NIGHT DEITIES

Contents
1

2

3

Chthonic

1

1.1

Chthonic and Olympian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.1

Cult type versus function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.1.2

Ambiguities in assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

References in psychology and anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

References in structural geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

List of night deities

3

2.1

Arabian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.2

Aztec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.3

Canaanite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.4

Egyptian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.5

Etruscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.6

Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

2.7

Hindu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.8

Lithuanian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.9

Māori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.10 Norse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.11 Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.12 Slavic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

2.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Nephthys

5

3.1

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.2

Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

3.3

Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.4

Nephthys and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.5

The saving sister of Osiris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

3.6

New Kingdom cults of Nephthys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

3.7

Chief goddess of Nome VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

i

ii

CONTENTS
3.8

4

5

6

7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Asteria

10

4.1

Daughter of Coeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.2

Amazon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.3

Heliad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.4

Danaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.5

Alkyonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.6

Consort of Phocus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.7

Consort of Bellerophon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.8

Daughter of Coronus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.9

Daughter of Teucer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.10 Athenian maiden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.11 In Gluck opera

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Erebus

12

5.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

5.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Artume

13

6.1

Artume in popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

6.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Hecate

14

7.1

Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.2

Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

7.3

Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.4

Other names and epithets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.4.1

Goddess of the crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.5

Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.6

Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

7.7

Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8

Festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.8.1

The Deipnon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Modern expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.11 Cross-cultural parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.12 Nature of her cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.14 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

7.9

. . . . . . . .5 Depictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Artemis in astronomy . . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Aloadae .15. . . . . . .1 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Worship of Artemis . . . . . 40 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also . . . . . .3. . . 30 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Names . .1 Epithets . . . . .1 Birth . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . . 32 8. . . . . .2 Others . .14 Polyphonte .CONTENTS 8 7. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .11 Chione . 36 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Callisto . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9 iii Selene 39 9. . .15 Trojan War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 38 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 26 Artemis 28 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Artemis in mythology . . . . . . . Oeneus and the Meleagrids . . 36 8. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8. .6 Orion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Aura . . . . . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lovers and offspring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. . . . . . . . . . .4 The moon chariot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . . . .2 Childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Artemis in art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .5 Adonis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Intimacy . 31 8. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References and sources . . . . . 39 9. . . . . . .2 Origin . . . . . . . . . 34 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 32 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. . . . . . . . .2 Festivals . . . . . . . . . .12 Atalanta. . . . 35 8. . . . . . . 28 8. . . .2 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Niobe . . . . . . . . .1 Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Endymion . . .4 Actaeon . 30 8. . . . . . . . .5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. . . .2. . 30 8. . . .2. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .2 Astronomy . . . . . . 49 11 Philotes (mythology) 11. 56 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology and literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Sanctuaries . . . . . . . . 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10 Nyx 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 14 Diana (mythology) 56 14. . . . . . . . .1 Cults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Achlys 50 50 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nyx in society . . . . . . . 57 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . .8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hypnos in the Iliad . . . . .iv CONTENTS 9. . .2. 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nonnus’ Account . . . . . . . .1 Dwelling place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 9. . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hesiod’s Account . 51 12. . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Family . . . .2 Homer . . . .2 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. . . . . . . . . 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Worship . . . . . . . .4 External links . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Words derived from Hypnos .1 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Cult . .1 Hesiod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Physical description . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. . . . . 52 13 Hypnos 53 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hypnos in art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 18 Leto 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Lycian Letoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . .CONTENTS v 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In the arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ugaritic inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summanus and Mount Summano . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bibliography . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Luna (goddess) 67 67 68 17. . . . . . . .1 In religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10External links . . . . . . .7 Leto of the golden spindle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 See also .2 Juno as moon goddess . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 17. . . .6 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . 60 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . 69 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . 64 15 Summanus 65 15. . 68 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 . .2 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . .12External links . . . . . . . . . . 74 19 Shalim 75 19. . .3 Chariot of the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Chthonic assailants . . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . 72 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Leto in Crete . . .1 References . . . . . . . . . 66 16 Trivia (mythology) 16. . . . . . . . . .5 References .1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Niobe . . . .3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . .10Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cult and temples . . . . . . . . . . 68 17. . . . . .4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 18. . . . . 73 18. . . . . . . . . . 62 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Lycian peasants . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Itzpapalotl 78 80 22. . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl . . . . . . . . . . .10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. 81 23 Metztli 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS 19. . . . . . . .1 In Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Aztec Reverence . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Black Sun (mythology) 87 87 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Legend . . . . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . .1 Iconography . .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 23. . 86 25 Yohaulticetl 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ritual . . . 85 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Mythical stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Tezcatlipoca 83 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . .1 Otomi mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 20 Al-Qaum 77 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 22. . . . . . . . . 80 22. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mexican traces . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca . . . . . . . . . . .8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References 82 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 21 Lords of the Night 78 21. . .5 Aztec religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Representations of Tezcatlipoca . . . .7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca . . . .2 References . . . . . 84 24. . . . . . . . . . . . 83 24. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 26. .7 Further reading . . . 31 Ratri 98 98 99 31.4 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 26. . . . . . .2 Further reading . . . . .3 Brief summation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 External links . . . . . . . . . 89 27 Five Suns 27. . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS vii 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Battles with Ra . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 References . .4 See also . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. . .2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 29 Apep 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 References . . . . 97 30 Kuk (mythology) 30.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Variations and alternative myths 90 . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 References .1 Other views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Other aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fiction . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . . . 92 27. . . . . . . 102 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 32 Chandra 100 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . .3 Notes . . . . . . . . .1 Dark spot on the moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In astrology . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In popular culture . . . . . 88 26. . . . . .1 Legend 90 . . . . . . . . . . 103 33 Rahu 104 33. . 92 28 Tzitzimitl 93 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Other names . . . . .viii CONTENTS 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . .1 Rahu dan . .6 Theodor Narbutt . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Myths . . . . . . .4 Jan Łasicki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 36 Hine-nui-te-pō 119 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 110 34. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Maciej Stryjkowski . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Rahu Mantra . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heroes and heroines . . . . . . . .1 Gods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Various lower beings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 35.5 Demonic beings . . 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Martynas Mažvydas . . . . . . . .7 Notes .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 In modern age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 In Zoroastrianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In contemporary Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Astrology . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Local and nature spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Holy places and things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 113 35. . . . 117 35. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 35. . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Names from folklore myths and legends .2 Names by written sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 115 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 113 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 35. . 106 34 Varuna 108 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In the Vedas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 34. . . . . . . . . . .2 In the Ramayana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . .1. . .4 References .2. . . 109 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 34. . . . . . .7 External links . .7 Other written sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 33. . . . . . . . . . 105 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 35. 117 35. . . . . . 106 33. . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 35. . . . . . .1 Earliest Russian chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .5 Matthäus Prätorius . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buddhism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Prose Edda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 36. . . .CONTENTS ix 36. . . . . . . . . . . 119 120 37.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 38. . . . . . . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . .4 See also . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Content license . . . . . . 121 38 Zorya 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 130 38. 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Evening Star . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . .1 Poetic Edda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Morning Star . . . . . . . .3 In art and literature . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and licenses . . . . . . . . . 121 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 37. . . . .2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Text and image sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 References 37 Nótt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 References .1. . . . . . .1 Attestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Text .

water of the underground. Chthonic (UK /ˈkθɒnɪk/. was typically offered puppies at crossroads—a practice neither typical of an While terms such as “Earth deity” or Earth mother have Olympian sacrifice nor of a chthonic sacrifice to Persesweeping implications in English. For the band. or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does). 1. Myths about the later Olympian deities also described an association with the fertility and the prosperity of Earth. men associated with the above. from χθών khthōn “earth”)[1] literally means “subterranean”. “pit”) or megaron (μέγαρον. for instance. the term chthonic was often used to describe the spirit of nature within. the chthonic has connotations with regard to gender. The Greek word khthon is one of several for “earth". see also anima and animus or shadow. the words khthonie and phone or the heroes. It evokes. simultaneously. As well. “in. In some Greek chthonic cults. the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos (βωμός. otherwise known as the sky. see Chthonian (Cthulhu mythos). Offerings usually were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers. The translation of meaning discusses deities or spirits of the underworld. Thus Demeter and Persephone both watched over aspects of the fertility of land. goddess of justice who sits on the right side Cult type versus function The myths associating the underworld chthonic deities and fertility was not exclusive.1. For other uses. referring primarily to the manner of offering sacrifices to the deity in question. however. his female consort was Nut.2 Ambiguities in assignment The categories Olympian and chthonic were not. that is one’s material depths. yet Demeter had a typically Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one. Greek mythology likewise has female deities associated with the sky. with identical rites. Demeter was worshipped alongside Persephone 1 . “sunken chamber”). completely separate. abundance and the grave. which often happened at night time. del Valle’s Gendered Anthropology describes there being “male and female deities at every level. rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does). under. also received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations. Also.1 Chthonic and Olympian 1. Moreover. in Ancient Egypt the main deity of the earth was the male god Geb. Some Olympian deities. however not necessarily with negative connotations.1.1 In analytical psychology. 1. depending on the site and the time of origin of the myth.. the unconscious earthly impulses of the Self. The deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes.”[3] This was by no means universal. Because of her underworld roles. Greek. a few deities aren't easily classifiable under these terms. When the sacrifice was a living creature. and women associated with the below. see Chthon (disambiguation). For Cthulhu mythos creatures. it typically refers to the interior of the soil.Chapter 1 Chthonic This article is about the Greek deities.[2] 1.. see Chthonic (band). khthonios had a more precise and technical meaning in Hecate is generally classed as chthonic. and yet occasionally was classified as an “Olympian” in late poetry and myth. such as Hermes and Zeus. Hecate. "altar"). the sky. the animal was placed in a bothros (βόθρος.2 References in psychology and anthropology Some chthonic cults practised ritual sacrifice. US /ˈθɒnɪk/ from Greek χθόνιος khthonios [kʰtʰónios]. and the chthonic deities. or beneath the earth”. The absorption of some earlier cults into the newer pantheon versus those that resisted being absorbed is suggested as providing the later myths. such as Dike. in cultural anthropology. with the earth. especially in Greek religion.

1.3 References in structural geology The term Allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation. at Perseus. ISBN 0-415-06127-X.5 References [1] Chthonios. Routledge.” (Source The Heroes of the Greeks. A Greek– English Lexicon. and it was burned entirely. Henry George Liddell. in contradistinction to thysia. goddess of dawn—and Hades as god of the underworld. and Eos. 'hearth'. The 'gods of the dead' are. Kerenyi pub. The victim was held over the trench with its head down. [3] Teresa del Valle. [2] “The sacrifice for gods of the dead and for heroes was called enagisma. and their name was ischara. as for the celestial gods. with its neck bent back and the head uplifted. It was offered on altars of a peculiar shape: they were lower than the ordinary altar bomos. Through them the blood of the victims. usually by low angle thrust faulting. not. were to flow into the sacrificial trench. Therefore they were funnel-shaped and open at the bottom. C. Chthonic deities. For this kind of sacrifice did not lead up to a joyous feast in which the gods and men took part. 108. which was the portion especially of the celestial deities. CHTHONIC of Zeus as his advisor. 1. p. Gendered Anthropology. and also libations. 1993.6 External links • The dictionary definition of chthonic at Wiktionary .4 See also • Chthonic law • Earth mother • Geomancy • Life-death-rebirth deities • Sky father 1. Robert Scott. 1. From the Greek “allo” meaning other and “chthon” designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus “under the earth”.2 CHAPTER 1. Thames & Hudson 1978). of course.

Artames. each of whom ruled over a particular night • Hecate. and guardian of caravans 2. primordial god of darkness and consort of Nyx Aztec • Lords of the Night. in a 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo • Nephthys. goddess of magic. witchcraft. a group of nine gods. Etruscan goddess of night Arabian 2. lunar goddess known as the “Lady of the Night” 2. personification of the primordial darkness The Norse night goddess Nótt riding her horse. Nabatean god of war and the night. jaguars.5 • Artume. the night. goddess of night as well as death and birth A night deity is a god or goddess in mythology associated with night. night and farmers • Tezcatlipoca.6 • Al-Qaum. deification of evil and darkness • Kuk.2 Etruscan Greek • Asteria. 2. god of dusk 2. The following is a list of night deities in various mythologies. hurricanes. obsidian.fearsome skeletal goddess of the stars • Nyx.4 Egyptian • Apep. war and strife • Yohaulticetl. goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars • Erebus. the night winds. the earth.Chapter 2 List of night deities • Metztli. temptation. discord. enmity. divination. rulership. the night sky. the serpent god.1 2. primordial goddess of night 3 . god of the night sky. ghosts and necromancy • Itzpapalotl . (also called Aritimi. sorcery. or darkness. They commonly feature in polytheistic religions.3 Canaanite • Shalim. beauty. moon. or Artumes). god or goddess of the moon. the north.

2. 2. hunting. equivalent to Hecate.4 CHAPTER 2. goddess of twilight and dreams. primordial goddess of night. • Trivia. goddess of night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori mythology 2.9 Māori • Hine-nui-te-pō. equivalent to Selene. goddess of the moon. hunting. • Selene. and the wild. misery and sorrow • Artemis. two guardian goddesses. representing the morning and evening stars. god of dreams. goddess of the moon. goddess of sorcery. goddess of the moon. associated with the night. a celestial deity of darkness and eclipse • Varuna (Hindu mythology) 2. god of nocturnal thunder • Diana. female personification of night 2.7 Hindu • Ratri. equivalent to Hypnus. god of the moon • Rahu. 2. equivalent to the Greek goddess Nyx • Summanus. tombs. who protects people from sunset to sunrise 2.11 Roman • Nox. death.12 Slavic • Zorya.and young women.10 Norse • Nótt. • Somnus.13 See also • Chthonic (underworld) deities . equivalent to Artemis. and torches. ghosts. goddess of the moon. goddess of night • Chandra. LIST OF NIGHT DEITIES • Achlys. primordial goddess of eternal night. an equivalent to the goddesses Leto and Asteria.8 Lithuanian • Breksta. • Latona. • Luna.

Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function. Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity. In contrast NephNephthys . France thys is sometimes featured as a rather ferocious and danNephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliter. see Oxford University ated as Nebet-het. This entrance way symbolised the horizon or akhet. glyphs). probably indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual.[7] As the primary “nursing mother” of the incarnate Pharaonic-god. capable of incinerating the enemies of 5 .[4][5] Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet[6] or Isis. Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the “Useful Goddess” or the “Excellent Goddess”.[3] These late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship. sister-wife of Set. and Nebt-het. Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis (Inpu) in some myths.[8] Though other goddesses could assume this role. from Egyptian hieroLightweight Rowing Club. Her name means quite specifically. with her sister Isis in funerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the “Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure” which associates her with the role of priestess. This the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology. Paris.The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as “Lady of the House. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris. Along with her sister Isis. which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name. just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience. This title. Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh himself.2 Function At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts.” which has caused some to mistak[1] Nephthys /ˈnɛpθɨs/ (Greek: Νέφθυς) or Nebthet /ˈnɛbˌθɛt/ (Arabic: ‫ نيفتيس‬Nyftys) is a member of enly identify her with the notion of a “housewife.Chapter 3 Nephthys For Nephthys Boat Club. Set. a daughter of Nut and Geb.Musée du Louvre. Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience.” or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. Nephthys was typically paired is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. 3.1 Etymology 3. Horus.gerous divinity.

. who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion. and whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various levels of Duat. or twilight. it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris.[10] CHAPTER 3. It should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed as the polar opposite of Isis. reTriad of Isis.6 the Pharaoh with her fiery breath. . Thus. particularly when he entered Duat at the transitional time of dusk. or mistress (Lady). Nephthys. where Nephthys was a member of that great city’s Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex. but rather as a different reflection of the same reality: eternal life in transition.3 Symbolism while Nephthys’s marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology.Nephthys plays an important role in the Osirian mythstretched as a symbol of protection. the benevolent figure who was the killer of Apophis. descend with Nephthys. ascend with Isis. Ascend and descend. cent Egyptological research has called this into question. Nephthys often was depicted as a kite. Walters Museum Levai notes that while Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity’s marriage. 3. was a force before whom demons trembled in fear.[9] New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs. as the region of the afterlife was termed.[13] Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition. Early Greco-Roman.cycle. Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. This was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period. where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler. Isis was Ra’s companion at the coming of dawn. She argues that the later evidence suggests that: mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Seth. along with the sign for neb. along with Isis. According to the Pyramid Texts. She was not paired with Set the villain.[14] 3. Nephthys’s associ. and Harpocrates. rise with the Day-bark. She was.5 The saving sister of Osiris In the funerary role. in particular.” Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210. there is very little specifically Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in fu. Nephthys.[12] 3. the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys. “Ascend and descend. almost without fail. or as a woman with falcon wings.e. as is attested in various stelae and a wealth of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor. which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (hwt). In this capacity. The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead. on top of the enclosure sign. the majestic sun god. NEPHTHYS ation with the kite or the Egyptian hawk (and its piercing. but with Set’s other aspect. usually out. Nephthys was also seen in the Pyramid Texts as a supportive cosmic force occupying the night-bark on the journey of Ra. i. depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name. Hornung. Less well understood than her sister Isis.[11] along with the work of several noted scholars. mournful cries) evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women.linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian nerary rites[2] because of their role as protectors of the sources. it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts.4 Nephthys and Set Though it commonly has been assumed that Nephthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis. were enamored of Mother Nephthys. sink into darkness with the Night-bark.

a temple of Nephthys called the “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” was built or refurbished in the town of Sepermeru. one of the Sons of Horus. 300-200 B. .Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud . Hapi.Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud . 300-200 B. Nephthys was one of the protectresses of the Canopic jars of the Hapi. NEW KINGDOM CULTS OF NEPHTHYS 7 at the holy city of Abydos. though she certainly figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted. “Nephthys of the Bed of Life. Nephthys also serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus. Thus we find Nephthys endowed with the epithet.[19] 3. and by her presence in a variety of magical papyri that sought to summon her famously altruistic qualities to the aid of mortals. or the perilous edges of the desert.” and there associated with the jackal-headed god Anubis as patron. guarded the embalmed lungs. midway between Oxyrhynchos and . in the 19th Dynasty. As a mortuary goddess (along with Isis. Nephthys joined Isis as a mourner in the shrine known as the Osireion. as her sister in “words of power. .3. The Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the “birth-mother” and to Nephthys as the “nursing-mother” of Horus.” are evidenced by the abundance of faience amulets carved in her likeness.6. Nephthys is a goddess who gives the Pharaoh power to see “that which is hidden by moonlight. using her power as a beergoddess “that [the pharaoh] may have joy with no hangover.c. and Serqet). No cult is attested for her there. Neith. after his murder by the envious Set. in the Delta[15] and she appears to have occupied an honorary position Nephthys’s healing skills and status as direct counterpart of Isis.C. One ancient Egyptian myth preserved in the Papyrus Westcar recounts the story of Isis.C. which she would “return”. steeped.” Elsewhere at Edfu.6 New Kingdom cults of Nephthys The Ramesside Pharaohs were particularly devoted to Set’s prerogatives and. wherein two chosen females or priestesses played the roles of Isis and Nephthys and performed the elaborate 'Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys’.c.Metropolitan Museum of Art It is Nephthys who assists Isis in gathering and mourning the dismembered portions of the body of Osiris.” This fits well with more general textual themes that consider Nephthys to be a goddess whose unique domain was darkness. at Abydos. There. Nephthys was attested as one of the four “Great Chiefs” ruling in the Osirian cult-center of Busiris.[16] These "Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys" were ritual elements of many such Osirian rites in major ancient Egyptian cult-centers. Nephthys was duly honored with the title “Queen of the Embalmer’s Shop.”[17] in direct reference to her regenerative priorities on the embalming table.[18] Nephthys . Nephthys is depicted receiving lavish beer-offerings from the Pharaoh. assisting the wife of a priest of Amun-Re as she prepares to bring forth sons who are destined for fame and fortune. In the city of Memphis. Nephthys. In various reliefs at Edfu. and Behbeit. for example. Dendera.Metropolitan Museum of Art Nephthys was also considered a festive deity whose rites could mandate the liberal consumption of beer. and Heqet as traveling dancers in disguise. Nephthys could also appear as one of the goddesses who assists at childbirth. Isis . Meskhenet.

p. A. Heliopolis. Another temple of Nephthys seems to have existed in the town of Punodjem. as her primary epithets reflect. This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis. Wainwright. Thebes. Dakleh Oasis. Philae. 26.[21] another “House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun” seems to have existed to the north. pp. He notes his obvious administration of the “House of Set” and adds: “I am also responsible for the ship.co. . 1941). Deir el-Hagar. and of the local Horus/Osiris manifestation. an independent entity. A Delta-man in Yebu. Letopolis. where another shrine existed in honor of the Bennu. Abydos. Kellis. Seshat and the Pharaoh. Philae. The foundations of the Set and Nephthys temples at Sepermeru finally were discovered and identified in the 1980s.” but was transferred at some point to Herakleopolis and the temple of Herishef.8 References [1] Or /ˈnɛfθɨs/.” the goddess and her shrines were under the particular endorsement of Ramesses II. or as part of a quartet of deities. (Feb. El Qa'la. Set. the god Neferhotep. the temple of Nephthys was a specific foundation by Ramesses II.[25] Nephthys was most widely and usually worshipped in ancient Egypt as part of a consortium of temple deities. and Nephthys” for the ultimate resolution of this issue by the royal Vizier.8 Herakleopolis. land-owning temples delineated for this portion of the Middle Egyptian district in Papyrus Wilbour. The Ancient Egyptians. Koptos. ii 1-10).[26] In most cases. in the town of Su. [2] Abeer El-Shahawy books. 'A Ptolemaic Lexikon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu'. Dendera. Dendera. According to Papyrus Wilbour. Esna. 3. It is perhaps in this way that Nephthys best fulfilled her role as an important national deity whose ideal function was to provide powerful assistance to her associates in a great variety of temple cults— a truly “Useful” and “Excellent” goddess. While certainly affiliated with the “House of Set. Nephthys found her typical place as part of a triad alongside Osiris and Isis. Nephthys was the primary protectress of the resident Osirian relic. or Isis and Horus. 2007. on the outskirts of the Fayyum and quite near to the modern site of Deshasheh. Therefore. Redford. Marshall Cavendish.[24] CHAPTER 3.[23] There can be little doubt that a cult of Nephthys existed in the temple and great town of Herakleopolis. The cult-image’s inscription originally pertained to “Nephthys. NEPHTHYS 3. The Literary Motif of the Exposed Child (cf. Kom Ombo.uk The funerary art of Ancient Egypt: a bridge to the realm of the hereafter (106 pages) American University in Cairo Press. Vol. El Qa'la.” and a wealth of temple texts from Edfu. The basalt image originally was stationed at Medinet-Habu. Shenhur. Nephthys was given the name “Nephthys-Kheresket.” A “prophet of Nephthys” is indeed attested for the town of Herakleopolis in the 30th Dynasty. The fields and other holdings belonging to Nephthys’s temple were under the authority of two Nephthys-prophets (named Penpmer and Merybarse) and one (mentioned) wa'ab priest of the goddess. A near life-sized statue of Nephthys (currently housed in the Louvre) boasts a curiously altered inscription. 1997 [4] G. (Nov.”[22] As “Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun. OLA 78. Diospolis Parva). Page 219 in the article On a Topos in Egyptian Medical History by Hedvig Györy [7] Donald B. Vol.[20] The Nephthys temple was a unique establishment in its own right.” the Nephthys temple at Sepermeru and its apportioned lands (several acres) clearly were under administration distinct from the Set institution. along with a heap of other temples. In this role. Foremost of the Sed [Festival] in the Booth of Annals” (at Medinet-Habu). Numen. Wilson. 14. as part of the cultic celebration of the Pharaonic “Sed-Festival. and the Nephthys temple was a selfsustaining temple complex within the Set enclosure. 2005 ISBN 977-17-2353-7 [Retrieved 2011-12-12] [3] P. and I am responsible likewise for the House of Nephthys. Ex. 2003. of the Bennu Bird. located in close proximity to (or within) the precinct of the enclosure of Set. as Papyrus Wilbour notes in its wealth of taxation records and land assessments. K. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. There.7 Chief goddess of Nome VII Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Sacred Phoenix. Eyma. 30-40 [5] Virginia Schomp. the chief city of Nome VII. To be certain. or Isis and Min. 27 [6] A. Foremost of the [Booths of] Herakleopolis. or the Bennu Bird. Here. the prophet (named Pra'emhab) laments his workload. Nephthys also was the goddess of the “Mansion of the Sistrum" in Hwt-Sekhem (Gr. Universal-Publishers. but was re-inscribed or re-dedicated to “Nephthys. The Papyrus Bologna records a complaint lodged by a prophet of the temple of Set in that town regarding undue taxation in his regard. closer to the Fayyum region. Busiris. which was renowned for its “House of the Bennu” temple. north of Sepermeru. it should not surprise us that her cult images could likely be found as part of the divine entourage in temples at Kharga. the House of Nephthys was one of fifty individual. and indeed throughout Egypt. and others corroborate the late identification of Nephthys as the supreme goddess of Upper Egyptian Nome VII.google. Fasc. After making an introductory appeal to “Re-Horakhte.. 3. Sebennytos.

Porter/R. 46 n. Theban Recension [16] Byron Esely Shafer. “Nephthys and Seth: Anatomy of a Mythical Marriage”. The discussion of Isis as the mother of Anubis appears on pages 222 and 223 [8] K.d. 2005 [17] Tomb of Tuthmosis III. Dynasty XVIII [18] J. J.8.html [15] The Book of the Dead..7 [10] B. 1992. I' Sanctuaire central. Temples in Ancient Egypt. Cauville. 155-157 [25] Sauneron. Apr 20. Durocher-Champollion [24] Forgeau. Griffiths. p.]. Relevés des scènes et des textes. 5. Reliefs. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112 [26] BIFAO website 9 . in: A. R. Varia Memphitica. Allen. 184 n. 8-7. 1984 [20] 'Land Tenure in the Ramesside Period' by S. II.O. Paper presented at The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt.allacademic. BIFAO 82 [19] A. 1993. 6. Oxford Second Edition [11] Versuch über Nephthys. G. Blackwell [9] Sauneron. 'The Pyramid Texts’ SBL.3. Traunecker. LaChaud. Theban Temples.com/meta/p176897_index. Jessica. Publications de la recherche. Ramesside Inscriptions. 209-228. 'Essai. R. 2005 [14] Levai. Elephantine. REFERENCES 1967). 2007.' 152 n. 1989 [21] Section 1. 6. Nephthys découverte dans un papyrus magique in Mélanges. Ohio. Moss. Lloyd [Hrsg. Beitrage Bf. Gutbub. 186-188 [12] Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. London 1992. Faullkner.La stèle de Parâherounemyef. and Paintings. Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. Karnak VII. Oxford University Press 1969. Katary. C. 1 [23] 'Les Deesses de l'Egypte Pharaonique'. pp. Toledo. Montpellier. université de Montpellier.A. Dieter Arnold. FRANCE. p. 2. 41-62. 'Pretres Isiaques. VI . Bergman. 46. Traunecker. B. [13] James P. 112. Berlandini. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts.' BIFAO 84. Beitrage Bf. Wyndham Toledo Hotel. Kitchen. 28 [22] Papyrus Bologna 1094.http: //www. Le temple d'El-Qal'a. Sanctuaire nord. Peter Der Manuelian.

preg. She was. the daughter of Coronus. Alkyonides. She married the river god Hydaspes (the modern Jhelum River) and became mother of Deriades.Asteria.[2] Panopeus by Phocus.[7] 4.5 Alkyonides Bellerophon. Asteria (/əˈstɪəriə/.[10] Hera. the daughter of Teucer. Asteria was the ninth Amazon killed by Heracles when In Greek mythology.[5] 4. and a character in the opera Asteria was one of the Alkyonides.4. the consort of 4. For the type of gemstone. Asteria was one of the Danaids. Along with her sis“Telemaco”. The Titan goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. Asteria flung herself into the Aegean Sea in the form of a quail in order to escape the advances of Zeus.[1] According to Hesiod. by Perses she Asteria[8] or Asterodia[9] was the mother of Crisus and had a daughter Hecate. ters. with one exception. “of the stars. Heliad. For the medieval music 4. Danaid. she flung herself into the sea and was transformed into a kingfisher. one of the Heliades. Her son is known for having founded a city in Caria which was named after him. which was the only piece on earth to give refuge to the fugitive Leto when. 4. see Star stone. was the mother of Hydissos nant with Zeus’s children. the Consort of Phocus.[4] 10 .4 Danaid Asteria and Phoebe on the Pergamon Altar.7 Consort of Bellerophon fied with the island of Delos. daughters of Danaus who.1 Daughter of Coeus 4. king in India.[3] This then became identi. Each of these is detailed below.2 Amazon ensemble. and became the “quail island” of Ortygia. an Athenian maiden. see Asteria (band). she was pursued by vengeful by Bellerophon. see Asteria Medievale.[6] Greek: Ἀστερία.Chapter 4 Asteria For the band. an Amazon woman. murdered their husbands on their wedding nights. the bride of Chaetus. starry one”) was a name attributed to the following eleven individuals: the daughter of Coeus. Ancient he came for Hippolyte's girdle.6 Consort of Phocus Asteria was the daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe and sister of Leto. briefly. daughter of Hydeus.3 Heliad Asteria or Astris was a daughter of Helios and Clymene or Ceto.

4. 53 [9] Tzetzes on Lycophron.10 Athenian maiden Asteria was one of the would-be sacrificial victims of Minotaur. 1. 4. Library of History.8 Daughter of Coronus Asteria. citing Pherecydes of Leros [12] Tzetzes on Lycophron.Titanis Asteria [5] Diodorus Siculus.12 References [1] Hesiod. Theogony.13.9 Daughter of Teucer The daughter of Teucer and Eune of Cyprus also bore the name Asteria. though the name did not appear in Homer's Odyssey on which the opera was based. v. Alkyonides [8] Tzetzes on Lycophron. 5 [7] Suda s. 450 [13] Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum 4. and Apollo were possible parents of the seer Idmon.13 External links • Theoi Project: Asteria 11 .[11] 4. Argonautica.3 (on-line text) [6] Bibliotheca 2. 1. 8185 (painting on François Vase) 4. Hydissos [11] Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius. 939 [10] Stephanus of Byzantium. 16. v. [2] Theogony 409–11. EXTERNAL LINKS 4. daughter of Coronus.[12] 4. 404ff. [4] Theoi Project . s. portrayed in a vase painting. 139. [3] John Tzetzes. 4.11 In Gluck opera Christoph Willibald Gluck gave the name Asteria to one of the characters in his 1765 opera "Telemaco".[13] 4.

Patricia (2001). Fabulae 1–49”. S. 263. p. Retrieved 1 July 2011. described Erebus as the father of Geras. p. [3] Elizabeth. Harry Thurston (1897). for instance. 51. Alice (1896). “Theogony”. [6] Rengel. • The Theoi Project. the Moirai. ISBN 1-60413-412-7. Perseus Digital Library Project (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). first recorded instance of it was “place of darkness between earth and Hades”. “Hyginus. ISBN 0-19-514338-8.2 External links [1] Ἔρεβος. Hypnos. Beekes. Hemera. representing the personification of darkness. London (1873). and brother to Nyx: Sources “From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night. “deep darkness. depending on the source of the mythology. Mark P.[1] Library. Theogony 116–124.[9] R. see Erebus (disambiguation). New York: Harper. 451. an Indo-European origin for the name Ἔρεβος itself is possible from PIE *h1 regʷ-es/os. Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z. in his Fabulae. pp. 12 .[1] was often conceived as a primordial deity. Hesiod’s Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence.[10] Evelyn-White (1914) . Burdett and Company. born of Chaos. Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. 52.[2] Erebus features little in Greek mythological tradition and literature. Robert. “darkness”[8][9] “darkness” (cf. Dictionary of Ancient Deities. In Greek mythology. whom she con• Evelyn-White. The Roman writer Hyginus. but is said to have fathered several other deities with Nyx. Evelyn-White. Geras. 271. Classical Mythology: Sixth Edition. 620.. Gothic [11] Atsma. Retrieved 1 July 2011. P. New York: Silver.1 References Notes 5. Henry George. Brill. Aaron. Charon. “Erebos” [2] Hesiod. Styx. [4] Morford. this union includes Aether. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. O. Hugh G. brew ‫( ֶעֶרב‬ˤerev) 'sunset. as a source. (1914). “Online Etymology Dictionary: Erebus”. 55. According to the Greek oral poet Hesiod's Theogony. and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus. the Hesperides. but of Night were born Aether and Day. Infobase Publishing. The Sources of Spenser’s Classical Mythology. Old Norse røkkr)... Sanskrit rájas.[3][4][5][6][7] [7] Turner. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. pp. ISBN 9781604134124 In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying. William. shadow”). evening' are sometimes cited 2009. ISBN 9780195143386 [5] Peck. Erebus /ˈɛrəbəs/. and Thanatos. 253. 84. New York: Oxford University Press US. The ceived and bore from union in love with Erebus. (1999). Liddell. Marian (2009). Erebus is the offspring of Chaos. 170.[3] However. ISBN 0-19-514504-6. ISBN 9780195145045 The perceived meaning of Erebus is “darkness". the god of old age. the [8] Harper. p. also Erebos (Greek: Ἔρεβος.” Hesiod. p. Etymological Dictionary of Greek.[11] • Smith. Semitic forms such as He. Theoi E-Texts riqis. Scott. Douglas. Volume 1. “E'rebos” 5. Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Theogony (120–125)[10] Translation by Hugh G. Oxford University Press. 36.Chapter 5 Erebus For other uses.

51. 13 . 149. Greg.Chapter 6 Artume Artume (also called Aritimi. 6. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 12. pp. Losna).1 Artume in popular culture Artume appeared as a recurring character in Marvel Comics. Etruscan Myth. or Artumes) was an Etruscan goddess who was the goddess of night. [2] Van Lente. “Incredible Hercules #124”. 141. She was associated with the Greek goddess Artemis in later history. 99–103. (December 31. Referred to as “Artumes”. ISBN 978-1-93170786-2. Marvel Universe. and Legend. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 130–32. Sacred History. 2008). Artames. 158.2 References [1] Thomson de Grummond. Nancy (2006). et al.[2] 6.[1] Aritimi was also considered the founder of the Etruscan town Aritie. Fred. which is today the Italian town Arezzo. death. woods and fertility. Pak. nature. of the moon (like another goddess.

Pen.[14] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the influence of Shakespeare for the thenpredominant disyllabic pronunciation of the name. see Hecate (disambiguation). well into the 19th century. light.”[7] She also closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia.[9] This has been translated as “she that operates from afar”. witchcraft. Heqet. where variants of her name are found as names given to children. Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul.refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens. entrance-ways. as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira). Hecate or Hekate (/ˈhɛkətiː. dogs. 7. ghosts. has been compared. William Berg observes. and sorcery. Hekátē) is not known .1 Name The etymology of the name Hecate (Ἑκάτη. Greek Ἑκάτη.[15] 7. with whom she was identified in Rome. “she that removes or drives off”. an obscure epithet of Apollo. It remained com.[10] “the far reaching one” or “the far-darter”. even when spelled with final e.[12] The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced. “Since children are not called after spooks. knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants.[13] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the ElizabethanJacobean period. it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat. the moon. the name was also pronounced not three-formed.monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate 14 .[2][3] In the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles (2nd3rd century CE) she was regarded with (some) rulership over earth. most often shown holding two torches or a key[1] and in later periods depicted in triple form. In Early Modern English.[11] Statuette of Triple-bodied Hekate. necromancy. Suggested derivations include: • From the Greek word for 'will'. Hekátē) is a goddess in Greek religion and mythology. ink and light brown and • the name of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth. Farnell states: “The evidence of the disyllabic and sometimes spelled Hecat. The spelling Hecat is due to Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses. She was variously associated with crossroads.[4][5] She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family. sea and sky. magic. ˈhɛkɪt/. grey wash.[8] • From Ἑκατός Hekatos.[6] mon practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables.2 Representations Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia.Chapter 7 Hecate For other uses.

a key. while the bronze images opposite. but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. style of the 6th century. Triple Hecate and the Charites. He reported the image to be the work of Scopas. and when she is depicted alongside the god Hermes and the goddess Kybele in reliefs. as well as occasional four in Athens.”[16] and numerous other items.” (Description of Greece 2. and in magical papyri of Late Antiquity she is described as having three heads: one dog. now in Berlin. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs. Pausanias saw the temple of Hecate opposite the sanctuary of Eileithyia.7. and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. wherein she is shown with three bodies. Some classical portrayals show her as a tripthe later period that they come to express her manifold licate goddess holding a torch. then to retreat from the site without looking back. and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion. Greek anthropomorphic conventions of art resisted representing her with three faces: a votive sculpture from Attica of the 3rd century BCE (illustration.22. is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form. which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription. stating further.[24] Her most important sanctuary was Lagina. son of Mothon. shows three single images against a column. with a hound beside her. her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water. But it is only in Charites. placing a wreath on the head of a mare. with a dedication to Hecate. round the column of Hecate dance the 7. and the main historical value of this work. were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes.[21] In the Argonautica. where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. Jason is to dig a round pit and over it cut the throat of a ewe. 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head.[22] Jason placates Hecate in a ritual prescribed by Medea. and dressed in dark robes.3 Mythology Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. “This one is of stone. a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. she is altogether without attributes and character.[18] Hecate’s triplicity is elsewhere expressed in a more Hellenic fashion in the vast frieze of the great Pergamon Altar.3. near the shrine of the Dioscuri. a 3rd-century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early material. lay close to the originally Macedonian colony . Munich) The 2nd-century travel writer Pausanias stated that Hecate was first depicted in triplicate by the sculptor Alkamenes in the Greek Classical period of the late 5th century BCE [3] which was placed before the temple of the Wingless Nike in Athens. The place of origin of her following is uncertain.[24] Lagina.7) A 4th-century BCE marble relief from Crannon in Thessaly was dedicated by a race-horse owner.[23] All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity. Attic.[16] In Egyptian-inspired Greek esoteric writings connected with Hermes Trismegistus.[17] Depictions of both a single The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found form Hekate and triple formed. one serpent. He is told to sweeten the offering with a libation of honey. daggers and mystic nature. Images of her attended by a dog [20] are also found at times when she is shown as in her role as mother goddess with child. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony. also of Hecate. taking part in the battle with the Titans. even if he hears the sound of footsteps or barking dogs.[19] It shows Hecate. MYTHOLOGY 15 is almost as full as that of the literature. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar. serpents. sacrificing it and then burning it whole on a pyre next to the pit as a holocaust. where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year. In the Argolid. and one horse. in writing of the headed descriptions continued throughout her history. left).

and in heaven. it is clear that the special position given to Hecate by Zeus is upheld throughout her history by depictions found on coins depicting Hecate on the hand of Zeus [30] as highlighted in more recent research presented by d'Este and Rankine. as the division was at the first from the beginning. and in sea. were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household. drawing by Stéphane are her honours. albeit her mother’s only child. whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom. privilege both in earth. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement.[25] In According to Hesiod. whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea.[31] . The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds. HECATE of Stratonikeia. where she was the city’s patroness. if so she will.[27] Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship. easily the glorious goddess gives great catch. while the testimony of other writers.16 CHAPTER 7. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men. or makes many to be less. namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness. for the power surely is with her. the daughter of Perses and Asteria. One theory is that Hesiod's original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. he calls upon Hecate. to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. in that he seems to hold her in high regard. she held sway over many things: Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes. Greek goddess of the crossroads.[28] In Athens Hecate. Hesiod: Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon. Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. along with Zeus.[26] Hesiod’s inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars. then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. if she will.[26] Mallarmé in Les Dieux Antiques. and who pray to Hecate and the loudcrashing Earth-Shaker. and these Hecate.[29] However. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably. Hestia. He gave her splendid gifts. Hermes. and she bestows wealth upon him. For to this day. and Apollo. and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. 1880 Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child. and surviving evidence. nouvelle mythologie illustrée in Paris. for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy. a star-goddess who was The first literature mentioning Hecate is the Theogony by the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). And she is good to stand by horsemen. she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. She received honor also in starry heaven. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. and brings glory to his parents. Good is she also when men contend at the games. So. then. suggests that this may have been exceptional. and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. she increases from a few. and easily she takes it away as soon as seen.

Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits. but as for the significance says only that it is ineffable and that the ritual is sacred to Hecate.[39] where she is associated in fragment 194 with a strophalos (usually translated as a spinning top.[36] Hecate also came to be associated with ghosts. the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack. In late imagery she also has two ghostly dogs as servants by her side. infernal spirits. Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. saving the city.[41] Variations in interpretations of Hecate’s role or roles can be traced in 5th-century Athens. For example. or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness.”[34] The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date. in the magical papyri of Ptolemaic Egypt. and a mighty helper and protector of humans. She scorns and insults Artemis.. when she assisted Demeter with her search for Persephone following her abduction by Hades. In two fragments of Aeschylus she appears as a great goddess. a euphemism perhaps intended to emphasize her concern with the disappearance of Persephone.”[40] This appears to refer to a variant of the device mentioned by Psellus. she is called the 'she-dog' or 'bitch'. consisting of a golden sphere.[24] the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate. MYTHOLOGY Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia. megabyzi.] speaks of a bullroarer. or wheel. such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus.[37] One interesting passage exists suggesting that the word “jinx” might have originated in a cult object associated with Hecate.[35] 17 the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. In Sophocles and Euripides she is characterized as the mistress of witchcraft and the Keres. above all by Artemis and Selene. at her unrivalled[33] cult site in Lagina. Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries. she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians. shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils. “The Byzantine polymath Michael Psellus [. There was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Likewise. alongside Demeter and Persephone. In gratitude the Byzantines erected .[27] Here. because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans. He adds that such an instrument is called a iunx (hence “jinx”).[1] The modern understanding of Hecate has been strongly influenced by syncretic Hellenistic interpretations.7. Her continued presence was explained by asserting that. Because of this association. who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal’s suicide. the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. Hecate is called the “tender-hearted”. it is possible it presented a conflict. officiated. are attested. the father of Mausolus. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time. were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros (the tale is preserved in the Suda). decorated throughout with symbols and whirled on an oxhide thong. and her presence is signified by the barking of dogs. Other than in the Theogony. as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins. her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world.. it has been argued that “Hecate must have been a Greek goddess.”[38] Hecate is the primary feminine figure in the Chaldean Oracles (2nd-3rd century CE). One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis. where the priests.[32] and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times. used in magic) “Labour thou around the Strophalos of Hecate. Many of the attributes she was assigned in this period appear to have an older basis. suggesting that Demeter should speak to the god of the sun. Hecate by Richard Cosway If Hecate’s cult spread from Anatolia into Greece. Subsequently she became Persephone’s companion on her yearly journey to and from the realms of Hades. Helios. However.3. the dead and sorcery.

