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Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Some issues of wireless communication and its


MATLAB implementation
Sikandar Kumar
k.sikandar@iitg.ernet.in
Dept. of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Assam, India
31th August, 2014

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Contents

Fading channel generation.


Multi-dimensional wireless communication system.
Correlated channel generation.
Motivation behind Cognitive radio.
Spectrum sensing methods in Cognitive radio.

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

AWGN channel

Add white Gaussian noise to signal.


y = awgn(x, snr)
y = awgn(x, snr, sigpower)
y = awgn(x, snr,0 measured0 )

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Rayleigh fading channel generation

chan = rayleighchan
chan = rayleighchan(ts, fd)
chan = rayleighchan(ts, fd, tau, PdB)

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Rician fading channel generation

chan = ricianchan
chan = ricianchan(ts, fd, k)
chan = ricianchan(ts, fd, k, tau, PdB)
chan = ricianchan(ts, fd, k, tau, PdB, fdlos)

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MIMO fading channel generation

chan = mimochan(Nt, Nr, ts, fd)


chan = mimochan(Nt, Nr, ts, fd, tau)
chan = mimochan(Nt, Nr, ts, fd, tau, PdB)

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Wireless standard specific channel

chan = stdchan(ts, fd, chantype)


chan = stdchan(ts, fd, chantype, trms)

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Filter operation

y = filter(chan, x)

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

ITU channel model

For indoor office


Tap

Channel A
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

50

Tap

Channel B
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

-3.0

100

-3.6

110

-10.0

200

-7.2

170

-18.0

300

-10.8

290

-26.0

500

-18.0

310

-32.0

700

-25.2

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

ITU channel model cont...

For outdoor to indoor and pedestrian test environment


Tap

Channel A
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

110

Tap

Channel B
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

-9.7

200

-0.9

190

-19.2

800

-4.9

410

-22.8

1200

-8.0

2300

-7.8

3700

-23.9

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

ITU channel model cont...

Vehicular test environment


Tap

Channel A
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

310

Tap

Channel B
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

-2.5

-1.0

300

0.0

710

-9.0

8900

-12.8

1090

-10.0

12900

-10.0

1730

-15.0

17100

-25.2

2510

-20.0

20000

-16.0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Multi-dimensional wireless communication system

PU

PU

SU

PBS

SU
PU

Figure 1: A typical scenario of multiantenna at the receiver.

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Multi-dimensional wireless communication system cont...

PU

PU
SU
SBS
PBS

SU

SU

PU

Figure 2: A typical scenario of cooperation among receivers.

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Multi-dimensional wireless communication system cont...

PU

PU
SU
PBS

SU
PU

Figure 3: A typical scenario of mobile receiver where oversampling may be required.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Multi-dimensional wireless communication system cont...

Figure 4: Causes of channel/noise correlation in multi-dimensional wireless communication


system.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Correlated channel generation

Hw CNr Nt

1/
Transmit fade correlation: H = Hw CTx2
1/
Receive fade correlation: H = CRx2 Hw
1/
1/
Both transmit and receive fade correlation: H = CRx2 Hw CTx2

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Correlated channel generation cont...

A simplified model in case of both Tx and Rx fade correlations:


= CTx CRx

If CTx and CRx are real matrices: =


Square-root decomposition: C = sqrtm().
If CTx and CRx are complex matrices: =
Cholesky decomposition: C = chol().

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Correlation matrix

Exponential correlation model:


 ji
, i6j
Cij =
Cji , i > j

i, j {1, 2, .....M} , || 6 1,

: Correlation coefficient.
Antenna correlation coefficient
 2 !
d
= exp 232

: Angular spread
d: Antenna spacing.

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Spectrum allocation

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Conventional spectrum allocation strategy

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Spectrum occupancy measurement

Figure 5: Spectrum occupancy measurement carried out by Shared Spectrum Company (SSC)
in Chicago and New York. The measurement were made in all bands in the 30 MHz to 3000
MHz range. The average spectrum uses during measurement period was 17.4% or less in
Chicago and 13.1% at New York city.

Channel generation

Spectrum holes

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Spectrum sensing issues

Key challenge: Spectrum


sensing.
Constrained: False-alarm and
miss-detection probability.
Binary hypotheses test:

H0 : Absence of PU signal
H1 : Presence of PU signal
H0 : y (n) = w (n)

Constrained

H1 : y(n) = h(n)s(n) + w(n)


PFA = Pr {T > ; H0 }
PM = 1 Pr {T > ; H1 }

T is the decision rule, defined as


H1

T .
H0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Spectrum sensing methods

Different classes of difficulty occur in decision making


depending on how much prior knowledge we have about the
primary signals, noise and interference models.

Classified into three major categories:


Energy detection.
Matched filter detection.
Feature detection.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Energy detection

Based on the energy of the received signals in a sensing duration.


Do not require any a priori knowledge of the detected signal.
Pros:
Simple detector.
Optimal for Gaussian signal in Gaussian noise when noise
variance is known.
Detect all kinds of primary user signals.

Cons:
Highly susceptible to noise variance uncertainty.
Cannot distinguish between different waveforms: PU signal, SU
signal, interference, or noise.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Matched filter detection

Signal may be known in its shape, including the value of some


data symbols (i.e. Pilot symbols or Preambles).
Coherent accumulation of energy in the correlation interval.
Pros:
Higher probability of detection.

Cons:
Synchronization.
Higher Complexity.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Feature detection

Communication signals exhibit various statistical and structural


features:
Correlation feature induced by modulation and coding.
Cyclic prefix in OFDM signal.

Pros:
Improves detection performance under noise uncertainty.
Can distinguish different signals.

Cons:
Assumption of primary user signals.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Eigenvalue of sample covariance matrix based detection

Sample covariance matrix is defined as: S =

H
1
N YY .

Maximum-to-minimum eigenvalue (MME): T =

Average eigenvalue to minimum eigenvalue: T =

max
min
1
N

N
P

i=1

H1

H0
i H1

min

H0

Arithmetic mean to geometric mean of eigenvalue (AGM):


1
N

T=


N
P

i=1

H1

i=1

1/

H0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Energy detector in SIMO CR system under correlated receiver antennas

System model is
H0 : y (n) = w (n)

H1 : y(n) = h(n)s(n) + w(n)

where, n {1, 2, ...., N}.


y : Nr 1, h : Nr 1, w : Nr 1.

Y : Nr N, H : Nr N, W : Nr N.


Rx antenna correlation matrix: C = E h(n)h(n)H .
Eigenvalue decomposition on C as: C = UUH .

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Energy detector in SIMO CR system under correlated receiver antennas


cont...

Decision statistic is: T =

Nr
P

i=1

2 i
2 +i

H1

kZi k2

where, Z = UH Y and is threshold.

H0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

MATLAB simulation task

Energy detector in SIMO CR system under correlated receiver antennas


cont...

Theoretical result:
q
= Q1 (Pfa ) 2T|H + T|H0 .
0

Pd = Q

T|H1
q
2
T|H1

where, T|H0 =

T|H1 = N 2

Nr
P

i=1

Nr
P

i=1

N4 i
,
2 +i

2T|H =
0

i , 2T|H = N 4
1

Nr
P

i=1

Nr
P

i=1

N8 2i
,
(2 +i )2

2i .

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Cognitive radio

Thank You

MATLAB simulation task