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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

IN T TNG T
(Dng cho sinh vin h o to i hc t xa)
Lu hnh ni b

H NI - 2008

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

IN T TNG T

Bin son :

Ks. L SC

LI NI U
in t tng t l mn hc c s, nhm cung cp cho ngi hc nhng kin thc c bn
nht phn tch, thit k cc mch in trong h thng mch in t. Tp bi ging ny c
chia thnh 7 chng. Trong mi chng c bn phn. Phn gii thiu chung nu cc vn ch
yu ca chng. Phn ni dung phn tch chi tit cc vn ch yu . Phn tm tt tng hp li
cc yu cu quan trng ca chng m ngi hc cn nm c. Phn cui nu cc cu hi v bi
tp. nghin cu ti liu c thun li, ngi hc cn c trc kin thc ca cc mn hc L
thuyt mch v Cu kin in t.
Chng 1: Mch khuch i tranzito. cp cc cch mc mch khuch i c bn, vn
hi tip trong mch khuch i, cch ghp gia cc tng trong mt b khuch i, cc mch
khuch i cng sut v mt s mch khuch i khc: nh khuch i Cascade, khuch i
Darlingtn, mch khuch i di rng, mch khuch i cng hng.
Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton (BKTT) nu cc c im v tnh cht ca b khuch
i thut ton, cc bin php chng tri v b im khng ca khuch i thut ton, cng nh
cc ng dng ca n: mch khuch i, mch cng, mch tr, mch vi phn, mch tch phn,
mch to hm lga, hm m, mch nhn tng t, mch lc tch cc.
Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin: nh ngha, iu kin ca mch to dao ng sin. Phn tch
mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p, dao ng sin ghp RC, mch dao ng sin ba im. Mch to
dao ng sin n nh tn s dng phn t p in thch anh. Mch to sin kiu xp x tuyn tnh.
Chng 4: Mch xung, nu cc tham s ca tn hiu xung, tranzito v BKTT lm vic ch
xung, cc mch to xung: gm mch a hi t dao ng, a hi i, trigger, dao ng nght,
mch hn ch, mch to in p rng ca, mch to dao ng iu khin bng in p (VCO).
Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s. iu bin, cc mch iu bin, iu ch n bin.
iu tn v iu pha, mch iu tn iu pha. Tch sng: cc mch tch sng iu bin, iu tn,
iu pha. Trn tn, mch trn tn. Nhn chia tn s dng vng gi pha (PLL).
Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A. Gii thch qu trnh bin i A/D v cc mch thc hin.
Gii thch qu trnh bin i D/A v cc mch thc hin. Nu tm tt qu trnh chuyn i A/D,
D/A phi tuyn.
Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun. Phn tch mch cung cp ngun mt chiu: bin p, chnh
lu, lc v n p. Phng php bo v qu dng, qu p ca b ngun. Cui chng trnh by
ngun chuyn mch: s khi, chc nng cc khi v nguyn l hot ng ca b ngun ny.
Cui cng l phn hng dn tr li cc cu hi v gii cc bi tp gip ngi hc c th
t kim tra kin thc ca mnh.
Mc d c nhiu c gng, nhng do thi gian ngn, trnh cn c hn nn tp bi ging
chc cn thiu st, rt mong bn c gp kin sa cha, b sung thm, xin cm n!

Tc gi

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

CHNG 1: MCH KHUCH I TRANZITO

GII THIU CHUNG


Chng ny cung cp cho ngi hc cc kin thc c bn v mch khuch i, bao gm
cc vn sau:
- nh ngha mch khuch i, cc ch tiu v tham s chnh ca mt b khuch i: H s
khuch i in p, h s khuch i dng in, h s khuch i cng sut, tr khng vo, tr
khng ra, mo tn s, mo phi tuyn, hiu sut.
- Nguyn tc chung phn cc cho tranzito ch khuch i. Vi tranzito lng cc
thun PNP cn cung cp in p mt chiu UBE < 0, UCE < 0. Vi tranzito ngc NPN cn cung
cp in p mt chiu UBE > 0, UCE > 0. Mch in cung cp ngun mt chiu phn cc cho
tranzito c: bn phng php: phng php nh dng cho cc gc, phng php nh p cho cc
gc, phng php cung cp v n nh im lm vic dng hi tip m in p mt chiu, phng
php cung cp v n nh im lm vic dng hi tip m dng in.
- Vn hi tip, hi tp trong cc tng khuch i: hi tip dng, hi tip m, hi tip
dng in, hi tip in p, hi tip mc song song, hi tip mc ni tip. nh hng ca hi tip
n cc ch tiu k thut ca mch.
- Cc s khuch i c bn dng tranzito lng cc: tng khuch i pht chung, tng
khuch i gp chung v tng khuch i gc chung.
- Cc s khuch i dng tranzito trng xt hai loi: tng khuch i cc ngun chung,
tng khuch i cc mng chung.
- Tng khuch i o pha c: mch khuch i o pha chia ti, mch khuch i o pha
ghp bin p.
- Phng php ghp tng trong b khuch i: phng php ghp tng bng t in, ghp
tng bng bin p, ghp tng trc tip.
- Mt s mch khuch i khc: mch khuch i Darlingtn, mch khuch i Casct,
mch khuch i gii rng, mch khuch i cng hng.
- Mch khuch i cng sut: c im ca mch khuch i cng sut, cc ch lm vic
ca tng khuch i A, B, AB, C. Yu cu ca tng khuch i cng sut cho cng sut ra ln,
mo nh v hiu sut cao. Mch khuch i cng sut n lm vic ch A gim mo
nhng c hiu sut thp. Mch khuch i cng sut y ko dng hai tranzito thng cho lm
vic ch AB (gn B) c cng sut ra ln, mo nh m hiu sut cao. Mch khuch i
cng sut y ko dng tranzito cng loi c mch ghp bin p, mch khng dng bin p. Cc
mch khuch i ny cn c mch khuch i y pha pha trc. Mch khuch i cng sut y
ko dng tranzito khc loi c u im khng cn tng khuch i o pha.
3

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Kt thc chng 1 yu cu ngi hc nm c cc mch khuch i nu. Hiu c tc
dng cc linh kin trong mch. Ch cp in mt chiu v nguyn l lm vic ca mch. Tnh
ton c mt s ch tiu k thut ch yu theo iu kin cho trc.
Khi phn tch tng khuch i tn hiu nh, ta dng phng php mch in tng ng
xoay chiu, tn s trung bnh. Phn mch khuch i cng sut, do tn hiu vo ln nn dng
phng php th c chnh xc cao.

NI DUNG
1.1. NH NGHA, CC CH TIU V CC THAM S C BN CA MCH
KHUCH I
1.1.1. nh ngha mch khuch i
Mt trong s nhng ng dng quan trng nht ca tranzito l s dng n trong cc mch
lm tng cng in p hay dng in ca tn hiu m thng gi l mch khuch i.Thc
cht khuch i l mt qu trnh bin i nng lng c iu khin, nng lng mt chiu
ca ngun cung cp, khng cha thng tin, c bin i thnh nng lng xoay chiu theo tn
hiu iu khin u vo, cha ng thng tin, lm cho tn hiu ra ln ln nhiu ln v khng mo.
Phn t iu khin l tranzito. S tng qut ca mch khuch i nh hnh 1-1, trong
En l ngun tn hiu vo, Rn l in tr trong ca ngun tn hiu, Rt ti ni nhn tn hiu ra.

