Robert
Peppmüler. p. 3.

• Pagirnis (Jesuit reports from 1605)[3]

• Javinė (Jawinne by Jacob Brodowski)[15]

• Latvian mythology

[5] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (August 2006). “M. Strijkovskio
“Kronikos” lietuvių dievų sąrašas (1)". Metai (in Lithuanian) 8–9 (89). ISSN 0134-3211.
[6] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). "Žirgų (arklių) dievybės rašytiniuose šaltiniuose”. Žemaičių žemė (in Lithuanian) (3):
17–19. ISSN 1392-2610.

118

CHAPTER 35. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES

[7] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). “Lada (Didis Lado) in Baltic
and Slavic Written Sources”. Acta Baltico-Slavica. Archeologia, Historia, Ethnographia, et Linguarum Scientia
(30): 597–609. ISSN 0065-1044.
[8] Łasicki, Jan (1868) [1615]. De diis samagitarum libellus (in Latin). Riga: J. Bacmeister. pp. 10–16. OCLC
60605501.
[9] Mitchel, B. W. (April 1919). “The Early Centuries of
Kultur”. The Classical Journal 7 (14): 421.
[10] Paulauskytė, Teresė (2004-08-21). “Ką garbino žemaičiai
XVI amžiuje dievus ar demonus?". Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (713). ISSN 1392-7760.
[11] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Apydėmė".
Encyclopedia Lituanica I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas
Kapočius. pp. 113–114. LCC 74-114275.
[12] Balsys, Rimantas (2007). “Kai kurios Motiejaus Pretorijaus hipotezės ir jų interpretacijos XX a. pabaigos – XXI
a. pradžios mitologų darbuose” (PDF). Res Humanitariae
(in Lithuanian) I: 76–94. ISSN 1822-7708.
[13] Razauskas, Dainius (2009-12-04). “Krosnis – aukuras,
namų šventovė". Šiaurės Atėnai (in Lithuanian) (967).
ISSN 1392-7760.
[14] http://www.aidai.us/index.php?option=com_content&
task=view&id=892&Itemid=127
[15] Ona Verseckienė, ed. (2004). “Namų dievai. Baltiškieji
namų dievai”. Lietuvių etninė kultūra. Namai etninėje
kultūroje (in Lithuanian). Elektroninės leidybos namai.
ISBN 9955-606-04-5.
[16] Zinkus
[17] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Laima”.
Encyclopedia Lituanica III. Boston, Massachusetts:
Juozas Kapočius. pp. 269–270. LCC 74-114275.

35.5 Further reading
• Lithuanian Religion and Mythology by Gintaras
Beresnevičius
• Jūrate Baranova et al., eds. (2001). “Chapter iv:
Lithuanian mythology by Gintaras Beresnevičius”.
Lithuanian philosophy: persons and ideas Lithuanian philosophical studies, ii. Cultural heritage and
contemporary change series IVa, Eastern and Central Europe, volume 17. The Council For Research
In Values And Philosophy. ISBN 1-56518-137-9.
Retrieved 2007-09-07.
• Gintaras Beresnevičius on periodisation and Gods in
Lithuanian mythology.
• Algirdas Julien Greimas, “Of Gods and Men: Studies in Lithuanian Mythology”, Indiana Univ. Press
(November 1992)

Chapter 36

Hine-nui-te-pō
Hine-nui-te-pō (“Great woman of night") is a goddess of
night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori
mythology. She is a daughter of Tāne. She fled to the
underworld because she discovered that Tāne, whom she
had married, was also her father. The red colour of sunset
comes from her.

