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Ben Hiromura

Lesson 13 (Unit 7: Subtraction as an Unknown Addend)

EE 333
Common Core State Standards:
1.OA.A.1- Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of
adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all
positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number
to represent the problem.
*Model 15-7=?
Goals of the Lesson:
Make sense of the information given within the word problem enough so to model the
situation concretely or semi-concretely,
Identify measures of same and different within mathematical model,
Solve for the missing value by concrete flower counters, or with same-different diagram,
or with equation,
Write a number sentence reflecting the situation as a way of justifying answer and be
able to explain reasoning to class,
Flow of the lesson based on teaching through problem solving
Steps, Learning Activities
Teachers Questions and Expected Student Reactions
1. Introduction (8-10 minutes, at seats, whole group)

*Have students glue the problem into their math

*Gain student attention and introduce the
problem of the day (written on board):
Francis the farmer is known for having the
most cows in the county. Francis has a total of
15 cows. Tobias has the second most number of
cows in the county. Tobias has 7 cows. How
many more cows does Francis have than

Teachers Support

1. Asking prompting
questions, mostly about the
procedure of making sense
of word problems.

*Ask students
for clarifying

2. Managing student
discourse and ideas in a
way to open up discussion
about misconceptions.

*Monitor which
students are not
raising their
hands to
volunteer or if
any students
seem to have
information we
already know
information we
want to know.

3. Facilitate student-tostudent discussion,

especially during
agreement and

-Show graphic representation,

Question 1: What information do we know from

the problem? (Student driven discussion)

Points of

*Have students underline

alongside teacher.

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States License.

-Underline statements in blue above.

Question 2: What information do we want to
know? (Student driven discussion)
-Circle statement in red above.
Question 3: Can I have a volunteer to label the
picture above using the information we already
-Students should label Francis cows and
Tobias cows using letters F and T.
-Students should also put a different color
flower counter next to each cow grouping.

*Have students circle this

statement alongside
*Prompt students to use the
flower counter and label in
a manner that makes sense.
*Have students label the
diagram alongside the

1. Monitor overall student

orientation toward problem
solving- do most students
Question 4: By a show of hands only, who thinks confidently show that they
know how to solve this?
they know how to model this problem?
2. Balance giving the
-If less than three-fourths of the class raises their students access to the
hands, ask a student to explain how they might
problem and giving away
model the problem:
the answers,
3. Make sure solution1. Flower Counters,
2. Same-difference model (dot diagram), strategies are student
3. Comparative tape diagram,

Posing the Task

(2-3 minutes, at seats, whole group)

*Once students seem to have a general

consensus on how to begin solving this problem,
write the directions on the board and let students
get to work,

3. Anticipated Student Responses

(10-15 minutes, at seats, individual)

*Example 1: Flower Counters

Same (7) and different (8)
*Example 2: Dot Diagram
Same (7) and different (8)

responses to
anticipate which
students may
need extra
support during
work time.

Write directions on the

1. Model the situation in
any way you like,
2. Solve for what we want
to know,
3. Try to write an equation
that proves your solution,
One-on-one support:
*By hyper-vigilant about
the students who simply sit
idly at their desks, prompt
those students to model the
situation with concrete
flower counters.
*Make sure students are
lining up flower counters or
dot diagrams correctly

*Circle the
room to keep
tally on how
many students
are trying each

*Circle to
students are
setting up their
*Tell stumped students to
label the same and different correctly.

*Example 3: Comparative Tape Diagram

15 (F)
7 (T)
8 (Diff.)
*Example 4: Equation
*Answers should be circled:
-Correct= 8 more cows
-Incorrect 15+7=22 cows more
-Incorrect 15+8=23 cows more
-Incorrect 7+8=15 cows more
-Incorrect 15-8= 7 cows more
4. Comparing and Discussing
(18-20 minutes, at seats, whole group)

*Bring students back together either at their

desks or in front of the classroom with their
math notebooks,
-Call up students in the order of the
examples above.
1. Flower counters,
2. Dot diagram,
3. Tape diagram,
-Have each volunteer model their
-Have another student explain what they
-Have students identify their answer with
the correct unit: more cows.
Student-to-student questions:
-Do you agree with what I did?
-Can you explain what I did?
Teacher questions:
-How are those models similar?
-What do the flower counter/dots/lines
-What does same and different represent?

in their models.
*Make sure students using
tape diagrams are finding
the difference between 7
and 15.
*Question students about
why they wrote their
equation in a particular
way, note reasoning.

1. Manage student-tostudent discourse to bring

out the main aspects of the
diagram at the heart of the
lesson: same and
2. Draw connections
between diagrams without
being heavy-handed in the

*Keep a
checklist on
which students
you want to call
up to the board

*Be aware of
in reasoning.

*Call up students who wrote equation (15-7=?)

-Have students write their equation,
-Ask student to use the tape diagram
example to see where those numbers are
coming from,
-Ask all students why they used
subtraction to solve,

1. What are we looking
-How many more cows
2. Who has more cows?
-Farmer Francis
3. What do we mean by
*Incorrect answer:
-Amount of cows the
-Use subtraction because cows are being farmers have in common
taken away,
(link using dot diagram)
4. So, what do we mean by
*Correct reasoning:
-We are looking for the difference or the -Amount of cows that
more, so we must subtract the same from Francis has more than
the larger,
5. Summing up
(8-10 minutes, at seats, individual)

For a class summary write something similar to:

During class today we learned that the same in
the diagram is the amount of things the two have
in common and the different represents how
many more one person has.
*Additionally, ask students to write personal
reflections about what they took from the lesson,
in their own words, highlighting some of their
struggles, confusions, and triumphs.

1. Help students with the

wording of the concept,
without giving away the

*Be vigilant
about student
in reasoning.

individual work
performance in
*Identify missteps,
and reflective
confusion in the

*Will the introduction prove effective in helping students make sense of the problem?
*What will help students make clear connections between the dot modeling, tape diagram, and
the equations?
*Will the scaffolding be effective in getting students to make sense of same and different in this
*Will tallying through the lesson give the educator a better idea of the lessons effectiveness?
*Will students be able to coherently phrase the summary?
*What vocabulary can be added to better illustrate the math concepts?