4 Other names and epithets • Apotropaia (that turns away/protects) [45] • Chthonia (of the earth/underworld)[46] • Enodia (on the way)[47] • Klêidouchos (holding the keys)[48] • Kourotrophos (nurse of children)[48] • Melinoe[49] • Phosphoros (bringing or giving light)[48] • Propolos (who serves/attends)[48] • Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate)[50] The Triple Hecate. and was often eaten in solemn sacrament. the sea. Saint Eligius. The dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal. she ruled over three kingdoms.1 Goddess of the crossroads Cult images and altars of Hecate in her triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at three-way crossroads (though they also appeared before private homes and in front of city gates).[9] In this form she came to be known as the goddess Trivia “the three ways” in Roman mythology. and Athens.[43] • Trimorphe (three-formed)[48] • Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads)[48] • Trivia (Roman form) 7. She had the power to create or hold back storms. she remained unmarried and had no regular consort.4. and other birth goddesses. where three roads meet. Colophon.[9] It has been claimed that her association with dogs is “suggestive of her connection with birth. 1795 William Blake Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted flock in Flanders against putting “devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads”. Genetyllis..5 Animals Triple Hecate Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene. the earth. Although in later times Hecate’s dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who . Samothrace. “In art and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog.[53] 7.[44] 7. for the dog was sacred to Eileithyia. though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla.”[54] The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate is attested for Thrace. according to Saint Ouen would urge them “No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium.[42] • Soteira (savior)[51] As a virgin goddess.18 CHAPTER 7.[52] and. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog.”.. In what appears to be a 7th-century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort. HECATE a statue in her honor. which influenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors. and the sky.

it is said there stood a statue of Hecate Triglathena. in the Argonautica mentions that Medea was taught by Hecate.[56] Another metamorphosis myth explains why the polecat is also associated with Hecate. dog. she had deceived the gods. for that the goddess is trimorphos. Pliny. its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog’s connection with birth than the dog’s underworld associations.[64] 7.”[57] Athenaeus (writing in the 1st or 2nd century BCE. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene. Parker observes. daughter of Elektryon. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then. Alkmene’s pangs ceased at once and Herakles was born. It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep.7. a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress (Pharmakis). and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change. Horace. “The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet (trigle). of a triple form”. boar. consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. daughter of Perses.”[65] . Galinthias. the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens. kept Alkmene in continuous birth pangs. and drawing on the etymological speculation of Apollodorus of Athens) notes that the red mullet is sacred to Hecate. “on account of the resemblance of their names. has taught to work in drugs. which fits neatly into the pattern. Hecate often has one or more animal heads. also has become sacred to Hecate in modern Pagan literature. The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe. it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate. They turned her into a deceitful weasel (or polecat).6. ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished. PLANTS 19 Aelian told a different story of a woman transformed into a polecat: ""I have heard that the polecat was once a human being. making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating. Juvenal. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature. Apollonius of Rhodes.[63] In her three-headed representations. May the goddess be gracious to me : fables and their telling I leave to others.6 Plants Hecate was closely associated with plant lore and the concoction of medicines and poisons. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. As the birth throes for Herakles were pressing on Alkmene. The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size.[59] In relation to Greek concepts of pollution. that she was extremely incontinent. including cow. Martial. Blood-coloured itself.”[60] At Athens. as a favour to Hera. Alan Davidson writes. to whom the red mullet was offered in sacrifice. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since. From Antoninus Liberalis: “At Thebes Proitos had a daughter Galinthias. He goes on to quote a fragment of verse “O mistress Hecate. “I have mentioned to you before a certain young girl whom Hecate.' and 'would eat the corpse of a fish or a man'. being but a mortal. Trioditis / With three forms and three faces / Propitiated with mullets”. significantly a creature that can cross between two elements. At all this. particularly female dogs. probably Hekate or else Artemis.”[58] A goddess. dog and twin torches. They remained seated. the Moirai (Fates) and Eileithyia (Birth-Goddess). fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad.”[55] The association with dogs. who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar.[61] After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate. serpent and horse. could be explained by a metamorphosis myth. Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire. is depicted with a bow. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. The Greek word for mullet was trigle and later trigla.” [62] The frog. “Cicero. It 'delighted in polluted things. discussed above. accompanied her. each keeping their arms crossed. and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires.

Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison. and mandrake. keeping an eye on all who entered. It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate. protecting their inhabitants. a Thessalian goddess. The yawning gates of Hades were guarded by the monstrous watchdog Cerberus.20 CHAPTER 7. toxos. As a goddess expected to avert harmful or destructive spirits from the house or city over It was probably her role as guardian of entrances that led to Hecate’s identification by the mid fifth century with Enodia.”[76] This suggests that Hecate’s close association with dogs derived in part from the use of watchdogs. and in the road in front of private houses. but also between mortal and divine spheres. The yew was associated with the alphabet and the scientific name for yew today. a tree symbolic of death and the underworld. indeed. for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city.. and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death. and with her pack of dogs. and hence sacred to a number of chthonic deities. and an ancient commentary on Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica (3.[71] belladonna. “Greeks held the yew to be sacred to Hecate. with realms outside or beyond the world of the living. the guardian of doors and portals. medicinal and/or psychoactive) are associated with Hecate. Propulaia/Propylaia (before the gate). who.[74] The yew in particular was sacred to Hecate. which served as her constant companions.”[78] 7. doorways. according to the legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever present torches. and might also relate to her appearance with two torches.8.[70] These include aconite (also called hecateis).[77] Like Hecate. She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a "liminal" goddess. usually the largest meal of the day. Hecate would naturally become known as a goddess who could also refuse to avert the demons. was probably derived from the Greek word for yew. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city.”[67] Hecate was said to favor offerings of garlic. their word for bow and toxicon. city walls. etc.[69] A number of other plants (often poisonous.1214) describes her as having a head surrounded by serpents. a meal served to Hekate and the restless dead once a lunar month on the night when there is no visible moon. there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic. 7.[75] This function would appear to have some relationship with the iconographic association of Hecate with keys. Klêidouchos (holding the keys).[66] which she stood guard and to protect the individual as she or he passed through dangerous liminal places. which when positioned on either side of a gate or door illuminated the immediate area and allowed visitors to be identified. dittany. at its most basic..”[73] This liminal role is reflected in a number of her cult titles: Apotropaia (that turns away/protects). and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier. "[t]he dog is a creature of the threshold.[72] 7. which was closely associated with her cult. since at least as early as the 1st century CE. by extension. Enodia (on the way). Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection. crossroads and.[68] She is also sometimes associated with cypress. Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads). whose function was to prevent the living from entering the underworld.8 Festivals Hecate was worshipped by both the Greeks and the Romans who had their own festivals dedicated to her. taxus. HECATE The goddess is described as wearing oak in fragments of Sophocles’ lost play The Root Diggers (or The Root Cutters). usually noted on modern calendars as the .1 The Deipnon The Athenian Greeks honored Hekate during the Deipnon. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans. deipnon means the evening meal.7 Places Hecate was associated with borders. Hekate’s Deipnon is. “In Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. their word for poison. which is hauntingly similar to toxon. or even drive them on against unfortunate individuals. Enodia’s very name (“In-the-Road”) suggests that she watched over entrances. particularly at night. and the dead from leaving it. twining through branches of oak. raised an alarm when intruders approached. In Greek. “Hecate mediated between regimes — Olympian and Titan —.

which derives from PIE *kagh. c.[88] and other themes 7.[90] Hecate is also one of the “patron” goddesses of many Wiccans. Hecate was identified with Ereshkigal.[83] and 3) purification of the household. In the Michigan . such as groups like Hellenion and YSEE.”[81] A secondary purpose was to purify the household and to atone for bad deeds a household member may have committed that offended Hekate. be smoke. Classical sources. and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me. 7. Historical depictions and descriptions show her facing in three different directions.“hedge. and this can be seen as a reference to her aspect of Motherhood.10. my divinity is adored throughout all the world in divers manners. Her role as a tripartite goddess. in variable customs and in many names.. in this portrayal she is known as “Mistress of Animals”.[84] Strmiska notes that Hecate. and many others.. the moon.[. a clear and precise reference to the tripartite nature of this ancient Goddess.[87] witches.7. causing her to withhold her favor from them.”[98] Neopaganism. mistress and governess of all the elements.[97] Modern etymology reconstructs Proto-Germanic *hagatusjon. appears in late antiquity and in the early medieval period as part of an “emerging legend complex” associated with gatherings of women. who was skeptical of theories proposing non-Germanic origins for German folklore traditions.[95] Such derivations are today proposed only by a minority[96] since being refuted by Grimm.9 Modern expressions Hecate is mentioned in Act 2. [.[79] The Deipnon is always followed the next day by the Noumenia..[98] the first element is probably cognate with hedge. conflated with the figure of Diana. The figure of Hecate can often be associated with the figShe is worshiped by people who have reconstructed and ure of Isis in Egyptian myth. and then the Agathos Diamon the day after that. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient. SURVIVAL IN PRE-MODERN FOLKLORE 21 new moon. and the western Balkans. do call me Queen Isis.”. but are not explicitly attested in. others Bellona of the Battles. in William Shakespeare's play of the same name: “Witchcraft celebrates pale Hecate’s offerings. the principal of the Gods celestial. hedges and 'hedge-riding'. the Mother and the Crone”.] Some call me Juno. the later Greek Magical Papyri sometimes refer to her as also having the heads of animals. deriving “hag” and/or “hex” from Hecate by way of haegtesse (AngloSaxon) and hagazussa (Old High German). Scene 1 by the character Macbeth.. my name.[91] was made popular in modern times by writers such as Robert Graves in The White Goddess..]'[100] In the syncretism during Late Antiquity of Hellenistic and late Babylonian ("Chaldean") elements.11 Cross-cultural parallels that parallel. 123 — revived the indigenous polytheist religion of Greece. the underworld counterpart of Inanna in the Babylonian cosmography.[80] when the first sliver of moon is visible. Queen of heaven. In other circles Wiccan witches associate her with the “Maiden”. enclosure”.[85] which draws heavily on folkloric traditions[86] associating Hecate with 'The Wild Hunt'.“fly about.[92] 'I am she that is the natural mother of all things. 170 CE) in his work The Golden Ass associates Hecate Hellenismos.10 Survival in pre-modern folklore The main purpose of the Deipnon was to honor Hekate and to placate the souls in her wake who “longed for vengeance. the light of the goddesses: at my will the planets of the air. southern Germany. or phases.[89] with Isis: 7.”[93] This theory of the Roman origins of many European folk traditions related to Diana or Hecate was explicitly advanced at least as early as 1807[94] and is reflected in numerous etymological claims by lexicographers from the 17th to the 19th century. such as the 20th century occultist and author. who in some traditions identify her with the Triple Goddess’ aspect of the "Crone".from haegtesse and hagazussa. chief of powers divine. and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine. vanish. and still others Hecate. usually in a shrine outside the entryway to the home [82] 2) an expiation sacrifice. Aleister Crowley.. The Deipnon consists of three main parts: 1) the meal that was set out at a crossroads. known as the 'Dagger' soliloquy. Modern Hellenic polytheists honor Hecate during the Deipnon. or the “Mother” aspects as well. which many modern-day Wiccans associate with the concept of “the Maiden. and the silences of hell be disposed. Lucius Apuleius (c. the initial progeny of worlds.[99] and the second Hecate is now firmly established as a figure in perhaps from *dhewes. and witchcraft that eventually became established “in the area of Northern Italy. for Hecate has three faces. the wholesome winds of the Seas.

[4] “Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02. A Greek English Lexicon.12 Nature of her cult Regarding the nature of her cult. [6] Encyclopedia Britannica. Hekate Soteira. 90. They played a similar symbolic role in ancient China. Hecate Ereschigal is invoked against fear of punishment in the afterlife. Hekate Liminal Rites. Hecate. Hesiod’s Cosmos. danger-stricken outside world”. 129. she had many similarities with Artemis (wilderness. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous. HECATE mentioned. which is glossed as “lit. Avalonia. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. it has been remarked. Vol. Antony. p.” This interpretation also appears in Liddell-Scott. Walcot (1958). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology.[104] 7. in the entry for Hecate. eds. Theoi.g. No. [3] d'Este. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2012-09-24. with puppies often [1] The Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of Hekate by Charles M. The researcher is led to identify “the name and function of Hecate as the one 'by whose will' prayers are accomplished and fulfilled.). and as protective spirits appropriate when transcending geographic and spatial boundaries. she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition..[103] This can be compared to Pausanias’ report that in the Ionaian city of Colophon in Asia Minor a sacrifice of a black female puppy was made to Hecate as “the wayside goddess”. were offered to Hecate at crossroads. David. 3 (Jul. pp. 1990. As Roel Sterckx observes. 1986). and spirits of the dead. [8] At least in the case of Hesiod's use. Derossi (1975)).”[9] 7. “she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism.brynmawr. purification. [5] Sarah Iles Johnston. and watching over wedding ceremonies)[102] Dogs were sacred to Hecate and associated with roads. 307-318 [2] “HECATE : Greek goddess of witchcraft.11”. which were sacred to the goddess. “The use of dog sacrifices at the gates and doors of the living and the dead as well as its use in travel sacrifices suggest that dogs were perceived as daemonic animals operating in the liminal or transitory realm between the domestic and the unknown. 135. and Plutarch’s observation that in Boeotia dogs were killed in purificatory rites. ISBN 0-521-82392-7.edu. where dogs were conceived as representative of the household sphere. Spawforth.13 See also • Asura (Buddhism) • Janus • Amphisbaena • Lampade 7. Dogs.com. dated to the late 3rd or early 4th century CE. Retrieved 2012-09-24.[101] Before she became associated with Greek mythology. 2009. mythology . domestic spaces. 671. (1996).06. http://www. Simon. 7). Sorita & Rankine. p. . Jenny Strauss (2003). Neitzel (1975). Clay lists a number of researchers who have advanced some variant of the association between Hecate’s name and will (e. com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate [7] Berg 1974. Scholars Press. magical papyrus (inv. pictures : HEKATE”.14 Notes Isis and her various other names and symbols from The Golden Ass. p. 'she who works her will'" [9] Hornblower. see Clay. Dogs were also sacrificed to the road. ghosts & magic .22 CHAPTER 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bmcr.britannica.

2007. Shakespeare seems to have begun. Kraus 1960. eds. (1896). Ben (c.com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate also Hellenic Household Worship by Christos Pandion Panopoulos. Julian the Theurgist. Paul. [15] Webster. Spawforth.). the recording of which is traditionally attributed to Julian the Chaldaean or his son. p. [27] Johnston. And the play-going world. 133. 144. Blackwell. Neoplatonic saints: the Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by their Students. ISBN 0-631-15624-0. Avalonia. Introduction. and appear to have been related to the practice of theurgy. The Cults of the Greek States.eu.labrys. (1996). WildWinds. by sinking the final e. He concludes. Antony. 2009 [32] Theodor Kraus. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 [12] McKechnie. Shakespeare. Scene 2.” observes Peter Green. [33] Berg 1974. The Sad Shepherd. Wendy Doniger. 1594-96). by so adapting the word in Macbeth. and especially from Attica—all of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. this pronunciation. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Avalonia. P. Hecate. Noah (1866). 128: Berg comments on Hecate’s endorsement of Roman hegemony in her representation on the pediment at Lagina solemnising a pact between a warrior (Rome) and an amazon (Asia) [34] Berg 1974. 2010-02-28. p140 [24] Walter Burkert. and the rest of the world have followed them. http://www. [25] Strabo.. Oxford. [36] Strabo. 21. p. Berg’s argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1. Scene 1. p. Macbeth. Eidola. Agathokles.. printed 1641). (1991). Hecat!" Jonson. Act V. Bloomington. published by John Wiley & Sons. “Arguments for Hecate’s “Anatolian” origin are not in accord with evidence. [31] d'Este & Rankine. 2010 [18] Yves Bonnefoy. Doctor Faustus. Evelyn-White) [11] Wheelwright. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 100. The Argonautika. [19] This statue is in the British Museum. Hekate: Studien zu Wesen u. britannica. Geography. Roman and European Mythologies. how now. 316. The Argonautika.” [35] Kraus 1960. p. 579. (1975).com. [17] Hekate Her Sacred Fires.166ff. in Greek. [20] [21] “Images”. Act III. Oxford University Press. Shakespeare.7. 3. ancient coins index with thumbnails”. In Asia Minor only one monument can be associated with Hecate prior to the 2nd century BCE. Griechenland (Heidelberg) 1960. edited and translated by Lesley Madytinou & Rathamanthys Madytinos http://www. (1987) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. Retrieved 2012-09-24. Hekate Liminal Rites. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. p. p. Geography 14. 2009 [29] Encyclopedia Britannica.. 1603-07). seeHornblower.php?l=householdworship#1 [30] “Baktria. Charles (1869). 14. Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names”. 2. have followed the actors in this world.2. University of California Press. Christopher (first published 1604.gr/index. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.25. ISBN 0-19-866172-X. Act III.. Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1894): "Hec'ate (3 syl. [22] “The legend of the Argonauts is among the earliest known to the Greeks. [14] Marlowe. Metaphor and Reality. 134. 195. 171. Philippe (2008). pagan magic that later became closely associated with Neoplatonism. “Hecate in Art”.com. line 668: “our dame Hecat”. Kings. Arthur (1567).14. Guillaume. line 21: “Pluto’s blue fire and Hecat’s tree”. The material seems to have provided background and explanation related to the meaning of these pronouncements. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested “Carian theophoric names” is not convincing. [39] The Chaldean Oracles is a collection of literature that date from somewhere between the 2nd century and the late 3rd century. Leiden: Brill. Simon. line 1: “Why. Retrieved 2012-0924..9: "Hecate. (English Translation by Hugh G. A Classical Dictionary. NOTES 23 [10] Anthon. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World.)" [16] Lewis Richard Farnell. p. p. Oxford.. . William (c. Scene 3. pronounced in three syllables when in Latin. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland. [26] Hesiod. Olyan. Book Seven. Scene 5. Cf. [38] Mark Edwards. list pp. Theogony. [13] Golding.1. Sorita d'Este. Retrieved 2012-09-24. William (c. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Act II. ISBN 0-253-20122-5. [23] Apollonios Rhodios (tr. 1992. performed earlier). 52. 2000. Harper & Brothers. ISBN 978-90-04-17089-6. Liverpool University Press. p. Peter Green). 2 in Eng. 1637. and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization.). p. 2007. and in the same number in the Greek word Ἑκάτη. page 221. Bilde der Göttin in Kleinasien u. line 384: “By the triple Hecat’s team”. in English is universally contracted into two.23 [37] “CULT OF HEKATE : Ancient Greek religion”. Theoi. inventory number 816. p. A Dictionary of the English Language (10th ed. as he has now confirmed. who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people. p. E. Sarah Iles. [28] Household and Family Religion in Antiquity by John Bodel and Saul M. University of Chicago Press.

The Topography of Athens.C. p. that is the movement of the top. The Lupercalia. Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. 96. this story apparently survived in the works Hesychius of Miletus. p.G. UNC Press. Philip of Macedon. Hellenic Religion and Christianization. p. University of California Press. A Greek-English Lexicon. pt. in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. with the aid of the Athenians. [Diviners] spin this sphere and make invocations. The Argonautica of Apollonius. pp. 1990. [56] The poem Alexandra by Lycophron 1174 ff. or some other shape. 142. p. Bohn. 2005. p67 [55] Sarah Iles Johnston. but were foiled by reason of a bright light which. Like Byzas in one legend. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1990. pp. 1992. whether it is the matter of a spherical object. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros’ was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate’s defensive aid. a Byzantine lexicon of the 10th century CE. “Hecate” article. they call out unintelligible or beast-like sounds. ISBN 0-87586-546-1. Since Hecate was the guardian of “liminal places”.. 1895. Columbia University. p. Mediterranean Seafood.). 92. 76. 1841. Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece.html [57] Antoninus Liberalis. Divine Heiress. The Learned Banqueters. vol. Oxford University Press. and with her pack of dogs. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. [64] Yves Bonnefoy. Lycophron of Chalcis was a Greek poet in the 3rd century BCE The poem can be read here: http://www. 362-363. translated by Alwyn Faber Scholfield. [65] R. “If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople. [51] Sarah Iles Johnston.. [49] Ivana Petrovic. The Lupercalia. Stählin. Gary R. Cambridge University Press. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 207. [60] Robert Parker. pp. In her right hand she held the source of the virtues. Columbia University. 1974. Beck. Trombley. Goddess Gift: Meet the Goddesses Here. 1999.H. as if it had an ineffable power. 982. Roman and European Mythologies. Oxford University Press. While spinning them. [61] William Martin Leake. the Byzantines. p. L. laughing and flailing at the air. p. 68. Creatures in the Mist: Little People. 2. Biblo & Tannen Publishers. 94. 1890–94). 1921. translation by Mair. Healing in the history of Christianity. vol. Wild Men and Spirit Beings Around the World: A Study in Comparative Mythology. HECATE [47] Sarah Iles Johnston. who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian. 1823. translation by Francis Celoria.). Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (C. Hekate Soteira.. .24 [40] English translation used here from: William Wynn Wescott (tr. Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the Suda.” Vasiliki Limberis.]" William Gordon Holmes. 1993. which served as her constant companions. It is called the top of Hekate because it is dedicated to her. (2007). Retrieved 18 April 2011. tr. Brill. Routledge. 2. 1987.com/Text/LycophronAlexandra.H. [41] “A top of Hekate is a golden sphere enclosing a lapis lazuli in its middle that is twisted through a cow-hide leather thong and having engraved letters all over it. 211-212. p. or a triangular one. Wendy Doniger. 2003. [63] Varner. 1924. 2005. But it is all nonsense. 208-209. Hunter. Von den Toren des Hades zu den Hallen des Olymp (Brill. 16. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. Ten Speed Press. 1981). Such things they call charms. Psychology Press. Athenian Popular Religion. however. [42] “In 340 B. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. [44] “Hecate. they erected a public statue to that goddess [. CHAPTER 7. 319. which was attributed to Hecate. on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise. [52] Amanda Porterfield. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium and Eustathius. London. pp. p. p. pt. University of California Press. citing Apollonius of Rhodes. The Age of Justinian and Theodora. p.16. 1958 [59] Charles Duke Yonge. 1999. she had her origins in Thrace. C. Vita Eligii book II. 5-6. Metamorphoses 29. New York: Algora Publishing. 2. Harvard University Press. 2. [50] Sarah Iles Johnston. 135.” As quoted in Frank R. pp. W. withstood a siege successfully. it was Hecate. [53] Saint Ouen. In the course of this beleaguerment. appearing suddenly in the heavens. [43] Joseph Eddy Fontenrose. theoi. 2002. 1992 [58] On the Characteristics of Animals by Aelian. an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age. p. Schmid and O. University of Chicago Press. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city. 1994. Restless Dead. it is related. 370529. [46] Jon D. 126-127. [45] Alberta Mildred Franklin. 492. Scholars Press. To commemorate this timely phenomenon. 195. Mikalson. The Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster. p. according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her everpresent torches. W. 1921. Roscher. H. University of California Press. 1999. Greek Goddess of the Crossroads”. 72. 2007). [Hekate] teaches the taketes to operate. [62] Alan Davidson. [48] Liddell-Scott. startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. 1854. p. [54] Alberta Mildred Franklin.

1996. Dennison.2. Judith Fletcher.. Penguin Books. Hedge Witch: Guide To Solitary Witchcraft. Magic. State University of New York Press. Rohde. Thryon (Atropa belladona). p. F. Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft. […] most see in goddess worship a rediscovery of folk practices that persisted in rural Europe throughout the Christian era and up to recent times. For a 'moon magick' reference to Hecate as “Lady of the Wild Hunt and witchcraft” see: D. “Neopaganism sees itself as a revival of ancient pre-Christian religion: the old nature religions of Greece and Rome. was much dreaded. Plants and Diet in Greece From Neolithic to Classic Periods. University of Wisconsin Press. 1999. Mandragores (Mandragora officinarum). Routledge. Magic and Folk Belief. 1992 [89] Hellenion is a 501c3 religious organization based in the USA dedicated to reviving the religions indigenous to Greece. Com.7.” James R. [82] Antiphanes. [71] Robert Graves. Simoons. p. Crafts & Rituals for Natural Magick. Fragkiska Megaloudi. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. 14. Rohde. pp. Chapter in the book The Goddess Hekate: Studies in Ancient Pagan and Christian Philosophy edited by Stephen Ronan. Plutus. (1996). Virgil’s Aeneid. p79 [86] “Neo-paganism/witchcraft is a spiritual orientation and a variety of ritual practices using reconstructed mythological structures and pre-Christian rites primarily from ancient European and Mediterranean sources. 2003. Ecology. Pendraig Publishing. Witching Culture: Folklore and Neopaganism in America. 1972 pages 291-297 [81] These are the biaiothanatoi. 19 K). ISBN 0-19-866172-X. Crafts & Recipes. 362. hedge-riding and witches in German folklore see: C. 1975.14. 126-127. and Cochicum [. R. 2008 and Rae Beth. [69] Freize. Plants of Death. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. Routledge. 2781. 394 K). Moon Magick: Myth & Magic. 2004. pp 303-304. See Heckenbach. University of Wisconsin Press. of the wandering Teutonic tribes and of others as well. Walter (1902). Noll (Eds. [74] Sarah Iles Johnston. and for the relation between hedges. University of Pennsylvania Press. also Ammonius (p. New York: Oxford University Press. 79. 121-124. eds. Plants of Life. whose enthumion. N111. 154. 65. 2776 and references. aoroi and ataphoi (cf.). Antony. [70] “Hecate had a “botanical garden” on the island of Colchis where the following alkaloid plants were kept: Akoniton (Aconitum napellus). Smith. (i.html . in Athenaeus. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed. Aristophanes. Oxford University Press. p. 1999. Rituals & Spells. Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions. p. tradition and way of life in the “modern” Greek Society from which is oppressed due to its institutional intolerance and theocracy”. and notes. line 594 any translation will do or Benjamin Bickley Rogers is fine [80] Harvard Theological Review. [72] Frederick J. pp 127-129. p. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary And The Creation of Christian Constantinople. [76] Vasiliki Limberis. NOTES 25 [66] Daniel Ogden. Alkaloids: Biochemistry. Heckenbach. 1998. “A second theme in the Neo-Pagan combination is the pre-Christian European folk religion or Paganism. J. America’s Alternative Religions. 2008. [90] http://nfs. [83] Hekate’s Suppers. 1995. 208. Archaeopress. p303 [87] For a summary of the wild hunt as a neopagan 'tradition' see the entry in James R. CRC Press. p. Virginity Revisited: Configurations of The Unpossessed Body. 16. University of Toronto Press. Llewellyn. pp 10-23 (De Vries also mentions Hecate in this liminal context).” Gaustad. [78] Richard Cavendish. 424-425). [79] [5] The play Plutus by Aristophanes (388BCE). Michael Wink. Apollodorus. 1977. Pendraig Publishing. 490. 2006. p157 [88] For an extensive discussion of the symbolism of the hedge and hedge-riding as it relates to contemporary witchcraft see: Eric De Vries. 1994. 358 F. New York: American Book Company. Valckenaer) [68] Frederick J.]" Margaret F. pp. 596. As a general indicator of the currency of the association of hedge and witch see titles such as: Silver Ravenwolf. in Athenaeus. No. and Medicinal Applications.org/ The Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes is an umbrella group based in Greece that is a legally recognized Non Profit Organization (NPO) and was “founded in June of 1997 aiming to the morale and physical protection and restoration of the Polytheistic. The Red Church or The Art of Pennsylvania German Braucherei. Hale. Plants of Life. State University of New York Press. in Athenaeus. Melanthius. the quasi-technical word designating their longing for vengeance. Melaina (Claviceps pupurea). Simon. Plato. Henry. Pages 57 to 64 [67] Matthew Suffness (Ed. Simoons. 39 K). by K. 1995. 2007. Diktamnon (Dictamnus albus). 143. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. 275-277. [75] Sarah Iles Johnston. [77] Hornblower. 1. The Powers of Evil in Western Religion. 2009. p339. [85] For Hecate as a protector deity of a contemporary (midnineties) neopagan coven see: Sabina Magliocco. Mekon (Papaver somniferum). [84] Roscher. 647. pp.). Roberts. 1995. University of California Press. Taxol: Science and Applications. [73] Bonnie MacLachlan. 1998. 411-413. Lewis. Hedge-Rider: Witches and the Underworld.). 1999. The Greek Myths.). Melanthius. p. 1998. Antiphanes. 79. p. Llewellyn. p. 1889. 325 B.. and note. 2002.sparknotes. Bilardi. pp.. Spawforth. 28. i. 209. University of California Press. Hedge Witch: Spells. p. Lewis. 264 f. Springer.com/macbeth/page_50. Chariclides (iii. p603. ii. 82-83. p. 71. http://hellenion. 62. ii. Conway. n. Eerdmans. Plants of Death. Ethnic Hellenic religion. Witchcraft. Vol. Hegesander. 313 B (2.” Timothy Miller (Ed. and 358 F.A Documentary History of Religion In America Since 1877.

405. accessed 8/23/09 [99] Mallory. Theogony. no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M. ISBN 0-520-21707-1 • Mallarmé. & Witchery. Wayland D. J. Rochester. p. 116. State University of New York Press. Metamorphoses. “Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus”. D.Q. “The Role of Animals in Infant Feeding”. Donna (1994). 1835.47. 1994. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. (1991). [101] Hans Dieter Betz. History of Religions 19. Numen 21. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate’s Role in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature. XIV 44. Yakov. “Hecate in Art”. 194. • Lewis Richard Farnell. and the Mid. Johann Georg Wachter. Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. Leo. 2006. The Day of Yahweh: A Study of Sacred Days and Ritual Forms in the Ancient Near East. of Tennessee Press. William Arthur (1929). [92] https://sites. Sterckx explicitly recognizes the similarities between these ancient Chinese views of dogs and those current in Greek and Roman antiquity. 94. The Cults of the Greek States. Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess. p.15. The work has been sharply criticized by Classics scholars. Lat. [97] “Many have been caught by the obvious resemblance of the Gr. or Romance writings in the sense of witch. Modern paganism in world cultures. Adams. 68. • Ruickbie. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows: A Complete History. in American Folk Medicine: A Symposium Ed. and goes on to note “Dog sacrifice was also a common practice among the Greeks where the dog figured prominently as a guardian of the underworld. • Kerenyi.2 (August 1974:128-40) • Burkert. ISBN 0-89281-494-2. Sarah Iles.g. ABC-CLIO. VI 140. p318) [104] Frederick J. The Gods of the Greeks. 1987. 1976.4 (May 1980):287-295). p. 514. pp 233-234 • Strabo. • Johnston. 1985. Glossarium Germanicum (1737). some dismissing Rabinowitz as a neo-pagan. p. University of Wisconsin Press. Robert Hale. Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) Published in the UK as Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical.15 References 7. Cures. 174.15. American Historical Association. entry 'hag'. Geography 7. Stéphane. • Von Rudloff. Hecate. Berkeley: University of California Press. but the letters agree to closely.16 External links • Myths of the Greek Goddess Hecate • Encyclopædia Britannica 1911: “Hecate” . 1807.com/site/hellenionstemenos/Home/ festivals/hekatesdeipnon CHAPTER 7. A work which views Hekate from the perspective of Mircea Eliade's archetypes and substantiates its claims through cross-cultural comparisons. • Rabinovich. Wilshire. Illustrations of Shakspeare. 2004. 2007. Oxford University Press. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. The Rotting Goddess. Etymologicon Universale (1822) [96] e. • Pausanias. An English translation is available online [93] Michael Strmiska. 241. Walter Whiter. Samuel X.2 Secondary sources • Berg. VII 74. nouvelle mythologie illustrée. Simoons. (Oxford: Blackwell) ISBN 0-631-15624-0. and how should the word have spread through all German lands?" Jacob Grimm. • Johnston. and of Ancient Manners. VT: Inner Traditions International. HECATE 7. Oxford. 2005. Hand. pp 232-233. William. Description of Greece [94] Francis Douce.1 Primary sources • Hesiod. [102] Heidel. • Ovid. [103] Roel Sterckx.” (Footnote 113. 1951.google. Hekate in Early Greek Religion. Signs.26 [91] E. The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures. Edward Lye of Oxford (1694-1767). Univ. contrary to the laws of change. Horned Owl Publishing (July 1999) 7. p. 2002. 213. p. Radbill. (1896). (1990). 177. (1880). 1990. Walter. [95] John Minsheu and William Somner (17th century). (English translation 1900) [98] Etymology Online. The Golden Ass 11. Oxford University Press. 223 [100] Apuleius.g. “Hecate: Greek or “Anatolian"?". Sarah Iles. Teutonic Mythology. Robert. Gerald Milnes. Les Dieux Antiques. Works and Days.P. The Animal and The Daemon In Early China. Karl. 235-243.

• Theoi Project. Oxford.7. complete book included in the anthology “Junkyard of the Classics” published under the pseudonym Ellipsis Marx. at the Ashmolean Museum.16. Hecate Classical literary sources and art • Hekate in Greek esotericism: Ptolemaic and Gnostic transformations of Hecate • The Covenant of Hekate • Cast of the Crannon statue. • The Hekate/Iphigenia Myth 27 . EXTERNAL LINKS • The Rotting Goddess by Yakov Rabinovich.

[10] Anton Goebel “suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ. excellent. by way of folk etymology. Beekes suggested that the have been proposed. Potnia Theron: “Artemis of the wildland. Phrygian and could be “compared with the royal appel.[3] Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera. supported by the bear cult that the goddess had in Attica (Brauronia) and the Neolithic remains at the Arkoudiotissa Cave.to /Artemitos/ and . have linked Artemis (Doric Arthon the primitive root of the name is probably of Per. childbirth. *art. representing the goddess Artemis been suggested.some modern scholars.[10] the name is also was venerated in Lydia as Artimus. pronounced [ár.g. and indeed the goddess herself.1 Etymology Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Greek king Artemidoros (whose name means “gift of Artemis”).” and makes Artemis mean the thrower of the dart or the shooter”.[1] Some scholars[2] believe that the name. *arte. states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of pre-Hellenic origin. wild animals.[4] The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter. Gaulish Artio).[5] In the classical period of Greek mythology.Chapter 8 Artemis For other uses.Ancient Greek writers. Ionia. While connection with Anatolian names has Didrachm from Ephesus. a-te-miname Artemis are the Mycenaean Greek The name Artemis (noun. artamos. 8. all meaning “great.” thus Artemis “becomes identical with the great mother of Nature. Britomartis. virginity and protector of young girls. she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. and the twin sister of Apollo.tamis) to ἄρταμος. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt. featuring Artemis with a drawn bow and a quiver on her back on the reverse of the coin sian origin from *arta. was originally pre-Greek.[15] Artemis [16] For example according to Jablonski. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. “to shake. It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting. a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/.te. wilderness. P. feminine) is of unknown or un.[6] The deer and the cypress were sacred to her.[14] R. which was originally about Artemis (Arcadian epithet kallisto).[9] Babiniotis while accepting that the etymology is unknown. Artemis /ˈɑrtɨmɨs/ was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Artemis (Ancient Greek: Ἄρτεμις. 85 BCE. she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth. According to Charles An.e. In later Hellenistic times. c. as well as the story about Callisto.[12][13] the earliest attested forms of the . S. Mistress of Animals”.[9][10] e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin. “butcher”[17][18] or. 28 . i.. see Artemis (disambiguation). and lation Artemas of Xenophon.[8] The name could also be possibly related to Greek árktos "bear" (from PIE *h₂ŕ̥tḱos). bringing and relieving disease in women. written certain origin and etymology[7][8] although various ones in Linear B at Pylos. even as she was worshipped at Ephesus”.mis] in Classical Attic) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto.[11] this cult was a survival of very old totemic and shamanistic rituals and formed part of a larger bear cult found further afield in other Indo-European cultures (e. holy.

2. signed). The Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl. “uninjured”. asked him to grant her six wishes: to remain always a virgin.2 Childhood Artemis (on the left. to have a bow and arrow and a knee-length tunic so that she could hunt.e. to be the Phaesporia or Light Bringer. As she joined in love to the Aegis-bearing ruler. climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus. Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup. that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and that she was the twin sister of Apollo.[23] A poem of Callimachus to the goddess “who amuses herself on mountains with archery” imagines some charming vignettes: according to Callimachus. having been thrashed by Hera.2. to have sixty “daughters of Okeanos". to ἀρτεμής. She wished for no city dedicated to her. her husband. “the stainless maiden”. and for twenty Amnisides Nymphs as handmaidens to watch her dogs and bow while she rested. Louvre. at three years old. Theogony. All accounts agree. however. ca. delighting in arrows. and Kenneth McLeish suggested further that in quail form Leto would have given birth with as few birth-pains as a mother quail suffers when it lays an egg. —Hesiod. Artemis. all nine years of age. “safe”. A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii.[9][10][19] 8.1 Birth Apollo (left) and Artemis. Zeus. Briseis Painter. to have many names to set her apart from her brother Apollo. or Apollo. Apollo. An account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra firma (the mainland) or on an island. i. Brygos (potter. 470 BC.[22] The myths also differ as to whether Artemis was born first. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY 29 like Plato did in Cratylus.[24] In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates . and for the ability to help women in the pains of childbirth. Most stories depict Artemis as born first. 8. lines 918–920 (written in the 7th century BCE) 8. while sitting on the knee of her father. holding a lyre) from Myrina. Both of lovely shape like none of the heavenly gods. Hera was angry with Zeus. But the island of Delos (or Ortygia in the Homeric Hymn to Artemis) disobeyed Hera. to be her choir. dating to approximately 25 BC Various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother. becoming her mother’s mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo. “unharmed”.8. and Leto gave birth there. “pure”. artemḗs.2 Artemis in mythology Leto bore Apollon and Artemis. because he had impregnated Leto. but to rule the mountains. who.[20] The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth. 72 accounts for the island’s archaic name Ortygia[21] by asserting that Zeus transformed Leto into a quail (ortux) in order to prevent Hera from finding out his infidelity.2. Artemis at the islands known today as the Paximadia. with a deer) and Apollo (on the right.

seeing her naked in her sacred spring. the hunting dog. the god of the forest.4 Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon myth survive. Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis’ temple. Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs. Alphaeus sions.3 Intimacy of Aphrodite. as punishment for being with Aphrodite. In other versions. is turned into a girl by the goddess. which is sometimes merely seeing the virgin goddess naked. or even merely being a rival of Zeus for the affections of Semele. who was a late addition to Greek mythology during the Hellenistic period. Adonis had been related as a favorite 8. Alpheus.5 Adonis In some versions of the story of Adonis. but by Ares. goes to Alpheus. For this hubris he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. where Hephaestus and the Cyclops worked. Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than she. Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe. Callimachus tells[26] how Artemis spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress. sometimes boasting he is a better hunter than she. who. suspicious of his motives. Artemis killed Adonis for revenge. was in love with Artemis.6 Orion panions at Letrenoi. Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts. Okeanus’ daughters were filled with fear. In some vergod does not recognize her. but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. but. the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who. Lamar Ronald Lacey’s The Myth of Aktaion: Literary and Iconographic Studies. he is killed by Artemis. Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow. she covers her face with mud so that the river Orion was Artemis’ hunting companion. where the goddess and her attendant drink. Usually the dogs are his own. However. The details vary but at the core they involve a great hunter. in some surviving versions Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her. Therefore. death. particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother. either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her. In another story. Artemis. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot. and Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytus. won her heart. ARTEMIS tries to rape Artemis’ attendant Arethusa. Different tellings also diverge in the hunter’s transgression. Artemis Alphaea in Letrini. 8. the stag. Reading his sinful thoughts. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by In yet another version.2. Roman marble Bust of Artemis after Kephisodotos (Musei Capitolini). though many are fragmentary. 8. Gaia. Orion. who no longer recognize their master. Bouphagos.2. sees Artemis and thinks about raping her.[25] All of her companions remained virgins. and the moon. but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows. Artemis had interested many gods and men.2. Artemis killed Adonis to avenge Hippolytus’s but only her hunting companion. Apollo. As a virgin. Sipriotes is a boy.30 CHAPTER 8. how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Lipara. who had been a favorite of Artemis. Adonis was not killed by Artemis. Sometimes they are Artemis’ hounds. In later myths. who is with her com. who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. a river god. attempts to force himself on her. Rome. the son of the Titan Iapetos. and Artemis closely guarded her own chastity. while in others he is killed .8.[26] According to the standard modern text on the work.2. So he decides to capture her. to be a midwife. Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Pan.

8.2. ARTEMIS IN MYTHOLOGY

31

Diana and Callisto by Titian.