36.2 See also
• Vagina dentata
• Persephone
• Incest
• Māui (Māori mythology)

36.1 Myths

36.3 References

All of the children of Rangi and Papa were male. It
was Tāne who first felt the need for a wife and began to
look for a companion. His mother showed him how to
make a female form from red earth. Then Tāne breathed
life into Hine-ahuone, the earth-formed-maid, and mated
with her. Their child was Hine-ata-uira, maid-of-theflashing-dawn (a.k.a. Hine-tītama), and Tāne took her
to wife (Biggs 1966:449).
One day, while Tāne was away, Hine-ata-uira began to
wonder who her father was. She was disgusted and
ashamed when she heard that her husband was also her
father, and she ran away. When Tāne came back he was
told that she had run off to the spirit-world, and he quickly
followed after. But he was stopped from entering by Hine
herself, in her new role as goddess of the underworld.
“Go back, Tāne”, she said to him, “and raise our children. Let me remain here to gather them in.” So Tāne
came back to the upper world, while Hine stayed below,
waiting only for Māui to bring death into the world, and
begin the never-ending procession of mortals to her realm
(Biggs 1966:449).
Māui did the last of his tricks on her, attempting to make
mankind immortal by trying to crawl through her body,
entering in her vagina and leaving by her mouth while
she slept, to reverse the path of birth. But one of his bird
friends, the Pīwakawaka, laughed at the ridiculousness of
the situation, seeing Māui turned into a worm squirming to enter the goddess, and woke her. To punish the
demi-god, she crushed him with the obsidian teeth in her
vagina; Māui was the first man to die (Alpers 1964:70).
Her other husband is her paternal uncle Ruaumoko.
119

• B.G. Biggs, 'Maori Myths and Traditions’ in
A.H. McLintock (editor), Encyclopaedia of New
Zealand, 3 Volumes.
(Government Printer:
Wellington), 1966, II:447-454.
• Anthony Alpers, Maori Myths and Tribal Legends.
Anckland : Longman Paul, 1964. ISBN 0-58271674-8.

compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. “joy-of-sleep” by the elves.1. and the night and its tides. In both the Poetic Edda. to count the years for men. and healing hands while we live![5] . the new and waning moons the beneficent powers created. but night was of Nörvi born. Odin states that the horse Hrímfaxi “draws every night to the beneficent gods” and that he lets foam from his bit fall every morning. In Norse mythology. Nótt’s third marriage was to the god Dellingr and this resulted in their son Dagr. Vafþrúðnir responds: Delling hight he who the day’s father is. from which dew comes to the valleys. “the masker by the mighty Powers”. As a proper noun. “darkness” by the gods. the god Odin (disguised as "Gagnráðr") asks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir from where the day comes. Alvíss responds that night is referred as “night” by mankind. the personified day (although some manuscript variations list Jörð as Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother instead).[3] In stanza 30 of the poem Alvíssmál. The first verse of this prayer features a reference to the “sons of Dagr” and the “daughter of Nótt": 37. and the Prose Edda. while the Prose Edda features information about Nótt’s ancestry. Hail to the Æsir! Hail to the Asyniur! Hail to the bounteous earth! Words and wisdom give to us noble twain.1 Poetic Edda In stanza 24 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. the word nótt appears throughout Old Norse literature. and then Sigrdrifa says a heathen prayer. written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Sigurd asks her name. and she gives him a “memory-drink” of a drinking horn full of mead. Nótt is listed as the daughter of a figure by the name of Nörvi (with variant spellings) and is associated with the horse Hrímfaxi.[2] Nótt rides her horse in this 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. In stanza 14 of the Vafþrúðnismál. whom "Nórr" birthed.1 Attestations 120 Hail to the Day! Hail to the sons of Day! To Night and her daughter hail! With placid eyes behold us here. “unlight” by the jötunn. after the valkyrie Sigrdrífa is woken from her sleep curse by the hero Sigurd. and here sitting give us victory. while dwarves call her “dream-Njörun" (meaning “dream-goddess”). grandmother of Thor.Chapter 37 Nótt 37. the god Thor asks the dwarf Alvíss to tell him what night is called in each of the nine worlds. In stanza 25.[4] In Sigrdrífumál. Nótt (Old Norse “night”[1] ) is night personified. including her three marriages.

