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Timeline of Chapters 18, 21, 22 COMBINED

BLUE = RUSSIA,
GREEN = SAFAVIDS, ORANGE = OTTOMANS, PURPLE =
MUGHALS/INDIA,
CRIMSON = CHINA, GRAY = JAPAN
1243
Mongol invasion of Asia Minor: Opens way for Ottoman conquest
1281
Founding of Ottoman Dynasty
1334
Death of 1st Safavid Suffi master at Ardabil
1350s
Ottomans invade Europe and conquer much of Balkans and Hungary
1368
Ming Dynasty of China
1368-98
Reign of Hongwu Emperor: most well known: Attempts to improve
peasantry
1390
Ming restrictions on overseas commerce
1402
Timurs invasion; Ottoman setbacks under Bayazid
1403-24
Reign of Yungle Emperor: beginning of Chinese EXPLORATION
1405-33
Zheng Hes expeditions from China to South East Asia, India, East Africa
Establish Ming glory and presence. ENDS IN 1433
1450s
Shia influences on Safavid
1450s
Beginnings of large-scale recruitment of Janissary troops (Ottomans)
1453
Ottomans capture CONSTANTINOPLE of Byzantine Empire (rename
Istanbul)
1462
Much of Russia freed from Tatars by Ivan The Great
1480
Moscow region free; Russian expansion presses South
1498-99
Vasco da Gama opens the sea route around Africa to Asia (2nd trip)
1501-10
Safavid conquest of Persia (Iran): Safavid Empire
1507
Portugese victory over Ottoman-Arab fleet at Diu in Indian Ocean
slowly starting to lose Indian Ocean dominance
1507
Portugese defeat combined Muslim fleet near Diu off West India
1510
Portugese conquer Goa in West India: mercantilism promotes them to
take cities by force
1511
Portugese conquer Malacca on the tip of Malayan peninsula: shows desire
of the Europeans to control trade in Asia to gain luxury goods (spices, etc)
1514
Ottoman victory over Safavids at Chaldiran: LIMITS SPREAD OF
SHIISM AND SAFAVID EXPANSION
1517
Ottomans capture Syria and Egypt: EXPANSION
1520-66
Suleyman the Magnificents Rule; Construction of Suleymanlye mosques
in Constantinople (Istanbul) Beautification of the Capital
1523-84
Life of Ivan the Terrible; FIRST TO USETZAR TITLE
1526
Battle of Panipat Babur conquers much of Northern India and
establishes Mughal Empire
1526
1st Ottoman siege of VIENNA

1540
Baburs successor, Humayan is driven from India- shows unpopularity for
the Muslim rulers over a Hindu majority
1540s
Francis Xavier, Spanish Jesuit missionary who tries to convert the
MASSES of India (lower castes)
1540-45
Humayan in exile at Safavid Court
1552-56
Russian expansion in Central Asia and Western Siberia
1556
Mughal empire RE-ESTABLISHED in Northern India (Humayan makes
return)
1556-1605
Reign of AKBAR
1571
Battle of Lepanto: Defeat by European rivals: signals END of Ottoman
Sea Dominance
1573
END of the Ashikage shogunate characterized by VIOLENCE,
WARFARE, POWER STRUGGLES BY SHOGUNS
1573-1620
Reign of Wanli emperor of China
1580s
Jesuits arrive in China and adopt TOP-DOWN strategy: Chinese
interested in European scientific knowledge
1582
Akbars proclamation of new religion Dini Alihi Designed to unite
Hindus and Muslims to create peace
1588-1629
Abbas The Great in Persia (Safavid)
1590
Hideyoshi unifies Japan
1592
1st Japanese invasion of Korea (fails) Chinese defend since Korea is their
tributary state
1597
2nd Japanese invasion of Korea (another failure)
1600s
Dutch and British assault of Portugese Empire in Asia: shows the
EUROPEAN RIVALRY for control in Asian trade Decline of Portugese power
1603
TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE ESTABLISHED by Ieyasu Ends civil
strife and warfare produces political unity; power consolidation WITHIN Japan
1604-13
Time of Troubles in Russia, after Ivan the Terrible dies w/o a successor
1613-1917
Romanov DynastyBoyars eventually choose Michael Romanov as ruler
1614
Christianity BANNED IN JAPAN: Beginning of Tokugawa
ISOLATION
1619-20
Dutch East India Co. established at Batavia on Java
1637
Russians pioneer to Pacific
1640s
Japan moves into SELF-IMPOSED ISOLATION: trade with DUTCH
AND CHINESE ONLY on Deshima (Nagasaki bay) HEAVILY regulated
1644
Nomadic Manchus END MING DYNASTY and establish Manchu Qing
Dynasty
1649
Law enacted making serfdom hereditary (harsher) in Russia
1657-58
Great war of succession between sons of Shah Jahan Shows the still
unsolved succession disputes common in Islamic empires
1658-1707
Reign of Aurangzeb (Mughal) ENDED RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE
and STARTED the decline of the Empire
1680s
Rajput and peasant revolts in Northern India: signal START OF
DECLINE of Mughal Empire

1683
Last Ottoman siege of Vienna
1689-1725
Reign of Peter the Great: WESTERNIZATION
1699
Treaty of Carlowitz: Ottomans cede territories in Europe: show bitter
rivalry between Ottomans and Europeans
1700-21
Russian Wars with Sweden to gain control of a WARM WATER PORT
FOR TRADE AND INTERACTION WITH THE WEST
1703
St. Petersburg (new capital- no longer Moscow)
1722
1st Turkish language printing press
1722
Fall of Safavid Dynasty
1730s
1st Western modelled military schools in Constantinople (Istanbul)
1739
END OF Mughal Dynasty
1762-96
Reign of Catherine the Great: WESTERNIZATION continues and
brings in the ENLIGHTENMENT
1773-75
Pugachev Revolt: Shows the peasants unhappiness with their horrible
lives and conditions.
1772, 93, 95 Partition of Poland
1785
Laws tightening landlord power over serfs control landlords to assert
more authority by restricting serfs even more