8.2.8 Callisto
Callisto was the daughter of Lycaon, King of Arcadia and
also was one of Artemis’s hunting attendants. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus apThe Death of Adonis, by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709 - Hermitage
peared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories
Museum.
Apollo, gained her confidence, then took advantage of
her (or raped her, according to Ovid). As a result of this
encounter she conceived a son, Arcas.
by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries Enraged, Hera or Artemis (some accounts say both)
to seduce Opis,[27] one of Artemis’ followers, and she changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but
kills him. In a version by Aratus,[28] Orion takes hold Zeus stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus placed
of Artemis’ robe and she kills him in self-defense.
Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of CalIn yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion. According to Hyginus[29] Artemis once loved Orion (in spite
of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos did), but was tricked into killing him by her
brother Apollo, who was “protective” of his sister’s maidenhood.

8.2.7

The Aloadae

listo the Bear as a constellation. Some stories say that he
placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears,
forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations.

8.2.9 Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis
Artemis punished Agamemnon after he killed a sacred
stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess. When the Greek fleet was
preparing at Aulis to depart for Troy to begin the Trojan
War, Artemis becalmed the winds. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis
was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then
snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer.
Various myths have been told around what happened after Artemis took her. Either she was brought to Tauros
and led the priests there, or became Artemis’ immortal
companion.[30]

These twin sons of Iphidemia and Poseidon, Otos and
Ephialtes, grew enormously at a young age. They were
aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless
they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae never
stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach
heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take
them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for
Artemis who captured a fine deer (or in another version 8.2.10 Niobe
of the story, she changed herself into a doe) and jumped
out between them. The Aloadae threw their spears and A Queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted
of her superiority to Leto because while she had fourteen
so mistakenly killed each other.

32

CHAPTER 8. ARTEMIS

children (Niobids), seven boys and seven girls, Leto had
only one of each. When Artemis and Apollo heard this
impiety, Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics,
and Artemis shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to
kill them, though according to some versions two of the
Niobids were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at
the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated
Niobe and her remaining children were turned to stone
by Artemis as they wept. The gods themselves entombed
them.

8.2.11

Chione

Chione was a princess of Pokis. She was beloved by two
gods, Hermes and Apollo, and boasted that she was prettier than Artemis because she made two gods fall in love
with her at once. Artemis was furious and killed Chione
with her arrow or struck her dumb by shooting off her
tongue. However, some versions of this myth say Apollo
and Hermes protected her from Artemis’ wrath.

8.2.12

Atalanta, Oeneus and the Meleagrids

Artemis saved the infant Atalanta from dying of exposure
after her father abandoned her. She sent a female bear to
suckle the baby, who was then raised by hunters. But
she later sent a bear to hurt Atalanta because people said Artemis pouring a libation, c. 460-450 BC.
Atalanta was a better hunter. This is in some stories.
Among other adventures, Atalanta participated in the
hunt for the Calydonian Boar, which Artemis had sent
to destroy Calydon because King Oeneus had forgotten
her at the harvest sacrifices. In the hunt, Atalanta drew
the first blood, and was awarded the prize of the skin.
She hung it in a sacred grove at Tegea as a dedication to
Artemis.
Meleager was a hero of Aetolia. King Oeneus had him
gather heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian
Boar. After the death of Meleager, Artemis turned
his grieving sisters, the Meleagrids into guineafowl that
Artemis loved very much.

8.2.13

Artemis. Iakhos later became an attendant of Demeter
and the leader of Eleusinian Mysteries.

8.2.14 Polyphonte
Polyphonte was a young woman who fled home preferring
the idea of a virginal life with Artemis to the conventional
life of marriage and children favoured by Aphrodite. As
a punishment Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have
children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and
Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of
Zeus. Ultimately the whole family were transformed into
birds and more specifically ill portents for mankind.[32]

Aura
8.2.15 Trojan War

In Nonnus Dionysiaca,[31] Aura was Greek goddess of
breezes and cool air, daughter of Lelantos and Periboia.
She was a virgin huntress, just like Artemis and proud of
her maidenhood. One day, she claimed that the body of
Artemis was too womanly and she doubted her virginity.
Artemis asked Nemesis for help to avenge her dignity and
caused the rape of Aura by Dionysus. Aura became a mad
and dangerous killer. When she bore twin sons, she ate
one of them while the other one, Iakhos, was saved by

Artemis may have been represented as a supporter of
Troy because her brother Apollo was the patron god of
the city and she herself was widely worshipped in western Anatolia in historical times. In the Iliad[33] she came
to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks
and Trojans engaged each other in conflict. Hera struck
Artemis on the ears with her own quiver, causing the arrows to fall out. As Artemis fled crying to Zeus, Leto

8.3. WORSHIP OF ARTEMIS
gathered up the bow and arrows.
Artemis played quite a large part in this war. Like her
mother and brother, who was widely worshiped at Troy,
Artemis took the side of the Trojans. At the Greek’s
journey to Troy, Artemis becalmed the sea and stopped
the journey until an oracle came and said they could win
the goddess’ heart by sacrificing Iphigenia, Agamemnon's
daughter. Agamemnon once promised the goddess he
would sacrifice the dearest thing to him, which was Iphigenia, but broke the promise. Other sources said he
boasted about his hunting ability and provoked the goddess’ anger. Artemis saved Iphigenia because of her bravery. In some versions of the myth, Artemis made Iphigenia her attendant or turned her into Hecate, goddess of
night, witchcraft, and the underworld.

33
the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron to serve the Goddess
for one year. During this time, the girls were known as
arktoi, or little she-bears. A myth explaining this servitude states that a bear had formed the habit of regularly
visiting the town of Brauron, and the people there fed it,
so that, over time, the bear became tame. A girl teased
the bear, and, in some versions of the myth, it killed her,
while, in other versions, it clawed out her eyes. Either
way, the girl’s brothers killed the bear, and Artemis was
enraged. She demanded that young girls “act the bear” at
her sanctuary in atonement for the bear’s death.

Virginal Artemis was worshipped as a fertility/childbirth
goddess in some places, assimilating Ilithyia, since, according to some myths, she assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin. During the Classical period in Athens,
Aeneas was helped by Artemis, Leto, and Apollo. Apollo she was identified with Hecate. Artemis also assimilated
found him wounded by Diomedes and lifted him to Caryatis (Carya).
heaven. There, the three of them secretly healed him in
a great chamber.

8.3.1 Epithets

8.3 Worship of Artemis

Roman Temple of Artemis in Jerash, Jordan, built during the
reign of Antoninus Pius.

Main article: Brauronia
Artemis, the goddess of forests and hills, was worshipped
throughout ancient Greece.[34] Her best known cults were
on the island of Delos (her birthplace), in Attica at
Brauron and Mounikhia (near Piraeus), and in Sparta.
She was often depicted in paintings and statues in a forest
setting, carrying a bow and arrows, and accompanied by
a deer.
The ancient Spartans used to sacrifice to her as one of
their patron goddesses before starting a new military campaign.
Athenian festivals in honor of Artemis included
Elaphebolia, Mounikhia, Kharisteria, and Brauronia.
The festival of Artemis Orthia was observed in Sparta.

Color reconstruction of a first century AD statue of Artemis found
in Pompeii. Reconstructed using analysis of trace pigments. It
was an imitation of Greek statues of the sixth century BC. Part
of Gods in Color.

As Aeginaea, she was worshiped in Sparta; the name
means either huntress of chamois, or the wielder of
the javelin (αἰγανέα).[35][36] She was worshipped at
Naupactus as Aetole; in her temple in that town there
was a statue of white marble representing her throwing a
javelin.[37] This “Aetolian Artemis” would not have been
introduced at Naupactus, anciently a place of Ozolian
Locris, until it was awarded to the Aetolians by Philip II
of Macedon. Strabo records another precinct of “Aetolian Artemos” at the head of the Adriatic.[38] As Agoraea
she was the protector of the agora.

Pre-pubescent and adolescent Athenian girls were sent to As Agrotera, she was especially associated as the pa-

It is. she and her nymphs escaped him by covering their faces. the reason why it was sacred for her. the feminine form of her brother Apollo’s solar epithet Phoebus.[47] • Kharisteria Festival on 6 of Boidromion (third month) to celebrate the victory of Marathon and also known as the Athenian “Thanksgiving”.4 Artemis in art • Festival of Artemis in Brauron. and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a chariot yoked to four deer. On the altar. she is shown in the shooting pose. This epithet means “willow-bound” from the Gr. honey and sesame-seeds. piling earth upon the altar steps. Homer used this title. Just before the time of the festival. or Alpheiusa (Gr. within the circle.[50] • Day 6 of Thargelion (eleventh month) the 'birthday' of the goddess. A goat was being sacrificed to her. while the seventh was Apollo’s. a quiver. As Potnia Theron.[44] 8. tall and slim. a town in Argolis. at Euboea. 8. As Kourotrophos. • Laphria. • In Orchomenus. willow) and desmos (δεσμός. a sanctuary was built for Artemis Hymnia where her festival was celebrated every year. with a sanctuary Artemis Amarysia in Attica. not until the next day that the sacrifice is offered.[43] Artemis Alphaea was associated with the wearing of masks.[46] • At the 16 of Metageitnio (second month on Athenian calendar). She was sometimes known as Cynthia.3. made from dough. young. A king rows.[48] • Day six of Elaphobolia (ninth month) festival of Artemis the Deer Huntress where she was offered cakes shaped like stags. Aphaea. a team of close by Sparta. or Ἀλφειοῦσα) was an epithet that Artemis derived from the river god Alpheius. who was said to have been in love with her. ARTEMIS tron goddess of hunters.[45] huntress. In Sparta the Artemis Lygodesma was worshipped. and is named Saron built a sanctuary for the goddess after accompanied by a hunting dog or stag.3. The procession started by setting the logs of wood around the altar.[52] with hunting boots. from her birthplace on Mount Cynthus on Delos. clothed in a girl’s short • Festival of Artemis Saronia. people sacrifice to Artemis and Hecate at deme of Erchia. a bow[53] and arArtemis in Trozeinos. 8.[41][42] and in Ortygia. they construct a smooth ascent to the altar. Alpheaea. She was sometimes identified by the name Phoebe. she was the nurse of youths. the plague when her bear was killed. lygos (λυγός. bond). Often. dressed in saffron robes and The oldest representations of Artemis in Greek Archaic played the bear to appease the goddess after she sent art portray her as Potnia Theron (“Queen of the Beasts”): a winged goddess holding a stag and leopard in her hands. largely because of the legend that while fleeing the advances of Alpheius. In 2007. where girls. Swiss and Greek archaeologists found the ruin of In Greek classical art she is usually portrayed as a maiden Artemis Amarysia Temple.2 Festivals the goddess saved his life when he went on hunting and swept by the wave and held a festival for her. she was the goddess of childbirth and midwives. or Amarynthia from a festival in her honor originally held at Amarynthus in Euboea. As Locheia.[40] It was under this name that she was worshiped at Letrini in Elis. is placed the driest of their wood. The willow tree appears in several ancient Greek myths and rituals. Ἀλφαῖα.[49] • Day 6 of 16 of Mounikhion (tenth month) a celebration of her as the goddess of nature and animal. This winged Artemis • Festival of Amarysia is a celebration to worship lingered in ex-votos as Artemis Orthia. a festival to celebrate skirt. When portrayed . aged between five and ten. The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis. a festival for Artemis in Patrai. Ἀλφεαία. In Athens Artemis was often associated with the local Aeginian goddess. however.34 CHAPTER 8. Greece. Artemis’ traditional mode of transportation (see below). each of them sixteen cubits long.[51] • A festival for Artemis Diktynna (of the net) in Hypsous. or sometimes a leopard and a lion. Sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron.[39] Alphaea.3 Modern Artemis was born at the sixth day. she was the patron of wild animals.

Croatia). found at Issa (Vis.[57] women. The arrows of Artemis could also bring sud• Hunting dog den death and disease to girls and women. ARTEMIS IN ART 35 The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Artemis wore a long robe and some. In later cult.[54] to hunt even lions. Her cult in Aetolia. 2007. Heracles begged Artemis for forgiveness and promised to return According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis.4. she fell in love with these creatures and held them sacred. and lyre Although quite seldom. as her epithet was Khryseher wrath.5 million. while Artemis with a fishing spear [56] with her cult as a patron goddess of fishing. a Roman era bronze sculpture of Artemis and the Stag was sold at Sotheby’s auction house Deer were the only animals held sacred to Artemis herin New York state by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery for self. as the one she asked from her father. Deer were also the first animals she captured.these dogs were able moon. shining. The bow of Artemis Artemis got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Aralso became the witness of Callisto’s oath of her virgin. The bridles of her chariot were also made of gold.[55] • Spears. the bow became the symbol of waxing reddish ones. three ity. “of the Golden Shaft”. Artemis only ever • Chariots brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time.morphosis.4. con• Bow and arrow sisted in catching the Cerynitian Hind alive. Pan gave Artemis two black-and-white dogs. Artemis is ofbringing goddess whose arrows fell young maidens and ten portrayed with a lyre. Artemis got her bow and arrow for the first time from The Kyklopes. the Artemis Aetolian. Artemis was sometimes represented in Classical art with Fauna the crown of the crescent moon. • Deer On June 7.[58] lakatos. Artemis is sometimes portrayed with a hunting spear.As a goddess of maiden dances and songs. On seeing a deer larger than a bull with horns $25.cadia. and Iokheira (Showered by Arrows). Fourth century Praxitelean bronze head of a goddess wearing a lunate crown. Her darker side is revealed in some vase paintings.1 Attributes Khrysokeroi and harnessed them to her chariot. However. times a veil covered her head. The description about Artemis’ spear can be found in Ovid’s Metaconnected as a moon goddess. nets. Pan also gave Artemis seven bitches of the finest Arcadian race.8. and one spotted one . where she is shown as the death.[55] The third labour of Heracles. such as the daughters of Niobe. She caught five golden horned deer called Elaphoi 8. she had it alive. Artemis’ chariot was made of gold and was pulled by four golden horned deer (Elaphoi Khrysokeroi). commanded by Eurystheus. showed her with a hunting spear. such as also found on Luna and others.[59] . Artemis forgave him but targeted Eurystheus for golden bow and arrows.

In honor of Artemis’ skill. Flora Palm and Cypress were issued to be her birthplace. shout• Buzzard hawk ing “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”[67] Of the 121 columns of her temple. It was probably the best known center of her worship except for Delos. fragments. Oineus and Adonis were both killed by Artemis’ boar. a lunar crater. jealously rioted in her defense. the Artemis Chasma and the Artemis Corona have all been named for her. Turkey. only one composite. in payment for the bear’s blood. Other plants sacred to Artemis are Amaranth and Asphodel. A bear was tamed by Artemis and introduced to the people of Athens. tion. They touched it and played with it until one day a group of girls poked the bear until it attacked them. They have been variously interpreted as multiple accessory breasts. akin to the Phrygian goddess Cybele.[63] or even bull testes. metalsmiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. Every year a girl between five and ten years of age was sent to Artemis’ temple at Brauron. Meleagor.[60] • Boar The boar is one of the favorite animals of the hunters. located in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile.[66] In Acts of the Apostles.5 Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus Main article: Temple of Artemis At Ephesus in Ionia. 1st century AD (Ephesus Archaeological Museum) Artemis felt pity for the Meleagrids as they mourned for their lost brother.[64][65] Excavation at the site of the Artemision in 1987-88 identified a multitude of 8. The Byzantine writer Suidos relayed the legend in Arktos e Brauroniois. roads.[68] 8. The rest were used for making churches.[62] 8. The Athenians consulted an oracle to understand how to end the plague. made up of Hawks were the favored birds of many of the gods. still stands as a marker of the temple’s locaArtemis included. so Artemis sent a plague in revenge. in an ancient sanctuary where her cult image depicted the “Lady of Ephesus” adorned with multiple rounded breast-like protuberances on her chest. grapes.7 See also • Artemisia • Diana (mythology) . no Athenian virgin should be allowed to marry until she had served Artemis in her temple ('played the bear for the goddess’). Artemis is the acronym for “Architectures de bolometres pour des Telescopes a grand champ de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol”. The oracle suggested that. as eggs.36 CHAPTER 8. Ephesian Guinea Fowl to be her favorite animals. her temple became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. acorns. they sacrificed it to her. so she transformed them into tear-shaped amber beads that had adorned the ancient wooden xoanon. and also hard to tame. ARTEMIS • Bear The sacrifice of a bear for Artemis started with the Brauron cult. and forts.[61] • Guinea fowl The Artemis of Ephesus. 105 Artemis. A brother of one of the girls killed the bear. a large bolometer camera in the submillimeter range that was installed in 2010 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX).6 Artemis in astronomy A minor planet. There the Lady whom the Ionians associated with Artemis through interpretatio graeca was worshiped primarily as a mother goddess.

§ 2. Ἂρτεμις. [26] Callimachus. [6] “Her proper sphere is the earth. Metamorphoses. Ritual. Scott. Scott. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Retrieved 15 March 2015. [11] Michaël Ripinsky-Naxon. A Classical dictionary. p.(genitive). [32] Antoninus Liberalis. blessed Leto. “In Search of Anatolian Apollo”. Boston. (1963:157-271) p. Liddell. London: Longmans. her in Ortygia. Myth. Ann. 213–214. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. Hesperia Supplements 33 (2004:243-257) p. [28] Aratus. K. “FAVOUR OF ARTEMIS : Greek mythology”. the etymology Ortygia. [3] Rose. p. Henry George.com. [30] Aaron J. 38. William. Hymn III to Artemis 46 [27] “Another name for Artemis herself”. 142. “Isle of Quail”. iii. [4] Homer. [29] Hyginus. the lord Apollon and Artemis who delights in arrows. Liddell. [7] “Artemis”. NY: State University of New York Press. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. s. "Άρτεμις". [5] “Artemis”. however. pp. A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. Iliad xxi 470 f. 312. 251: Artemis. Restelli. [22] Kenneth McLeish. [15] . Oxford Classical Dictionary. Robert. 1993).34. 251ff. Word study tool of ancient languages.8 References and sources [17] ἄρταμος. . Leto’s birth-pangs. Robert. “The Mycenaean Greek Vocabulary” Glotta. Christidis. 2009. [36] Schmitz. Poeticon astronomicon. is discussed pp. Leonhard (1867). “Aeginaea”. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1.” says the Homeric Hymn. 638 [10] Anthon. [21] Or as a separate island birthplace of Artemis— “Rejoice. C. “Further remarks on A-TE-MI-TO and A-TIMI-TE”. Karl Kerenyi observes. .” Hammond. • Artemas • Bendis 8.v. H. Robert. Georgios (2005). pp. [19] ἀρτεμής. p. Oswyn Murray (1 January 2009). Iliad 21. p. [31] Aura does not appear elsewhere in surviving literature and appears to have been offered no cult. Geburtstag (Studies in Indo-European language and culture). are graphically depicted by ancient sources. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor (Albany. is not supported by modern scholars. W. 112. 32. Guthrie. de Gruyter. The Gods of the Greeks (1951:204). Online Etymology Dictionary. 215. C.505-13. T. 56–. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 209–210. Infobase Publishing. Retrieved 2012-04-26. for you bare glorious children. [14] John Chadwick and Lydia Baumbach. Scott. as Apollo’s inseparable twin. Kadmos 11 :125-28. a-te-mi-to. J. “Artemis”. Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. 210. quoting the Greek poet Istrus. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Aevum 37 :307. “A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE”. [12] Campanile. New York: Harper & Brothers. 176f. Oxford Classical Dictionary. 99. noted in this context by Brown 2004:252. [35] Pausanias. [34] “. x. Brown. and Religion. Henry George. a goddess universally worshiped in historical Greece. Brill. [20] Hammond. Children of the Gods pp 33f. Palaeolexicon. forests and hills. 286. 126. . Athens: Λεξικολογίας. In Smith. Scuola Pisa 28 :305. 21 [33] Homer.8. [24] Hymn Around Artemis’ Childhood [25] On-line English translation. ISBN 978-1-4381-1020-2. The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera during the Hellenistic Period (Leiden) 1961:166. and him in rocky Delos. 26. Charles (1855). 41. Liddell. [23] Iliad xxi. της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. where wild beasts are plentiful” Hammond and Scullard (editors). p. Beacon 1955. 597-598. W. but in all likelihood pre-Hellenic.3. [2] David Sacks. A Handbook of Greek Mythology. The Greeks and Their Gods./4. 1970) 126. Andrew (1887). References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. Etyma Graeca. Green and Co. Dutton 1959. [13] Edwin L. 1994. Immerwahr. § 6. [18] Ἄρτεμις. REFERENCES AND SOURCES 37 • Janus [16] Indogermanica et Caucasica: Festschrift fur Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. Kadmos 9 1970:42-47.470 ff). Souvinous. 1995. p. Henry George. Theoi. pp. 14. The Book People. [8] Babiniotis. p. and specifically the uncultivated parts. Λεξικό Κέντρο [9] Lang. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Haydock.8. [37] Pausanias. Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. on Google books. Houwink ten Cate. ii. Atsma.

2007-07-24.. ARTEMIS [59] “Pack”. August 21. (Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan) Athena-Artemis [49] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. The Gods of the Greeks • Seppo Telenius (2005) 2006. [47] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”.9 on-line text).” (Homeric Hymn to Artemis).com. New York Times. “And how often goddess.com. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. William Wayte) • Fischer-Hansen T. Retrieved 2011-01-28. [64] “Diana of Ephesus: Keeping Abreast with Iconography” (see footnote 1). 1951.com.com. The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: Supplementary Papers. Brill. Winterscapes. [43] Scholiast on Pindar's Pythian Odes ii. The Greek Myths (Penguin) • Karl Kerenyi.com. p. William Smith. “Terracotta Masks”. 2007-07-24. 187. LLD. Geographica viii. Alberti’s Window.150 images of Artemis . Artemis. E. Sources • Walter Burkert. February 5th. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) • Robert Graves (1955) 1960. [57] “Dance”. blog by Monica Bowen. Retrieved 2011-0128. p. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Hymn 3 to Artemis). a white horse is still sacrificed to him. Winterscapes. Collegium Hyperboreum and Museum Tusculanum Press. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 2011 [42] Strabo. Description of Greece vi. Retrieved 2013-03-25.693. where her nymph’s is of horn. 12. 1985. [58] “Kerynitian”. [62] “Plants”. Poulsen B. • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. England: Macmillan Publishers.blogspot. 172. Winterscapes.1. Passionateabouthistory. 8. and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid.. indeed.9 External links • Theoi Project. [51] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. 2007-07-24. Marindin. v. [39] Bremmer Jan N. [41] Pausanias. Retrieved 2011-01-28. London. Leonhard (1867). Nemean Odes i.com. [46] “SARON. [68] “APEX . § 5 CHAPTER 8. (eds. [48] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. [67] Acts 19:28. 133. Retrieved 2011-01-28. Metamorphoses 1.com.org. Retrieved 2009-03-19. Winterscapes. Greek Mythology Index”. asks Callimachus for whom it is a Cydonian bow that the Cyclopes make for her (Callimachus. [56] “Spears”. 343 [65] “In Search of Diana of Ephesus”. (2008) Greek Religion and Culture. p. images from classical art. Mythindex. G. 2009 • Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1. 2010-01-11. Apex-telescope. Morris [44] Dickins. [50] “Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar”. (Strabo. 2007-07-24.38 [38] “Among the Heneti certain honours have been decreed to Diomedes. 1994. “Passionate about History: Search continues for temple of Artemis Amarysia”. Boston: Little. [63] “Ancient Art and Artemis: Toward Explaining the Polymastic Nature of the Figurine” by Andrew E. In William Smith. 3 [66] “Potnia Aswia: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion” by Sarah P. Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (1929). Netherlands.Artemis”. [45] mharrsch (2007-11-04). and. Copenhagen. G. information on Artemis from original Greek and Roman sources. 2007-07-24. [61] “Animals”. Retrieved 2011-01-28. [54] “Bow”. didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?". “Alphaea”. 22. [55] “Chariot”. [40] Schmitz. Hill Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 1992. and two precincts are still to be seen — one of them sacred to the Argive Hera and the other to the Aetolian Artemis. [53] Greek poets could not decide whether her bow was silver or gold: “Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she draws her golden bow. [52] Homer portrayed Artemis as girlish in the Iliad.) From Artemis to Diana: the goddess of man and beast. p. Winterscapes. Brown and Company. [60] “Cult”. the Bible and the Ancient Near East.

go on. beheld her [Medea] as she fled distraught.1 Names Apollonius of Rhodes. it is likely connected to the word selas (σέλας). and thus spake to her own heart: 'Not I alone then stray to the Latmian cave. is called Phoebus (“bright”). and fiercely exulted over her. but if the name is Mount Latmus:[15] of Greek origin. Well. the moon. fraught with many sighs. Pan. And now thou thyself too hast part in a like mad passion.”[9] Here Euryphaëssa (“wideIn Greek mythology. nor do I alone burn with love for fair Endymion. rising Selene was also called Mene. including Zeus.[1] Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate. and steel thy heart. Selene was often identified with Artemis.”[16] The eternally sleeping Endymion was proverbial. the Titaness mother of Leto and Asteria. meaning “light”.1 Endymion Selene is best known for her affair with the beautiful mortal Endymion. the sun-god Hyperion espoused his sister Theia. for passionate love drew down the immortal stainless Queen of Night. “Selene watched him from on high. which tells of Selene’s “mad passion” and her visiting the “fair Endymion” in a cave on The etymology of Selene is uncertain. Several lovers are attributed to her in various myths.”[8] Quintus Smyrnaeus' The Fall of Troy tells that. even the deeds dear to thee. oft times with thoughts of love have I been driven away by thy crafty spells. and Hecate. and Eos. Selene (/sɨˈliːni/. Helios.[4] The original Phoebe of Greek mythology is Selene’s aunt. from her identification with Artemis. who bare him lovely children. and sister of the sun-god Helios. from his identification with Apollo. The Homeric Hymn to Helios follows this tradition: “Hysee Selene (disambiguation). was identified with Apollo. and the lunar month.[17] but exactly how this eternal sleep came 39 .[5] from a far land. Greek Σελήνη [10] [selɛ̌ ːnɛː] 'moon'.[6] The word men (feminine mene). in order that in the darkness of night thou mightest work thy sorcery at ease.' " 9. who gave birth to “great Helios and clear Selene and Eos who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven. Selene. rosy-armed Eos and rich-tressed Selene and tireless Helios. while Endymion slept in his cave beside his cattle. his own sister.[3] “And the Titanian goddess. wise though thou be. to take up thy burden of pain.[13] The late 7th-century – early 6th-century BC poet Sappho apparently mentioned Selene and Endymion. and grandmother of Apollo. It was also the name of the Phrygian moon-god Men. and slid from heaven to earth. perion wedded glorious Euryphaëssa. the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia. goddess of the dawn. She is shining”) is probably an epithet of Theia.[14] However. is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe (feminine form).[2] Other accounts make Selene the daughter of the Titan Pallas[11] or of Helios.3 Lovers and offspring 9. although only Selene was regarded as the personification of the moon itself. meant the moon. Her Roman equivalent is Luna. the first direct account comes from the third-century BC Argonautica of 9.3.Chapter 9 Selene This article is about the Greek goddess. In the Theogony. much as her brother. For other uses. Artemis.2 Origin The usual account of Selene’s origin is given by Hesiod. and all three were regarded as lunar goddesses. Also from Artemis. In classical times. She drives her moon chariot across the heavens.[12] Just as Helios. and the mortal Endymion.[7] 9. Selene was sometimes called “Cynthia”. and some god of affliction has given thee Jason to be thy grievous woe.) is the goddess of the moon.

with Selene because of the similarity of their names.[34] 9. goddesses of the seasons. so that “she might kiss him while sleeping”.[22] Nonnus has Selene and Endymion as the parents of the beautiful Narcissus. and he chose to sleep for ever.[31] Smyrnaeus describes them as the four handmaidens of Hera.2 Others According to the Homeric Hymn to Selene.7. but in other accounts.[18] A scholiast on Apollonius says that. states: “They say that the Lion of Nemea fell from the moon”. including Ovid’s Metamorphoses.40 CHAPTER 9. and Zeus allowed him to choose what he would.[23] According to Virgil.[29] other accounts have Selene involved in some way in its birth or rearing. asked Zeus to grant him eternal sleep. having fallen in love with Hera. the Nemean Lion was born to Echidna and raised by Hera.”[30] Quintus Smyrnaeus makes Helios and Selene (the Sun and Moon) the parents of the Horae. who drives his char- . Endymion and Selene. Apollodorus says that because of Endymion’s “surpassing beauty.[24] “exceeding lovely amongst the deathless gods”. shown with her characteristic attributes of lunate crown and billowing veil (velificatio) [35] Like her brother Helios. Chiswick House. On Animals 12.[20] Cicero seems to make Selene responsible for Endymion’s sleep. the Sun god.[21] From Pausanias we hear that Selene was supposed to have had by Endymion fifty daughters. remaining deathless and ageless”.3. who possibly represented the fifty lunar months of the Olympiad. Narcissus was the son of Cephissus and Liriope. who seduced her with a “snowy bribe of wool”. the Moon fell in love with him. and quotes Epimenides as saying: “For I am sprung from fair-tressed Selene the Moon. and their parents are Zeus and Themis. Endymion.[26] Selene and Zeus were also supposed by some to be the parents of Nemea. but this may be the result of confusing Semele.[25] Alcman makes Ersa (“dew”).[33] Selene was also said to be the mother of the legendary Greek poet Musaeus. according to Epimenides. and brought him forth at the bidding of Queen Hera. and Zeus granted him the right to choose when he would die. who in a fearful shudder shook off the savage lion in Nemea. the goddess bore Zeus a daughter. Endymion was the son of Aethlius (a son of Zeus). England about and what role. Selene may have had in it is unclear. Selene also had a tryst with the great god Pan. where Heracles slew the Nemean Lion. the daughter of Selene and Zeus. but in most accounts their number is three. Pandia (“all-brightness”).[32] Scholia on Virgil add that the god wrapped himself in a sheepskin.[19] However. SELENE 9. the eponymous nymph of Nemea. the usual mother of Dionysus.4 The moon chariot Detail of a sarcophagus depicting Endymion and Selene. and where the Nemean Games were held. Aelian.[27] Some accounts also make Selene and Zeus the parents of Dionysus. if any.[28] Whereas for Hesiod. by Sebastiano Ricci (1713). According to the Catalogue of Women.

9. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men. a lover of horses and of vigilance.[52] There are indications of a similar framing by Selene and Helios of the birth of Pandora on the base of the Athena Parthenos.5 Depictions Surviving descriptions of Selene’s physical appearance and character.[47] In antiquity. sometimes. into the sea. Selene is also said to drive across the heavens. coins.[37] The earliest known depiction of Selene driving a chariot is inside an early 5th century BC red-figure cup attributed to the Brygos Painter. Both the Hymn to Helios and the Hymn to Selene use the word εὐπλόκαμος. holding a billowing veil forming a crescent over her head.[56] Selene’s head is sometimes surrounded by a nimbus.[41] described as “snow-white” by Ovid. showing Selene plunging her chariot. vase paintings. Selene. CULT 41 iot across the sky each day. or the cusps of a crescent moon protrude.[46] The Orphic Hymns give Selene horns and a torch.[53] Selene also appears on horseback as part of the Gigantomachy frieze of the Pergamon Altar. glows with the light of her golden crown. and Epimenides uses the epithet “lovely-haired”. and donned her far-gleaming raiment.[49] In later art. Selene’s usually has two. descends from her chariot [59] Paired with her brother Helios. at eventime in the mid-month: then her great orbit is full and then her beams shine brightest as she increases. provides a description: The air. with Helios driving his beautiful woman with a pale face and long.[39] for Pindar it was golden. with long wings and a golden diadem. unlit before. often accompanied by stars.[57] In later second and third century AD Roman funerary art.6. or ram).[45] Aeschylus calls Selene “the eye of night”.[42] or was drawn by oxen or bulls.[38] Though the moon chariot is often described as being silver.[54] Selene is commonly depicted with a crescent moon. are scant. pediment of the Parthenon. shining team.[55] Often a crescent moon rests on her brow. “bright”. Three early sources mention Selene’s hair. artistic representations of Selene included sculptural reliefs. Selene is generally depicted as a depicting the birth of Athena. like other celestial divinities.[40] And while the sun chariot has four horses. or from behind her head or shoulders. or riding sidesaddle on horseback (or sometimes on an ox or bull.[58] As frequently depicted on Roman sarcophagi. such as Helios.[50] Pausanias. instead of a crescent. and Selene and hair. a lunar disc is used.[48] In red-figure pottery before the early 5th century BC. from her head. whensoever bright Selene having bathed her lovely body in the waters of Ocean. where the two framed a scene In post-Renaissance art. Selene rides across the heavens. and Nyx (“night”). she is depicted only as a bust. drawn by two winged horses. Selene adorned the east to join her lover.[44] The Hymn to Selene describes the goddess as very beautiful. and gems. describing her as “all-seeing”. we learn that Selene and Helios also framed the birth of Aphrodite on the base of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. who slumbers at her feet. . horn-like. “all-wise”.[51] From oxen or a pair of horses. and a “foe of strife” who “giv’st to Nature’s works their destin'd end”.[43] Statue of Luna 9. Eos. She is usually portrayed either driving a chariot.[36] The Hymn to Selene. and from the Hellenistic period onwards. and her rays beam clear. driving a silver chariot pulled either by a yoke of her chariot descending into the sea on the right. apart from those which would apply to the moon itself. variously translated as “rich”. calling her “white-armed” and “benevolent”. she is sometimes pictured with a torch. lustrous black chariot rising from the ocean on the left. or in profile against a lunar disk. or “beautiful haired”. the love of Selene for Endymion and his eternal sleep was a popular subject for artists. drives on her long-maned horses at full speed. mule. and yoked her strong-necked.

38.28 ff.. p. Theogony 240–264).10. Hammond. 786 ff. Nicomachean Ethics 10.7.54 ff. pp. [8] Hesiod. Plato.553 ff. Lucian Aphrodite and Selene. Cashford..7. 970–971. discussing Selene’s role. each of whom bore a son to Heracles (Apollodorus. p.38. it contained statues of Pasiphaë and Helios.6 Cult Moon figures are found on Cretan rings and gems (perhaps indicating a Minoan moon cult).. p. 46. 275. . There are other accounts of fifty daughters in Greek mythology. Nonnus. Hammond. saying that “Endymion was carried up by Zeus to heaven. Fabulae Preface. 42. “SELENE”. there was relatively little worship of Selene. Propertius.. Tusculan Disputations 1. 196–197. pp. 5. 13.7. and likely enough (given its role in some quarters as a punishment. 96. 64. p.[20] Apollodorus. 48. 197... 46.8. 7.667 ff. [16] Quintus Smyrnaeus. 428–429. called the Pandia.92. pp. brated on the full-moon and may have been associated [21] Cicero. Dionysiaca 2. [3] Kerenyi. Originally Pandia may have been an epithet of Selene. Amores.[64] and an Athenian festival. 196–197. 34. p. For example see Ovid. 219–221. 281 [15] Apollonius of Rhodes. 35. Phaedo.59 ff. “Selene”. “Endymion” p.[65] was perhaps cele. [5] Pannen.4. Morford. [23] Nonnus. p.581 ff. Kerenyi. See also Apollodorus 1.325 ff. one of the sun and the other of the moon. Metamorphoses 3.. described by Pausanias. 1. Hyginus. 204– 205. Ovid.” [22] Pausanias. [19] Gantz. 970– 971.. 64. Fabulae 271.. 72c.. Theocritus. “Selene”. 5.191.. Dionysiaca 48. Davidson. lines 58–62. Smith. 48. Mayerson p. Hard. 10..8).. [9] Hymn to Helios (31) 4–7. Smith. 41. Tusculan Disputations 1.. and his love for Hera).5.. [17] Frazer’s note to Apollodorus. The Phoenician Women 175 ff. Seyffert. from the heads of which projected the rays of the sun and the horns of the crescent moon. p. Selene from an altar piece 9. Heroides 15.50. 2. 422 ff.[63] but by at least the time of the late Homeric Hymn.125 ff. and that because of this desire he was thrown out and went down to Hades”. usually considered to be a festival for Zeus.516 ff. Nonnus. [18] Catalogue of Women. “SELENE” pp. Carmina 66.[60] An oracular sanctuary existed near Thalamai in Laconia. fragment 10. pp. West 2003.7.379 ff. 4. p. 61.213 ff. 4. [10] Morford. p. Theogony 371 ff. Ovid. [12] Euripides. folklore. 167. 99–100.” Gantz. 64. [2] Smith.50. the Nereids were fifty sea nymphs born to Nereus and Doris (Hesiod. p. Weigal. p.13: “See how the moon does her 9.1.5. Here Pasiphaë is used as an epithet of Selene. pp. 196–197.[61] Pausanias also described seeing two stone images in the market-place of Elis. 57. Argonautica 4. p. p..50. Cicero. she was not always a part of the story.57. Hyginus. Pandia (or Pandia Selene) may have personified the full moon.5. 14. “Selene”. pp. p.266 ff. Seneca. 213.. and drown'd in dewy sleep. 2. Hammond. Elegies 2. and despite the later worship of the Phrygian moongod Men. See also with Selene. and Thespius had fifty daughters. 1.15. Most.2. 18.4. [24] Fairbanks. this time attributed to the Great Ehoiai.195 ff. Morford.342.8. pp. instead of referring to the daughter of Helios and wife of Minos. 219–220.89 ff.89 ff.. but apart from the role played by the moon itself in magic. says that “no source claims that the sleep was her idea..42 CHAPTER 9. 970–971. [11] Hymn to Hermes (4). pp. Argonautica 8. Dionysiaca 44. p..7 Notes [1] Hard.2. Aristotle. SELENE [7] Kerenyi. and poetry. [4] Morford. see Most. note 61 p.237 ff.. 3. 162. 215.1. 137. 1. but that he was seized by desire for Hera and was deceived by the phantom of a cloud.582 ff.[62] [13] Catullus. [6] Smith. fragment 198. The same scholiast gives another story involving Endymion’s love for Hera. Valerius Flaccus. Strabo.[66] Ovid. Phaedra 309 ff. Heroides 15.92. [14] This is according to a scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes 4. “SELENE” pp. see Campbell. “Selene” Endymion keep / In night conceal'd. Pandia had become a daughter of Zeus and Selene.

pp. [51] Neils. For the close association between the crescent moon and horns see Cashford. “SELENE”. p. 135 AD ). 415. [54] Thomas. see Hurwit. p. Dionysiaca 7. 346 n. [37] Hymn to Selene (32) 5–14.. fragment A77 (Scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes 1.373–374. 442–443. two in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (c. p. [28] Cook. 63.g. p. 160 AD and c. 22. Hymn to Selene. p. see Robertson. 196. the goddess on the right could be Nyx or Eos. Theocritus. LIMC Mithras 113. Hansen. p. Mitchell. pp. fragments 48. see Robertson. p. Luna 21. pp. Statius. p.19–20. 49 (Edmonds.8.336 ff. 1. 104–105. Theogony 327 [30] Cook. p. 196. Fasti 4. for an example of a gem see the British Museum 1923. 457 note. p. West 2003. Fabulae 30. Olympian 3. [52] Robertson.” Cook p. (1903) p. Valerius Flaccus. 96. LIMC Selene. 970–971. Fasti 4. 336 ff. 47–48. in this case the Judgement of Paris.408 ff. Compare with Pseudo-Plutarch. Martin 1992. Luna 7. p. p.19–20. The Suppliant Women. 220 AD). see Allen. [39] Grimal. Quintus Smyrnaeus. Hercules Furens 83 ff. 243 Fragment 6 (Obbink.244. 34. LIMC Selene. p. 96. [59] Examples.0401.498) pp.. Ovid.0401. 271. Luna 19. Georgics 3. 2. [53] Morris.9.199. For Selene driving another pair of winged horses see Zschietzschmann.15. 23. Luna 15. [35] Stefania Sorrenti. 12. . Argonautica 5. Hammond. R. 990–991. Dionysiaca 44. 46. 732. [6] "χρυσέου". p. Burkert 1972. LIMC Selene. 221. [46] Aeschylus. Luna 9.Herc. 5.191. “Selene” p. Luna 35. Luna 4. Aelian.405 ff. p. p. 79. 178–179.185 ff. 48.391–93. Cook p. Either Selene or her daughter may have been connected to the Athenian festival Pandia. 236–237. Thebaid 1. «L'Erma» di Bretschneider. Hyginus. For the use of “golden” in reference to the moon. 111–112. Metamorphoses 2. Nonnus. 370. Zschietzschmann.109–110. p.199. p. 970–971. 65. figs. 84–85). Martin 1981. [56] British Museum 1923. p.7. Seneca. pp. “Les représentations figurées de Jupiter Dolichénien à Rome. 5.” in La terra sigillata tardo-italica decorata del Museo nazionale romano.3. p. instead of being her daughter. 64. (32) 18. [29] Hesiod. but see Hyginus. De pietate P. LIMC Selene. pp. XII. Martin 1981.11. 5. Republic 2. [58] Sorabella. Philodemus. 177–179. [45] “Winged": Hymn to Selene. 733. The same pair also appear on the North Metopes of the Parthenon. [43] Hammond. Graves. Pausanias. Euripides. p. p. the eponymous hero of the Antiochid phylē. [31] Hammond. “Selene”. [50] Savignoni. [34] Plato. [44] Evelyn-White.8. “White-armed": Hymn to Selene. LIMC Selene. 1999). with Selene this time entering the sea on horseback. 175. Luna 61. West 1983. [57] Parisinou. 353. “Benevolent": Allen.. 43 [41] Kerenyi. 456. p. p. “Selene”. Hard. 353).17. “Pandia was originally an epithet of Selene”. p. 36. 270–271. (32) 1 (a winged Selene seems to be unique to this Hymn. 970–971. pp. Seven against Thebes 390. [15] "ΠανδείηΝ". Pausanias. pp. This is the usual interpretation. p. LIMC Selene. Cohen. Luna 10. For another example of the framing of a scene. Murray (1892) p. 2. 310 AD). pp.364e. [27] Cook. [55] Savignoni. [48] For an example of Selene depicted on a coin see British Museum. “SELENE”. 156–157. calls the confusion “frequent”. among many others. 48. Hymn to Helios (31) 6. pp. 353. 456–457. [26] Alcman. [36] Pindar. 272. [40] Pindar. 94–95. 23. [33] Gantz.373–374. see LIMC Selene. p. pp. p. Allen. 415. [18] "Πρόφρον". Kerenyi. 70. pp. Morford. 19 describes Pandia as an “obscure figure [who] featured in an Attic genealogy: she was the wife of Antiochos. 3. which has the Nemean Lion created from a chest filled with foam. [42] Ovid. says that Pandia was “elsewhere unknown as a daughter of Selene”. 47. 346 n. 2. LIMC Selene. Morford. for images see Sorabella. 46: “this is really no more than an allegorical fancy referring to the heavy dew-fall associated with clear moonlit nights”. p. Burkert 1972. pp.4 (PDF). 92. NOTES [25] Hymn to Selene (32) 15–16. p. [38] Cohen. LIMC Selene. and one in Palazzo Doria Pamphilj Rome (c.7248. 12. see: Allen. p.7. 256. LIMC Selene. Rudin. 170. Hard. p. [47] Orphic Hymns 8. Vol. p. “SELENE”. Grimal. For an example of Selene driving the less usual four horses see Morford.214 ff. Pausanias.163 ff. [49] Cohen. Hard. 25. 10. 11.3 has Asopus as the father of Nemea. 732 says that it seems probable that. 87. include sarcophagi in the Capitoline Museum in Rome (c. On Animals. Walters. LIMC Selene. Idyll 2. p. 1-7. Fabulae Preface.. Obbink. Palagia. (32) 17. Luna 2. On Rivers 18. see also Anaxagoras.11.. p. 255. p. 123 c. Gantz. Nonnus. 157. Olympian 3. Cook p. [1] "τανυσίπτερον"). pp. Smith. e. [32] Virgil. For an image of Selene driving cattle. Morford. Luna 34.. but some have suggested that instead of Selene. 208 ff. p.