U. Haukur details that “the oldest manuscript. Lexicon poeticum. the enthroned figure of High states that Nótt is the daughter of a jötunn from Jötunheimr by the name of "Norfi or Narfi". placed them into the sky with a chariot and a horse each. depending on the manuscript. Larrington glosses draumNjörun (Jónsson (1931:84.[10] 37. and foam from her horse Hrímfaxi’s bit sprinkles the earth. who takes after his “father’s people” in brightness and fairness.) (1995). Nótt is again personified. Finnur (1931). ISBN 0-460-87616-3 Edda. Cassell. In chapter 10. [3] Larrington (1996:42). and they ride around the earth every 24 hours. ISBN 0-14-044755-5 However. Anthony (Trans. REFERENCES 37. R. • Haukur Thorgeirsson (2008). Everyman.37. [2] Thorpe (1907:13).2 Prose Edda 121 37. The Elder Edda of Saemund Sigfusson. Odin took Nótt and her son Dagr. either Jörð or Nátt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. and has had three marriages. • Faulkes. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Old Norse “dream-Njörun”) as “dream-goddess”. and Dellingr. • Larrington. [5] Thorpe (1907:181). [6] Byock (2005:19).[7] • Orchard. The results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition”. Nótt is described as “black and swarthy”. Jesse (Trans. Norrœna Society. cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother”. L. means of referring to Jörð are provided. Nótt rides before Dagr. [9] Faulkes (1995:137). pages 159—168. [10] Faulkes (1995:144). [8] Faulkes (1995:90).2 Notes [1] Orchard (1997:120). including “daughter of Nótt”. Andy (1997). Carolyne (Trans.3. and the couple have Dagr. [7] Haukur (2008:159—168). Møllers bogtrykkeri. “Hinn fagri foldar son” as published in Gripla XIX. ISBN 0-304-34520-2 In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. S. scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt. Penguin Classics. Nótt marries the god Dellingr. and the two produced a son by the name of Auðr. [4] Translation of all of this section minus “dream-Njörun” from Larrington (1996:113). .[6] • Byock. Benjamin (Trans. “nótt” is stated as one of various words for time and a version of the Alvíssmál passage is cited.3 References In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning. Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. • Jónsson. Dagr.[9] and in chapter 64. resulting in their daughter Jörð. W and T.) (2006). The Poetic Edda.[8] Chapter 58 states that “Hrimfaxi or Fiorsvartnir draw the night”. the personified earth. The Prose Edda. In other words. Nótt’s second marriage was to Annar.) (1999). Her first marriage was with Naglfari.) (1907).1. offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts. and argues that “the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT. Finally. Jörð. ISBN 0-19283946-2 • Thorpe. Oxford World’s Classics.

