Está en la página 1de 77

Market Acceptability of

Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
As of today we are noticing that most of the individuals do not involve
themselves eating vegetables frequently for many reasons regardless whether these are
valid or not based on their recommended diet. Some are eating various vegetables but
usually depends on the taste these vegetables are in favor of the consumers appetite
preference. Most of the individuals that belong to early stage of their lives are the
probable persons who are not entice to eat vegetables. According to Science Daily (Dec.
1, 2011) There's an existential crisis that often happens at dinner tables across the
country: why won't kids eat their vegetables? Research has found that one of the
reasons could be sensitivity to bitterness, fairly common among children -- about 70
percent have it found on (www.google.com/2009).
Childrens appetite leads them to eat foods that are basically not fitted on their
Daily Recommended Diet. It is one of the problems, many parents are encountering
nowadays.
Same with other individuals who belong on the upper age bracket who are not
basically making vegetables as a part of their meals as usual, the reasons could be lack
of time cooking healthy cuisines, amount of costs forgo to buy veggies where some are
costly and even being uneducated with the health benefits that the individuals could get
out of eating vegetables. (www.google.com/2011)
The researchers vested the interest on conducting a study for a specific
alternative with presence of attracting the children in relation to their taste and

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

preferences and looking for strategy to help the adult to find healthy food that considers
convenience, low cost but the product has infused with healthy ingredients for
increasing health benefits. This come up with a study on how to promote a product out
of combined vegetables as the main ingredients that will meet the satisfaction of young
aged people and above childhood aged people. Subsequently, the study will also
consider the acceptability the taste of vegetable like Sweet Potato and Malunggay or also
known as Miracle Vegetable, turns into cupcake. This study is made to help the parents
in promoting healthy eating habit.
Based on a study, almost 80 percent of the teenagers do not include vegetable on
their daily meals causing insufficient absorption nutrients needed by the body. This
study will encourage them to eat vegetable frequently. This will also show if the
palatability of Sweet Potato Malunggay cupcake will be accepted according to the
different preferences of young aged people and aged onwards. This study is also a way of
educating the teenagers and adult with the importance and benefits of the selected
vegetables for them to accept and enjoy the natural taste plus the savory flavor of leche
flan.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cupcakes are mini cakes frequently baked in a small, thin paper or aluminum
cup. It is mostly made of wheat flour infused with organic ingredients like native fruits,
grains, nuts, herbs and vegetables like malunggay. Cupcakes have become a pop
culture trend in the culinary world. They have spawned dozens of bakeries devoted
entirely to them. While chocolate and vanilla remain classic favorites, fancy flavors such
as raspberry meringue and espresso fudge can be found on menus. There are

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake
cookbooks,

blogs,

and

magazines

specifically

dedicated

to

cupcakes.

(ml.jou.ufl.edu/2009). Flour is a product made from grain that has been ground to a
powdery consistency. Commonly available flours are made from rye, barley, maize, and
other grains, but wheat flour is most commonly used for cupcakes.

Due to higher cost of wheat the researchers found interesting an organic plant
that could give higher content of starch. The process needed for making sweet potato
flour is made easy than the process of making wheat flour. Sweet potato locally known
as kamote is commonly planted in flat to slightly rolling open areas. The crop is also
known to be a cheap but excellent source of carbohydrates, vitamin A, carotene, calcium, and phosphorus. Purple Sweet Potatoes have high contents of anthocyanin,
which is a pigment that presents the purple color in the vegetable. The pigment can
produce red, blue and purple colors depending on the source's chemical structure, such
as in foods like blueberries, red grapes and red cabbage. She said anthocyanins have
been epidemiologically associated with a reduced cancer risk, but the anti-cancer ability
of the purple sweet potato has not been well investigated. According to the study of
SoYoung Lim, a student of Kansas State with her associate Prof. George Wang posted in
(www.sciencedaily.com/2011).

A versatile crop, sweet potato has multifarious uses. It is not only grown as a food
substitute for rice and corn but also as a potential source of raw materials for industrial
uses and food delicacies. Sweet potato is being processes into feeds, flour, starch, and
pectin for local and export markets. Same with Malunggay leaves of which, was once
considered a "poor man's vegetables" but now it is known as a "miracle tree" or "nature's

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

medicine cabinet". Moringa oleifera is currently being promoted as a means to combat


malnutrition. The leaves contain all essential amino acids and are rich in protein,
vitamin A, vitamin B and Vitamin C, and minerals. There is no doubt that the pure
Moringa Oleifera Tree leaf is the source of incredible health benefits. It's the ultimate,
natural,

organic,

energy

and

endurance

health

supplement posted

in

(www.lifeshine.blogspot.com/2009). Tender malunggay leaves also reduce phlegm and


are administered internally for scurvy and catarrhal conditions. Another main
ingredient of the product that can be cultivated and supplied easily because this is not
much susceptible compared to other plants.

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY


Respondents ages 7 and above are having difficulties on their consistency in
promoting healthy eating habit. This come up with a study to help the parents
including the said age bracket persons to find food that will be accepted combining the
taste of the vegetables like Malunggay and Sweet Potato same with the adult for them to
look for a product that will be ideal on their desired health benefits. We also made this
study to know whether the acceptability of Sweet Potato Malunggay cupcake by the
people ages 7 and above will have a big impact to the value of the two vegetable
CONCEPTUAL/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Title: Manufacturing of Sweet potato Malunggay cupcake
RESEARCH DESIGN AND
TARGET MARKET
METHODS
AGE INPUT
LIMIT
PROCESS
GENDER
CURRENT STATUS
CONDUCTING INTERVIEW
AMOUNT THAT IS
WILLING TO GIVE UP

SURVEY

TO PURCHASE THE

SAID PRODUCT
SAMPLE

POPULATION
PROBLEMS OF THE
CORRESPONDENCE

DEGREE OF ACCEPTABILITY
IN THE MARKET
RESEARCH DESIGN AND
METHODS

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

MARKET
ACCEPTABILITY OF
SWEET POTATO
MALUNGGAY CUPCAKE

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This is a study of the market acceptability of Sweet Potato Malunggay


cupcakes to the residence of the first district of Laguna with a limited age bracket of
7and above.
Specifically it answers the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the:
a. Gender

c. Educational Background

b. Age

d. location

2. What are the preferences of the respondents toward the proposed product in
the aspects of:
a. Taste
b. Price

c. Packaging

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

3. What are the respondent's preferences in terms of the following :


a. Willingness to buy
b. Frequency of consumption
4. What are the ways to promote the product?

Objectives:

To determine the market acceptability of the proposed product, the Sweet Potato-

Malunggay Cupcake.
To give another possible opportunity for those interested Filipinos encouraging

them to participate on the business industry.


To present the product as an attractive commodity in the market and in this way
the product may be as competitive as the other cupcakes.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:


This study will be a significant endeavor in promoting SWEET POTATO
MALUNGGAY CUPCAKE in the first district of Laguna. Considering that the main
ingredients of the said product are significant sources of required nutrients needed by
individuals. The researchers made study and analysis about the product to determine
the impact of the taste and preferences of young aged people and adult in relation the
process of promoting malunggay and sweet potato as the main ingredients in making
cupcake, which both are playing crucial niche in providing multi-nutrients. This study
will be beneficial to the target market aside from the nutria-facts the product is made
into fancy-like cupcake with leche flan some filling inside. The researchers also include
the factor of attraction through considering the products appeal to the target markets
appetite.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

To the manufacturers and other business industries, the study will be helpful to
maintain good quality concerns in producing the products and provide healthy food
that if will be accepted is good for the promotion increasing priority of quality demanded
by the target market.
Moreover, the study will be helpful to the individuals belong to the upper age
bracket other than 7-16 years old in solving the main problem about the involvement of
the young aged people on unhealthy eating habit. Thus, study will educate the target
audience and the willing readers through citing different studies conducted by the local
and foreign researchers about the main ingredients of the product. The benefits and
importance of how the researches provide a compiled analysis on the details to come up
with another product and how this product will be chosen as one of the preferable and
acceptable existing product through the point of view of the target correspondence.
To the government, the study will provide significant endeavor for promoting
healthy food required on the daily recommended diet by human body system. And the
study will also be helpful for establishing public programs introducing natural healthy
mode of dieting.
To the future researchers, this study will challenge and encourage providing
another innovative output to uphold the value of natural resources that may enrich the
wealth of human primitively the essentials that may bring to the body systems and the
required nutrients on the daily diet. This idea will help the future researcher to prolong
the motivation of discovering products that may gradually replace the harmful factors of
unhealthy diet requirements.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

Throughout the study and analysis using the specimen in conducting and
bench marking with the other local and foreign researches, the researchers were
provided a greater proof that would stand for the validity of these vegetables as effective
final ingredients of the newly innovated cupcake. These vegetables are versatile, such
that these make an ordinary food a source of multi-nutrients needed by humans body
system.
This study was conducted because the researchers want to know the
acceptability of cupcake made from sweet potato, malunggay extract with leche flan
fillings in the market with regards to its taste and preferences of the target market.
HYPOTHESIS/ASSUMPTIONS:
Ho: There is no market of Sweet Potato Malunggay Cupcake in the 1st
District of Laguna.

Ha: There is a market of Sweet Potato Malunggay Cupcake in the 1st District
of Laguna.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION:


The researchers made the study and analysis about cupcake made from sweet
potato and malunggay extract with leche flan filling to determine the impact of the taste
and preferences of young ones and adult in relation to the acceptability of the
manufacturing of malunggay and sweet potato, which both are playing crucial niche on
providing

multi-nutrients.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

The selection of respondents are only limited to town residents, specifically,


people living in the First district of Laguna. The survey is conducted only to the target
respondents with an age ranging from 7 to 45 years old. This age bracket are about to
be divided into four classes with an interval of ten. This is done through interviews and
giving the same questionnaires to the target respondents in accordance with the
established

objective

of

the

study. There

are

possibilities

that

interviews

are

unacceptable without considering the terms used in communication, in spite of this,


the researchers used terms conforming to the range of age given above. The researchers
may also have an oral communication to make surveys legible to the proponents.

The researchers aim to include the factor of attraction through considering the
products appeal so that it will be acceptable and preferable to the target markets
appetite.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

For better comprehension these are terms used in the study including the
meaning of each given below:
Appetite- It is an instinctive physical desire, especially one for food or drink.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

10

Aluminum cups- these are baking cups that hold the cupcakes shape
like miniature baking dishes so you do not need a specialty pan for your
muffins or cupcakes.

