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CUANDO LA GENTE ES

GRANDE Y DIOS ES
PEQUEO

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Venciendo la presin de
grupo, la codependencia y
el temor al hombre.

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EDWARD T. WELCH

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37

38

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56 =?8BD5;= =>@8BB=:5<96D9
1

Tomado de Either / Or en Kierkegaard Anthology, ed. Robert Bretall (Princeton,


N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1946), 99.

39

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: ;9?E>:=<=: <Q: ?=6:?E96D9: ;9 689:D>= D9<=> 5
B=: ;9<Q: 789 ;9 689:D>= <E9;= 5 E=:
B
40

D9<=> 5 B=: ;9<Q: 9: 86 U96I<96= >95B


6
S9>;5; D969<=: D9<=> ;9 B=: F96:5<E96D=:=FE6E=69: M 5??E=69: ;9 B=: ;9<Q:
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F=;9<=:- 86 <E9;= 5 E=: <Q: ;9:9:F9>56D9
=> 9A9<FB=- 6=D9<=: B5 S9>:EI6 KG
KBE?5 ;9 B5:
<Q:?5>5: ;9 ]E9>Z9@55>;
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5

9:F89:D5 ;9

<E>5;5 ;9 E=: W
865 <5B;E?EI6 F5>5 B=: 789
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: 865 F>=D9??EI6 F5>5 5789BB=: ?8M5 ?8BF5 O5
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6 S9H;9 9:D=- F89;9 E<ED5>
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=> :8F89:D=- E=: DE969 865 >9:F89:D5 F5>5


9:D9 D9<=>- M B5 ?=6:E;9>9<=: K>9S9<96D9
?=6 <5M=> ;9D5BB9 B 9S56@9BE= 9: B5 OE:D=>E5
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5
41

5 >9:F89:D5 F5>9?9 :9> :96?EBB5" 9?89>;5


789 96 B5 <89>D9- >9:8>>9??EI6 M 5:?96:EI6 ;9
9:C:- 5 D>5SN: ;9 B5 U9- NB D9 O5 ?8KE9>D= ?=6
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5 >9<=SE;= D8
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42

=> 9A9<FB=- + = 9: ?E9>D= 789 58B5- EBB M M=


69?9:ED5<=: 5B@= <Q:, =6 9:D= 6= 9:D=M
;E?E96;= 789 9B 9S56@9BE= ;9 9:C: 6= :95
:8UE?E96D9
= 789 78E9>= ;9?E> 9: 789 O5M
96:9T56H5: E<FBG
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69?9:ED56 5D96?EI6
=> 9A9<FB=- + 9 78N
69?9:ED5<=: 5>>9F96DE>6=:, + <= 5 B=: ;9<Q:
96 9B 6=<K>9 ;9
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5 F>E<9>5 F9>:F9?DES5
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=<= >9:8BD5;=
;9 9:D=- D>5D5<=: ;9 F>=D9@9>6=: M 9SED5> B5
<E>5;5 ;9 =D>=:
F5>96D9<96D9 9B F>=KB9<5
>95B F5>9?9 :9> B5 <E>5;5 ;9 B5 @96D9- F9>= 96
B5 >95BE;5;- 9B F>=KB9<5 9:DQ ;96D>= ;9
6=:=D>=:- M 96D>9 E=: M 6=:=D>=:
5 F>9:EI6
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B F>=KB9<5
<9;8B5> 6= 9: B5 <E>5;5 ;9 B=: ;9<Q:
5
?B5:EUE?5<=: ;96D>= ;9 B5 ?5D9@=>G
5 <Q:
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9:D5<=: 56D9 =D>5: F9>:=65:
=> 9A9<FB== <9 O8KE9>5 5F965;= :E 9B 58;ED=>E= ;9 B5
F>9F5>5D=>E5 O8KE9>5 9:D5;= S5?G
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43

:8K;E>9?D=> <9 O8KE9>5 BB5<5;= F=> D9BNU=6=


F5>5 ;9?E><9 789 M= O5KG
5 @565;= 9B F>9<E=
5 F>9:96?E5 ;9 =D>=: 6=: O5?9 :96DE> 5B
;9:?8KE9>D=
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?=<= :E B=: ;9<Q: 9:D8SE9>56 F>=;8?E96;= B5
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<E>5;5 :56D5 M F969D>56D9
856;= 9:D5<=:
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F9>:=65
6
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69?9:ED5<=: 865 ?8KE9>D5 F5>5 9B F9?5;= 789
:IB= E=: F89;9 F>=S99>
5>5 96:5>
E D=;5SG
5 DE969: ;EUE?8BD5; 96 S9> 9B
D9<=> 5 B5: =D>5: F9>:=65:- ?=6:E;9>5
B5: <569>5: 96 B5: 789 D8 SE;5 F>ES5;5
44

9: ;EU9>96D9 ;9 D8SE;5 FCKBE?5 + VE:D96


F9?5;=: 789 F89;5: ?=6U9:5> 5 E=: ?=6
U5?EBE;5;- F9>= 789 :9>G
5 <8M ;EUG
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?=:5: ;9 DE <E:<= 789 :96?EBB5<96D9 6=
78E9>9: 789 B5 @96D9 :9F5,
:D5:
F>9@86D5: F89;96 >9S9B5> 5B@865: ;9 B5:
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!
789 8:5: F5>5 ?8K>E>D9- M >9?89>;5 789
B5 <5M=>G
5 ;9 B5: F9>:=65: 8:5 865
<8BDED8; ;9 96S=BD8>5:
% + 5: 9:?8?O5;= B5 EB8:D>5?EI6 5?9>?5 ;9
?E6?= O=<K>9: 789 >9?EKE9>=6 865
BB5<5;5 56I6E<5 789 ;9?G
5"
5 :5K96
B= 789 OE?E:D9
P K56;=65 B5 ?E8;5;
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56 :5BE;= ;9 B5
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+9
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E 9: 5:G
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H9B D9<=>
5 =D>5: F9>:=65:

