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Recursos para el docente

3 BIOLOGÍA

El intercambio de información
en los sistemas biológicos:
relación, integración y control

Susana Alvarez
Alejandro J. Balbiano
Ricardo Franco
Elina I. Godoy
María Cristina Iglesias
María Inés Rodríguez Vida
Hilda C. Suárez
ES

3.er año

BIOLOGÍA

El intercambio de información
en los sistemas biológicos:
relación, integración y control

RECURSOS PARA EL DOCENTE
BIOLOGÍA 3. Recursos para el docente es una obra colectiva, creada y
diseñada en el Departamento Editorial de Ediciones Santillana S. A.,
bajo la dirección de Herminia Mérega y Graciela Pérez de Lois, por el
siguiente equipo:
Susana Alvarez
Alejandro J. Balbiano
Ricardo Franco
Elina I. Godoy
María Cristina Iglesias
María Inés Rodríguez Vida
Hilda C. Suárez
Editora: Paula L. Sabbatini
Jefa de edición: Patricia S. Granieri
Gerencia de gestión editorial: Mónica Pavicich

Índice
ES

3. año
er

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Jefa de arte: Claudia Fano.
Diagramación: María Mercedes Mayans.
Corrección: Karina Garofalo.
Este libro no puede ser reproducido total ni parcialmente en
ninguna forma, ni por ningún medio o procedimiento, sea reprográfico, fotocopia, microfilmación, mimeógrafo o cualquier
otro sistema mecánico, fotoquímico, electrónico, informático,
magnético, electroóptico, etcétera. Cualquier reproducción sin
permiso de la editorial viola derechos reservados, es ilegal y
constituye un delito.

BIO3_Docente.indd 1

© 2010, EDICIONES SANTILLANA S.A.
Av. L. N. Alem 720 (C1001AAP),
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ISBN: 978-950-46-2235-2

Biología 3 : el intercambio de información en los sistemas biológicos :
relación, integración y
control : recursos para el docente / Susana Alvarez ... [et.al.]. - 1a ed.
- Buenos
Aires : Santillana, 2010.
32 p. ; 26x19 cm. - (Saberes clave)

Queda hecho el depósito que dispone la ley 11.723.

ISBN 978-950-46-2235-2

Impreso en Argentina. Printed in Argentina.
Primera edición: enero de 2010

1. Biología. 2. Enseñanza Secundaria. I. Alvarez, Susana
CDD 574.071 2

Este libro se terminó de imprimir en el mes de enero 2010, en
en Gráfica Vuelta de Página, Carlos Pellegrini 3652, Ciudadela,
Buenos Aires, República Argentina.

1/25/10 12:49:52 PM

2

BIO3_Docente.indd 2

Recursos para la planificación
Capítulo

1

2

Los seres
vivos y su
relación
con el medio

La captación
de los
estímulos

1/22/10 4:57:15 PM

Contenidos

Estrategias didácticas

Expectativas de logro

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© Santillana S.A. Prohibida su fotocopia. Ley 11.723

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4 BIO3_Docente. NFNCSBOB 7BMPSBS MB JNQPSUBODJB EF MBT PCTFSWBDJPOFT NJDSPTDØQJDBT FOMBTJOWFTUJHBDJPOFTCJPMØHJDBT&YQMJDBS TPCSFMBCBTFEFFKFNQMPT FM QBQFM EF MBT QSPUFÓOBT EF MB NFNbrana celular en los procesos de capUBDJØO EF TF×BMFT Z DPNVOJDBDJØO DFMVMBS$PNQSFOEFSRVFVOBNJTNB TF×BM QVFEF QSPEVDJS EJTUJOUBT SFTQVFTUBT DFMVMBSFT "QSPQJBSTF EFM QSPQØTJUPEFMBMFDUVSBZBQSFOEFSB BDUVBSGSFOUFBVOUFYUPEFNBOFSB DPNQFUFOUFTFHÞOEJGFSFOUFTQSPQØTJUPTEFMFDUVSB &M TJTUFNB OFSWJPTP -BT DÏMVMBT OFSWJPTBT -B DPNVOJDBDJØO OFVSPOBM &M QPUFODJBM EF SFQPTP -B CPNCBEFTPEJPQPUBTJP(FOFSBDJØO Z QSPQBHBDJØO EFM JNQVMTP OFSWJPTP-BTTJOBQTJT-PTOFVSPUSBOTNJTPSFT-BQMBDBOFVSPNVTDVMBS-BJOUFHSBDJØOOFVSPOBMEF TF×BMFT-BPSHBOJ[BDJØOEFMTJTUFNB OFSWJPTP IVNBOP TJTUFNB OFSWJPTP DFOUSBM Z QFSJGÏSJDP  TJTUFNB OFSWJPTP BVUØOPNP &M FODÏGBMP-BDPSUF[BDFSFCSBM"QSFOEJ[BKFZNFNPSJB-BFOGFSNFEBE EF"M[IFJNFS-BNÏEVMBFTQJOBM &M BSDP SFGMFKP -BT ESPHBT FO FM TJTUFNB OFSWJPTP -BT JMVTJPOFT RVFHFOFSBFMDFSFCSP *EFOUJGJDBDJØOEFMBTQBSUFTEFVOBOFVSPOB Z EF TVT GVODJPOFT $MBTJGJDBDJØO GVODJPOBM EFMBTOFVSPOBT%FTDSJQDJØOEFMPTNFDBOJTNPTEFHFOFSBDJØOZDPOEVDDJØOEFMJNQVMTPOFSWJPTP*OUFSQSFUBDJØOEFVOHSÈGJDPEF MBWBSJBDJØOEFMQPUFODJBMEFNFNCSBOBBMP MBSHP EFM UJFNQP *OUFSQSFUBDJØO EF FTRVFNBTTPCSFFMNFDBOJTNPEFTJOBQTJT&MBCPSBDJØO EF VO FTRVFNB DPO MB PSHBOJ[BDJØO EFM TJTUFNB OFSWJPTP IVNBOP %FTDSJQDJØO EFMDFSFCSPZEFTVTGVODJPOFT*EFOUJGJDBDJØO EFMBTFTUSVDUVSBTDFSFCSBMFTRVFQBSUJDJQBO FOMPTQSPDFTPTEFNFNPSJB%FTDSJQDJØOEF MB QBSUJDJQBDJØO EFM TJTUFNB OFSWJPTP BVUØOPNPFOFKFNQMPTDPODSFUPT"OÈMJTJTEFMB BDDJØOEFEJGFSFOUFTESPHBTTPCSFFMTJTUFNB OFSWJPTP"OÈMJTJTEFHSÈGJDPTEFCBSSBTPCSF FMDPOTVNPEFBMDPIPMFOMPTBEPMFTDFOUFT -FDUVSBEFVOBFOUSFWJTUBTPCSFFMDBTPEFM EJQVUBEP+PSHF3JWBT &TUBCMFDFS SFMBDJPOFT FOUSF MB FTUSVDUVSBEFMBDÏMVMBOFSWJPTBZTVGVODJØO FOUBOUPQFSDFQDJØO QSPDFTBNJFOUPZ QSPEVDDJØOEFSFTQVFTUBTGSFOUFBVOB TF×BM $POTUSVJS SFQSFTFOUBDJPOFT EF MBT HFOFSBMJ[BDJPOFT EF MPT NFDBOJTNPTEFDPOEVDDJØOEFJNQVMTPTOFSWJPTPT*EFOUJGJDBSMBTQBSUFTQSJODJQBMFTEFMTJTUFNBOFSWJPTPEJTUJOHVJFOEP FOUSFFMDBSÈDUFSFTUSVDUVSBMZFMGVODJPOBMEFTVTEJWJTJPOFT*OUFSQSFUBSZ DPNQBSBSUFYUPTDSÓUJDBNFOUF © Santillana S.723 . Prohibida su fotocopia. Ley 11.indd 4 Recursos para la planificación Capítulo 5 El control nervioso 1/22/10 4:57:16 PM Contenidos Estrategias didácticas Expectativas de logro TF×BMFT &M DPNQMFKP TF×BMSFDFQUPS5JQPTEFSFDFQUPSFT-BUSBOTEVDDJØOEFMBTF×BMZMBSFTQVFTUB 5JQPTEFSFTQVFTUB-BDPNVOJDBDJØOJOUFSDFMVMBSEJSFDUB-BDPNVOJDBDJØOFOMBTDÏMVMBTBOJNBMFTZ FOMBTDÏMVMBTWFHFUBMFT$ÈODFS USBOTQPSUFBUSBWÏTEFMBNFNCSBOBQMBTNÈUJDB *EFOUJGJDBDJØO B QBSUJS EF FKFNQMPT EF TF×BMFTMPDBMFTZBEJTUBODJBRVFBDUÞBOTPCSF MBT DÏMVMBT %FTDSJQDJØO EFM NPEFMP TF×BMSFDFQUPS Z TV FTQFDJGJDJEBE QBSB EFTFODBEFOBSVOBSFTQVFTUBDFMVMBS*OUFSQSFUBDJØO EFMBUSBTGPSNBDJØOEFMBTF×BMZMBQSPEVDDJØO EF SFTQVFTUB B QBSUJS EFM FKFNQMP EF BDDJØO EF VO BOUÓHFOP TPCSF VO HMØCVMP CMBODP -FDUVSB EF VOB FOUSFWJTUB TPCSF FM cáncer.A.