. p. ISBN 3705204246.v. Harpers & Brothers. William Heinemann. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge. 970–971. 2006. ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. • Corelis. Translation by A. 1912. The Library. Macmillan. London. Lexica Segueriana s. Evelyn-White. Immanuel. Kessinger Publishing. Walter (1991). Sikes.26. “SELENE” pp. ISBN 9780802093257. edited. 1938. ISBN 9781444334173. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. edited by Whitney J. • Edmonds. Roscher. translated by H. Cambridge. in 2 Volumes. p. 9. Basic Books. Vol. The Moon: Myth and Image. 21. Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik. E. Roman Erotic Elegy: Selections from Tibullus. Universität Salzburg. Jules. F. [62] Pausanias. Appleton–Century Company. MA. Aelian: On the Characteristics of Animals. • Euripides. [65] Parker 2005. Scholfield. 138. p. with an English translation by R. [63] Willetts. ISBN 978-0674539181. Harvard University Press. Jon. The Homeric Hymns. Anecdota Graeca: Lexica Segueriana. Photius. • Aristotle. London. 2007. Online version at openlibrary. “Pandia”. MA. Cambridge University Press 1914. 178– 179. Willets. apparatus criticus. MA. SELENE [60] Hammond. Scholiast on Demosthenes.B. D. Agis 9. • Fairbanks. Cambridge. Apud G. • Campbell. notes. London. Harvard University Press. 1996. 447. 1996. [66] Robertson. translated by E. ISBN 9780674991576. Arthur Bernard. P. F. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Argonautica. Greek Religion. John Wiley & Sons. and Sulpicia. Random House. Oates and Eugene O'Neill.v. 1995. E.org • Aelian. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations Part Two. Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion. Harvard University Press. Jr. Sappho and Alcaeus. D. New York. ISBN 9780892369423. 1888. Propertius. University of Toronto Press. 2. James. Ovid. p. [61] Plutarch. London. 2003. The Phoenissae.Harvard University Press.R. no. p. MA. 2004. William Heinemann Ltd.39a. Heinemann. John Maxwell. . Smithers. ISBN 9780766189409. Coleridge. ed. ISBN 978-0631156246.1. Walter (1972). Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations. p. Beth. 142. edited by Daniel Ogden. “Selene”. • Bekker. William Heinemann Ltd. • Allen. Apollodorus. The Mythology of Greece and Rome.. 1922. 292). Πάνδια. 3. 100. Getty Publications. • Burkert. translated by C. publishers. p. 1904. Nauckium.24. Rackham. “Outline as a Special Technique in Black. Wiley-Blackwell. Cook. 178. • Anaxagoras. Johns Hopkins University Press. Noel 1996. and appendices. • Cohen. William Heinemann Ltd. • Grimal. 2010. Casford p. Arthur. Smith. New York. 1894. 176 • Cashford. 1959) ISBN 978-0674994942. 1934. Aristotle in 23 Volumes.A. Notes. 1814. Yonge. 1921. • Apollodorus. Leonard C. • Davidson. F. Timothy. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Cook. ISBN 9781568582658. in A Companion to Greek Religion. • Cicero. “Time and Greek Religion”.S. Smithers. Volume I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky. Greek Greek Lyric Poetry: Volume I. London.44 CHAPTER 9. Lyra Graeca. Pierre. and Glossary. Cambridge. Pausanias. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-80185360-9 (Vol. Volume III. 1). (1982). pp. • Apollonius of Rhodes. with preface. 1907. WileyBlackwell. The Complete Greek Drama'. [64] Cox. Loeb Classical Library (January 1. 2).. in The Colors of Clay: Special Techniques in Athenian Vases. C. 6. Lexicon s. Harpers. • Gantz. Burkert 1991. 75 note 109. The Carmina of Gaius Valerius Catullus. 732. D. Patricia Curd.and Red-figure Vase-painting”. W. with an Introduction . 19. in two volumes.A. • Catullus.C.8 References • Cook. Πάνδια (Bekker. George W. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: Fragments and Testimonia : a Text and Translation with Notes and Essays. Homeric Hymns. p. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Hugh.6. 1914. • Burkert. 174. Seaton. • Cox. Thomas W. ISBN 9780631201021. with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer. Books 12-17. 732. translated. • Evelyn-White.

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Henry Beauchamp. 36 (2001). London. MA. • Zschietzschmann. F. Loeb Classical Library Volume 286.46 • Plato. A Shorter History of Greek Art. Boston.. Martin (1981). Argonautica. London. B. Harvard University Press.com: Selene Passages from Greek and Roman texts. Taylor & Francis. Loeb Classical Library Volumes . Cambridge. William Heinemann Ltd. Edmund. Oskar Seyffert. History of Ancient Pottery: Greek. Frank Justus. Ginn & Co. Plato in Twelve Volumes. London (1873). • West. 1917. ISBN 0198148542 • West. Aeneid. • Savignoni L. Cretan Cults and Festivals. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Sappho of Lesbos: Her Life and Times. 1 translated by Harold North Fowler. Bucolics.M. Harvard University Press. “From the panteon of the gods to the Pantheon of Rome” in Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea. Cambridge. 1901. Introduction by W. Loeb Classical Library Volume 28. Cambridge University Press. PDF • Statius. in translation . London. “A Roman Sarcophagus and Its Patron. Harvard University Press.C. Samuel Birch. 2005) ISBN 978-0872207257. Loeb Classical Library. Lives of Homer. J M. ISBN 9780754608080. Kessinger Publishing. 1928. ISBN 9780299151140. 2004. 1932. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. The Hymns of Orpheus. Martin (1992). translated by Miller. Hellas and Rome: The Classical World in Pictures. 1900 • Robertson. Cambridge. Sarah. Martin L. • Rudin. Translated by Edmonds. 1980. 1903. Arthur. Jean. G. 1966 • Quintus Smyrnaeus. “Athena’s Shrines and Festivals” in Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. John Murray. • Virgil. H. Hamilton. • Smith. • Sorabella. Martin L. MA. Limited edition (June 1987). Heinemann. • Taylor. Vol.A. Cambridge. The University of Wisconsin Press. • Seneca. Teubner. Noel (1996).. Editors. Mythology. • Valerius Flaccus. Cambridge. Falconer. • Weigal. “On Representations of Helios and of Selene. Ashgate Publishing. (2003).” Metropolitan Museum Journal. Homeric Apocrypha. W. Leizig 1890. and Georgics Of Vergil. Volume 2. • Thomas. London. Hackett Publishing Company (September 30. William Heinemann Ltd. Translated by Mozley. and Roman.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 19: pp. The Fall of Troy.R. Tragedies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780521280846. Literature and Art. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ISBN 978-0-674-996069 • Willetts. J H. no. M. A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Esq. William Heinemann Ltd.9 External links • Theoi. 1899. Oskar. Religion. R. Wilhelm Heinrich. 1928. The Greek Bucolic Poets. Harvard University Press. London. S.. Philosophical Research Society. • Walters. • Roscher. William Heinemann Ltd. The Orphic Poems. B. ISBN 9780521338813. 2006. Translated by Mozley. Cambridge University Press. J.. Thebaid. MA. W. MA. W. Vol. Sonnenschein. 496. translated by Arthur Sanders Way. ISBN 9781428655447. 265–272 • Seyffert. ISBN 978-0893144159. 1912. Greenough. (1983). Homeric Hymns. translated by Sarah Rudin. MA. William. Ltd. Thomas. Lamb. MA. Über Selene und Verwandtes. • Robertson. 9. Homeric Hymns. George Bell & Sons. Geography. SELENE • Theocritus. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library • Robertson. CHAPTER 9. Etruscan. Greenwood Press. The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens. Cambridge. ISBN 9780313220500. 1905. 1913 • Strabo. from the German of Dr. J H.

fearing to anger Nyx. held his 10.[1] Greek: Νύξ. Nyx is born of Chaos.[7] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day). who would have con47 . the Hesperides (Evening. re. Distress). Destruction.1.249–61. the Keres. Hypnos. Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx. Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation. He had once before put Zeus to sleep at the bid. Zeus was furious and would have smitten Hypnos into the sea if he had not fled to Nyx.[8] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda. For other uses. Oizys (Woe. Thanatos (Death). and Eris (Strife). Ker (Fate. She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses.2 Homer fury at bay and in this way Hypnos escaped the wrath of At Iliad 14.[4] Later. “Night”)[2] – Roman (in Latin): Nox – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. continuing cyclicly. Roman-era bronze statuette of Nyx velificans or Selene (Getty Villa) ding of Hera. Nyx. Nemesis (Indignation. Philotes (Friendship.[6] and the homes of her children Hypnos and Thanatos.1 Mythology and literature 10.1 Hesiod In Hesiod's Theogony. where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn).running back to his mother. Momus (Blame). He disturbed minds Hera of an old favor after she asks him to put Zeus Zeus only a few times after that always fearing Zeus and to sleep. who is Nyx’s daughter.[5] In his description of Tartarus. Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom. Nyx (/nɪks/.[3] With Erebus (Darkness). the Oneiroi (Dreams). A shadowy figure. Geras (Old Age). his mother. Love). the minor deity of sleep. on her own.Zeus by appealing to his powerful mother.Chapter 10 Nyx For the water spirit Nix.1. Homer goes on to say that Zeus. Her appearances are sparse in surviving mythology. Nyx left. Death). see Neck (water spirit). Pain. 10. Apate (Deceit). that she is feared by Zeus himself. allowing her to cause Heracles (who was returning by sea from Laomedon's Troy) great misfortune. when Hemera returned. and was the mother of other personified deities such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death). see NYX (disambiguation). Destiny). the Moirai (Fates). Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day). Retribution). Sunset). in fear. Hypnos (Sleep). left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it. but reveal her as a figure of such exceptional power and beauty.

org. 4–5. Theogony 212–225. Jones and Ormerod. trans.2. 4. asleep and drunk on honey – dreams and prophesies. rather than Chaos. see Chaos (cosmogony) and Cosmogony and cosmology. 2006.40.On June 21. must remain tentative. [10] Pausanias. Phanes – the strange.40. which may be Orphic in inspiration. the International Astronomical Union approved the name Nyx for a mons (mountain/peak) feature on the The theme of Nyx’s cave or mansion. 10. Theogony 758–759. The Birds . [8] Hesiod. Liddell. In them.[10] The Spartans had a cult of Sleep and Death. According to Pausanias. to avoid conflict with the asteroid 3908 Nyx. Thus there was a statue called “Nyx” in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[13] 10. Outside the cave. Nyx occupies a cave or adyton. she had an oracle on the acropolis at Megara.2 Nyx in society 10. conceived of as twins. [5] Hesiod. More often. 10. this (S/2005 P 2) to Nix.6. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.38. [11] Pausanias 3.5° East on the Venusian surface. The name was hypothesis. hermaphrodite Orphic demiurge – was the child or father of Nyx. the International Astronomical Union ert has speculated that the house of the goddess to which renamed one of Pluto's recently discovered moons the philosopher is transported is the palace of Nyx. [4] Hesiod. The classical scholar Walter Burk.18. Nyx lurked in the background of other cults. Its di(as in later Orphism) may be echoed in the philosophical ameter is 875 km. from perseus. most notably Dionysus Nyktelios “nocturnal”[12] and Aphrodite Philopannyx “who loves the whole night”. Henry George. Theogony 123. in honor of Nyx. Nyx is also the first principle in the opening chorus of Aristophanes' The Birds. pp.2. [3] Hesiod. Gantz. is the first principle from which all creation emerges. Nyx Mons is located at latitude 30° North (as in Hesiod) or somewhere at the edge of the cosmos and longitude 48. Nyx was only rarely the focus of cults. spelled with an “i” instead of a “y”. poem of Parmenides. p.1.are attested for several deities. Gantz.2 Astronomy In 1997. Cronus – who is chained within. Theogony 744–745. Adrasteia clashes cymbals and beats upon her tympanon. 1918. [9] Pausanias 1. however. monstrous.1 Cults 10. beyond the ocean planet Venus. as represented in the 10th-century Paris Psalter at the side of the Prophet Isaiah References • Aristophanes. Robert. For other mythical aspects connected with Nyx. [12] Pausanias 1. [6] Hesiod. [7] Hesiod. in which she gives oracles. Theogony 124–125.3 In Greece. 10.[9] Others Nyx took on an even more important role in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus. Theogony 746–750.[11] Cult titles composed of compounds of nyx.6) [13] Orphic Hymn 55.1.48 CHAPTER 10.3 Notes [1] Oxford dictionary [2] νύξ. Nyx. moving the entire universe in an ecstatic dance to the rhythm of Nyx’s chanting.1). Scott. Nyx. NYX fronted Zeus with a maternal fury. Here she is also the mother of Eros.

. 2). Theogony. in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. • Smith. Evelyn-White. “Nyx” 10. Orphicorum Fragmenta. 1914.4 External links Media related to Nyx at Wikimedia Commons • “Nyx” from Theoi. London. Wiley-Blackwell. 1996. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. • Pausanias. 1996.4.Harvard University Press. William. EXTERNAL LINKS • Gantz. Johns Hopkins University Press. • Otto Kern ed. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1). MA. • Simmons. • Grimal. Pierre. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-63120102-1. Descriptions of Greece.10. 314 • Hesiod. William Heinemann Ltd. Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. “Nyx” p. London (1873). ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. Olympos..com 49 .

She is the goddess of affection and friendship. 11.Chapter 11 Philotes (mythology) Philotes (Greek: Φιλότης) is a minor Greek goddess.com/Daimon/Philotes.theoi.1 External links • http://www.html 50 . She was a daughter of Nyx.

long nails on her fingers. William. a strange kind of mane grew of itself. long white teeth grew out of their jaws.4 References [1] Scut. fallen in on herself with hunger. she distilled poisoned drugs over their hair. Here. and shed a sleep of enchantment over their heads. and her shoulders thickly covered with dust. their eyes widened under the horned forehead. Leonhard (1867). dismal and dejected. 12. and the nails were grown long on her hands. and off her cheeks the blood dribbled to the ground. with chattering teeth. ed.3 See also • List of Greek mythological figures 12. William. In Greek mythology. from the temples cow’s horns sprouted out. According to Hesiod. she smeared a subtle magical ointment over their faces . she was the personification of misery and sadness. swollen knees. which fell before the eyes preceding death). in Smith.2 Nonnus’ Account 12. and she stood there.5 Sources Nonnus. p. and weeping. etc. saw from on high the everchanging shape of Lyaios [Dionysos]. 12 12. and from her nostrils the drip kept running. Then she was angry with the guardians of Bromios. emaciated.and changed their earlier human shape. Boston. to every place. the hair ran across their heads in tuft. Dionysiaca 14. green and pale.[1] If she was a daughter of Nyx (Night) then she may have been numbered amongst the Keres. according to some ancient cosmogonies. and as such she was represented on the shield of Heracles: pale. and a horse’s tail sticking out straight from the loins and flogging the flanks of its shaggy-crested owner. covering their necks with rough hair. knee-swollen. and the first created being which existed even before Chaos. grinning forever. 264. dirty-dry. She procured from Thessalian Akhlys (Achlys. and the dust that had gathered and lay in heaps on her shoulders was muddy with tears. bloody cheeks.1 Hesiod’s Account Hesiod. Death-Mist) treacherous flowers of the field. and ran down from the loins to feet underneath. [2] Schmitz. Achlys (Greek language: Ἀχλύς “mist”) was.[2] 12. the eternal Night (perhaps the Mist of Death. who turns her all-seeing eye 51 • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith. see Achlys (plant). Shield of Heracles 264 ff (trans. Then they took the form of a creature with long ears. (1870). 143 ff (trans. and knew all. Rouse) (Greek epic 5th century AD): [Hera spies the nurses of the infant god Dionysos:] Hera. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic 8th or 7th century BC): And beside them [the Keres (Deaths) and the Moirai (Fates) on the battlefield] was standing Akhlys (Achlys). “Achlys”. MA. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. "article name needed ". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. .Chapter 12 Achlys For the plant genus named Achlys.

52 12.Akhlys CHAPTER 12.6 External links • Theoi Project . ACHLYS .

Pasithea is the deity of hallucination put Zeus to sleep. whose mansion does not see the rising. and set blasts of angry winds upon the or relaxation. cave had two gates with which to send people dreams. However. nor the setting sun.2 Family Hypnos lived next to his twin brother. sacked the city of the Trojans. Aphrodite willingly agreed. put on three brilliant pendants for earrings. which awoke he was furious and went on a rampage looking for is Greek for “dreams. Phobetor. however.Phantasos appeared in the dreams of kings. was one of the youngest of the Graces the first time as well. before they could do their work and send out [4] first Hypnos had to put the recipient to sleep. he could take the shape of any animal includ.Chapter 13 Hypnos “Somnus” redirects here. “Night”). She told Aphrodite that she wanted the charm to help her parents stop fighting. She decided that in order to trick him she needed to make him so enamoured with her that he would fall for the trick. the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. The For other uses.” Morpheus is the Winged God of Hypnos. and offer. Hera loathed her brother and husband. the deity of Darkness. Hera called on Hypnos and asked him to help her by Nyx was a dreadful and powerful goddess. who had tricked Zeus once before. and his father was Erebus. The underworld is translated into English as Hell in the Septuagint Bible. the dreams. So she had Hypnos marriage and birth. made especially for her to make herself impossible to resist for Zeus. Morpheus. Hera 53 . She wove flowers through her hair. see Somnus (horse). the deity of Night. he awoke. [1] “sleep”) was the personification of sleep. she lied to Aphrodite because they sided on opposites sides of the war. For the thoroughbred race. So she went and washed herself with ambrosia and anointed herself with oil. Zeus. She then called for Aphrodite. see Hypnos (disambiguation). who is the goddess of son. Phantasos was known for creating apart and a footstool to go with it. lived in a cave at the shores of the Ocean in the West. The Oneiroi horse. he was furious when feared entering her realm. so she devised a plot to trick him. She was furious that Hercules. The river Lethe. in the underworld.offered him a beautiful golden seat that can never fall ing bears and tigers. and donned a wondrous robe. but she needed the help of Hypnos. Hypnos used his powers to trick Zeus. Hypnos was reluctant because the last time he had put the god to sleep. nor does it see the “lightsome noon. Pasithea. and asked her for a charm that would ensure that her trick would not fail. He refused this first fake dreams full of illusions.” At the entrance were a number of poppies and other hypnotic plants.1 Dwelling place According to Greek mythology Hypnos lived in a cave. Nyx. the goddess of love. sea while Heracles was still sailing home.[2] 13. Hypnos managed to avoid Zeus by hiding with Dreams and can take human form in dreams. It was Hera who had asked him to trick Zeus His wife.[3] This river is known as the river of forgetfulness. His dwelling had no door or gate so that he might not be awakened by the creaking of hinges. Hera was almost ready to trick Zeus. “death personified”) in the underworld. Thanatos (Θάνατος. When Zeus Hypnos’ three sons were known as the Oneiroi. Hypnos was able to trick him and help the Danaans win the Trojan war. 13. Hera first dreams.3 Hypnos in the Iliad 13. Greek: Ὕπνος. and even Zeus putting Zeus to sleep. Hypnos (/ˈhɪpnɒs/. one made from ivory and the other from buckhorn. Hypnos’ mother was Nyx (Νύξ. Zeus’ and was promised to him by Hera. In order to procure the charm. flowed through his cave. This made Hypnos reluctant to accept the personification of nightmares and created frightening Hera’s proposal and help her trick Zeus again. Phobetor is his mother. remembering the last time he tricked Zeus. In Greek mythology. During the war.

God of the Sea.com.54 finally got him to agree by promising that he would be married to Pasithea. Bronze Head of Hypnos in the British Museum. Cambridge.p. Retrieved 2014-01-27. Trans. In this vase.. Robert. [9] “Hypnosis | Define Hypnosis at Dictionary. from Civitella d'Arna near Perugia in Italy. a person is put into a sleep-like state (hypnos “sleep” + -osis “condition”). He told her that he was never in love with anyone as much as he loved her at that moment.” British Museum −. This is where Hypnos leaves the story. 1990. New York: Philosophical Library. Hesiod’s Theogony. Dictionary. While this went on. 2013.[8] 13.com. 1st-2nd Century AD. now kept in the British Museum in London. Scott. Ed. N. Concise Dictionary of Greek Literature. HYPNOS sleeps. 2013. referring to the fact that when hypnotized. Hypnos is shown as a winged god [11] “Somnolent | Define Somnolent at Dictionary.com”.[6] [8] “Bronze Head of Hypnos. MA: Focus Information Group. n.com”. (in.” Trans. are vases. which is part of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston’s collection. and that she should postpone her visit and stay there with him so they could enjoy each other’s company. the English word "insomnia" comes from the name of his Latin counterpart. meaning sleepy or tending to cause sleep. and Zeus never found out that Hypnos had tricked him one more time. John Dryden. 1717.4 Hypnos in art CHAPTER 13. the topmost peak of Mount Ida. Cambridge. Trans.“not” + somnus “sleep”). [3] Richard S.d. [2] James H. The Iliad.6 See also • Aergia. Dictionary.” [10] “Insomnia | Define Insomnia at Dictionary. 1987. He took her in his embrace and Hypnos went to work putting him to sleep. N.” Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. [6] British Museum Highlights [7] “Ancient Greek Art: Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus.7 References [1] ὕπνος. Now.com. Hypnos made her swear by the river Styx and call on gods of the underworld to be witnesses so that he would be ensured that he would marry Pasithea.[10] as well as a few less-common words such as “somnolent”. Dictio- Hypnos appears in numerous works of art. [5] Homer. with Hera in his arms. Thanks to Hypnos helping to trick Zeus. dripping Lethean water upon the head of Ariadne as she .. n. one of the youngest Graces. Somnus. Bernard Knox. Zeus said that she could go any time. Web. Sir Samuel Garth. Zeus asked Hera what she was doing there and why she had come there from Olympus and she told him the same lie she told her daughter Aphrodite.[5] 13. 1962.[9] Additionally. some tying in knots and some hanging freely from his head. 15 Oct.reference. An example of one vase that Hypnos is featured on is called “Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. that he could now help the Danaans and give them a victory while Zeus was sleeping. Robert Fagles. whom he had always wanted to marry. Caldwell. god of dreams 13. A Greek– English Lexicon at the Perseus Project. leaving Poseidon eager to help the Dananns. [4] Ovid. Zeus was extremely taken by her and suspected nothing as Hypnos was shrouded in a thick mist and hidden upon a pine tree that was close to where Hera and Zeus were talking.p. the war changed its course to Hera’s favor.5 Words derived from Hypnos The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name. 15 Oct. Liddell. most of which nary.com”. Retrieved 2014-01-27.[11] 13. “Book the Eleventh. This bronze head has wings sprouting from his temples and the hair is elaborately arranged.reference.reference. She told him that she wanted to go help her parents stop quarreling and she stopped there to consult him because she didn't want to go without his knowledge and have him be angry with her when he found out. Henry George. Metemorphoses. New York: Viking. Mantinband. with Hypnos’ help. Hera went to see Zeus on Gargarus.[7] One of the most famous works of art featuring Hypnos is a bronze head of Hypnos himself. Web. Retrieved 2014-01-27.d. a goddess of sloth and attendant of Hypnos • Hesiod’s Theogony • Morpheus. Hypnos traveled to the ships of the Achaeans to tell Poseidon.

com • 3D model of Bronze head of Hypnos via laser scan of a cast of British Museum’s bronze. 55 .8 External links • Hypnos at theoi.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 13.8.

2 Mythology The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. (day. 'dius’. In Roman mythology. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis. Dea Dia and in the neuter form dium meaning the sky.[3] The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. “heavenly” or “divine”) was the goddess of the hunt. (god). Latona. being associated with wild animals and woodland. as in Dius Fidius. while keeping the original features of celestial divinities. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her conwomen. and her prefana. her servant and assistant midwife. According to Georges Dumézil[4] it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods. did not share the fate of other celestial gods in Indoeuropean religions—that of becoming dei otiosi or gods without practical purpose. a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography 14. Such gods.Chapter 14 Diana (mythology) deities: Egeria the water nymph. referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. The Diana of Versailles. daylight). supremacy. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια (diwia) is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. 14.[5] since they did retain a particular sort of influence over the world and mankind.1 Etymology Diana (pronounced with long 'ī' and 'ā') is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios.nection with light. She was one of the three maiden goddesses. the moon and childbirth. who swore never to marry. Diana (lt. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman however. she is seen as active in ensuring the succession 56 . virginity. transcendent heavenly power and abstention from direct rule in worldly matters. erence for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred Oak groves were especially sacred to her. deity Artemis). and having the power to talk to and control animals. Diana therefore reflects the heavenly world (dimythology (in common with the Greek religion and their uum means sky or open air) in its sovereignty.[2] It is rooted in Indoeuropean *d(e)y(e)w. Diana was born with her twin brother impassibility. dies. is named for her. from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus.[1] though she had an independent origin in Italy.e. a largely feminist form of the practice. inaccessibility. Minerva and Vesta. the woodland god. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. Dianic Wicca. and indifference towards such secular matApollo on the island of Delos. and " diurnal”. meaning bright sky or daylight. and Virbius. (daytime). Di. At the same time. According to woods. i. corresponding to later 'divus’. daughter of Jupiter and ters as the fates of mortals and states.

g. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who. This regality is also linked to the cult of trees. the figure of Janus. particularly oaks. associated Dumezil’s interpretation appears deliberately to ignore with wild animals and woodlands. Diana.[6] Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire. She god Janus as a divine couple.14. This form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources. although a female deity. who links Diana with the male a moon goddess. H. e. once pregnant. Iuno. Having renounced the world. and thus outside the . she was portrayed The Scandinavian god Heimdallr performs an analogous deer or hunting dogs. Being placed on the Aventine. and carrying a quiver on her shoulder.[7] 2. he attained the status of an im.[6] According to Dumezil the forerunner of all frame gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image (avatar) of the Vedic god Dyaus. who held the position until someone else challenged and killed him in a duel.3 Physical description In Rome the cult of Diana should have been almost as old as the city itself as Varro mentions her in the list of deities to whom king Titus Tatius vowed a shrine. after breaking a branch from a certain tree of the wood. dedicated As a goddess of hunting. WORSHIP 57 of kings and in the preservation of humankind through the protection of childbirth. Catullus wrote a poem to Diana in which she than one alias: Latonia. in his roles of father and king. has exactly the same functions. supplanting Titan goddess Luna. is a major attribute of the goddess. He too gives as beautiful and youthful. function: he is born first and will die last. himself born a slave. accompanied by a [10] Like Venus.[9] 14.4 Worship F. Ovid. She also later became that of James G. Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13.[12] when King Servius Tullius. 1. This looks odd as Dumézil’s also became the goddess of childbirth and ruled over the definition of the concept of frame god would fit well countryside. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. supreme heavenly couple Jupiter-Juno and additionally ties in these figures to the overarching Indoeuropean religious complex. sometimes origin to kingship and the first king. The institution of the rex Nemorensis.4. Trivia. regal prerogatives. bestowing on him worn as a diadem. She is often portrayed holding a bow.[8] Frazer identifies the two with the has more [11] Luna. Pairault in her essay on Diana qualifies Dumézil’s theory as "impossible to verify". Frazer. Another testimony to the high antiquity of her cult is to be found in the lex regia of king Tullus Hostilius that condemns those guilty of incest to the sacratio to the goddess. In this interpretative schema. Diana’s sacerdos (priest) in the Arician wood. 14. Diana was initially just the hunting goddess. It is noteworthy that the list includes Luna and Diana Lucina as separate entities. the institution of the Rex Nemorensis and related ritual should be seen as related to the theme of the dying god and the kings of May. BC. prayed for an easy delivery. Lucina. The crescent moon. Diana often wears a short tunic her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century and hunting boots. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations.Gallo-Roman bronze statuette of Diana (latter 1st century) mortal being while retaining the duty of ensuring that his dynasty is preserved and that there is always a new king for each generation. preserving mankind through childbirth and royal succession.

lady of the herds. who was her priestess in Taurid and her human paragon. Ephesian metal smiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity. meant that Diana’s cult essentially remained a foreign one. The deer may also offer a covert reference to the legend of the coming of Orestes to Nemi and of the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon). he said. at Nemi is apparently that of the Artemis Tauropolos.[17] However in Ephesus too there was the same custom of the asylum (ασυλιον). who saw her bathing the inhumation of his bones in the Roman Forum near naked. what person is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper (guardian) of the temple of the great Diana and of her image that fell from . Diana was usually depicted for It looks as if the confrontation happened between two educated Romans in her Greek guise.[32] It represents Artemis with the bow at one According to Françoise Hélène Pairault’s study. Georg Wissowa proposed the explanation that it might be because the first slaves of the Romans must have been Latins of the neighbouring tribes.[35] Cuma too had a [20] Aristodemos and is probably connected to the politHecate and certainly had strict contacts ical events at end of the 6th century narrated by Livy cult of a chthonic with Latium. Tauropolos is an ancient epithet attached to Hecate. Diana transformed Acteon into a stag and set his the temple of Saturn. Artemis and even Athena.[16] Diana was regarded with great reverence and was a patroness of lower-class citizens. the product of the direct or indirect influence of the cult of The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this imArtemis spread by the Phoceans among the Greek towns age to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan of Campania Cuma and Capua.[26] The only possible interpretatio graeca of high antiquity concerning Diana Nemorensis could have been the one based upon this ancient aspect of deity of light.[27] According to the legend Orestes founded Nemi together with Iphigenia. This fact is of difficult interpretation.[24] As far as Nemi’s Diana is concerned there are two different versions. master of wildlife. The presence of a Hellenised Diana at Nemi more than that of Hippolitos.[28] At Cuma the Sybil is the priestess of both Phoibos and Trivia. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia. This religious complex is in turn supported by the triple statue of Artemis-Hecate. Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a torical and archaeological evidence point to the fact that central deity not immediately identifiable. by Strabo[25] and Servius Honoratus. In Acts of the Apostles. “Men of Ephesus. she was never officially transferred to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. jealously rioted in her defense.[15] “a process which culminated with the appearance of Diana beside Apollo in the first lectisternium at Rome”. Two heads found in the sanctuary[33] and the over to the Etruscans and the Latins by the 6th and 5th Roman theatre at Nemi.58 CHAPTER 14. where the blood. Octavius Verus. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes. slaves could receive asylum in her temples. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BC has been acknowledged as representing the archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis. those nied by a deer. like that of Bacchus. Strabo’s version looks to be the most authoritative as he had access to first hand primary sources on the sanctuaries of Artemis. the Rex Nemorensis remained. in whom three different elements are ashave to be traced to the legend of Orestes and Iphigenia sociated. Vulci and Caere (allied with the Greeks above right) this is because Diana was the patroness of of Capua) and those of Clusium.e. Latinus. i. New English Bible).[29] Hesiod[30] and Stesichorus[31] tell the story according to which after her death Iphigenia was divinised under the name of Hecate. as in the Diana of Versailles (illustration. Temple of Artemis stood. It is remarkable that the composition of this ana looks very elaborated and certainly Hellenic.[13] where her priest. as Diana Tifatina was appelled Trivia in an imperial League led by Laevius (or Baebius) Egerius[19] happened Virbialis dedunder the influence of an alliance with the tyrant of Cuma age inscription which mentions a flamen icated by eques C.[34] which have a hollow on their centuries BC. the priest of Artemis Artemidoros of Ephesus. back. The meaning of Tauropolos denotes an Asi- Worship of Diana is mentioned in the Bible. from Tarquinia. while an analogous Latin concept of Diana Trivia seems uncerleague does not reflect that of the Latin people who took sources reflect a Hellenised character of the part in the Latiar or Feriae Latinae given by Pliny and tain. which in turn passed it models.[36] The theological complex present in Diand Dionysius. A coin minted by P. If she is accompagroups of Etruscans who fought for supremacy.[14] which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct.extremity. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) atic goddess with lunar attributes. and slaves. The formation of the Latin should be related to the presence of the cult in Campania. After the city secretary (γραμματεύς) quieted the crowd. such as the siege of Aricia by Porsenna's son Arruns. as Latin [37] goddess. Diana of the wood was soon thoroughly Hellenized.[18] his. it has not as its leader the rex Nemorensis but a dictator pomerium.[21] It should thence be considered a political for. fact which would support the assumption that Artemis Tauropolos had a real ancient alliance with the heroine. This is reflected in hunting.Though some Roman patrons ordered marble replicas of mation and not a traditional society founded on links of the specifically Anatolian “Diana” of Ephesus. The literary amplification[23] reveals a confused religious background: different Artemis were conflated under the epithet. lend support to this interpretation of an archaic The origin of the ritual of the rex Nemorensis should Diana Trivia. shouting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28. called plebeians. all united by a both Diana of the Aventine and Diana Nemorensis were horizontal bar.[22] The cult introduced by Orestes own hunting dogs to kill him.

In Italy the old religion of Stregheria embraced the goddess Diana as Queen of the Witches. also near Tusculum. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba Longa before the town was destroyed by the Romans. She was related to myths of a female and "morning call" (diana) seem to come from the name Wild Hunt. Diana was said to have • On Mount Tifata.[48] • At Tibur (Tivoli). New York City. Augustus Saint-Gaudens. It was said that out of • In Ephesus.5 Sanctuaries See also: Diana Nemorensis Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes. and the Spanish word for “shooting target” Herodiana.[46] created the world of her own being having in herself the seeds of all creation yet to come. Metropolitan Museum of Art.k. Therefore many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins. LEGACY 59 heaven ?" (Acts 19:36) 14.2 In language 14. The Arician wood sanctuary near the lake of Nemi was Latin confederal as testified by the dedicatory epigraph quoted by Cato. • Colle di Corne near Tusculum. Diana was believed to have loved and ruled with her brother Apollo.14.e. Perchta.[47] Diana’s name is also used as the third divine name in a Wiccan energy chant.1 In religion Both the Romanian words for "fairy" Zânǎ[50] and Diana’s cult has been related in Early Modern Europe Sânzianǎ. Apollo. the god of the Sun. according to tradition dedicated by king Servius Tullius.6 Legacy 14. etc. where she is referred to as Diana Opifera Nemorensis. the light.a.93). Dame Habond. where she was worshipped as Diana of herself she divided the darkness and the light. original territory of the city. witches being the wise women healers of the time. nymph” xana. in order to comply with the tradition that Diana was a goddess common to all Latins and not exclusively of the Romans. Portugal.[49] 14. .[40] • At Évora.6. Its location is remarkable as the Aventine is situated outside the pomerium.).[39] where she is referred to with the archaic Latin name of deva Cornisca and where existed a collegium of Wicca worshippers.[38] She had a shrine in Rome on the Aventine hill.[43] Today there is a branch of Wicca named for her.[41] • Mount Algidus. Other sanctuaries we know about are listed below: Diana (1892 .6.[44] Stregheria • A sacred wood mentioned by Livy[45] ad compitum Anagninum (near Anagni). the Leonese and Portuguese word for “water to the cult of Nicevenn (a. which is characterized by an exclusive focus on the feminine aspect of the Divine.6.“Isis Astarte Diana Hecate Demeter Kali Inanna”. near Capua in Campania. i. keeping for Ephesus and the temple Artemision used to be one herself the darkness of creation and creating her brother of world’s seven wonders.[42] • At Lavinium. of Diana. Bronze.

” (Line 128) Diana Reposing by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry. Othello the Moor says. In literature • In "The Knight’s Tale" in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. The plot deals with Sylvia. Starts: 'When first Diana leaves her bed.. that your Dian/was both herself and love... as goddess of the moon.' • In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”). At Versailles she was incorporated into the Olympian iconography with which Louis XIV. In the 16th century. Diana is also a character in the 1876 Léo Delibes ballet Sylvia. • In “Castaway” by Augusta Webster.” The Steward also says. Dian no queen of virgins.. Diana is used in comparison to the 17th/early 18th century everyday woman Swift satirically writes about. including the opera L'arbore di Diana.6. • In All’s Well That Ends Well Diana appears as a figure in the play and Helena makes multiple allusions to her. Part 1.. the Apollo-like “Sun King” liked to surround himself. • Diana is referred to in Twelfth Night when Orsino compares Viola (in the guise of Cesario) to Diana.” and ". Falstaff styles himself and his highway-robbing friends as “Diana’s foresters.” It can be assumed that 'Dian' is simply a shortening of 'Diana' since later in the play when Parolles’ letter to Diana is read aloud it reads 'Dian'.. or The Lone Huntress).” • There is a reference to Diana in Much Ado About Nothing where Hero is said to seem like 'Dian in her orb'.60 14. Dian. Emily prays to Diana to be spared from marriage to either Palamon or Arcite./ that would suffer her poor knight surprised. “Her name that was as fresh as Diana’s visage. minions of the moon” who are governed by their “noble and chase mistress the moon under whose countenance [they] steal”. c. where he and his people settle. is now begrim'd and black as my own face. “Diana’s lip is not more smooth and rubious” A chariot clock depicting the goddess. The nude goddess. without/ rescue in the first assault or ransom afterward. • Diana Soren. is described as having the same personality as the goddess.. in terms of her chastity.. • In Jonathan Swift’s poem: “The Progress of Beauty”. telling him to go to her temple and tell his story to her followers. gentlemen of the shade. Diana’s image figured prominently at the châteaus of Fontainebleau. and Diana’s assault on Sylvia’s affections for the shepherd Amyntas. women who claim they are virtuous despite never having been tempted are referred to as “Dianas. • Diana is referenced in As You Like It to describe how Rosalind feels about marriage. “Now. Desdemona. Chenonceau. Since the Renaissance the myth of Diana has often been represented in the visual and dramatic arts. Diana leads the Trojan Brutus to Britain. France.[51] . from thy altar do I fly. • In “Ode” by John Keats. identified by the crescent moon in her hair and the bow and quiver at her side.3 CHAPTER 14. Prince of Tyre Diana appears to Pericles in a vision. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) In the arts • In the sonnet “To Science” by Edgar Allan Poe. In Shakespeare • In Shakespeare’s Pericles. mistress of Henri of France.. & at Anet..wish chastely and love dearly. in deference to Diane de Poitiers. ". reclines on a blue drapery. science is said to have “dragged Diana from her car”. • In Henry IV. 1796. the main character in Carlos Fuentes' novel Diana o la cazadora soltera (Diana.. he writes 'Browsed by none but Dian’s fawns’ (line 12) • Speaking of his wife. one of Diana’s nymphs and sworn to chastity. such as.