5 @96D9 <9 >9?O5H5>Q

9>?565<96D9 >9B5?E=65;= ?=6 9B D9<=> 5


S9>6=: 9VF89:D=: 56D9 B5 @96D9 W
D9<=> 5 B5
45

S9>@[96H5X- 9B :E@8E96D9 DEF= ;9 D9<=> 9: B5


>5HI6 <Q: ?=<C6 F=> B5 789 :=<=:
?=6D>=B5;=: F=> =D>5: F9>:=65:" <9 F89;96
>9?O5H5>- >E;E?8BEH5> = ;9:F>9?E5> W
D9<=> 5B
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= 6=: E6SED5>=6 5 B5 UE9:D5
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= 6=: 78E9>96
= 9:DQ6
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5?9FD5?EI6- 5<=> = E<F=>D56?E5 789 ;9:95<=:
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89;9 :9> 789 D9 ;9 86 F=?= ;9 Q6E<= :5K9>
789- 586789 F5>9H?5 :9> <8M <=;9>6=- 9B
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OE:D=>E5
=> 9A9<FB=- =E:N: B9: 5;SE>DEI5 B=:
BG
;9>9: M A89?9: ;9 :>59B F>9?E:5<96D9 5?9>?5
;9 9:D= W 98D
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5 789 B5
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865 F9>:=65 F=> 96?E<5 ;9 =D>5- ;9KE;= 5 789
D9<G
56 9B >9?O5H= ;9 5789BB=: 789 9>56
?=6:E;9>5;=: <Q: E<F=>D56D9:
5B D96;96?E5
O8<565 ;9KG
5 :9> 86 5:86D= <8M E<F=>D56D9
F5>5 B=: A89?9: ;9 :>59B
=> 9A9<FB=- :E 86
E:>59BED5 D96G
5 789 A8H@5> 86 ?5:= 789
E6S=B8?>5>5 5 86 D>5K5A5;=> F>=<E696D9 ;9B
<9D5B- F=;G
5 O5K9> ?E9>D5 ?56DE;5; ;9 F>9:EI6
F5>5 :85SEH5> 9B U5BB= = F5:5> F=> 5BD= B5
:96D96?E5 F=> ?=<FB9D=
89: ;9 B= ?=6D>5>E=9B D>5K5A5;=> ;9 <9D5B F=;G
5 >9?O5H5> 5B A89H
B5 :E@8E96D9 S9H 789 :=BE?ED5>5 :8: :9>SE?E=:
+ 89;9: S9> 9B F>=KB9<5, =: A89?9: F89;96
:9> ?=6D>=B5;=: F=> 9B 5?8:5;= :E NB DE969 5B@=
46

789 9B A89H ;9:99


6 D5B9: :ED85?E=69: B5
@96D9 BB9@5K5 5 :9> @>56;9 M B5 A8:DE?E5 ;9
E=: F9789T5
9 F>9@86D= ?8Q6D=: ;9 6=:=D>=: D9<9<=:
W
>9:F9D5<=: = >9S9>96?E5<=:X 5 5789BB=: 789
DE9696 <Q: ;E69>=- <Q: F=;9>- <Q:
9;8?5?EI6- <Q: 5D>5?DES=:
=<= ?=6:9A9>=
O9 :E;= D9:DE@=- 96 <E F>=FE= <E6E:D9>E= M 96 9B
;9 =D>=:- ;9 86 5?9>?5<E96D= <Q: 5<5KB9 M
?8E;5;=:= ?856;= :9 5?=6:9A5 5 86 ;=65;=>
F=D96?E5B
789
?856;=
:9
5?=6:9A5
@>5D8ED5<96D9 5 86 E6;E@96D9
B >9M 5CB 9: 86 9A9<FB= KG
KBE?= 9:F9?G
UE?= ;9
5B@8E96 789 9VF9>E<96DI 9B D9<=> 5B >9?O5H=
6
5<89B (- 5CB >9?EKEI 9B <56;5D= ;9
;9:D>8E> F=> ?=<FB9D= 5 B=: ;9 <5B9?
89@=
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789 ;9>>=D5> 5 9:9 F89KB=- F9>=
5CB M 9B
F89KB= F9>;=65>=6 5 @5@- M 5 B= <9A=> ;9 B5:
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96@=>;5;=:- ;9 B=: ?5>69>=: M ;9 D=;= B=
K896= W 5<89B ("2X
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5<89B ?=6U>=6DI 5
5CB ?=6 :8 ?>5:5
;9:=K9;E96?E5- 5CB ?=6U9:I :8 F9?5;=- F9>=
:9 A8:DEUE?I
9<G5B F89KB= M ?=6:96DG5 B5
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B5 A8:DEUE?5?EI6 ;9 5CB
6 S9>;5; :9 F8;=
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F5>5 BB9S5> 5 ?5:5 5B@= ;9B K=DG
6 ;9 @89>>5- 96
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47

:E6 UE6 ;9 5;S9>D96?E5: 789 E=: O5?9 ;9 6=


D9<9> 5 B5 @96D9
78EHQ 5CB F96:I 789 9B
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5?9FD5>G
5 :8 9V?8:5 F=>789 9>5 5B@= D56
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9:F8N: ;9 D=;=- F89:D= 789 9:
F5>D9 ;9 689:D>= :9> +?I<= F=;9<=: :9>
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;=: 5BD9>65DES5: >9F>9:96D5 B=: <=DES=:
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9:95K56 B5 5?9FD5?EI6 M
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56 D9<=> ;9 6=
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56
5B@86=: BG
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56 O5?9> 5 86 B5;=
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<EB5@>=:- M ?>9G
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6
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56 789 9:C: O5KG
5 :E;=
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5: F=> 9B 789
O5KG
56 9:F9>5;= M =>5;=
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5 789 9:D=: BG
;9>9: :9 ?=6S9>DE>G
56
96 ;E:?G
F8B=: E6<9;E5D5<96D9 M K8:?5>G
56
F9>:85;E> 5 B5 @96D9 5 789 ?>9M9>56
E6
9<K5>@=- 9:D= 6= =?8>>EI 8 U9 >QFE;5<96D9
:9 <5>?OEDI + => 78N, 9<E9>=6 ?=6U9:5> :8
U9 F=> B5 F=:EKB9 >95??EI6 ;9 B=: ;9 B5
:E65@=@5- F=>789 5<5K56 <Q: B5 @B=>E5 ;9
B=: O=<K>9: 789 B5 @B=>E5 ;9
E=: W856
48

!"'%X
E6DE9>=6 789
5B5K56H5 ;9 B=: O=<K>9:
>9?O5H= 789 5B 9T=>

69?9:ED5K56 B5
9<E9>=6 <Q: 5B

=;= 9:D= :8965 D56 U5<EBE5>


B@865: S9?9:
F>9U9>E>G
5<=: <=>E> F=> 9:C: 789 SESE> F5>5
NB
E 5B@8E96 D8SE9>5 9B F=;9> F5>5 <5D5>6=:
F=> 689:D>5 F>=U9:EI6 ;9 U9- <9 E<5@E6= 789
B5 <5M=>G
5 ;9 B=: ?>E:DE56=: ;E>G
5G
- :=M 86
?>9M96D9 96 9:8?>E:D= - 586 :E 9:D= :E@6EUE?5>5
B5 <89>D9
5 5<965H5 ;9 D=>D8>5 F=;>G
5
O5?9> 789 5B@86=: B= F96:5>56 ;=: S9?9:F9>= FE96:= 789 B5 <5M=>G
5 ;9 B=: ?>E:DE56=:
>9?=6=?9>G
5 5 >E:D=
E6 9<K5>@=- :E D=<5>
865 ;9?E:EI6 F=> 9:C: :E@6EUE?5 789 S5<=: 5
F5:5> 5T=: :E96;= >9?O5H5;=:- E@6=>5;=:F=K>9: = ?>EDE?5;=:- 96D=6?9: O5K>G
5 @>56;9:
<5:5: ;9 ?>E:DE56=: 789 DE>5>G
56 B5 D=5BB5
D9<F=>5B<96D9
5 <89>D9 6= 9: E6<E696D95:G789 +F5>5 78N 5F8>5>:9 96 D=<5> 865
;9?E:EI6 F>9?EFED5;5,
5 O5K>Q DE9<F= <Q:
5;9B56D9 F5>5 ?=>>9@E> B5: ?=:5: ?=6 E=:
6
=D>5: F5B5K>5:- <QD5<9- F9>= 6= O5@5: 789
6= <9 78E9>56- <9 5F>9?E96 = <9 >9:F9D96