Iv
Uv

Rn
t

En ~

Uv

Ir
Mch
khuych i

Ur
Rt
Ur

Ngun cung cp
(EC)
Hnh 1-1: S tng qut ca mch khuch i.
Hnh 1-2 a ra cu trc nguyn l xy dng mt tng khuch i. Phn t c bn l
phn t iu khin tranzito c in tr thay i theo s iu khin ca in p hay dng in t
ti cc iu khin (cc gc) ca n, qua iu khin quy lut bin i dng in ca mch ra
bao gm tranzito v in tr RC. Ti li ra gia cc gp v cc pht, ngi ta nhn c mt in
p bin thin cng quy lut vi tn hiu vo nhng ln c tng ln nhiu ln. n gin,
gi thit in p t vo cc gc c dng hnh sin.
T s hnh 1-2 ta thy rng dng in v in p xoay chiu mch ra (t l vi dng
in v in p tn hiu vo) cn phi coi l tng cc thnh phn xoay chiu dng in v in p
trn nn ca thnh phn mt chiu I0 v U0. Phi m bo sao cho bin thnh phn xoay chiu


khng vt qu thnh phn mt chiu, ngha l I 0 I v U 0 U . Nu iu kin khng c
4

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


tho mn th dng in, in p mch ra trong tng khong thi gian nht nh s bng khng
v s lm mo dng tn hiu.
Nh vy m bo cng tc cho tng khuch i (khi tn hiu vo l xoay chiu) th
mch ra ca n phi to nn thnh phn dng mt chiu I0 v in p mt chiu U0. Chnh v vy,
mch vo ca tng, ngoi ngun tn hiu cn khuch i, ngi ta cng phi t thm in p
mt chiu UV0 (hay dng in mt chiu IV0). Cc thnh phn dng in v in p mt chiu
xc nh ch lm vic tnh ca tng khuch i. Tham s ca ch tnh theo mch vo (IV0,
UV0) v theo mch ra (I0, U0) c trng cho trng thi ban u ca s khi cha c tn hiu vo.

+E
Uv

i
t

Ur

RC

I0

C
B

Uv

PK

ura

R Ur

U0
0

a.
Hnh 1-2:

b.
a. Nguyn l xy dng mt tng khuch i.

b. Biu thi gian.


1.1.2. Cc ch tiu v tham s c bn ca mt tng khuch i
nh gi cht lng ca mt tng khuch i ngi ta a ra cc ch tiu v tham s c
bn sau:
1.1.2.1. H s khuch i.

K=

i lng u ra
i lng tng ng u vo

(1-1)

Ni chung v tng khuch i c cha cc phn t in khng nn K l mt s phc.

K = K exp(j.k)
Phn m un |K| th hin quan h v cng (bin ) gia cc i lng u ra v u
vo, phn gc k th hin dch pha gia chng. Nhn chung ln ca |K| v k ph thuc vo
tn s ca tn hiu vo. Nu biu din |K| = f1() ta nhn c ng cong gi l c tuyn bin
- tn s ca tng khuch i. ng biu din k=f2() gi l c tuyn pha - tn s ca n.
Thng ngi ta tnh |K| theo n v logarit, gi l n v xi ben (dB)
5

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

K (dB) = 20 lg K

(1-2)

Khi ghp lin tip n tng khuch i vi cc h s khuch i tng ng l K1, K2,...Kn th
h s khuch i chung ca b khuch i xc nh theo:
K = K1.K2...Kn.
hay
K(dB) = K1(dB) + K2(dB) +... + Kn(dB)

(1-3)

c tuyn bin ca tng khuch i l ng biu din quan h Ura=f3(Uv) ly mt tn


s c nh ca gii tn ca tn hiu vo.
Dng in hnh ca K =f1() v Ura=f3(Uv) i vi mt b khuch i in p tn s thp
cho ti hnh 1-3.
Ura

|K|

(V)
K0
K0
Uvo

102

(a)

104 2.104

(Hz)

(b)

(mV)

Hnh 1-3: a. c tuyn bin - tn s


b. c tuyn bin (f = 1kHz) ca mt b khuch i tn s thp
1.1.2.2. Tr khng li vo v li ra
Tr khng vo, tr khng ra ca tng khuch i c nh ngha (theo hnh 1-1a)

ZV =

UV
;
IV

Zr =

Ur
Ir

(1-4)

Ni chung chng l cc i lng phc: Z = R+jX.


1.1.2.3. Mo tn s
Mo tn s l mo do khuch i ca mch khuch i b gim vng hai u gii tn.
vng tn s thp c mo thp Mt, vng tn s cao c mo tn s cao MC. Chng c xc nh
theo biu thc:

Mt =

K0
;
Kt

MC =

K0
KC

(1-5)
6

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Trong :

K0 l h s khuch i vng tn s trung bnh.


KC l h s khuch i vng tn s cao.
Kt l h s khuch i vng tn s thp.

Mo tn s cng c th c tnh theo n v xi ben.


1.1.2.4. Mo khng ng thng (mo phi tuyn).
Mo khng ng thng do tnh cht phi tuyn ca cc phn t nh tranzito gy ra th hin
trong tn hiu u ra xut hin thnh phn tn s mi (khng c u vo). Khi uvo ch c thnh
phn tn s th ura ni chung c cc thnh phn n (vi n = 0,1,2...) vi cc bin tng ng
l n. Lc h s mo khng ng thng do tng khuch i gy ra c nh gi l:
 2  2
 2
( U 2 + U 3 + ... + U n )1 / 2
=
%
(1-6)

U1
1.1.2.5. Hiu sut ca tng khuch i
Hiu sut ca mt tng khuch i l i lng c tnh bng t s gia cng sut tn hiu
xoay chiu a ra ti Pr vi cng sut mt chiu ca ngun cung cp P0.

Pr
P0

Trn y nu mt s ch tiu quan trng ca mt tng (hay mt b khuch i gm nhiu


tng). Cn c vo cc ch tiu ny ngi ta c th phn loi cc b khuch i vi cc tn gi vi
c im khc nhau. V d theo h s khuch i K c b khuch i in p. Lc ny yu cu c
bn l c KUmax, Zvo >> Zngun v Zra << Zti; b khuch i dng in vi Ki max, Zvo<< Zngun, Zra
>> Zti hay b khuch i cng sut cn KPmax, Zvo Zngun, Zra Zti.
Cng c th phn loi theo dng c tuyn tn s K = f1(), t c b khuch i mt chiu,
b khuch i tn s thp, b khuch i tn s cao, b khuch i chn lc tn s...v.v.

1.2. PHN CC V CH LM VIC MT CHIU


1.2.1. Nguyn tc chung phn cc tranzito
Mun tranzito lm vic nh l mt phn t tch cc th cc tham s ca n phi tho mn
iu kin thch hp. Nhng tham s ny ca tranzito nh phn cu kin in t nghin cu,
chng ph thuc rt nhiu vo in p phn cc cc chuyn tip gp, pht. Ni mt cch khc cc
gi tr tham s ph thuc vo im lm vic ca tranzito. Mt cch tng qut, d tranzito c
mc theo kiu no, mun n lm vic ch khuch i cn c cc iu kin sau: chuyn tip
gc-pht lun phn cc thun, chuyn tip gc - gp lun phn cc ngc.
i vi tranzito n-p-n iu kin phn cc n lm vic ch khuch i l:
UBE = UB - UE > 0
UCE = UC - UE > 0

(1-7)
7

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


v

UE < UB < UC

Trong UE, UB, UC l in th cc cc pht, gc, gp ca tranzito nh trn hnh 1-3.


Vi tranzito p-n-p th iu kin phn cc c du ngc li.
Hnh 1-4 biu din in p v dng in phn cc ca tranzito ch khuch i

IC
IB

UCE >0

UB

IC

IB

U
UB

U
UBE>0

UBE <0
(a)
Hnh 1-4:

UCE <0

(b)

a) Biu din in p v dng in phn cc tranzito n-p-n.


b) Tranzito p-n-p.

1.2.2. Mch cung cp in p phn cc cho tranzito


cung cp in p phn cc cho tranzito ngi ta thng dng mt ngun chung. Hnh 14 biu th cc mch cp in .