Malunggay- is a plant in the Moringaceae family. The scientific name is


Morina Oleifera Lam. It is also known as horseradish tree, drool and
drumstick tree. The tree is hearty and grows easily in the wild and
backyard gardens. Commonly used as an ingredient in Filipino foods, the
tree is also found in Africa, India, and other parts of Asia.

Moringa oleifera it is the scientific name of Malunggay.

Sweet potato- locally known as kamote is commonly planted in flat to


slightly rolling open areas. The crop is also known to be a cheap but
excellent source of carbohydrates, vitamin A, carotene, calcium, and
phosphorus.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

11

Anthocyanin-any of a class of water-soluble pigments that give flowers th


ecolors ranging from red to blue.

Cupcake- "A light Cake to bake in small cups.


Half a pound sugar, half a pound butter, rubbed into two pounds flour,
one glass wine, one do. [glass] Rosewater, two do.[glass] Emptins, a
nutmeg, cinnamon and currants."
---American Cookery, Amelia Simmons, 2nd edition (p. 48)

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


This chapter consists of information culled from studies and literature, both
local and foreign, from which this particular study is premised. This will certainly help
in giving the reader a better understanding of the scope of the research to be conducted
specifically the important role of the product which consists of Malunggay and Sweet
Potato in making cupcakes.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

12

This chapter also includes further information in terms of the equipments and
processes used in making cupcakes.
Local Literature:
Review of related literature of Malunggay

Unknowingly, the Third World War has already started. But most people hardly
notice the battle as the enemy is stealthy creeping individuals, mostly children from less
developed countries. The unseen adversary is malnutrition.

In the Philippines, the number of undernourished people reported in 2003 was


15.2 million. That was 18 percent of the total population of the country at that time.
The number has grown since then.

The solution to the problem of hunger and malnutrition lies in production of


Moringa oleifera, more popularly known as malunggay.

The miracle vegetable, as some scientists called it, has been promoted by no
less than the World Health Organization (WHO) as a low-cost health enhancer in poor
countries around the globe. The natural nutrition for the tropicsis how the Floridabased

Education

Concerns

for

Hunger

Organization

described

(http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/266414/malunggay-the-plant-allseasons.2010/06/12)

malunggay

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

13

Uses Of Malunggay - Moringa Oleifera or Malunggay as Human Food

All Moringa food products have a very high nutritional value. You can eat the
leaves, especially young shoots, young pods, flowers, roots, and in some species even
the bark. Leaves are low in fats and carbohydrates and rich in minerals, iron
and vitamin B. It is particularly useful as a human food because the leaves appear
towards the end of the dry season when few other sources of green leafy vegetables are
available. The leaves of malunggay are emphasized because these will be needed in
making the newly innovated product.

Since Filipinos love to eat snacks in between meals or merienda throughout the
day, Jean Ferrer, special project executive at MLGS Herbal Products, said: It is
time malunggay-fortified snacks and pancit bihon to become a staple snack of
Filipinos.( http://loqal.ph/food-and-beverage/2010/09/07/the-humble-malunggay-isnow-a-nutritious-snack/)
Malunggay can be solution to our problems

Seeing the importance of malunggay, Senator Loren Legarda pushed for the
production, processing, marketing, and distribution of the plant in all suitable areas of
the country to maximize the benefits of the exceptionally nutritious and productive but
underutilized tropical crop.

Legarda filed Senate Bill No. 1349 to task the Department of Agriculture, in
consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, Department of Environment
and Natural Resources, farmers groups, local government units, and the private sector,
to formulate a five-year framework for developing malunggay for food, medicinal, health,

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

14

and commercial needs. .(http://loqal.ph/food-and-beverage/2010/09/07/the-humblemalunggay-is-now-a-nutritious-snack/

Review of related Literature of Sweet Potato

Sweet potato, not only is just sweet to your taste buds but also good for your
cardiovascular health. This starchy root vegetable is rich source of flavonoid antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber that are essential for optimal
health.Botanically, this tuber belongs to the family of Convolvulaceae, and named
botanically as Ipomoea batatas. It is grown throughout the tropical and warm
temperate regions. The crop requires just sufficient water and attention for their
cultivation. The tuberous root has oblong/elongated shape with tapering ends and has
smooth outer skin whose color ranges from red, purple, brown, and white, depending
up on the variety.

Health benefits of Sweet potato

Nutritious sweet potatoes are low in calories (provide just 90 cal/100 g, on


comparison with starch rich cereals) and contains no saturated fats and
cholesterol; but are rich source of dietary fiber, anti-oxidants, vitamins and
minerals.

They are storehouse of starch, a complex carbohydrate, which raises the blood
sugar levels slowly on comparison to simple sugars; therefore, recommended as
a healthy food supplement even in diabetes.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

They

are

excellent

source

of flavonoids like

beta-carotene

and

15

vitamin

A (provides 14187 IU of vitamin A and 8509 mcg of -carotene). The value is one
of the highest among root vegetables category.These compounds are powerful
natural antioxidants. Vitamin A is also required by the body to maintain
integrity of healthy mucus membranes and skin. It is also vital nutrient for
vision. Consumption of natural vegetables and fruits rich in flavonoids helps to
protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.

The tubers are packed with many essential vitamins such as pantothenic acid
(vitamin B5), pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) and thiamin (vitamin B-1), niacin, and
riboflavin. These vitamins are essential in the sense that body requires them
from external sources to replenish. These vitamins function as co-factors for
various enzymes during metabolism.

They also contain good amounts of minerals like iron, calcium, magnesium,
manganese, and potassium that are very essential for body metabolism

Since

1977,

Philrootcrops

has

generated

and

disseminated

root

crop

technologies and information that have helped improve the livelihood of root crop
growers, processors, and entrepreneurs nationwide. Among its diversified range

of products developed from root crops include chips, starch, flour, and grates.
"Root crops are good sources of soluble dietary fiber that actively lowers
cholesterol in the body and also prevents tumor formation in the colon," said Dr.
Trinidad P. Trinidad, Scientist II of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute
(FNRI), in a symposium held at the university on the innate nutritional benefits

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

16

of root crop consumption, primarily for the prevention of chronic diseases like

cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes.


In 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that chronic diseases
accounted for 57% of all deaths in the Philippines . Moreover, the prevalence of
obesity and being overweight, two of the leading causes of these diseases, is

expected to increase in both men and women in the next 10 years.


Trinidad said that at least 80% of premature heart disease, stroke, and type 2
diabetes, as well as 40% of cancer could be prevented through a healthy diet
that incorporates root crops, regular physical activity, and the avoidance of

tobacco products
"Kamote and cassava are both high in calcium, which is essential for bone growth
and development," said Trinidad . "Gabi is high in iron, which helps increase body
resistance to infection; and zinc, which is important for development and enzyme
functions. Meanwhile, ube rates high in tannic acid, which has anti-bacterial, anti-

enzymatic, and astringent properties."


The trouble with most root crops is that these are not sexy and popular food for
those living in urban areas. Take the case of gabi and kamote, young people
would rather eat hamburger, chips and ice cream, Trade and Industry Secretary
Jesli A. Lapus said. These are not sexy food but these can help you become

healthy and sexy.


Commercialism and fast food has skewed consumers towards junk food,
Secretary Lapus said. But we hope that proper education on nutrition will

make the population increase the intake the rootcrops.


People come to realize the benefits of consuming rootcrops when disease and
poor health has already settled in their body system but its too late, Secretary
Lapus. Whether it is a change of lifestyle or a change of eating habits, a new

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

17

industry is developing as consumers realize the need to eat healthy.(


http://www.dti.gov.ph/dti/index.php?p=154&type=2&sec=5&aid=385.2010)
Review of related Literature of Cupcakes

Malunggay muffins served Thursday at Quirino anniversary


By CEASAR M. PERANTE
September 9, 2009, 8:00pm

CABARROGUIS, Quirino An enterprising housewife


has prepared moringa muffin which is said to be the official snack for the celebration
Thursday of the 38th founding anniversary of this province.
Hilda Arrojo, resident of this capital town who loves to bake, was commissioned by the
provincial tourism office to bake thousands of the malunggay-based muffin as snack for
thousands

of

festival

participants.

Her product had earlier won for her daughter the grand price at a cooking competion in
school.Last July when my daughters teachers asked me to assist them come up with a
simple recipe that is malunggay-based for their cooking contest during the Nutrition
Month

celebration,

steamed

muffin

(puto)

came

to

my

mind,

said

http://bellybites.wordpress.com/2009/09/26/moringa-malunggay-cupcakes/)

Arrojo.(

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

18

Seaweed-duriancupcake,ahealthybaonfor school

Posted on May 28th, 2010

A healthier cupcake makes for a great alternative baon is the product of the research
project by a group of people from the Southern Philippines Agribusiness and Marine
and Aquatic School of Technology (SPAMAST) in Digos City, Davao del Norte.
The cupcake made from seaweed and durian, which is just in time for the
school opening, was made through the collaborative efforts of Arlyn Omboy, Graciela
Caballero, Milagros Subaldo, Dr. Nila Nanette Revilla and Dr. Delia Grace Bacaltos, all
from the SPAMAST. The seaweed-durian cupcake was their entry to the 2010 Aquatic
Technology Competition and Marketplace (ATCOM), wherein there were one of the
finalists.The contest (ATCOM) was sponsored by the Los Baos-based Department of
Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and
Development (DOST-PCAMRD).(http://pinoybusiness.org/2010/05/28/seaweed-durian-

cupcake-a-healthy-baon-for-school/)
Requirements to Start a Baking Business

An oven and some sets of baking tools and equipment that you may already have at
home will be good enough to start a baking business if you are just planning to operate
your baking business at home or on a part time basis. If you decide to open a bigger
baking business, however, you will need more and bigger equipment to accommodate to
a larger number of clients. You must also make inquiries regarding licenses and
certificates that you may need to operate a baking company. Baking business operators,
for example, are typically required to secure a business permit and a health certificate.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

19

A background or training in the baking business will also be helpful if you are starting a
baking business.

Getting Clients

You can start getting your first set of clients by encouraging friends and relatives to try
your baked foods. You can even encourage your friends to order cakes from you
whenever they have occasions in their home. A good way of encouraging people to order
baked goods from your home baking business is to offer them cheaper but great tasting
cakes and breads. The small network of clients that you have will inevitable grow as
long as you continue to provide your customers with best tasting baked goods. When
building and choosing a location for your baking company outlet, it will be important to
choose a baking business location where there are a number of prospective customers
who will buy your baked goods. In addition to this, remember that word of mouth
marketing remains to be the best so better ask your friends, family members and even
existing

customers

to

refer

your

baking

company

to

other

people.(

http://www.startupbizhub.com/How-to-Start-a-Home-Baking-Business.htm)

These pieces of information regarding the selling of pastries specifically


cupcakes in the market would help those interested people to have a basic strategies
and guides to start up the business.