Pietro Solari. Some famous work of arts with a Diana theme are : • Diana and Actaeon. created by Paolo Persico. and Diana. and Death of Actaeon by Titian. 61 In painting and sculpture Diana has been one of the most popular themes in art. It now is on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art • A sculpture by French sculptor François-Léon Sicard in the Archibald Fountain. like to a silver bow new bent in Heaven”. unless I be obtained by the manner of my father’s will”. Beaux Arts architecture and garden design (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used classic references in a modernized form. In the same play the character Hermia is told by the Duke Theseus that she must either wed the character Demetrius “Or on Diana’s alter to protest for aye austerity and single life”. LEGACY • The goddess is also referenced indirectly in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Sydney NSW Australia • In Parma at the convent of San Paolo. • Diana and Callisto. He was commissioned in 1519 to paint the ceiling and mantel of the fireplace. with the goddesse Diana having connotations of chastity. or Callisto. which is a perpetual hunt for advantage and profits. • A sculpture by Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain can be seen at the Musée du Louvre. Most depictions of Diana in art featured the stories of Diana and Actaeon. In beaux arts Diana as the Huntress. and Diana Getting Out of Bath by François Boucher. Peter Paul Rubens.6. goddess of the moon. Diana Resting After Bath. Italy. • Diana Bathing With Her Nymphs by Rembrandt. depicting Diana being surprised by Acteon. Romeo describes Rosaline. On the mantel he painted an image of Diana riding in a chariot possibly pulled by a stag. Diana and Her Nymphs Surprised By A Faun by Rubens. by Giampietrino. • Diana and Endymion by Poussin. • Diana and Callisto. Diana and Callisto. Nicholas Poussin made use of her myth as a major theme. The character Hippolyta states “And then the moon. representing Commerce. Painters like Titian. . Antonio Allegri da Correggio painted the chamber of the Abbess Giovanna Piacenza’s apartment. • Diana and Endymion by Johann Michael Rottmayr. saying that “She hath Dian’s wit”. (I. He refers to her becoming a nun. • In The Merchant of Venice Portia states “I will die as chaste as Diana. Two of the most popular of the period were of Pomona (goddess of orchards) as a metaphor for Agriculture. • “Diana of the Tower” a copper statue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens was created as the weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden in 1893. Brunelli. • The famous fountain at Palace of Caserta.ii) • In Romeo and Juliet. Diana and Her Nymph Departing From Hunt. who is often depicted with a silver hunting bow.14. François Boucher. She refers to Diana.or depicted her resting after hunting.

Diana is the feline companion to Chibiusa. [8] J. [4] G. 16. of which Fergus becomes the fourth victim. Princess of Wales in 1997. [6] Ovid Fasti III.Dumézil La religion Romaine archaique Paris. and Diana (symbolizing commerce) as building decoration. • In the manga and anime series Sailor Moon.[53] [9] J. 1912. This choice seems fitting for Julie.1. [10] “Artemis”. part 3. fulfill his duty to Rome. the goddess of hunting. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris 1974. Diana is the daughter of Artemis and Luna. 14. • Diana/Artemis appears at the end of the 'Pastoral Symphony' segment of Fantasia. Haydock. • She also is one of the main gods in the popular video game Ryse. Usagi’s daughter. 1. Frazer The golden bough 1922. • In his 1968 film La Mariée était en noir François Truffaut plays on this mythological symbol. Rousseau. symbolizing agriculture). Contrary G. played by Jeanne Moreau. 1954.[52] • The Royal Netherlands Air Force 323rd Squadron is named Diana and uses a depiction of Diana with her bow in its badge. who help Marius Titus. London.G. 215. F. • DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. [2] G. is named after Diana.“the most hunted person of the modern age”. [11] “Latin Oration”. All of these characters are advisers to rulers of the kingdom of the moon and therefore have moonassociated names. part 3. 1972. p. while wearing white. 14. (in particular chapter “The king of May”). the main character. part 3. [3] H. Geza Roheim Animism. Other • In the funeral oration of Diana.7 See also • Artemis • Diana Nemorensis • Dianic Wicca • Janus • Domus de Janas • Pachamama In opera • Diana is a character in Hippolytus and Aricia. chap.62 CHAPTER 14.8 References [1] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia. her brother drew an analogy between the ancient goddess of hunting and his sister . Diana is depicted protected by rams and other animals. a character beset by revenge. poses as Diana/Artemis for the artist Fergus. scribd. • For the album art of progressive metal band Protest the Hero's second studio album Fortress. Frazer Dying gods. 1. 1974. 14. an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau.KG. 262-271. She poses with a bow and arrow. The Book People. The theme of Diana is carried throughout the album. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) • The character of Diana from the video game League of Legends is largely based on the goddess. Pairault below cites three. Pomona (left. 12. [5] Mircea Eliade Traite' d'histoire des religions Paris. chaps. an airgun company. 1995. chap.com. In film • In Jean Cocteau's 1946 film La Belle et la Bête it is Diana’s power which has transformed and imprisoned the beast. . magic and the divine king Routledge.6. Retrieved 2012-11-11. Julie Kohler.4 • The character of Diana is the principal character in the children’s novel The Moon Stallion by Brian Hayles (1978) and the BBC Television series of the same name Diana is played by the actress Sarah Sutton. [7] Titus Livius Ab Urbe Condita 1:31-1:60. • William Moulton Marston used the Diana myth as a basis for Wonder Woman.

net. in a surviving quote by the late grammarian Priscian. των ποιμνίων επστάσις. [24] Jean Bayet “Les origines de l'Arcadisme romain” p. Lucanus Pharsalia III 86 “qua sublime nemus Scythicae qua regna Dianae”. 3537. R. 259-261 platesVI a-b.14. Pometius. Carmen Saeculare. 425-471. E. Merkelbach. 91. 242. Lucidi Memorie storiche dell'antichissimo municipio ora terra dell'Ariccia e delle sue colonie Genzano e Nemi Rome 1796 p. Catullus 34. (1993). Darehnberg -Saglio-Pottier Dictionnaire des antiquités s. Wilbur L. The Yale Shakespeare: the complete works. 5-9. 2010 [28] Servius ad Aeneidem VI 136. the cult there was of antiqua religione in Pliny’s Natural History. [25] Strabo V 249: αφιδρύματα της ταυροπόλου. pp. (accessed November 27. L. (Gordon 1932:178 note. (accessed November 27. Coranus. Suidas above. 365–399. 177-192) p 178.v. Tuaropolos. 137-144. 99. Carmina I 21. [21] Pliny Naturalis Historia III 5 68-70. pp. 975. VI 136.CLASS 8”. [35] CIL X 3795. Tauropolai. [41] Hifler. 4. Rutulus. Supposed Greek origins for the Aricia cult are strictly a literary topos. [44] CIL. Laurens. F. 1. 2012). N.v. [38] Cato Origins fr. [45] Livy Ab Urbe Condita XXVII 4. Hymni I in Hecaten 7. . United States of America: Barnes & Noble. Valerius Flaccus Argonauticae II 305. Ardeatis. Joyce. [40] CIL. [14] commune Latinorum Dianae templum in Varro. :η Άρτεμις εν Ταύροις της Σκυθίας τιμωμένη. Retrieved 17 July 2014. West Fragmenta Hesiodea Oxonii 1967. Riis who cites E. 15.part 3.2633. [30] Hesiod Catalogueedited by Augusto Traversa. in the 5th century BC. Lingua Latina V. 322-328. CIL XIV. pp.RNLAF 323rd squadron”. P. [32] A. Tiburtis. ISBN 1-56619-104-1. [16] Gordon 1932:179. M. Naples 1951 p. Aradia: The Gospel of Witches. “The Goddess Diana. 181). 2357. [26] Suidas s. Gordon. and p. Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome. Hi populi communiter: Tusculanus. 62: “Lucum Dianum In nemore Aricino Egerius Baebius (some scholars prefer to read Laevius) Tusculanus dedicavit dictator Latinus. Blue Moon [50] Zânǎ in DEX '98 and NODEX [51] Cross. Diana fig. Aricinus. finds at Valle Giardino.v. VII 6. déesse hellénisée” in Mélanges d' archéologie et d'histoire 81 1969 p. “On the Origin of Diana”. Pausanias I 43. 2012). [29] Aeneis VI 35. [36] Dionysius Hal. Alföldi"Diana Nemorensis” in American journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p.” [19] The historicity of this character is questioned by Dumézil as the name Egerius looks suspect to him. [42] Horace. Theophania Publishing.135. [18] “Diana Nemorensis. [37] Servius Ad Aeneidem IV 511. Hyginus Fabulae 261. Photius Lexicon s. M. [46] Roy Merle Peterson The cults of Campania Rome. η από μέρους. Wicca. 485 ff. 280 n. 1. [33] Excavation of 1791 by cardinal Despuig not mentioned in the report: cf.v. " Witches Of The Craft. [13] Her cult at Aricia was first attested in Latin literature by Cato the Elder. [49] Charles G. 76 text 82. From The Witches Voice. Dionysius Halicarnasseus V 36. 63 [31] Orestia cited by Philodemos Περι εύσεβείας 24 Gomperz II 52: fragment 38 B. Leland.2112. fragment 23. Scholiasta ad Aristophanem Lysistrata 447. Hymni magici V in Selenen 4. [53] “F-16 Units .. [52] “DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co. [20] Livy II 14. [23] Ovid Metamorphoses XIV 331-2 Scythicae regnum nemorale Dianae. Greek cities of Magna Graecia. 4: the people of Aricia help Aristdemos in bringing home the Etruscan booty. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 63 (1932. 7. 97 ff. [15] The Potnia Theron aspect of Hellenic Artemis is represented in Capua and Signia. [34] NSA 1931 p.43. Arthur E. chap. [48] “TRADITIONAL WICCA . [22] Servius ad Aeneidem II 116. Nilson Griechische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1955 p. 1-4. Yalouris Athena als Herrin der Pferde in Museum Helveticum 7 1950 p. Pairault p. [17] as quoted by Dumézil La religion romaine archaique Paris. 242 and Ovid’s Fasti III 327-331. Abel Orphica.8. [47] Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition. H. 448 citing Jean Bayet Origines de l' Hercule romain p. REFERENCES [12] The date coincides with the founding dates celebrated at Aricium. VIII 362. Silius Italicus Punica IV 367. [27] Hesichius s. II 22. xliv. P.” COMPANY | THE DIANA TRADEMARK. 1974. 5-6. 1919. Ennius apud Varro De Lingua Latina VII 16. [43] CIL XIV. Retrieved 2007-05-23. f-16. η ότι η αυτη τη σελήνη εστι καί εποχειται ταύροις.KG THE DIANA TRADEMARK. déesse latine. [39] Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia XVI. US.

• P. Alföldi “Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. 307 ff. • A. Feb. 169-173. 198 ff.. • A. la Diane latine” in Hommages á Jean Bayet. 20 ff. 12 ff.. Frazer Balder the Beautiful II London 1913 p. 55. • L. CHAPTER 14. 177ff. • J. Collection Latomus 45 Bruxelles 1960 p.E.. Gordon “On the Origin of Diana” in Transactions of the AMerican Philological Association 63 1932 p. Schilling “Une victime des vicissitudes politiques. 387 ff. Gagé “Apollon Romain” in BÉFAR 182 Paris 1955. Momigliano “Sul dies natalis del santuario federale di Diana sull' Aventino” in RAL 17 1962 p. 1ff. 1969 p. • J. 69 ff.64 14. • A. Heurgon “Recherhes sur. 1ff. • J. 47-100. 302 ff. • R. Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich 1912 p. 39ff. • G. Capoue préromaine” in BÉFAR 154 Paris 1942 p. Latte Römische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1960 p. • K. Altheim Griechischen Götter im alten Rom Giessen 1930 p. Paribeni “A note on Diana Nemorensis” in American Journal of Archeology 65 1961 p. • A.9 Bibliography • A..E. • E. Alföldi Early Rome and the Latins Ann Arbor 1964 p.. • A. Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1966 p. Merlin “L'Aventin dans l'antiquité" Paris BÉFAR 97 1906. Morpurgo “Nemus Aricinum” in MonAntLincei 13 1903 c. 95 ff. Gordon Local Cults in Aricia University of California Publications in Classical Archaeology 2 1934 p. 300 ff. 137-144. March Apr.10 External links • Landscape with Diana and Callisto painting • Diana and her Nymphs painting • The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1150 images of Diana . 650 ff. • J. • J. Riis “The Cult Image of Diana Nemorensis” in Acta Archaeologica Kopenhagen 37 1966 p. • G. 398 ff. Bayet Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine Paris 1957 p. 93-172. p. J.G. • F. Heurgon in Magna Graecia 1969 Jan. DIANA (MYTHOLOGY) 14.

be a solar symbol. violent and awe-inspiring element of the gods of the first function. The local flora is very peculiar due to Summanus among gods he considers of Sabine origin. “hand”. the god of diurnal (daylight) thunder. The temple of Summanus itself was struck by lightning Archeological excavations have found a sanctuary area in 197 BCE.[14] or sub-.According to Martianus Capella. made a simile to describe Satan visiting Rome: “Just so Sum[6] of flour.).[1] His chotomy Summanus-Dius Fidius.from their own native lands afar. lists 4th century CE).[10] that dates back to the first Iron Age (9th century BCE) Pliny thought that he was of Etruscan origin. the west of the Circus Maximus. nocturnal.[2] pairs would incarnate the violent.[11] Varro. The story looks to be an adaptation manus. Dark victims were typically offered to chthonic deities. This identification is taken up by later writers roof of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been struck such as Camões (“If in Summanus’ gloomy realm / Sever[5] by a lightningbolt. were manus. The first gods of these precise nature was unclear even to Ovid. however. daylight and legalistic aspect. Iupiter Summanus and the Manes . to the custom of ancient time pilgrims of bringing flowers whom king Titus Tatius dedicated altars (arae) in conse. Summanus (Latin: Summānus) was the god of nocturnal thunder.which according to a local legend a young shepherdess got nium “the greatest of the Manes". For Brian Lum. the day before the [17] est punishment you now endure …") and Milton. The double aspect of heavenly In ancient Roman religion. wrapped in a smoking whirlwind of blue flame. Summanus also received a sacrifice of two black oxen or wethers. 278 BCE on June 20.[19] The content of this section is adapted from the entry Monte 65 . see Brian Lumley deities#Summanus. represent the uncanny. round cakes called summanalia. It seems the temple had been dedi. connected to heavenly sovereignty.[12] Paulus Diaconus considers him a The mountain top is frequently hit by lightningbolts.[8] Cicero recounts that the clay statue of the god which stood on the roof of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was struck by a lightningbolt: its head was nowhere to be seen.Georges Dumézil[15] has argued that Summanus would ley’s fictional god. “under” + lost and disappeared. quence of a votum. mysterious The temple of Summanus was dedicated during the aspect of sovereignty while the second ones would reflect Pyrrhic War c. milk and honey and shaped as wheels. and one and was continuously active til late antiquity (at least the of the nine gods of thunder. in summer solstice. as counterposed sovereign power would be reflected in the dichotomy Varuna-Mitra in Vedic religion and in Rome in the dito Jupiter.[7] Saint Augustine records that in earlier times Summanus had been more exalted than Jupiter. where indeed it was found on the very spot indicated by them. located in the Alps near Vicenza (Veneto.[3][4] It stood at its reassuring.[9] 15. Jupiter became more honored.1 Summanus and Mount Summano Traditionally Mount Summano (elevation 1291 m. other name for Pluto as the “highest” (summus) of the cated because the statue of the god which stood on the Manes.Chapter 15 Summanus This article is about the Roman deity. Every June 20. The god of lightning. but with the construction of a temple that was more magnificent than that of Summanus. of the myth of Pluto and Proserpina. offered to him as a token of propitiation: the wheel might [18] falls upon people and cities”. perhaps on the slope [16] Summanus is anof the Aventine. The area was one of the last strongholds of ancient religion in Italy as is shown by the fact that Vicenza had no bishop until 590 CE.[13] mountain has a deep grotto (named Bocca Lorenza) in The name Summanus is thought to be from Summus Ma. The haruspices announced that it had been hurled into the Tiber River. Italy) is considered a site of the cult of god Pluto.

557 L [7] John Scheid. eaque esse undecim generum. City of God IV 23 [9] Cicero De Divinatione I 10 [10] Livy AUC XXXII 29. “Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors”.66 Summano of WP Italian. p. Hist. [15] Myth et epopée vol. 1967). Iovem enim trina iaculari. rariora sane eadem de causa frigidioris caeli). Iul. [13] Entry on Dium above. 408. For dedication year. Livy Periochae XIV. Mitra-Varuna: essai sur deux representations indoeuropeennes de la souverainetè Paris 1948 2nd. English translation by John Bostock. Frazer. p. CHAPTER 15. see Orlin. CIL I 2nd p.. 211. Pliny mentions the temple at Natural History 29. Ball Platner. 15. XXIX 14. [3] Ovid fasti VI 729-731. 221.243. Vol.. [14] Summanus. Fasti 6. “The Wheel in the Ritual Symbolism of Some Indo-European Peoples. Fasti Esquil.2 Notes and references [1] Paulus Festi epitome p. Eric M. Raffaele Pettazzoni.188 L 2nd. [2] “The temple is said to have been dedicated to Summanus. 5. IV. in consequence of the heavens being colder” (Tuscorum litterae novem deos emittere fulmina existimant. 33. SUMMANUS [17] Os Lusíadas. Of these the Romans retained only two. 3. T. I 10..53 (alternative numbering 52 or 138): “The Tuscan books inform us. 107. Translation by James G. Venus. 1977. 14-15. Ashby A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome Baltimore 1928 p. that there are nine Gods who discharge thunder-storms. ascribing the diurnal kind to Jupiter. . III part 2 chapt.164.57 (= 29. tr. citing Cicero de Div. and the nocturnal to Summanus. [5] S. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. 731. via Perseus Digital Library. Milano 1977 p. 320 [4] Pliny Nat. 2007). “Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule”. [8] Augustine. 264. translated as The Lusiad by Thomas Moore Musgrave (1826). in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. 1 [11] Natural History 2. De nuptiis 2. nocturna Summano. [19] Lucio Puttin Monte Summano: storia. 98100 [6] Festus p. Romani duo tantum ex iis servavere.. 184 [16] Martianus Capella. La religion romaine archaïque Paris 1974.” in Essays on the History of Religions (Brill. Iordanes I 2. p. Loeb Classical Library. [18] In the Latin poem “In Quintum Novembris” (lines 23– 24): Talibus infestat populos Summanus et urbes / cinctus caeruleae fumanti turbine flammae. 47 (2002). whoever he may be” (quisquis is est. It. diurna attribuentes Iovi.: ad XII Kal. Amit. [12] Varro Lingua Latina V 74. arte e tradizioni Schio. and that three of them are darted out by Jupiter. Summano templa feruntur): Ovid.14). Livy Periochae XIV. that there are eleven different kinds of them. this latter kind being more rare.

ISBN 0-517-52746-4. [3] Lucretius. she was also known to steal young maidens to assist her in her powers. the three-way crossroads and the harvest moon. J E. Potter. [2] Kravitz. Dictionary of Classical Mythology. “TRIVIA”. Inc. Who’s Who in Greek and Roman Mythology. New York: Harper & Row. 67 . 84. she was known as the Queen of Ghosts. 16. David (1975). As a part of her role as an underworld goddess. graveyards. p. she wandered about at night and was seen only by the barking of dogs who told of her approach.1 References [1] Zimmerman. Her association for Romans of the first century BCE with Artemis was so thorough that Lucretius[3] identifies the altar of the goddess at the sacrifice of Iphianassa (Iphigeneia) in Aulis as Triviai virginis aram. “Trivia”. She was a friend of Ceres and helped her to find her daughter Proserpina. De rerum natura.Chapter 16 Trivia (mythology) Trivia in Roman mythology was the goddess who “haunted crossroads. These women later became nymphs. 278. i. the goddess of witchcraft. p. New York: Clarkson N. and was the goddess of sorcery and witchcraft. Although she helped Ceres to find her daughter. 231. (1964).”[1] She was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Hecate.[2] She was an underworld Titan-goddess who assisted Jove in the Titanomachy and was therefore able to keep her powers.

The myth of Endymion. was a popular Juno and Diana were invoked as childbirth goddesses subject for Roman wall painting.[14] The Aventine temple may have been destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome during the reign of Nero. along with Proserpina and Hecate. 2nd–5th centuries AD) The Romans dated the cultivation of Luna as a goddess at Rome to the semi-legendary days of the kings.[16] ulare. In Roman art and all Ides were to Jupiter.[17] On the Nones.[13] In 84 BC. Nothing else is known about the temple.[3] She was one of 17. it was struck by lightning. performed in 17 BC. English “lunar”). bidding her to listen to the girls singing as Apollo listens to the boys.[6] with the epithet Lucina. Juno of the crescent moon.[15] In ancient Roman religion and myth.[2] Varro categorized Luna and Sol among the visible gods. but sometimes rather an epithet that specializes a goddess. Luna is distinguished from both Diana and Juno.2 Juno as moon goddess the deities Macrobius proposed as the secret tutelary of Rome. since both Diana and Juno are identified as moon goddesses.[1] As Noctiluna (“Night-Shiner”) Luna had a temple on the Palatine Hill. which Varro described as shining or glowIn Roman art.Chapter 17 Luna (goddess) 17. Horace invokes her as the “two-horned queen of the stars” (siderum regina bicornis).[8] Varro also lists Luna among twenty principal gods of Rome (di selecti).[19] 68 . as Luna’s Greek counterpart was Selene.[9] In this list. Luna is not always a distinct goddess. Sol and Luna can represent the extent of Roman rule over the world.[7] as does Vergil in a different list of twelve. cf.[11] The anniversary of the temple founding (dies natalis) was celebrated annually on March 31. when according to the lunar guaranteeing peace. myths of Selene are adapted under the name of ored as Juno Covella. Titus Tatius was supposed to have imported the cult of Luna to Rome from the Sabines. in which he refers to Luna and Sol as clarissima mundi lumina. which crashed into the Temple of Ceres below it on the slope. the world’s clearest sources of light. Luna is also sometimes represented as an aspect of the Roman triple goddess (diva triformis). She is often presented as the female complement of the Sun (Sol) conceived of as a god. Ox-drawn biga of Luna on the Parabiago plate (ca. and deified mortals such as Hercules.1 Cult and temples Varro lists Luna among twelve deities who are vital to agriculture. with the aim of The Kalends of every month. In the Carmen Saecit is unclear what Varro meant.[10] but Servius Tullius was credited with the creation of her temple on the Aventine Hill.[4] In Imperial cult. Luna’s attributes are the crescent moon ing by night. as distinguished from invisible gods such as Neptune. and and the two-yoke chariot (biga). was sacred to Juno. who also appear on it. she was honliterature. just below a temple of Diana.[12] It first appears in Roman literature in the story of how in 182 BC a windstorm of exceptional power blew off its doors. the same day the popularist leader Cinna was murdered by his troops.[18] Both Luna. for instance. Luna is the divine embodiment of the Moon (Latin luna.[5] calendar the new moon occurred.

In this relief depicting a Mithraic tauroctony. 65.68. p. Diana. earth. 73. the sun’s course through the four seasons. SEE ALSO 17.[21] [17] Green. the charioteer [11] Orosius 5. 94. p.2. as light in color. 2006). p. 238. De re rustica 1. p. Luna is often depicted driving a two-yoke chariot (biga). A New Topofocuses on Luna alone shows one of the horses of the team graphical Dictionary. p. as preserved by Augustine of Hippo. De lingua latina 5.” in A Companion to Roman Religion (Blackwell. lines 33–36.”[20] Luna in her biga was an element of Mithraic iconography. De Vir. [4] Jörg Rüpke. [5] William Van Andringa.41. 23 (Cardauns) = Tertullian.26. [15] Tacitus.3 Chariot of the moon 69 heaven. De lingua latina 6. Richardson.2.17. land.[22] The [19] Green. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Camover the heavens.27. 2007). Carmen Saeculare.14–2-. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. In the mithraeum of S. De lingua latina 5. p. and underworld. “because it travels on a twin course [13] Livy 40. According to the [20] Isidore. not as in the later tradition bridge University Press. 238.” in A Companion to Roman Religion. night—for they yoke together one black horse and one [14] Appian. In Roman art.4.50. De Civitate Dei 7.883–84. p. white. A New Topographical Dictionary. as translated by Stephen A. Richardson. Attilio Mastrocinque.2. Luna drives a biga drawn by oxen (right). p.M.4 See also • List of Roman deities 17. [8] Vergil. Hecate originally had power Barney et al. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Johns Luna is regularly paired with the Sun driving a four-horse Hopkins University Press.[24] 17.C. 2007)..” in A Companion to Roman Religion. “Religion and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the Second Century AD: The Creation of a Common Religious Language.74. 368 online. usually in the context of the tauroctony. 1992). p. a wall painting that uniquely [16] Varro. Bellum Civile 1. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana. frg.3.3–10. p. 238. the chthonic aspect of the triple goddess in complement with the [18] Varro. Ad nationes 2. Green. while the biga represents the moon. “Creating One’s Own Religion: Intellectual Choices.2. Ill.5–25. drawn by horses or oxen. Archaic Greek poet Hesiod. 383. [2] Horace. [10] Varro. Etymologies 18. or because it is visible both by day and by nary. “horned” or crescent-crowned Diana and Luna. Georgics 1. 188. [7] Varro. Lawrence Richardson. and sea. Richardson. A New Topographical Dictiowith the sun.5 References [1] C. Maria Capua Vetere. Richardson. three-form Hecate (trimorphos) was identified by Servius [23] with Luna. A New Topographical Dictionary. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 2. 133. Fasti 3. 238. 238. [6] Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann. p. p. A biga of oxen was also driven by Hecate. and Proserpina.12. chariot (quadriga). while the Sun drives a horse-drawn quadriga (left) [3] Varro. 73. 73.1. Isidore of Seville explains that the quadriga represents [12] Ovid. Religion of the Romans. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at Aricia (Cambridge University Press. Annales 15. Luna (top right corner) paired with the Sun (top left) in another depiction of the tauroctony [9] Varro.4–6.78. p. with the other a dark brown. “Religion in the House. .

J. [23] Servius. p.118. pp–15. [22] Prudentius. [24] Hesiod. 248. 1971).” Vigiliae Christianae 19. “The Powers of Darkness in Prudentius’ Contra Symmachum: A Study of His Poetic Imagination. Mithraica I: The Mithraeum at S.4 (1965). LUNA (GODDESS) .6 External links Media related to Luna (mythology) at Wikimedia Commons CHAPTER 17. Maria Capua Vetere (Brill. Phaedrus 246. Contra Symmachum 733 (Migne). 14. note to Aeneid 6.70 [21] M. 17. Vermaseren. Theogony 413f. Plato. Friedrich Solmsen.

[6] 18.[2] In the Olympian scheme.hunted by Hera over the whole earth. is identidisputed) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe cal to the epithet of her son Apollo. Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων.[14] which may relate him to the sphere of In Greek mythology. till she came to Dedated Hellenic influence in the region. the Letoon near Xanthos pre. Lātṓ in Dorian Greek. which she renamed to honthe sun and moon. bright”).[7] Walter Burkert notes[8] that in Phaistos she appears in connection with an initiation When Hera. however.[19] the north of Lycia. which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus. Classical Greek myths record little about Leto other than her pregnancy and her search for a place where she could give birth to Apollo and Artemis.[3] Apollo and Artemis.midwifery she afterwards gave birth to Apollo.1 Etymology Several explanations have been put forward to explain the origin of the goddess and the meaning of her name. and the sister of Asteria. formerly called Tremilis. who may have been Titans of cia. she had the most to lose in changes to the order of naLeto was identified from the fourth century onwards with ture —[17] discovered that Leto was pregnant and that the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia. Her Titan father is called “Coeus.Chapter 18 Leto For other uses.” and our wolves that had befriended her[20] for her denning. also links Leto with wolves 71 . any island at sea. more recently identified. by the help of whose united the Lycian confederacy of city-states.[16] ered an eighth-century post-Minoan hearth house temple in which there were found three unique figures of Apollo. Leto’s equivalent is Latona. ture uncertain. Leto (/ˈliːtoʊ/. was at Oenoanda in land.2 Birth of Artemis and Apollo a shaped core (sphyrelata). see Leto (disambiguation) and Latona though Herbert Jennings Rose considers his name and na(disambiguation). Lycian lada may also be the origin of the Greek name Λήδα Leda. P. Erich Bethe.[4] This is her one active mythic role: once Apollo and Artemis are grown. the Letoides. She was powerless to stop the the Letoides are referred to as the “national gods” of the flow of events. Finally. Older sources speculated that the name is related to the Greek λήθη lḗthē (oblivion) and λωτός lotus (the fruit that brings oblivion to those who eat it). as Zeus was the father.[1] The island of Kos is claimed throughout Homer. influenced by Etruscan Letun. It would thus mean “the hidden one”. Leto withdraws. a further Antoninus Liberalis is not alone in hinting that Leto came Letoon at Delos. the mainsanctuary. down from the land of the Hyperboreans in the guise of a Leto’s primal nature may be deduced from the natures she-wolf. to remain a dim[5] and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus. Other scholars (Paul Kretschmer.[15] In 20th-century sources Leto is traditionally derived from Lycian lada.”[18] Hera lenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own. since Hera in her jealousy had caused all lands to shun her. her part already played. Spyridon Marinatos uncov.suggested a Pre-Greek origin. Zeus is the father of her twins. or any place under the sun. Aelian. of course. The Hel. as her birthplace. as her earliest cult was centered in Lycia. the most conservative of goddesses — for cult. Another late source. In Roman mythology. Greek: Λητώ Lētṓ. S. she finds an island that isn't attached to the ocean floor so it isn't considered land and she can give birth. Λατώ. Beekes) have In Crete. she realized that the offspring would the region became Hellenized. etymology and meaning “Phoebe” (Φοίβη — literally “pure.[12] There was. at the city of Dreros.[9] In Greek inscriptions. Pierre Chantraine and R. cement the new order. or that she sought out the “wolf-country” of Lyof her father and mother.[13] he is in one Roman source given the name Polus. Another banned Leto from giving birth on “terra firma”. “wife”. “Latona for her intrigue with Zeus was country. The name of Leto’s mother. a Latinization of her name. Artemis and Leto made of brass sheeting hammered over 18.[10] Her sanctuary.[11] and los and brought forth first Artemis. heaven from pole to pole.

Wolves are not easily delivered of their young. which also included a temple to an Egyptian god Greeks identified by interpretatio graeca as Apollo. or Greek goddesses in their Cretan form. for the people of Delos maintain that this was the length of time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyperboreoi to Delos.[29] As Leto Phytia she was a mother-deity. LETO and Hyperboreans: 18.”[21] It is remarkable that Leto brought forth Artemis. it was necessary that the ancient Delphic Oracle passed to the protection of the new god.3 Witnesses at the birth of Apollo . according to the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo. where she was the central figures she would not have assembled here. as Callimachus wrote. As a gesture of gratitude.[31] “The conception of a goddess enthroned like her mother Rhea attends. in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo and in an Orphic hymn. He attempted to rape Leto near Delphi under the orders of Hera. a queen and equipped with a spindle seems to have origiThe goddess Dione (in her name simply the “Goddess”) is nated in Asiatic worship of the Great Mother". the elder twin. and these became the enemies of Apollo and Artemis. 18. the goddesses who as. the goddess of childbirth.7 Leto of the golden spindle ing authenticated in this myth is the new dynasty of Zeus and the Olympian Pantheon.4 Chthonic assailants Leto was threatened and assailed in her wanderings by chthonic monsters of the ancient earth and old ways. since though Python was a child of was secured with four pillars and later became sacred to Gaia. perhaps to kidnap Eileithyia. promising the island wealth from the was the dragon Pytho. Asia Minor. a phallic being who grew so vast that he split his mother’s womb and had to be carried to term by Gaia herself. The dynastic rite of the witnessed birth must have been familiar to the hymn’s hearers. the goddess whom Greeks recognised as Leto was worshipped in the form of Wadjet. Leto labored for nine nights and nine days for Apollo.as Letoai in ancient Crete) and at Lato. states that Artemis was born before Apollo. as Pindar recalled in a Pythian Most accounts agree that she found the barren floating ode. Aphrodite is not present either. Delos cleansed afterwards. or Python. Only Hera kept apart. Themis and the “loud-moaning” sea-goddess Amphitrite. to prevent Leto from going into labor. Herodotus was given to understand. island of Delos. assisted with the birth of Apollo. name. Instead Artemis.6 Leto in Crete Leto was also worshipped in Crete. 18.[23] The dynasty that is so concerned about be. Apollo slew it but had to do penance and be surrounded by swans. of her temple on Delos.5 The Lycian Letoon Leto was intensely worshipped in Lycia. Another version.[22] as if she were merely revealing another manifestation of herself. O. There. Herodotus reported[25] a temple to her in Egypt supposedly attached to a floating island[26] called "Khemmis" in Buto.[24] In Delos and Athens she was worshipped primarily as an adjunct to her children. but a lucky survival of an inscribed inventory inine form of Zeus (see entry Dodona): if this were so. on the island of Ortygia.del notes.18. in the presence of all the first among the deathless goddesses as witnesses: Dione. Ichnaea. Apollo.72 CHAPTER 18. influenced by the Minoan goddess”. and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth there to Apollo. where the authenticity of the child must be established beyond doubt from the first moment. of the Delian trinity. which lived in a cleft of worshippers who would flock to the obscure birthplace the mother-rock beneath Delphi and beside the Castalian of the splendid god who was to come. which was neither mainland nor a real island. only after twelve days and twelve nights. By contrast.at the islands known today as the Paximadia (also known sembled to be witnesses at the birth of Apollo were re. records her cult image as sitting on 18. whether one of “certain Cretan goddesses.[30] an epithet los who bear witness to the rightness of the birth are the that was attached to her daughter Artemis as early as great goddesses of the old order. still bearing its archaic name of Asterios. Rhea.[27] Veneration of a local Leto is attested at Phaistos[28] (where it is purported that she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis According to the Homeric hymn. and the goddesses at De. and Another ancient earth creature that had to be overcome gave birth there. having been born first. Demeter is not present. The island was Spring. without travail. One was the giant Tityos.Pindar calls the goddess Leto Chryselakatos. but was laid low by the arrows of Apollo and/or Artemis. which bore her sponding to a public occasion in the rites of a dynasty. Brensometimes taken by later mythographers as a mere fem. the cobra-headed goddess of Lower Egypt. Homer.

Historia: Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte. Niobe. leaving her childless. Bryce.18. Diodorus Siculus 2. sect.365). according to Ovid's Metamorphoses. GENEALOGY OF THE OLYMPIANS IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY 73 a wooden throne. seven sons and seven daughters. 18. 61. [10] Bryce 1983:1 and note 2. Her tears formed the river Achelous.[33] when Leto was wandering the earth after giving birth to Apollo and Artemis. A Handbook of Greek Mythology (1991:21). in the garden terrace of Versailles. though she continues to weep. Theodora Hadzisteliou Price. boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids).9 Niobe Niobe. 48–69). either killed himself or was killed by Zeus after swearing revenge. [12] Alan Hall. when the gods themselves entombed them. Leto turned them into frogs for their inhospitality. Niobe is unable to move from grief and seemingly turns to marble. [2] Herodotus 2. claiming that having beauty. there. This scene. [7] Marinatos’ publications on Dreros are listed by Burkert 1985.98. “The Arrival of the Goddess Leto in Lycia”.10 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Latona and the Lycian Peasants.2.[32] (Book VI). she is more fit to be worshipped than the goddess.” [5] Hesiod. Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics. . John Boardman. Theogony 406. 18.[35] allowing a combination of mythology with landscape painting and peasant scenes. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death.[34] The peasants there refused to allow her to do so by stirring the mud at the bottom of the pond. while Leto had only two. Theogony 403. To Leto [6] Letun noted is passing in Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling. where Latona (Leto) has demanded the women of Thebes to go to her temple and burn incense. Amphion. [8] Burkert. though according to some versions a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris. [13] Herbert Jennings Rose. 1605. usually called Latona and the Lycian Peasants or Latona and the Frogs. R. forever doomed to swim in the murky waters of ponds and rivers. Latona begs Apollo and Artemis to avenge her against Niobe and to uphold her honor. at the sight of his dead sons. clothed in a linen chiton and a linen The Niobe narrative appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses himation. and Artemis her daughters.10.8 The Lycian peasants better parentage and more children than Latona. queen of Thebes. the Bassin de Latone. usually). summarizing the archaeology of the Letoon. 321 (1983:1–13). Leto’s introduction into Lycia was met with resistance. 18. thus combining history painting and genre painting. she attempted to drink water from a pond in Lycia. [11] Bryce 1983. ca. “A Sanctuary of Leto at Oenoanda” Anatolian Studies 27 (1977) pp 193–197. enters in the midst of the worship and insults the goddess. 72. “dark-veiled Leto” (Orphic Hymn 35. p. “His twin sister is usually already on the scene. To punish this insolence. Greek Religion 1985. Obedient to their mother. [3] Pindar consistently refers to Apollo and Artemis as twins. plate III. It is represented in the central fountain.11 Notes [1] Hesiod.4 note 16 (p. a queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion. by Jan Brueghel the Elder. [9] The process is discussed by T. Annual of the British School at Athens 62 (1967) p. and her husband Amphion kills himself. “Double and Multiple Representations in Greek Art and Religious Thought” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 91 (1971:pp. [4] Karl Kerenyi notes.5a-b. other sources instead give separate birthplaces for the siblings. The Gods of the Greeks 1951:130.47. was popular in Northern Mannerist art. I. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them. 18. A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylus in Asia Minor and either turned to stone as she wept or killed herself. the twins slay Niobe’s seven sons and seven daughters. and her body is transported to a high mountain peak in her native land. Etruscan Myths (series: The Legendary Past) (British Museum/University of Texas Press) 2006. For her hubris.

Palmer.. Metamorphoses. “Cretan Eileithyia'. 51 (1936). Willetts. “The temple of Leto (Wadjet) at Buto”. Gray. [35] Bull. 35. Brill. [24] Appian tells of Mithridates’ intention to cut down the sacred grove at the Letoon to serve in his siege of Patara on the Lycian coast. [22] Artemis speaks: “my mother suffered no pain either when she gave me birth or when she carried me in her womb. Bibliotheke 1. a nightmare warned him to desist. [29] Noted by R. p 221. according to Kerenyi 1951:131. [21] Aelian. 13. Antoninus Liberalis also relates a version of this myth. [27] D. 285. 855 and 858–9. Ovid. giving as his sources Menecrates of Xanthos (4th century BCE) and Nicander of Colophon. 1958. 36 [31] O. Metamorphoses vi. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1873.” CHAPTER 18. Histories. ed. Oxford UP. Mycenaeans and Minoans: Aegean Prehistory in the Light of the Linear B Tablets in The Classical Review. 4 (A.155-56 [26] “The claim that it floated is rightly dismissed by Herodotus — it probably reflects nothing more than contamination by Greek traditions on the floating island of Ortygia/Delos associated with Leto. pp. reviewing L. Mithridates.F. Leto • Pictures of the sanctuary for Leto at Letoum . The Classical Quarterly. Beekes. [16] R. How Renaissance Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods. Koios is translated literally. [30] Pindar.com. Brendel. tr. as Polus: “From Polus and Phoebe: Latone. [20] Antoninus Liberalis’ etiological myth reflects Greek misunderstanding of a Greek origin for the place-name Lycia. Antoninus Liberalis. Lloyd.74 [14] In the surviving summary of the preface to Gaius Julius Hyginus. 100– 127) p 113ff. gave birth in the midst of a crowd of the women of the household. at Theoi.R.” (Callimachus. 18. in “The Corbridge Lanx” The Journal of Roman Studies 31 (1941). [18] Pseudo-Apollodorus. the article is a discussion of the seated female figure he identifies as Leto on the Roman silver tray (lanx) at Alnwick Castle. [17] See Hera. 1963:87–91. noting Pierre Roussel. (Appian. [25] Herodotus. Metamorphoses.4. 2. LETO [15] W.). Scholfield. [28] “the citizens of Phaistos on Crete performed sacrifices to Leto the Grafter because she had grafted male organs onto a maiden (Antoninus Liberalis 17)" notes William F.F.com [32] O. pp. modern scholars now suggest a source in the "Lukka lands" of Hittite inscriptions (Bryce 1983:5).F. Smith. Asterie.12 External links • Theoi. The Mirror of the Gods. vi.H. 266-268. [33] Ovid. to Artemis).” remarks Alan B.1. Handbook of Classical Mythology. Brendel. ISBN 100195219236 [19] Hyginus. On the Nature of Animals 4. [23] Greek women. Délos. 2004: “Sexchangers”. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. in Anton Powell. at least among Athenians. P. colonie athénienne (Paris: Boccard) 1916. ed. Hansen. pp. 27). Malcolm. Fabulae 140). Sixth Nemean Ode. but without travail put me from her body. S. 2005.317-81 provides another late literary source. The Greek World (Routledge) 1995:190. Römische Mitt. Hymn 3. p 60ff. 2009.317-81. [34] The spring Melite.

.. Bob.[3] In the Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible.E. They are both nursed by “The Lady”. p. ISBN 978-965-90555-0-0. 19. Check date values in: |date= (help) Shalim is also mentioned separately in the Ugaritic god lists and forms of his name also appear in personal names. van der Horst. pp. 82. Ariel Golan (Original from the University of Virginia.1 Ugaritic inscriptions [7] John Day..[4] [8] http://books. • van der Toorn. Canaanite Jerusalem and its central hill country neighbours in the second millennium B. Ugarit-Forschungen Vol. twin deities of the dusk and dawn.” Ym in most Semitic languages means “day.com/books?id=63BP9RPm26sC& pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=god+of+peace+ugaritic+ shalim&source=bl&ots=kFmXA0htEw&sig= ovNpxhbuiBv1k4jiuSR34176GZI&hl=en&sa= X&ei=GM08UZ-hM42Q7Aa0rIC4Aw&ved= 0CE0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=god%20of% 20peace%20ugaritic%20shalim&f=false 19. and also romanized as Shalem. Grabbe. K. were conceived of as its beginning and end. cf.). and Salim) was the name of a god in the Canaanite religion pantheon.] The names [of Sahar and Salim] are rendered in modern scholarly texts as Shakhar and Shalim [. and have appetites as large as "(one) lip to the earth and (one) lip to the heaven. describes Shalim and his brother Shahar as offspring of El through two women he meets at the seashore. “The name of the Canaanite deity of the setting sun Salim.[1] Another inscription is a sentence repeated three times in a para-mythological text. the voracious gods of ym.” and Shahar.google. Prehistoric religion: mythology. 2003) pp145-163.). 'sunset' and 'peace'.Chapter 19 Shalim Shalim (derived from the triconsonantal Semitic root SL-M.3 Bibliography • Albright. Shalim is also identified as the deity representing Venus or the “Evening Star. pp275-291. mentioned in inscriptions found in Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria. Ethnic groups in Jerusalem. [6] L. Israel. 2003. Pieter Willem (1999). [5] N.[1][2] William F. 755-6 [2] Golan. 1990. the Akkadian word for sunset. 1999. Sheffield Academic Press 2002. šalām šamši. Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd. and Shahar as god of the dawn. 24 (1992).]" 19. Becking. or Salem. 222.2 References [1] van der Toorn et al. 187. ISBN 9780802824912.[1][5][6][7] The god Shalim may have been associated with dusk and the evening star in the etymological senses of a 'completion' of the day. Na'aman. [. Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths (Reprint ed..p... the “Morning Star”. Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan.” In other Ugaritic texts.[8] • Golan. symbolism. Albright identified Shalim as the god of dusk.C. 1999. ISBN 978-0-931464-01-0. Wm. revised ed. 75 .4 Other uses Shalem is also the name of the 4-D cinematic presentation at the Jerusalem Time Elevator in Jerusalem.. perhaps as a divine name or epithet.” and Shalim and Shahar. p180 A Ugaritic myth known as The Gracious and Most Beautiful Gods.. the two are associated with the sun goddess. William Foxwell (1968 / 1990). in Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (Clark International.[1] [3] Albright. B. 19. Salem. p. [4] van der Toorn et al. likely Anat (Athirat or Asherah). Ariel (2003). “Let me invoke the gracious gods.[1] Many scholars believe that the name of Shalim is preserved in the name of the city Jerusalem. Eerdmans Publishing. Eisenbrauns.