+EC
RB
CP1

+EC

RC

IP+IB0

IB0
UB

R1

RC

IB0
CP2

CP2

CP1
IP

UBE0
(a)

R2

(b)
Hnh 1-5: Mch cp in cho tranzito

Hnh 1-5a cp in p cho cc gc theo phng php nh dng. in p UBE0 c ly t


ngun EC dn qua in tr RB vo cc gc. in tr RB c tr s ln hn nhiu so vi in tr mt
chiu ca mt ghp gc-pht, do dng nh thin IB0 c xc nh gn ng.
8

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

I B0

EC
RB

Dng in mt chiu u ra (dng cc gp) IC0 v in p mt chiu u ra UCE0:


IC0 = .IB0; UCE0 = EC-IC0.RC

(1-8)

Mch ny n gin nhng n nh im lm vic km.


Hnh 1-5b cung cp in cho cc gc theo phng php nh p nh b phn p R1, R2 mc
song song vi ngun cung cp cc gp EC. in p ti im lm vic ca cc gc c xc nh
theo biu thc:
UBE0 = IP.R2 = EC -(IP+IB0).R1

(1-9)

Trong IP l dng phn p chy qua in tr R1, R2. Thng chn IP>>IB0, do biu thc
trn gn ng:

U BE EC I p .R1

(1-10)

Ta thy UBE0 khng ph thuc vo cc tham s ca tranzito v nhit nn n nh. R


rng dng IP cng ln UBE0 cng n nh, nhng khi R1, R2 phi c gi tr nh.
Thng chn IP =(0,33).IBmax

(1-11)

Trong IBmax l dng xoay chiu trong mch cc gc vi mc tn hiu vo ln nht. Lc


ny thin p UBE0 hu nh khng ph thuc tr s dng cc gc IB0, do c th dng cho mch
khuch i tn hiu ln (ch B). Tuy nhin khi tr s R1, R2 nh th cng sut tiu th ngun
cng tng.
nng cao n nh im lm vic ngi ta hay dng cc mch cung cp in p phn
cc sau.
Hnh 1-6 l s cung cp v n nh im lm vic bng hi tip m in p mt chiu.

RB
IB
Cp1

+EC

+EC

RC

R1

RC

Cp1

Cp2
UCE0

Cp2
UBE

UBE0

UR2

R2 UE

RE

CE

Hnh 1-7: S cung cp v n


nh im lm vic nh hi tip m
dng in mt chiu.

Hnh 1-6: Mch cung cp v n nh


im lm vic bng hi tip m in p
mt chiu.

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


S hnh 1-6 ch khc s hnh 1-5a ch in tr RB c ni ln cc gp. y RB
va lm nhim v a in p vo cc gc bng phng php n nh dng cc gc, va dn
in p hi tip v mch vo.
Nguyn l n nh nh sau:
Nu c mt nguyn nhn mt n nh no lm cho dng mt chiu IC0 trn cc gp tng
ln th in th UCE0 gim lm UBE gim, ko theo dng IB0 gim lm cho IC0 gim (v IC0= . I B 0 ),
ngha l dng IC0 ban u c gi nguyn.
Hnh 1-7 l s cung cp v n nh im lm vic nh hi tip m dng in mt chiu.
Trong s ny RE lm nhim v hi tip m dng in mt chiu. Nguyn tc n nh nh
sau: khi IC0 tng do nhit tng hay do tp tn tham s ca tranzito th in p h trn RE
(UE0=IE0.RE) tng. V in p UR2 ly trn in tr R2 hu nh khng i nn in p UBE0 = UR2 UE0 gim, lm cho IB0 gim, do IC0 khng tng ln c, tc l IC0 c gi n nh. Nu nhit
gim lm IC0 gim th nh mch hi tip m dng in mt chiu, UBE0 li tng, lm cho IB0
tng, IC0 tng gi cho IC0 n nh.

1.3. HI TIP TRONG CC TNG KHUCH I


Hi tip l vic thc hin truyn tn hiu t u ra v u vo b khuch i. Thc hin hi
tip trong b khuch i s ci thin hu ht cc ch tiu cht lng ca n v lm cho b khuch
i c mt s tnh cht c bit. Di y ta s phn tch nhng quy lut chung khi thc hin hi
tip trong b khuch i. iu ny cng c bit cn thit khi thit k b khuch i bng IC
tuyn tnh.
Hnh 1-8 l s cu trc b khuch i c hi tip

u vo

u ra

Hnh 1-8: S khi b khuch i c hi tip


Mch hi tip c h s truyn t , ch r quan h gia tham s (in p, dng in) ca
tn hiu ra mch vi tham s (in p, dng in) ca mch ra b khuch i.
H s khuch i K v h s truyn t ca mch hi tip ni chung l nhng s phc.

K = K.exp(jK)

= .exp(j)
Ngha l phi ch n kh nng dch pha min tn s thp v tn s cao do tn ti cc
phn t in khng trong mch khuch i cng nh mch hi tip. Nu b khuch i lm vic
tn s trung bnh, cn trong mch hi tip - khng c thnh phn in khng th h s K v l
10

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


nhng s thc. Nu in p hi tip t l vi in p ra ca b khuch i ta c hi tip in p, nu
t l vi dng in ra ta c hi tip dng in. C th hi tip hn hp c dng in v in p.
Rn

En

uv

Iv

Ir

uy

ur

Iv

Rn

It
Rt

En

uv

uht

uy

Ir

It
ur

Rt

uht

b.

It

a.
Hnh 1-9: Mt s mch hi tip thng dng:

Rn

a. Hi tip ni tip in p
b. Hi tip dng in

c.

c. Hi tip song song in p

Iht

En ~

Iv u v

Ir
ur

Rt

Xt u vo, khi in p a v hi tip ni tip vi ngun tn hiu vo th ta c hi tip


ni tip. Khi in p hi tip t ti u vo b khuch i song song vi in p ngun tn hiu
th c hi tip song song.
Hai c im trn xc nh mt loi mch hi tip c th: hi tip in p ni tip hoc
song song, hi tip dng in ni tip hoc song song, hi tip hn hp ni tip hoc song song.
Hnh 1-9 minh ho mt s th d v nhng mch hi tip ph bin nht trong khuch i.
Nu khi hi tip ni tip nh hng n tr s in p vo bn thn b khuch i uy, th khi
hi tip song song s nh hng n tr s dng in vo b khuch i. Tc dng ca hi tip c
th lm tng, khi K + = 2n, hoc gim khi + = (2n +1). (n l s nguyn dng) tn hiu
tng hp u vo b khuch i c gi l hi tip dng v tng ng gi l hi tip m.
Hi tip m cho php ci thin mt s ch tiu ca b khuch i, v th n c dng rt
rng ri. nh gi nh hng ca hi tip n cc ch tiu ca b khuch i ta s xt th d
hi tip in p ni tip hnh 1-9a.
H s khuch i khi c hi tip:

K ht =

Ur
UV

U Y = U V + U ht

(1-12)
11

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Chia c hai v ca (1-12) cho Ura, ta c:

U Y U V U ht
=
+
Ur Ur Ur
hay

1
1
=
+
K K ht

y =

u ht
l h s truyn t ca mch hi tip.
ur

(1-13)

T (1-13) ta tm c:

K ht =

(1-14)

1 .K

n gin vic phn tch ta a vo tr s thc K v:

K
1 K .

K ht =

(1-15)

Theo (1-15) khi 1 > K. > 0 th h s khuch i ca b khuch i c hi tip Kht ln hn


h s khuch i ca bn thn b khuch i K. chnh l hi tip dng, Uht a ti u vo
b khuch i cng pha vi in p vo Uv, tc l Uy = Uv +Uht.
in p ra b khuch i khi c hi tip dng l:
Ur = K.(Uv + Uht) > K.Uv v do

Kht >K

Trng hp K. 1 (khi hi tip dng) c trng cho iu kin t kch ca b khuch i.