Local Studies:

MALUNGGAY

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

20

Malunggay is a small tree growing as high as 9 meters, with a soft and white
wood and corky and gummy bark. Leaves are alternate, usually thrice pinnate, 25 to 50
centimeters long. Each compound leaf contains 3-9 very thin leaflets dispersed on a
compound (3 times pinnate) stalk. The leaflets are thin, ovate to elliptic, and 1 to 2
centimeters long. Flowers are white and fragrant, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long, on
spreading panicles. Pod is 15 to 30 centimeters long, pendulous, three-angled, and
nine-ribbled. Seeds are three-angled, and winged on the angles.

Distribution
Planted throughout the Philippines in settled areas at low and medium altitudes.
Introduced from Malaya or some other part of tropical Asia in prehistoric times.
A common backyard vegetable and a border plant.
Now pantropic.

Propagation
Propagation by seeds and stem cuttings.
Mature malunggay cuttings should be 2 cm or more in diameter and not less than 80
cm (30 inches) in length. Mature cuttings are preferred as they sprout earlier and grow
faster.
The only pests known to attack malunggay are mites of the Tetranychus spp.

Parts utilized
Flowers, leaves, young pods

Properties
Root has the taste of horseradish.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

21

Considered galactagogue, rubefacient, antiscorbutic, diuretic, stimulant, purgative,


antibiotic, antifungal.
Antiinflammatory, antitumor activities on mice studies.
Antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-ulcer.
Estrogenic, antiprogestational, hypoglycemic, antihyperthyroidism,
hypocholesterolemic, antihyperthyroid, antispasmodic.
Considered abortifacient and emmenagogue.
Purported to be beneficial for decreasing blood pressure, relieving headaches and
migraines, reducing inflammatory and arthritic pains, anti-ulcer, anti-tumor. Purported
to be beneficial for decreasing blood pressure, relieving headaches and migraines,
reducing inflammatory and arthritic pains.

Uses
Nutritional

Flowers, young leaves and young pods eaten as a vegetable inn the Philippines,
Malaya,

and

India.

Young leaves are a rich source of calcium, iron, phosphorus and vitamins A, B and C.
High in HDL (high density lipoproteins); a source of amino acids, omega oils,
antioxidants.
Young fruit yield a high amount of protein and phosphorus, a fair source of calcium
and

iron,

Comparative content: Gram for gram, 7 times the vitamin C in oranges, 4 times the
calcium and twice the protein in milk, 4 times the vitamin A in carrots, 3 times the
potassium

in

bananas.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

22

100 gms or 1 cup of cooked malunggay leaves contain 3.1 g protein, 0.6 g fiber, 96 mg
calcium, 29 mg phosphorus, 1.7 mg iron, 2,820 mg beta-carotene, 0.07 mg thiamin,
0.14a mg riboflavin, 1.1 mg niacin, and 53 mg of vitamin C. (Dr. Lydia Marero of the
Food and Drug Research Institute -FNRI)

Studies
Moringa preparations have been cited often in scientific literature as antibiotic,
antiinflammatory, hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic. However, many of the reports
are

not

placebo-controlled

randomized

clinical

trials.

Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-tumor: Anti-inflammtory and Antitumor Activities of


Seeds Extracts of MalunggayA study showed the crude ethanol extract of dried seeds
inhibited the carrageenan-induced inflammation in the hind paw of mice by 85% at a
dosage of 3 mg/g body weight; the mature green seeds by 77%. The crude ethanol
extract also inhibited the formation of Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA)
induced by 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At a dosage of 100 ?g/ml, the
extract inhibited EBV-EA formation by 100% suggesting its antitumor-promoting
activity.
<Abstract:http://www.stii.dost.gov.ph/pjsweb/data/antitumor_of_malunggay.htm>
Ovarian Cancer: Possible Role of Moringa oleifera Lam. Root in Epithelial Ovarian
Cancer: A hormonal etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer has been long suspected. Study
suggests M Oleifera can interfere with hormone receptor-related and neoplastic growthrelated

cytokine

pathways

through

centrally

acting

mechanisms.

Asthma: Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam: A clinical study: Study


showed improvement in forced vital capacity, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate. It

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake
suggests

usefulness

for

MO

seed

kernel

in

patients

with

23

asthma.

Antibiotic: 50 years ago, a study yielded Pterygospermin, a compound that readily


dissociates into two molecules of benzyl isothiocyanate which has been shown to have
antimicrobial properties. Unfortunately, many of the reports of antibiotic efficacy in
humans were not from placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials. Recent studies
have

demonstrated

possible

efficacy

against

H.

pylori.

Antiurolithiatic: Study showed lowering of stone forming constituents in the kidneys


of calculogenic rats with the use of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of MO suggesting
antiurolithiatic

activity.

Antimicrobial / Water Purifyiing: Study of MO seeds paste for water purification


yielded a steroidal glycoside, strophantidin, a bioactive agent in the seed. The seed paste
was found effective in clarification and sedimentation of inorganic and organic matter in
raw water, reducing total microbial and coliform counts by 55% and 65% respectively, in
24

hours,

compared

to

alum

with

65%

and

83%

reduction.

Antipyretic / Wound Healing: Study of the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of
MO showed significant antipyretic activity in rats; the ethyl acetate extract of dried
leaves

showed

significant

wound

healing

on

rat

wound

models.

Analgeic: Previous studies have shown analgesic activity from the leaves of MO. This
study on the alcoholic extract of MO seeds showed potent analgesic activity comparable
to

that

of

aspirin

dose

of

25

mg/kg

BW.

Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic / Anti-Atherosclerotic: Study showed lowering of


cholesterol levels and reduction of the atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results indicate
MO possesses antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic activities and has
therapeutic

potential

for

the

prevention

of

cardiovascular

diseases.

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

24

Anti-Diabetic: Study of the aqueous extract of MO leaves in STZ-induced sub, mild,


and severely diabetic rats produced lowering of blood glucose levels, significant
reduction in urine sugar and urine protein levels. Study validates scientifically claims
on

MO

as

ethnomedicine

in

the

treatment

of

diabetes

mellitus.(

http://stuartxchange.com/Malunggay.html)

SWEET POTATO

Root crops have long been underestimated by the public because of their
traditional image as a poor mans crop. However, their capacity to withstand marginal
cultural and environmental conditions has made them indispensable to upland farming
systems. Most root crops respond well to recommended cultural practices and offer a
broad variety of end products and ways of utilization. Therefore, these are considered
important components of the agricultural and agro-industrial sectors of tropical
countries, such as the Philippines. Advances in root crops research and development
(R&D), especially for sweet potato and cassava, have transformed these crops from a
lowly subsistence staple food to important commercial crops with multiple uses as
processed snack foods, ingredients for feed formulation, and industrial starch of varied
uses. Considering that positive industry developments continue to happen, root crops
have great potentials and opportunities to capture a good share of the world market, not
to mention the broad domestic market opportunities.

Commodity Industry Situation


About one million resource-poor households in the Philippines are engaged in
root crop farming. Majority of these are subsistence farms characterized by shifting

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

25

cultivation in the uplands and marginal areas. Leading root crop producing regions
include Eastern Visayas, Bicol, Central Visayas, and Southern Tagalog. For the first
three regions, root crops have become a survival crop for helping sustain farmers and
their families during calamities and food crisis.
Root crops share a little over 5% of total agricultural value added of 30% of the
gross domestic product. This implies that the value added of root crops to gross
domestic product is minimal (only 1.5%). However, the importance of root crops for
many years, lies in its life-sustaining role among resource-poor subsistence farmers and
the great potentials of root crops in uplifting the lives of these farmers once
commercialization is implemented. Root crops could thus help reduce poverty and
contribute to the food security program of the government. Among the major root crops
in the Philippines, sweetpotato and cassava are the most important.
Sweetpotato
Pilot project in wheat flour substitution using sweetpotato flour.
sweetpotato flour can substitute for wheat flour from 20% to 100% level in some
yeast breads (pande sal and hot rolls); quick breads (paborita, cheese crackers, and
coconut cookies); and snack items (polvoron, gollorias and doughnut). Bakery products
using sweetpotato flour except doughnut are acceptable to consumers. The use of
cassava and sweetpotato flour as substitute for wheat flour, even at 20% level, will
reduce wheat importation (Palomar 1980).
Processing technologies for sweetpotato. The limited fresh rootsmarket is a deterrent
to the expansion of root crop production. Root crop processing technologies are viewed
as means to widen the range of root crop utilization, thus expand the market and

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

26

increase valueadded from root crops. Root crop products developed by PhilRootcrops
researchers
include:
Root soy sauce
- uses of sweetpotato flour in making a naturallyfermented soy sauce
Bakery products
sweetpotato flour can be used in selected bakery products like cookies,
paborita, cheese crackers, muffins, gollorias, cakes, and others. Root crop flour can be
used 100% in making polvoron and some cakes.
Production/Processing
Technology adoption is slow.
Significant advances have been made during the last two decades in generating
information and technologies for root crops, but technology adoption has been slow in
view of the unattractive market opportunities for fresh roots.
Unstable yield. Feedbacks from root crop farmers revealed the problem of sustaining
yield of root crops over time especially when planted on the same field. This could be
due to the depletion of soil fertility, allelopathy, or degeneration of quality of planting
materials due to accumulation of pests and diseases.
Limited product diversification. Since root crops do not offer an attractive income,
especially in the fresh form, the industry should look into developing products that
would have higher valueadded and export potential.
Limited industrial use in the country. Root crops are a major source of starch and
energy with varied industrial uses, but the country has yet to tap its potentials.
Utilization/Marketing Underutilization and market

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

27

uncertainty. Inspite of the wide product possibilities from root crops, people still
consider root crops mainly as source of raditional products.(www.google.com)

In the Philippines, sweet potatoes (locally known as camote or kamote) are an


important food crop in rural areas. They are often a staple among impoverished families
in provinces, as they are easier to cultivate and cost less than rice. [28] The tubers are
boiled or baked in coals and may be dipped in sugar or syrup. The stew obtained from
boiling camote tops is purple-colored, and is often mixed with lemon as juice. Sweet
potatoes are also sold as street food in suburban and rural areas. Fried sweet potatoes
coated with caramelized sugar and served in skewers (camote cue) are popular afternoon
snacks.[29] Sweet potatoes are also used in a variant of halo-halo called ginatan, where
they are cooked in coconut milk and sugar and mixed with a variety of
rootcrops, sago, jackfruit and bilu-bilo(glutinous rice balls).[30] Bread made from sweet
potato flour is also gaining popularity.(www.wikipedia.com/2010)

Sweet Potato is one of the most important food sources in the Philippines. It is
likewise appreciated as a source of antioxidants for neutralizing body toxins as byproducts of metabolism. Nowadays, the demand for sweet potato has dramatically
increased with the realization of its potential for commercial applications. It is used as a
raw material for manufacturing of flours, starch and pectin that are highly
commercializable and exported to other Asian countries like of Japan, China and Korea.
Its flour can be processed into products of fermentation such as soy sauce and alcohol.
On the other hand, starch is also a material used in the manufacture of textiles or
paper while dried sweet potato chips find in animal feed formulation.