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indd 6 Recursos para la planificación Capítulo 8 9 El control endocrino en animales y plantas El rol de las proteínas Contenidos Estrategias didácticas Expectativas de logro -BTSFTQVFTUBTIPSNPOBMFTEFMPT TFSFTWJWPT-BBDDJØOIPSNPOBMFO MPT JOWFSUFCSBEPT .6 BIO3_Docente. Prohibida su fotocopia. Ley 11. *EFOUJGJDBDJØOEFMBQBSUJDJQBDJØOEFMBTQSPUFÓOBT FO EJGFSFOUFT GVODJPOFT EF MPT TFSFT WJWPT$MBTJGJDBDJØOEFMBTQSPUFÓOBTEFBDVFSEPDPOTVTGVODJPOFT$BSBDUFSJ[BDJØOEFMB FTUSVDUVSBCÈTJDBEFMBTQSPUFÓOBTBQBSUJSEF MBVOJØOEFBNJOPÈDJEPT"OÈMJTJTFJOUFSQSFUBDJØOEFEJCVKPTEFMPTEJTUJOUPTOJWFMFTEF PSHBOJ[BDJØO EF MBT QSPUFÓOBT $MBTJGJDBDJØO EFMBTQSPUFÓOBTEFBDVFSEPDPOTVFTUSVDUVSBZFKFNQMJGJDBDJØOEFDBEBHSVQP3FDPOPDJNJFOUP EF MB SFMBDJØO FOUSF MBT QSPQJFEBEFTEFVOBQSPUFÓOBZFMNBOUFOJNJFOUPEF TVFTUSVDUVSB%FTDSJQDJØOEFMNFDBOJTNPEF BDDJØOEFMBTFO[JNBT"OÈMJTJTEFMBBDDJØO FO[JNÈUJDBBQBSUJSEFMFKFNQMPEFMBTFO[JNBTIFQÈUJDBT*EFOUJGJDBDJØOEFMBBDDJØOEF MBT QSPUFÓOBT DPO FM DPODFQUP EF GFOPUJQP $PNQBSBDJØOFOUSFMBJOWFTUJHBDJØODJFOUÓGJDBZMBJOWFTUJHBDJØOFTDPMBS-FDUVSBEFVOB FOUSFWJTUB TPCSF BMHVOBT QSPUFÓOBT RVF TF FODVFOUSBOFOVOBOÈMJTJTEFTBOHSF 3FDPOPDFS RVF MBT QSPUFÓOBT TPO MBT NPMÏDVMBTGVOEBNFOUBMFTQBSBMBFTUSVDUVSB Z FM GVODJPOBNJFOUP EF VO PSHBOJTNP 3FMBDJPOBS MB EJWFSTJEBE EFFTUSVDUVSBTEFMBTQSPUFÓOBTDPOMB EJWFSTJEBEEFGVODJPOFTRVFDVNQMFO FOFMPSHBOJTNP ZEBSFKFNQMPT&YQMJDBS MB BDDJØO EF MBT FO[JNBT VUJMJ[BOEPMBBOBMPHÓBTF×BMSFDFQUPS QB SB EBS DVFOUB EF TV FTQFDJGJDJEBE $PNQSFOEFS MB JNQPSUBODJB EF FTUVEJBS NFDBOJTNPT NPMFDVMBSFT QBSB FOUFOEFSQSPDFTPTNBDSPTDØQJDPT&Y QMJDBS TPCSFMBCBTFEFFKFNQMPT FM SPMEFMBTQSPUFÓOBTFOMBEFUFSNJOBDJØOEFMGFOPUJQPEFMPTPSHBOJTNPT 3FBMJ[BSVOBJOWFTUJHBDJØOTPCSFVO UFNB TFMFDDJPOBEP *OUFSQSFUBS QSPCMFNÈUJDBTBDUVBMFTZEFJOUFSÏTTPDJBMRVFJOWPMVDSBOFMDPOPDJNJFOUP biológico. 1/22/10 4:57:17 PM © Santillana S.A.VEB Z NFUBNPSGPTJT FO MPT JOTFDUPT )PSNPOBT RVF JOUFSWJFOFO FO MB SFQSPEVDDJØO'FSPNPOBT-BTIPSNPOBT FOMPTWFSUFCSBEPT-BTIPSNPOBT WFHFUBMFTBVYJOBT DJUPDJOJOBT HJCFSFMJOBT  ÈDJEP BCTDÓTJDP Z FUJMFOP&MDFMP FMFNCBSB[PZMBDBTUSBDJØOEFMBTNBTDPUBT *EFOUJGJDBDJØOEFMBBDDJØOIPSNPOBMFOBMHVOPT JOWFSUFCSBEPT Z WFSUFCSBEPT "OÈMJTJT EF VO HSÈGJDP EF WBSJBDJØO EF IPSNPOBT FO FM QSPDFTPEFNFUBNPSGPTJTEFVOJOTFDUP%JGFSFODJBDJØOFOUSFDJDMPNFOTUSVBMZDJDMPFTUSBM FOWFSUFCSBEPT%FTDSJQDJØOEFMDPOUSPMIPSNPOBMEFBMHVOBTSFTQVFTUBTEFMBTQMBOUBT GPUPUSPQJTNP  HSBWJUSPQJTNP 3FMBDJØO FOUSF MBTIPSNPOBTZFMDJDMPEFWJEBEFVOBQMBOUB 3FWJTJØOEFBMHVOPTFYQFSJNFOUPTIJTUØSJDPT RVFQFSNJUJFSPOJEFOUJGJDBSMBTQSJNFSBTIPSNPOBT WFHFUBMFT -FDUVSB EF VOB FOUSFWJTUB TPCSFFMDFMPEFMBTNBTDPUBT *EFOUJGJDBSMPTNFDBOJTNPTEFSFHVMBDJØO Z DPOUSPM IPSNPOBM FO EJGFSFOUFT HSVQPT BOJNBMFT *EFOUJGJDBS MPT NFDBOJTNPT WFHFUBMFT EF BKVTUF BM BNCJFOUF B USBWÏT EF MBT IPSNPOBT*OUFSQSFUBSMPTSFTVMUBEPTEFFYQFSJNFOUPT IJTUØSJDPT "OBMJ[BS UFYUPTJOGPSNBUJWPT -BTQSPUFÓOBTFOMPTTFSFTWJWPT-B clasificación funcional de las proUFÓOBT-PTBNJOPÈDJEPT-BFTUSVDUVSBEFMBTQSPUFÓOBT-BDMBTJGJDBDJØO FTUSVDUVSBM 1SPQJFEBEFT EF MBTQSPUFÓOBT-BTFO[JNBTZTVBDDJØO-BTQSPUFÓOBTDPNPSFTVMUBEP EF MB FYQSFTJØO HFOÏUJDB 'FOPUJQPT Z HFOPUJQPT -B QSPUFØNJDB 1SPUFÓOBTJNQPSUBOUFTFOMPTBOÈlisis de sangre.723 .