an oceanic island paradise where the Sun dwelt along with his attendants. Simargl. the “little bear”. Some myths described both her and her sister Zorya Utrennyaya as the wives of the moon god Myesyats and the mothers of the stars. moon goddess. also known as Večernja Zvijezda. Rannia Zoria. also known as Zvijezda Danica. 38.[3] • The Zorja appear in the novel American Gods by English author Neil Gaiman. who closes the palace gates at dusk. she is described as the wife of Perun and would accompany her husband into battle. protection. but Gaiman has stated he invented her for his work. 38. Večernica). Zvezda Vechernitsa. Zorja Vechernjaja—the Evening Star—closes the palace gates once more after his return. Zwezda Wieczernica. A third sister is described in some versions of the myth. Zwezda Wieczoniaia.Chapter 38 Zorya This article is about mythology. Zvezda Danica.[2][3] 38. the North. known as the Auroras. Here Gaiman includes a third sister. Večernja Zvezda. who is chained to the star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor. Danica = “star”) are the two guardian goddesses. and by him bore all of the stars. Zory. Gwiazda Wieczorna. If the chain ever breaks. but other accounts cast both Zorya as virgin goddesses. the moon god. Zornička).1 Morning Star The Morning Star is Zorja Utrennjaja (from Russian utro. after sunset and Dažbog’s return. She was associated with the planet Venus or Mercury. exorcism. . Zore = “dawn". West and East winds. Zarja. Zornica. meaning “evening". The home of the Zorja was sometimes said to be on Bouyan (or Buyan). Zora. who in some myths is described as their father.[2] She is a patroness of horses. Zwezda. the hound will devour the constellation and the universe will end. Zorja Utrennjaja. two wolves that chase the sun and the moon. Zvezda Zornitsa.[1] 38. and Slavs would pray to her each morning as the sun rose.[2] However. For other uses. Večernjača. the Morning Star. meaning “morning". the “Midnight Star”.3 In art and literature • Zorja Vechernyaya is a sextet for oboe. the Zorja (alternately. At dusk.4 See also Conflicting accounts exist of her marital situation. opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sun-chariot’s departure. Zvezda. They guard and watch over the doomsday hound. In this role she was known to protect those warriors she favoured against death by letting down her veil. The Zorja serve the sun god Dažbog. In other accounts.2 Evening Star The Evening Star is Zorja Vechernjaja (from Russian vecher. some have both Zorya as virgin god122 • Hecate • List of night deities • Zaria (goddess) • Hati and Sköll.[4][5] • The Zorya appear in Kevin Hearne's series of urban fantasy novels The Iron Druid Chronicles. Zorja Polunochnaya. bassoon and string quartet by Australian composer Julian Cochran. see desses. who opens the gates of Dažbog’s palace each morning so that the Sun may begin his journey. Zwezda Dnieca. while describing Myesyats as an unrelated female Zorya. The Zorja represent the Morning Star and the Evening Star. both she and Zorja Vechernjaja were the wives of the male Myesyats. Vechirnia Zoria. and the planet Venus. Zvezda Vechernaya. In Slavic mythology. In some myths. Gwiazda Poranna. Zvezda Dennitsa.

p. pp. AuthorHouse. [2] Dixon-Kennedy. ISBN 978-1-42591838-5. 321–325. [4] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. 281.A.A. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. p. ABC-CLIO. Alicja (2006). Mike (1998). Poland. 6/28/11 pt3 (YouTube). 6/28/11 pt2 (YouTube). Mike (1998).5.5 References [1] Dixon-Kennedy. 4 August 2011. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 5 August 2011. [5] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend. [3] Deck-Partyka. a Unique Country & Its People. REFERENCES 38. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 123 . 48.38. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. 4 August 2011.