;9:5UG
=
?=6:D56D9
+ ?5:=
5B@8E96
?=6:E:D96D9<96D9 O5 D96E;= 9B ;9689;= M B5
?B5>E;5; ;9
9:C: 96 :8 D9:DEUE?5> ;9B
9S56@9BE=,
86?5
+ B@8E96 O5 9SED5;=
?=6:E:D96D9<96D9 9B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9 96 9B
?=6D9VD= ;9B 9S56@9BE:<=, E9>D5<96D9 6=
5M 865 B=?8>5 E6O9>96D9 96 9B <96:5A9 ;9
B5 ?>8H
5 F>=?B5<5?EI6 ?B5>5 ;9B 9S56@9BE=
6= 6=: O5?9 S9> KE96
= 6=: O5?9 :9>
F=F8B5>9:
5

>9:EI6 ;9

>8F= M B5

B5K56H5 ;9

E=:

B F9?5;= >9:E;96D9 96 9B ?=>5HI6 O8<56= W


9B
D9<=> 5B O=<K>9X DE969 86 F=;9> 5:=<K>=:=
5 5B5K56H5 789 B=: ;9<Q: 6=: ;56 & 9:5
K>E:5 :85S9 789 ;8>5 86 :9@86;= & F89;9
F5>9?9>6=: <Q: @B=>E=:5 789 B5 5B5K56H5 789
SE969 ;9 E=:
9:C: <E:<= B9 ;EA= 5 B=:
BG
;9>9: 8;G
=:- + I<= F=;NE: S=:=D>=: ?>99>F89: >9?EKG
: @B=>E5 B=: 86=: ;9 B=: =D>=:\M 6=
K8:?QE: B5 @B=>E5 789 SE969 ;9B E=: C6E?=,
W856 ("''X

+ 8965 9:D= <8M 9V5@9>5;=, 9?89>;5 9:D5


F5B5K>5" 9S56@9BE:<=
:D=M :9@8>= 789
<8?O=: 5;=B9:?96D9: F>9U9>E>G
56 B5 <89>D9
56D9: 789 :9> SE:D=: ?=6 9B @>8F= ;9 AIS969:
;9 B5 @B9:E5 = O5?E96;= 86 ;>5<5 ?>E:DE56= 96
B5 ?5BB9 + = :=6 5?5:= B=: SE5A9: <E:E=69>=:
<Q: F=F8B5>9: 5789BB=: 789 6=: BB9S56 B9A=:
;9 689:D>= F>=FE= S9?E6;5>E=,
> 5 8:E5 9:
UQ?EB- F9>= 689:D>= F>=FE= S9?E6;5>E= 9: 86

=M 96 ;G
5 :9>G
5<=: 5<5KB9: M ;E>G
5<=: 789
B=: U5>E:9=: K8:?5K56 ?=<FB5?9> 5 B5 @96D9
E>G
5<=: 789 B8?O5K56 ?=6 B5 F>9:EI6 ;9
@>8F=
89:D= 789 D=;=: :=<=: 5U9?D5;=:
F=> 9BB5 96 <=<96D= 8=D>=- :=<=: 9<FQDE?=:
O5?E5 D5B ?=6;8?D5
9>= 9:D5 9: 78EHQ B5
U=><5 <Q: D>Q@E?5 ;9B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9
=:
5;=B9:?96D9:
?=6:D56D9<96D9
D=<56
;9?E:E=69: 69?E5: ;9KE;= 5 9BB5
5<KEN6 B=:
5;8BD=: K8:?56 B5 5F>=K5?EI6 ;9 B5 @96D9

49

50

:F9>5<=: 5 789 B=: ;9<Q: D=<96 E6E?E5DES5:


;9
5<=>
5:5<=:
<8?O=
DE9<F=
F>9@86DQ6;=6=: 78N F96:5>56 B=: ;9<Q: ;9
689:D>5 >=F5 = ;9 B=: ?=<96D5>E=: 789
O5?9<=: 96 9B @>8F= ;9 9:D8;E= KG
KBE?=
9<=: =F=>D86E;5;9: ;9 D9:DEUE?5> ;9 >E:D=F9>= B5: 9SED5<=:
:D5<=: <Q: F>9=?8F5;=:

9:C:- M 9>56 865 ;9 B5: ?5>5?D9>G


:DE?5: 789
;E:DE6@8G
5 :8 <E6E:D9>E= ;9B ;9 D=;=: B=: =D>=:
BG
;9>9: A8;G
=:

9:C: SESEI 96 86 ?=6D>5:D9 D=D5B 5 9:D5


F>9=?8F5?EI6 ;9 B=: U5>E:9=:
= <=:D>I
U5S=>EDE:<=\96 B8@5> ;9 9:D=- 5B?56HID56D= 5
B=: O=<K>9: ?=<= 5 B5: <8A9>9:- 5 B=: >E?=: M
5 B=: F=K>9:- M 5 D=;5: B5: >5H5: M 9;5;9:
8
96:9T56H5 6= U89 ;5;5 K5:Q6;=:9 96 B5:
96?89:D5: :=K>9 78N :9 ?=6:E;9>5K5 F=F8B5>
96 B5 NF=?5\ F=> 9B ?=6D>5>E=- 9B O5KBI B5
S9>;5; 789 5 <968;= 6= 9>5 F=F8B5>- F9>=
789 F=;G
5 F969D>5> 9B ?=>5HI6
EA="
= 6=
>9?EK= B5 @B=>E5 ;9 B=: O=<K>9:
86 :8:
=F=:ED=>9: F=;G
5 S9> 9:D=

:D= D5<KEN6 ?5>5?D9>EH= 9B <E6E:D9>E= ;9B


5FI:D=B 5KB=
B 9VO=>DI 5 B5: E@B9:E5: 5 :9>
E<ED5;=>9: ;9 NB ?=<= NB B= 9>5 86 E<ED5;=> ;9
>E:D= W => '" )\
9:
")X
=> <9;E=
;9 9:D=- 9:D5K5 56E<56;= 5 :8: ;E:?G
F8B=: 5
E<ED5> :8 SE;5 M ;=?D>E65- 865 E<ED5?EI6 789
?E9>D5<96D9 E6?B8G
5 K8:?5> B5 5B5K56H5 ;9 E=:
M 6= B5 ;9 B=: O=<K>9: W 9: !"'X
5KB= 6=
K8:?5K5 ?=<FB5?9> 5 B5 @96D9
B K8:?5K5
5<5> 5 B5 @96D9- M ;9KE;= 5 9:=- 6= ?5<KEI:8
<96:5A9 ;9 5?89>;= ?=6 B= 789 B=: ;9<Q:
F8;E9>56 F96:5>
IB= 5789BB=: 789 5<56 5 B5
@96D9 :=6 ?5F5?9: ;9 ?=6U>=6D5>
IB= B=:
789 5<56 5 B5 @96D9 6= :=6 ?=6D>=B5;=: F=>
=D>5: F9>:=65:
5KB= E6?B8:ES9 B9 E6;E?I5 B=:
QB5D5: 789 :E D=;5SG
5 9:D8SE9>5 D>5D56;= ;9
5@>5;5> 5 B5 @96D9- 6= :9>G
5 86 :E9>S= ;9 E=:
W QB5D5: " 3X
=6 D5B :9>E9;5; 5KB= D=<I
9B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9