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POFU  BEFNÈT EF BOBMJ[BS MPT UJFNQPT RVF TF NFODJPOBO FTJNQPSUBOUFRVFMPTBMVNOPTUFOHBOFODVFOUBFM MVHBSZBMHVOPTIFDIPTIJTUØSJDPT 15.A.indd 11 1/22/10 4:57:20 PM .BHOFUP SSFDFQUPSFT . -BTIJQØUFTJTRVFTFGPSNVMBSPOFOSFMBDJØODPOFTUFGFOØNFOPTPOIJQØUFTJTFYQMJDBDJPOFTFOSFMBDJØODPOFMBCVTPEFESPHBTIJQØUFTJTMPTTJOFTUÏTJDPTSFNFNPSBOZBTPDJBOFYQFSJFODJBTWJWJEBTFOMBJOGBODJBIJQØUFTJTOPIBCSÓBUBMFOGFSNFEBE TPMPVOVTPNFUBGØSJDPEFMMFOHVBKF 20. d) $VBOEPMBGVFOUFTFMPDBMJ[BFO KVTUPGSFOUFBMRVF FTDVDIB MBEJTUBODJBFTMBNJTNBIBTUBBNCPTPÓEPT  QPS MP UBOUP  FM TPOJEP MMFHB TJNVMUÈOFBNFOUF B MPT EPT&ODBNCJP QBSBDVBMRVJFSPUSBMPDBMJ[BDJØO MMFHBSÈQSJNFSPBVOPÓEPVPUSP ZFTUPFTMPRVFQFSNJUFMBMPDBMJ[BDJØOEFMBGVFOUF e)  $POFTUBTFHVOEBFYQFSJFODJB MBJEFBFTRVFFMTPOJEP EFTEFVOBEFUFSNJOBEBQPTJDJØOMMFHVFBPUSPPÓEP&M BMVNOPDPOGVOEJSÈMBMPDBMJ[BDJØO MPDVBMIBCMBEFMB GPSNB DPNP FTUPT FTUÓNVMPT TPO JOUFSQSFUBEPT FO FM DFSFCSP&OFTUBQBSUFFTJNQPSUBOUFRVFMPTBMVNOPT SFWJTFOMPUSBCBKBEPFOSFMBDJØODPOWJCSBDJPOFTNFDÈOJDBTZQVFEBOQFOTBSTJDPOMBEJTQPTJDJØOEFMPTØSHBOPTFOPUSPTBOJNBMFTUBNCJÏOTFEBFTUFGFOØNFOP&OHFOFSBM FTUPTFWFFOMPTWFSUFCSBEPTZUBNCJÏO FOMPTJOTFDUPTRVFQPTFFOØSHBOPTUJNQÈOJDPT f) 1BSBGPSNVMBSOVFWBTIJQØUFTJTTFFTQFSBRVFMPTBMVNOPTQVFEBOQFOTBSFOPUSBTWBSJBCMFT QPSFKFNQMPMB JOUFOTJEBEEFMTPOJEPRVFTFQVFEFEFUFDUBS PMBEJTDSJNJOBDJØOEFGVFOUFT EPTGVFOUFTEFTPOJEPRVFBMBWF[ FTUJNVMBOBMPTGPOPSSFDFQUPSFT FOUSFPUSBT OÞNFSPT  &TUPT ÞMUJNPT GPSNBO VO USJÈOHVMP FOUSF TÓ 5PEPTFMMPTTPOEFDPMPSOFHSP4FUVWPFODVFOUBRVFFTUPTTJOFTUÏTJDPTBTPDJBOVODPMPSDPOVOOÞNFSP SPKP WFSEF  21. Forma de energía Estímulo Receptor Lumínica -V[ Mecánica 1SFTJØONFDÈOJDB .BHOFUJUBFO EJTUJOUBTQBSUFT EFMDVFSQPTFHÞO FMTFSWJWP Eléctrica &MFDUSJDJEBE &MFDUSP SSFDFQUPSFT 3FDFQUPSFT UVCFSPTPTPEF BNQPMMB DPODFOUSBEPTFO MBDBCF[B  alrededor de la CPDBZFOFM TJTUFNBEFMB MÓOFBMBUFSBM 'PUPSSFDFQUPSFT Página 38 14. "NCBTQJOUVSBTQSFUFOEFOSFGMFKBSMPNJTNP TJOFNCBSHP  QVFEFWFSTFBUSBWÏTEFFMMBTRVFEVSBOUFMPTWFJOUFB×PT FOUSF MB QSJNFSB Z MB TFHVOEB  FTUB FOGFSNFEBE BMUFSØ MB QFSDFQDJØOWJTVBMEFMQJOUPS 17. Magnética $BNQP NBHOÏUJDP UFSSFTUSF .723 .6OB EF MBT FYQMJDBDJPOFT NÈT GVFSUFT QBSB MB TJOFTUFTJB QBSFDF TFS MB JOUFSQSFUBDJØO FO MPT DFOUSPT EF QSPDFTBNJFOUP&OTFOUJEPFTQFDÓGJDP EPTÈSFBTEFMDFSFCSPRVF FOTJUVBDJPOFTOPSNBMFTTFIBMMBOTFQBSBEBTFOUSFTÓ TF FTUJNVMBONVUVBNFOUFZTFNF[DMBOMBTQFSDFQDJPOFT Páginas 40 y 41 23.POFUQFSDJCJFSBTVNVOEPFOUPOPT DÈMJEPTZMVFHP ZBTJODPMPSFT Página 39 18. Ley 11. 4F FTQFSB RVF QVFEBO QFOTBS FO RVF FTUB BMUFSBDJØO TF EFCFBVOQSPCMFNBFOFMPKP QPSBDVNVMBDJØOEFQJHNFOUPTRVFDPOEVDFBVOBJOUFSQSFUBDJØOEJGFSFOUFEFM FOUPSOP%FBIÓRVF.POFUZBOPGPSNBSBJNÈHFOFTOÓUJEBTOJEJTUJOHVJFSBGPSNBTZTPMPQFSDJCJFSBMVDFTZTPNCSBT&OFTUFDBTP MPTQJHNFOUPTRVFTFFTUJNVMBOBMPOHJUVEFTEFPOEBDPSSFTQPOEJFOUFTBMWJPMFUB B[VMZWFSEF TF BDVNVMBSPO FO FM DSJTUBMJOP F JNQJEJFSPO RVF MB MV[ QBTBSBIBTUBMBSFUJOB-BMV[SPKBZBNBSJMMBTFHVÓBQBTBOEP MPRVFIBDÓBRVF.FDBOP sobre superficie SSFDFQUPSFT EFMDVFSQP WJCSBDJPOFTEFM NFEJPPOEBT sonoras. Prohibida su fotocopia.1BSBDPOPDFSFMDPOUFYUPFOFMRVFTFEFTBSSPMMBMBWJEBEF © Santillana S. &MBSUÓDVMPMMFWBFTFOPNCSFEFCJEPBRVFMPTTJOFTUÏTJDPT  EFMPTRVFTFIBCMB QBSFDFODPOGVOEJSPNF[DMBSVOTFOUJEPDPOPUSP 19.QPESÈEFUFSNJOBSDPOQSFDJTJØOEFTEFEØOEFQSPWJFne el sonido. HSBWFEBE 1FMPT TJTUFNBEF MBMÓOFBMBUFSBM  sensilias BVEJUJWBT ØSHBOP UJNQÈOJDPPÓEP  FTUBUPDJTUPT  FTUBUPMJUPT  BQBSBUP WFTUJCVMBS Química 4VTUBODJBT RVÓNJDBTB EJTUBODJBZQPS DPOUBDUP 2VJNJP SSFDFQUPSFT $ÏMVMBTTFOTJCMFT  GPTFUBT sensoriales.POFUQSFUFOEÓBQJOUBSUPEBTMBTWBSJFEBEFTEFOFOÞGBSFT RVFFNQF[ØBDVMUJWBSFOFMKBSEÓOEFTVDBTBFO(JWFSOZ 6OQSPCMFNBEFTBMVEFOTVTPKPTMFJNQJEJØDPOUJOVBS DPOTVUSBCBKP IBTUBRVFGJOBMNFOUFEFDJEJØPQFSBSTF 16.-BIJQØUFTJTEFMPTJOWFTUJHBEPSFTQPESÓBTFSRVFMBTJOFTUFTJB FT FM SFTVMUBEP EF VOB NF[DMB EF TVT TFOUJEPT  FT EFDJS  TVT QFSDFQDJPOFT TFOTPSJBMFT TF NF[DMBO FOUSF TÓ &TUPTSFTVMUBEPTQBSFDFOUJSBSBCBKPPUSBTIJQØUFTJT#ÈTJDBNFOUF TJMBTQFSTPOBTTJOFTUÏTJDBTNJOUJFSBO TFMFTEJGJDVMUBSÓBFMGÈDJMSFDPOPDJNJFOUPEFMPTOÞNFSPTFOUSF MPT ZFMMPHSØIBDFSMPEFNBOFSBTBUJTGBDUPSJB 22. órgano EF+BDPCTPO Térmica 5FNQFSBUVSB 5FSNP SSFDFQUPSFT 'PTFUBTGBDJBMFT  SFDFQUPSFTEFMB piel. . papilas HVTUBUJWBT  DPOEVDUPT nasales. &MFOTBZPDPOTJTUFFONPTUSBSMFTBEFUFSNJOBEPTTJOFTUÏTJDPTVOBTUBSKFUBTRVFUJFOFOWBSJPTOÞNFSPTZBMHVOPT Estructuras implicadas $ÏMVMBT GPUPTFOTJCMFT  NBODIBTEF QJHNFOUP PDFMPT  PKPTJNQMF PKP DPNQVFTUPZFO DÈNBSB 11 BIO3_Docente.

