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Calculo integral

Integracin mediante
fracciones parciales.

x2 +1
1. x 2 x dx
x+1
dx
x (x1)
x +1
1+ 2
=
x x
x 2+1
x 2x =
1+

x+ 1=

A
B
+
x x1

A ( x1 ) +Bx , Ax A+ Bx , ( A + B ) x A
A + B=1,A=1, A=1, B=1 A , B=1(1 ) , B=2

1+

1
2
dx
dx
+
= dx +2
=xln x +2 ln |x1|
x x 1
x
x1

xln x+ 2 ln| x1|+c

x+ 13

x2

2.
x 2=

A
B
C
+
+
2
x +1 ( x +1 ) ( x+ 1 )3

x 2=A ( x+1 ) + B ( x +1 ) +C , A ( x 2 +2 x +1 ) + Bx+ B+C ,

A x , ( 2 A+ B ) x , A+ B+C

A=1, B=2 A , B=2, C=AB , C=1+2, C=1

x+1 + ( x +1 )2 + ( x +1 )3

dx

dx

dx

x+1 2 ( x +1 )2 + ( x +1 )3 =ln|x+ 1|+2 x +1 2 ( x +1 )2

ln |x +1|+

4 ( x +1 )1
2
1
4 x +3

=ln |x +1|+
=ln|x +1|+
2
2
x +1 2 ( x +1 )
2 ( x+ 1 )
2 ( x+1 )2

ln |x +1|+

4 x+ 3
+c
2 ( x +1 )2

3.

x2
dx
5 xx 3+3
+ 2 x2

5 x 2 +3 x2
5 x 2+ 3 x2
dx=
x 3+ 2 x 2
x 2 ( x +2 ) dx
A B
C
+ +
x x 2 ( x +2 )
5 x2 +3 x2=A ( x ) ( x+2 )+ B ( x+ 2 )+ C x 2

5 x +3 x2=A x +2 Ax +Bx +2 B+C x

( A +C ) x 2 , ( 2 A + B ) x , 2 B
A +C=5, 2 A+ B=3,2 B=2
B=

2
, B=1
2

2 A+ B=3, A=

3(1)
3B
, A=
, A=2
2
2

A +C=5, C=5 A , C=52,C=3

2 1
3
dx
dx
dx
1
+ 2+
=2 2 +3
=2 ln x +3 ln |x +2|
x x ( x +2 )
x
x
( x +2 )
x
1
2 ln x + 3 ln| x+2|+ c
x
4.

x 32 x 2+ x+1
dx
x 4 +5 x 2 + 4

x3 2 x 2 + x +1
x 32 x 2 + x +1
x 4 +5 x 2+ 4 dx= ( 2 ) ( 2 ) dx=
x +4 x +1
x 32 x 2 + x +1=

Ax+ B Cx+ D
+
( x 2+ 4 ) ( x 2+1 )

Ax + B ( x2 +1 ) +Cx+ D ( x 2 + 4 ) =A x3 + Ax+ B x 2+ B+C x 3 + 4 C+ D x 2+ 4 D

( A +C ) x 3 , ( B+ D ) x 2 , ( A +4 C ) x ,( B+ 4 D)
( A +C )=1, ( B+ D ) =2, ( A+ 4 C )=1, ( B+ 4 D )=1
A=1, B=3, C=0, D=1

Ax+ B Cx + D 1 x + (3 ) 0 x +1
x3
1
+ 2
= 2
+ 2
= 2
+ 2
2
( x + 4 ) ( x +1 ) ( x +4 ) ( x +1 ) ( x +4 ) ( x +1 )

x
dx
1
3 2
+ 2
( x +4 ) ( x +1 )
x +4)

x
x +4)

u=x +4, du=2 xdx , xdx=

du
2

x
du 1 du 1
1
2
= = = ln u= ln|x + 4|
2u 2 u 2
2
x +4)
2

1
ln |x 2+ 4|
2
3

dx
=
( x 2+ 4 )

x
x
x=2 tan , dx=2 sec 2 d , tan = , =tan1
2
2
3

2 sec 2 d
2 sec 2 d
2 sec 2 d
2 sec 2 d
=3
=3
=3

( 4 tan2 + 4 )
4 sec 2
4 ( tan 2 +1 )
( ( 2 tan )2 +4 )

3
3
x
d= =
tan1
2
2
2
3

2
3 1 x
tan
2
2

dx
=
x 2+1 )

x=tan , dx=sec 2 d , =tan 1 x

sec d
sec d
sec d
sec d
=
=
=
2
2
2
( tan + 1 )
( tan +1 )
sec 2
(( tan ) +1 )
1

d= =tan x

tan 1 x

x
dx
1
1
3
x
3 2
+ 2
= ln |x 2+ 4| tan1 + tan1 x +c
2
2
( x +4 ) ( x +1 ) 2
x +4)
2

1
3
x
ln |x 2+ 4| tan1 + tan1 x +c
2
2
2

x1 2 ( x 2+1)

x 22 x1

5.
A
B
Cx+ D
+
+ 2
2
( x1 ) ( x1 ) ( x +1 )
x 22 x 1= A ( x1 ) ( x2 +1 ) + B ( x 2+1 )+ ( Cx+ D ) ( x1 )

A x3 + Ax A x 2A + B x 2 + B+C x 32 C x 2+ CxD x 22 Dx+ D

A + B=0, A+ B2 C+ D=1, A +C2 D=2, A+ B+ D=1

A=1, B=1, C=1, D=1

1
1
1 x+ 1
dx
dx
x +1
+
+ 2
=

+
2
2
( x1 ) ( x1 ) ( x +1 )
( x1 )
( x1 )
( x 2+1 )

x
dx
+ 2
( x +1 )
( x +1 )
dx
dx

( x1
)
( x1 )2
2

dx

( x1 )
u=x 1,du=dx

du
=ln u=ln x1
u
dx

( x1 )2
u=x 1,du=dx
1

u
1 1
= =
1
u x1
du
u 2 =

u2 du=

x
x +1 )
2

u=x 21, du=2 xdx , xdx=

1
u= ln |x 21|
2
du
1
= ln
u
2
du
2
1 du 1
=
=
u
2 u 2

du
2

dx= tan ( x)
2
sec xdx
sec 2 xdx
=
sec2 x =
( tan2 x+1 )
dx
sec 2 xdx
=
( 2 ) =
x +1
( ( tanx )2+1 )

x
dx
+ 2
( x +1 )
( x +1 )
dx
dx

( x1
)
( x1 )2
2

ln x1

1
( x1
) 12 ln|x 1|+ tan

ln |x1|+

x=ln |x1|+

1
1
ln |x 21|+ tan1 (x)
x1 2

1
1
ln |x 21|+ tan1 (x)
x1 2