59:D>= :5K9<=: 789 9>9: 5<56D9 ;9 B5


S9>;5;- M 789 96:9T5: ?=6 S9>;5; 9B ?5<E6=
;9 E=:- M 789 6= D9 ?8E;5: ;9 65;E9- F=>789
6= <E>5: B5 5F5>E96?E5 ;9 B=: O=<K>9: W 5D9=
!!" )X

:D= 6= 78E9>9 ;9?E> 789 U89 5B@= 65D8>5B F5>5


NB 5KB= D96G
5 B5: <E:<5: D96;96?E5: ?5>65B9:
789 6=:=D>=: D969<=: M B= :5KG
5
=<=
>9:8BD5;=- B9 :8FBE?I5 B5 @B9:E5 789 =>5>5 F=>
NB

=> :8F89:D=- 9:D=: ?=<96D5>E=: U89>=6 865


U=><5 ;9 5;8B5?EI6 F5>5 D96;9> 865 D>5<F5 5
9:C:- F9>= 9>56 ?E9>D=: ;9 D=;5: <569>5:
>56 F5>D9 ;9 B5 96:9T56H5 ;9 58D=>E;5; ;9

F=> <G
- 5 UE6 ;9 789 5B 5K>E> <E K=?5 <9
:95 ;5;5 F5B5K>5 F5>5 ;5> 5 ?=6=?9> ?=6
;9689;= 9B <E:D9>E= ;9B 9S56@9BE=
789 ?=6

51

52

F=> 6= S9>6=: <5B W


86 D9<=> 5B O=<K>9X 789
F=> 5?D85> F9?5<E6=:5<96D9 W
D9<=> ;9B
9T=>X

;9689;= O5KB9 ;9 NB- ?=<= ;9K= O5KB5>


W U9:E=: )" 24!3X
5

5D5BB5
5D5BB5 ;9 9;>= ?=6 9B D9<=> 5B

=<K>9

=6:E;9>9<=: 5O=>5 86 9A9<FB= <Q: D>Q@E?=


;9B D9<=> 5 B5 @96D9
9;>= O5 BB9@5;= 5 :9> ?=6=?E;= F=> :8 9:DEB=
E<F9D8=:=
9 D=;=: B=: ;E:?G
F8B=:- NB F5>9?G
5
9B <Q: =:5;=
B :9>G
5 B5 CBDE<5 F9>:=65 ;9
78E96 9:F9>5>G
5<=: 5B@865 B8?O5 ?=6 9B D9<=>
5B O=<K>9
9>= 9:D9 <5B 9:D5 96 9B ?=>5HI6
D56D= ;9B =:5;= ?=<= ;9B ?=K5>;9
+ I<= F8;= 69@5> 5B 9T=>, 5KG
5 SE:D= B=:
<EB5@>=:
9 O5KG
5 :E;= ;5;= 9B
:FG
>ED8 789
B9 >9S9BI 789 9:C: 9>5 9B >E:D=
B 9>5 B5
>=?5
>9:96?EI B5 D>56:UE@8>5?EI6
<5K5 5
9:C:
5 69@5?EI6 9>5 E6?=6?9KEKB9
9>= NB
9>5 ?=<= 6=:=D>=: & 86 F9?5;=>- 86 E69FD=
9:FE>ED85B 5F5>D9 ;9 B5 =K>5 ?=6:D56D9 ;9B
:FG
>ED8 56D=
B D5<KEN6 F=;G
5 9V5BD5> 5 B5
@96D9 5 D5B @>5;= 789 F5>9?E9>56 <Q: 789 9B
<E:<= 9:C:

6 SE:D5 ;9 D5B 69@5?EI6- F=;>G


5<=: 5:8<E>
789 :8 =F=696D9 9>5 86 ?96D8>EI6- 86 U5>E:9=
= 5B@8E96 789 F8;= O5K9>B= 9A9?8D5;= 96 9B
5?D=
8 SE;5 ;9KEI O5K9> 9:D5;= 96 @>56
F9BE@>=
9>= 6=- 9>5 865 <8?O5?O5
E
:E78E9>5 865 <8A9> ;9 @>56 E6UB896?E5- :E6=
865 :E9>S5
G
- 9BB5 9>5 B5 :E9>S5 ;9B 8<=
5?9>;=D9- 9B 8<= 5?9>;=D9 9:D5K5 =?8F5;=
E678E>E96;= 5 9:C:
E9>D5<96D9 6= D96G
5
DE9<F=
F5>5
9;>=
D>=
;E:?G
F8B=F>=K5KB9<96D9 856- 9:D8S= E6?B8:ES9 ;96D>=
;9 B5 ?5:5 ;8>56D9 9B A8E?E= ;9 9:C:
E
O8KE9>56 789>E;= 5F>9O96;9> 5 86 ;E:?G
F8B=- 9B
;9 ;96D>= ;9 B5 ?5:5 O8KE9>5 :E;= B5 9B9??EI6
=KSE5
=;>G
5<=: F96:5> 789 B5 SE;5 ;9 9;>= 9:D5K5
96 F9BE@>=- F9>= 6= U89 5:G
9?9:EDI <8M
F=?5 F>=S=?5?EI6 F5>5 69@5> 5 >E:D=

6 865 6=?O9 U>G


5- 9;>= 9:D5K5 5U89>5 ;9 B5
?5:5 ;9B 8<= 5?9>;=D9 <E96D>5: 9:C: 9>5
E6D9>>=@5;= 5;96D>=
:D5K5 :96D5;= ?9>?5 ;9
865 O=@89>5 ?=6 86 @>8F= ;9 =UE?E5B9: M
:E>SE96D9:
= :9 ;9 78N <9 O5KB5: - ;EA=
?856;= 5B@8E96 B9 ;EA= 789 B= O5KG
5 SE:D= ?=6
9:C:

89 ?89:DE=65;= 865 :9@86;5 S9H- 78EHQ F=>


B5 <E:<5 <8?O5?O5- M D8S= 865 >9:F89:D5
:E<EB5>
9>= N:D5- 6= U89 865 >9:F89:D5
DG
<E;5 ;9B DEF= 6=4B=:4<E>9:454B=:4=A=:
89
865 69@5?EI6 ;E>9?D5- F86D85BEH5;5 ?=6 86
A8>5<96D=
9@8>5<96D9
9;>= :5KG
5 B5
:9>E9;5; ;9 B=: A8>5<96D=:
=6=?G
5 B5
96:9T56H5 ;9 9:C: ;9B 9><I6 ;9B <=6D989 D8 :G:95 :GM D8 6=- :95 6=
9>= 9B
F9?5;= OEH= 789 9:5 S9>;5; U89>5 E>>9B9S56D9
96 9:9 <=<96D=
B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9 :E9<F>9
9: F5>D9 ;9 86 D>G
= 789 E6?B8M9 E6?>9;8BE;5; M
;9:=K9;E96?E5