5 See also • Almaqah • Wadd • Shahar CHAPTER 19. SHALIM .76 19.

[1] Large numbers of inscriptions bearing his name have been found.2 References [1] “NABATAEAN PANTHEON”. Alex (October 11. uses this pantheon as inspiration for its music.[2] 20.Chapter 20 Al-Qaum Al-Qaum (Arabic: ‫ )القوم‬was the Nabataean god of war and the night. 20. and archaeologists believe that he was a major god of the Nabataean pantheon. Retrieved 31 January 2013.[1] Al-Qaum however also literally translates to 'the people' in formal Arabic. 77 . Retrieved 31 January 2013.1 In Popular Culture A black metal band in Saudi Arabia. it might just be referring to a group of people at the time as an entity. and guardian of caravans. [2] Phillips. Al-Namrood.. “AL-NAMROOD Heavy Metal Underground”. 2012).

Harvard University Press p. Aveni. (1c) Tlazolteotl.[5] Zelia Nuttall argued that the Nine Lords of the Night represented the nine moons of the Lunar year. bad or good.[6] The cycle of the Nine Lords of the Night held special relation to the Mesoamerican ritual calendar of 260-days and nights or -night which includes exactly 29 groups of 9 nights each. 2010. 1a. 156-57 The glyphs corresponding to the night gods are known and mayanists identify them with labels G1 to G9. Christine L. The Aztec names of the Deities are known because their 78 [3] Lynn V.Pauahtun the Aged Quadripartite God. since the evidence suggests that the lord of a given night ruled over that entire night. 1b. 2005. that was an omen for the night that they ruled over. Astronomers. 1c. and Priests: Intellectual Interchange Between the Northern Maya Lowlands and Highland Mexico in the Late Postclassic Period. 3a. and also. approximately. 2a. the G series. this argument has not generally been accepted. Hernández. 259 [4] http://www. (2b) Mictlantecuhtli.org/Calendar/gglyph. 2c. Chalchiuhtlicue (“Jade Is Her Skirt”) Tlazolteotl (“Filth God[dess]") Tepeyollotl (“Mountain Heart”) Tlaloc (Rain God) are a set of nine gods who each ruled over every ninth night forming a calendrical cycle. (3c) Xiuhtecuhtli. 291 The existence of a 9 nights cycle in Mesoamerican calendrics was first discovered in 1904 by Eduard Seler. (1b) Tepeyollotl.1 Sources The lords of the night are known in both the Aztec and Maya calendar. 9 vague lunations of 29 days each. Skywatchers: A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. The actual reading order of the panels is boustrophedon and begins in the bottom right: 3c. (2a) Centeotl. (3b) Itztli. Seler argued that the 9 lords each correIn Mesoamerican mythology the Lords of the Night sponded to one of the nine levels of the under world and ruled the corresponding hour of the night time. these glyphs are frequently used with a fixed glyph coined F. Foster. The Nine Lords of the Night in Aztec mythology are:[5] Xiuhtecuhtli (“Turqoise/Year/Fire Lord”) Itztli/Tecpatl (“Obsidian"/"Flint”) Piltzintecuhtli (“Prince Lord”) Centeotl (“Maize God”) Mictlantecuhtli (“Underworld Lord”) Lords of the Night in Codex Borgia (1a) Tlaloc. Generally.[3][4] [2] Gabrielle Vail. The only Mayan light lord that has been identified is the God G9. 2001. (2c) Chalchiuhtlicue. University of Texas Press. although the specific names of the Maya Night Lords are unknown. p.html Gods discussion in Pauahtun Night .pauahtun.Chapter 21 Lords of the Night Further information: List of Aztec deities names are glossed in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis and See also: Lords of the Day Codex Tudela. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World. pp. 2b. 3b. Oxford University Press. (3a) Piltzintecuhtli.[2] [1] Anthony F. Each lord was associated with a particular fortune.[1] 21. Scribes.

44-45 [6] Zelia Nuttall. 486-500 79 . 4 pp. 6. The Periodical Adjustments of the Ancient Mexican Calendar. Cycles of Time and Meaning in the Mexican Books of Fate. SOURCES [5] Elizabeth Hill Boone. American Anthropologist .21. New Series. Vol.1. 2007. No. 1904. University of Texas Press pp.

22. she can also appear with clear butterfly or eagle attributes. caking her face with white powder and lining her cheeks with strips of rubber.[3] (In the Manuscript of 1558. star demons that threatened to devour people during solar eclipses.” Xiuhnel drank the blood and then im- 80 .[2] Her nagual was a deer. As the legend goes. Itzpapalotl is described as having “blossomed into the white flint. seductive woman or terrible goddess with a skeletal head and butterfly wings supplied with stone blades. Ītzpāpālōtl /iːtspaːˈpaːlot ɬ/ dle. ͡ ͡ (“ObIn Aztec mythology. whose image is found on ceramic urns. At some times. see Acamapichtli.3 Mythology 22. or women who had died in childbirth.[3] Depiction of Itzpapalotl from the Codex Borgia. In many instances Goddess 2J. Itzpapalotl fell from heaven along with Tzitzimime and several other shapes such as scorpions and toads. Not only was Itzpapalotl considered one of the cihuateteo herself. Itzpapalotl approached the two “cloud serpents named ͡ who transXiuhnel /ˈʃiwnel/ and Mimich /ˈmimitʃ/". However. and they took the white and wrapped it in a bun- According to the Manuscript of 1558. It’s quite possible that clawed butterfly refers to the bat and in some instances Itzpapalotl is depicted with bat wings. Although the identity remains inconclusive. Some of her associations include birds and fire. section VII. Xiuhnel.2 Ritual Itzpapalotl is the patron of the day and associated with the stars Cozcuauhtli and Trecena 1 House in the Aztec calendar.[4] 22. Itzpapalotl was one of two divine 2-headed doe-deers (the other one being Chimalman) who temporarily transformed themselves into women in order to seduce men. Her fingers tapered into the claws of a jaguar. The Trecena 1 House is one of the five western trecena dates dedicated to the cihuateteo. Itzpapalotl wore an invisible cloak so that no one could see her.”) She could appear in the form of a beautiful.[1] She is the mother of Mixcoatl and is particularly associated with the moth Rothschildia orizaba from the family Saturniidae. is identified with bats. she was said to have dressed up like a lady of the Mexican Court. the latter meaning seems most likely. sidian Butterfly”) was a fearsome skeletal warrior goddess who ruled over the paradise world of Tamoanchan. and her toes into eagle’s claws. “In folklore. formed themselves into men (so as to disguise themselves when all the others of the Centzonmimixcoa had been slain in the ambush?). but she was also one of the tzitzimime. Her wings are obsidian or tecpatl (flint) knife tipped. bats are sometimes called “black butterflies"".Chapter 22 Itzpapalotl For the Aztec ruler.1 Iconography Itzpapalotl’s name can either mean “obsidian butterfly” or “clawed butterfly”. the paradise of victims of infant mortality and the place identified as where humans were created. Itzpapalotl said ""Drink. To Xiuhnel. the Zapotec deity named Goddess 2J by Alfonso Caso and Ignacio Bernal may be a Classic Zapotec form of Itzpapalotl.

Norton & Co.6 Notes [1] Itzpapalotl. In :LATIN AMERICAN INDIAN LITERATURES JOURNAL. Thelma D.Elsie Clews Parsons : Mitla. Karl Taube (1993). Arthur J.. Citing :. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. p. 100 [4] Elizabeth Benson : “The Maya and the Bat”. Heroes. 200.. She also runs a nightclub named Obsidian Butterfly. U of Chicago Pr. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) Sahagún. Eloise Quiñones Keber. Rituals. OCLC 77857686. p. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion.. Dibble.5 See also • Aztec mythology in popular culture • Black Sun (mythology) • Cihuateteo • Cihuacoatl • Tzitzimime • Mixcoatl • Tamoanchan • Woman warrior • List of women warriors in folklore 22. 113. Primeros Memoriales. 61 22.O. with H. Hamilton’s Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series. Kay Almere.”[5] 22. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) 22. Then Mimich . Suddenly she . . Mary. and Wayne Ruwet (completion. EXTERNAL LINKS mediately lay down with her. the Obsidian or Clawed Butterfly [2] Itzpapalotl: Itzpapalotl. and ed.). tore open his breast. Invalid |namelist-format=scap (help) Read. Mythology [3] Miller & Taube.1558–61]. Nicholson..B.7 References Miller. Charles E.. and paleography of Nahuatl text). 22. revisions.. 2001. Bernardino de (1997) [ca. and Beliefs of Mexico and Central America. the ninth book is named Obsidian Butterfly and involves a vampire named Itzpapalotl. NY. 1936. Jason J González (2002). OCLC 27667317. ISBN 978-0-80612909-9.8 External links • An image of Rothschildia orizaba . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.. who was once an Aztec priestess and believes herself actually to be the goddess of that name. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.4 Popular culture In Laurel K.. London: Thames 81 & Hudson. fell into it. descended into a thorny barrel cactus. Anderson. p. Sullivan (English trans. OCLC 35848992. Civilization of the American Indians series vol. devoured him. ISBN 0-19-514909-2. ran and . p. 318 [5] Miguel León-Portilla & Earl Shorris : In the Language of Kings.8. Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology: A Guide to the Gods. and the woman fell down after him. Goddess of Fire and Birds in Aztec Religion.22. part 2.. vol 4 (1988).

1 Otomi mythology For the Otomi people. For more detailed explanation see Toponymy of Mexico. Arqueoastronomía en la américa antigua.2 Mexican traces The origin of the name of the Mexica probably derived from Metztli. Jesús (1994).4 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Mextli 82 • Galindo Trejo. probably the main deity. Diario Síntesis. La Luna”. the Queen of the Night. He/she was probably the same deity as Yohaulticetl and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl. like the latter.Chapter 23 Metztli In Aztec mythology. They were giving every month 30 days. the night. They called her the Old Mother. “Metztli.3 Legend The Moon and Sun were at one time equally bright. Metzi) was a god or goddess of the moon. During a full moon. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Esperanza Carrasco Licea & Alberto Carramiñana Alonso. one of them threw a rabbit in the face of the other. and the one struck darkened to become today’s moon. Also referred to as the lowly god of worms who failed to sacrifice himself to become the sun. and farmers. It not being appropriate for gods to be equals. was the god of fire. and became the moon instead. 23. 28 de Mayo de 1996 . The Otomi counted lunar months as a period from new moon to new moon. Zäna was the Moon. Henceforth it’s possible to distinguish a figure of a rabbit on the moon’s surface. México: Equipo Sirius. Her spouse. 23.A. who represented both Moon and Earth simultaneously.5 References 23. ISBN 84-86639-66-2. he/she feared the sun because he/she feared its fire. his face darkened by a rabbit. the Old Father. the “Rabbit in the Moon” becomes readily visible. S. Metztli (also Meztli. 23. • Tecciztecatl 23.

Ipal. the full length of his arms. Most Ome Acatl[6] (“Two Reed”). or the “Manikin Scepter” and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian Tezcatlipōca pronounced /teskatɬiˈpoːka/[1] ) was a central knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake. the north. war and strife. However. Due to the lack of surviving images. One of the four sons of Ometeotl. beauty. catlipoca discord. and knotted When depicted he was usually drawn with a black and a sandals with an armband. and tinker bells either around yellow stripe painted across his face. or any combination there of can be depicted. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca’s apand depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tez.site to site. Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest. which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica which were some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisi[10] used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. see Tezcatlipoca (disambiguation).[4][5] bands across his face especially in black and yellow.[8] The Tezcatlipoca figure goes back to earlier Mesoamerican deities worshipped by the Olmec and Maya. Tezcatlipoca’s nagual. obsidian. hurricanes. Necoc Yaotl (“Enemy being black in certain places. but He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects the many different codices vary on which two colors from of his deity: Titlacauan (“We are his Slaves”). Depending on the site half of Both Sides”). The color black is strongly associated with Tezcatlipoca and he is often portrayed as having horizontal catlipoca in codex illustrations. and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. bone—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses Tezcatlipoca (/ˌtɛzˌkætliˈpoʊkə/. the earth. sorcery. rulership. enmity. Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. the majority of his and the Nigh”) and Yohualli Èhecatl (“Night. Tloque Nahuaque (“Lord of the Near of his leg. the fact that many images are difman related to Tezcatlipoca was a disc worn as a chest ficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that pectoral.[12] Tezcatlipoca is often shown carwith his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror or a rying a shield with balls of either feathers or cotton and 83 . In the Aztec ritual calendar the Tonalpohualli Tezcatlipoca ruled the trecena 1 Ocelotl (“1 Jaguar”)—he was also patron of the days with the name Acatl (“reed”). his animal counterpart. Classical Nahuatl: his foot battling with the Earth Monster. A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means “obsidian” and who was associated with sacrifice. His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as “Smoking Mirror”[2] and There are few surviving representations of Tezcatlipoca alludes to his connection to obsidian.[9] deity in Aztec religion.pearance. including the night sky. the night 24. jaguars. was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl (“Mountainheart”). he is associated with a of Tezwide range of concepts. temptation. and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May.1 Representations winds. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists Tezcatlipoca as depicted in the Codex Borgia.[7] ing a heron feather headdress. a loincloth.[3] Another talis. legs. the material from into the present day.Chapter 24 Tezcatlipoca For other uses. He is often shown his neck or ankles. Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque commonly he is shown with horizontal face bands.ble god'. as "God K". wear(“Possessor of the Sky and Earth”). Wind”).[11] There are also portrayals of his body also nemoani (“He by whom we live”). divination.

[14] There are also several reference to momoztli. with definitions varying from “mound”. Quetzalcoatl.recounted in the legends of Tollan where Tezcatlipoca dedresses.”[8] Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page similarly outfitted gods or goddesses.3 Priests of Tezcatlipoca lord of the duality. priests would also Tezcatlipoca appears to be the embodiment of change dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other through conflict.of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the act rituals. as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: “the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun.[20] There were several smaller temples dedicated to Tezcatlipoca in the city. lady and hall. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs.2 Temples to Tezcatlipoca Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West. Tezcatlipoca was also worshipped in many other Nahua cities such as Texcoco.[15] Tezcatlipoca depicted in the codex Rios in the aspect of a Jaguar—in this form he was called Tepeyollotl.[18] When the ritual called for it. darkness. “The Sun of the Earth” 24.The rivalry between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca is also als.ceives Quetzalcoatl who was the ruler of the legendary lar feathers and paper decorations. yond it stood a wide.. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan.[16] Another common city and forces him into exile. and a tzanatl stick with simi. there is an overall consensus that it is a general holy place to worship the gods. Eighty stroyed the third creation “The Sun of Wind” by striking steps led to a landing twelve or fourteen feet wide. His cult was associated with royalty. the White.. in the same manner of the Great Temple was. Quetzalcoatl. their façades being towards the West”. the four gods who created the world.[17] They would also cover the both of them were seen as instrumental in the creation sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with of life. Each temple had a statue . Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the sub. Tlaxcala and Chalco. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl.Diego Durán it was “lofty and magnificently built. such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned calendar. In one version of the Aztec creation account[19] the myth of the Five Suns.4 Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl rites of kingship. Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black. and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the 24. the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca.5 Aztec religion was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was into a jaguar. But it is interesting to practice was to cover themselves in black soot or ground note that Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collabocharcoal while they were involved in priestly activities at rated in the creation of the different creations and that the temple or during rituals. the culture hero. According to Fray sequent creation “Sun of Water”. “stone seat” and “temple”. as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. write that. Common ornaments were white turkey feather head. “More than anything god. 24. a paper loincloth. as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex. Bedown Quetzalcoatl.84 CHAPTER 24. the first creation. long chamber the size of a great In later myths.[16] More on the ex. among them the ones called “Tlacochcalco” and “Huitznahuatl”. Although the exact definition of the momoztli is unknown. and were the creators of all the other The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of gods. in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of later. and Tezcatlipoca de. Karl Taube and Mary Miller. specialists in a black ointment to encourage an association with the Mesoamerican Studies. Tezcatlipoca. specifically mentioned as “his [Tezcatlipoca’s] viewing place”.[13] 24.located south of the Great Temple. the god and wore specific garments for different ritu. TEZCATLIPOCA holding arrows or a spear in his right hand with a fan of feathers surrounding a mirror.”. as well as the world and all humanity.

one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl". Tezcatlipoca turned into tified by religion during this time. feasting and dancing.[25] Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl making him send a great wind that devastated the world.” the hansome young man “worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity” [24] He would marry four young women.[25] To attract her. characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were “to pay homage” to Tezcatlipoca. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca. he is a night god or of his missing foot. his body being eaten later.[24] “For one year he lived a life of honor. Aztec folklore is rife with parple had to offer sacrifices to comfort Cipactli for her suf.[22] Tezcatlipoca’s main feast was during Toxcatl. when the Miccailhuitontli “Little Feast of the Dead” was celebrated to honour the dead. the fifth month of the Aztec calendar. became the sun. but Quetzalcoatl was furious possibly because they are enemies. and peo. Tlaloc. they created the people. During the feast where he was worshipped as the deity he personified he climbed the stairs to the top of the temple on his own where the priests seized him. and Cipactli ate it.6 Mythical stories just pretending to be kind.[24] Immediately after he died a new victim for the next year’s ceremony was chosen.allels.24. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month. These children would then have their skin painted black and be adorned with quail feathers in the image of the god. as well as during the Panquetzaliztli “Raising of Banners” ceremony in the 15th month.7 Aztec Reverence then captured her. others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility.[25] Chalchihuitlicue the Water Goddess became the sun. Turquoise mask representing the god Tezcatlipoca. a time in which he proceeded to symbolically crush “one by one the clay flutes on which he had played in his brief moment of glory. much of the time depicted in deities such as ferings. with what people survived In one of the Aztec accounts of creation. others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca. or where “citizens waited expectantly” for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of “shell trumpets. Quetzalcoatl replaced him and started the second age of the world and it became populated again. the patron deity of the royal house”.” and then was sacrificed. She cried for many years and floods. Tezcatlipoca used his foot as bait. But was crushed with Tezcatlipoca’s words saying that she is 24. Tezcatlipoca is depicted with a Tezcatlipoca.7. and the people who survived were turned into monkeys. But had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. a jaguar and destroyed the world. this “patron deity” missing foot. “On his installation.” . wearing expensive jewellery and having eight attendants. to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca. and spent his last week singing. from the British Museum.[25] For Aztec nobility.As discussed above.[25] Angered. Because of this. the god of rain. often because they were sick. Before their act there was only the sea and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli.[21] Extreme reverence and respect. made it rain fire with what people survived turning into birds. He did not make it rain for several years until. After that.[23] The preparations began a year earlier. when a young man was chosen by the priests.[21] Tezcatlipocas priests were offered into his service by their parents as children. in a fit of rage.[25] is fundamental in the social and natural phenomena jusAnother story of creation goes that Tezcatlipoca turned himself into the sun.” the new king fasted and meditated. “which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca.[25] The two gods 24. For the next year he lived like a god. and distorted her to make the land from her body. Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the world. AZTEC REVERENCE 85 of the god for which copal incense was burned four times a day. so he knocked Tezcatlipoca out of the sky with a stone club. Quetzalcoatl and world was destroyed by[25] being turned into fish.

. 183 [17] Olivier 2003 p. O wind. and in excrement.11 External links • Mexicolore . [5] http://5oymexico.org/ arqueologos-del-inah-descubren-vasija-en-forma-de-tlaloc-y-cuchillos-en-ofrenda-del-templo-mayor/ ?lang=en''. 51 [14] Olivier 2003 p. [6] This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec “2 Reed” which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl [7] For a summary of Tezcatlipocas epithets and their siginificance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1.86 were commonplace. Rex (2008). Missing or empty |title= (help). 183. p.10 References • Coe. perhaps thou seekest another in my stead”. Tezcatlipoca stories 24.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ smoking-mirrors''. O our lord. • Miller. 185 [18] Olivier 2003 p. 186 For kings. I am an imbecile. emphasizing his utter unworthiness. London. in filth hath my lifetime been. • Olivier. 164 24..201 24. p. O lord of the near.[25] [21] Coe and Koontz. priests.co. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (Sixth ed. Missing or empty |title= (help). [10] Olivier 2003 p.[21] The king would stand “naked. Mary.html • Quetzalcoatl [23] For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6. Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another. In what manner shall I act for thy city? In what manner shall I act for the governed. Michael D. lords.” speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god’s will. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. 48 [11] Olivier 2003 p.[21] CHAPTER 24. Thames & Hudson Ltd.. and thunderous war.[19] The Version as it is recounted in the Codex Ramirez— also called “Historia de Los mexicanos por sus Pinturas”. 24. shown through the figurative and literal nakedness of his presence in front of Texcatlipoca. O night. 166 the silent wind. 212 [25] Olivier 2003. and citizens alike.trinity. representing both [20] Durán quoted from Olivier (2003) p. ISBN 0-500-05068-6.). It was gods like Tezcatlipoca that solidified this notion. Karl Taube (1993). “Lord of the Smoking Mirror”.Poor am I. • List of night deities [24] Coe and Koontz. translated by Michel Besson. for the vassals (macehualtin)? For I am blind.8 See also [22] http://www. London: Thames and Hudson.[21] The new king would claim his spiritual nakedness symbolically through words and physical vulnerability. 1415. 174 [16] Olivier 2003 p. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God: Tezcatlipoca. the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was por. University Press of Colorado.. ISBN 978-0-500-28755-2. praising Tezcatlipoca with lines such as: “O master. Koontz.uk/aztecs/artefacts/ personified-knives''. [8] Taube & Miller 1993 p. the king. 52 [12] Olivier 2003 pp. Guilhem (2003).9 Notes [1] The vowel transliterated here as [i] may in fact have been long or followed by a glottal stop which is sometimes written as an ⟨h⟩ [2] For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp. TEZCATLIPOCA [9] Jun Raqan “the one-legged” was an epithet of this Classic Maya Deity of rulership and thunder which eventually led to the English word “Hurricane”. [3] http://www. 54-55 [13] Olivier 2003 p. 167 [15] Olivier 2003 p. ISBN 0-87081-745-0. especially for this deity. [4] http://www. trayed not through science or philosophical debate. I am deaf..edu/org/tricksters/trixway/current/ Vol%201/Vol%201_1/Tstocker. but Full text of this Codex in English translation can be found utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they at FAMSI believed were the cause of these events. of the nigh.co.Tezcatlipoca Symposium .[21] Utter respect from the highest position of Aztec nobility.mexicolore.mexicolore. Missing or empty |title= (help).

was a moon goddess and guardian of infants. She may have been the same as Metztli and Coyolxauhqui and the male moon god Tecciztecatl.1 See also • Black Sun (mythology) • Five Suns (mythology) 87 . 25. Yohualticetl.Chapter 25 Yohaulticetl In Aztec mythology. the “Lady of the Night”.

1 Other views The Aztecs associated the passage of the Black Sun.[2][3] The butterfly. the “Obsidian Butterfly. This way. The first level was the Earth’s surface.[5] while the Aztec underworld was the eternal dwelling place of the souls. the young Day Sun and the ancient Dark Sun.[7] Another interpretation [8] holds that the sun god Huitzilopochtli crossed the underworld during the night bestowing light to the forgotten souls.[3][4] whereas also seen in the figure of the frightening earth goddess Itzpapalotl. however. and the universal rulership portrayed in the great dance called “Mitotiliztli. death.[1] According to some authors. Black Tezcatlipoca.” that devoured people during the solar eclipses. For the Mexicas there were two suns. was one of the Five Suns of the creation myth of some Nahua peoples. in turn.2 See also • Black Sun (alchemy) • Black Sun (occult symbol) • Five Suns (mythology) • Lords of the Night (mythology) • Tzitzimitl (mythology) At archaeological scenes. at Museo Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico City man with a black sun within a yellow sun. a forerunner of Quetzallcoatl.Chapter 26 Black Sun (mythology) The Black Sun in Mesoamerican mythology has many mystical meanings. which also had the entrance. transformation and mystical rebirth. which then reappeared as crepuscular moths on Earth. the Plumed Serpent shows a 88 . son of the primordial god Ometeotl who was a god of dualities such as light and darkness. Before his nightly effort. these sets of four rays relate to the four cardinal points and the four quarters.[1] 26.[8] Sculpture of a Teotihuacan feathered serpent. he ruled over the north. and judgment. or the face of a gigantic toad that devoured the dead and gave access to the other eight lower levels. the underworld was made of nine layers. he demanded human blood as payment to his tasks. night.[1] 26. on its nightly journey through the underworld with the image of a butterfly. as he was known. among them it is connected to the god Quetzalcoatl and his penetration in the Underworld through the west door after his diurnal passage on the sky. Some scholars regard the mythological Black Sun as the ancient female origin of all.” which reproduces the appearance of a wheel. The souls of the dead occupied the ninth level known as "Mictlan Opochcalocan. they represent the governance held by the gods over the human race since its infancy. is an archetypical symbol of the transcendent soul. and yet an expectation of fecundity. According to the Codex Ríos.”[6] The connection with nocturnal elements is also ascribed to the god Tezcatlipoca. it is the oneness that uniformly integrates unawareness. Huitzilopochtli was accompanied from zenith to setting by the Ciuapipiltrins. sorcery. as well as the annual rotation of the heavens. it is both tomb and womb. the souls of women who had died in childbirth. In this manner the spinning of the sun and black sun shows a wheel crossing with an obfuscatory motion where four black rays move out of four yellow rays. the Earth.

Susan. Mark. Thomas Athol. M.. Manuel (2007). McMillan (1989).. Mockeries and Metamorphoses of an Aztec God. Mcgill Queens University Press. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Dick. Vincent. [2] Longo. Mexican archaeology: an introduction to the archaeology of the Mexican and Mayan civilizations of preSpanish America. R.. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • H. Guilhem. Resh. Raje (2005). Pablo Neruda and the U. ISBN 0-87081-745-0. ISBN 0-7548-1548-X. Guilhem (2003). Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) 89 . Essays for Richard Ellmann: Omnium Gatherum. Culture Industry (Hispanic Issues). Kiberd.A.D. Teresa (2002). REFERENCES 26. (1989) pp 165-166. ISBN 0-7735-0707-8.S. 102. ISBN 0-12374144-0.C. Routledge. ASIN B004183HZC. T. [3] O'Connell. (2003). Resh. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Longo. [5] Aguilar-Moreno. (1920) pp 52. Encyclopedia of insects. [4] H. Thomas Athol (1920). Lorenz. ISBN 0-8153-3386-2. (2009) pp 239-240. Academic Press. 106.4 References • Aguilar-Moreno. Susan. R.. pp 187-188. [8] Joyce. Ring (2009). The illustrated encyclopedia of signs & symbols.3 Notes [1] Dick. Dougald. Oxford University Press. 26. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Joyce. Declan. ISBN 0-19-533083-8. K. Cardé. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • O'Connell.D.4. Mark. (2007) pp 139. [7] Olivier. (2007) pp 149. Airey. [6] Aguilar-Moreno. University Press of Colorado. Teresa (2002). Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) • Olivier. Vincent. (2005) pp 185. University of Michigan Library.T.26.

cosmological and eschatological beliefs and traditions of earlier cultures from central Mexico and the Mesoamerican region in general. then destroyed by the catastrophic action of leading deity figures. and the Aztec saw themselves as “the People of the Sun. the god of judgment. while however modifying some aspects and supplying novel interpretations of their own. light and darkness.[3] The gods created a new group of people to inhabit the Earth. see Five Suns (album). As a result. Then. created itself. the people of the Earth grew less and less civilized and stopped showing proper honor to the gods. the god of duality. but Tezcatlipoca seduced and stole his wife Xochiquetzal. It continued to rain fire until the entire Earth had burned away. The gods then had to construct a whole new Earth from the ashes. mercy and wind. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca. the goddess of sex. They created the other gods. who swam through the water with mouths at every one of her joints. the four Tezcatlipocas. The next sun and also Tlaloc’s new wife. this time they were of normal size. good and evil. describes the doctrine of the Aztec and other Nahua peoples in which the present world was preceded by four other cycles of creation and destruction. the giant earth crocodile. farming and Spring time. but before they could create they had to destroy. but a sibling rivalry grew between Quetzalcoatl and his brother the mighty sun. the god of gold. the god of rain and fertility and Chalchiuhtlicue. Tezcatlipoca commanded his jaguars to eat all the people.[1] In the creation myths which were preserved by the Aztec and other Nahua peoples. These earlier worlds and their inhabitants had been created. who each preside over one of the four cardinal directions. To give light.1 Legend From the void that was the rest of the universe. the sun would disappear from the heavens. Ometeotl was both male and female. the world was totally black and in his anger. judgment and forgiveness. The present world is the fifth sun. The term Five Suns in the context of creation myths. Tlaloc then refused to do anything other than wallow in his own grief. Ometeotl gave birth to four children. Thus the welfare and the very survival of the universe depended upon the offerings of blood and hearts to the sun. for every time they attempted to create something. Tlaloc became the next sun.” whose divine duty was to wage cosmic war in order to provide the sun with his tlaxcaltiliztli (“nourishment”). who Quetzalcoatl knocked from the sky with a stone club. Huitzilopochtli. the god of war. the goddess of lakes. who had loved the flawed people as they were. so a great drought swept the world. deceit. She was very loving towards the people. also the goddess of beauty.[2] It was these four gods who eventually created all the other gods and the world we know today. the god of light. the first god. also called simply Tezcatlipoca. night. The four Tezcatlipocas descended the first people who were giants. it would fall into the water beneath them and be eaten by Cipactli. in a fit of rage he answered their prayers with a great downpour of fire. With no sun. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca. was Chalchiuhtlicue. The Late Postclassic Aztec society inherited many traditions concerning Mesoamerican creation accounts. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca. fire and water. before the present universe. the most important of whom were the water gods: Tlaloc. Without it. Quetzalcoatl. Tezcatlipoca demonstrated his power and authority as god of sorcery and judgment by turning the animalistic people into monkeys. Quetzalcoatl.Chapter 27 Five Suns For the Guapo album. but the people continued to beg him. Ometeotl. or “Suns”. the central tenet was that there had been four worlds. sorcery and the Earth. flowers and corn. It is primarily derived from the mythological.[1] 27. He then stepped down as the sun to create a new people. Xipe Totec. The world continued on in this way for some time. they needed a god to become the sun and the Black Tezcatlipoca was chosen. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca. but 90 . became upset and blew all of the monkeys from the face of the Earth with a mighty hurricane. The people’s prayers for rain annoyed the grieving sun and he refused to allow it to rain. Quetzalcoatl became the new sun and as the years passed. rivers and oceans. but either because he had lost a leg or because he was god of the night. he only managed to become half a sun.

Huitzilopochtli. which is not otherwise given and it myths is sometimes said that Chalchiuhtlicue flooded the world on purpose. this fifth sun will go black. The Tzitzimitl then decapitated the pregnant Coatlicue.Nanauatzin then walked slowly towards and then into relation to the popularity of each of the gods at a given the flames and was consumed. more important brother Huitzilopochtli. similar gods from various other cultures. lowed.[2] Some of Ometeotl’s later children. while she was still a virgin. Tecuciztecatl tried first but was not brave enough to one another by claiming that a different god performed walk through the heat near the flames and turned around. Some versions claim that Tezcatlipoca actually used his leg as bait for Cipactli. Further variations depict the ball of feathers as being the father of Huitzilopochtli or the father of Quetzalcoatl and sometimes Xolotl. probably because myths changed in cor. To aid this all-important god in his continuing war. but also because there are many named Nanauatzin. Their leader. Tecuciztecatl then foltime. Chalchiuhtlicue was so crushed by these words that she cried blood for the next fifty-two years. and the Tzitzimitl will slay Huitzilopochtli and all of humanity. He dipped these bones in his own blood to resurrect his people. Other variations of this myth claim that only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were born to Ometeotl. or should mankind fail to please the gods for any other reason. who opposes fatal sacrifices.27. Both the people and Chalchiuhtlicue felt his judgment when he told the water goddess that she was not truly loving and only faked kindness out of selfishness to gain the people’s praise. the sun and Tecuciztecatl became the much less spectacular earth goddess. A god that bridges the gap between Nanauatzin and the Tzitzimitl. who was sick. Tezcatlipoca was then born to her by an obsidian knife. goddess of the moon. before dismembering her. Tecuciztecatl. who reopened their eyes to a sky illuminated by the current sun. the same action. Much later she gave birth to Huitzilopochtli when a mysterious ball of feathers appeared to her. Some versions say that Quetzalcoatl and Huitzilopochtli is Tonatiuh. followed by the Tzitzimitl and then Huitzilopochtli. Coyolxauhqui. became jealous of their brighter. and the old Nanauatzin. but rejuvewas born to her first. VARIATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE MYTHS Tezcatlipoca was not. the Tzitzimitl. both assigning their own new as. lead them in an assault on the sun and every night they come close to victory when they shine throughout the sky. the gods popular myths that seem to contradict one another due convened in darkness to choose a new sun. jaguars then ate before eating the giants.2. Further variations on this myth state that it was only Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca who pulled apart Cipactli. It is sometimes said that the male characteristic of Ometeotl is named Ometecutli and that the female characteristic is named Omecihualt. Their myths can be confusing not only because of the The fifth sun however is sometimes said to be a god lack of documentation. often nated himself by burning himself alive and then became mentioning his twin brother Xolotl. which his from the few codices to survive the Spanish conquest. without the involvement of Tezcatlipoca. They also offer human sacrifices to Tezcatlipoca in fear of his judgment. It Most of what is known about the ancient Aztecs comes is also said that Tezcatlipoca created half a sun. or stars. in thanks of his blood sacrifice for them and give offerings to many other gods for many purposes. also known as Tlaltecuhtli. The order of the first four suns varies as well. Older myths but both were given the opportunity to jump into the boncan be very similar to newer myths while contradicting fire. In this version of the myth.2 Variations and alternative Xochiquetzal for the rain of fire. was the mother of the four Tezcatlipocas moon.uhtlicue. but are beaten back by the mighty Huitzilopochtli who rules the daytime sky. who were also referred to as the Centzon Huitznahuas. offer their own blood to Quetzalcoatl. 91 and god of fire. Huitzilopochtli then sprang forth from her womb wielding a serpent of fire and began his epic war with the Tzitzimitl. Each world’s end correlates consistently to the god that was the sun at the time throughout all variations of the myth. causing a horrific flood that drowned everyone on Earth. and that Xipe Totec and Huitzilopochtli then constructed the world from her body. It was pects to these gods and endowing them with aspects of believed that Nanauatzin was too old to make a good sun. the world will be shattered by a catastrophic earthquake. though the above version is the most common. the Aztecs offer him the nourishment of human sacrifices. though the loss of is not always identified as Tlaloc’s reason 27. Should these sacrifices cease. believing it to be insulting that she had given birth to another child. The of mouth and because the Aztecs adopted many of their two volunteers were the young son of Tlaloc and Chalchigods from other tribes. who was replaced by Coatlicue in this myth probably because it had absolutely no worshipers or temples by the time the Spanish arrived. who was to the fact that they were originally passed down by word sacrifice himself by jumping into a gigantic bonfire. the guide of the dead the warrior sun and wandered through the heavens with . The most popular variation including Coatlicue depicts her giving birth first to the Tzitzimitl. Quetzalcoatl would not accept the destruction of his people and went to the underworld where he stole their bones from the god Mictlantecuhtli. The braver Nanauatzin became what is now the Other variations on this myth state that Coatlicue. Sometimes he is said to have decapitated Coyolxauhqui and either used her head to make the moon or thrown it into a canyon.

The Aztec World.5 See also • Aztec mythology • Aztec religion • Aztec philosophy • Black Sun (mythology) • Mesoamerican creation accounts [2] Smith. Manuel. by Patricia Amlin. Only birds survived (or inhabitants survived by becoming birds). FIVE SUNS 27.4 In popular culture • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin serves as a framing device for the 1991 Mexican film. • Rage Against the Machine refers to intercultural violence as “the fifth sunset” in their song People of the Sun. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. The world was destroyed. (2003). CHAPTER 27. A couple escaped but were transformed into dogs. • Nahui-Ehécatl (Wind Sun) .We are the inhabitants of this world. 2006 27.Inhabitants were destroyed by rain of fire.Inhabitants were transformed into monkeys. published by the Enlil Institute 27. In Necuepaliztli in Aztlan (Retorno a Aztlán). 2001. UK: Blackwell Publishing. California State University. Invalid |name-listformat=scap (help) . This world will be destroyed by earthquakes (or one large earthquake). Osita. • Nahui-Ollin (Earthquake Sun) . where an ancient star-faring civilization (“people of the First Sun”) had disappeared and left the galaxy with many dangerous artifacts. on the album Evil Empire.Michael E. Los Angeles.Inhabitants were giants who were devoured by jaguars. • Nahui-Quiahuitl (Rain Sun) . The Five Suns: A Sacred History of Mexico.92 the souls of those who died in battle. 27. Invalid |name-list-format=scap (help) • Smith. A Day in the Life of God. Chapter Seven. Blackwell Publishing. Handbook to life in the Aztec World. • Thomas Harlan's science fiction series “In the Time of the Sixth Sun” uses this myth as a central plot point. Manuel (2006). Los Angeles: California State University. This world was destroyed by hurricanes. • Nahui-Atl (Water Sun) . refusing to move if not offered enough sacrifices.3 Brief summation • Nahui-Ocelotl (Jaguar Sun) .This world was flooded turning the inhabitants into fish. The Aztecs 2nd Ed. • The version of the myth with Nanahuatzin is in the 1996 film. 27.Moreno. 2005 [3] Aguilar-Moreno. by Juan Mora Catlett.6 References [1] Iroku.7 Further reading • Aguilar. Michael E.

1 Notes imimeh was the Goddess Itzpapalotl who was the ruler of Tamoanchan . espeThe Tzitzimimeh were female deities. They were also powerful and dangerous. p.[2] The Tzitzimimeh were also feared during other ominous periods of the Aztec world. They were depicted as skeletal female figures wearing skirts often with skull and crossbone designs. and during the New Fire ceremony marking the beginning of a new calendar round . The Tzitzimimeh were also associated with the stars and especially the stars that can be seen around the Sun dur93 [2] Sahagún 1997. ͡ simit ͡ ͡ (plural TzIn Aztec mythology. this caused the belief that during a solar eclipse. Depiction of a Tzitzimitl from the Codex Magliabechiano. and as such recially in periods of cosmic instability.but this does not necessarily reflect their The Tzitzimimeh had a double role in Aztec religion: they function in the prehispanic belief system of the Aztecs. The leader of the tzitz. This was interpreted as the Tzitzimimeh attacking the Sun. such as during the five unlucky days called Nemontemi which marked an unstable period of the year count.[1] were protectresses of the feminine and progenitresses of mankind. In Postconquest descriptions they are often described as "demons" or “devils” . Coatlicue. 153: cenca nemauhtiloya mitoaya intla quitlamiz in quiqua tonatiuh quilmach çentlaiovaz valte- . Queen of the Tzitzimimeh. resided. the tzitzimime would descend to the earth and devour human beings.Chapter 28 Tzitzimitl Depiction of Itzpapalotl. a Tzitzimitl /tsiˈt ɬ/ ͡ ͡ itzimimeh /tsitsiˈmimeʔ/) is a deity associated with stars.[3] lated to fertility. Citlalicue and Cihuacoatl and they were worshipped by midwives and parturient women.both were periods associated with the fear of change.28. ing a solar eclipse. from the Codex Borgia.the paradise where the Tzitzimimeh [1] See Klein 2000 for an analysis of the nature of the Tzitzimimeh in relation to the Aztec belief system. they were associated with the Cihuateteo and other female deities such as Tlaltecuhtli.

Sullivan. B. they would devour us. It was said that if [the moon] finished eating the sun. (1997). • Klein. all would be in darkness.94 CHAPTER 28. 153. [3] This is the conclusion reached by Cecelia Klein (2000) based on an investigation of the iconographical depictions of Tzitzimimeh by the Aztecs 28. TZITZIMITL mozque in ţiţimime techquazque There was great fear. Nicholson.. Bernardino de. Thelma D. the Tzitzimimeh would descend here. H. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Primeros Memoriales. Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mèxico) 31: 17–62.2 References • Sahagún. “The Devil and the Skirt: an iconographic inquiry into the prehispanic nature of the Tzitzimime”. . so it was said. Cecelia F (2000). p.

