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Postclassical China (chapter 12):

Sui:

Yang Jian seized throne of Zhou( North China) with nomadic support. Took title of
Wendi.
589CE he took over Chen (South China).
Yangdi= Wendis son. made military legal code and restored exam to bureaucracy.
forced workers to make grand cities. Capital at Luoyang.
assassinated in 618 and invasions. End of Sui Dynasty

Tang:

Li Yuan the Duke of Tang and his son Tang Taizong founded Tang Dynasty in 7th
century
Made Strong army- Turks recruited into military unit called frontier armies. Repaired
walls. empire extended to Tibet, Vietnam, and Manchuria
688- Emperor Gaozong took over korea. Silla= loyal vassal kingdom.
Strong bureaucracy with scholar-gentry:
o Lower power of aristocrats. High organization. divided into 6 ministries.
o Capital= Changan
o Ministry of Rites administer exams.
o Jinshi= title granted to those who pass hardest exams- made high officials in
govt and high social status. family still influence govt though.
Buddhism flourished:
o Pureland Mahayana Buddhism= popular sect, emphasized salvation for
peasants. High class liked Chen/Zen Buddhism (meditation, art, and beauty)
o Buddhism became unifying- emperor endowed monasteries, sent
missionaries to India for Buddhist stuff.
o Empress Wu (700CE)- tried to make Buddhism state religion, built statues
and pagodas. Killed her husband to gain power.
Anti Buddhism:
o Confucianists and Doasts jealous. called Buddhists foreign. Convinced
emperors that since monasteries couldnt be taxed Buddhism hurts economy.
o Emperor Wuzong persecuted Buddhists- destroyed art/shrines and forced
people out of being monks/nuns
Decline:
o Xuanzong (750CE)- marked peak of Tang power. Started out as reformist but
got distracted by luxury and concubines. Especially by Yang Guifei (harem
women who used relationship to get her family into government. Turned out
bad)
o 755- An Lushan led revolt to create new dynasty. Killed Yang and her family
o uprisings in 9th century. china became more regional

Song:

Zhou Kuanyin= 760CE founded Song. Renamed Emperor Taizu


Liao Dynasty= founded 907CE by Khitan peoples, rivals to Song, 1005 Song signed
treaty to pay tribute to them. Khitans signified and accepted Song culturally superior.
Song not as politically/militaristically strong as Tang:
o military leaders had no govt power
o Confucian scholar-gentry- civil service exams, higher pay and perk. good
officials. Rich have less of an advantage
Confucian revival:
o old texts, libraries, studied Confucian writing

philosophy emphasized older ways (Daoism and Confucianism) rather than


imported ones (Buddhism)
o Zhu Xi= thinker, stressed importance of philosophy into life
o Neo-Confucianists= revivers of ancient Confucian teachings. Gender
roles/rank were highly emphasized. Patriarchal.
Decline:
o nomadic invasions- had to pay tribute and get big army to keep peace.
o Military commanders bad since no power. military budget often used for
luxury.
o Wang Anish= 1070 chief minister, confucian scholar, stressed legalism, govt
helped with loans and agriculture, taxed upper class, well trained armies
o new emperor opposed Wangs ideas. Neo-Confucianists back in power.
o peasant revolt
o 1115- nomadic Jurchens took over Liao and made Jin kingdom north of Song.
Song made new capital Hangzhou and survived another 150 years in South.
Other Tang/Song Achievements:
The Grand Canalo built by Yangdi, linked N China Plain with Yangzi river basin.
o Moved West to East. Millet north to south and rice south to north.
o Overland was hard and expensive.
o Linked trade and both old (North) and new(South) govt
o TRADE and expansion (Indian Buddhism, Islamic culture, persian rugs)
Chinese export silk, porcelain, and paper
More sea trade- used dhows and *junks* (best ships of the time!) Compasses
Urbanizationo govt regulated markets, art and trade centers. guilds,workmanship,
competition. deposit shops=banks.
o flying money= credit vouchers. used by merchants to reduce robbery
o population growth- cities, towns, and suburbs arose
Migration South- govt encouraged, military protection to those who moved, canal
connected
curved roofs represent high class (Scholar-gentry)
Womens status improved in Tang(mutual divorce, women sometimes had bfs,
sometimes gained political power) but declined in Song (arranged marriage,
confined in house, virginity before marriage, widow remarriage discouraged,
footbinding)
Randomness: Tang-poetry. Song- landscape paintings. explosive powder. Tea, coal,
and kites! The abacus= ancestor of modern calendar.
Bi Shang- 11th century artisan, made moveable type printer.
Postclassical Chinese Influence (chapter 13):