JTdale. Pantaloon. ClueBot NG. Anne McDermott. Kwamikagami. GoingBatty. XanderW. Thayora. Rothorpe. EastTN. Idioma-bot. DemocraticLuntz. Dbachmann. ClueBot NG. YurikBot. Shizhao. Debresser. TuHan-Bot. Alicb. Iwfi. Modeha. IRP. Tahir mq. Dustynyfeathers. Eyrian. Captain panda. E25691. SchfiftyThree. EoGuy. robot. Oneiros. J. Allens. T@nn. Apepch7.wikipedia. Bibi Saint-Pol. Hijiri88. Varlak. AnomieBOT. EmausBot. Almabot. Ceoil. Razorflame. BOTarate. Kaliadne. Meredyth. CommonsDelinker. Nculwell. Unctions Unit.stefan. Besieged. A4bot. Favonian. Mintrick.org/wiki/Nephthys?oldid=656931587 Contributors: Andre Engels. Bacchiad. Mackeriv. Redtigerxyz. Dougweller. SatyrTN. Fabprincess. Editor2020. The MEGA user. Jiy. Thanatos666. Steveprutz. Cottonflop. PixelBot. Helpful Pixie Bot. Swervy a. 1812ahill. AlexTingle. SuedeHead. Qmwne235. Lambiam. Retodon8. Wereon. Andycjp. Shoemoney2night. Legion fi. MaxSem on AWB wheels. Sun Creator. Jeff Dahl. BOZ. Only. Martarius. SmackBot. Fat&Happy. Missjessica254. ۩۩. Hellbus. Mar2194. Haleybaby14. Oloya2802. Bacchiad. Fycafterpro. Ramaksoud2000. Caiyu. ClueBot. AvicAWB. Oculus42. Addbot. Blackenedbutterfly. Chris the speller. Tide rolls. Wikibot. Rob. Indubitably. Asarelah. Godheval. Davidiad. Xqbot. Simon Peter Hughes. Giggette and Anonymous: 16 • Nephthys Source: http://en. Iridescent. Shouriki. Omnipaedista. Dbachmann. Citation bot. Tide rolls. Tawkerbot2. MaxSem. Michael Bednarek. Sotakeit. Noah Salzman. MTSbot~enwiki.wikipedia. AlexanderKaras. Llywrch. Tiptoety. Bento00. ClueBot. ChuispastonBot. LadyofShalott. MTSbot~enwiki. Robin Hood~enwiki. A Softer Answer. Jumbuck. Mere2518. LucienBOT. Kalogeropoulos. AnomieBOT. Stenvenhe. Gtrmp. Zeimusu. Ronhjones. Koavf. Theopolisme. Philip Trueman. MystiqueRai. Robertson-Glasgow. Simon Peter Hughes.wikipedia. Bobrednek. XRDoDRX. WhisperToMe. Goldenrowley. VolkovBot. Isis4563. OlEnglish. MalafayaBot. Xand2 and Anonymous: 158 • Asteria Source: http://en. NewEnglandYankee. Cynwolfe. From That Show!. Haukurth. Waacstats. Moe Epsilon. FlaBot. Catamorphism. Hongooi. Michael Bednarek. AntiVandalBot. VenomousConcept. LapisLazuli9. T@nn. IronGargoyle. Glenn. Siddharth Mehrotra. 6birc. Aloneinthewild. Googipy. Addbot. SMC. LFaraone. FrescoBot. Eyrian. Krea. Ahoerstemeier. MarshBot. Zerothis. Qtgeo. Cronos~enwiki. Squash. Maria Sieglinda von Nudeldorf. Josh Parris. PamD. Xezbeth. Dawkeye. Erebus555. DCLXVI. Deflective. Huangpo. Dzordzm. Ohnoitsjamie. Khazar2. KnightRider. Sanitycult. Benchilada. SmackBot. Valentina. BrettAllen. Selket. Lankiveil. Borg2008. Tutmosis. Xqbot. Renato Caniatti~enwiki.nerol. Eu. I dream of horses. Thijs!bot. Courcelles. L Kensington. Furius. Rholton. 334a. Bridgetfox. Bgwhite.delanoy. Jonathan Tweet. KConWiki. Shaidar cuebiyar. Aranel. SieBot. FiriBot. Bobo192. Maralia. AliaGemma. Secretlondon. Xqbot. Zudduz. Luckas-bot. Benzeman. Proc1or and Anonymous: 138 • List of night deities Source: http://en. Akoch. Cydebot. Gogo Dodo. Leprof 7272. 