53

54

5 D9>?9>5 69@5?EI6 U89 F9=>


=<96HI 5
<5B;9?E> M 5 A8>5> ;E?E96;=
= ?=6=H?= 5 9:9
O=<K>9
6 =D>5: F5B5K>5:- 789 9B E=:
5BDG
:E<= <9 <5B;E@5 5 <GM <E U5<EBE5 :E 6=
9:D=M ;E?E96;= B5 S9>;5;
B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9
9: 86 B5H= D>5E?E=69>=
:9 <=<96D= 6= F8;= O5K9> :E;= F9=>
89:
96 9:9 <=<96D=- 9:C: F8;= <E>5> 5 9;>=- B=
<Q: F>=K5KB9 96 B= 789 B= BB9S5K56 ;9 B5 ?5:5
;9B 8<= 5?9>;=D9 5B 569;>G
6
9:C: <E>I
;E>9?D5<96D9 5 9;>=
5>5 9;>=- 9:D= U89 ?=<= :E 9B U89>5 9B F>E<9>
;Q6
E6DEI B5 <E>5;5 ;9B 56D= M 6= F8;=
O5K9>:9 :96DE;= <Q: ;9:68;=
= O5KG
5
;=6;9 9:?=6;9>:9
6 ?856D= 5 9:C:- :IB=
F=;9<=: E<5@E65>6=: 78N 9: B= 789 9:D5K5
F96:56;=
= 789 :5K9<=: 9: 789 ?856;= 9:C: 5F5>9?EI
5 :8: ;E:?G
F8B=:- :9 ;9B9EDI 96 ;9<=:D>5> :8
F9>;I6 <5>5SEBB=:= O5?E5 9;>=
G
@56B9 5
:8: ;E:?G
F8B=: M 5 9;>= - 5686?EI 9B Q6@9B
;9:F8N: ;9 B5 >9:8>>9??EI6
89@=- 78EHQ 96
=D>5 6=?O9 U>9:?5 5B>9;9;=> ;9B U89@=- 9:C:
:8:DED8MI B5: D>9: 69@5?E=69: ;9 9;>= ?=6
D>9: E6SED5?E=69: 5 5F5?96D5> 8 >9K5T=- M
D9><E6I;E?E96;=- :G
@89<9 W856 ! " (4 2X

O5KG
5 5F>96;E;= B5 B9??EI6
5B <96=: 5:GB=
F96:I
F9:5> ;9 :8 U9 UE><9 M B=: ;=69:
;5;=: F=> 9B :FG
>ED8- 9:D9 O=<K>9 6=D5KB9 U89
O8<EBB5;= =D>= 5 S9H;9KE;= 5 :8 D9<=> 5 B5:
=D>5: F9>:=65:
:D5 S9H- B5 =?5:EI6 96 789
;9<=:D>I :8 ;9:9= ;9 5@>5;5> 5 B5 @96D9
U89 ;8>56D9 865 ?=<E;5 ?=6 86 @>8F= ;9
>E:DE56=:
9;>= 9:D5K5 <8M ?=6:?E96D9 ;9 789 B=:
@96DEB9: 9:D5K56 E6?B8E;=: 96 9B 9S56@9BE=
9:F8N: ;9 :8 SE:EI6 96 9?O=: 3- F5:I
DE9<F= ?=6 @96DEB9: ?=<=
=>69BE=
E6
9<K5>@=- ?856;= SE6E9>=6 5 NB B=: 8;G
=:
?>E:DE56=:
789
?=6:E;9>5K56
789
B5
?E>?86?E:EI6 9>5 F5>D9 ;9B 9S56@9BE=- NB :9
:9F5>I;9 :8: O9><56=: M O9><565: @96DEB9:
=: D>5DI;9 5?89>;= ?=6 B5 ?=:D8<K>9 A8;G
5M
6= ?=<= 9B 9T=> O5KG
5 =>;965;=
+ => 78N OEH= 9:D=, 9 D9<G
5 5B @>8F= ;9 B5
?E>?86?E:EI6
+ 8QB9:
U89>=6
B5:
?=6:9?896?E5:,
D>=: 8;G
=:- E6?B8M96;= 5
9>65KN- U89>=6 BB9S5;=: 5B <E:<= 9>>=>
5B
OEF=?>9:G
5 U89 D56 :9>E5 789 5KB= :9 =F8:=
5 9;>= ?5>5 5 ?5>5 W 5B !" %X

5KE96;= 9VF9>E<96D5;= B5 <5B;E?EI6 ;9B


D9<=> 5B O=<K>9- O5KE96;= :96DE;= B5 <E>5;5
;9B E=: 56D=- M O5KE96;= ?=6=?E;= D5B 5<=>
>E?= M F9>;=65;=>- 9;>=- :E6 ;8;5 5B@865-

+ F>96;EI 9;>= B5 B9??EI6 UE65B<96D9, :D5 9:


78EHQ B5 CBDE<5 56N?;=D5 F9>:=65B 789
9:?8?O5<=: 5?9>?5 ;9 9;>=- F=>789 8?5:78E96 9:?>EKEI 9B BEK>= ;9 9?O=:- :E@8EI <Q:
9B <E6E:D9>E= ;9 5KB= 789 9B ;9 9;>=
E6
9<K5>@=- B5: ;=: 9FG
:D=B5: ;9 9;>= ?=6
<8?O5 F>=K5KEBE;5; U89>=6 9:?>ED5: ;9:F8N:

55

56

;9 9:D9 9S96D=- M
9;>=- 96 F5>DE?8B5>:8@E9>9 865 ?=69VEI6 96D>9 9:D=: 9S96D=: 96
B5 SE;5 ;9 9;>= M B5 <569>5 ?=<= NB 96:9TI
5 B5 E@B9:E5 F>E<EDES5
78EN6 9: 5789B 789 =: F=;>Q O5?9> ;5T=- :E
S=:=D>=: :9@8G
: 9B KE96,
5: D5<KEN6 :E
5B@865 ?=:5 F5;9?NE: F=> ?58:5 ;9 B5 A8:DE?E5KE965S96D8>5;=: :=E:
=> D56D=- 6= =:
5<9;>96DNE: F=> D9<=> ;9 9BB=:- 6E =:
?=6D8>KNE:
E6= :56DEUE?5; 5 E=: 9B 9T=> 96
S89:D>=: ?=>5H=69: W 9; %" %4 (5X
9;>= ;9?G
5"
= D9<56 5 B5 @96D9\D9<56 5B
9T=>
B :5KG
5 789 9B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9
F=;G
5 :9> 865 D>5<F5
5

96D9 &

89:D>= ;=B= U5S=>ED=

+ 8N9: B= 789 DE9696 96 ?=<C6 9B D9<=> 5 B5


S9>@[96H5 M 9B D9<=> 5B >9?O5H=, :56;= 865
E<5@96 KG
KBE?5- 5<K=: E6;E?56 789 B5 @96D9 9:
689:D>= G
;=B= U5S=>ED=
5 9V5BD5<=: F=>
96?E<5 ;9 E=:
5 5;=>5<=: ?=<= 78E969:
DE9696 865 <E>5;5 F969D>56D9 ?=<= B5 ;9 E=:
W
D9<=> 5 B5 S9>@[96H5X = ?=<= 78E969: DE9696
B5 O5KEBE;5; :9<9A56D9 5 E=: ;9 BB965>6=:
;9 58D=9:DE<5- 5<=>- 5;<E>5?EI6- 5?9FD5?EI6M =D>=: ;9:9=: F:E?=BI@E?=: W
D9<=> 5B
>9?O5H=X
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Harold S. Kushner, When bad Things Happen to Good People (New York: Schochen,
1981), 43.