-B SFUSBDDJØO EFM TFVEØQPEP EF MB BNFCB BOUF MB MV[ TF QBSFDF B MB SFTQVFTUB GSFOUF BM BMJNFOUP FO RVF BNCPT FTUÓNVMPTEFTFODBEFOBOVOBSFTQVFTUB4JOFNCBSHP FO VODBTPTFUSBUBEFFTUÓNVMPMVNÓOJDPZFOFMPUSP EFDPOUBDUP&OFMDBTPEFMBMV[ FTVOBUBYJBOFHBUJWB ZFOFMEF MBBMJNFOUBDJØO FTQPTJUJWB 7.A. &OFMDBTPEFMBFTQJOBDB FTVOBSFTQVFTUBEFGMPSBDJØOP JOIJCJDJØOEFFMMBFODBTPEFOPSFDJCJSMV[TVGJDJFOUF&O FMDBTPEFMBQMBOUB" SFTQPOEFJOIJCJFOEPFMDSFDJNJFOUP EFTVTQBSUFT DPNPFMUBMMP PFTUJNVMBFMDSFDJNJFOUPEF SBNJGJDBDJPOFT&OBNCPTTFUSBUBEFFTUÓNVMPTMVNÓOJDPT  QFSPFO"TFUSBUBEFVOUJQPEFMV[ DBMJEBE ZFOMBFTQJOBDB DBOUJEBEZEVSBDJØO © Santillana S. Prohibida su fotocopia.24.723 a) $BEB VOP EF MPT DPMPSFT EF MBT CBSSBT SFQSFTFOUB B 12 BIO3_Docente. a) -BFDPMPDBDJØOFTFMGFOØNFOPBUSBWÏTEFMDVBMBMHVOPTBOJNBMFTVUJMJ[BOTVFDPFOMBEFUFDDJØOEFMBEJSFDDJØO EJTUBODJB NBHOJUVEZUFYUVSBEFMPTPCKFUPT b) &O FM QSJNFS DBTP  IBCMBNPT EF VO NFDBOJTNP EF PSJFOUBDJØOFOFMRVFJOUFSWJFOFONFDBOPSSFDFQUPSFT RVF TF FTUJNVMBO BOUF WJCSBDJPOFT EFM NFEJP &O FM DBTPEFMPTNVSDJÏMBHPT UBNCJÏOFTPSJFOUBDJØO QFSP FOFTUFDBTP FMFTUÓNVMPFTEJGFSFOUFPOEBTTPOPSBT 3 Las respuestas a los estímulos Página 48 5. 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A. a) 1BSB DPNQSPCBS RVF FO MBT DÏMVMBT WFHFUBMFT MB MV[ FTUJNVMBMBBDUJWJEBEDFMVMBSEFCFSÓBOVUJMJ[BSFMDPSUF PQSFQBSBEPIJTUPMØHJDP-PTQBTPTBTFHVJSTFSÓBOMPT EFTDSJQUPTFOMBUÏDOJDB/PIBDFGBMUBFMDPSUFQPSRVF MBIPKJUBEFFMPEFBFTNVZEFMHBEBZTFQVFEFPCTFSWBSEJSFDUBNFOUF b) -PTDMPSPQMBTUPTTPOMPTRVFFWJEFODJBOFMNPWJNJFOUPEFMPTPSHÈOVMPTBMSFEFEPSEFMOÞDMFPDFMVMBS QPSRVFBMUFOFSDMPSPGJMBTPOWFSEFTZTFPCTFSWBOBUSBWÏTEFMNJDSPTDPQJP Página 80 9. 4 Estímulos y respuestas en las células Página 73 5. Los cinco sabores básicos son el ácido. 3FTQVFTUBBCJFSUB 10. Ley 11. a)  -BTQPMJMMBTSFTQPOEFOBDFSDÈOEPTFBMBMV[ b) &MFTUÓNVMPRVFQSPWPDØMBSFTQVFTUBFTMVNÓOJDP c) -B SFTQVFTUB EF MBT QPMJMMBT TF QBSFDF BM TJTUFNB EF IVJEBEFMBDVDBSBDIBFORVFBNCBTTPOSFTQVFTUBT QSPWPDBEBTQPSFMFTUÓNVMPEFMV[ BVORVFFOVOPFT QPTJUJWB TF BDFSDB  Z FO FM DBTP EF MB DVDBSBDIB  FT OFHBUJWB TFBMFKB  41. -BNFNCSBOBQMBTNÈUJDBFTFTUSVDUVSBMNFOUFBTJNÏUSJDB QPSRVFEFMMBEPFYUFSOPQPTFFIJESBUPTEFDBSCPOPVOJEPTBQSPUFÓOBTPMÓQJEPT 6.DVJEBEPT  ZB RVF EFCF EFKBSTF FODFOEJEB EVSBOUF UPEBMBFYQFSJFODJB c) 4J TF RVJFSF TBCFS DØNP JOGMVZF FM UJQP EF MV[ FO FM DSFDJNJFOUP TFEFCFODPNQBSBSBMUVSBT DBOUJEBEEF IPKBT UJFNQPEFDSFDJNJFOUP FOUSFPUSPTBTQFDUPT 39.BMMPQIPSBDPNPFMHVTBOPCMBODPSFTQPOEFOQBTBOEPBVOB FUBQBEFMFUBSHP $PNPWJNPTQBSBFMDBTPEFMBTQMBOUBT MPTFGFDUPTEF MPTJOTFDUJDJEBTQBSBFWJUBSMBTQMBHBTTPOOPDJWPTTPCSFFMBNCJFOUF&OFTUFDBTP OPTFSÓBBTÓ &MVTPEFMallophoraQPESÓBUFOFSFGFDUPTOFHBUJWPT TPCSFMBBQJDVMUVSBQPSRVFFOTVGBTFBEVMUBBUBDBB JØOJDPTRVFUJFOFODPNPTF×BMFTJOEVDUPSBTBMPT)+ZB MPT/B+ SFTQFDUJWBNFOUF-PTSFDFQUPSFTQBSBMPTTBCPSFT EVMDF BNBSHPZumamiTPO FODBNCJP SFDFQUPSFTBTPDJBEPT B QSPUFÓOBT ( RVF SFTQPOEFO B MPT FTUÓNVMPT EF NPMÏDVMBT PSHÈOJDBT DPNP MPT B[ÞDBSFT  MPT DPNQVFTUPT OJUSPHFOBEPTZMPTBNJOPÈDJEPT SFTQFDUJWBNFOUF 12.indd 15 1/22/10 4:57:22 PM .723 MBTBCFKBT EFIFDIP TFMPDPOPDFDPOFMOPNCSFWVMHBSEFiDB[BEPSEFBCFKBTw$VBOEPFTUBMBSWB RVFFT JNQPSUBOUFQBSBDPOUSPMBSMBTQMBHBTEFMDVMUJWBSEF QBQB MMFHBBMFTUBEJPEFBEVMUP QPESÓBSFTVMUBSQFSKVEJDJBMQBSBMBBQJDVMUVSB&OUPODFT TFSÓBJNQPSUBOUF VUJMJ[BSMPBDPODJFODJBFJOWFTUJHBOEPNVZCJFODØNP VUJMJ[BSMPFGJDB[NFOUF c) d) e) f) DPEFMHVTBOPCMBODP QMBHBEFDVMUJWBSFTEFQBQB &MNPTDBSEØOBUBDBBMFTDBSBCBKPEVSBOUFTVGBTFEF MBSWB -PTHVTBOPTTFVCJDBOFOFMTVFMP BQPDPTNFUSPTEF QSPGVOEJEBE1PTJCMFNFOUFTFEFCBBTF×BMFTRVÓNJDBT RVFHVÓBOTVPSJFOUBDJØO $VBOEPFMBNCJFOUFUÏSNJDPDBNCJB UBOUP. 3FTQVFTUBBCJFSUB&MUFNBEFMTJTUFNBOFSWJPTPFOFMTFS IVNBOPTFSÈUSBUBEPFOFMDBQÓUVMP4FTVHJFSFWPMWFSB 15 BIO3_Docente. 11. el dulce. FMBNBSHPZFMumami.&ODVBMRVJFSDBTP FMQBTPGJOBMFOFTUBWÓBFTMBTF×BMEF $B2+RVFQSPEVDFMBFYPDJUPTJTEFMOFVSPUSBOTNJTPSZTV DBQUBDJØOQPSMBOFVSPOBTFOTPSJBMQSJNBSJB"MMMFHBSBM DBQÓUVMP MPTBMVNOPTQPESÈOSFDPOPDFSMBTEJGFSFOUFT OFVSPOBTZDPNQSFOEFSÈOMBJOUFHSBDJØOEFTEFMBSFDFQDJØOEFMPTFTUÓNVMPTIBTUBMBMMFHBEBEFMJNQVMTPOFSWJPTPBUSBWÏTEFMBTOFVSPOBTTFOTJUJWBT 13.-PTSFDFQUPSFTQBSBMPTTBCPSFTÈDJEPZTBMBEPTPODBOBMFT a) &MNPTDBSEØOTFQPESÓBVUJMJ[BSDPNPDPOUSPMCJPMØHJb) © Santillana S. -B PQDJØO DPSSFDUB FT MB D  -BT QMBOUBT SFRVJFSFO DJFSUB DBOUJEBE EF MV[PTDVSJEBE QBSB GMPSFDFS /P PCTUBOUF  FMMBTNJEFOMPTQFSÓPEPTEFPTDVSJEBE&TUBQMBOUBSFRVJFSF NFOPT EF EPDF IPSBT EF MV[ QBSB GMPSFDFS 5BNCJÏO TBCFNPTRVFFMGPUPQFSÓPEPTFDVFOUBFOGVODJØOEFMEÓB IT 4JTFJMVNJOBUPEPFMEÓB OPIBCSÈFTUÓNVMPJOEJDBEPSMPNJTNPTVDFEFSÈDPOMBPTDVSJEBE&OFMDBTPE  JOUFSSVNQJFOEP FM QFSÓPEP EF MV[  JOEFQFOEJFOUFNFOUF EFMNPNFOUPEFMEÓB OVODBQPESÈUFOFSNFOPTEFEPDF IPSBTEFMV[ ZBRVFFTUÈTJFNQSFJMVNJOBEB ZBEFNÈT  DPNPEJKJNPT NJEFQFSÓPEPTEFPTDVSJEBE&OFMÞMUJNP DBTP MBQMBOUBFTUBSÓBNJEJFOEPEPDFIPSBTEFPTDVSJEBE Z QPSFOEF EPDFIPSBTEFMV[ ZFMMBSFRVJFSFNFOPT&O FMDBTPD JOUFSSVNQJFOEPDBEBUSFDFIPSBTMBPTDVSJEBE  MBQMBOUBSFDJCJSÈFMFTUÓNVMPBEFDVBEPZSFTQPOEFSÈ 40. &OMBTQSJODJQBMFTGVODJPOFTEFMBNFNCSBOBQMBTNÈUJDB  DPNPMBQFSNFBCJMJEBETFMFDUJWB MPTSFDFQUPSFTEFNFNCSBOB Z MBT VOJPOFT JOUFSDFMVMBSFT JOUFSWJFOFO MBT QSPUFÓOBT&YJTUFOEPTUJQPTEFQSPUFÓOBTFOMBNFNCSBOBQMBTNÈUJDBMBTQSPUFÓOBTJOUFHSBMFTZMBTQSPUFÓOBTQFSJGÏSJDBT Página 76 7. Prohibida su fotocopia. a) &O MB TFDDJØO i/P UF MP QJFSEBTw TF QSPQPSDJPOBO EPT BSUÓDVMPTRVFQPESÓBOVUJMJ[BSTF6OPEFMPTBSHVNFOUPT BGBWPSQPESÓBTFSRVFMBTMFPOBTQVFEFOSFDPOPDFSTJ VO HSVQP SJWBM FT NÈT OVNFSPTP &TUP QBSFDF JOEJDBS RVF UJFOFO BMHVOB IBCJMJEBE QBSB SFDPOPDFS DBOUJEBEFT6OBSHVNFOUPFODPOUSBEFMJOOBUJTNPQPESÓBTFS MBDPOEVDUBBHSFTJWBEFMPTHPMQFBEPSFT b) &MHSVQPQPESÈJODMJOBSTFBOUFVOBVPUSBQPTUVSBP BSHVNFOUBSRVFMBDPOEVDUBIVNBOBQVFEFQSFTFOUBS BNCPTDPNQPOFOUFT 42.-BGPUPEFMPTTVSJDBUBTNVFTUSBVODPNQPSUBNJFOUPTPDJBM EF WJHJMBODJB -B GPUP EF MPT QJOHàJOPT NVFTUSB VO DPNQPSUBNJFOUPEFDVJEBEPTQBSFOUBMFT-BGPUPEFMBWF GSBHBUBNVFTUSBVODPNQPSUBNJFOUPEFDPSUFKP FMNBDIP FYIJCFTVCPMTBSPKB 43. -BTTF×BMFTRVÓNJDBTRVFBUSBWJFTBOMBNFNCSBOBQMBTNÈUJDBTPONPMÏDVMBTQFRVF×BTZMJQPTPMVCMFT Página 79 8. el salado.