(http://www.bar.gov.ph/bardigest/2009/janmar09_sweetpotato.asp)

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

28

REVIEW OF RELATED FOREIGN LITERATURE AND STUDIES


LITERATURE:
The History of Cupcakes: By Lisa Paterson
Ads by Google
While no one is quite certain where cupcakes came from, it is known that they made an
appearance in the United States sometime in the 19th Century. Called Fairy Cakes in
the United Kingdom, cupcakes revolutionized how cake was made and mothers across
the land lauded the blessing.

Prior to the introduction of the cupcake to the kitchens of America, cakes were made by
weighing the ingredients. Cupcakes were made by measuring the ingredients for the
first time. It has been suggested that this is perhaps where the term "cup cake"
originated, since everything was measured in cups. Other origins of the name have also
been offered, such as the fact they are baked in a cup but at one time, cupcakes were
also called "number cakes". This name originated from the recipe, whereby it required
"...once cup butter, two cups sugar, three cups flour, four eggs..." At one time, recipes
called for cupcakes to be "...baked into little tins."

Until the turn of the 20th century, cupcake pans were virtually unheard of forcing
bakers to use more formidable cups for baking, unless they wanted to bake their small
cakes into loaf form. Using hearth ovens, which needed longer cooking times for larger
cakes, caused bakers to seek other ways to bake their cake and still have time to eat it.
With the advent of the cupcake, not only were bakers able to achieve shorter cooking
times, they were also able to change the way they prepared them once the baking part

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

29

was finished. No longer did bakers need to create larger, heavier cakes. With the
production of the cupcake, people could slake their desire for something small and
sweet.Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Lisa_Paterson

Steps to Start Home-Based Cupcakes Business


By Yuliana Christina
Cupcakes are a popular treat in America. They are not only available in America
but also available in other countries. In England, cupcakes are called fairy cakes, and
in Australia, they are called patty cakes. They are named 'cupcakes' because they are
served in paper or aluminum liners or cups.

Cupcakes have become many people's favorite treat. Some even turn their love for
cupcakes into home-based business. Actually, it is not difficult to run a home-based
cupcakes business because cupcake recipes and ingredients are available everywhere.
Moreover, the number of cupcake aficionados has significantly increased in the last two
decades. Here are some key factors to consider when starting your own cupcake
business.

1.

Commitment.

In order to start a business, you must have commitment. Running a business without
commitment means you are just wasting your money. With commitment, you can tackle
all the problems and obstacles that you will encounter later on in your business.

2.

Legality.

You must collect sufficient information before getting a permit for selling home-based
products. You can consult the health department or other related departments in your

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

30

area. In America, several counties strictly supervise production of foods made by homebased business. If there are requirements to run your business, you have to fulfill those
requirements immediately.

3.

Business

plan.

After fulfilling all regulations and requirements, the next step is creating a business
plan. A business plan is very crucial, because it determines the success of your
business. It includes the types of cupcakes that you want to sell, prices of cupcakes,
promotion strategies, profit margins, suppliers, and other information. It is better that
you research the prices, types of cupcakes and promotion strategies of your
competitors. If you are not sure about your capability in creating a business plan, you
can consult your friends who are already running a business.

4. Market.
You must perform market research to make sure that there is a market for your
product.

5. Team.
Running a home based business is simple, but it takes large amount of time. If you
really want your business to prosper, hire some people and form a team. Each person in
your team should be assigned with different task such as baking, marketing and
customer service and administration.

6. Location.
Location relates closely with your marketing strategy. Home-based business does not
always mean that you sell your cupcakes at home. You can rent a small place in a

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

31

strategic location to sell your cupcakes.Article

(http://www.ehow.com/info_7943014_new-product-launch-process.html/2009)
Most cupcake recipes are very easy to make and you really only need a few pieces
of kitchen equipment. This is my basic list of cupcake utensils and equipment.

1. Measuring cups

9. Cake tester

2. Measuring spoons

10. Cooling racks

3. Electric stand mixer or hand mixer

11. Piping bags and nozzles

4. Food Processor

12. Bowls in assorted sizes

5. Wooden Spoon

13. Flour sieve or sifter

6. Spatula

14. Kitchen timer

7. Cupcake trays

15. Kitchen scales

8. Cupcake liners

If you do a lot of baking and love to frost your cakes, I would suggest that the following
equipment for making cupcakes could be useful:
1. Cupcake stand
2. Frosting knife
3. Assorted cupcake trays in fun shapes
(http://www.all-about-cupcakes.com/cupcake-equipment.html/2010)

An Oven

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

32

An oven is essential for baking cupcakes but it does not matter if it is an electric or gas
oven. But be aware that some ovens do have hotspots and some will cook quicker than
others. As you get to know your own oven, you will know whether to turn your cupcake
pans halfway through baking to ensure that the cupcakes are evenly browned and
risen, or whether you will need a little less or more cooking time.

Measuring Equipment

It is important that the correct proportions of ingredients are used as the wrong
amounts can give disappointing results. So make sure that you have accurate scales,
cups and spoons.

Sieves

A large sieve is perfect for sifting the dry ingredients such as flour and icing sugar
before mixing, but when it comes to dusting the finished cupcakes a smaller sieve works
best.

Bowls and Spoons


You can get away with using the most basic equipment to beat together most cupcake
recipes. Although you can use an electric mixer if you prefer.

Cupcake Pan Sizes

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

33

A cupcake cake pan (also known as muffin tins) are available in a variety of sizes, but
there are three main sizes: mini (3-5cm, 2inch), medium (7cm, 2 3/4inch), large (8.5cm,
3 1/2inch). The number of cups in each tin will vary; you can get some mini cupcake
pans with 20 - 30 cups. The regular cupcake pans usually come with 12 cups although
silicone cupcake pans come with less. Metal cupcake pans will need to be greased if you
are not going to line them with paper cupcake liners. The silicon moulds are very handy
in that they do not need to be greased and the cupcakes are easily removed as soon as
the

cupcakes

are

cooled.

Cupcake Papers
Paper cupcake liners are available in a variety of colors, designs and sizes. You can find
one for just about every occasion - Weddings, Christmas, Fourth of July, Halloween,
Valentines day etc. There are papers with balloons, flowers, hearts, polka dots and a
variety of plain colors as well as gold and silver. If you are finding it difficult to find a
colored or pattern cupcake paper a plain one will do, it's what is inside and on the top
that counts.
Timers
Just like the measuring equipment, timing is important when it comes to making
cupcakes. You can buy a kitchen timer or use a clock or your watch.
Wire Racks
Cup cake cakes should usually be transferred to a wire rack after baking and allowed to
cool completely before decorating.
http://www.creative-cupcake-ideas.com/making-cupcakes.html2008)

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

34

Cupcake Ingredients for Cupcake Recipes


Cupcake recipes make baking cupcakes as easy as 1 - 2 - 3! You don't have to
know how to cook to bake cupcakes.Cupcake recipes make it easy and for everyone. But
before we begin baking the most scrumptious cupcakeswe need to review some general
rules about bakingcupcakes.
Like anything, your first attempt at baking cupcakeswon't be perfect. It's an art and it
takes time to perfect that art. The more you practice, the nicer your cupcakeswill be!
You need three main things before you start baking your first batch of cupcakes:
1- A killer cupcake recipe (which I will be providing for you so you can check that off the
list!)
2- The right set of tools and some knowledge of how thecupcake ingredients work.
3- A lot of cupcake love.
If you can check all of those things off your list, then you are ready to start
making cupcakes. If you can't check off number 2, then you are in the right place
because I will explain to you the ins, the outs, the goods and the uglies of
baking cupcakes. First of all, cupcake ingredients: flour, milk, eggs, butter (I use salted
but if you want to add the salt separately be my guest and use unsalted) baking powder,
sugar, vanillaextract. These ingredients are the basics of what you will need to
make cupcakes. Most of these cupcake ingredients are pretty straightforward, but I'm
going to explain a few things about a few of these ingredients to you.
First I'm going to separate into dry cupcake ingredientsand wet cupcake ingredients.
This isn't as straightforward as you may think.
Dry Cupcake Ingredients: Wet Cupcake Ingredients:
Flour Milk

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

35

Baking Powder Eggs


Butter Vanilla Extract
Sugar
You might be wondering why butter falls into the category of dry cupcake
ingredients and why sugar is wet. Just accept it. In the baking world, that's how we do
it. Okay, if you demand an explanation, here it is. Butter, unless melted, would be very
difficult to combine with dry ingredients if it is already in with wet ingredients. So we
add it to the dry cupcake ingredients first to create a sort of crumble-like texture which
makes it easier to add the wet ingredients to after. To understand why sugar is a wet
cupcake ingredient, first I will explain baking powder and it's properties. Baking powder
is a leavening agent, which means it makes things rise. (so we don't have
flattened cupcakes!) The baking powder becomes activated when it becomes wet. Baking
powder makes flour rise. Sugar does not rise. For example, if you put together sugar
and baking powder and added some milk, nothing would rise. When you add sugar to
dry ingredients, it doesn't always distribute itself evenly. But to wet ingredients you have
a better chance at having evenly distributed sugar in your cupcakes! This is due to
the texture of the sugar.
Something very important about adding dry cupcake ingredients and wet cupcake
ingredients - You want to add the wet to the dry and you don't want to do it all at once.
The way it works is as soon as the leavening (the baking powder) gets wet, it is
activated. From there the clock begins to tick. You don't want to over agitate
yourcupcake ingredients after you add the wet to the dry because if you overmix
your cupcakes will not rise properly. The goal is to mix just enough, not too much or too
little. It might take a few tries to get right, but this is very important. It's what separates

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake

36

the bad cupcakes from the good cupcakes. We want to treat our cupcake
ingredients with respect because cupcake ingredients do not grow on trees!
(http://bestcupcakerecipes.blogspot.com/2009/02/cupcake-ingredients-for-cupcakerecipes.html)
SWEET POTATOES:
Health Benefits of Sweet Potatoes
In some homes in the United States, sweet potatoes are only served at Thanksgiving,
even though they are available year-round. Too bad. Sweet potatoes are one of the
unsung heroes of a balanced diet. For a reasonable number of calories, you get a load of
nutrients. Sweet potatoes contain carotenoids that appear to help stabilize blood sugar
levels and lower insulin resistance, making cells more responsive to insulin. This can
ultimately help with your metabolism.

