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CEE254 Spring2015

Design for Shear


Direct Shear (One-way Shear)

Vn Vu

Example of One-way
Shear Cracks

NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

CEE254 Spring2015

Shear Strength

Vn = (Vc +Vs)
Where:
=0.75
Vc =Shearstrengthbyconcrete
Vs =Shearstrengthbyreinforcement
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Thevaluesof(fc)shallnotexceed100psi

Concrete Strength for Shear


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Thevaluesof(fc)shallnotexceed100psi

NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

CEE254 Spring2015

Steel Reinforcing
Strength for Shear

Where:
Av = Total reinforcement cross sectional area of ties
resisting shear
fyt = Yield strength of tie reinforcement
s
= Tie spacing through the longitudinal axis of the beam
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Shear Ties

NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

CEE254 Spring2015

Example 1
Determine the shear strength adequacy for the beam
section of example 2.1. The beam clear span is 20 ft.
Dead load is1.5 klf and the live load is 0.7 klf. The concrete
strength, fc = 4,000 psi and steel yield strength, fy = 60,000
psi.

Solution:
DL=1.5klf
LL=0.7klf
Wu =1.4D=1.4x1.5=2.1
Wu =1.2D+1.6L=1.2x1.5+1.6x0.7=2.92k/ft
Ru =20x2.92/2=29.2kips
Vu =29.2 (16"/12x2.92)=25.3kips
Sheartobetakenatthecriticalcolumnsection.Atddistance
fromthefaceofthesupport.
Vc =0.75x(2x10"x13.54,000)/1,000=12.8kips
Vs =0.75(2x0.2x60x13.5/14)=17.36kips
Vn =fVc +fVs =12.8+17.36=30.16kips
Vn >Vu OK
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NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

CEE254 Spring2015

Punching Shear
Two-way Shear
Punchingshearcausessuddenfailureinconcretememberssuch
asreinforcedconcretefootingsandreinforcedconcreteslabs

Examples of Punching
Shear Cracks

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NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

CEE254 Spring2015

Examples of Punching
Shear Cracks

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Examples of Punching
Shear Cracks

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CEE254 Spring2015

bx =
by=
bo =
Ac=

Cx +d
Cy+d
2(bx +by)
bo xd

vu=

13

vc

ShearFactor

= Strengthreductionfactor =0.75
ShearFactor =minimumofthefollowingshearfactors:
=
2
SFactoro
SFactorc
c

SFactormax
s

NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

4.0

=40
=30
=20

forinteriorcolumns
foredgecolumns
forcornercolumns

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CEE254 Spring2015

Example2
A gravity reinforced concrete footing of (86x86x26 deep)
supports a 24x24 reinforced concrete column. The concrete
specified strength at 28 days is equal to 3,000 psi. The column
ultimate axial load is equal to equal to 680 kips. Which of the
following statements is correct?
A)Thefootingissafeagainstpunchingshear
B)Tomakethepunchingshearsafe,thespecifiedconcretestrength
needstobeaminof3,500psi
C)Tomakethepunchingshearsafe,thefootingtotalthickness
needstobeaminof30
D)Tomakethepunchingshearsafe,thefootingtotalthickness
needstobeaminof40
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Solution:
SlabColumnanalysis:
Slabeffectivedepth=30 3.5=26.5in
bx =Cx +d=24+26.5=50.5in
by =Cy +d=24+26.5=50.5in
bo =2(bx +by)=202in
Ac =bo xd=5,353in
Ultimateshearstress:
vu =Vu /Ac =680/5,353=0.127ksi

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NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

CEE254 Spring2015

Shearcapacity:
s =40
c =Long/ShortColDim=1.00
o =bo /d=10.92
Factorc
=2+4/c =6.00
Factoro
=2+s/o =5.66
Factormax =4.00
Factor(Controls)=4.00

0.75 219

164

4.0 3,000
>

219
vu

Safe

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Example3
A twoway 10thick slab is supported by columns at 30 feet
on both directions while the column size is 16x16. The
specified concrete strength for the slab and columns is 4,000
psi. The occupancy of the floor supported by the concrete slab is
office use. The weight of the additional miscellaneous
mechanical and ceiling is 5 psf. The ultimate shear stress and
shear strength are equal to:
A)
B)
C)
D)

226psiand189psi
189psiand226psi
340psiand226psi
226psiand340psi

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NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