79

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81

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3
Richard Lovelace, Renewal as a Way of Life (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press,
1985), 86.

96

9: 789 SESE<=: 96 865 ?8BD8>5 ;9 SG


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100

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102

5B<5 :E9<F>9 ?>99 96 :G<E:<5


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DC4O5?9:4B=4D8M=4M4M=4B=4 <G
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5B5><56D9 ;9 F9>:=65: 789 ?=6UE9:56 9:D5>
4

Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks, VII:1838-42, ed.
A. W. Plumstead and H. Hayford (Cambridge, Mass,: Harvard University Press, 1969),
254.
5
Lynne Bundesen, GodDependency (New York: Crossway, 1989), 59
6
John Bradshaw, Bradshaw On: The Family (Deerfield Beach, Fla.; Health
Communications, 1988), 234, 236.

103

5E>5;=: 96 ?=6D>5 ;9 E=:


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104

?OB9@9B- 9>5 9B 9:F9A= ?B5>= 96 9B 789


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= <=>9

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;9
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;9
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F>5?DE?5> 9B 9@=G
:<= 96 9B :96DE;= ;9 B5
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?5BB9
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?8BD8>5" :=<=: K8965: F9>:=65: 789 ;9K9<=:
5<5>6=: 5 6=:=D>=: <E:<=: F5>5 :9>
:5B8;5KB9:
<5 5 D8 F>IAE<= ?=<= 5 DE <E:<= W 5D
2" 2X 9: ?=6:E;9>5;= B5 9SE;96?E5 KG
KBE?5
W
F5>5 5789BB=: 789 69?9:ED56 865X
856;= B=
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?8BD8>5B9:- 9:D9 S9>:G
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;9K9<=: 5<5>6=: F5>5 F=;9> 5<5> 5 =D>5:
F9>:=65:
9>= 96 >95BE;5; 9B F5:5A9 6E
:E78E9>5 :8@E9>9 D5B E6D9>F>9D5?EI6
9:C: B9
;EA= 9:D5: F5B5K>5: 5 86 A=S96 >E?= 78E96 5
D=;5: B8?9: :9 5<5K5 ;9<5:E5;= 5 :G<E:<= M

An Anthology of Modern Philosophy, Comp. D.S. Robinson (New York: Thomas


Crowell, 1931). 508.

8
Nathaniel Branden, Honoring The Self: Personal Integrity and the Heroic Potentials of
Human Nature (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983), 4.

105

106

5 :8: F=:9:E=69:
IB= O5M 86 <56;5<E96D=
96 9:D9 F5:5A9- M 9:D9 9: 5<5 5 D8 F>IAE<=
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9B 5<=> 5B M=
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5
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<Q: E<F=>D56D9

107

5: 9<=?E=69: :=6 9B ?5<E6= O5?E5 B5 S9>;5;


E :=M 865 F9>:=65 K8965 789 =?5:E=65B<96D9
O5?9 ?=:5: <5B5:- 96D=6?9: :9 F89;9 ;9?E>
789 B= 789 :E96D= 9: D5<KEN6 K896=
@969>5B<96D9
58:D= ;EA=
B :96DE<E96D= B=
9: D=;=
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D8 ?=>5HI6 D9 E6:FE>9
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789 ?856;= :E@89: D8: E<F8B:=: E6D9>6=: 6=
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5>G
5 9 S9G
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NB, + I<= D9 B= ;EA= E=:,
5:D=>- :E<FB9<96D9 B= :E96D=
?=>>9?D=

9 789 9: B=

5 ?=6S9>:5?EI6 :9 5?5KI
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108

5:D=>- 6= ?>9= 789


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86 96 B=: ?8BD=:- B5 <9D5 ;9 <8?O5:
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F9>:=65: 9: :96DE> 5B@=
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9:96?E5 ;9 B5 >9BE@EI6
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9

On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (New York: Harper & Row, 1965),
106.

109

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112

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10

Los Angeles Times, July 29, 1995, F2.


Soren Kierkegaard, The Point of View for my Work as an Author: A report to History
(New York: Harper & Row, 1962), 74.

11

113

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?=6 U89>H5

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114

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12

Abraham Maslow, Toward a Psichology of Being (New York: Van Nostrand, 1968),
21.

116

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+ 89;9: 9:?8?O5> B5 <569>5 ?=<= 689:D>5


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5:
69?9:E;5;9: = ;9>9?O=: E>>9:E:DEKB9<96D9
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E 69?9:ED5:
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E96D>5: D56D=- B5 E@B9:E5 ?>E:DE565 O5 9:D5;=


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<86;=
8?O=:
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M
BG
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E6
9<K5>@=- B5 >9:F89:D5 <Q: F=F8B5> O5 :E;= B5

117

118

5 6UB896?E5 ;9 B5 :E?=B=@G
5 >E:DE565

5:E<EB5?EI6 ;9 B5: E;95: ;9B <86;= ?=6 865:


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=>
9A9<FB=- 86 K9:D :9BB9> 96 9B <9>?5;=
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96D96;E<E96D= ;9 B5 F9>:=65
8 F86D= ;9
SE:D5 ;9 B5 F9>:=65 9: :E<EB5> 5B ;9 865 D5H5 &
86 >9?EFE96D9 S5?G
= M F5:ES= 789 9:F9>5 :9>
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689:D>5 D5H5 9:DQ S5?G
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DE<5 - = 865 69?9:E;5; F>E<5>E5
5B S9H
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69?9:E;5;
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9: 86
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= =K:D56D9 :E 689:D>= 8:= ;9B
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;9 :E@6EUE?5;= :9 9VDE96;9 O5:D5 E6?B8E> B=:
;9:9=: 9@=G
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:ED85?E=69: 96 B5: 789 ;9K9<=: ;9?E> 789
9:C: 6= DE969 B5 E6D96?EI6 ;9 :5DE:U5?9>

13

Robert Hemfelt, Frank Minirth, y Paul Meier, Love Is a Choice (Nashville: Nelson,
1989), 34.

119

120

689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9:- F9>= 789 NB 78E9>9


?5<KE5> 689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9: '
B

=6D>5@=BF9 9<9>@96D9

5 =?8>>E;= 865 ?=:5 <Q: 96 B5 K>9S9 OE:D=>E5


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5 9: 86 >9:8BD5;= ;9 B5:
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B5: >9B5?E=69:
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E
:9@8E<=: 5 9:D9 >ED<= 6= F5:5>Q <8?O=
DE9<F= 56D9: ;9 789 B5 :96D96?E5 =KBE@5;5 F=>

14

Ver Welch, Who are we? Needs, Longings, and the Image of God in Man The
Journal of Biblical Counseling, 13 (1994): 25-38

121

86 ?>E<96 SE=B96D= :95 86 5K>5H= M 86 K896


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5
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15
16

The Economist, February 26, 1994, 15.


Philip Cushman, Why the Self Is Empty, American Psychologist (May 1990), 599.

122

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123

5 F5>D9 =: ;9 9:D9 BEK>= 9VFB=>5>Q B5: E;95:


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124

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125

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18

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh, Libro VII.