Sweet potatoes are packed with beta-carotene.


Health Benefits
This starchy vegetable has bulk to keep your tummy full for hours. Yet its nutritional
profile makes the calories worth it, especially since they are fat-free. Its fiber alone is
enough to make a sweet potato worth eating.

If a beta-carotene contest were held, sweet potatoes would tie carrots for first place.
That may make them top-notch for fighting chronic diseases like cancer and heart
disease, as well as disease related to inflammation, such as asthma and rheumatoid

Market Acceptability of
Sweet Potaro-Malunggay Cupcake
arthritis. Sweet potatoes are also rich in potassium and vitamin C; a small potato
provides almost half the daily allowance.

37

(http://home.howstuffworks.com/sweet-potatoes3.htm)
Sweetpotato in Asia

Sustainable strategies for reducing poverty

In Asias rapidly developing economy, rural poverty persists, with more than 200
million rural poor living on less than US$1 a day. Vibrant growth and evolving markets
mean that knowledge about how to adapt small scale farming systems to change is a
crucial tool for increasing their incomes. Asia accounts for 86 percent of
world sweetpotato production, with China alone contributing 80 percent.Sweetpotato is
also a major crop in India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, and other
Pacific Islands. In South Asia, sweetpotato is an important staple for food security, but
much of thesweetpotato grown in the region is destined for animal feed or processing.
CIP priorities are on providing adapted varieties that are nutritious, can be used for
food and feed, are tolerant to drought and salinity, and are pest and disease resistant.
Projects train farmers insweetpotato crop management, with efforts directed at adding
value, developing products, improving collaboration, and strengthening links
throughout the market chain. In other projects the development of cheap,
nutritious sweetpotato based feed formulas reduces production costs, resulting in
greater gross margins for the regions farmers who largely depend on mixed croplivestock agricultulture.

Approximately 45 percent of the worlds vitamin A-deficient (VAD) children and pregnant
women live in South and Southeast Asia. The condition causes blindness, disease and
premature death. and although the use of orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) in Asia to
combat VAD is not yet as advanced as it is in Africa, CIP is introducing varieties that are
rich in Vitamin A along with successful outreach programs promoting their
consumption
Cupcake Economics
by ADMIN on OCTOBER 31, 2011
Cupcakes have created a craze in the United States, and markets are quickly forming
around the new buzz. The cupcake market is coming to be and soon it will be watched
by investors for potential business ventures. In the meantime, small shop owners are
coming out to set up and sell delicious cupcakes to those who could use a yummy
snack or treat.
The good news about the cupcake market is that competition is heating up and
the pressure to produce great, low priced cupcakes is on. The bad news is for
entrepreneurs on the other side of the fence that are trying to just break even keeping
their stores open. Regardless, the increased attention for the snack marks a new
cultural change that will shape the future of the food business.
In the Pittsburgh area, there are 81 retail stores that sell baked goods and are
considered to be the heart of cupcake entrepreneurship in the city. Bakers running
establishments like these within Pittsburgh are only raking in an average of $20,000
per year. Thats not a bad start for a budding market, but it still raises concerns.
One concern within this specific is the inflation of cupcake cost. A good market
for the Pittsburgh area is generally expected to kick the price of the average cupcake up.

The more dollars that the average person shells out for a cupcake, the more shops can
move in, the easier it is to establish a shop, and the more money the bakers make. The
downside of this is that the prices might inflate far too much. The average worker in
Pittsburgh might have to pay more and more out of pocket for the treat, making the area
less attractive to live and work in. The city can rest assured that the sale of one treat
wont affect the local economy too drastically.
On the scale of the U.S. Economy things are much different. The United States
actually imports over 700 million dollars in baked goods more than it exports. This
means that there is a massive trade gap between how much we produce and how much
we buy from other countries.
Economists look to culinary training schools and institutions that have been
pumping out highly qualified chefs for decades. In order to compete with the other
countries in the baked goods market, the United States needs to shape up and make
full use of its creative, culinary potential. Those individuals indirectly bring money into
the country with goods that foreign buyers find valuable.
America is no France or Switzerland. Chances are, we wont be the worlds
baking superpower, but that wont stop the country from competing more intensely with
better goods. As a country, we are producing millions of cupcakes by the droves and
crates to be shipped anywhere. Maybe we could close our trade gap by marketing these
rapid fire cupcakes overseas.(http://www.cupcakes.org/cupcake-economics/2010)
December, 2009 > People
Let Them Eat Cupcakes!
Text by Sona Bahadur
Published: Volume 17, Issue 12, December, 2009

The pretty yum things are making life so chic


and sweet.
Say hello to cupcakes and the ladies who are
taking their cult forward in India
Love it. Scorn it. You dare not ignore the little mighty cupcake. The diminutive American
staple has risen up the ranks to emerge as one of the sexiest sweeties of our times. Its
almost up there with Barbie, strawberry daiquiris and pink feather boas. And now its
becoming

an

Indian

sweetheart.

Rangoli

cupcakes,

anyone?

The tiny dessert has big potential in India. Its proportions complement the bite-sized
mithais Indians are used to, its sweeter than most Western desserts and it satisfies the
craving

for

something

different.

Actually, the cupcake takes the cake for being a rock star wherever it goes. Which other
dessert has inspired boutique bakeries in tony Manhattan? Or had cookbooks, blogs
and magazines devoted entirely to it? Online cupcake communities have cupcakeaholics
drooling you might just stumble upon a CBA (Cupcake Bakers Anonymous) in
Cyberia. And folks, please mark December 15 as a day of international importance. Its
Lemon

Cupcake

Day!

How the humble cupcake held its own against the formidable cake and came close to
upstaging it at childrens parties and high-end weddings alike is a delicious
affirmation of the David-Goliath myth, the ultimate crumbs-to-riches story. You can be
small and win, vouches the cupcake. Indeed, you can win because youre small. Their
size is more efficient for heat conduction, ergo cupcakes bake faster than layer cakes.
Thats what made them revolutionary when they were first invented in the 19th century.
Less is more. The transformative power of the cupcake is legendary. Witness its

astonishing metamorphosis from its homey 1950s squiggle-topped Hostess avatar to its
2000s superglam status as the chic comfort snack of Sex and The Citys Manolo-crazy
heroines.

Ugly

duckling

turned

swan.

Thats

our

cupcake.

A cupcake is approachable. Most people will try one rather than a slice of cake. Theres
something very satisfying about the display of a cupcake which you dont get with a
cookie or a brownie, says a blogger. Pastries dont have that aha factor. They dont make
peoples faces light up when they stare into a bakery case the way cupcakes do. And
cupcakes get more brownie points for making people social than any other sweet. Hows
that?v The pretty yum things can teach their PYT devotees a thing or two about
makeovers and moving with the times. Take the legendary red velvet cupcake. Once an
old-fashioned recipe that relied on the chemical reaction of unprocessed cocoa with
buttermilk to get its trademark red hue, it now thrives on food colouring. Cupcakes vote
for

change.

(Theres

even

an

Obama

cupcake.)

Be yourself, says cupcake the individualist. To each his or her own frosting. Theres one
for every kind of personality. Devils food with chocolate ganche for die-hard
chocoholics, white chocolate and green tea for sophisticates, chai latte or mocha for
caffeine addicts and gluten-free for the flour challenged. Careerists like the rise-rise
success story of cupcakes. Romantics like its creamy swirling peaks. The part everyone
likesyou

dont

have

to

share

it.

One of the few industries to boom during recession, the American cupcake bubble has
left economists mighty impressed. As a cupcake analyst observed, the economic
rationale of the desserts seems to withstand all conditions. When the economy is going
well, people can afford little extras like cupcakes. When the economy is not going well,
people can afford only cupcakes. Smart cookie.

FOREIGN STUDIES:
Malunggay (Sajina or Moringa) plant grows in the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and
other regions of the Far East. The plant is sometimes referred to as nature's medicine
cabinet and a miracle vegetable or horseradish tree for its root taste. The plant grows in
hot tropical climates, deserts and living rooms. Moringa has sprouts of flowers, appear
eight months during the year. These flowers are edible when cooked (taste like
mushrooms) or used to make tea, containing calcium and potassium. A seed or cut
branch can grow into a fifteen - foot tree in a year. The rugged plant can grow in
drought conditions, and withstand overly acidic, alkaline, and salty soil. The dozen
known species of Malunggay has different known characteristics, grown in different
parts of the world. In Madagascar Moringa has blue fungus, grown in Mexico has green
cactuses, and in Oman appears as bubous tree. The bark of the tree sometimes used to
make mats and rope. The leaves taste like spinach (Contains three times the iron of
spinach. Also, a Moringa dried leaf has over ten times more nutrients than a fresh
Moringa leaf, confirmed by universities and independent research laboratory analyses.),
and its fruit produces a vegetable, like asparagus. Both contain Vitamin C (seven times
more than found in oranges) and other minerals. Sajina contains seven times the
amount of Vitamin C found in oranges, four times as much calcium as milk (A
substitute for whole milk powder.) and three times the potassium of bananas. Moringa
has quadruple amount of beta Carotene found in carrots, which is good for eyesight,
and effective against treating cancer.
The Moringa plant provides nutrition for healthy skin (Provide healing benefits for cuts,
scrapes, rashes, and cracking signs of aging.), bone, muscle development, medicinal
properties, enriches anemic blood (An extract from Moringa leaf has been shown to be