CEE254 Spring2015

Solution:
Tributaryarea=30x30=900ft2
ReductionFactor,R=(900 150)0.08=60
Rmax =40%
LLReduced =(1.0 0.4)50psf=30psf
PartitionLoad=15psf
LL=30psf+15psf=45psf
DL=10.5/12x150pcf+5psf=136.25psf
Wu=1.4D=1.4x0.136=0.191ksi
Wu =1.2D+1.6L=(1.2x0.136ksf)+(1.6x0.045ksf)=0.235ksf
Pu =30x30x0.235ksf =211.50kips

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Slab-Column analysis
Slabeffectivedepth=10.5 1.25=9.25in
bx =Cx +d=25.25in
by =Cy +d=25.25in
bo =2(bx +by)=101in
Ac =bo xd=934.25in
Ultimateshearstress:
vu =Pu /Ac =0.226ksi

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NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

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CEE254 Spring2015

Shearcapacity:
s =40
c =Long/ShortColDim=1.00
o =bo /d=10.92
Factorc
=2+4/c =6.00
Factoro
=2+s /o =5.66
Factormax =4.00
Factor(Controls)=4.00

0.75 253

189.75

4.0 4,000 253


<
vu

Unsafe

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Design for Torsion

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CEE254 Spring2015

Testing for Torsion

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Stress due to Shear and Torsion

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CEE254 Spring2015

Aoh =Beamcrosssectionalareameasuredtothecenterlineofthetie(in2)
Ph =Beamperimeteratthecenterlineofthetie(in)

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1)Selecttheconcretesectiondimensionsothatforsolidsections:

ForHollowSections:
.

Where:
=Strengthreductionfactor=0.75
Vu =Ultimateshearstrength
Tu =Ultimatetorsion
Aoh =Beamcrosssectionalareameasuredtothecenterlineofthetie
Ph =Beamperimeteratthecenterlineofthetie(in)
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NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

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CEE254 Spring2015

2)Strengthdesign
Tn Tu

Where:

=
=
Ao
s
=

Cot

(ACI19.11.6.3.6)

45o fornonprestressed concrete


0.85Aoh
Tiespacing

2
At
Av

=
=

Crosssectionalareaofonelegfortorsion
Crosssectionalareaofalllegsforshear
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Example 4
The concrete beam shown has a concrete strength of 5,000 psi and
is used as a pedestrian bridge. The weight of the additional dead
load is 20 psf. An unbalanced uniform load may be calculated by
applying step loading. Which of the following statements is
correct?
A) The beam dimensions are adequate for the applied torsion.
B) The beam dimensions are inadequate for the applied torsion.
C) The ACI318 does not cover case for beams exposed to torsion
and shear.
D) None of the above.

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CEE254 Spring2015

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Solution:
SelfWeight=(12'x1'+4'x4)0.15kcf =4.2k/ft
DL=4.2+0.02ksf x12'=4.44k/ft
LLStep loading =0.1ksf x12'/2=0.6k/ft
wu =1.4D=1.4x4.44=6.22k/ft
wu =1.2D+1.6L=1.2x4.44+1.6x0.6=6.29k/ft
Vu =Shearatcriticalsection(dfromfaceofsupport)
Vu =6.29(15' 5')=62.9kips
TorsionAnalysis
wuTorsion =1.6x0.6k/ft =0.96k/ft
MT =0.96x3'=2.88kft/ft
Tu =2.88(15 5)=28.8kft

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CEE254 Spring2015

Forsolidsection
bw =48'',
d=57''
Ph =(48 4 0.5)x2+(60 4 0.5)x2=198in
Aoh =(48 4 0.5)(60 4 0.5)=2,414.25in2

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24psi<530.3psi

OK

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NagiAboShadi,PhD,SE,PEng

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CEE254 Spring2015

Example5
ThemosteconomicaltiestobeusedforExample4are:
A)#4@14''(2Legs)
B)#4@8''(4Legs)
C)#5@14''(4Legs)
D)#5@14''(2Legs)
Solution:
Ao =0.85Aoh =2,052in2

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Tu = Tn =184,680(At /S)=28.8x12
At /S=0.0019

At /S=0.02
TakeS=8inches,
TakeS=14inches,

0.02

Controls
At =8x0.02=0.16in2
At =14x0.02=0.28in2

#4has0.2in2
#5has0.31in2

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CEE254 Spring2015

Shear-friction Strength

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CEE254 Spring2015

Example of Corbel
Shear Cracks

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11.6.4 Shear-friction design method


Whereshearfrictionreinforcementisperpendiculartotheshear
plane,Vn shallbecomputedby

Vn =Avf fy (sin+cos )
Vn =Avf fy

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CEE254 Spring2015

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CEE254 Spring2015

Corbel Example

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Beam Ledge Example

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CEE254 Spring2015

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