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FoekeNoppert. LucienBOT. Yobot. Widr. Kampu~enwiki. Mercury McKinnon. LAX. Some jerk on the Internet. FlaBot. SmackBot. Spinach Monster. Scotliterary. MastiBot. Pinethicket.notnilc. PhilipC. NawlinWiki. El-Ahrairah. Swarm. Phyesalis. BD2412.michael. Nev1. Nusarikaya.org/wiki/List%20of%20night%20deities?oldid=646883013 Contributors: Apotheon. Idiomabot. KGasso. Fraulein451. DorganBot. Gurch. Redtigerxyz. EmausBot. Dgw.org/wiki/Asteria?oldid=657364251 Contributors: Bryan Derksen. Markisgreen. Gilliam. TjBot. YFdyh-bot. SashatoBot. Yobot.5. Obersachsebot. Temporaluser. TXiKiBoT. The385842. BotMultichill. Akoch. Rama. Excoriator. Chawil.org/wiki/Chthonic?oldid=653512640 Contributors: Leandrod. AnomieBOT. That Guy. Nixeagle. TXiKiBoT. Kinsfire. YurikBot. VolkovBot. Hpart13. BenoniBot~enwiki. DrunkenSmurf. Belovedfreak. Hazhk. RobotE. Panellet. RenamedUser01302013. Glengordon01. FlaBot. DumZiBoT. CharlesGillingham. Snow Blizzard. Gwern. Writtenright. Maelkoch. Qwyrxian. Korath. Lfh. Maqs. Wetman. Bluejay Young. Metodicar. Addbot. RlyehRising. NickSchweitzer. NellieBly. JaconaFrere and Anonymous: 215 . Pearle. Satanael. Julia Rossi. Parrot. ClueBot NG. Jakegothic. Pigman. Makecat-bot. contributors. MalafayaBot. Sburke. Freakmighty. Deucalionite. Erik the Red 2. Philippe. Wknight94. CmdrObot. Amaury.1 Text • Chthonic Source: http://en. Snalwibma. T@nn. Zerida. Kinotgell.bastholm. SilkTork. UtherSRG. Jadephx. Katachthonios. Mikerose3876385g. HeleneSylvie. DocWatson42. Macedonian. Mushroom. Chubbles. Crywalt. El C. LeaveSleaves. Aarchiba. gospodarica neba. DGG. Pigman. Kubra. Batang bulbulin. Ecume. Dybryd. TUF-KAT. Jumbuck. Lotje. Amirobot. Deflective. Phlyaristis. Davidiad. Luís Felipe Braga. IvanLanin. Bradleyosborn. Hut 8. HarryHenryGebel. Angela. ClueBot. YurikBot. Tucci528. PbBot. Waacstats. Cydebot. Ugur Basak. Lt-wiki-bot. Strike Eagle. FinnWiki. DreamGuy. David Marjanović. Luckas-bot. Sietse Snel. Shanes. Sardanaphalus. ICE77. Margosbot~enwiki. Paul August. 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SoCalSuperEagle. Eranb. Philip Trueman. Demosthanes. Mr Monkey358.g. Jfire. Macedonian. AntiVandalBot. Metodicar. Gawdismydaddy. Davidiad and Anonymous: 11 • Achlys Source: http://en. Bolowno. Sintaku. Niera. Captain panda. Recognizance. Pigman. Aseneath. TobeBot. XX brothers. Iridescent. Lunagoth. 19cass20. Mediatech492. Aircorn. Paul August. Mentifisto. 999~enwiki. Burn. Sitearm. MartinBot. Plastikspork.wikipedia. Luckas-bot. Qxz.wikipedia. SmackBot. TaBOT-zerem. Nev1. Mr. Apollonius 1236. ThinkEnemies. Stesmo. Robyn. Flyer22. Widr. EmausBot. Tommy2010. Almabot. ClueBot. Pmanderson. Bhadani. CocuBot. CarsracBot. Alexbot.wikipedia. Rich Farmbrough. Mogism. Whyleee. JAnDbot. Epbr123. Bota47. Woloflover. Magioladitis. the pain!. Guy Peters. TreasuryTag. Bigjimr. Unoknows. Ptbotgourou.anacondabot.org/wiki/Trivia%20(mythology)?oldid=631593202 Contributors: IZAK. Dianasbraham76. Geniac. Alex S. . Kyoko. Craig Baker. Whatscrackin555. Mottenen. SamuelTheGhost. JackieBot. 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Norhelt. Gscshoyru. Daderot. SamEV.wikipedia. Luckas-bot. MTSbot~enwiki. HaeB. Waacstats. Huon. RichardMills65. T@nn. Feyandstrange. Edward321. Patrick2480. Nymf. Soulbot. RlyehRising. Bluerabbit4210. Technopat. Joshschr. Dexbot.org/wiki/Diana%20(mythology)?oldid=657242590 Contributors: Kpjas. Midnightblueowl. Kkmurray. Useight. Clifflandis. Brandmeister (old). Nosaj9806. Vanished user g454XxNpUVWvxzlr.org/wiki/Summanus?oldid=651508724 Contributors: TUF-KAT. George The Dragon. Eskimbot. Drinibot. Grimey109. Str1977. Fordmadoxfraud. Séphora Nyht. Lotje. NickSchweitzer. Bollyjeff. NunoAgostinho. SchreiberBike. Che!. Laterensis. Guanabot. Tripps. Kriiiiis. WikiDreamer Bot. VolkovBot. YurikBot. Aldrasto. Reikku. Maurice Carbonaro. SieBot. Addbot. Wolterding. Ptolemy Caesarion. Omnipedian.