effective in lowering blood sugar levels within three hours of ingestion. The effects
increased with larger doses.), in Africa nursing mothers have been shown to produce
more milk when Moringa leaves have been added to their diet, and natural source of
energy supplement. Also, University laboratories around the world have shown Moringa
ability to purify water. The process by which, it attaches itself to harmful material and
bacteria. Afterwards, waste is expelled. Doctors use it to treat diabetes in West Africa
and high blood pressure in India. Other known health benefits include: Strengthening
immune system, blood pressure controlled, reducing arthritis pains and inflammations,
restricting the growth of tumors, managing diabetes sugar level, and treating headaches
and migraines. Malunggay contains the phytochemical niaziminn, found to have
molecular components that can prevent the development of cancer cells. The edible
parts of Malunggay (leaves, pods, and flowers) are served with meals or converted to a
powder, used as a food supplement. Moringa provides excellent source of fuel and
fertilizer. The plant contains for human consumption very low fat and carbohydrates.
Roots of Moringa are used to treat sore throat and effective treating gingivitis
(Inflammation of the gums around the teeth). Many organizations around the world and
researchers study Malunggay. Since 1984, Wichita Kansas based Trees for Life been
planting Sajina in impoverished places including a Twon in India of 40,000 residents,
providing an improved structured diet. Researchers at the Britain University of
Leichester is studying the coagulating properties of the seeds, found in the Moringa
pods, believe to work better than known water purifier aluminum sulfate, which can be
toxic. International Eye Foundation based in Bethesda Maryland, is using Maringo to
treat childhood blindness, attributed to seventy percent lacking vitamin A. The National
Science Foundation, National Geographic Society and Ander Mellon Foundations is

financing, the collection of thirteen known species of Moringa. Published studies in the
journal Phytotherapy Research and HortScience discovered different Moringa parts to
be effective in lowering blood sugar, reducing swelling, lowering blood pressure, healing
gastric ulcers and calming the nervous system. Moringa contains nutrients attributed
that are lacking, causing diseases such as Beri beri, rickets, and scurvy. Three
spoonfuls of Moringa leaf powder contain these nutrients: Vitamin 'A' - 272%, protein 42%, calcium - 125%, iron - 71% and Vitamin 'C' - 22%. Reported in September 2006,
Japanese businessman Mitsuo Shoji has developed a tea made from Malunggay plant.
Contains antioxidants, amino acids vitamins and minerals for healthy nutritional
supplement. In a Bible passage: "tree that cures all diseases." The tea distributed by
Yumeshoji Trading Corporation. According to Shoji, people suffering from chronic
diseases should consume at least 3.5 grams of the powdered tea. Also, he mentioned
those who take Moringa Condensed Powder may experience a "slight to moderate
discomfort" depending on their health status. Moringa is available for purchase at
Indian cuisine stores selling pickled Moringa green pods as drumsticks (Most valued
and widely used part of the tree.). The website Seedman.com sell Moringa seeds, which
can be grown in any container. Also, available for purchase at Carter Seeds: (760/724 4750).

(http://voices.yahoo.com/utilizing-malunggay-nutrition-health-

83262.html.2010)
A Study in Cupcake Excellence
Add a commentPublished on Tuesday, May 4, 2010, by C. Thi Nguyen / Edit Post
In Malaysia, a lot of people are down on cupcakes now, maybe because "the
groupie part of the cupcakes scene has been dying a painstaking death and it's being

slowly laid to rest in the fad compost heap along with froyo," says bulavinaka. But don't
despair. "I think if one keeps an open mind and gives good food a chance, one will find
the great examples out there." Cupcakes included.
The newest find: SugarJones Cupcakes, a stand at the Sunday Mar Vista Farmers'
Market that has very well-executed cupcakes, says bulavinaka.

The cake portion is

larger than average, and relatively dense, almost like pound cake. "I've read complaints
by many that by nature, cupcakes are going to be drier than an conventional cakethis
is true in general because the crumb proportion of cake interior is relatively small to the
the surrounding exposed portion. But the combination of the broader dimension as well
as the strong execution in preparing and baking this cupcake shows in the results,"
says bulavinaka. The frosting has "a nice sweetness that isn't cloying, the flavors are
subtle yet enduring, and the texture is substantial but not greasy," says bulavinaka.
This might be because of the touch of saltiness in the frosting, says Dommy. It makes
the frosting kind of weird on its own, but perfect as a companion to the cake.
SugarJones also has massive homemade Oreos that are very likable, says Jase,
especially the filling. The texture of the cookie is nice, too, with some bite and chew, but
not

quite

crumbly.

(http://www.chow.com/digest/45617/a-study-in-cupcake-

excellence/2010)

New Study: Cupcakes Are Like Cocaine


India November 14, 2011

Does that sound as dumb to the rest of you as it does to me?

A growing body of medical research at leading universities and government laboratories


suggests that processed foods and sugary drinks made by the likes of PepsiCo Inc. and
Kraft Foods Inc. (KFT) arent simply unhealthy. They can hijack the brain in ways that
resemble addictions to cocaine, nicotine and other drugs.
The data is so overwhelming the field has to accept it, said Nora Volkow, director of the
National Institute on Drug Abuse. We are finding tremendous overlap between drugs in
the brain and food in the brain.
The idea that food may be addictive was barely on scientists radar a decade ago. Now
the field is heating up. Lab studies have found sugary drinks and fatty foods can
produce addictive behavior in animals. Brain scans of obese people and compulsive
eaters, meanwhile, reveal disturbances in brain reward circuits similar to those
experienced by drug abusers. Of course theres overlap between cupcakes and cocaine.
Im sure theres overlap among all things that give us pleasure, from video games to
pizza to sex. Which is why people are addicted to so many things. Addiction is really
just an inability, or a refusal, to moderate some sort of consumption. Some people are
addicted to junk food. Some people are addicted to video games. Some people are
addicted to working out. Some of this behavior is more harmful than other types of
behavior. Being addicted to a video game is better than, say, being addicted to cocaine
from the health perspective, but if addiction is the threshold for whether or not the
government begins regulating our use of something then were going to have to regulate
and/or ban just about everything.
We are living in plentiful times. We are at the pinnacle of prosperity, in terms of history,
with more disposable income and more free time to spend on things that give us

pleasure than perhaps any other generation before us. Surprise, surprise that a lot of
people would overindulge.
I say let people make the choices they want to make.
(http://sayanythingblog.com/entry/new-study-cupcakes-are-like-cocaine/2011)

SWEET POTATOES
Steven R. King, Ph.D., Shaman Pharmaceuticals, Inc., South S.F., CA
Adapted from Pacific Discovery, Vol.45, No. 1, pp.23-31, Winter, 1992.
Europeans first sampled sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) in the Caribbean. This tuber
traveled through the Pacific to Asia, where its popularity makes it one of the world's top
15 food crops today. Native to Mexico, the sweet potato has no botanical or ecological
relationship with the true potato from the Andes. The Spanish brought sweet potatoes
to the Philippines and the Portuguese distributed them further across the Pacific. The
Maori integrated sweet potatoes into their mythology and have elaborate ceremonies
connected to its planting, harvest, and storage.
Today China grows nearly 80 percent of the world's sweet potatoes. The sweet potato
reached China from Okinawa in the early 1600's. It had become popular in southern
Japan partly due to its resistance to insects and to the typhoons that sometimes
devastated rice crops. During a major Japanese famine in the 1730's, sweet potatoes
prevented

many

from

(http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/Ethnobotany/page5.php/1992)

starving.

The truth about men, women and food


Are men hard-wired to eat meat? Do women have an innate need for cupcakes? Eva
Wiseman reports
Bep Sandhu, from Mars, told trade magazine The Grocer: "The lighter version will help
expand the appeal of the brand to female professionals looking for a lighter snack."
Along with the new Galaxy Bubbles, it appears that yet another market of chocolate for
women is blossoming the diet bar. "The role of marketers is to understand motivations,
needs and desires, so we're always mindful of consumers' changing needs," says
Elizabeth Davies, communications manager at Nestl, where they're responsible for
marketing both Kit Kat Chunky (manly) and Kit Kat Senses (ladylike). "If there is an
obvious gender split, and the incremental business opportunity can be justified without
jeopardising the core brand, then brands will continue to seize the initiative." BishopWeston sees gender differences less in how people eat, more in how they think about
their diets. "Women have more emotional attachments to food due to media pressure
they attach guilt to carbs and saturated fats, and often feel a responsibility to eat
healthily in a way that men don't," she says. "Interestingly, though, I see a trend
towards 'effort' that spans and unites the sexes. People are becoming more receptive to
things that take longer. People are looking for an identity with their food. People are
buying breadmakers! As everybody's lives are getting more stressful we feel worse, and
we need more nutrients. So both men and women are getting scared into eating well."
Another food trend that comes dipped in gender is the so-called "cupcake revolution".
While the "fairy cake", as we used to call these palm-sized party snacks, summons
images of angry four-year-olds pushing Smarties up their nose, the "cupcake" brings

fragrant visions of a pre-feminist 1950s housewife, baking for pleasure. Alongside their
appearance on Sex and the City, where they were fetishised to within an inch of their
soon-stale little lives, cupcakes last year became fashionable in Britain too, with one fan
(who, dressed as her alter ego Cherry Bakewell, hosts cupcake parties) describing them
as a "real symbol of femininity, and a camp symbol of a bygone era". Here is the baked
and

ironic

response,

cupcake

lovers

say,

to

post-feminist

culture.

Similarly, Esquire magazine's Eat Like a Man blog celebrates "foods that men love and
ways that men eat", embracing the idea of gendered eating as a way of marking out
their masculinity in grilled meat.

(www.accessexcellence.org/2010)
ASSESSMENT
Malunggay had been known as the miracle vegetable not only here in the
Philippines but also in the other countries because of its versatility. According to the
studies each ounce of malunggay contains seven times the Vitamin C found in oranges,
four times the Vitamin A of carrots, three times the iron of spinach, four times as much
as calcium as milk and three times the potassium of bananas. Because of these
nutrients, malunggay serves as a medicine in many health problems like diabetes. One
of the best attributes of malunggay is that it is also quite tasty thats why malunggay
had been use as spice in some dishes here in the Philippines.
On the political aspect, seeing the importance of malunggay, Senator Loren
Legarda pushed for the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of the plant
in all suitable areas of the country. Legarda filed Senate Bill No. 1349 to task the
Department of Agriculture, in consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry,

Department of Environment and Natural Resources, farmers groups, local government


units, and the private sector, to formulate a five-year framework for developing
malunggay for food, medicinal, health and commercial needs
Sweet potatoes are low in calories and contain no saturated fats and
cholesterol, but are rich source of dietary fiber, anti-oxidants, vitamins and minerals.
Dr. Trinidad P. said that at least 80% of premature heart disease, stroke and type 2
diabetes, as well as 40% of cancer could be prevented through a healthy diet that
incorporate root crops, regular physical activity, and the avoidance of tobacco products.
These studies lead the researchers to include sweetpotato as part of the healthy
ingredients needed in making cupcakes. Sweet potatoes have undergone into different
processes to make healthy flour.
The trouble with most root crops is that these are not sexy and popular food
for those living in urban areas. Take the case of gabi and kamote, young people would
rather eat hamburger, chips and ice cream. Commercialism and fast food has skewed
consumers toward junk food. People come to realize the benefits of consuming rootcrops
when disease and poor health has already settled in their body system but its too late.
Whether it is a change of lifestyle or a change of eating habits, a new industry is
developing as consumers realize the need to eat healthy. These are not sexy food but
these can help you become healthy and sexy. - Trade and Industry Secretary Jesli A.
Lapus said.
In some homes in the United States, sweet potatoes are only served
at Thanksgiving, even though they are available year-round. This starchy vegetable has
bulk to keep your tummy full for hours. Root crops have long been underestimated by

the public because of their traditional image as a poor mans crop. For Eastern Visayas,
Bicol and Central Visayas, root crops have become a survival crop for helping sustain
farmers and their families during calamities and food crisis.
Most root crops offer a broad variety of end products and ways of utilization.
The importance of root crops for many years lies in its life-sustaining role among
resource-poor subsistence farmers and the great potentials of root crops in uplifting the
lives of these farmers once commercialization is implemented. Root crops could thus
help reduce poverty and contribute to the food security program of the government.