a) &MUSBOTQPSUFFONBTBTFMMFWBBDBCPDVBOEPMBDÏMVMB UJFOF RVF JODPSQPSBS QBSUÓDVMBT EF HSBO UBNB×P  DPNPNBDSPNPMÏDVMBT WJSVT CBDUFSJBT FUD"QBSUJS EF MB NFNCSBOB QMBTNÈUJDB TF GPSNB VOB WFTÓDVMB RVFDPOUJFOFFOTVJOUFSJPSMBPMBTQBSUÓDVMBTJOHFSJEBT4JMBDÏMVMBJODPSQPSBVOBQBSUÓDVMBTØMJEB TFMMB- DÏMVMBTFEFOPNJOBBVUPDSJOB-BQBSBDSJOBBDUÞBTPCSFDÏMVMBTDFSDBOBT f) 'BMTP6OBNJTNBTF×BMQVFEFPSJHJOBSEJTUJOUPUJQP EFSFTQVFTUBDFMVMBS TFHÞO KVTUBNFOUF FMUJQPDFMVMBSRVFBGFDUF g) 'BMTP &M DPNQMFKP TF×BMSFDFQUPS UBNCJÏO TF QVFEF GPSNBSFOFMDJUPQMBTNB h) 7FSEBEFSP 22.-PTiSFDFQUPSFTPMGBUPSJPTwTFFODVFOUSBOFOMBNFNCSB- d) OBEFMBQJF[BNFEJBPDVFMMPEFMGMBHFMPEFMFTQFSNBUP[PJEF 17. Difusión simple 20. pero sin gasto de energía.&MUSBOTQPSUFQBTJWPBUSBWÏTEFMBNFNCSBOBTFSFBMJ[BB GBWPS EFM HSBEJFOUF EF DPODFOUSBDJØO EFTEF MB [POB EF NBZPSDPODFOUSBDJØOBMBEFNFOPSDPODFOUSBDJØO ZTJO HBTUP EF FOFSHÓB  NJFOUSBT RVF FM USBOTQPSUF BDUJWP TF QSPEVDFFODPOUSBEFMHSBEJFOUFEFDPODFOUSBDJØOZDPO HBTUPEFFOFSHÓB)BZEPTDSJUFSJPTQBSBDMBTJGJDBSFMNFDBOJTNPEFFOEPDJUPTJT6OPFTQPSFMUJQPEFQBSUÓDVMBTJMB QBSUÓDVMBJOHFSJEBFTTØMJEB MBFOEPDJUPTJTTFMMBNBiGBHPDJUPTJTwDVBOEPTFFODVFOUSBFOVONFEJPMÓRVJEPTFEFOPNJOB iQJOPDJUPTJTw &M PUSP TF SFMBDJPOB DPO MB GPSNB DPNPTPOJOHFSJEBTMBTQBSUÓDVMBTTJMBJODPSQPSBDJØOFTUÈ NFEJBEBQPSSFDFQUPSFTEFNFNCSBOB MBFOEPDJUPTJTFT FTQFDÓGJDB QFSPTJMBTQBSUÓDVMBTJOHSFTBOFOSFMBDJØODPO MBDPODFOUSBDJØORVFUJFOFOEFOUSPEFMBDÏMVMB MBFOEPDJUPTJTFTJOFTQFDÓGJDB 23. Transporte activo a través de la membrana El agua atraviesa la membrana plasmática sin gasto de energía.FTUBMFDUVSBVOBWF[RVFTFQSPGVOEJDFOMPTDPOPDJNJFOUPT TPCSFFMDFSFCSPZMBUSBOTNJTJØOEFMJNQVMTPOFSWJPTP 14. Fagocitosis La bomba de sodio-potasio permite mantener dentro de la célula bajas concentraciones de sodio y altas de potasio.723 Fenómeno ocurrido e) 'BMTP -B TF×BM RVF QSPEVDF VO FGFDUP FO MB NJTNB 16 BIO3_Docente. a)  2 b) ' c)  2 d) 2 e)  ' f)  ' a) 7FSEBEFSP b) 'BMTP -BT CBDUFSJBT SFTQPOEFO B NVDIPT FTUÓNVMPT RVÓNJDPTZGÓTJDPT c) 7FSEBEFSP d) 'BMTP-BTDÏMVMBTEJBOBPCMBODPTPOMBTRVFSFDJCFO 19.-BTJOWFTUJHBDJPOFTSFBMJ[BEBTQPOFOFOFWJEFODJBRVFMPT iSFDFQUPSFT PMGBUPSJPTw FTUÈO EJSFDUBNFOUF SFMBDJPOBEPT DPOMBRVJNJPUBYJTQPTJUJWBEFMPTFTQFSNBUP[PJEFT Páginas 82 y 83 18. Difusión facilitada En la membrana se forman vesículas que engloban una bacteria para luego incorporarla al interior celular.A. Prohibida su fotocopia. Ósmosis El calcio atraviesa la membrana con la “ayuda” de proteínas transportadoras. Ley 11. a) &OMPTTFSFTQMVSJDFMVMBSFTDPFYJTUFONJMMPOFTEFDÏMVMBTRVFSFBMJ[BOEFUFSNJOBEBTGVODJPOFTFTQFDÓGJDBT 5PEBTFTUBTDÏMVMBTTFDPNVOJDBOFOUSFTÓFJOUFSDBNCJBONBUFSJBZFOFSHÓBDPOFMNFEJPBNCJFOUFQBSB NBOUFOFS TV IPNFPTUBTJT  FT EFDJS  MBT DPOEJDJPOFT JOUFSOBTEFOUSPEFDJFSUPTMÓNJUFTFTUBCMFT b) "MHVOBTDÏMVMBTSFHVMBOMBQSPMJGFSBDJØOEFPUSBT/PSNBMNFOUF MBTDÏMVMBTTFSFQSPEVDFODVBOEPSFDJCFO FMFTUÓNVMPFTQFDÓGJDP%FFTUBNBOFSBTFBTFHVSBOMBT DBSBDUFSÓTUJDBTZFMUBNB×PEFVOUFKJEP BEFDVBEBTB © Santillana S.$POPDFSDØNPTFSFDJCFO DØNPTFSFBMJ[BMBUSBOTEVDDJØO ZDØNPTFQFSDJCFOMBTTF×BMFTHVTUBUJWBTOPTQVFEFTFSWJS QPSFKFNQMP QBSBNPEJGJDBSDJFSUPTTBCPSFTEFTBHSBEBCMFTEFMPTNFEJDBNFOUPTPNFKPSBSFMTBCPSEFEFUFSNJOBEPTBMJNFOUPT b) c) Página 81 15. e) NBGBHPDJUPTJTTJFTVOBQBSUÓDVMBFONFEJPMÓRVJEP  TFEFOPNJOBQJOPDJUPTJT 6OBQSPUFÓOBJOUFHSBMFTVOBQSPUFÓOBRVFTFFODVFOUSBFOMBNFNCSBOBZQVFEFGPSNBSQBSUFEFFMMBP BUSBWFTBSMBEFMBEPBMBEPVOBPWBSJBTWFDFT 6OBCPNCBFTUÈGPSNBEBQPSQSPUFÓOBTJOUFHSBMFTEF MBNFNCSBOB-BVUJMJ[BMBDÏMVMBFOFMUSBOTQPSUFBDUJWPEFTVTUBODJBTBUSBWÏTEFMBNFNCSBOBQMBTNÈUJDB 6OBTF×BMZVYUBDSJOBFTVOFTUÓNVMPRVFVOBDÏMVMB JOEVDUPSBFOWÓBBVOBDÏMVMBCMBODP1VFEFIBDFSMPB USBWÏTEFMPTEFTNPTPNBTPVOJPOFTHBQ QFSPUBNCJÏOQPSDPOUBDUPEJSFDUPEFMBDÏMVMBRVFQSFTFOUBMB TF×BMFOMBNFNCSBOBDPOMBDÏMVMBRVFQPTFFFMSFDFQUPSFTQFDÓGJDP 6ODBOBMJØOJDPFTUÈGPSNBEPQPSVODPOKVOUPEFQSPUFÓOBTJOUFHSBMFTDVZBBQFSUVSBPDJFSSFEFQFOEFEFMB DBQUBDJØOEFMBTF×BMFTQFDÓGJDBQSPWFOJFOUFEFMNFEJPFYUSBDFMVMBS 21. FMFTUÓNVMP Tipo de transporte El monóxido de nitrógeno atraviesa libremente la bicapa lipídica. 3FTQVFTUBBCJFSUB 16.indd 16 1/22/10 4:57:23 PM .