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20

19

The Works of Jonathan Edwards (New York: Leavitt and Allen, 1855), 4:313-21.

167

Un libro til es Robert A. Peterson, Hell on Trial: The Case for Eternal Punishment
(Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1995).

168

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170

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B=: :9>5UE69: O5?G
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W
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5M S5>E=: <E:D9>E=: 96 9:D9 CBDE<= 9S96D=


+ I<= :8F= 9:C: 789 O5KG
5 :5BE;= F=;9> ;9
NB, W
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:565>G
5 ?=6 D56 :IB= D=?5> 5 9:C:,
5:
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9:C: 8:85B<96D9 9:D5K56
5?=<F5T5;5: ;9 865 F5B5K>5 = 86 5?D=
9:F9?G
UE?= + 8NB9 OEH= F96:5> 789 B5 :565>G
5
86 D=789 ?B56;9:DE6=,

P 8N>95??EI6 D56 <5>5SEBB=:5R >5 B5 >95??EI6


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171

BB5 F96:I" 0 E D=?5>9 D56 :=B5<96D9 :8


<56D=- :9>N:5BS50 W
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5 :E;= D=?5;= F=> <EB9:
;9 F9>:=65:- F9>=- O5:D5 9:D9 F86D=- :IB=
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865
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5 96 D>5D5<E96D=: <N;E?=: M :8 :56@>5;=
:IB= 9<F9=>5K5
= =K:D56D9- ?856;=
9:?8?OI789 9:C: 9:D5K5 SE6E96;=- ?>9MI789
NB F=;G
5 :565>B5
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5
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172

:D5 <8A9> 56I6E<5 9: 865 <59:D>5 ;9B D9<=>


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9:G
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<8A9> D9 <89:D>9 5B
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0
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5??EI6
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9T=>" 0 = D9<QE:0

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6=: >9B5D5 =D>5 OE:D=>E5 96 B5 789 B5 @96D9 :9
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9;>=
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173

5 D>56:UE@8>5?EI6 6= 9: 5B@= :E6 F>9?9;96D9:


96 B5 :?>ED8>5
=> 9A9<FB=- B=: F5;>9: ;9
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5 >95??EI6 ;9
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+ => 78N 9:C: BB9SI :IB= 5 9;>=- 5?=K= M 5
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9>= :G:5K9<=: 789
9:C: B9: 9:D5K5 ;56;= 86 >9@5B= 789
>9?=>;5>G
56 5 D>5SN: ;9 D=;= :8<E6E:D9>E=
9
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5 ?=6 9BB=: 9>5 E=:
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0 8 >=:D>= >9:FB56;9?G
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8:
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174

6=: ;5 B5 >5HI6 S9>;5;9>5


6 86= ;9 B=:
?=<96D5>E=: 9;ED=>E5B9: <Q: O8<=>G
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9:D5K56 9:F56D5;=:0 W 5>?=: 2")X
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5 9:D=- SE6= 865 68K9 789 B=:
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5:=<K>5;= F=> D=;= 96 B5 EKBE5- F9>= 578G9:
175

;=6;9 9B 5<=> :56D= M B5 A8:DE?E5 :56D5 :9


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5 A8:DE?E5 :56D5 & B5 F965 F=> 9B F9?5;= 9: B5
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= 9VE:D9 6E6@C6 =D>= 5?D=
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:=>F>96;9>D9
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9:D5K56
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5 C6E?5 >95??EI6 F9>:=65B 5 B5
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5>?=: 9: 5789BB5 ;9B ?96D8>EI6 >=<56=
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5 F>9:96?E5;= ;9B <E6E:D9>E=
;9 9:C:
5B S9H :IB= F>9:96?EI :8 <89>D9
9>= B= 789 ;E?9 9: S9>;5;9>5<96D9
5;<E>5KB9
8965 ?=<= 5:=<K>= 789 :9
9VDE96;9 O5?E5 B5 U9
9B ?96D8>EI6 789 9:D5K5 U>96D9 5 NB- SE96;=
789 ;9:F8N: ;9 ?B5<5> O5KG
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176

;EA=" 9>;5;9>5<96D9 9:D9 O=<K>9 9>5


;9 E=: W 5>?=: ("%2X

EA=

9:C: O5KG
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5:=<K>5;5: 5 B5: <8BDED8;9:
9:F8N: ;9 86
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:IB= ?=6 S9>B9
9>= 9B ?=<96D5>E= <Q:
5:=<K>=:= 96 9:D9 BEK>= 9: 78EHQ 5789B ;9B
?96D8>EI6- M D=;= B= 789 5F5>96D9<96D9
9:D5K5 O5?E96;= 9>5 F>9:96?E5> B5 <89>D9 ;9
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9 B9G
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5<E@=: M 9:D8;E56D9:- M B=: D9:DE@=: =?8B5>9:
?=<96D5>=6 ?I<= <8>E9>=6 ?=6 D56D5 F5H M
D>5678EBE;5;
9>= 686?5 O9 B9G
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5B@8E96 789 :9 O5M5 5:=<K>5;= F=> B5 <89>D9
;9 865 F9>:=65
9:C: 6= F>9;E?I 6E6@C6 :9><I6 ;9:;9 B5
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96?EBB5<96D9 <8>EI- M 9B ?96D8>EI6 :8F= <Q:
5BBQ ;9 ?85B78E9> ;8;5 789 9:C: 9>5 9B EA= ;9
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177

<E:<= M S5BE;5> :8 D9:DE<=6E= ?=6 F5B5K>5: M


O9?O=:- :8FE<=: 789 B5 <89>D9 6= F=;>G
5
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9:F8N: ;9 D=;=- 9:C: 9: 9B
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:
F>=K5KB9 789 :8 9FG
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5 D=<5;= D9<KB=> M 9:F56D=\
6E ;9?G
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=> B= D56D=- 5:FE>5 5 D969> 9B D9<=> ;9B
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<Q: F>9=?8F5;=: F=> B= 789 B=: ;9<Q:
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9:95<=:
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M F5:5>B= 5 B5 :E@8E96D9 @969>5?EI6
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178

5>5 96:5>
5 ?B5S9 F5>5 5F>96;9> 9B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> 9:
F9><569?9> 96 B5 :?>ED8>5
856;= 9:DN: 96
B5 :?>ED8>5- =>5 F5>5 789 E=: D9 96:9T9 789
NB 9: 9B 56D=

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9SE:5 B=: 5B<=: ;9 B5 ?>95?EI6" 5B<=


1\ 2\!2\)(\ 3'
9;ED5 96 B=: 5B<=: ;9B >=6=" 5B<=
2(42/\22
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789 9VF>9:56 B5 <5A9:D5; M :56DE;5; ;9
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99 9B BEK>= ;9 5K5?8?
: :E<EB5> 5
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5 86 O=<K>9 789 D96G
5 F>9@86D5: 5?9>?5
;9 B= 789 E=: 9:D5K5 O5?E96;=
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99 5 56DE;5; ;9 E=: ;9
F>=8B
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179

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21
Tom Whiteman and Randy Petersen, Love Gone Wrong (Nashville: Nelson, 1994),
90.

186

BB9S56 B5: ?E?5D>E?9: ;9 F=> SE;5 !!