Lc ny u ra ca b khuch i xut hin mt ph tn s khng ph thuc vo tn hiu u vo.
Vi tr s phc K v bt ng thc K . 1 tng ng vi iu kin t kch mt tn s c
nh v tn hiu u ra gn vi dng hnh sin. B khuch i trong trng hp ny lm vic nh
mt mch to dao ng hnh sin.
Khi

K.<0 th

K ht =

K
<K
1 + K .

(1-16)

l hi tip m (Uht ngc pha vi Uv) v Uy = Uv - Uht, ngha l h s khuch i ca b


khuch i c hi tip m Kht nh hn h s khuch i khi khng c hi tip.
nh gi n nh h s khuch i khi c hi tip, thc hin vi phn biu thc

K ht =
C

K
1 + K .

dK ht =

dK .(1 + K ) dK .K
(1 + K ) 2 .

=
12

dK
(1 + K . ) 2

(1-17)

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Bin i (1-17) v ch n (1-16) ta nhn c biu thc c trng cho s thay i tng
ng ca h s khuch i.

dK ht dK / K
=
K ht 1 + K .

(1-18)

T (1-18) thy s thay i tng i h s khuch i ca b khuch i khi c hi tip m


nh hn 1 + K. ln so vi khi khng hi tip. n nh h s khuch i s tng khi tng
su hi tip. V d, gi thit s thay i tng i ca h s khuch i dK/K = 20% v
1+K.=100 th s thay i tng i ca h s khuch i ca b khuch i c hi tip l
dKht/Kht = 0,2%.Tnh cht ny c bit qu gi trong iu kin h s khuch i thay i do s
thay i ca tham s theo nhit nht l i vi tranzito v s ho gi ca chng. Nu h s
khuch i K ln v hi tip m su th thc t c th loi tr s ph thuc ca h s khuch i
vo s thay i cc tham s trong b khuch i. Khi trong mu s ca (1-16) c th b qua 1
v h s khuch i ca n do h s truyn t ca mch hi tip quyt nh.

K ht

(1-19)

Ngha l thc t khng ph thuc vo K v mi s thay i ca n.


V d K = 104 v = 10-2 th:

K ht =

= 100

ngha vt l ca vic tng n nh ca h s khuch i c hi tip m l ch khi


thay i h s khuch i K th in p hi tip s b thay i dn n thay i in p Uy (hnh
1.9a) theo hng b li s thay i in p ra ca b khuch i. Gi s khi gim K do s thay
i tham s b khuch i s lm cho Uht gim v Ur gim, in p Uy = Uv - Uht tng dn n Ur
tng, chnh l ngn cn s gim ca h s khuch i K (hnh 1-9a).
Tng n nh ca h s khuch i bng hi tip m c dng rng ri ci thin c
tuyn bin , tn s (hnh 1-10) ca b khuch i nhiu tng ghp in dung. V min tn s
thp v cao h s khuch i b gim. Tc dng hi tip m min tn s k trn s yu v h s
khuch i K nh v s dn n tng khuch i gii bin tn v m rng gii thng f ca b
khuch i.
K
Ku
Ku

2
Hnh 1-10: nh hng ca hi
tip m n c tuyn bin tn s

K uht

Kuht

f
fht

13

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Hi tip m cng lm gim mo khng ng thng ca tn hiu ra v gim nhiu (tp m)
trong b khuch i.
Di y ta s kho st nh hng ca hi tip m n in tr vo b khuch i.

RV =

UV
IV

Hnh 1-9a thc hin hi tip m ni tip.

U V = U Y + U ht .
Mt khc ta c

U ht = K . .U Y . V vy:

RVht =

(1 + K . ).U Y
= RV .(1 + K . )
IV

(1-20)

Nh vy thc hin hi tip m ni tip lm tng in tr vo ca b khuch i ln (1+K.)


ln. iu ny rt cn thit khi b khuch i nhn tn hiu t b cm bin c in tr trong ln
hoc b khuch i dng tranzito lng cc.
Tng t, in tr ra ca b khuch i l:

Rrht =

Rr
(1 + K . )

(1-21)

Ngha l gim i (1+K.) ln. iu ny m bo in p ra ca b khuch i t ph thuc


vo s thay i in tr ti Rt.
T nhng phn tch trn, c th rt ra nhng quy lut chung nh hng ca hi tip m n
ch tiu b khuch i l:
Mi loi hi tip m u lm gim tn hiu trn u vo b khuch i (Uy hay Iy) v do
lm gim h s khuch i Kht, lm tng n nh ca h s khuch i ca b khuch i.
Ngoi ra hi tip m ni tip hnh 1-9a,b lm tng in tr vo.
Hi tip in p ni tip (hnh 1-9a) lm n nh in p ra, gim in tr ra Rrht. Cn hi
tip dng in ni tip (hnh 1-9b) lm n nh dng in ra It, tng in tr ra Rrht.
Hi tip m song song (hnh 1-9c) lm tng dng in vo, lm gim in tr vo Rvht, cng
nh in tr ra Rrht.
Cn ni thm l hi tip dng thng khng dng trong b khuch i nhng n c th
xut hin ngoi mun do ghp v in bn trong hay bn ngoi gi l hi tip k sinh, c th
xut hin qua ngun cung cp chung, qua in cm hoc in dung k sinh gia mch ra v mch
vo ca b khuch i.
Hi tip k sinh lm thay i c tuyn bin - tn s ca b khuch i do lm tng h
s khuch i cc on ring bit ca gii tn hoc thm ch c th lm cho b khuch i b t
kch ngha l xut hin dao ng mt tn s xc nh.
14

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


loi b hin tng trn c th dng cc b lc thot, dng dy dn bc kim, b tr mch
in v cc linh kin hp l.
Di y l cc th d v nhng mch hi tip m thng gp (hnh 1-11)

RC

R1
CP1

En

R1

Rn

Ur
R2

a)

RC1

CP1

CP2

Rn
Uv

+E

RE

Uv
En

R3
C

CP2
R
T1
R2

RE1

RC2

+E

CP3
Ur
R4

RE2

b)
Hnh 1-11: S cc mch hi tip m.
a) Hi tip dng in trn RE; b) Hi tip in p nh khu RC

hnh 1-11a trn in tr RE c hi tip m dng in mc ni tip.


Trong mch hnh 1-11b ta thy, nu xt tng tng ring bit th trn R E1 , R E 2 u thc hin
hi tip m dng in mc ni tip. Ngoi ra cn c hi tip m in p ni tip ly t cc gp
ca tranzito T2 v cc pht ca tranzito T1 qua C v R. Nh vy trn RE1 c c hai loi hi tip m
in p v dng in.

1.4. CC S C BN DNG TRANZITO LNG CC (BJT).


Di y s trnh by phng php phn tch tng khuch i dng tranzito lng cc theo
ba cch mc mch: pht chung (EC), gp chung (CC), v gc chung (BC). Gi thit tn hiu vo l
hnh sin min tn s trung bnh v vy tr khng ca t coi nh bng khng, cn nh hng in
dung k sinh ca s v tranzito, cng nh s ph thuc v h s khuch i dng , ca
tranzito vo tn s coi nh khng ng k.
1.4.1. Tng khuch i pht chung (EC)
Mch in nguyn l mt tng khuch i EC cho trn hnh 1-12.
Trong s ny CP1, CP2 l cc t ni tng. T Cp1 loi tr tc dng nh hng ln nhau ca
ngun tn hiu v mch vo v dng mt chiu. T CP2 ngn thnh phn mt chiu v ch cho thnh
phn xoay chiu ra ti. R1, R2 xc nh ch tnh ca tng, cp in mt chiu cho cc B.
RC: ti mt chiu ca tng.
RE: in tr n nh nhit, CE t thot thnh phn xoay chiu xung mt.
En: ngun tn hiu vo,
15