[4] in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). His name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāpī. comparable hostile snakes as enemies of the sun god existed under other names (in the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts) already before the name Apep occurred. also spelled Apepi or Aapep) quently.[1] Apep was first mentioned in the Eighth Dynasty.[3] Also. gradually took on all the characteristics of Apep. possibly a solar deity. to travel') Apep’s name much later came to be falsely connected etymologically in Egyptian with a different root meaning (he who was) spat out. golden snake known to be miles long.[6] Since everyone can see that the sun is not attacked by a giant snake during the day. he attempted to swallow the sun every day.C.Chapter 29 Apep This article is about an Ancient Egyptian deity. For the Apep by this translation of his name. Apep’s identity was eventually entirely subsumed was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗ zft by that of Set.. Already on a Naqada I (ca. A verb root ꜥꜣpp does at any rate not exist elsewhere in Ancient Egyptian. Myths sometimes say that Apep was trapped there. 29. the Romans referred to Set speared Apep Tales of Apep’s battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom. This appropriately made him a part of the underworld. He was so large that see Apep (disambiguation). ConseAncient Greek: Ἄποφις. He appears in art as a giant serpent. For other uses. storytellers said that Apep must lie just below the horizon. Apophis was a large Cypriot football team. Some elaborations even said that he stretched 16 yards in length and had a head made of flint. who is invisibly hunting in a big rowing vessel. Set eventually became thought of as the god of evil.2 Battles with Ra was written pp(y) and survived in later Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph. every day. As the personification of all that was evil.1 Development Ra was the solar deity. (It is not to be confused with the verb ꜥpı͗/ꜥpp: 'to fly across the sky. Apep was viewed as the greatest enemy of Ra. 95 . as it 29. bringer of light. in the Tenth region of the Night. and thus was given the title Enemy of Ra. 4000 BC) C-ware bowl (now in Cairo) a snake was painted on the inside rim combined with other desert and aquatic animals as a possible enemy of a deity. because he had been the previous chief god overthrown by Ra. where the sun set. see APEP F. The wide range of Apep’s possible location gained him the title World Encircler. and in others Apep lurked just before dawn. and also “the Lord of Chaos”. and thus the upholder of Ma'at. and Apep (/ˈæˌpɛp/ or /ˈɑːˌpɛp/) or Apophis (/ˈæpəfɨs/. In some stories Apep waited for Ra in a western mountain called Bakhu. and he was honored in the names of the Fourteenth Dynasty king 'Apepi and of the Greater Hyksos king Apophis. or because he was evil and had been imprisoned. The etymology of his name (ꜥꜣpp) is perhaps to be sought in some west-semitic language where a word root ꜣpp meaning 'to slither' existed. It was thought that his terrifying roar would cause the underworld to rumble. Apep was seen as a giant snake or serpent leading to such titles as Serpent from the Nile and Evil Lizard.

Te Velde. Adolf. [9] G. Leiden Nr. Leipzig: J. Alcock (London. (1973). of the serpent. Assmann. pp. and his battles with Set may have been meant to explain the origin of thunderstorms. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. 116. he was sometimes thought of as an Eater of Souls. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. or small drawings. and Apep worshipped against. 1995). 114–115. The Book of the Dead does not frequently describe occasions when Ra defeated the chaos snake explicitly called Apep. [2] Hieroglyph as per Budge Gods of the Ancient Egyptians (1969). 1926– 1953. in the form of Great Cat. Only BD Spells 7 and 39 can be explained as such. Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom. which would be spat on. [5] tomb of Inherkha. in a similar manner to modern rituals such as Zozobra. mutilated and burnt. in Jaarbericht van Ex Oriente Lux. “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. In some accounts. (1973).[8] Apep’s movements were thought to cause earthquakes. [8] Borghouts.4 See also The sun god Ra. slays the snake Apep[5] The Coffin Texts imply that Apep used a magical gaze to overwhelm Ra and his entourage.[7] Ra was assisted by a number of defenders who travelled with him. 49-57. 107–108 . Seth. “The Evil Eye of Apopis”. APEP In addition to stories about Ra’s winnings. 180. Pinch. The Egyptians practiced a number of rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apep.5 Notes [1] Erman. God of Confusion (Leiden. Ra himself defeats Apep in the form of a cat. C. 1971). by A. Vol. and include: Spitting Upon Apep Defiling Apep with the Left Foot Taking a Lance to Smite Apep Fettering Apep Taking a Knife to Smite Apep Putting Fire Upon Apep • 99942 Apophis • Egyptian influence in popular culture • Ethnoherpetology • Jörmungandr • Mehen • Unut • Wadjet 29. this guide had instructions for making wax models. Egyptian Mythology. referred to as The Books of Overthrowing Apep (or the Book of Apophis.Wolterman.3 Worship Ra was worshipped. [7] Borghouts. Fearing that even the image of Apep could give power to the demon any rendering would always include another deity to subdue the monster. As Apep was thought to live in the underworld. 6 vols. J. (2004).37 (2002). priests would build an effigy of Apep that was thought to contain all of the evil and darkness in Egypt. 1977).96 CHAPTER 29. Thus the dead also needed protection.[9] 29. in Greek). (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH. J. [3] C. including Set[4] and possibly the Eye of Ra. I. eds.[11] 29. and aid Ra to continue his journey across the sky. Ra’s victory each night was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshipers at temples. 1057. The Egyptian priests even had a detailed guide to fighting Apep. and burn it to protect everyone from Apep’s evil for another year. and Hermann Grapow. called the Banishing of Chaos. [4] H. Deir el-Medina [6] J.[10] The chapters described a gradual process of dismemberment and disposal. In an annual rite. transl. F. so they were sometimes buried with spells that could destroy Apep. F. whilst reciting spells that would kill Apep. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59. Hinrichs’schen Buchhandlungen.

6. Wiesbaden.29.Apep 97 .F. EXTERNAL LINKS [10] P.6 External links • Apep. University of Liverpool (Liverpool. Magic and Religion as Performative Theological Unity: the Apotropaic Ritual of Overthrowing Apophis. 1999). Ph. Enemy of Ra. chapters 3-5. dissertation.. Water Snake-Demon of Chaos.D.Borghouts. 2007). • ancient Egypt: The Mythology .Kousoulis. Book of the Dead [39]: From Shouting to Structure (Studien zum Altaegyptischen Totenbuch 10. 29. [11] J..

As a symbol of darkness. and the female form as a snake. see k. his name meant darkness. or as a frog-headed man.u. Retrieved 2008-08-22.1 References [1] Seawright. and thus chaos. He was the god of the darkness of chaos 98 . Deities of Darkness. Obscurity and Night”. Kuk (also spelled as Kek and Keku) is the deification of the primordial concept of darkness in ancient Egyptian religion.. For the abbreviation describing the AustroHungarian Empire. Kuk’s male form was depicted as a frog. Kuk also represented obscurity and the unknown. For other uses.[1] Like all four dualistic concepts in the Ogdoad.Chapter 30 Kuk (mythology) This article is about a concept in ancient Egyptian mythology. 30. Caroline. In the Ogdoad cosmogony.k. Amun and Amaunet. which is simply the female form of the word Kuk. Kuk was seen as that which occurred before light. Kuk was viewed as androgynous. Also. The other members of the Ogdoad are Nu and Naunet. see Kuk. or a snake-headed woman. Huh and Hauhet. his female form being known as Kauket (also spelled as Keket). “Kek and Kauket. As a concept. thus was known as the bringer-in of light.

the Vedic goddess of Dawn. She is sister to Ushas. Telugu. often also called Ratridevi.2 Further reading • Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-03795) by David Kinsley 99 . who encounters and aids the protagonist in his battle against the other gods. 31. Malayalam. is the goddess of night in the Vedas and the mythology of India and Hinduism.Chapter 31 Ratri Ratri. 31. Her name is the common/ordinary word for nighttime in Indian languages like Kannada. Tamil.1 Fiction The goddess Ratri is a minor character in Roger Zelazny's science fiction novel Lord of Light. Bengali.

Chapter 32

Chandra
This article is about the Hindu moon deity. For other
uses, see Chandra (disambiguation).
In Hinduism, Chandra (Sanskrit चन्द्र lit, Kannada
, Telugu
, Tamil சந்திரன். “shining”)[1]
is a lunar god and a Graha. Chandra is also identified
with the Vedic lunar deity Soma (lit. “juice”).[2] The
Soma name refers particularly to the juice of sap in the
plants and thus makes the Moon the lord of plants and
vegetation.[1]
Chandra is described as young, beautiful, fair; two-armed
and having in his hands a club and a lotus.[3] He rides his
chariot across the sky every night, pulled by ten white
horses or an antelope. He is connected with dew, and as
such, is one of the gods of fertility. He is also called Rajanipati (lord of the night)[1] and Kshupakara (one who
illuminates the night),[4] and Indu (lit. the bright drop).[1]
As Soma, he presides over Somvar or Monday.
Chandra is the father of Budha, (planet Mercury) the
mother being Tara. He is married to 27 Nakshatras (constellations), who are known to be daughters of Daksha.

32.1 In astrology
Chandra with Rohini

In Vedic astrology Chandra represents brain and mind,
emotions, sensitivity, softness, imagination, queen and
mother. Chandra rules over the sign Karkaataka (Cancer), while he is exalted in Vrishabha (Taurus) and in his
fall in Vrishchika (Scorpio). The waxing moon is considered to be benefic, and the waning moon is considered
to be malefic. The bright moon is considered a benefic
of the highest order, while the dark moon is considered
a malefic. Chandra is lord of three nakshatras or lunar
mansions: Rohini, Hasta and Shravana. Chandra has the
following associations: the color white, the metal silver
and the gemstones pearl and moonstone. His element is
water, direction is north-west and season is winter. The
food grain associated with him (one of Nava Dhanyas) is
rice.

name meaning “illustrious”. In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the god of the moon. In Hindu astrology, the moon
is considered a planet, and it is considered to be one of
the best planets to be born under as it promises wealth and
) or
happiness. It is also referred as Shashi (Kannada:
Tingala (Kannada:
).
According to Hindu mythology Chandra has not been
very fortunate in life. Chandra was born in the Ocean of
Milk (the gods were churning it for millennia in order to
create immortal life), and nearly blinded the gods with his
bright, glowing body (hence the name that means “illustrious”). The gods unanimously decided to give Chandra
the status of a planet and sent him into the cosmos.

Chandra is known for having a series of disastrous love
affairs. His first lover, Tara, was the wife of Brihaspati,
Chandra (pronounced “CHUHN-drah”) is a Sanskrit the planet Jupiter. From their union, Tara became preg100

32.2. OTHER ASPECTS
nant gives birth to Budha (a.k.a. the planet Mercury, not
to be confused with the other Buddha). Because of how
he was conceived, Budha hated his father and as Chandra also knew that Budha is his illegitimate son, he began
to hate his son, and their rivalry continues to this day.
For the sin of abducting another god’s consort, Brahma
banished Chandra to the outer atmosphere. This story
illustrates allegorically the prohibition of intoxicants for
Brahmins.[5] After that, Chandra, set out to marry the
twenty-seven daughters of Daksha. Daksha allowed this
on the condition that the moon not favor any daughter
over the others. Chandra failed to do this, and Daksha
placed a curse on him that took away his luster, which
accounts for the moon’s waxing and waning.

32.1.1

Dark spot on the moon

One popular story to account for the dark spot on the
moon is that Ganesha, once filled with food, fell from his
mouse and broke his stomach. Chandra laughed at this,
at which Ganesha injured him by breaking off and throwing one of his tusks; and cursed him so that it would be
forbidden to behold Chandra on Ganesh Chaturthi.

32.2 Other aspects
Chandra is also the word in Sanskrit, Hindi and other
Indian languages for moon. It is also a common Indian
name, both male and female and exists as a name in many
South East Asian languages that originate from Sanskrit.
The god, the drink and the plant probably referred to the
same entity, or at least the differentiation was ambiguous. In this aspect, Soma is similar to the Greek ambrosia (cognate to amrita); it is what the gods drink, and
what made them deities. Soma is still coined as name for
an entheogenic brew (avestic: Haoma) still in ceremonial
use.
Indu, one of the other names for Chandra, is also the
name of the first chakra (group) of Melakarta ragas in
Carnatic music. The names of chakras are based on the
numbers associated with each name. In this case, there is
one moon and hence the first chakra is Indu.[6][7]
In India Chandra is a common surname for example
'Anurag Chandra ' and ' Tanuja Chandra' . But in America the name has been used as a girl’s name. It appeared
on the popularity charts in the 1950s, peaking in the
1970s, before disappearing in the 1990s. The name has
several variations including Chandrah, Chaundra, etc.

101
shown as dark spot on moon as a result of the curse of
rishi Gautama. His Egyptian counterpart is Khonsu.
Chandra the moon is actually a satellite of the planet
Earth. But in Indian astrology the moon and the Sun
are counted among the nine planets. Chandra is called ‘
ChandA’ or ‘ChAnd’ in Hindi and Urdu languages. Chandra is the most beloved God of the humans, at least in
the tropics. Children all over India and even elders call
him affectionately as ‘Chanda- mama’. Mama means the
maternal uncle in both North Indian and South Indian
languages. There is a very popular children’s magazine
called ‘Chanda mama’ which is published from Chennai
in more than twelve Indian languages, There are hundreds
of nursery songs in all languages of India sung by all the
mothers addressing their handsome brother Chand, while
feeding their children, requesting him to bring milk, butter and curds for his sister’s child. Similarly Chandra
or Chanda is the most favourite topic of songs sung by
lovers. They express their happiness while making love
and request Chanda mama to shine brightly and not to
pass on so quickly. so that the wonderful night may continue forever. Dozens of folk songs, film songs and even
titles of films are named after the Chandra or Chand.
There is an interesting episode regarding the lunar eclipse
in the Hindu mythology. Lunar eclipse is called ChandragrahaN (swallowing of Chandra). Even today people believe that two great serpents named Rahu and Ketu which
are counted as two other planets ( Uranus and Neptune)
nurture a grudge against the planets moon and the Sun and
both these serpents occasionally come and swallow the
moon and the Sun gradually. When moon is swallowed
partially or completely it is called Chandra GrahaN. People wait patiently for the total release of the moon and
take holy bath after the end of the eclipse. Moon is the
symbol of beauty in Indian literature. The beautiful face
of a woman is compared to the moon by almost all Indian poets. The moon and the lotus flower are the most
popular similes used while describing the face of a beautiful woman who is often called as’ Chandramukhi’- the
moonfaced beauty.. Name of Chandra is attached to various Gods. For example the full name of Lord Sri Ram is
Ramachandra. Similarly the full name of another Avatar
Lord Krishna is Krishna Chandra. Some scholars opine
that both these avatars were so called because they were
perhaps born on a full moon day, a day which is sacred
for Jains also Lord Shiva is called Chandrasekhar also,
because he wears a crescent moon on his forehead. The
crescent moon with a star is a sacred symbol of Islam
also. There are also many ancient explanations and stories connected with the spots on the face of the moon.
Some people say that a rabbit stays always on the face of
the moon. That is why the moon is also called Shashank
( one who has a mark of a rabbit on his lap ). Some people think that a cat is sitting on the face of the moon. In
Telugu language the moon is also called Jabilli.

There is another story about moon (Chandra), when Indra
was trying to rape Ahilya, wife of rishi Gautama, Chandra
was in the form of a peacock to alert Indra on Gautama’s
arrival . Gautama eventually beheld the act and cursed Under the sub-title ‘other aspects’ it is stated that ChanIndra with impotency and hit Chandra (in the form of dra is the middle name of the Hindu God RamaChanpeacock) with his wet cloth (Dhoti). Those marks are

102
drasekhara, which is erroneous. There seems to be a mix
up between the names of two different Gods Sri Ram and
Lord Shiva. Full name of Lord Sri Ram is Rama Chandra and not Rama Chandra Sekhara. Rama was named
as Rama Chandra for reasons that are not revealed to the
public. Some Scholars opine that Sri Ram was born on a
full moon day and that is why he was called Rama Chandra. There was a great discussion among scholars as to
why Sri Rama the illustrious son of the solar dynasty
was named as Rama Chandra, Chandra being the progenitor of the lunar dynasty. Similarly the name Chandra
Sekhara is given to Lord Shiva only, because he wears a
crescent moon on his forehead. Name of Lord Sri Rama
is definitely not Rama Chandra Sekhara, nor Chandra is
His middle name

CHAPTER 32. CHANDRA
dren. His wife was ‘Ningal’(the great lady). ‘Nusku’ the
God of Fire was his son. Even today the crescent moon
and the planet Venus in the middle, is the Universal symbol of Islam. It is reported in the Wikipedia that the crescent moon has been used by the Arab religions as far back
as the time of Abraham.

God Chandra and the tides: The Hindu mythology offers
an explanation for the high and low tides that occur in the
seas and oceans.The details areas follows.God Chandra
and Goddess Lakshmi are born from the ocean during
the churning of the milky ocean.( that part of the ocean
where the waters and waves are sparkling white and look
like milk). Being the father of Chandra the God of Ocean
is overjoyed to see his son rising from the eastern horizon
and rushes to greet him. Similarly the Sea God rushes
God Chandra is addressed by various names depend- towards the West when the moon God is going to set.
ing on his attributes. He is called Vidhu, Indu, Hi- Chandrama in Mantrapushpam: Mantrapushpam is a samansu, Subhranshu (whose rays are cool and clean), Ra- cred document available in the Taittareeya Aranyakam
janeesh,Rakesh ( Lord of the night ), Rajanikar, Nishakar in which the great Rishis have conceived the connection
( maker of the night), Shashi, Shashank ( one who bears between the human mind/ consciousness and various ela rabbit on his body),Sudha-nidhi, Sudhamaya (one who ements of nature like flower, water, moon, air, thunder
is full of nectar), Kumudesh ( lover of the esculent wa- etc. Giving great importance to the Moon God it informs
ter lily- Nymphaea esculent or the red lotus-Nymphaea in the first sloka itself that – Moon is the flower of Warubric), Kunda Pushpojjwala( as bright as the jasmine ters. He who knows this becomes endowed with flower,
flower-jasmine multiflora).
progeny and animals.
In the ‘Purusha Sukta’ of the Rigveda it is mentioned
“ Chandramaa va apaam pushpam pushpavaan, prathat Chandra was born from the mind of the virat Pu- jaavaan, pasumaan bhavati “
rusha(God symbolized as the entire universe) – ‘ChanLater the mantra says that - Moon is the support of waters.
drama manasojaatah’.
He becomes endowed with support who understands that
There is an episode explaining the waxing and waning Moon is the support of water, and similarly water is the
of the moon during a month. It was reported that God support of Moon. Thus Moon is the support of Water and
Chandra was paying more attention to one of his 27 wives. Water is the support of Moon.
The other 26 wives who are also the daughters of the great
Prajapati Daksha brought this fact to the attention of their “Yah Chandramasa aayatanam veda. aayatanavan bhafather. Daksha became very angry and cursed Chandra, vati. Aapo vai chandramasa aayatanam , aayatanavaan
his son in law’ to suffer from consumption. As a result the bhavati, Ya evam veda”
size of Chandra began to decrease gradually. Alarmed at The mantra says that the moon and water support each
this the daughters requested their father to take back his other and there is a similarity between the waxing and
curse. But since a curse which is delivered once, cannot waning of the moon and vacillation of mind between exbe taken back, Daksha modified his curse to the effect perience s of grief and happiness. Beyond this we cannot
that the size of Chandra will decrease from full moon to explain the meaning of this mantra because it is a Veda
new moon for a fortnight and then his size will gradually Mantra based purely on sound rather than meaning.
grow until the full Moon day, during the next fortnight.
Worship of the moon God in ancient Arabia: the Arabians who suffer from the excessive heat of the Sun preferred to worship the Moon God, who gives them cool
breeze and dew drops, thereby helping them in farming and development of green grass for their goats and
camels. That is why perhaps they were called Asuras 32.3 In popular culture
as opposed to the Indo-Aryans who called themselves
Suraas or Devas. The Suraas worshipped the Sun God.
The Indian mythology is full of wars between the Suras Chandra (and the gem supposedly on the forehead of
a statue of his at Somanath) plays an important role
and the Asuras.
in one of the first novel-length mystery stories in En'Sin' the moon God of ancient Arabia occupied the chief
glish, The Moonstone. The Sanskrit word for moon-craft
place in the astral triad. It’s other two members ‘Shamus’
Chandrayaan is used to refer to India’s lunar orbiters
the Sun god and ‘Ishtar’ the planet Venus were his chil(Chandrayan-1 and Chandrayaan-2).

livejournal.32.131 [4] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p. P Sambamoorthy. 5.6 External links • Media related to Chandra at Wikimedia Commons 103 . The Indian Music Publishing House [7] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr.6.html [6] South Indian Music Book III. Pub. 1990. CBH Publications 32.4 See also • Navagraha • Soma 32.com/211027. S.51 [2] Graha Sutras by Ernst Wilhelm. Bhagyalekshmy. published by Kala Occult Publishers. by Prof. p. EXTERNAL LINKS 32.132 [5] http://2-0-1-2.0 [3] Mythology of the Hindus By Charles Coleman p.5 References [1] Graha Sutras By Ernst Wilhelm . ISBN 0-9709636-4-5. Published 1973. Published by Kala Occult Publishers ISBN 0-9709636-4-5 p.

the luminaries. In Vedic astronomy. bestower of prosperity and wealth and ultimate knowledge. and it in turn swallows the moon on timely basis to cause a lunar eclipse. Rahu is considered to be a rogue planet.Chapter 33 Rahu For the ascending lunar node Rahu. Rahu ( ) is a severed head of an asura. remained immortal due to the effect of amrita and became Rahu.man is trying to swallow the sun.1 Mythology Vishnu beheading Rahu with his Sudarshana chakra. the advisor of the demons. Sun. The body also turned into Ketu due to a boon. the immortal (having drunk the divine nectar). Rahu was considered as incarnation of Shakti in beastly form. Ravana 104 . Rahu arrived and saw Hanuman also approaching and thought that HanuVarious names are assigned to Rahu in Vedic texts includ. flew towards the sun. The fact that eclipses occur when the Sun and the Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the myth of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon by the demon snake.1. seeing Rahu. in his childhood. the sun passes through the opening at the neck. the one who makes the Moon lustreless. The day was solar eclipse day. He is depicted in art as a serpent with no body riding a chariot drawn by eight black horses. Rahu and Ketu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. during the Samudra manthan.1 Hinduism According to legend. the peacemaker. that swallows the sun causing eclipses. The other name of Rahu is Bhayanka. bitter enemy of caught Rahu. In Hindu tradition. ending the eclipse. the asura Rahu drank some of the amrita (divine nectar). and the demons. Mohini cut off the asura’s head before the nectar could pass his throat. Hanuman. 33. causing eclipses. Therefore. lord of illusions. It is believed that this immortal head from time to time swallows the sun. The head. when Rahu was to swallow up the sun. ever-angry. Then. Hanuman. ing: the chief. during the Ramayana war. Hanuman and Rahu In ancient Tamil astrological scripts. see Rahu (disambiguation). the minister of was attracted by curiosity to the disembodied head. The sun and moon realized it and alerted Mohini (the female avatar of Vishnu). as it appeared to be a big fruit. the tormentor. 33. however. Rahu is one of the navagrahas (nine planets) in Vedic astrology and is paired with Ketu.[1] Astronomically. one who frightens the On another occasion. For other uses. see Lunar node. The time of day considered to be under the influence of Rahu is called Rahu kala and is considered inauspicious. Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes.

aspecting or controlling. Worship of Lord Rama appeases Lord Hanuman the most. as pending on which planet is controlling him and which it represents a force displaying all the possibilities within bhava or pattern of life like longevity. of life he controls into chaos. it’s said that Rahu is at his apex of power when operating through this nakshatra. Sud33. Rahu is seen Rahu. He is wrathful in appearance. Tib. ASTROLOGY 105 imprisoned the Navagrahas. uncleanliness.[4] In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. i. ablaze with fire.1. it is believed that Rahu’s negative influence will be subdued when one worships Hanuman. exaltation. and thus is associated with dualities resulting from its mayavi (illusory) nature.e.[2][3] The Buddha responds by enjoining Rahu to release them. Its element is air and its direction is southwest. they can as an asura or demon who does his best to plunge any area together be treated as Ketu. It reof any person’s life or plunge him into deep trouble de. Svati and Shatabhisha. They were grateful to Hanuman.33. Thus.” All the grahas thanked Hanuman individually for releasing them. and transmigration. In his four arms he holds a bow and arrow. different systems assign Rahu differassociated with the world of material manifestation and ent signs regarding rulership. a divinity having the attributes of anger and the like). bones. Rahu attacks Chandra the moon deity and Surya the sun deity before being compelled to release them by their recitation of a brief stanza conveying their reverence for the Buddha. . and often a lasso and victory banner.2 Astrology den changes in luck and fame are also linked to Rahu. Rahu is one of the krodhadevatas (lit: Anger divinities. 33. The astrological text Lal Kitab notes that if Saturn and Worship of Goddess Durga pleases Rahu the most and he Mars are conjunct. which Rahu does rather than have his “head split into seven pieces”. It is a legendary master of deception who signifies cheaters.2 Buddhism Rahu is mentioned explicitly in a pair of scriptures from the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon. drug dealers. as well as random. mystery. they can be together considered as confers immense benefits to the worshipper. while if Jupiter and Venus are conjunct. Hanuman arrived and released them. worldly desire. cere and immoral acts. and his lower body has the form of a snake. becoming one of the principle protectors of the Dzogchen teachings. He is In Vedic astrology. Rahu (or Rahula. operators in foreign lands. abdominal ulcers. harsh speech. Ardra. insin- powerful nakshatra. Rahula is a sa. and its gemstone is honey-colored hessonite. an outcast. Shatabhisha is his most Rahu is supposed to be a mighty and naughty child of Maya. and cruelty. a class of deities associated with the heavenly bodies. Rahu is associated with the following: its color is smoky. He is usually depicted with nine heads and a Rahu with consort Karali thousand eyes all over his dark-colored body. and debilitation. In the Candima Sutta and the Suriya Sutta.. saying “people devoted to you are blessed by us too. Rahu is considered instrumental in strengthening one’s In Vedic astrology Rahu dasha can either be the best time power and converting even an enemy into a friend.lates to the Seventh Ray energy of esoteric astrology. particularly the Longchen Nyingthik. pleasures etc. Rahu dasa gives immense scope for obtaining spectacular results from worship or dhyana. he is the realm of existence. falsehoods. It is the symbol of an irreligious person. metal is lead. uncontrolled growth Rahu is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: without wisdom or understanding. pleasure seekers. poison dealers. gza) is considered to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava.2.[3] The verses recited by the two celestial deities and the Buddha have since been incorporated into Buddhist liturgy as protective verses (paritta) recited by monks as prayers of protection.

satnaja (a mixture of seven grains). India through the ages.6 Notes [1] Gopal. One complex of this coffee. sesame. amongst other wats. and coal. near Wat Traimit in Bangkok’s Chinatown and also in Wat the Saphan Taksin sky train station. Gautam. saffron. black beans. The navagraha deities. see the summary in the Devaputtasamyutta section Phra Rahu in Thailand. 77. people offer a plate of black offering—black Indian temple in Silom. The milk turns light blue when it flows down after touching the statue of Rahu.106 33. [2] Candima Sutta [3] Suriya Sutta [4] Access to Insight. and also in the courtyard of the South In Thailand. dalay. 33. whom they hold in the Bhairav Mahadev Sthan in Gyaneswor.[5] 33. Myanmar. The most famous temfilled with white sugar balls on which ants are fed contin. RAHU followed for over 1. Thailand. Government of India. In all Hindu temples in Burma.3 Worship Rahu is also worshipped by the Dusadh (Paswan) caste found in Bihar. Tamil Nadu. p. “Om Dhoom Raam Rahave Namaha” 33. lead. Kathmandu. India. Pathom Province. This practice has been [5] Daan in Vedic Astrology 33. exist in the Ganesh Temple in Manways of propitiating Rahu. a temple called Wat Srisathhong.4 Rahu Mantra Mantras linked with Rahu include “Om Bhram Bhreem Bhroum Sah Rahave Namah” and “Om Rang Rahuve Namah Om”. The bhagat (priest) assists the devotee in prayer by standing on a ladder made of swords and by fire-offering at which the bhagat walks through the fire.S.7 External links • Things ruled by Rahu in Vedic Astrology . very high regard.2. black biscuits amongst nature. A prayer in the form of a three-day fast is offered by devotees.5 See also • Ketu • Kirtimukha • Svarbhanu 33.1 Rahu dan CHAPTER 33. also exists in other items to propitiate Phra Rahu. black Coke. feasome parts of India feeding ants is considered one of the turing nine planets. Publication Division. ed. Articles that are donated in order to mitigate negative effects of Rahu include mustard. Phra Rahu. There is a dedicated temple to Rahu . K. The ritual is a device to secure abundance of sunlight and prosperity by the community. Rahu is also worshipped along with the other 9 planets in Ants are considered of the favoured species of Rahu. is worshipped in The other Phra Rahu statue is in the Wat Yannawa. There is a milk abhishekam everyday during Rahu Kaalam to appease Rahu.Naganatha Temple at Thirunageswaram. radishes. as he is called in Thailand.ple for Phra Rahu worshipping in Thailand is in Nakhon uously is also kept in Thai businesses. blankets. There is a shrine for Phra Rahu in Wat Nepal. featuring statues of all nine planets.500 years. Traimet near Chinatown in Bangkok. A glass fish-bowl Yannawa. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Madan (1990).

EXTERNAL LINKS • How Does rahu Operate in its Dasha • Hessonite the Jyotish Gemstone of Rahu 107 .7.33.

3). Malay: Baruna). catching liars in his snares. This may misrepresent the actual importance of Varuna in early Vedic society due to the focus of the Rigveda on fire and Soma ritual. was adopted or made the Faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka. the Lord of Oceans. Lakshmana. explaining that he himself was at a loss to answer Rama’s question.12). In Hindu mythology.1 In the Vedas such. being the king of the Asuras. is about six times more prominent than Varuna. when opposed to Mitra. The stars are his thousand-eyed spies. He bows to Rama. as a yellow man ated with the night. and can grant immortality. he angrily begins attacking the oceans with celestial weapons—burning up the waters and killing its life and creatures. Varuna is also twinned with Indra in the Rigveda. is a god of the water and of the celestial ocean. change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos. ˈvɑːrə-/. based on similarities between both names and the respective gods’ attributes. representing the west.g. He is also one As chief of the Adityas. Indra. particularly the oceans. prays to calm Rama’s mind. fasting and meditating in perfect dhyana for three days and three nights. although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e. Varuna does not respond. Varuna arises out of the oceans. 34.[1] Sanskrit: Varuṇa व ण.[5] In post-Vedic texts Varuna became the god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. and Mitra with the daylight. A Makara is his mount. as well as a god of law of the underwater world. who is mentioned 341 times. with moral and societal affairs than being a deification of nature.63. As 34. watching every movement of men. and his brother. Just as Rama invokes the brahmastra. see Varuna (disambiguation).60. considered the most powerful weapon capable of destroying all creation. Together with Mitra–originally 'agreement' (between tribes) personified—being master of ṛtá. while Indra receives no mention. he is the supreme keeper of order and god of the law. RV 5. and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound).2 In the Ramayana Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath. he is rather associ. and establishes a purer. and Nala con- 108 . The daily Sandhyavandanam ritual of a dvija addresses Varuna in this aspect in its evening routine. he is mostly concerned from a snake. asking him to forgive all sins. enraged by the God’s arrogance. imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra. as Indra-Varuna (when both cooperate at New Year in re-establishing order [2] ). he suggests that Rama re-direct the weapon at a demonic race that lives in the heart of the ocean. Varuna promises that he would keep the oceans still for all of Rama’s army to pass. and Rama arises on the fourth morning. In the Rigveda. Varuna. Begging him not to destroy the oceans with the missile. but no successful derivation has yet been produced that is consistent with known laws of sound change.Later art depicts Varuna as a lunar deity. Soma being closely associated with Indra. where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana. however. Rama’s arrows destroys the demons. He rides the sea creature Makara. Varuna has aspects of a solar of the Guardians of the directions. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e. The Vanaras (Monkeys) are dazzled and fearful at witnessing the enraged Rama demolish the oceans.g. Varuna is also a god of the dead.Chapter 34 Varuna For other uses. He is attended by the nagas. Rama (an Avatar of Vishnu) performs a penance (tapasya) to Varuna. The Rigveda and Atharvaveda[3] portrays Varuna as omniscient. Varuna (/ˈvɜrʊnə. Varuna with his omniscience and omnipotence in the affairs of men has many aspects of a supreme deity. Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element.[4] In Vedic religion. Vedic Varuna is sometimes thought to be a reflex of the same Proto-Indo-European theonym as Greek Ouranos. As the wearing golden armor and holding a noose or lasso made most prominent Deva. deity though. chief of the Devas. With his bow and arrow. liberated environment there. RV 7.

a dim-witted. an opinion—with extensions—that Dumezil (Tarpeia 1947:33-113) and Widengren (Die Religionen Irans. The basis of Kuiper’s proposal is that the equivalent of Avestan mazda “wisdom” is Vedic medhira. justifies his angry assault on the oceans as he followed the correct process of petitioning and worshipping Varuna.4 In Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda) explicitly naming them. (See Jhulelal) be a remnant of Varuna in those Gathic passages (generally presumed to have been composed by Zoroaster himself) refers to the ahuras (plural) without (aside from 34. is in “common opinion” Zoroastrian tradition. the poet uses the have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna (if at all such expression mazdasca ahurano (Yasna 30. 1929:15).e. which is the literal Middle Persian (Mithra the King and Varuna the Master.Lord” Apam Napat. This a predecessor figure existed) in Iran are the appear. Acta of the Sandhyavandanam. It may then be that the Avestan adjective is likewise a cult epithet. and the Baga” (Boyce. and there may origin.g. The former is the Avesta’s mythological sea that covers the earth.equivalent (also Apam Napat) Vedic Varuna is closely as- .11). Too 33. which in Iran is represented by asha [vahishta]. Assuming that Vedic Varuna is not a purely Indian development (i. generally understood to mean “the Wise [Mazda] ance of two names like 'Varuna' in the medieval texts of One and the (other) Ahuras”. in the only two occurrences of the term where the late to be of relevance to a reconstruction of what might word does not refer to Ahura Mazda. In that list. Zimmer (Münchner Studien 1984:187-215) observed that Varuna has the byname (cult epithet) bhaga.4. Yasna Varuna is not attested in the texts of the Avesta.in the 19th century esoteri. The other instance appears in a this supported by the younger Avestan dvandvah expresreading of a medieval Zoroastrian reaction to Islam’s 99 sion mithra ahura berezanta “Mithra and the High Lord”. Kuiper (IIJ I. of a dvija Hindu. 2001) sees meaning of his name. Boyce of “backwards"-ness. assuming that he derives from an IndoIranian *vouruna).34. 1965:12-13) also follow. “High Pahlavi script was mis-transcribed into Pazand and Gu. Also unrelated to Vedic Varuna are Avestan Vourukasha and Varena. 31. This may be seen to be reflected in Artaxerxes III’s invocation of ahuramazda ura mithra Worship of Varuna is an integral part of the evening ritual baga “Ahura Mazda. which then -. popular worship is primarily limited to Hindus of Sindhi Another epithet of Vedic Varuna is asura. One of these instances is as Mid. Foundations. and with whose Indian of halant by typesetting -. Mithra.phrase. IN ZOROASTRIANISM 109 cally interpreted as “deliverer from evil. easily tricked demon which the other Ahuras are *mitra and *varouna. 1957) proposes that none less than Ahura Mazda is a development from an earlier dvandva *vouruna-mitra. This theory is based on Vedic Varuna’s role as the principal protector of rta.3 In contemporary Hinduism common occurrence. names of Allah.6. Rama negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna. Iranica 21.4). the proper name having been forgotten—a not un34. there are several different theories on what might have happened to Indo-Iranian *vouruna in Iran: Nyberg (Die Religionen des alten Iran. 1938:282ff) sees Varuna represented as the Amesha Spenta Asha Vahishta “Best Righteousness”.9. While Ahura Mazda is uniformly “the mightiest Ahura” (e. described in Rigveda 8. the third member of the Ahuric triad jarati script as 'vāruná'.(so Boyce 1984:159) recognized as being archaic and in dle Persian varun. Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the propitious characteristics of *mitra structs a bridge (Rama’s Bridge) across to Lanka. However.together with a loss (Gray.” Neither of these terms have any connection to Vedic Varuna. while Varena is a mythological fourcornered fourteenth region of the world. 1981:59-73). In Kuiper’s view. an adjecbut obtaining the result by force for the greater good.10 as the "(revealed) inRaja Ravi Varma Painting .[6] tive that also appears in the Avesta (as baga).'Rama Conquers Varuna' sight into the cosmic order” that Varuna grants his devotees. a term in the ambiguous the latter being unambiguously Ahura Berezainti.

[6] Ramesh Menon (2004). Ancient Idian Cosmopony. B. The Varuna class of ship of Indian Navy are sail training vessels. (2010). pp.32. The Horse. demons) 34. David W.org/stable/1061926?origin= JSTOR-pdf [5] Anthony. They consist of the following three ships. Kuiper. 376–81 • The first Varuna was a screw gunboat launched in 1861 and sunk by enemy action in April 1862. the Vedic god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. pp. INS Varuna is a sail training vessel of the Indian Navy. Varuna was completed in April 1981 by AlcockAshdown in Bhavnagar. commissioned in 1943 and decommissioned in 1946. 30–31. corresponding to Paippalada 5.6 See also • Rigvedic deities • Mitra (Vedic) • Adityas • Guardians of the directions • The king and the god . Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. the Indian Neptune. CHAPTER 34. J. Princeton University Press. and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World.110 sociated. 34. USS Varuna (1861) & USS Varuna (1943) Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Varuna for Varuna. VARUNA • Paravar • Shukra (guru of asuras.jstor. Beombay 1983 [3] Shaunakiya Atharvaveda 4. Varuna. [4] http://www.16.7 Notes [1] “Varuna”. [2] F. the Wheel. • INS Varuna • INS Tarangini • INS Sudarshini The dwarf planet candidate 20000 Varuna is named after Varuna. It can carry 26 cadets. The Ramayana. • The second Varuna (AGP-5) was a motorboat tender.5 In modern age • Asura • Ahura Mazda 34.

like Vakarinė or Vakarė (the evening Venus. but often their accounts were confused. Alternatively her name is given as Aušra (“dawn”). who makes the bed for Saulė. Beginning in the 16th century. legends. Germanic Tiwaz and Greek Zeus). • Praamžius. Audėja (the weaver). Pramžimas. the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun (the Vedic Ashwins or the Greek Dioskouri). The cults of old deities transformed into folklore (individual tales. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”) (Parjanya in Vedic religion). Praamžimas. and instigated war between people). and the Roman goddess Aurora. authored by foreigners and Christians. were the goddesses who made garments from human’s lives. the . • Saulė. Kannada. the Morning Star. an epithet of Dievas (the chief god). • Žvaigždės (žvaigždė. • Perkūnas. Earliest written sources. folklore. the Thunder. One of the most important stars is Aušrinė. but elements of the Lithuanian mythology survived into the 19th century. goddess of fate and weaving. the foster of the Holy Fire. Epithet of Dievas. 35. a son of Dievas (“dievaitis”). They were seven sisters: Verpiančioji (who spun the threads of life). the Sun Goddess (Surya in Vedic religion). probably of later literary origin. songs. For Indian actress in Telugu. Pramšans. and heavily influenced by various religious agendas. but they. Tamil. the Moon. Collection and recording of folklore began in the 19th century. By that time the pagan mythology became fragmented and mixed with Christian traditions. • Ašvieniai. the pagan religion received more attention from authors. • Gabija.1 Names from folklore myths and legends • Vakarinė. etc. goddess of the Evening Star.[1] 111 • Žemyna. the Moon as their father. They have similarities with the Greek Fates and the Norse Norns. The list of Lithuanian gods is reconstructed based on scarce written sources and late folklore. divine or demonic beings. Lithuania converted to Christianity in 1387. • Laima. Different authors present wildly contradictory reconstructions of Lithuanian pantheon. and Išskalbėja (the laundress). stars. goddess. • Dievas Senelis (“Good Old Man”) he is a teacher of people and judge of their morality. the deified soil (Zamin in Persian and Hindi for “land”). a daughter of the Dievas (“dievaitė"). a goddess. Deivės Valdytojos were associated with Dalia and Laima. Because of such difficulties obtaining data. Aušrinė has many similarities with Vedic Ushas. Metančioji (who threw rims of life). He looks like an old traveling beggar. contradictory. having the Sun as their mother and. Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine. goddess of Fate and Luck (Laxmi in Hinduism). Sergėtoja (who scolded Gadintoja.1.) without associated rituals.Chapter 35 List of Lithuanian mythological figures “Indraja” redirects here.1 Gods • Dievas. She was the goddess of the morning. in singular). Gadintoja (who broke the thread). myths. • Mėnuo. there is no accepted list of Lithuanian gods. Nukirpėja (who cut the cloth of life). the Greek goddess Eos. 35. and other personages from Lithuanian myths. a goddess. see Indraja (actress). Aušrinė's sisters. sometimes. only briefly mention the Lithuanian gods. one main chief god (whose name was cognate with the Vedic Dyaus. • Aušrinė. a daughter of Dievas (“dievaitė"). are less important. This section includes the names of gods. and fairy-tales. Other stars. • Deivės Valdytojos (Lithuanian: Governing Goddesses). Malayalam films. • Dalia.