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22

Robert Hemfelt, Frank Minirth, and Paul Meier, Love Is a Choice (Nashville:
Nelson), 34

187

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23

Larry Crabb, Understandig People (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976), 94

194

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24
25

Larry Crabb, Inside Out (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1991), 53-54


Crabb, Understanding People, 112

195

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Los deseos desordenados no son la nica razn del vaco. Otra explicacin de ese
vaco surge del hecho de que vivimos en un mundo pecaminoso donde pecan contra
nosotros, y estamos viviendo en un mundo que est bajo la maldicin. Por ejemplo, si

tu cnyuge muere, te sentiras vaco. Te deberas sentir vaco. Algo hermoso ha sido
retirado de tu vida. Hay un gran sentimiento de prdida. No obstante, este vaco es el
resultado de la maldicin y la muerte causando dolor en nuestra psiqu, y no es el
resultado del haber sido creado con necesidades psicolgicas.

205

206

26

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27

Una discusin til sobre este tema se puede encontrar en el libro The Pleasures of
God de John Pipper

207

208

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28
Algunos han sugerido que el hecho de que los infantes necesiten cuidados, tales como
abrazos u otras expresiones de amor para florecer o inclusive vivir, significa que
tenemos anhelos profundos psicolgicos. Yo pienso que no. Esto se parece a estar
comparando manzanas con naranjas. No es correcto hablar de los anhelos y deseos de
los infantes por una relacin. Sera ms preciso decir que necesitamos a otras personas
para poder vivir. Somos criaturas que se apoyan en otras personas todos los das. No
obstante, esto es diferente a poner nuestra fe y confianza en ellos.

218

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29
Juan Calvino, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. J. Allen (Philadelphia:
Presbyterian Board of Christian Education, 1936), 1. 1. 1.

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233

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5 5 :95:
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235

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:95: M B5
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789 :9 :=<9DEI5 :8 9T=> M =K9;9?EI
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F=> :8F89KB=- ?=6:E;9>5 6= DE969 F>9?9;96D9:
9B
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96 <9;E= ;9 86 5<=> ;=B=>=:=
+ = 9:
O8<EBB56D9 789 B5 @96D9 :9F5 789 9>9: 9B
236

K8:?5;=> 5F5:E=65;= 789 6E :E78E9>5 9:


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89@= B9
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?=>5HI6E ?=>5HI6 :9 ?=6<89S9 ;96D>= ;9
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9<=?E=65B ;9 5B@8E96
6 S9H ;9 9:=8:85B<96D9 :9 8:5 F5>5 ;9:?>EKE> B5 ?=678E:D5
M ;9:D>8??EI6 ;9 865 ?E8;5;
=<= D5B237

?856;= :9 8:5 F5>5 ;9:?>EKE> 865 9VF9>E96?E5


9<=?E=65B- DE969 B5 ?=66=D5?EI6 ;9 5B@= 789
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=
9: D56D= 865 9VF>9:EI6 ;9B ;=B=> ;9 E=: F=>
B5 D>5E?EI6 ?=<= B= 9: ;9 :8E6D96:5 ?=<F5:EI6
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9S9B5 B5 F>=U86;E;5; ;9 :8
;9:9= ;9 D>59> 5 :8 F89KB= ;9 >9@>9:= O5?E5
NB
+ 9 :=>F>96;9 9:D=,
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5 5 S9?9:
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M5 9:DQ6 5;96D>=
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9:?=@EI 5<5>6=: ?=6 86 5<=> 5F5:E=65;= M
UE9B
5 >5HI6 F=> B5 789 =?5:E=65B<96D9 B=
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E=: 9: ?=<=
6=:=D>=: & = ?=<= M=
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9:F=:5- <E E6:DE6D= :9>G
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= 789>>G
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9>= 9B
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865 UE;9BE;5; 9:D=E?5
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E=: B5 ;9:?>EK9 ;9:@5>>Q6;=B9 :8E6D9>E=>
238

=> 9:D= F89;9: 96D96;9> ?8Q6 ?=6U8:= 9:


A8H@5> 5 E=: ;9:;9 B5 F9>:F9?DES5 ;9 B= 789
6=:=D>=: O5>G
5<=: 96 865 :ED85?EI6
=
D9<F=>5B M F9?5<E6=:= 686?5 F89;9 :9> 9B
9:DQ6;5> F5>5 B= :56D=
E A8H@5<=: F=>
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5<=: 789
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6=: ;9A5>Q ;9:68;=: 96 9B <9>?5;= ;9
9:?B5S=:
9>= E=: 6=: ;E?9=>789 E=:
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6= 96D>5>N96 B5 ?E8;5;
+ 8N >9DE969
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9:F9?E5B<96D9 789
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5
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5
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5 W =< 1"%3X
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5

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5 9:?965 :9>Q :E<EB5> 5 5B@865: ;9 B5:
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65
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6
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9: 5 78E96 :9 O=6>5
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9:DQ6 F89:D=: :=K>9 9BB5
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86 >9UB9A= ;9 B5 K9BB9H5 586 <Q: @>56;9 ;9B
6=SE=
+ 5 D9 9:DQ: :E6DE96;= BB96=, :D= 9: B= 789
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E=: <E>5 :8 ?>95?EI6 ;9:;9 B5 F9>:F9?DES5 ;9


B5 ?=6:8<5?EI6
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30

243

M. Scott Peck, The road Less Traveled (New York: Simon &Schster, 1979), 98

244

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5OG
6?=
=<= B5 <5M=>G
5 ;9 B5 @96D9- NB
F96:I 789 F=;G
5 @565> 9B 5<=> ;9 E=:
=>
B= D56D=- K8:?5K5 B5 :56DE;5; F9>:=65B ?=6 865
;EBE@96?E5 :E6 F5>
6D96DI;9 D=;=" 5M86=: ;9
D>9: ;G
5:- ?=6U9:E=69: ;9 :9E: O=>5:- ;=><E> 96
9B U>G
= :E6 ?=K9>D=>9:- M =>5?EI6 ?=6:D56D9D=;= 9BB= O5:D5 9B F86D= ;9 789 F9BE@>5K5 :8
SE;5
9>= B5 D>5678EBE;5; 6= BB9@5K5

31
Roland Bainton, Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther (New York: New American
Library, 1950), 30.

302

E6 9<K5>@=- E=: 9:D5K5 =K>56;= 96 B5 SE;5


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6 (32 >9?EKEI 9B @>5;= ;9 K5?OEBB9> 96
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5D>EK8B5;= 96 :8 ?=6:?E96?E5- M 6= D96G
5
?=6UE56H5 96 789 <E <N>ED= F8;E9>5
303

5M8;5><9
=> B= D56D=- 6= 5<5K5 5 86 E=:
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5 86
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56
32

Ibid., 50.

304

E6;8B@96?E5:- 96D=6?9: F=;G


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K>EK=69:- F=> <9;E= ;9 B=: ?85B9: 96@5T56 B5:


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305

306

58D=?=6UE56H5 F=>789 ?5<E65K5 96 O8<EB;5;


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307

:E;= 9VEBE5;=- M 5KEB=6E5 O5KG


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308

6D9 D5B9: ?E>?86:D56?E5: :=:F9?O= 789 <8?O5


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