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Rn: in tr trong ca ngun tn hiu.
Rt: in tr ti.
+EC
R1

RC
I B0

IV

Hnh 1-12: Tng khuch


i E chung

CP1

T
UBE

IP

Rn

CP2

IC
U
CE0

It

Rt

Ur

IE0

En

R2 UE0

UV

RE

CE

Nguyn l lm vic ca tng EC nh sau: khi a in p xoay chiu ti u vo xut hin


dng xoay chiu cc gc ca tranzito v do xut hin dng xoay chiu cc gp mch ra ca
tng. Dng ny gy h p xoay chiu trn in tr RC. in p qua t CP2 a n u ra ca
tng tc l ti Rt. C th thc hin bng hai phng php c bn l phng php th i vi
ch mt chiu v phng php gii tch dng s tng ng i vi ch xoay chiu tn
hiu nh.
Phng php th da vo c tuyn vo v ra ca tranzito c u im l d dng tm

c mi quan h gia cc gi tr bin ca thnh phn xoay chiu (in p ra U r v dng in

ra I r ) v l s liu ban u tnh ton. Trn c tuyn hnh (1-13a), v ng ti mt chiu (AB). S ph thuc UCE0 = f(IC0) c th tm c t phng trnh cn bng in p mch ra ca
tng:
UCE0 = EC - IC0.RC - IE0RE = EC - IC0RC -

IC0

.RE

(1-22)

V h s gn ng 1, nn c th vit
UCE0 = EC - IC0 (RC+RE)

(1-23)

Biu thc (1-23) l phng trnh ng ti mt chiu ca tng. Da vo c tuyn vo IB =


f(UBE) ta chn dng cc gc tnh cn thit IB0, chnh l xc nh c to im P l giao im
ca ng IB = IB0 vi ng ti mt chiu trn c tuyn ra hnh 1-13a.
xc nh thnh phn xoay chiu ca in p ra v dng ra cc gp ca tranzito phi
dng ng ti xoay chiu ca tng. Ch rng in tr xoay chiu trong mch cc pht ca
tranzito bng khng (v c t CE mc song song vi in tr RE) cn ti Rt c mc vo mch
cc gp, v in tr xoay chiu ca t Cp2 rt nh b qua.

16

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

IC

PCCP

D
IB

B
I
C

IB=IB0
IB2

IC0

I
B

IB

uC

IB1
IB=0
C
IC0(E)

u C

a)

uBE

uC

b)

uB
u v

UC0

uB0

Hnh 1-13: Xc nh ch tnh ca tng EC


a) Trn c tuyn ra
b) Trn c tuyn vo
Nu coi in tr xoay chiu ca ngun cung cp EC bng khng, th in tr xoay chiu ca
tng gm hai in tr RC v Rt mc song song, ngha l
Rt~ =Rt//RC. T thy r in tr ti mt chiu ca tng Rt==RC + RE ln hn in tr ti
xoay chiu Rt~. Khi c tn hiu vo, in p v dng in l tng ca thnh phn mt chiu v
xoay chiu, ng ti xoay chiu i qua im tnh P. dc ca ng ti xoay chiu ln hn
dc ng ti mt chiu. Xy dng ng ti xoay chiu theo t s s gia ca in p v dng
in U CE = I C .(RC // Rt). Khi cung cp in p vo ti u vo ca tng th trong mch cc
gc xut hin thnh phn dng xoay chiu ib lin quan n in p vo Uv theo c tuyn vo
ca tranzito.V dng cc gp t l vi dng cc gc qua h s , trong mch cc gp cng c
thnh phn dng xoay chiu iC v in p xoay chiu Ura lin h vi iC bng ng ti xoay
chiu. Khi ng ti xoay chiu c trng cho s thay i gi tr tc thi dng cc gp iC v
in p trn tranzito UC hay ngi ta ni l s dch chuyn im lm vic. im lm vic dch
t P i ln ng vi 1/2 chu k dng v dch chuyn i xung ng vi 1/2 chu k m ca tn hiu
vo. Nu chn tr s tn hiu vo thch hp v ch tnh ng th tn hiu ra ca tng khuch i
khng b mo dng. Vic chn im lm vic tnh v tnh ton s c thc hin theo mt tng

khuch i c th. Nhng tham s ban u tnh ton l bin in p ra U r v dng in ti

I t , cng sut ti Pt v in tr ti Rt. Gia nhng tham s ny c quan h cht ch vi nhau, nn
v nguyn tc ch cn bit hai trong nhng tham s l tnh cc tham s cn li.
17

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


tn hiu ra khng b mo dng, cc tham s ca ch tnh phi tho mn nhng iu
kin sau: (hnh 1-13a).

U C 0 > U r + U C 0
(1-24)


I C0 > I C + I C0 (E)

(1-25)

y U C 0 l in p cc gp ng vi on u ca c tuyn ra (cn gi l in p UCE


bo ho) I C 0 ( E ) l dng cc gp ban u ng vi nhit cc i, chnh l cao ca ng c
tuyn ra tnh ng vi dng IB=0.

Quan h dng I C vi in p ra c dng


IC =

Ur
Ur
=
R C // R t
Rt ~

(1-26)

tng h s khuch i ca tng, tr s RC phi chn ln hn Rt t 35 ln.


Da vo dng IC0 chn, tnh dng cc gc tnh:
IB0 =

I C0 I C0 (E)

(1-27)

t da vo c tuyn vo ca trazito tm c in p U BE 0 ng vi I B 0 tm c.
Dng cc pht tnh c quan h vi dng I B 0 v IC0 theo biu thc.

I E 0 = (1 + ).I B 0 + I C 0 ( E ) =

I C 0 I C0 (E)

.(1 + ) + I C 0 ( E ) = I C 0

(1-28)

Khi chn EC (nu nh khng cho trc), cn phi theo iu kin:


EC=UC0+IC0.Rc+UE0.

(1-29)

y
UE0 = IE0.RE
Khi xc nh tr s UE0 phi xut pht t quan im tng in p UE0 s lm tng n nh
nhit cho ch tnh ca tng (v khi RE ln s lm tng su hi tip m mt chiu ca tng),
tuy nhin lc cn phi tng in p ngun cung cp EC. V vy m UE0 thng chn bng
(0,10,3) EC
Ch n biu thc (1-29) ta c:

EC =

U C 0 + I C 0 .RC
0,7 0,9

(1-30)

in tr RE c th tnh t

18

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

RE =

U E0
IC0

(1-31)

Khi tnh cc phn t ca b phn p u vo cn lu vi quan im n nh nhit cho ch


tnh ca tng, sao cho s thay i ca dng cc gc tnh IB0 (do khng n nh nhit ca
in p UBE0) phi t nh hng n s thay i in p UB0.Mun vy th dng phn p IP qua b
phn p R1 R2 phi ln hn dng IB0 qua in tr R1. Tuy nhin vi iu kin IP >> IB0 th R1, R2
s phi nh v chng s gy ra r mch tn hiu vo, lm gim in tr vo ca tng khuch i.
V th khi tnh cc phn t ca b phn p vo ta phi hn ch theo iu kin:

RB = R1 // R2 = (2 5)rV .

(1-32)

I P = (2 5) I B 0 .