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T@nn. Eliz81. Kamezuki. Missvain. Vividonset2. Jonesey95. Woohookitty. Goldenrowley. Tutthoth-Ankhre. DumZiBoT. O. DumZiBoT. ClueBot NG. Infrangible. Omnipaedista. Derelik. M-le-mot-dit. Kitty9992. Omnipaedista. Ketiltrout. Welsh. Simon Peter Hughes. Bob Burkhardt. Mjk2357. Satanael. Twofistedcoffeedrinker. Wikibot.at. ZORYA NinetyCharacters. Mychele Trempetich. Brentmichaelcox. Trappist the monk. Rtkat3. Khajidha. Mintrick. Helpful Pixie Bot. AstroLynx. Wahrmund. TX55. ClueBot. Fiona CS. Timwi. TXiKiBoT. Setsuna999. DorganBot. Rahlgd. Sburke. Jusdafax. Keizers. Elie plus. Ekips39. Aztlshamb. Addbot. Tiddly Tom. Shirahadasha. Josve05a. ÄDA . Unara. Alansohn. Mentifisto. Simon Burchell. Kubra. CParis3567. Laubrau~enwiki. Junuxx. Sillyfolkboy. RibotBOT. Nipsonanomhmata. Remuel. RodC. Alexf. Widr. Jalo.wikipedia. Goldenbrook. DragonBot. Eequor. Chris the speller. PhJ. TheEgyptian. Mmmeg. ClueBot NG. Sir Anon. SashatoBot. Macrakis.org/wiki/Leto?oldid=657031976 Contributors: Bryan Derksen. JFreeman. Gilliam. FrescoBot. Helpful Pixie Bot. Melaen. Addbot. Budelberger. Tony Esopi. Addbot. Roboto de Ajvol. Rockero. Whoop whoop pull up. Rykan. Josve05a. Carlossuarez46. John of Reading. Jalo. Tkandell. Maunus. Nick Number. WSaindon. Zsinj. Bobrayner. Cedrus-Libani. Damate. Will Beback Auto. Metodicar. Tecpaocelotl. Arabani. El C. Ptcamn. RussBot. STBotD. WBardwin. Goldenrowley. Lugia2453. Sburke. Thijs!bot. Missvain. T@nn. TUF-KAT. Jhattara. Editor2020. Giggette. NuVanDibe. Xuchilbara. MacKenzie Drake. Lugia2453. Zrampold. FF2010. Marrovi. EmausBot. Nick Number. Amirobot. GeeJo. Pilotguy. Thijs!bot. AnomieBOT. Jorge Stolfi. KocjoBot~enwiki. Böri. The Aeronus and Anonymous: 103 • Yohaulticetl Source: http://en.thomson. Barmispain. Ptcamn. Simon Burchell. Maunus. Majestic Pyre. Ruby Murray.org/wiki/Yohaulticetl?oldid=542519736 Contributors: Gtrmp. Saga City. Idioma-bot. Sburke. 2T. Tydaj. Imorthodox23. Erik9bot and Aztlshamb • Black Sun (mythology) Source: http://en. Gtrmp. Heltec. ZéroBot. Nanahuatzin. Paul August. Panellet. XL2D. Diablokrom. Xu Davella. Omnipaedista. Pigman. Alphachimpbot. FrescoBot. TLG. ClueBot NG. The Man in Question. Jonesey95.. EmausBot. Killy mcgee. Thijs!bot. Beastly endevour. Rich Farmbrough.wikipedia. CJLL Wright. Tim1357. JeepdaySock. Aztlshamb. Addbot. ESkog. El-Ahrairah. Alansohn. Jeepday. TUFKAT. T@nn. ZéroBot. MarkGallagher. JorgeGG. Kuratowski’s Ghost. Klemen Kocjancic. Alexbot. KLBot2. Kusunose. Mottenen. Rjwilmsi. TriniMuñoz. ClueBot. VoABot II. Ilya. Viciroth. Tomtheman5. Crazyboy899.org/wiki/Lords%20of%20the%20Night?oldid=653586031 Contributors: Andycjp. JFHJr. Gongshow. Aviados. Toshito. LadyofShalott. Briangotts. Eleph23. Maunus. SmackBot. Tyranitar Man. ZéroBot. T@nn. Senor Cuete. NewEnglandYankee. AllyUnion. CmdrObot.org/wiki/Metztli?oldid=644279922 Contributors: Danny. Addbot. Athinaios. Gtrmp. Monkbot and Anonymous: 17 • Metztli Source: http://en. Indubitably. ClueBot NG. Wtmitchell. ZéroBot. Sam Spade. CJLL Wright. Cacaoatl. Ravenmewtwo. Rjwilmsi. FrescoBot. XZeroBot. Jeffq.