Because of this benefits that we can get from sweet potato, weve decided to use it as the
flour for our product. Actually there are already equipments that can turn the sweet
potato in to flour.

Since

1977,

Philrootcrops

has

generated

and

disseminated

root

crop

technologies and information that have helped improve the livelihood of root crop
growers, processors, and entrepreneurs nationwide. Advances in root crops research
and development (R&D), especially for sweet potato and cassava, have transformed
these crops from a lowly subsistence staple food to important commercial crops.
Considering that positive industry developments continue to happen, root crops have
great potentials and opportunities to capture a good share of the world market, not to
mention the broad domestic market opportunities. But despite of this there are still
some factors that might hinder the good propagation of the sweet potato flour. These are
the slow technology adoption, pests that affect the viability of sweet potato in terms of
production, the problem of sustaining yield of root crops, unorganized production
system that hinders the growers for achieving efficient root crop production, limited

product diversification because root crops do not offer an attractive income and limited
industrial use in the country. Government should allocate more time and funds in
building up our natural resources like sweet potato and malunggay because resources
like this our such treasure that would lead our country into success.

On the point of view of the children, the word vegetable makes them think that
it doesnt taste good anyway. In contrast, unlike children, adults are more health
conscious who know how to weigh the benefits that vegetable could give. The only way
to make children eat malunggay is to combine it with something that they love to eat-cupcake.
Cupcake made their appearance in the United States sometime in the 19 th
century. Cupcake had been called as Fairy Cakes in the United Kingdom. The term
cupcake had been originated from cup cake because every ingredient was measured in
cups. It revolutionized how cake was made and mother across the land lauded the
blessing. In the 20th century, cupcake pans were virtually unheard of forcing bakers to
use more formidable cups for baking. No longer did bakers need to create larger, heavier
cake. With the production of cupcake, people could slake their desire for something
small and sweet. Cupcakes have created a craze in the United States. The cupcake is
coming to be and soon it will be watched by investors. The increased attention for the
snack marks a cultural change that will shape the future of the food business by
ADMIN on October 31, 2011.
Here in the Philippines, most of the individuals are fond of eating cupcake.
They adopt the cupcake from other countries. These have been served for birthday
parties, weddings and even serve as baon of Filipino students. According to the

studies made in other countries, eating cupcakes has already been an addiction. Thats
why weve decided to make a cupcake that is healthy and good for everybody. We want
to turn that addiction into a practice where health is always put into consideration.
Because malunggay had been known as the miracle vegetable, entrepreneurs grab this
opportunity and make products out of malunngay. Malunggay cupcakes already exist,
but it does not widely introduced in to the market.
It is not impossible to make a delicious cupcake that is also good in to our
health. It just depends in to the right mixture of ingredients. Weve agreed to use the
sweet potato as our flour and put a filling in the malunggay cupcake to innovate the
said product.
In terms of marketability, the cupcake market is coming to be and soon it will be
watched by investors for potential business ventures. In the meantime, small shop
owners are coming out to set up and sell delicious cupcakes to those who could use a
yummy snack or treat. The good news about the cupcake market is that competition is
heating up and the pressure to produce great, low priced cupcakes is on. The bad news
is for entrepreneurs on the other side of the fence that are trying to just break even
keeping their stores open. Regardless, the increased attention for the snack marks a
new cultural change that will shape the future of the food business.As a country, we are
producing millions of cupcakes by the droves and crates to be shipped anywhere. Maybe
we could close our trade gap by marketing these rapid fire cupcakes overseas not just
on the local market parse.
Chapter 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Designing research methodology is the most difficult work that researchers need
to face. Because it is the stage where a researcher design methods of collecting
necessary information, test and retest the methods and lastly, come out with a proven
methodology needed in this kind of study. Simplifying the procedures by defining first
the respondents, survey area and sample size, followed by data collection methods and
procedures presentations and the description of the research questionnaire and various
statistical instrument used in the end is the objective of the research design and
methodology.
Primary and Secondary data is used in the study. Statistics and background
material was gathered from the maker of the cupcake. For the primary data a personal
interview survey with the assistant of structured questionnaire was conducted in the
First District of Laguna (San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa).

Primary Data
In analyzing the Acceptability of Sweet Potato Malunggay Cupcake in the First
District of Laguna (San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa), actual interviews were conducted
with several household and students. The several household and students are chosen
because they could tell the acceptability of the said product.
In that matter, presentation of whatever data in this study has been gathered
from an interview conducted on a one-on-one basis.

Survey Area
Area to be cover in this study by the researcher is the First District of Laguna
(San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa).

Respondents
The total sample respondents in this study is 400, consist of several households
and students in the First District of Laguna (San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa).

Research Design
A descriptive method was used in this study. The objective of this study is to learn the
who, when, what and how.
WHO: In the primary data, the respondents were the households (children, teenagers
and adults who eat cupcake. A total of 400 were gathered.
WHAT: Are the problems and objectives of this study.
WHEN:The survey was conducted in the course of the call made by the researcher.
WHERE: San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa (the first district of Laguna). This would be
unbiased on the location where the sample size was taken.
HOW: A personal interview was held with the help of questionnaire to be filled up by
the respondents.

Field Data Gathering


Several days before the distribution of the questionnaires; the researcher looked
for the areas in San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa. These locations are chosen where we
can conduct the survey.
To minimize time and transportation expenses we made schedules that conform
with our plans.

Control Procedure
To make sure in the quality of the data, the questionnaires were form through a
long period of analysis and undergo on a brain storming process.
were made to avoid and reduce errors.

Several revisions

Since the sequence of the questions is

important, we carefully choose the simplest questions to be on the beginning and the
hardest questions on the latter.
Secondary Data
Secondary data refer to information which is taken from published and
unpublished facts, and are previous gather by other individual.

Some are gathered

through the different websites in the internet, and other books, which contain topics
about the product.
We also used the population census on San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa as our
secondary sources to determine the total population on the first district which provides
very useful information about the market acceptability of our product.
Statistical Tools
Data gathered, were analyzed through the following statistical instruments:
Population
To come up with the most appropriate representation that will determine the
market acceptability of "Sweet Potato-Malunggay Cupcake", the proponents decided to
conduct the survey from the 1st District of Laguna.

Sample Size
The proponents first determined the total population of the municipalities,
involved in the study, with in San Pedro, Binan and Sta. Rosa. The sample size and the
sample were derived from the municipality. The Sloven's formula was utilized for the
computation of the sample size:
Where:
N = Population
e = Margin of Error
n = Sample Size
Given:
N = 914,480
e = 5% or 0.05
n=?
Formula:

N
1 + Ne2

Computation:

914,480
1 + 914,480 (0.05)2

914,480

1 + 914,480(0.0025)

914,480
1 + 2,286.2

399.825

400

Percentage or Relative Frequency Distribution


It is the fraction of all observations which fall into a category. The percentage for
a category is then the proportion multiplied by 100.
In symbol, it is expressed as:
P I = nI / n (100)
Where:
PI = percentage
nI = any number falling into a category
n = total number of observations

Distribution of Sample Size per Barangay of


San Pedro

BARANGAY

POPULATION PERCENTAGE

SAMPLE
SIZE

BagongSilang

5,860

1%

Cuyab

22,755

2%

10

Estrella

5,584

1%

G.S.I.S

2,662

0%

Landayan

28,677

3%

13

Langgam

17,965

2%

Laram

6,148

1%

Magsaysay

12,666

1%

Nueva

9,070

1%

Poblacion

6,360

1%

Riverside

4,605

0%

San Antonio

51,895

6%

23

San Roque

8,599

1%

San Vicente

94,096

10%

41

Santo Nio

4,417

0%

United Bayanihan

5,881

1%

United Better Living

7,356

1%

Sampaguita Village

4,960

1%

Calendola

4,140

0%

Narra

2,094

0%

TOTAL

305,790

33%

134

Distribution of Sample Size per Barangay of


Bian

BARANGAY

POPULATION

PERCENTAGE

SAMPLE
SIZE

Bungahan

1,593

0%

Malamig

2,770

0%

Casile

3,557

0%

Ganado

3,694

0%

Bian

3,742

0%

Zapote

4,025

1%

Poblacion

4,409

1%

San Jose

5,837

1%

Loma

6,033

1%

Mamplasan

6,068

1%

Sto. Domingo

6,100

1%

Tubigan

6,542

1%

Soro-Soro

7,607

1%

Sto. Nio

7,656

1%

Timbao

8,900

1%

Platero

13,000

1%

San Vicente

15,831

2%

Canlalay

19,023

2%

San Francisco

21,357

2%

10

San Antonio

21,582

2%

10

Langkiwa

25,371

3%

11

Malaban

27,239

3%

12

Dela Paz

29,798

3%

13

Sto. Tomas

46,715

5%

21

TOTAL

298,449

33%

131

Distribution of Sample Size per Barangay of


Sta. Rosa City

BARANGAY

POPULATION

PERCENTAGE

SAMPLE
SIZE

Aplaya

13,550

1%

Balibago

15,777

2%

Caingin

14,214

2%

Dila

34,959

4%

15

Dita

24,240

3%

11

Don Jose

16,481

2%

Ibaba

5,824

0%

Kanluran (Pob)

5,727

0%

Labas

17,369

2%

Macabling

17,012

2%

Malitlit

24,073

3%

11

Malusabe (Pob)

5,625

0%

Market Area (pob)

16,252

2%

Pooc

25,307

3%

11

Pulong Santa Cruz

19,107

2%

Santo Domingo

3,041

0%

Sinalhan

23,723

3%

10

Tagapo

27,960

3%

12

Total

310,241

34%

135

TOWN

PERCENTAGE

SAMPLE SIZE

SAN PEDRO

33

134

BINAN CITY

33

131

STA. ROSA

34

135

TOTAL

100%

400

CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter shows the results after conducting survey in the 1 st district of
Laguna. The survey questionnaires were used as research instruments, distributed on
the specified number of respondents needed. From the total population of 914,480, 400
respondents were taken as the sample size based on the computation provided on
chapter 3. The respondents answers were tallied, summarized, analyzed, presented,
and interpreted in relation to the market acceptability. From the tallied result, general
characteristics of the target market were drawn. Tables are used in the presentation of
facts, because of its simplicity and effectiveness in comparing variables.