(1-33)

y rV l in tr vo ca tranzito, c trng cho in tr xoay chiu mch gc - pht


(rV= U BE / I B )
in tr R1,R2 c th tnh theo:

R2 =

U B 0 U BE + U E 0
=
Ip
Ip

(1-34)

R1 =

EC U B 0
I p + I B0

(1-35)

Khi chn tranzito cn ch n cc tham s gii hn nh: di tn s cng tc (theo tn s f


hay f) cng nh cc tham s v dng in, in p v cng sut. Dng in cc gp cho php
cc i IC.C.P phi ln hn tr s tc thi ln nht trong khi lm vic, ngha l
I max = I + I < I
. V mt in p ngi ta thng chn tranzito theo UC0.C.P > EC. Cng
C

CO

C .C . P

sut tiu hao trn cc gp PC =UC0.IC0 phi nh hn cng sut cc i cho php ca tranzito PC.C.P.
ng cong cng sut gii hn cho php l ng hypecbon. i vi mi im ca n ta c
UC0.CP.IC.CP=PC.CP.
Tm li vic tnh ch ca tng khuch i l gii quyt nhim v chn hp l cc phn
t ca s nhn c nhng tham s cn thit ca tn hiu ra trn ti.
Cc h s khuch i dng in Ki, in p Ku v cng sut Kp cng nh in tr vo RV,
in tr ra Rr l nhng ch tiu quan trng ca tng khuch i. Nhng ch tiu c th xc nh
c khi tnh ton tng khuch i theo dng xoay chiu. Phng php gii tch da trn c s
thay th tranzito v tng khuch i bng s tng ng dng xoay chiu ch tn hiu
nh. S thay th tng EC v trn hnh 1-14, y tranzito c thay bng s thay th tham
s vt l. Tnh ton theo dng xoay chiu c th thc hin c khi s dng s thay th
tranzito vi cc tham s r , trong rB l in tr khi vng cc gc, rE l in tr vi phn ca
tip gip pht, rC in tr vi phn ca tip gip gp.
n gin ta gi thit tng khuch i c tnh min tn s trung bnh, tn hiu vo l
hnh sin v in tr ca ngun cung cp i vi dng xoay chiu bng khng. Cc t Cp1, Cp2, CE
19

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


c tr khng rt b, xem nh bng khng. Dng in v in p trong s tnh theo tr s hiu
dng. in tr vo ca tng:
RV=R1//R2//rV

IV

IB
rB

<<

UV

IE

rE

C
It

CC

R1 R2

En ~

IC

rC

IB

Rn

(1-36)

RC

Rt

Ut

E
Hnh 1-14: S thay th tng khuch i EC bng tham s vt l.
V in tr trong ca ngun dng IB hnh 1.14 rt ln, cn rC(E) + RC//Rt >> rE nn:

U BE = I B .rB + I E .rE hay l


U BE = I B [ rB + (1 + ).rE ]

(1-37)

Chia c hai v ca phng trnh (1-37) cho IB ta c:


rV= rB + (1+).rE.
Tnh gn ng bc mt ca RV theo rV v gi tr c th ca rB, , rE vi iu kin R1//R2
(23)rV ta s c RV ca tng EC khng vt qu (13)K
Xc nh h s khuch i dng in ca tng: Ki = It/IV t hnh 1-14 c:

I B = IV

RV
rV

(1-38)

Khi xc nh dng It qua IB th khng tnh n rE v n rt nh so vi in tr ca cc phn


t mch ra:

I t = .I B .

r C ( E ) // R C // R t
Rt

(1-39)

n biu thc (1-38) ta c:

I t = I V . .

R V rC ( E ) // R C // R t
.
rV
Rt

(1-40)

v h s khuch i dng xc nh bi:

Ki = .

R V rC ( E ) // R C // R t
.
rV
Rt

(1-41)

20

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


H s khuch i dng Ki t l vi h s ca tranzito, cc in tr phn p cp in mt
chiu cc gc v in tr RC, Rt. Biu thc (1-41) cho ta thy cn chn R1//R2 >>rV v RC > Rt.
Nu coi RV rV v rC(E) >>RC//Rt th h s khuch i dng gn ng.

Ki = .

R C // R t
Rt

(1-42)

Nh vy tng EC c h s khuch i dng tng i ln, v nu nh RC>> Rt th n gn


bng h s khuch i ca tranzito.
Xc nh h s khuch i in p ca tng

Ku =
Ku =

Ur
En
I t .R t
Rt
= Ki .
I V .( R n + R V )
Rn + RV

(1-43)

Thay (1-42) vo (1-43) ta c:

Ku = .

R C // R t
Rn + RV

(1-44)

T (1-44) ta thy nu cng ln v in tr mch ra ca tng cng ln so vi in tr mch


vo th h s khuch i cng ln. c bit, h s khuch i in p s tng khi in tr trong
ca ngun tn hiu gim.
Tng khuch i EC thc hin o pha ca in p ra i vi in p vo. Vic tng in p
vo s lm tng dng cc gc v dng cc gp ca tranzito, h p trn Rc tng lm gim in p trn
cc gp. Vic o pha trong tng khuch i EC c biu th bng du - trong biu thc Ku
H s khuch i cng sut K P =

Pr
= K u .K i trong s EC khong (0,2 5).103 ln.
PV

in tr ra ca tng.

Rr = RC // rC ( E )

(1-45)

V rC(E) >> RC nn Rr = RC
1.4.2. Tng khuch i gp chung (CC)
Hnh 1-15a l s tng khuch i CC, cn gi l tng lp E v in p ra ca n ly
cc E ca tranzito, v tr s gn bng in p vo ( U r = U V U BE U V ) v trng pha vi in
p vo.
in tr RE trong s ng vai tr nh RC trong EC, ngha l to nn mt in p bin i
u ra trn n. T C c nhim v a tn hiu ra ti Rt. in tr R1, R2 l b phn p cp in
mt chiu cho cc gc, xc nh ch tnh ca tng. tng in tr vo thng ngi ta khng
21

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


mc in tr R2. Tnh ton ch mt chiu tng t nh tnh ton tng EC. kho st cc
tham s ca tng theo dng xoay chiu, cn chuyn sang s thay th (hnh 1.15b)
IB
+ EC
R1
<<
IV
rB
C
B
IC0
I
C
bo
P1
IV
rC
T
IB
IE
Rn
IC
CP2
r
E
UBE
Rn
R1//R2 E
UV
IE RE It Rt
Rt Ur
RE
En Uv R2
Ur En
It

D
a.
b.
Hnh 1-15: a. S tng khuch i CC; b. S thay th
in tr vo ca tng:
Ta c

RV=R1//R2//rV.

U V = I B [ rB + (1 + ).(rE + R E // Rt ) ].

Chia UV cho IB ta c:

rV = rB + (1 + ).(rE + R E // Rt ).

(1-46)

T biu thc (1-46) ta thy rV ca tranzito trong s CC ln hn trong s EC. V rE


thng rt nh hn RE//Rt, cn rB nh hn s hng th hai ca v phi biu thc (1-46), nn in
tr vo ca tng lp cc pht E bng:

R V R 1 // R 2 //(1 + ).(R E // R t ).

(1-47)

Nu chn b phn p u vo R1, R2 ln th in tr vo s ln. Tuy nhin khi khng th


b qua in tr rC(E) mc song song vi mch vo, nn in tr vo phi tnh:

R V = R 1 // R 2 // [ (1 + ).(R E // R t ) ]//rC(E)

(1-48)

in tr vo ln l mt trong nhng u im quan trng ca tng gp chung, dng lm


tng phi hp vi ngun tn hiu c in tr trong ln.
Vic xc nh h s khuch i dng Ki cng theo phng php ging nh s EC. Cng thc
(1-38) ng vi tng CC. V dng It y ch l mt phn ca dng IE nn biu thc (1-39) c dng:

I t = (1 + ).I B .

R E // R t
Rt

(1-49)

R V R E // R t
.
rV
Rt

(1-50)

V xt n (1-39) ta c:

I t = I V .(1 + ).

22

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


H s khuch i dng trong s CC:

K i = (1 + ).

R V R E // R t
.
rV
Rt

(1-51)

ngha l n ph thuc vo quan h RV v rV, RE v Rt. Gi thit RV=rV th

K i = (1 + ).

R E // R t
Rt

(1-52)

Khi RE = RC v in tr Rt ging nhau th h s khuch i dng in trong s pht


chung v gp chung gn bng nhau.
H s khuch i in p tnh theo (1-43) ta c:

K u = (1 + ).