723 Página 95 8. 4JFMWBMPSGVFSBDBEBWF[NÈTOFHBUJWP MBNFNCSBOBFTUBSÓBNÈTMFKPTEFMWBMPSVNCSBM QPSMPUBOUP TFSÓBOOFDFTBSJPT FTUÓNVMPT EF NBZPS JOUFOTJEBE QBSB QSPWPDBS VO QPUFODJBMEFBDDJØO Página 93 7. a) -BUPYJOBCPUVMÓOJDBFTVOBOFVSPUPYJOBRVFJNQJEF MB MJCFSBDJØO EF BDFUJMDPMJOB FO MBT VOJPOFT OFVSPNVTDVMBSFTPFOPUSBTVOJPOFTDPMJOÏSHJDBTZQSPEVDF VOB EFOFSWBDJØO QBSDJBM SFWFSTJCMF EF MPT NÞTDVMPT EPOEFTFJOZFDUBPEFMBTHMÈOEVMBTFYPDSJOBT-VFHP EFTVJOZFDDJØOJOUSBNVTDVMBS JOUSBEÏSNJDBPJOUSB- 17 BIO3_Docente.&MBDUPSFGMFKPFTMBSFTQVFTUBDPSSFTQPOEJFOUFBMGVODJPOBNJFOUP EF VO HSVQP EF OFVSPOBT RVF  FO DPOKVOUP  DPOTUJUVZFO FM BSDP SFGMFKP &M BSDP SFGMFKP FT MB VOJEBE GVODJPOBMEFMBDUPSFGMFKP 13. 6ONPEPEFPSHBOJ[BSMBJOGPSNBDJØOUSBCBKBEBTPCSFFM TJTUFNBOFSWJPTPQVFEFTFS Sistema nervioso Constituido por Función DFOUSBM 4/$ &ODÏGBMPZNÏEVMB espinal.indd 17 1/22/10 4:57:24 PM .A.-PTBYPOFTEFM4/4TFPSJHJOBOFOFMQFDIP SFHJØOUPSÈDJDB  Tiempo Tiempo 6."OUFEFUFSNJOBEBTTJUVBDJPOFT QVFEFPDVSSJSRVFTFFTUJNVMFOBNCPTTJTUFNBTBMBWF[ZTFQSPEV[DBVODPMBQTP 4FHÞOMBJOUFOTJEBEEFMBFTUJNVMBDJØO QSFWBMFDFSÈVOB SFTQVFTUBVPUSB-BTFOTBDJØOEFCPDBTFDBTFEFCFBMB BDDJØOTJNQÈUJDBRVFFTUJNVMBMBQSPEVDDJØOEFQFRVF×BTDBOUJEBEFTEFTBMJWBWJTDPTB-BFTUJNVMBDJØOTJNQÈUJDBJOIJCFUPEBTMBTGVODJPOFTEJHFTUJWBT QPSFTPUFOFNPT FTBTFOTBDJØOFOFMFTUØNBHP&ODVBOUPBMMMBOUP FM4/1 FTUJNVMBMBQSPEVDDJØOEFMÈHSJNBT Página 101 12. 4JFMFTUÓNVMPFTTVGJDJFOUFQBSBEFTQPMBSJ[BSMBNFNCSBOB MBSFTQVFTUBFTMBNJTNB-BEJGFSFODJBFTUÈFOMBGSFDVFODJB " NBZPS FTUÓNVMP  NBZPS FT MB GSFDVFODJB EF iEJTQBSPTw4FFTQFSBRVFQVFEBOFTRVFNBUJ[BSBMHPTJNJMBSBFTUFHSÈGJDP EPOEFTFHÞOMBJOUFOTJEBEEFMFTUÓNVMP  BVNFOUBMBGSFDVFODJBEFQPUFODJBMFTEFBDDJØO&MFKFNQMP EF MB WFMB TFSÓB FM EJCVKP TVQFSJPS Z MB FYQMPTJØO TF VCJDBSÓBFOFMTFHVOEPFKFNQMP Intensidad del estímulo Potencial de acción BDFUJMDPMJOBFOFMFTQBDJPTJOÈQUJDP MPRVFQVFEFQSPEVDJS UFNCMPSFT DBMBNCSFTZDPOUSBDDJØONVTDVMBSQFSNBOFOUF RVFQVFEFPDBTJPOBSQBSÈMJTJT Página 97 9. -BTFOGFSNFEBEFTEFTNJFMJOJ[BOUFTUJFOFOEJTUJOUPTFGFD© Santillana S. "MJOBDUJWBSTFMBFO[JNB TFQSPEVDFVOBBDVNVMBDJØOEF UPTTFHÞODVÈMFTTFBOMBTOFVSPOBTBGFDUBEBT-BQÏSEJEB EFNJFMJOBQSPEVDFVOBEJTNJOVDJØOFOMBWFMPDJEBEEF DPOEVDDJØOEFMJNQVMTPOFSWJPTP4JMBEFTNJFMJOJ[BDJØO FTMPTVGJDJFOUFNFOUFHSBWF QVFEFTFSRVFFMQPUFODJBMEF BDDJØO OP MMFHVF DPO TVGJDJFOUF GVFS[B IBTUB FM QSØYJNP OØEVMPEF3BOWJFS QPSMPUBOUP FMBYØOTFSÈJODBQB[EF QSPQBHBSFMQPUFODJBMEFBDDJØO ZFTUPQVFEFQSPEVDJSMB QÏSEJEB EFM DPOUSPM NPUPS -PT BGFDUBEPT EF FTDMFSPTJT NÞMUJQMFTVGSFOEFCJMJEBE GBMUBEFDPPSEJOBDJØO BMUFSBDJPOFTEFMIBCMBZEFMBWJTJØO&TUPTFEFCFBMBTNPEJGJDBDJPOFTRVFTVGSFMBWBJOBEFNJFMJOBEFMPTBYPOFTEFM DFSFCSP  MB NÏEVMB FTQJOBM  MB DPMVNOB WFSUFCSBM Z MPT OFSWJPTØQUJDPT ZFOMBQBSUFJOGFSJPSEFMBFTQBMEB MVNCBS EFMBNÏEVMB FTQJOBM-PTBYPOFTEFM4/1TVSHFOEFMBSFHJØODSBOFBOBZ EFMB[POBTBDSB FOFMGJOBMEFMBNÏEVMBFTQJOBM 11. Prohibida su fotocopia. a) -BTTF×BMFTFYUFSOBTRVFiBOVODJBOwBMBTDÏMVMBTTPO GBDUPSFT EF DSFDJNJFOUP RVF FTUJNVMBO MB EJWJTJØO Z GBDUPSFTJOIJCJEPSFTRVFMBEFUJFOFO b) -BiDBTDBEBwTFSÓBMBUSBOTEVDDJØOEFMBTF×BM&OFTUB FUBQB MBTF×BMTFBNQMJGJDB c) -BTQSPUFÓOBTFODBSHBEBTEFJOJDJBSMBSFTQVFTUBDFMVMBSTPOMBTDJDMJOBTZMBTRVJOBTBT 5 El control nervioso Página 92 5.MBTOFDFTJEBEFTEFMDVFSQP4JFTUBDPNVOJDBDJØOZSFHVMBDJØOOPFYJTUFPGBMMB MBTDÏMVMBTTJHVFOTVTQSPQJBTJOTUSVDDJPOFTJOUFSOBTEFSFQSPEVDDJØO"MHVOBT EFMBTDPOTFDVFODJBTTPOFMEFTBSSPMMPEFUVNPSFTDBODFSÓHFOPTRVFQVFEFODPOEVDJSBMBNVFSUFEFMPSHBOJTNP &TUB DPOTJHOB QVFEF USBCBKBSTF Z BNQMJBSTF MVFHPEFMFFSi-BQPTUBwEFFTUFDBQÓUVMP 24. Ley 11. Procesar la inforNBDJØOZFMBCPSBS MBSFTQVFTUB TPNÈUJDP 4/4 PEF MBWJEBEF relación /FSWJPTRVFQBSUFO EFMFODÏGBMPZEFMB NÏEVMBFTQJOBM -MFWBSMBJOGPSNBDJØOEFTEFMPT SFDFQUPSFTIBTUB FM4/$ZMBTSFT QVFTUBTIBTUBMPT ØSHBOPTFGFDUPSFT 4VBDDJØOFTWPMVOUBSJBZDPOTDJFOUF BVUØOPNP 4/" P EFMBWJEB WFHFUBUJWB /FSWJPTZHBOHMJPT $POFDUBSMPT NÞTDVMPT JOWPMVOUBSJPTZ las glándulas con FM4/$4VBDDJØO FTJOWPMVOUBSJBF JODPOTDJFOUF 4FEJWJEFFO4/ TJNQÈUJDPZ4/ QBSBTJNQÈUJDP QFSJGÏSJDP  4/1 Página 98 10.&OMBSFTQVFTUBSFGMFKBJOUFSWJFOFOGJCSBTTFOTJUJWBTZNPUPSBTEFMBNÏEVMBFTQJOBM Página 102 14.