After each

presentation, interpretation was made in relation to the validity of the proposal.

Demographic Profile

Table 4.1
Educational Attainment
Educational Attainment

Frequency

Percentage

Primary
Secondary

59

14.75%

177

44.25%

Tertiary

76

19%

Others

88

22%

400

100%

Total

Table 4.1 shows that out of 400 respondents, 59 or 14.75% have an educational
attainment of primary, 177 or 44.25% are secondary, 76 or 19% are tertiary and 88 or
22% are other than those mentioned earlier.

Table 4.2
Age
Age
18-27
28-37
38-47
48-57
Others
Total

Frequency
89
59
76
168
48

Percentage
22.25%
14.75%
19%
42.25%
12%

400

100%

Table 4.2 shows that out of 400 respondents, 89 or 22.25% aged 18-27, 59 or 14.75%
aged 28-37, 76 or 19% aged 38-47, 168 or 42.25% aged 48-57 and 48 or 12% aged
other than the given ones.

Table 4.3
Gender
Gender

Frequency

Percentage

Male

136

34%

Female

264

66%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.3 shows that out of 400 respondents, 136 or 34% are male while 264 or 66%
are female.

Table 4.4
Location
Location

Frequency

Percentage

San Pedro
Bian
Sta. Rosa
Total

134
131
135

33.5%
32.75%
33.75%

400

100.%

Table 4.4 shows that out of 400 respondents 134 or 33.5% are located in San Pedro,
131 or 32.75% are located in Bian and 135 or 33.75% are located in Sta. Rosa

Psychographic Profile

Table 4.5
Customer who eat vegetables
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Yes
No
No Response
Total

332
68
0

83%
17%
0%

400

100%

Table 4.5 shows that out of 400 respondents, 332 or 83% are eating vegetables and 68
or 17% are not eating vegetables.

Table 4.6
Customer who eat Malunggay
Response
Yes
No
No Response
Total

Frequency
256
76
68

Percentage
64%
19%
17%

400

100%

Table 4.6 shows that out of 400 respondents, 256 or 64% are eating Malunggay and 76
or 19% are not eating Malunggay.

Table 4.7
Customer who preferred to eat Malunggay Cupcake
Response
Yes
No
No Response
Total

Frequency
228
28
144

Percentage
57%
7%
36%

400

100%

Table 4.7 shows that out of 400 respondents, 228 or 57% are preferred to eat
Malunggay Cupcake and 28 or 7% are not preferred to eat Malunggay Cupcake.

Table 4.8
Customer who eat Sweet Potato
Response
Yes
No
No Response
Total

Frequency
268
132
0

Percentage
67%
33%
0%

400

100%

Table 4.8 shows that out of 400 respondents, 268 or 67% are eating Sweet Potato and
132 or 33% are not eating Sweet Potato.

Table 4.9
Customer who preferred to eat cupcake made from sweet potato flour
Response
Yes
No
No Response
Total

Frequency
169
99
132

Percentage
42.25%
24.75%
33%

400

100%

Table 4.9 shows that out of 400 respondents, 169 or 42.25% are preferred to eat
cupcake made from Sweet Potato flour and 99 or 24.75% are not preferred to eat
cupcake made from Sweet Potato flour.

Table 4.10
Cupcake preferred by customer
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Tested Cupcakes
Malunggay cupcake made
from sweet-potato flour
with leche flan filling

152

38%

248

62%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.10 shows that out of 400 respondents, 152 or 38% preferred to eat the tested
cupcake and 248 or 62% preferred to eat the Malunggay cupcake made from sweetpotato flour with leche flan filling.

Table 4.11
Ingredients that customers doesnt like in the Malunggay cupcake made
from sweet-potato flour with leche flan filling
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Malunggay

114

28.5%

Sweet Potato Flour

23

5.75%

Leche Flan

15

3.75%

No Response

248

62%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.11 shows that out of 400 respondents, 114 or 28.5% do not like the Malunggay
in the product, 23 or 5.75% do not like the Sweet Potato flour and 15 or 3.75% do not
like the Leche Flan.

Table 4.12
Reasons why customers like the Malunggay cupcake made from sweetpotato flour with leche flan filling
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Healthy Ingredients

97

24.25%

New taste Preference

62

15.5%

Taste

89

22.25%

No Response

152

38%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.12 shows that out of 400 respondents, 97 or 24.25% like the healthy
ingredients of the product, 62 or 15.5% like the product because of their new taste
preference and 89 or 22.25% like the taste of the product.

Table 4.13
Customers who will buy Sweet Potato-Malunggay Cupcake with Leche
Flan Filling
Response
Yes
No
No Response
Total

Frequency
256
144
0

Percentage
64%
36%
0%

400

100%

Table 4.13 shows that out of 400 respondents, 256 or 64% have answered positively
that they are going to buy Sweet Potato-Malunggay Cupcake with Leche Flan Filling
while 144 or 36% have answered negatively, meaning they are not going to buy the said
proposed product.

Table 4.14
Customers Reasons why they will buy Sweet Potato-Malunggay Cupcake
with Leche Flan Filling
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Health Benefit

102

25.5%

Taste

72

18%

Both

82

28.5%

No Response

144

36%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.14 shows that out of 400 respondents, 102 or 25.5%% have replied that they
will buy the proposed product because of its health benefits, on the other hand 72 or
18% have responded it is because of its taste and lastly, 82 or 28.5% have reasoned
out it is because both health benefits and taste were put into consideration why they
will buy the said product.

Table 4.15
Customers Reasons why they will not buy Sweet Potato-Malunggay
Cupcake with Leche Flan Filling
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Taste
it cannot compete w/other
tested cupcake

35

8.75%

69

17.25%

Both

40

1%

No Response

256

64%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.15 shows that out of 400 respondents, 35 or 8.75% have replied that they will
not buy the proposed product because of its taste factor, 69 or 17.25% have risen for
the reason that the product cannot compete with other tested cupcakes, and 40 or 1%
have chosen for both taste and being incompetent of the proposed product with other
tested cupcakes.

Table 4.16
How often the customer will buy the product
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Once a week
Twice a week

58
101

14.5%
25.25%

Thrice a week

97

24.25%

No Response

152

38%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.16 shows that out of 400 respondents, 58 or 14.5% will buy the product once a
week, 101 or 25.25% twice a week and 97 or 24.25% thrice a week.

Table 4.17
Price that the customer preferred to buy the Malunggay cupcake made
from sweet-potato flour with leche flan filling
Response

Frequency

Percentage

8 php

159

39.75%

9 php

59

14.75%

10 php

38

9.5%

No Response

144

36%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.17 shows that out of 400 respondents, 159 or 39.75% prefers to buy the new
product at 8php, 59 or 14.75% at 9php and 38 or 9.5% at 10php.

Table 4.18
Place that the customer preferred to buy the Malunggay cupcake made
from sweet-potato flour with leche flan filling
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Convenient Store

54

13.5%

Supermarket

154

38.5%

Market

48

12%

No Response

144

36%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.18 shows that out of 400 respondents, 54 or 13.5% prefers to buy the product
at the convenient store, 154 or 38.5% at the supermarket and 48 or 12% at the market.

Table 4.19
Type of Packaging that the customer preferred in the Malunggay cupcake
made from sweet-potato flour with leche flan filling
Response
Designed Mini Plastic
Boxes
Others
No Response
Total

Frequency
223
15
18
144

Percentage
55.75%
3.75%
4.5%
36%

400

100%

Table 4.19 shows that out of 400 respondents, 223 or 55.75% prefers the packaging of
the product in designed mini plastic,15 or 3.75% in boxes and 18 or 4.5% in other than
the given one.

Table 4.20
How the Customers would like the product To Be Advertised

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Television

143

35.75%

Print Ads

100

25%

Radio
Others

8
5

2%
1.25%

No Response

144

36%

Total

400

100%

Table 4.20 shows that out of 400 respondents, 143 or 35.75% would prefer the product
to be advertised through television, 100 or 25% through print ads, 8 or 2% through
radio and 5 or 1.25% through other than the given one.

MARKET ACCEPTABILITY

Gross Market Acceptability Rate

64%

Less: Conservatism Rate

25%

Net Market Acceptability Rate (NMAR)

39%

Total No. of Population

914,480

Multiply by NMAR

39%

Market Potential

35,665

No. of Respondents willing to buy:


Once a week:

58

No. of weeks

x 52

Twice a week:

101

No. of weeks

x 104

3,016

10, 504

Thrice a week:
No. of months

POTENTIAL DEMAND

97
x156

15,132

28,652

CHAPTER 5- SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion, recommendation, on the


research study done by the proponents regarding introduction of manufacturing of
sweet potato malunggay cupcake.

Summary
The proponent used descriptive method in gathering information in this study.
The target market is the consumers in the 1st district of Laguna (San Pedro, Binan, and
Sta. Rosa, Laguna). The researcher computed the sample size that resulted in 400. In
gathering data, the proponents formulated a set of questions, which were used in
conducting survey. The questionnaire is made up of the Demographic and the
Psychographic Profile of the consumers.

Findings
1. In terms of demographic profile, majority are females.
2. In terms of psychographic profile, it results that majority of the respondents
are willing to buy the product at the supermarket. It also results that
majority of them are willing to buy the product at a price of 8 pesos.
3. The study has gathered 64% or 256 of the respondents are willing to buy the
proposed product.
After all the needed data were gathered and proven reliable and accurate, the results
were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. The consumers prefer a plastic container for
the product.

Conclusion
Based on the study, it shows that there is a demand for the product. The
proponents therefore arrived at the conclusion that if the Sweet Potato Malunggay
Cupcake is manufactured and introduced in the market First District of Laguna,
product will be accepted.
Recommendation
The proponents are recommending the pursuit of the project.