R E // R t
Rn + RV

(1-53)

Khi RV >> Rn v gn ng RV (1 + ).(R E + R t ) th Ku 1. Nh vy tng khuch i gp


chung khuch i cng sut tn hiu trong khi gi nguyn tr s in p ca n.
V Ku=1 nn h s khuch i Kp xp x bng Ki v tr s.
in tr ra ca tng CC:

R r = R E //(rE +

rB + R n // R 1 // R 2
) = R E // rE
1+

(1-54)

in tr ra ca tng nh c (1 50). N c dng phi hp mch ra ca tng khuch


i vi ti c in tr nh, khi tng gp chung dng lm tng ra ca b khuch i c vai tr
nh mt tng khuch i cng sut n ch A khng c bin p ra.
1.4.3 Tng khuch i gc chung (BC).
Hnh (1-16a) l s mt tng khuch i gc chung. Cc phn t R1, R2, RE dng xc
nh ch tnh IE. Cc phn t cn li cng c chc nng ging s EC.
kho st cc tham s ca tng khuch i BC theo dng xoay chiu ta s dng s
tng ng hnh 1-16b.

RV = R E //[ rE + (1 ).rB ]

(1-55)

T (1-55) ta thy in tr vo ca tng c xc nh ch yu bng in tr rE vo khong


(1050). in tr vo nh l nhc im c bn ca tng BC v tng s l ti ln i vi
ngun tn hiu vo.
i vi thnh phn xoay chiu th h s khuch i dng in ca tranzito l: =

<1. H s khuch i dng ca tng l:

23

IC
v
IE

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

K i = .

R C // R t
Rt

+EC

IC
IV

En

RC
CP2

R
uV

RE
CB

(1-56)

R1

IV
Rn

IB Rt

IE

<<

rE

rC IC

RE IB

rB

Rt Ur

RC

Ur

R2

I1
B

a.

Hnh 1-16: a. S khuych i BC

b.

b. S thay th
H s khuch i in p:

K u = .

R C // R t
Rn + RV

(1-57)

T (1-57) ta thy khi gim in tr trong ca ngun tn hiu vo s lm tng h s khuch


i in p.
in tr ra ca tng BC l:

Rr = RC // rC ( E ) RC

(1-58)

Cn ch rng c tuyn tnh ca tranzito mc BC c tuyn tnh ln nn tranzito c th


dng vi in p cc gp ln hn s EC. Chnh v vy tng khuch i BC c dng khi cn
c in p u ra ln.

1.5. TNG KHUCH I O PHA


Tng o pha dng khuch i tn hiu v cho ra hai tn hiu c bin bng nhau
nhng pha lch nhau 1800 (hay ngc pha nhau).
S tng khuch i o pha chia ti v hnh 1-17a. Tn hiu ly ra t cc pht v cc gp
ca tranzito. Tn hiu ra U r 2 ly t cc pht ng pha vi tn hiuvo UV cn tn hiu ra U r1 ly t
cc gp ngc pha vi tn hiu vo. Dng tn hiu v trn hnh 1-17b, c, d.
Ta s kho st ch tiu ca tng tnh tng t nh tng CC.

R V = R 1 // R 2 //[ rB + (1 + ).(rE + R E // R t 2 ) ]

(1-59)

hoc tnh gn ng:

R V (1 + ).(rE + R E // R t 2 )

(1-60)
24

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

UV
b)

+EC
R1

RC

CP1

Rn

CP2

Ur2

CP3 Rt
UV

En

R2

RE
Rt

c)

Ur1

U r 2

UC0

Ur2

t
0

a)

d)

Ur
U r1

UC0
Hnh 1-17: a) S tng o pha

b) c) d) Biu thi gian

H s khuch i in p u ra 1 xc nh tng t nh s EC, cn u ra 2 xc


nh tng t nh s CC.

K u1 .

(R C // R t1 )
Rn + RV

K u 2 (1 + ).

(1-61)

(R E // R t 2 )
Rn + RV

(1-62)

Nu chn RC=RE v c R t1 = R t 2 th

+EC

gi tr h s khuch i K u1 gn ng bng

R1

K u 2 v s ny cn gi l mch o pha
chia ti.
Tng o pha cng c th dng bin
p, s nguyn l nh hnh 1-18.

CP

Ur1
Ura2

Rn

Hai tn hiu ly ra t hai na cun th


cp c pha lch nhau 1800 so vi im 0.
Khi hai na cun th cp c s vng
bng nhau th hai in p ra s bng nhau.
Mch ny c h s khuch i ln, d dng
thay i cc tnh ca in p ra v cn c tc
dng phi hp tr khng nhng cng knh,
nng n v mo ln nn hin nay t c dng.

L1

L2

En

UV

R2

RE

CE
_

Hnh 1-18: S tng o pha dng bin p

25

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

1.6. CC S C BN DNG TRANZITO TRNG(FET).


Nguyn l xy dng tng khuch i dng tranzito trng cng ging nh tng dng
tranzito lng cc. im khc nhau l tranzito trng iu khin bng in p. Khi chn ch
tnh ca tng dng tranzito trng cn a ti u vo (cc ca G) mt in p mt chiu c gi
tr v cc tnh cn thit.
1.6.1. Tng khuch i cc ngun chung (SC)
S khuch i SC dng MOSFET c knh n t sn cho trn hnh 1-19a.
Ti RD c mc vo cc mng D, cc in tr R1, RG, RS dng xc lp UGS0 ch
tnh. in tr RS s to ra hi tip m dng in mt chiu n nh ch tnh khi thay i
nhit v do tnh tn mn ca tham s tranzito. T CS dng kh hi tip m dng xoay chiu.
T CP1 ghp tng vi ngun tn hiu vo. Nguyn tc chn ch tnh cng ging nh s
tranzito lng cc hnh 1-12. Cng thc (1-24) v (1-25) dng chn ch tnh, y c th
vit di dng:

U DS0 > U r + U DS

(1-63)

I D0 > I D

(1-64)

ID
+E

ID

CP

R1

ID0
T

RD
CP

En

UGS0
UV
UG

RG US0
IS0

ID

UGS

UDS

Rn

PDMax

IDMax
D

Rt

ID0

Ur

UPMax

UDS0

US0+UR

UDS

RS CS

U0S

A UDS

U r
Ur

a)
Hnh 1-19:

b)
a) S tng khuych i SC.
b) th xc nh ch tnh.

im lm vic tnh P dch chuyn theo ng ti mt chiu s qua im A v B (hnh 119b). i vi im A: IDS = 0, UDS = +ED, i vi im B: UDS= 0, ID = ED/(RD+RS). in tr ti
26

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

xoay chiu xc nh theo Rt= RD//Rt. Trong b khuch i nhiu tng th ti ca tng trc chnh
l mch vo ca tng sau c in tr vo RV ln. Trong nhng trng hp nh vy th ti xoay
chiu ca tng xc nh ch yu bng in tr RD c chn ti thiu cng nh hn RV mt bc
na. Chnh v vy i vi tng tin khuch i th dc ca ng ti xoay chiu (ng C-D)
khng khc lm so vi ng ti mt chiu v trong nhiu trng hp ngi ta coi chng nh l
mt ng.
Trong ch tnh:

U DS0 = E D I D 0 (R D + R S )
trong :

(1-65)

ID0 l dng mng tnh

U DS0 l in p cc mng - ngun tnh.


in p U GS0 l tham s ca c tuyn ra tnh i qua im P (hnh 1-19b).
Da vo c tuyn ca FET, ta thy ch tnh in p cc G c th c cc tnh dng
hoc m i vi cc ngun v thm ch c th bng khng.
Kho st trng hp U GS0 < 0
in tr RS v RG xc nh in p U GS0 < 0 trong ch tnh. Tr s v cc tnh ca
in p trn in tr RS l do dng in IS0=ID0 chy qua n quyt nh, in tr RS c xc nh
bi:

RS =

U GS 0
I D0

(1-66)

in tr RG dn in p U GS0 ly trn RS ln cc ca G ca FET. in tr RG phi chn


nh hn in tr vo. iu ny rt cn thit loi tr nh hng ca tnh khng n nh theo
nhit v tnh tn mn ca cc tham s mch vo n in tr vo ca tng. Tr s RS thng
chn t (15)M.
Ngoi vic m bo in p U GS0 yu cu, in tr RS cn to ra hi tip m dng in mt
chiu trong tng, ngn cn s thay i dng ID0 do tc dng ca nhit v tnh tn mn tham s
ca tranzito v v th n nh ch tnh ca tng. tng tnh n nh th cn tng RS nhng
phi bo m U GS0 . Trong trng hp ny phi b in p U S0 bng cch cung cp cho cc ca
in p UG0 qua in tr R1.