Japan:

Japanese culture derived from shinto beliefs


Nara, Taika, and Hein (7th-12th centuries)- much borrowing from China due to trade
Taika Reforms (646CE)= sinnification, tried to learn Chinese writing, wrote stories
similar to Chinese, used Chinese decorum, chinese-style architecture, Buddhism &
Confucian ideas

Nara- strong bureaucracy and Chinese-style military. Emperors wanted absolute


power. Opposition by aristocrats and Buddhist monks (had a ton of power)
New capital at Heian in 794. Monasteries built around the capital- monks became
royal advisors. Emperor Kammu abandoned Taika reforms- aristocrats gained power,
regional militia forces. Imperial power declined. *feudal beginnings*
o Social class very important! strict code of polite behavior. upper class in
palaces. little social mobility
o Lady Murasaki's Tale of Genji= first novel, about nobles.
o Fujiwara= 9th century family, married into imperial family, gained extreme
power & wealth
o monks & nobles allied/competed to take down imperial power
o elite families made little kingdoms to keep power out of aristocracys hands.
ruled by house govts- walled fortresses, moats, local lord and advisors (like
a manor)
o Bushi= warrior leaders. Samurai=loyal troops who served bushi. trained
entire life, peasants supply necessities, orderly warfare, seppuku, warrior
code of honor
o peasants had serflike status by 12th century
Feudalism Arrives:
o 12th century- Taira vs Minamoto families. Taira more political power and
focused on capital but Minamoto more military strength and support of rural
nobles.
o As imperial govt weakened, so did Chinese influence- Buddhism more
Japanese, less embassies/trips to China
o Gempei Wars= 5 years, bw Taira and Minamoto. Peasants suffer, Taira
destroyed, bakufu established by Minamoto (military govt), capital at
kamakura, feudal age begins!
o Yoritomo= shogun, no heir so Bushi lords gain more power
o Hojo= warrior family that allied with Minamoto then took them over. 3 tiered
system- Power with Hojo, manipulated Minamoto shoguns, ruled in the name
of emperor in Kyoto
Ashikaga Shogunate:
o Ashikaga Takuaji= 14th century head of a branch of Minamoto family, led
revolt of bushi to overthrow kamakura regime and created the Ashikaga
Shogunate
o emperor lost all power/authority and aristocracy wiped out. bushi vassals
became powerful and paid the samurai land for loyalty.
o civil war 1467-1477- rivals fought Ashikaga and destroyed kyoto and the
shogunate. Japan divided into 300 small kingdoms and bushi renamed
daimyo.
Complete Feudalism(15th-16th centuries):
o big castles,spies, and danger. peasants became fighters in daimyo military.
pillaging and revolts.
o Daimyo tried to help- taxed and aided public works, encouraged trade and
guilds
o Women- if from merchant/artisan families... some independence. If from
warrior class little legal rights, suicide if raped, marriages for alliances, men
in theater, not in religious ceremonies.

o
o

zen buddhism kept some trade with China and art alive. Gardens, tea
influence, scroll paintings.
long peace= Tokugawa shogunate- last feudal period, until late 19th century

Korea:

descended from eastern herders. Sedentary by 4th century. Choson= earliest


kingdom (109BCE). Conquered by Han for 4 centuries. tribes resisted Chinese rule
Koguryo, Silla, and Paekche were each indep states that were rivals(warefare bw
them made them weak). Had sinnification(see SPICE chart for details)!
Tang allied with Silla and destroyed Paekche & Koguryo. Silla became tribute state
of Tang. Under Silla (688-9th century) and Koryo dynasty (918-1392), sinnification
Capital at Kumsongo grid street system, markets, parks, district for imperial family where powerful
aristocrats surrounded.
o Preferred Buddhism over Confucianism
o Aristocrats divided in 7 ranks with no intermarriage- filled bureaucracy.
o Imported luxury goods from China and Japan, exported forest products and
metals but traders/artisans low class.
commoner uprisings + outside invasions + aristocrat family quarrels = fall of
Silla/Koryo
Yi= dynasty established 1392-1910. Restored Chinese and aristocratic rule.
Vietnam:
Viet kingdom + Mon-kmer + Tai = Vietnam. Developed own culture separate from
China, but made trade link. Had diff language, nuclear family more important, no
clans, women good rights, different clothes, blackened teeth by chewing betel nuts.
111 BCE- Chinese military came to Vietnam and sinnified (reference SPICE).
Chinese saw them as barbarians but Vietnamese wanted to remain independent
Trung Sisters= led revolt against Chinese control in 39CE, unsuccessful but made
impact
geographic boundaries made difficult travel bw China and Vietnam
after fall of Tang, rebellion in 907 by Vietnam. Indep in 939CE. Vietnamese establish
Le Dynasty in 10th century
Chinese influence gave them military edge- expanded Southward. Hanoi was capital.
Northern dynasties found Southern Vietnam hard to control
Nguyen in South (capitol at Hue) vs. Trink family in North over power.
France converted them all to Roman Catholicism oh Europe....
Wait For It THE MONGOLS were the exception! (chapter 14)
Beginnings of Mongols:
herded goats and sheep, traded hides/dairy for other products. Rode ponies. basic
unit was tribe- divided by kinship clans. strong tribal leaders.Shamanistic (nature
spirits)
12th century- Kabu Khan (CKs great grandpa) united mongols and claimed victory
against N.China. After he died, it fell apart.
CK (chinggis Khan)= originally named Temujin, born 1170, father was tribe leader
but poisoned and CK taken prisoner, escaped and won allies by growing reputation
as warrior. Defeated rivals.
1206 at Kurittai= meeting of Mongol chiefs. CK elected Khagan (supreme leader of
Mongol tribes)

Chinggis Khan Conquest:


Strong, disciplined military:
o Military trained from birth. Strong cavalry and short bows. Made new
weapons and excellent maps
o Loyal to khagan. tribal feuds ended so they could put energy into conquest.
Code of honor for warriors. Tumens= basic fighting units, each had divided
levels of commanders.
o 3 dividers within tumen- heavy cavalry, light cavalry, and scouting parties
Messengers hired to deliver messages. executio if treason.
By 1227, mongols ruled empire from E Persia to N China Sea!
o Made Tangut Kingdom a tribute state, then attacked Chinese Jin empire, won
against Jurchens, moved west against Kara Khitai Empire, conquered
Khwarazm Empire.
o Harsh conquest- mass destruction. tolerant rulers though (especially religious
tolerance!) Turkic horsemen incorporated into Mongol armies.
Karakorum= new capital established by chinggis on the steppes. Lavish palaces.
Used both muslim and chinese bureaucrats, standardized laws, had police, and
wrote down Mongolian language. made silk road safe! TRADE and spread disease.
My Bae Chinggis Died:(
About to conquer China when August of 1227 CK died of disease. Mongols went
back to Mongolia for regrouping and funeral
Empire divided bw CKs 3 sons and a grandson named Batu. 3rd son named Ogedi
elected Great Khan (CKs successor)
Golden Horde/Batus Conquest: Russia
Golden Horde= Mongol division ruled by Batu. Began Russian invasion 1236
(destroyed them but spared Novgorod and Saint Sophia) but actually wanted Europe.
13th century Russia- regional kingdoms, some trading cities but no main power
250 years of Mongol power of Russia. Russian princes forced to be vassals and pay
tribute. Peasants became serfs for Russian princes protection against Mongol raids.
Isolated Russia.
Moscow- benefitted from Mongol trade connection, gained power by tax collecting.
Where Orthodox leaders lived. Allied with Russian vassals to take down Golden
Horde in Battle of Kulikovo. Mongol power broke 20 years later.
Golden Horde/Batus Conquest: Western Europe
Christians thought that CK was Prester John (a mythical foreign monarch who would
ally with Europeans to take down Muslims.) - slow to realize threat
1240- Mongols wanted to negotiate deal with King Bela of Hungary, were called
barbarous, destroyed Hungary and Polish Christian knights
Death of Khagan Ogedi back in Mongolian capital Karakorum so Mongols never took
over all of Europe.
Ilkhan/Hulagu Conquest: Islamic Caliphate/Middle East
Hulagu= grandson of CK and ruled of Ilkhan division. Wanted to conquer Muslims.
destroyed Baghdad in 1258, murdered caliph that ended 500 year old Islamic
dynasty.
Conquered Seljuk Turks - opened up region to the Ottoman conquest later on
Mongols defeated 1260 by Mamluks (Egyptian slave armies). Baibars=commander.
Christian allies.

Hulegu settles for the kingdom he had (Byzantine to Central Asia)


Ogedi/Yuan Conquest: China