a) &MHMVUBNBUPFTVOOFVSPUSBOTNJTPSFYDJUBUPSJP"DUÞB FO MB NFNCSBOB QPTUTJOÈQUJDB &O MPT DBTPT FYQFSJNFOUBMFTFOMPTRVFTFBENJOJTUSBSPODBOUJEBEFTFMFWBEBT EF HMVUBNBUP  TF PCTFSWØ RVF FM EB×P FTUBCB SFTUSJOHJEPBMBTDÏMVMBTQPTUTJOÈQUJDBTMBTEFOESJUBTEF FTUBT OFVSPOBT FTUBCBO UVNFGBDUBT  NJFOUSBT RVF MBT © Santillana S.5PEBTMBTGVODJPOFTNFODJPOBEBTEFCFOTFSSFBMJ[BEBTQPS MBTOFVSPOBTZBRVFTPOMBTDÏMVMBTEFMTJTUFNBOFSWJPTP 26.4FWJFSPOBGFDUBEBT[POBTNFEJBMFTZDPSUJDBMFTEFMFODÏGBMP  Z SFTVMUØ BGFDUBEP QSJNPSEJBMNFOUF FM IFNJTGFSJP J[RVJFSEP 23. 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Prohibida su fotocopia. a)  &TQSPCBCMFRVFFMJOHSFTPEFBJSFGSÓPQSPWPRVFVO b) c) d) e) f) EFTDFOTPEFMBUFNQFSBUVSBBNCJFOUBMZFMUFSNPTUBUPMPEFUFDUF FOUPODFTTFFODFOEFSÈMBMMBNB %FQFOEFSÈEFDVÈMTFBMBUFNQFSBUVSBFYUFSJPSZFO RVÏFTUBEPTFFODVFOUSFMBFTUVGBBMEFTDPNQPOFSTF FMUFSNPTUBUP4JMBFTUVGBFTUÈBQBHBEBZFTUBNPTFO JOWJFSOP  DVBOEP MBT UFNQFSBUVSBT FYUFSOBT TVFMFO TFSNFOPSFTEF$ MBFTUVGBQFSNBOFDFSÈBQBHBEB QPSRVF FM UFSNPTUBUP OP SFHJTUSB MB EJGFSFODJB 4J TF FODVFOUSBFODFOEJEB QFSNBOFDFSÈBTÓIBTUBRVFMB UFNQFSBUVSBTVCBQPSFODJNBEFMPT$ZFMUFSNPTUBUPJOUFSSVNQBFMHBT &MUFSNPTUBUPRVFPCTUSVZFPQFSNJUFFMQBTPEFMHBT FOFMNPEFMPDPUJEJBOPFTFMRVFSFHJTUSBMBEJGFSFODJB EF UFNQFSBUVSBT &O FM NPEFMP DJFOUÓGJDP TFSÓB VOB QBSUFEFMTJTUFNBFOEPDSJOP FOFTUFDBTP FMQÈODSFBT  RVFFTFMRVFEFUFDUBFMBVNFOUPPMBEJTNJOVDJØOEF MBHMVDFNJBZTJOUFUJ[BZTFDSFUBMBJOTVMJOB -BJOUFSSVQDJØOEFMHBTFTMBSFTQVFTUBEFMUFSNPTUBUPB MBEJTNJOVDJØOEFUFNQFSBUVSBBNCJFOUF4FDPSSFTQPOEFDPOMBTFDSFDJØOEFJOTVMJOBZMBEJTNJOVDJØOEFMB HMVDFNJBFOFMNPEFMPDJFOUÓGJDP &MNPEFMPEFSFHVMBDJØOEFMBHMVDFNJBNFEJBOUFMB TÓOUFTJTZTFDSFDJØOEFIPSNPOBTQBODSFÈUJDBTFTNVDIPNÈTDPNQMFKPRVFFMNPEFMPEFSFHVMBDJØOEFM UFSNPTUBUP Z MB PCUVSBDJØO EFM QBTP EFM HBT  RVF FT CBTUBOUFTFODJMMP1PSFKFNQMP TJEFDJNPTRVFMBJOUFSSVQDJØOEFMHBT MBSFTQVFTUBEFMUFSNPTUBUP TFDPSSFTQPOEFDPOMBTFDSFDJØOEFJOTVMJOB MBSFTQVFTUB EFM QÈODSFBT  FO FM NPEFMP EFM UFSNPTUBUP OP FTUÈ SFQSFTFOUBEBMBBDDJØOEFMBJOTVMJOB RVFFTFMJOHSFTPEFMBHMVDPTBFOMBTDÏMVMBT TJOPMBDPOTFDVFODJB EFFMMP RVFFTMBSFHVMBDJØOEFMBHMVDFNJB "OUFVONBMGVODJPOBNJFOUPEFMUFSNPTUBUPQPESÓBNPTQFOTBSFORVFFMQÈODSFBTOPQVFEFEFUFDUBSVO EFTDFOTPEFMBHMVDFNJBQFSPTÓQVFEFQFSDJCJSFMBVNFOUP&OFTUFDBTP SFTQPOEFBMBVNFOUPMJCFSBOEP JOTVMJOB QFSPOPSFTQPOEFBMBEJTNJOVDJØOTFDSFUBOdo glucagón. 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Ley 11."EFNÈTEFMBWP[BHVEB MPTDBTUSBEPTOPEFTBSSPMMBOMPT PUSPTDBSBDUFSFTTFDVOEBSJPTQSPEVDJEPTQPSMBUFTUPTUFSPOB 5JFOEFO B BDVNVMBS HSBTB FO [POBT QSPQJBT EF MBT NVKFSFT DPNPMBTDBEFSBT MBTOBMHBTZMPTQFDIPT/PMFT DSFDFMBCBSCBZFMWFMMPQÞCJDPTVFMFUFOFSVOBEJTQPTJDJØOFOGPSNBEFQBSDIFZOPMBQSPQJBEFMPTIPNCSFT FT EFDJS NÈTEJTQFSTB 22 BIO3_Docente.723 NBEVSBDJØOTFYVBMQBSBFWJUBSMPTFGFDUPTEFMBUFTUPTUFSPOBTPCSFMBTDVFSEBTWPDBMFT 18.-BQSFHVOUBTPCSFMBQSFTFODJBFOFMDJOFEFQFSTPOBTDPO FOGFSNFEBEFTTFPSJFOUBBQSPNPWFSMBSFGMFYJØOBDFSDB EFMBVUJMJ[BDJØOEFQFSTPOBTDPOFTUBTVPUSBTQBUPMPHÓBT FOTJUVBDJPOFTRVFNVDIBTWFDFTSFTVMUBOCPDIPSOPTBTZ MBTQPOFOFOSJEÓDVMP Página 146 25.&O DBTP EF VO BVNFOUP GJTJPMØHJDP FO DPOEJDJPOFTOPSNBMFT EFQSPEVDDJØOEFIPSNPOBEFDSFDJNJFOUP TVOJWFMFOTBOHSFSFUSPBMJNFOUBOFHBUJWBNFOUFBMIJQPUÈMBNP ZBMBIJQØGJTJT RVFGSFOBOTVQSPEVDDJØO&OFMHJHBOUJTNP FMFYDFTPEFQSPEVDDJØOEFTPNBUPUSPQJOBTFEFCFB VO UVNPS RVF BDUJWB MB SFQSPEVDDJØO DFMVMBS Z IBZ NÈT DÏMVMBTQSPEVDJFOEPNÈTIPSNPOB 23.-PTGBNPTPTFOBOPTEFDJSDPTVFMFOTFSFOBOPTQPSEFGJDJFODJBEFIPSNPOBTUJSPJEFBT FOGFSNFEBEMMBNBEBiDSFUJOJTNPw -BT QFSTPOBT RVF QBEFDFO FTUB FOGFSNFEBE QVFEFOUFOFSSFUSBTPNFOUBMTFWFSPZGBMUBEFDSFDJNJFOUPRVFDPOEVDFBVOBGPSNBEFTQSPQPSDJPOBEBEFMDVFSQP DPOVONBZPSBVNFOUPEFMUBNB×PEFMBDBCF[B ZMBT QJFSOBTOPUBCMFNFOUFDPSUBT-BTNVKFSFTCBSCVEBTPDPO NVDIPWFMMPDPSQPSBMUBNCJÏOTFIJDJFSPOGBNPTBTFOMPT circos.-BBMUFSBDJØOPSJHJOBEJTUJOUBTFOGFSNFEBEFTTFHÞOFMNPNFOUPEFMBWJEBEFMBQFSTPOB4JFTUÈFOMBOJ×F[PQVCFSUBE MBIPSNPOBBDUÞBTPCSFUPEPTMPTUFKJEPT QPSFTPIBZ VOBVNFOUPEFUBNB×PEFUPEPTMPTØSHBOPT4JIBZVOB QSPEVDDJØO FYDFTJWB EF IPSNPOB EF DSFDJNJFOUP FO MB BEVMUF[ DVBOEPZBTFIBOPTJGJDBEPMPTDBSUÓMBHPTEFDSFDJNJFOUP TPMPTJHVFODSFDJFOEPDJFSUPTIVFTPT DPNPMPTEF MBNBOEÓCVMBJOGFSJPSPMPTEFMBTFYUSFNJEBEFT ZTFQSPEVDFBDSPNFHBMJB&OMPTDBTPTDPNPFMEF3PCFSU1FSTIJOH 8BEMPX  BMHVOPT JOGPSNFT TF SFGJFSFO B MB FOGFSNFEBE DPNPHJHBOUPESPNFHBMJB RVFFTNVZQPDPGSFDVFOUF&TUF HJHBOUFQFTBCBNÈTEF LHBMPTTFJTNFTFTEFFEBEZ DPOUJOVØ DSFDJFOEP B VO SJUNP EFTBDPTUVNCSBEP B MPT PDIPB×PTNFEÓB N  22. a) &TJOUFSFTBOUFMPRVFPDVSSJØFOFMMBCPSBUPSJPEFMDJFO- UÓGJDPSVTPBOUFFMEFTDVCSJNJFOUPEFMPTJOHMFTFT1BWMPW  FYQFSUPFOGJTJPMPHÓBEJHFTUJWB  SFQJUJØFMFYQFSJNFOUPFOTVTJOTUBMBDJPOFTZDPNQSPCØRVFTVTDPMFHBT UFOÓBO SB[ØO &TUP MP DPOEVKP B MB SFBMJ[BDJØO EF MPT FYQFSJNFOUPTRVFEFNPTUSBSPOMBFYJTUFODJBEFSFGMFKPT DPOEJDJPOBEPT  FO MPT DVBMFT VO FTUÓNVMP OFVUSP DPOEJDJPOBEPQVFEFHFOFSBSTBMJWBZKVHPHÈTUSJDPBVORVFOPIBZBDBSOFEFQPSNFEJP-BQBSUJDJQBDJØOEFM TJTUFNBOFSWJPTPGVFSFDPOPDJEBJOUFSOBDJPOBMNFOUFZ FO1BWMPWSFDJCJØFM1SFNJP/PCFMEF.A.FEJDJOB&M DPOUSPMEFMDFSFCSPTPCSFMBTTFDSFDJPOFTEJHFTUJWBTZEF PUSBTHMÈOEVMBTGVFSFDPOPDJEPFOMBTÞMUJNBTEÏDBEBT EFMTJHMPYY DVBOEPFNFSHJØDPOGVFS[BFMDBNQPEFMB OFVSPFOEPDSJOPMPHÓB ZMPTQÏQUJEPTDFSFCSPJOUFTUJOBMFT QFSPTPCSFUPEPFTUPTSFGMFKPTWJTDFSBMFTGVFSPOMB CBTFQBSBFMNPEFSOPFTUVEJPEFMBTSFMBDJPOFTFOUSFFM DFSFCSPZMBDPOEVDUB&TEFDJS BNCPTHSVQPTEFDJFOUÓGJDPTUFOÓBOSB[ØOBVORVFTVTDPODFQUPTTFUPNBSPO JOJDJBMNFOUFDPNPEJWFSHFOUFT FMDPOUSPMGJTJPMØHJDPFT OFSWJPTPZFTIPSNPOBM b) -PTFHJQDJPTQMBOUFBCBORVFFMDVFSQPFTUBCBDPOFDUBEP QPS VO TJTUFNB EF WBTPT RVF USBOTQPSUBCBO MÓRVJEPTMPTHSJFHPTZMPTSPNBOPTQPTUVMBCBORVFMBTFOGFSNFEBEFT QSPWFOÓBO EF VO EFTFRVJMJCSJP FOUSF MPT IVNPSFTMÓRVJEPTEFMDVFSQP4JCJFOFMDPODFQUPEFMÓRVJEPTRVFSFDPSSFOFMDVFSQPZUSBOTQPSUBOTVTUBODJBT OPFTUBCBQSFTFOUFQPSRVFMBDJSDVMBDJØOTBOHVÓOFBTF QMBOUFBSÓB WBSJPT TJHMPT EFTQVÏT  MB JEFB EF IVNPSFT MÓRVJEPTRVFFODPOKVOUPBQPSUBOFMFRVJMJCSJPOFDFTBSJPQBSBVOFTUBEPEFTBOJEBEQPESÓBDPOTJEFSBSTFVOB BOBMPHÓB EF MB SFHVMBDJØO RVF FKFSDFO MBT IPSNPOBT TPCSFEJTUJOUPTØSHBOPTRVFQFSNJUFVOGVODJPOBNJFOUPFRVJMJCSBEPEFMPSHBOJTNP%FFTUBNBOFSB MBJEFB BOUJHVBEFiFRVJMJCSJPwQPESÓBSFMBDJPOBSTFDPOFMBDUVBMDPODFQUPEFIPNFPTUBTJT NFEJBEPQPSMBJOUFHSBDJØOEFMTJTUFNBFOEPDSJOPZFMTJTUFNBOFSWJPTP c)  -BTIPSNPOBTQPESÓBOSFMBDJPOBSTFDPOFMDPODFQUPEF MPTIVNPSFT-BiPSHBOPUFSBQJBwQMBOUFBCBMBJEFBEF SFFNQMB[BS VO ØSHBOP RVF GVODJPOBCB NBM QPS PUSP ØSHBOP TBOP -PT FYQFSJNFOUPT NÈT BDUVBMFT  FO MPT DVBMFTMBFYUJSQBDJØOEFVOØSHBOPZTVQPTUFSJPSSFJNQMBOUBDJØO SFTUJUVZFO MBT GVODJPOFT  QPESÓBO SFMBDJPOBSTFDPOFTUFDPODFQUP FOUFOEJFOEPRVFFTFMBQPSUF IPSNPOBMFMSFTQPOTBCMFEFMGVODJPOBNJFOUPOPSNBM -B SFMBDJØO FOUSF MPT IVNPSFT Z MPT UFNQFSBNFOUPT QVFEFSFMBDJPOBSTFDPOFMDPOUSPMIPSNPOBMEFMBDPOEVDUBTFYVBM PMBTSFBDDJPOFTGSFOUFBMFTUSÏT d) -B iPSHBOPUFSBQJBw QMBOUFBCB MB JOHFTUB EFM ØSHBOP TBOPQBSBDVSBSFMØSHBOPFOGFSNP)PZTBCFNPTRVF FTOFDFTBSJPSFTUJUVJSFMBQPSUFTBOHVÓOFPEFMBTIPSNPOBT JOWPMVDSBEBT -PT IVNPSFT EF MB "OUJHàFEBE FSBOMÓRVJEPTEJTQFSTPTQPSFMDVFSQPQFSPOPDPOFDUBEPTFOUSFTÓ ZBRVFOPFYJTUÓBMBJEFBEFVOTJTUFNB DJSDVMBUPSJPBUSBWÏTEFMDVBMMBTIPSNPOBTPMPTEJTUJOUPT OVUSJFOUFT TF EJTUSJCVZFSBO &M DPOPDJNJFOUP BDUVBMTPCSFFMTJTUFNBFOEPDSJOPQFSNJUFFYQMJDBSMPT NFDBOJTNPTEFBDDJØOEFMBTIPSNPOBT MPDVBMFSB JNQPTJCMFFOMB"OUJHàFEBE 26.&OMBTNVKFSFT MBWP[TFIBDFNÈTSPODBQFSPNVDIPNFOPT RVF FO MPT IPNCSFT  QPSRVF MPT BOESØHFOPT FTUÈO QSFTFOUFTFOBNCPTTFYPT QFSPFONFOPSDBOUJEBEFOFM GFNFOJOP 20. Prohibida su fotocopia.indd 22 1/22/10 4:57:26 PM .

