Está en la página 1de 32

# Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Some issues of wireless communication and its

MATLAB implementation
Sikandar Kumar
k.sikandar@iitg.ernet.in
Dept. of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Assam, India
31th August, 2014

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Contents

Multi-dimensional wireless communication system.
Correlated channel generation.
Spectrum sensing methods in Cognitive radio.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

AWGN channel

## Add white Gaussian noise to signal.

y = awgn(x, snr)
y = awgn(x, snr, sigpower)
y = awgn(x, snr,0 measured0 )

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

chan = rayleighchan
chan = rayleighchan(ts, fd)
chan = rayleighchan(ts, fd, tau, PdB)

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

chan = ricianchan
chan = ricianchan(ts, fd, k)
chan = ricianchan(ts, fd, k, tau, PdB)
chan = ricianchan(ts, fd, k, tau, PdB, fdlos)

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## chan = mimochan(Nt, Nr, ts, fd)

chan = mimochan(Nt, Nr, ts, fd, tau)
chan = mimochan(Nt, Nr, ts, fd, tau, PdB)

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## chan = stdchan(ts, fd, chantype)

chan = stdchan(ts, fd, chantype, trms)

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Filter operation

y = filter(chan, x)

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## For indoor office

Tap

Channel A
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

50

Tap

Channel B
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

-3.0

100

-3.6

110

-10.0

200

-7.2

170

-18.0

300

-10.8

290

-26.0

500

-18.0

310

-32.0

700

-25.2

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## For outdoor to indoor and pedestrian test environment

Tap

Channel A
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

110

Tap

Channel B
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

-9.7

200

-0.9

190

-19.2

800

-4.9

410

-22.8

1200

-8.0

2300

-7.8

3700

-23.9

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Vehicular test environment

Tap

Channel A
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

310

Tap

Channel B
Relative
delay
(ns)

Average
power
(dB)

-2.5

-1.0

300

0.0

710

-9.0

8900

-12.8

1090

-10.0

12900

-10.0

1730

-15.0

17100

-25.2

2510

-20.0

20000

-16.0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

PU

PU

SU

PBS

SU
PU

## Figure 1: A typical scenario of multiantenna at the receiver.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

PU

PU
SU
SBS
PBS

SU

SU

PU

## Figure 2: A typical scenario of cooperation among receivers.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

PU

PU
SU
PBS

SU
PU

## Figure 3: A typical scenario of mobile receiver where oversampling may be required.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Figure 4: Causes of channel/noise correlation in multi-dimensional wireless communication

system.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Correlated channel generation

Hw CNr Nt

1/
Transmit fade correlation: H = Hw CTx2
1/
1/
1/

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

= CTx CRx

## If CTx and CRx are real matrices: =

Square-root decomposition: C = sqrtm().
If CTx and CRx are complex matrices: =
Cholesky decomposition: C = chol().

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Correlation matrix

## Exponential correlation model:

 ji
, i6j
Cij =
Cji , i > j

i, j {1, 2, .....M} , || 6 1,

: Correlation coefficient.
Antenna correlation coefficient
 2 !
d
= exp 232

d: Antenna spacing.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Spectrum allocation

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Conventional spectrum allocation strategy

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Spectrum occupancy measurement

Figure 5: Spectrum occupancy measurement carried out by Shared Spectrum Company (SSC)
in Chicago and New York. The measurement were made in all bands in the 30 MHz to 3000
MHz range. The average spectrum uses during measurement period was 17.4% or less in
Chicago and 13.1% at New York city.

Channel generation

Spectrum holes

Multi-dimensional systems

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Key challenge: Spectrum

sensing.
Constrained: False-alarm and
miss-detection probability.
Binary hypotheses test:

H0 : Absence of PU signal
H1 : Presence of PU signal
H0 : y (n) = w (n)

Constrained

## H1 : y(n) = h(n)s(n) + w(n)

PFA = Pr {T > ; H0 }
PM = 1 Pr {T > ; H1 }

## T is the decision rule, defined as

H1

T .
H0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Different classes of difficulty occur in decision making

depending on how much prior knowledge we have about the
primary signals, noise and interference models.

## Classified into three major categories:

Energy detection.
Matched filter detection.
Feature detection.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Energy detection

## Based on the energy of the received signals in a sensing duration.

Do not require any a priori knowledge of the detected signal.
Pros:
Simple detector.
Optimal for Gaussian signal in Gaussian noise when noise
variance is known.
Detect all kinds of primary user signals.

Cons:
Highly susceptible to noise variance uncertainty.
Cannot distinguish between different waveforms: PU signal, SU
signal, interference, or noise.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Signal may be known in its shape, including the value of some

data symbols (i.e. Pilot symbols or Preambles).
Coherent accumulation of energy in the correlation interval.
Pros:
Higher probability of detection.

Cons:
Synchronization.
Higher Complexity.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

Feature detection

## Communication signals exhibit various statistical and structural

features:
Correlation feature induced by modulation and coding.
Cyclic prefix in OFDM signal.

Pros:
Improves detection performance under noise uncertainty.
Can distinguish different signals.

Cons:
Assumption of primary user signals.

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

H
1
N YY .

max
min
1
N

N
P

i=1

H1

H0
i H1

min

H0

## Arithmetic mean to geometric mean of eigenvalue (AGM):

1
N

T=


N
P

i=1

H1

i=1

1/

H0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Energy detector in SIMO CR system under correlated receiver antennas

System model is
H0 : y (n) = w (n)

## where, n {1, 2, ...., N}.

y : Nr 1, h : Nr 1, w : Nr 1.

Y : Nr N, H : Nr N, W : Nr N.


Rx antenna correlation matrix: C = E h(n)h(n)H .
Eigenvalue decomposition on C as: C = UUH .

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

cont...

Nr
P

i=1

2 i
2 +i

H1

kZi k2

## where, Z = UH Y and is threshold.

H0

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems

## Energy detector in SIMO CR system under correlated receiver antennas

cont...

Theoretical result:
q
= Q1 (Pfa ) 2T|H + T|H0 .
0

Pd = Q

T|H1
q
2
T|H1

where, T|H0 =

T|H1 = N 2

Nr
P

i=1

Nr
P

i=1

N4 i
,
2 +i

2T|H =
0

i , 2T|H = N 4
1

Nr
P

i=1

Nr
P

i=1

N8 2i
,
(2 +i )2

2i .

Channel generation

Multi-dimensional systems