A. Alansohn. Citation bot. Ripe. Iokseng. Kunjan1029. Apepch7. XJaM. Machine Elf 1735. Crculver. Veledan. Martarius. Kwamikagami. Demonslave. GoonerDP. Ziusudra. Askahrc. Malcolmxl5. Verbal. Bluebot. Ptbotgourou. Chandanti. OttoMäkelä. Olabajs. Glengordon01. Trylks. BodhisattvaBot. Ian. CONTRIBUTORS. The PIPE. CALR. Kkikk123. Thijs!bot. Ebyabe. AnonMoos. Cydebot. Qwertyus. Dbachmann. AlleborgoBot. Mhotep. Leoboudv. The Man in Question. Joy1963. Gaius Cornelius. Rockoprem. From That Show!. Yobot. Jmabel. Delta 51. Mintrick. Dreadstar. BRIO1368. SpBot. LaaknorBot. HandThatFeeds. Dienstag. Yobot. Gtrmp. Jim1138. Avecit. Csernica. Grell the Reaper. Erud. Ckatz. Zwobot. SDC. Rossami. NoahXQOASB. UKER. Bhadani. Juneja. Night Gyr. FrescoBot. Ignatzmice. Chicbyaccident. Smalljim. SnowFire. แอนเดอร์สัน. Fæ. Robbot. SieBot. PamD. Hoodedwarbler12. OSMAX20. Srck. ArchyArchy. Melakavijay. VasuVR. Legobot. GregKaye. Daniel. Thanatos666. Sindhutvavadin. Tawkerbot2. Longhair. Alfeugceknidng. Rjwilmsi. T@nn. Onesius. AaronCarson. Kingpin13. CanadianLinuxUser. RussBot. Indubitably.org/wiki/Apep?oldid=656689253 Contributors: Bryan Derksen. Qwm~enwiki. Haymouse. Joshua Issac. TUF-KAT. Nick Number. Chlewbot. Tabletop. ^demon. Synergy. TXiKiBoT. Sharavanabhava. Omnipaedista. Captmondo. Pdr. Gospodar svemira. B9 hummingbird hovering. JimVC3. Cst17. ClueBot. LoveMonkey. Armbrust. WinstonSmith. Chandra.org/wiki/Kuk%20(mythology)?oldid=656029445 Contributors: Derek Ross.hoyland. SimonTrew. Bhadani. Tutmosis. Vinayak8 and Anonymous: 97 • Rahu Source: http://en. FlaBot. Dangerous-Boy. Discospinster. TUFKAT. Snowgrouse. Erik9bot. Hoary. Zandperl. Narsil. A. Mark Arsten. KyraVixen. AphophisRa. Dharmadhyaksha. Mighty Nut. Hijiri88. Chobot. Modest Genius. Dbachmann. BCtl. DanielCD. Orioane. Astrologist. Gabrieli. Tommy2010. Redtigerxyz. Bhadani. Goethean. Estirabot. ClueBot. SmackBot. Via strass. Gerakibot. Asarelah. Oldag07. Favonian. Elmarat. DocWatson42. Robbot. Enti342. 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