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"MJOIJCJSMBTHJCFSFMJOBT TFiGSFOBwMBHFSNJOBDJØO FTEFDJS TFEFUJFOFFMNFUBCPMJTNPEFMFNCSJØOEFOUSPEFMB TFNJMMBZTFJNQJEFTVDSFDJNJFOUP"TÓ MBTFNJMMBTFNBOUJFOFOFOFTUBEPMBUFOUF MPRVFBZVEBBQSFTFSWBSBMFNCSJØOEFVOBHFSNJOBDJØORVFQPESÓBSFTVMUBSQFMJHSPTB EFCJEP QPSFKFNQMP BMBGBMUBEFBHVB 28. Ley 11. Prohibida su fotocopia.A. 1BSBSFTPMWFSFTUBDPOTJHOBEFCFSÈOUFOFSFODVFOUB MB EFTDSJQDJØO EF MB FYQFSJFODJB SFBMJ[BEB QPS 'SJU[ 25 BIO3_Docente. 1BSFDFRVFBOUFMBQSFTFODJBEFDPNQFUJEPSBTMBTQMBOUBT BTJHOBO NÈT SFDVSTPT FOFSHÏUJDPT BM QSPQJP DSFDJNJFOUP FOEFUSJNFOUPEFMBQSPEVDDJØOEFTVTUBODJBTEFEFGFOsa.723 18. $VBOEP EFUFDUBO NFEJBOUF TF×BMFT MVNJOPTBT B QMBOUBT DPNQFUJEPSBT  TF TJOUFUJ[BO Z MJCFSBO BVYJOBT RVF QSPNVFWFOFMDSFDJNJFOUPFOBMUVSBEFMBTQMBOUBT&OMBSFTQVFTUBBMBTBDDJPOFTEFMPTJOTFDUPTIFSCÓWPSPTJOUFSWJFOFOVOBTIPSNPOBTEFOPNJOBEBTKBTNPOBUPT RVFQSPNVFWFOMBQSPEVDDJØOEFTVTUBODJBTMMBNBEBTBOUJIFSCÓWPSBTQPSRVFSFTVMUBOEFTBHSBEBCMFTQBSBMPTBUBDBOUFT 19. &MEFTBSSPMMPOPSNBMEFVOJOTFDUPEFQFOEFEFVOBKVTUF QSFDJTP EF MBT DPODFOUSBDJPOFT EF IPSNPOB KVWFOJM FO DBEBFUBQB6OBQFSUVSCBDJØOFOMBSFMBDJØOFOUSFMBDPODFOUSBDJØOIPSNPOBMZFMFTUBEJPEFEFTBSSPMMPMMFWBBVO EFTBSSPMMPBOPSNBM MPRVFQSFWJFOFMBNBEVSBDJØOEFMPT JOTFDUPTZHFOFSB QPSMPUBOUP MBEJTNJOVDJØOEFMOÞNFSP EF FMMPT SFQSPEVDUJWBNFOUF BDUJWPT  MP DVBM B TV WF[ DPOEVDJSÓBBMBEJTNJOVDJØOEFMBQPCMBDJØOHFOFSBM-B IPSNPOB KVWFOJM Z TVT BOÈMPHPT TJOUÏUJDPT TPO NFEJPT QSPNJTPSJPT OPUØYJDPTZFDPMØHJDBNFOUFTFOTJCMFTQBSB DPNCBUJSMBTQMBHBTEFJOTFDUPTZDPOUSBMPTDVBMFTFTNVZ EJGÓDJMRVFEFTBSSPMMFOSFTJTUFODJB 24. a) 1PESÓBDPNQSBSBVYJOBTTJOUÏUJDBT RVFQSPNVFWFOFM DSFDJNJFOUP EF SBÓDFT EFTEF FM WÈTUBHP Z QFSNJUFO QSPEVDJSOVFWBTQMBOUBTBQBSUJSEFVOUSP[PEFUBMMP b) 1PESÓBVTBSVOBTPMVDJØODPODJOFUJOB QBSBNBOUFOFS FMDPMPSWFSEFZMBTBMVEEFMBTIPKBT 30.UFNQFSBUVSB 15. $VBOEPFOVOBGMPSTFVOFOMPTHBNFUPTGFNFOJOPTZNBTDVMJOPT TFQSPEVDFMBGFDVOEBDJØOZMBGPSNBDJØOEFMFNCSJØORVFTFFODVFOUSBEFOUSPEFMBTFNJMMB-PTQÏUBMPTZ FTUBNCSFTTFNBSDIJUBOZDBFOBNFEJEBRVFFMGSVUPDSFDF-BTBVYJOBTFTUJNVMBOMBNBEVSBDJØOEFMBQBSFEEFM PWBSJP&MUSBUBNJFOUPEFBVYJOBTSFBMJ[BEPQPSMPTQSPEVDUPSFTFOPWBSJPTEPOEFOPIVCPGFDVOEBDJØOPSJHJOBGSVUPTTJOTFNJMMBT MPRVFTFDPOPDFDPNPQBSUFOPDBSQJB&T FMDBTPEFUPNBUFT QFQJOPTZCFSFOKFOBTTJOTFNJMMBT 27.indd 25 1/22/10 4:57:28 PM . a) -BQSFHVOUBTFPSJFOUBBSFDVQFSBSMPTDPOUFOJEPTEFM DBQÓUVMPBOUFSJPSFOSFMBDJØODPOFMFKFIJQPUÈMBNP IJQØGJTJTUJSPJEFT-BMJCFSBDJØOEF53)BDUJWBMBTÓOUFTJTZMJCFSBDJØOEF54)ZFTUB BTVWF[ BDUÞBTPCSFMB UJSPJEFT RVFQSPEVDFZMJCFSBTVTIPSNPOBT b) $VBOEP FM OJWFM EF UJSPYJOB FT NÈYJNP  TF BDUJWB FM QSPDFTPZTFQSPEVDFFOFMSFOBDVBKPFMDSFDJNJFOUP EFMBTFYUSFNJEBEFTBOUFSJPSFT c) 4JTFMFJOZFDUBUJSPYJOBBEJDJPOBM FMSFOBDVBKPTVGSF VOB NFUBNPSGPTJT BOUJDJQBEB Z TF DPOWJFSUF FO VOB SBOBBEVMUBFONJOJBUVSB 26. &M QFSÓPEP EF GSÓP JOUFOTP EFTUSVZF FM ÈDJEP BCTDÓTJDP Z  QPSMPUBOUP TFEFUJFOFMBJOIJCJDJØOEFMBTHJCFSFMJOBTZ MBTTFNJMMBTQVFEFOHFSNJOBS 29. &OFMDBTPEFMPTMBHBSUPTAnolis FMIFDIPEFRVFMBTFDDJØO EFMBNÏEVMBFTQJOBMOPQSPEV[DBDBNCJPTFOMBTSFTQVFTUBTQJHNFOUBSJBTJOEJDBRVFTPOJOEFQFOEJFOUFTEFMTJTUFNBOFSWJPTPDFOUSBM&MDPOUSPMEFDPMPSEFMBQJFMEFFTUPT SFQUJMFTFTUÈBDBSHPEFMBIJQØGJTJT RVFSFTQPOEFBMBMV[ TFDSFUBOEPIPSNPOBTRVFFKFSDFOTVBDDJØOFOMBTDÏMVMBT QJHNFOUBSJBT4JOFNCBSHP QPEFNPTEFDJSRVFTFUSBUBEF VODPOUSPMOFVSPFOEPDSJOP ZBRVFMPTDBNCJPTEFDPMPS TPOEFUFDUBEPTQPSMPTPKPT RVFFOWÓBOTF×BMFTBMBIJQØGJTJTBUSBWÏTEFWÓBTOFSWJPTBTTFOTJUJWBT 16."QBSFDFOFOUSFDPNJMMBTQPSRVFMBQBMBCSBiEFDJTJØOwTF SFMBDJPOB DPO QSPDFTPT DPHOJUJWPT TVQFSJPSFT EF PSEFO DPOTDJFOUF BUSJCVJEPTBMPTTFSFTIVNBOPT&OMBTQMBOUBT OPQPEFNPTIBCMBSEFVOBEFDJTJØOFOFMTFOUJEPFTUSJDUP EFMBQBMBCSB4FBQMJDBFOFTUFDBTPFONPEPGJHVSBUJWP  ZBRVFIBZVOBQSFEPNJOBODJBEFVOQSPDFTPFOSFMBDJØO DPOPUSP 22. 21.)BCJUVBMNFOUFTFQJFOTBFODBNCJPTEFDPMPSDPNPVOB DBSBDUFSÓTUJDB BEBQUBUJWB RVF QFSNJUF B MPT PSHBOJTNPT QBTBS JOBEWFSUJEPT &O FTUF BSUÓDVMP TF NFODJPOBO MPT DBNCJPT EF QJHNFOUBDJØO FO SFTQVFTUB B EJTUJOUPT FTUÓNVMPT DPNPMBUFNQFSBUVSB MBJOUFOTJEBEEFMBMV[ MB FYDJUBDJØO ZUBNCJÏODPNPGPSNBEFDPNVOJDBDJØOFOUSF JOEJWJEVPT EF MB NJTNB FTQFDJF NBDIPT RVF DPNQJUFO QPSIFNCSBTPUFSSJUPSJP DPNVOJDBOEPNFEJBOUFFMDPMPSVOBKFSBSRVÓBEJGFSFOUFZUBNCJÏOFOUSFFTQFDJFTEJTUJOUBT ZBRVFFMDPMPSMMBNBUJWPTVFMFBDUVBSDPNPVOB TF×BMEFBMFSUB Página 163 17.

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