35. very friendly with the Earth and Nature gods.1. Žiezdrė (Mars) and Vaivora (Mercury). which subsequently became popular. However. a household spirit who protects grain. Mother Earth. His function of shining this beacon makes him similar to Aušrinė. a household spirit bringing both good and bad luck • Baubas. mostly because of its modern poetic interpretation by Maironis. Maumas (bugaboo).112 CHAPTER 35. a spirit of rivers • Auštaras (Auštra). a spirit of lakes • Upinis. Žebris.1. Maras (black death or the Plague). LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES sun). Indraja (Jupiter. Dizikas. Bubis. Guda. the god of the seas and storms ––he is two-faced like the Roman god Janus. Bubė. They would also leave some bread and salt under the plait. Ruginis (spirit of rye). gnomes. Good spirit. 35. Also can mean fear or bad feelings.1. also The Reaper. Kolera. • Bangpūtys. sometimes appear in mythic stories too. When crops in the phosphorescent skeleton. He harasses people and tears their hair or stifles them. While cutting grain. a scary forest spirit that appears as a running through the fields. • Jievaras. we are giving for you too). Earlier . a household god who protects grain in barns. In this festival. people saw them as being the actions of spirits. • Vėlės. Kupolinės is also known as Rasos. wrinkly fingers and red eyes. They probably were old ladies living by the forest.4 Various lower beings • Kaukas. The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with Feast of St. • Slogutis means pain. spirits of dead human beings. Arklys (horse). some consider him to be her cousin. Bubas. . the legendary princess of Kernavė • Jūratė and Kastytis are heroes of a Lithuanian legend. Kiškis (hare). Sėlija (Saturn). spirits similar to leprechauns. John the Baptist (Joninės). The queen of the amber palace Jūratė may be considered a manifestation of the goddess of Sea in this legend. There are aakis (green-eyed). Bobas.3 Local and nature spirits • Ežerinis. • Ragana is an old-looking female or witch. Other names include Kaulinyčia. Sometimes she was considered to be a sister of Laima (luck). Kupala in Polish mythology and Ivan Kupala in Russian mythology 35. the spirit of springtime vegetation and flowers. Babaužis. Kapinių žmogus. and would say: Davei manei. the home of good souls.dweller or even god of bogs and marshes. Lapė (fox). a request for the land to continue to be fruitful.[2] Her sacral bird is the owl. Meška (bear). not the pure evil being of Christianity. duodame ir tau ([You] gave for us. danced and sang songs. the god of the northeast wind.2 Heroes and heroines • Pajauta. To children. fields waved in the wind. • Javinė. Also it could be described as a black and dark creature living under the carpet or in some dark spot of the house. 35.6 Holy places and things Katinas (tomcat). Vilkas (wolf). • Nykštukas. between two rivers. Mostly has dark intentions and powers to control forces of nature.1. Pavietrė. an evil spirit with long lean arms. • Laumė. women would leave a few grain tufts uncut. which would later be braided into plaits. 35.5 Demonic beings • Aitvaras. Raudongerklis (red-throated). • Pinčiukas. who stands at the gates of paradise and lights the way for those going to paradise. who were • Žiburinis. having a good knowledge of plants and their use for medical and other purposes. Baubas. Pypalas. but a trickster. Žalisos is on a high mountain (Latvian Debeskalns. Raudongalvis • Dausos or Dangus. Indra in Vedic religion).1. Smauglys (boa). women picked sacral herbs. or Norse Valhalla). Žemele. Maro mergos. • Kupolė. • Laukų dvasios (spirits of fields). the punishment was grave. spirits. if anyone tried to use them. Laukų dvasios include Nuogalis. Dau(red-headed). misery or nightmare. Papiokė. Sacrifices to Jievaras are made after the rye harvest. A misbehaving child could be told by the parents: “Behave. Compare this with Ziedu māte in Latvian mythology. Described as white and blue as the sky itself. a fairy-like female creature (pixies). he is the equivalent of the boogeyman of the Englishspeaking countries. or baubas will come and get you”. • Giltinė – goddess of death. devil. Paplėštakis.

Prakorimas (Prokorimos) – the supreme deity. another for pagan priests (Lithuanian: žynys). 4. 35. Samogitia and all Russia. • Teliavelis (Televelis) was a powerful smith who made the sun and threw it to the sky. provider of crops 5. These deities were supposedly worshiped by King of Lithuania Mindaugas secretly after baptizing. Perkūnas survived in people faith petual night. The flesh would be dividing into three pieces: one for peasants. 35. Vladimir Toporov suggested that it is derived from Lithuanian word kaurai (fur). The cult of žaltys (grass snake) is associated with the cult of Žemininkas. Stryjkowski pointed out that Prakorimas was similar to Prussian supreme god Okopirmas. Lithuania. meaning leader of gods. There was mentioned in chronicle that warriors invoke Andajus in battle. She was worshiped by King Mindaugas and represented military interest of warriors. NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 113 golden apple-trees in the Dausos garden. Žemininkas (Ziemennik) – god of land and agriculture. and third for burning. Estonians and others). • Žvoruna(Zvoruna) was a euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess like Roman Diana. is identical to Vayu of Hinduism.35. In this work. Rūgutis (Ruguczis) – god of fermentation and fermented foods 3. 2. Her name is connected with wild animals.2. Vėjas phemisms. Medeina also was mentioned in the 16th century by J. one Old Prussian and another Lithuanian.1 Earliest Russian chronicles Some names from Lithuanian mythology are also found in Russian chronicles of the 13th century. while Wilhelm Mannhardt argued it stems from karas (war). Kauriraris (Chaurirari) – deity of war and warhorses. Day in the • Perkūnas was the god of thunder. While Auštaras shows the way for good souls. it means that her zoomorphic shape is female dog. Andojas.[6] 7. Stryjkowski provided two lists of gods. Lasicki.) was mentioned in medieval chronicles as supreme deity. Sutvaras (Sotwaros) – god of all cattle . It may be euphemism of Dievas. Auštaras and Vėjopatis are keepers of Dausos’s gates (Dausų Vartai). Lietuvonis (Lituwanis) – god of rain 6. Master of Dausos is Vėjopatis (Lord and folk tales till the 20th century.2 Names by written sources 35. The mediaeval chronicles tells that this custom is very old and was called Sovica. Some scholars. Būga tried to prove that Televelis is incorrectly written Kalvelis (smith diminutive in Lithuanian). Teliavelis has connections with Finnish Ilmarinen. Sovica was practicated not only by Lithuanians but also by other pagan tribes (Livonians. Russian chronicles are considered the best source of information about ancient Lithuanian pantheon worshiped by feodals and military. Stryjkowski elaborated that people used to sacrifice white cocks to Prakorimas. There was mentioned in chronicle that she is a bitch. by some scholars etimologized as Numadievis) is incorrectly written name of supreme god or just another euphemism. one of the most garden is perpetual but outside its confines is perpowerful deities. etc. • Nonadievis (Nunadievis.2. • Medeina (Medeinė) is another euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess. • Sovijus in 13th-century Russian chronicles was a person who introduced the pagan custom of burning bodies after death. of the wind) or Vėjas (Wind) who is also one of • Diviriks is thought to be one of Perkūnas euthe oldest gods in Lithuanian mythology.3 Maciej Stryjkowski Maciej Stryjkowski (1547–1593) was a Polish– Lithuanian historian and author of Chronicle of Poland. The name etymology is unclear.2. • Andajus (Andajas. This myth survived in folk tales in the beginning of the 20th century. Krūminė (Kruminie Pradziu Warpu) – deity of ears.2 Martynas Mažvydas Vėjas (Vėjopatis) blows bad souls into oblivion. Martynas Mažvydas in his Latin introduction to Catechismusa Prasty Szadei (1547) urged the people to abandon their pagan ways and mentioned the following gods:[3][4] • Perkūnas (Percuno) – god of thunder • Laukosargas (Laucosargus) – god of grains and other agricultural plants • Žemėpatis (Semepates) – god of cattle and other farm animals • Aitvaras and kaukas (Eithuaros and Caucos) – evil spirits 35.2. according to studies by Gintaras Beresnevičius. He listed 16 Lithuanian gods:[5] 1. like K.

10.[11] 3. Kriukis (Krukis) – deity of pigs 4. Žemėpatis (Zemopacios) 30. Bubilas – god of honey and bees 9. Łasicki was also not intimately familiar with Lithuanian culture or language. representing everyday household items. Lavvkpatimo 26. Pušaitis or Puškaitis (Puszajtis) – deity of land. He wrote a treatise on idolatry About gods of Samogitians. a Polish lesser noble who worked as a royal land surveyor. People did not offer sacrifices to him as he was a free spirit. Gulbis (Gulbi Dzievos) – the good spirit of every human. Festivities. Algis 33. Ventis Rekicziouum) – spirits worshiped by individual noble families 20. other Sarmatians.2. Also it could be a euphemism of Vakarė. 29.[7] 12. Ratainyčia (Ratainicza) – god of horses[6] 28. Karvaitis Ėraitinis (Kurvvaiczin Eraiczin) – deity of calves and lambs[9] 21. Kremata – god of hogs[9] 13. Medeina (Modeina et Ragaina) – goddess of forest and hunting 14. Šeimos dievas (Seimi Dewos) – god of family 7. Brėkšta (Breksta) – goddess of twilight. Simonaitis and Ventis Rekičionis (Simonaitem. Žemyna (Zemina) – goddess of land and agriculture . Aušra (Ausca) – the morning star (Venus). Gardūnytis (Gardunithis) – protector of newlyborn lambs[10] 22.4 Jan Łasicki Jan Łasicki (Lasicius) was a Polish Protestant activist. 17. living in bushes of sambucus and commanding chthonic dwarfs barstukas 35. Šventpaukštinis (Swieczpunscynis) – god of all domesticated and wild birds. Her other name was Aušrinė. Lazdona (Lasdona) – goddess of hazelnuts 5. and false Christians (De diis Samagitarum caeterorumque Sarmatarum et falsorum Christianorum. Sidzium. Tavalas (Tavvals) – deity of physical strength. Ežerinis (Ezernim) – spirit or deity of lakes. Bubilas (Babilos) – household god of bees. Upinis dievas (Upinis Dewos) – god of rivers 8. Datanus 11.114 CHAPTER 35. Derived from ežeras (lake). Kirnis (Kirnus) – local god of cherries 12. Deities mentioned by Jan Łasicki were:[8] 16. 19. Krikštas (Kriksthos) – protector of tombstones[9] 2. Sidžius. Ganiklis (Goniglis Dziewos) – god of herds and shepherds 14. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES 8. Prigirstytis (Prigirstitis) – can hear whispers 23. 15. 1582 and published in 1615). Kelių dievas (Kielu Dziewos) – god of roads. The name is also known from hand-written collection of sermons from 1573. This 18-page treatise contained a lists of 76 Lithuanian gods with brief description of their functions. Apydėmė (Apidome) – deity of changed residence. There are doubts whether it was an actual god. Orthus 18. Aukštėjas (Auxtheias Vissagistis) – an euphemism of the supreme god. 34. Kerpyčius and Šilinytis (Kierpiczus and Siliniczus) – gods of forest. Perkūnas (Percunos) – god of thunder god 31. Gintaras Beresnevičius noted that this deity could be the same medieval Teliavelis. Therefore. Pyzius (Pizio) – god of spouses 13. Ligyčius (Ligiczus) 11. Priparšis (Priparscis) 27. and dances in his honor lasted from May 25 to June 25. Bežlėja (Bezlea) 9. Audros – god of storm 32. written ca. Valgina (Walgina) – god of cattle[9] 1. guardian angel 10. Łasicki obtained most of his information from Łaszkowski. Derived from Lithuanian word aukštas (high). Bentis 25. husband of Austėja 6. trade and travel 16. mosses and lichens 15. The list contained very minor deities. Didis Lado (Dzidzis Lado) – the great god. the academic opinion on the list ranges from a valuable resource to a practical joke designed to poke fun of Christian saints through an inverted mirror. songs. Derintojas (Derfintos) 24.

NAMES BY WRITTEN SOURCES 115 35.35.[12] Deities mentioned by Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704) 43. Aitvaras (Aitvvaros) 38. The first Pesseias volume contained a description of Lithuanian mythology. Ėraitis. Ežiagalis (Ezagulis) – god of death 37. leaven and fermentation • Ukapirmas (Okkapirmas) – preceded time. Klamals – no function recorded by Łasicki. Deuoitis 65. 56. Skalsa.Prussian Lithuanian 48. 55. Biržulis / Beržulis. modern historians have accused Narbutt of falsifying historical facts and reporting speculations. Veliuona (Vielona) – goddess of death 68. Matergabiae • Praamžius (Pramżimas) – highest god. Salaus – no function recorded by Łasicki. Ziemennik . Vėjopatis. Jaučių Baubis.[12] 46. 45. • Žalius (Zallus) – god of disagreement • Žėlius (Zelus) – god of grass • Šulininis (Szullinnijs) – god of wells • Bangpūtys. • Gabjauja (Gabvartas)[14] 49. Luibegeldas 62.2. Gota. The name is possibly derived from šerti (feed). Gyvatė (Giuoitos) – black snake (see also žaltys) 40. Šeryčius (Siriczus) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Giltinė. Dugnai – spirit of flour 52. Beržulis (Birzulis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. 53. spark. Guboi and Tvverticos 67. and other gods 59. Vetustis 66. Šluotražis (Szlotrazis) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Dvargantis (Dvvargonth) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Prigirstytis / Girystis. Gabija (Gabie) – goddess of household fire • Perkūnas (Perkunas) – thunder god 61. it could be a god of birches and birch sap. world. Bičbirbis. often presented as wife of Bubilas 64. Austėja (Austheia) – household goddess of bees. Kelio dievas / Kelukis 47. Kaukas (Kaukie) 39. Based on etymology. Vaižgantas (Waizganthos) – a god of flax • Viršaitis (Wirszajtos) – protected household. Polengabia 51. Ligyčius / Lygėjus. fire some gods mentioned only by Narbutt and unknown from Alabathis other sources are usually treated as a figure of author’s imagination. Numeias 35. Trotytojas kibirkščių (Tratitas Kirbixtu) – deity of However. Ublanyčia (Vblanicza) – patron of beggars[13] Polish historian Theodor Narbutt wrote the ten-volume work History of the Lithuanian Nation (Dzieje starożytne narodu litewskiego) between 1835 and 1841. Thus. were:[12] 44. The name is derived from šluota 35. Užpelenė (Aspelenie) 57. determines the fate of people. Narbutt claimed that he was equivalent to Auxtejas Wissagistis mentioned by Łasicki and to Roman Saturn 63.2. 42. Budintojas (Budintaia) Male deities 58. Atlaibas (Atlaibos) – no function recorded by Łasicki. Raugo Žemėpatis (Rauguzemapati) – deity of sourdough. • Drebkulis and Magyla .2. Tiklis – no function recorded by Łasicki. Karvaitis. Srutis and Miechutele – deities of paint and color[12] 41.6 Theodor Narbutt 50. domestic animals. Warpulis 69. his feast is celebrated on December 25 60. Smik smik per velėną (Smik Smik Perleuenu) – a phrase rather than a being 36. 54.5 Matthäus Prätorius (broom).

harvest. protector of ships • Poklius (Poklus) – god of death and underworld • Kriukis (Krugis) – god of smiths • Žiemininkas (Ziemienikas) – god of earth. riches. National Museum in Warsaw • Bezelea – evening goddess • Brėkšta (Brekszta) – goddess of darkness and dreams • Kruonis (Kronis) – goddess of time • Užsparinė (Usparinia) – goddess of land borders • Verpėja (Werpeja) – weaver of the thread of life • Gondu – goddess of weddings • Upinė (Upine) – goddess of rivers. gardens • Milda – goddess of love. afterlife • Pergrubė (Pergrubie) – goddess of spring. she was served by vaidilutės • Lada (Lado) – the great goddess.116 CHAPTER 35. Rasos festival is dedicated to her • Budtė (Budte) – goddess of wisdom • Laima (Lajma) – goddess of fate • Pelenų Gabija (Polengabia) – goddess of fireplaces • Moterų Gabija (Matergabia) – goddess of bread and bakery • Perkūnaitėlė (Perkunatele) – wife of Perkūnas • Pilvytė (Pilwite) – goddess of money. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES • Kovas (Kawas) – god of war • Ragutis – god of beer. flowers. springs • Ratainyčia (Ratajniczu) – goddess protecting horses • Krūminė (Krumine) – goddess of grain. and darkness • Patelas (Patelo) – flying god of air. mead • Santvaras or Sotvaras (Sotwaros) – god of daylight. vodka. courtship Goddess Milda by Kazimierz Alchimowicz (1910). agriculture • Valginė (Walgina) – goddess protecting domestic animals • Nijolė (Nijola) – mistress of the underworld. poets. and good luck • Lietuva (Liethua) – goddess of freedom. doctors • Atrimpas (Atrimpos) – god of sea and water • Gardaitis (Gardeoldiis) – god of wind. pleasure. storm. wife of Poklius • Luobo gelda (Lajbegelda) – goddess of knowledge and rumors • Alabatis – goddess of flax • Mėšlų boba (Mahslu baba) – goddess of garbage • Aušra (Ausssra) – morning goddess • Budintoja – spirit that wakes sleeping people . similar to an angel • Šneibratas (Sznejbrato) – god of birds and hunting • Kibirai (Kabiry) – a trinity Female deities • Praurimė (Praurime) – goddess of sacred fire. joy • Veliuona (Wellona) – goddess of eternity.

35.3. SEE ALSO

117

• Austėja (Austheja) – goddess of bees

35.2.8 Other names

• Ragutiene Pati (Ragutenapati) – wife of Ragutis

The names, that were more marginal in Lithuanian
mythology or less known from existing sources are put
here. In fact they denote some spirits or local deities, that
don't play a main role in the mythology of Lithuanians.

• Žemės Motina (Zemmes mahti) – goddess of underground, responsible for lost items
• Gaila (Gajla) – spirit torturing people and animals
• Neris – nymph of Neris River

• Blizgulis, a god of snow. His name means “that who
glitters.”
• Junda, Goddess of War

• Dugnė (Dugna) – nymph of rivers

• Baubis, a household god of meat and cattle.

• Ragana – goddess of trees

• Divytis, a god-like hero of fishermen legends. Fishermen at sea sang songs about Divytis.

• Lazdona – goddess of hazelnut

• Gardaitis, a god (a spirit?) of ships and sailors.

• Medziojna – goddess of forests

• Jagaubis, a household spirit of fire and the furnace.

• Pajauta – worshiped woman, daughter of Duke
Kernius, wife of Živinbudas

• Rasa, Kupolė's and Kaupolis’ daughter. She is the
goddess of summer’s greenage and flowers.

• Birutė (Biruta) – worshiped woman, wife of
Kęstutis

• Mokas, a stone with an ability to teach people,
sometimes they are found in families - with wife
Mokienė and children Mokiukas

35.2.7

Other written sources

35.3 See also

This section contains those names of Lithuanian and
Prussian gods or other mythical beings that are mentioned
in old treatises on history or philosophy, sometimes accompanied by brief descriptions, and which are known
from a few independent sources or from their counterparts under different names in later collections of myths
and tales.
• Dimstipatis (mentioned by Jokūbas Lavinskis), is a
masculine deity (genius loci). It is a household god,
the guardian of houses and caretaker of the hearth.
People sacrificed roosters and black hens to the deity. The birds were boiled; later people would gather
around the kettle and eat the birds. The bones were
burned. Sometimes Dimstipatis is reconstructed as
a god of housewives, to whom pigs were sacrificed.
Dimstipatis was also seen as a power protecting from
fires.[3]
• Dirvolika, Nosolus (Jesuit reports from 1605)[15]

• Baukuris (Kraziu kolegijos)[16]
• Velinas (mentioned by Konstantinas Sirvydas)

[2]

• Laima (Daniel Klein in 1666)[17]

• Lithuanian mythology
• Slavic mythology
• Romuva (temple)

35.4 References
[1] “Praamžius”. Mitologijos enciklopedija, vol. 2. Vilnius.
Vaga. 1999. 291 p.
[2] Balsys, Rimantas (2005).
“Prūsų ir lietuvių mirties (požemio, mirusiųjų) dievybės: nuo Patulo iki
Kaulinyčios” (PDF). Lietuvininkai ir lietuviai. Etninė
kultūra (in Lithuanian) IV: 27–51.
[3] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (2006-12-16). “Laukpatis ir
Dimstipatis. Lauko ir namų dievai”. Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (825). ISSN 1392-7760.
[4] Adalbert Bezzenberger, ed. (1874). Litauische und Lettische Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Göttingen: Robert
Peppmüler. p. 3.

• Pagirnis (Jesuit reports from 1605)[3]

• Javinė (Jawinne by Jacob Brodowski)[15]

• Latvian mythology

[5] Beresnevičius, Gintaras (August 2006). “M. Strijkovskio
“Kronikos” lietuvių dievų sąrašas (1)". Metai (in Lithuanian) 8–9 (89). ISSN 0134-3211.
[6] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). "Žirgų (arklių) dievybės rašytiniuose šaltiniuose”. Žemaičių žemė (in Lithuanian) (3):
17–19. ISSN 1392-2610.

118

CHAPTER 35. LIST OF LITHUANIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FIGURES

[7] Balsys, Rimantas (2006). “Lada (Didis Lado) in Baltic
and Slavic Written Sources”. Acta Baltico-Slavica. Archeologia, Historia, Ethnographia, et Linguarum Scientia
(30): 597–609. ISSN 0065-1044.
[8] Łasicki, Jan (1868) [1615]. De diis samagitarum libellus (in Latin). Riga: J. Bacmeister. pp. 10–16. OCLC
60605501.
[9] Mitchel, B. W. (April 1919). “The Early Centuries of
Kultur”. The Classical Journal 7 (14): 421.
[10] Paulauskytė, Teresė (2004-08-21). “Ką garbino žemaičiai
XVI amžiuje dievus ar demonus?". Šiaurės Atėnai (in
Lithuanian) (713). ISSN 1392-7760.
[11] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Apydėmė".
Encyclopedia Lituanica I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas
Kapočius. pp. 113–114. LCC 74-114275.
[12] Balsys, Rimantas (2007). “Kai kurios Motiejaus Pretorijaus hipotezės ir jų interpretacijos XX a. pabaigos – XXI
a. pradžios mitologų darbuose” (PDF). Res Humanitariae
(in Lithuanian) I: 76–94. ISSN 1822-7708.
[13] Razauskas, Dainius (2009-12-04). “Krosnis – aukuras,
namų šventovė". Šiaurės Atėnai (in Lithuanian) (967).
ISSN 1392-7760.
[14] http://www.aidai.us/index.php?option=com_content&
task=view&id=892&Itemid=127
[15] Ona Verseckienė, ed. (2004). “Namų dievai. Baltiškieji
namų dievai”. Lietuvių etninė kultūra. Namai etninėje
kultūroje (in Lithuanian). Elektroninės leidybos namai.
ISBN 9955-606-04-5.
[16] Zinkus
[17] Simas Sužiedėlis, ed.
(1970–1978).
“Laima”.
Encyclopedia Lituanica III. Boston, Massachusetts:
Juozas Kapočius. pp. 269–270. LCC 74-114275.

35.5 Further reading
• Lithuanian Religion and Mythology by Gintaras
Beresnevičius
• Jūrate Baranova et al., eds. (2001). “Chapter iv:
Lithuanian mythology by Gintaras Beresnevičius”.
Lithuanian philosophy: persons and ideas Lithuanian philosophical studies, ii. Cultural heritage and
contemporary change series IVa, Eastern and Central Europe, volume 17. The Council For Research
In Values And Philosophy. ISBN 1-56518-137-9.
Retrieved 2007-09-07.
• Gintaras Beresnevičius on periodisation and Gods in
Lithuanian mythology.
• Algirdas Julien Greimas, “Of Gods and Men: Studies in Lithuanian Mythology”, Indiana Univ. Press
(November 1992)

Chapter 36

Hine-nui-te-pō
Hine-nui-te-pō (“Great woman of night") is a goddess of
night and death and the ruler of the underworld in Māori
mythology. She is a daughter of Tāne. She fled to the
underworld because she discovered that Tāne, whom she
had married, was also her father. The red colour of sunset
comes from her.

36.2 See also
• Vagina dentata
• Persephone
• Incest
• Māui (Māori mythology)

36.1 Myths

36.3 References

All of the children of Rangi and Papa were male. It
was Tāne who first felt the need for a wife and began to
look for a companion. His mother showed him how to
make a female form from red earth. Then Tāne breathed
life into Hine-ahuone, the earth-formed-maid, and mated
with her. Their child was Hine-ata-uira, maid-of-theflashing-dawn (a.k.a. Hine-tītama), and Tāne took her
to wife (Biggs 1966:449).
One day, while Tāne was away, Hine-ata-uira began to
wonder who her father was. She was disgusted and
ashamed when she heard that her husband was also her
father, and she ran away. When Tāne came back he was
told that she had run off to the spirit-world, and he quickly
followed after. But he was stopped from entering by Hine
herself, in her new role as goddess of the underworld.
“Go back, Tāne”, she said to him, “and raise our children. Let me remain here to gather them in.” So Tāne
came back to the upper world, while Hine stayed below,
waiting only for Māui to bring death into the world, and
begin the never-ending procession of mortals to her realm
(Biggs 1966:449).
Māui did the last of his tricks on her, attempting to make
mankind immortal by trying to crawl through her body,
entering in her vagina and leaving by her mouth while
she slept, to reverse the path of birth. But one of his bird
friends, the Pīwakawaka, laughed at the ridiculousness of
the situation, seeing Māui turned into a worm squirming to enter the goddess, and woke her. To punish the
demi-god, she crushed him with the obsidian teeth in her
vagina; Māui was the first man to die (Alpers 1964:70).
Her other husband is her paternal uncle Ruaumoko.
119

• B.G. Biggs, 'Maori Myths and Traditions’ in
A.H. McLintock (editor), Encyclopaedia of New
Zealand, 3 Volumes.
(Government Printer:
Wellington), 1966, II:447-454.
• Anthony Alpers, Maori Myths and Tribal Legends.
Anckland : Longman Paul, 1964. ISBN 0-58271674-8.

after the valkyrie Sigrdrífa is woken from her sleep curse by the hero Sigurd. Nótt’s third marriage was to the god Dellingr and this resulted in their son Dagr.[3] In stanza 30 of the poem Alvíssmál. the god Odin (disguised as "Gagnráðr") asks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir from where the day comes.Chapter 37 Nótt 37. including her three marriages.[2] Nótt rides her horse in this 19th-century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. from which dew comes to the valleys. compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. “darkness” by the gods. while the Prose Edda features information about Nótt’s ancestry. Hail to the Æsir! Hail to the Asyniur! Hail to the bounteous earth! Words and wisdom give to us noble twain. In stanza 14 of the Vafþrúðnismál. As a proper noun. the word nótt appears throughout Old Norse literature. whom "Nórr" birthed. but night was of Nörvi born. Sigurd asks her name. Odin states that the horse Hrímfaxi “draws every night to the beneficent gods” and that he lets foam from his bit fall every morning. written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. The first verse of this prayer features a reference to the “sons of Dagr” and the “daughter of Nótt": 37. and then Sigrdrifa says a heathen prayer.1.1 Attestations 120 Hail to the Day! Hail to the sons of Day! To Night and her daughter hail! With placid eyes behold us here. and the Prose Edda. In Norse mythology. the new and waning moons the beneficent powers created. Nótt (Old Norse “night”[1] ) is night personified. “joy-of-sleep” by the elves. the personified day (although some manuscript variations list Jörð as Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother instead). Alvíss responds that night is referred as “night” by mankind. Vafþrúðnir responds: Delling hight he who the day’s father is. while dwarves call her “dream-Njörun" (meaning “dream-goddess”). and the night and its tides.[4] In Sigrdrífumál. and here sitting give us victory. Nótt is listed as the daughter of a figure by the name of Nörvi (with variant spellings) and is associated with the horse Hrímfaxi. to count the years for men. In both the Poetic Edda. “the masker by the mighty Powers”. and healing hands while we live![5] . “unlight” by the jötunn. In stanza 25.1 Poetic Edda In stanza 24 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. the god Thor asks the dwarf Alvíss to tell him what night is called in each of the nine worlds. and she gives him a “memory-drink” of a drinking horn full of mead. grandmother of Thor.

) (1999). Larrington glosses draumNjörun (Jónsson (1931:84. the personified earth.) (1995). ISBN 0-14-044755-5 However. ISBN 0-19283946-2 • Thorpe. Dagr. who takes after his “father’s people” in brightness and fairness. Lexicon poeticum. and Dellingr. [5] Thorpe (1907:181). W and T. • Jónsson. and the couple have Dagr. Nótt rides before Dagr. scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt. “nótt” is stated as one of various words for time and a version of the Alvíssmál passage is cited. and the two produced a son by the name of Auðr. • Haukur Thorgeirsson (2008).[8] Chapter 58 states that “Hrimfaxi or Fiorsvartnir draw the night”. S. The Poetic Edda. means of referring to Jörð are provided. the enthroned figure of High states that Nótt is the daughter of a jötunn from Jötunheimr by the name of "Norfi or Narfi". “Hinn fagri foldar son” as published in Gripla XIX. [8] Faulkes (1995:90).2 Prose Edda 121 37. • Larrington. Her first marriage was with Naglfari. [9] Faulkes (1995:137). and they ride around the earth every 24 hours. REFERENCES 37.37. pages 159—168. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. Penguin Classics. [3] Larrington (1996:42). Nótt is again personified. [6] Byock (2005:19). depending on the manuscript.1. [4] Translation of all of this section minus “dream-Njörun” from Larrington (1996:113). and has had three marriages. ISBN 0-304-34520-2 In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. L. Everyman. Finally.3 References In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning.[10] 37. and argues that “the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT. R. Nótt is described as “black and swarthy”.[9] and in chapter 64. Jesse (Trans. and foam from her horse Hrímfaxi’s bit sprinkles the earth. placed them into the sky with a chariot and a horse each. cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr’s wife and Dagr’s mother”.3. The Elder Edda of Saemund Sigfusson. Anthony (Trans. either Jörð or Nátt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. Odin took Nótt and her son Dagr.[6] • Byock. Old Norse “dream-Njörun”) as “dream-goddess”. Cassell. including “daughter of Nótt”. Møllers bogtrykkeri. Nótt marries the god Dellingr. Oxford World’s Classics. Norrœna Society.[7] • Orchard. offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts. . The results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition”. Haukur details that “the oldest manuscript.2 Notes [1] Orchard (1997:120). Andy (1997).) (1907). Finnur (1931). • Faulkes. In other words. resulting in their daughter Jörð. Carolyne (Trans. [2] Thorpe (1907:13). [10] Faulkes (1995:144). ISBN 0-460-87616-3 Edda. Benjamin (Trans. [7] Haukur (2008:159—168). In chapter 10.) (2006). Nótt’s second marriage was to Annar. The Prose Edda. U. Jörð.

meaning “evening". Zornica. Rannia Zoria.[1] 38. the Morning Star. Zorja Utrennjaja. The home of the Zorja was sometimes said to be on Bouyan (or Buyan). also known as Večernja Zvijezda. A third sister is described in some versions of the myth. and the planet Venus. Zwezda. two wolves that chase the sun and the moon. At dusk. Gwiazda Wieczorna. Zvezda Vechernitsa. Zorja Polunochnaya. who in some myths is described as their father. after sunset and Dažbog’s return. exorcism. 38. If the chain ever breaks. Vechirnia Zoria. Zornička). . while describing Myesyats as an unrelated female Zorya. Zvezda Danica. In Slavic mythology. 38. Večernica). an oceanic island paradise where the Sun dwelt along with his attendants. Zarja. the “little bear”. Zore = “dawn". protection. Zvezda. the North. West and East winds. and Slavs would pray to her each morning as the sun rose. bassoon and string quartet by Australian composer Julian Cochran. meaning “morning". who is chained to the star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor. Gwiazda Poranna. known as the Auroras. both she and Zorja Vechernjaja were the wives of the male Myesyats. Zwezda Wieczoniaia. They guard and watch over the doomsday hound. Danica = “star”) are the two guardian goddesses. In this role she was known to protect those warriors she favoured against death by letting down her veil. see desses. who closes the palace gates at dusk. In other accounts. She was associated with the planet Venus or Mercury. also known as Zvijezda Danica. Večernja Zvezda. Zvezda Dennitsa. The Zorja serve the sun god Dažbog. Zvezda Vechernaya. Zwezda Wieczernica. the moon god. opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sun-chariot’s departure. Some myths described both her and her sister Zorya Utrennyaya as the wives of the moon god Myesyats and the mothers of the stars. Večernjača.3 In art and literature • Zorja Vechernyaya is a sextet for oboe. Zvezda Zornitsa.4 See also Conflicting accounts exist of her marital situation.[4][5] • The Zorya appear in Kevin Hearne's series of urban fantasy novels The Iron Druid Chronicles.1 Morning Star The Morning Star is Zorja Utrennjaja (from Russian utro. Zorja Vechernjaja—the Evening Star—closes the palace gates once more after his return. For other uses. some have both Zorya as virgin god122 • Hecate • List of night deities • Zaria (goddess) • Hati and Sköll. she is described as the wife of Perun and would accompany her husband into battle. the Zorja (alternately.Chapter 38 Zorya This article is about mythology. In some myths. Here Gaiman includes a third sister. but other accounts cast both Zorya as virgin goddesses. The Zorja represent the Morning Star and the Evening Star. Zwezda Dnieca. moon goddess. the “Midnight Star”. the hound will devour the constellation and the universe will end.[3] • The Zorja appear in the novel American Gods by English author Neil Gaiman.[2] She is a patroness of horses.[2][3] 38. Zory.2 Evening Star The Evening Star is Zorja Vechernjaja (from Russian vecher. Zora.[2] However. and by him bore all of the stars. but Gaiman has stated he invented her for his work. who opens the gates of Dažbog’s palace each morning so that the Sun may begin his journey. Simargl.

38. 6/28/11 pt3 (YouTube). ISBN 978-1-42591838-5. p. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend.5. Mike (1998). ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. 6/28/11 pt2 (YouTube). [5] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. 48. [3] Deck-Partyka. [4] Neil Gaiman and Patton Oswalt at Saban Theater in L. 4 August 2011. ABC-CLIO. p. Poland. ABC-CLIO. 4 August 2011. AuthorHouse. [2] Dixon-Kennedy.5 References [1] Dixon-Kennedy. Alicja (2006). 123 . pp. REFERENCES 38.A. Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend.A. ISBN 978-1-57607-130-4. a Unique Country & Its People. 321–325. Mike (1998). 281. Retrieved 5 August 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2011.

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Postscriptum123 and Anonymous: 740 • Selene Source: http://en. KamikazeBot. Fritz Saalfeld. Abrech. AgnosticPreachersKid. ABF. BotKung.

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Bobo192.org/wiki/Trivia%20(mythology)?oldid=631593202 Contributors: IZAK. Kyoko. VernoWhitney. Coffeewhite. Ketiltrout. RandyS0725. TuHan-Bot. OnePt618. Tadorne. Missvain. ChrisGualtieri. LordCo Centre. Addbot. Gabriel leonardo. Macedonian. Sue Gardner. Txomin. Paul August. Deucalionite. JamesBWatson. YurikBot. Bluebot. DavidLeighEllis. Nor'westerner. Rschmertz. TUF-KAT. Ryulong. Mon Vier. Flyer22.. Slightsmile. Alexbot. Alansohn. Peter Flass. Useight. Bolowno. FisherQueen. Amaury. Petr Kopač. Midasminus. Davidiad. Piano non troppo. Just granpa. Mario Žamić. Gadykozma. Minesweeper. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. KylieTastic. UncleBubba. M Cheyne. Gaius Cornelius. NHRHS2010. MichelSantos. Rochelimit. Eranb. Ginsuloft. SmackBot. Plastikspork. 19cass20. Donaldduck100. Craig Baker. ClueBot. Mitrius. Fighting Fefnir. Pete Hobbs. Lt-wiki-bot. JAnDbot. Jdhomrighausen. Jack Greenmaven. Error. SmackBot.org/wiki/Summanus?oldid=651508724 Contributors: TUF-KAT. Jiy. Theotherness. Bpeps. 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Logan.org/wiki/Al-Qaum?oldid=641110619 Contributors: Malcolm Farmer. Gabrieli. SmackBot. CmdrObot. Helpful Pixie Bot. FrescoBot. AllyUnion. M-le-mot-dit. Terry Stocker. Junuxx. DocWatson42. SmackBot. Ale jrb. Sampo Torgo. Briangotts. JaGa. SmackBot. Tucci528. Dosseman. Comp25. UltimatePyro. Sam Hocevar. Böri. Hajor. Zrampold. AgnosticPreachersKid. SmackBot. TriniMuñoz. Glenn. Metodicar. Netsnipe. Eliz81. FlaBot. Melenc. Maunus. Frietjes. NSH002. ChrisGualtieri and Anonymous: 5 • Leto Source: http://en. ShelfSkewed. Jonesey95. Pigman. GeeJo.. NSH002. LilHelpa. Lt-wiki-bot. CJLL Wright. Castanea dentata. Ptcamn. Falcon8765. Wetman.sg. AnomieBOT. Alphachimpbot. Citation bot. Someone else. Thijs!bot. Retal. ZéroBot. Miracle Pen.org/wiki/Black%20Sun%20(mythology)?oldid=645460926 Contributors: Ogress. Saga City. Asarelah. NSH002. Aztlshamb and Anonymous: 15 • Tezcatlipoca Source: http://en. Mjk2357. Mottenen. Josve05a. Stevertigo. Pearle. Omnipaedista. Kamezuki. Addbot. Twofistedcoffeedrinker. Hajor. GregKaye. Brougham96. Morki. JFHJr. Peregrine981. Editorofthewiki. Brinsord. Lzur.

VolkovBot. Alansohn. Sankalpdravid. Vicks007. Philthecow. DanielRigal. ZéroBot. CapitalLetterBeginning. Edward321.e. Luckasbot. Lor. SpyMagician. SieBot. Addbot. Andre Engels. Simon Peter Hughes. Bporopat. Cometstyles. Vickyemailbox. Taxman. CJLL Wright. Satanael. Stenvenhe. Josh Parris. Addbot.wikipedia. Ignatzmice. BCtl. Skyerise. Astrologist. 0XQ. DanielCD. OSMAX20. Redtigerxyz. ZéroBot. Bobo192. Squids and Chips.Eye of Ma'at. Sinaloa. Dipendra2007. Mogism. Satanael. Kwamikagami. Frietjes. Shandris. FinnWiki. Robbot. WildElf. Cydebot. Olabajs. Mintrick. FinnWiki. RedBot. Yossarian. Diablokrom. Tom Lougheed. Severeevil. From That Show!. BotKung. Tentinator. Trylks. Rockoprem. Razer64. SFH. Ogress. XZeroBot. Marco9079. Kukendin.org/wiki/Apep?oldid=656689253 Contributors: Bryan Derksen. EmausBot. Srck. Apepch7. Sameboat. CZeska. Avecit. BotMultichill. T@nn. TXiKiBoT. Awesomeness237. SieBot. Caran Varr. Charles Matthews. Tutmosis. LoveMonkey. Robbot. CONTRIBUTORS. ClueBot. Ckatz. Donner60.thomson. Verbal. Apepch7. Roisterer. Ism schism. Mushroom. Andrew Dalby. Pathare Prabhu. Xanzzibar. Jmabel. Dbachmann. Briangotts. Kalkrishnan. Novicew. Escarbot. IvanLanin. CRGreathouse. Amatulic. Sobreira. Sardanaphalus. Zerida. The PIPE. Michaelbusch. Rramphal. Srpant. BCtl. Dreadstar. Leoboudv. ^demonBot2. Prem786. Veledan. MarcAurel. Jim1138. XLinkBot. StarDriver9 and Anonymous: 7 • Apep Source: http://en. JW1805. TUFKAT. Kasirbot. Carla Pehlke. Glengordon01. DaGizza. Mckaysalisbury. Tabletop. Spitfire. Jack Greenmaven. Rohitbd. Crculver. Modest Genius. Beetstra. Epicgenius. Tahir mq. Skyerise. DSisyphBot. TXiKiBoT.hoyland. Dougweller. Pdr. Ekabhishek. Amp71. Fæ. VasuVR. Alfeugceknidng. Ian. IJKL. Whynowagain.wikipedia. Rocky2451.wikipedia. Warut. GoonerDP. FlaBot. Vprashanth87. KocjoBot~enwiki. Jergen. Citation bot.org/wiki/Tzitzimitl?oldid=644221124 Contributors: TUF-KAT. Chandra. ScottSteiner. Sarangu 001. Anupamsr. Knhlhilee9898.krishna. Obersachsebot. Luk. Jkelly. Grell the Reaper. SieBot. Daniel. Kunjan1029. Grammatical error. Wikibot. Ninja81512. TUF-KAT. Dbachmann. Kunoichi. OttoMäkelä. Muro Bot. Carlossuarez46. LogicDictates. Wikiborg. Mighty Nut. Chicago god. SieBot. IvanLanin. Freedomji. Tedder. Ebyabe. Sharavanabhava. Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington. CALR. Triphala108. Deeptrivia. Jamesooders. Madmedea~enwiki. SimonTrew. CJLL Wright.mcdougall. LilHelpa. Archiesteel. Elmarat. DBaba. Carlossuarez46. Veenapura. Gabrieli. Bacchiad. Sburke.lall. Bobby Boulders 5400. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. JesterCountess. Tadorne. Gabbe. Machine Elf 1735. แอนเดอร์สัน. UtDicitur. Hoodedwarbler12. Rosarino. AlleborgoBot. Frietjes. Ellywa. Bomac.6. Captmondo. Afil. Blademasterx. Thomaswaite1. SpectrumDT. RandomCritic.anand. Yobot. Wassermann~enwiki. Jtkiefer. John of Reading. BotKung. Xufanc. Dienstag. Narsil. TXiKiBoT. Ian. Imc. DaGizza. Parrot. Aztlshamb. FoxCE. Pratishkhedekar. Gtrmp. Lt-wiki-bot. Dougweller. Indubitably. Haymouse. Jpatel. YurikBot. 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