U GS 0 = U S 0 U G 0 = I D 0 .R S E D .
R1 =

E D .R G
RG
U S 0 U GS 0

RG
R G + R1

(1-67)

(1-68)

in p ngun cung cp:


27

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

E D = U DS 0 + U S 0 + I D 0 .RD

(1-69)

Tr s RD c nh hng n c tnh tn s ca tng, n c tnh theo tn s trn ca gii


tn. Vi quan im m rng di tn th phi gim RD. Sau khi chn in tr trong ca tranzito
ri, th ta c th chn RD=(0,050,15).ri.
Vic chn in p U S0 cng theo nhng iu kin ging nh in p UE0 trong tng EC,
ngha l tng in p U S0 s lm tng n nh ca im lm vic tnh do RS tng, tuy nhin khi
cn tng ED. V th U S0 thng chn trong khong (0,10,3)ED. Cng tng t (1-30) ta c:

ED =

U D 0 + I D 0 .R D
0,7 0,9

(1-70)

Khi U GS0 0 phi mc in tr RS t yu cu v n nh ch tnh. Lc bt


buc phi mc R1. Chn cc phn t da vo cng thc (1-67) n (1-70), khi (1-67), (1-68)
phi cho U GS0 = 0 hoc l thay i du trc in p U GS0 .Ch U GSO >0 l ch in hnh
ca MOSFET c knh cm ng loi n.V th nu thc hin i du trc

UGSO trong cng thc

(1-67), (1-68) c th dng chng tnh mch thin p R1, RG ca tng ngun chung.
Chn loi FET phi ch n cc tham s tng t nh trong tng EC, phi tnh n dng
mng cc i IDmax, in p mng cc i U DS max, v cng sut tiu tn cc i trong tranzito
PDmax.
Ging nh s EC dng tranzito lng cc, tng ngun chung cng lm o pha tn hiu
vo. V d t vo u vo na chu k in p dng, s lm tng dng mng v gim in p
mng; u ra s nhn c na chu k in p cc tnh m.
Di y ta s phn tch tng khuch i v mt xoay chiu.
S tng ng thay th tng SC v trn hnh 1-20a c tnh n in dung gia cc in
cc ca tranzito.
CG

UV
a)

CGS
R1 // RG

SU

ri

CDS

RD

Rt Ur

RD

Rt Ur

CG

CGS ri

UV
b)

R1// RG

CDS

UV

Hnh 1-20: S tng ng thay th tng S chung

28

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


S thay th da trn c s s dng ngun dng mch ra. in tr RD, Rt mc song
song mch ra xc nh ti xoay chiu Rt~=RD//Rt. in tr R1, RG cng c mc song song. V
in tr vo thng ln hn in tr Rn nhiu, nn in p vo ca tng coi nh bng E n
T ni tng C p1 , C p 2 v t CS kh ln nn in tr xoay chiu coi nh bng khng.V th
trong s thay th khng v nhng t .
H s khuych i in p tng tn s trung bnh :

Ku =
Hay l:

Ku= -

Ut
S.U V .(ri // R t ~ )
=
= S.(ri // R t ~ )
UV
UV

(1-71)

S.ri .R t ~
ri + R t ~

(1-72)

Tr s Sri gi l h s khuych i tnh ca FET.Thay = Sri v ta c:

Ku =

.R t ~

(1-73)

ri + Rt ~

Da vo (1-73) c th v s thay th tng SC vi ngun in p .U v (hnh 1-20b).

R t~

Trong trng hp nu tng SC l tng khuych i trong b khuych i nhiu tng th


= R D // R V = R D .Nu nh tnh R D << ri th h s khuych i in p ca tng c tnh:

K U = S.R D

(1-74)

in tr vo ca tng SC l:

R V = R 1 // R G

(1-75)

in tr ra ca tng:

R r = R D // ri R D

(1-76)

Khi chuyn sang min tn s cao th phi ch n in dung vo v ra ca tng, ngha l


cn ch n in dung gia cc in cc C GS , C GD ca tranzito, cng nh in dung lp rp
mch vo C L (in dung ca linh kin v dy dn mch vo i vi cc m ca ngun cung
cp).
tn s cao nhng in dung k sinh k trn s to nn thnh phn in khng ca dng
in mch vo

I Cv = I CGS + I CGD + I CL

(1-77)

Dng ICGS, ICL xc nh bng in p vo UV, cn dng ICGD xc nh bng dng cc mng ca. V in p cc mng ngc pha vi in p vo, nn in p gia cc ca v cc mng s
bng:

29

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

u v + u r = (1 + K u )u v
Dng in vo in dung ca tng:

I CV = j..CGS.uv + j.CGD.(1+Ku).UV+j..CL.UV
I CV j..UV[CGS+(1+Ku).CGD+CL]=j..CV.UV

hay

y CV l in dung vo ca tng:
CV=CGS+(1+Ku).CGD+CL

(1-78)

in dung ra ca tng ph thuc vo in dung gia cc in cc khong mng - ngun


v mng - ca, cng nh in dung lp rp mch ra. Tnh in dung ra cng theo phng php
nh tnh in dung vo, c kt qu:

C r = C DS +

1+ Ku
.C GD + C S
Ku

(1-79)

1.6.2. Tng khuch i cc mng chung (DC)


S tng khuch i cc mng chung gn ging s CC. Hnh 1-21a v s DC dng
FET c knh t sn. in tr R1, RG cng RS dng xc nh ch lm vic tnh ca tranzito.
CGD
+ ED

CP1
Rn
En

R1
CP2

UGS

UV

RG
UG

US0 RS

Ur

CGS

UV
Ri // RG

Rt
_

a)

ri
1+

Ur
1+
(3

RS

Rt

Ur

b)
Hnh 1-21: Tng khuch i cc mng chung
a) S nguyn l; b) S tng ng.

Vic chn v tnh ton m bo ch tnh c tin hnh tng t nh tng SC. Ti
mt chiu ca tng l RS, cn ti xoay chiu l: Rt=RS//Rt.
i vi tng DC in p ra ti trng pha vi in p vo

U t = U V U GS

(1-80)

Theo s thay th th Ut li l hm s ca UGS tc dng ln u vo ca tranzito.

U t = S.U GS (ri // R t ~ )
hay

U GS =

Ut
S.(ri // R t ~ )

(1-81)
30

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


H s khuch i in p ca tng tnh theo:

Ku =

Ut
S.(ri // R t ~ )
=
U V 1 + S.(ri // R t ~ )

(1-82)

V ri >>Rt~ nn:

Ku =

S.R t ~
1 + S.R t ~

(1-83)

H s khuch i Ku ph thuc vo h dn ca tranzito v ti xoay chiu Rt~ ca tng.


H s khuch i tin ti 1 khi tng S v Rt~. V vy i vi tng DC nn dng tranzito c h
dn ln.
tm c cc tham s tng ng ca s thay th ta s bin i cng thc (1-82)
sau khi thay vo n S=/ri v khai trin:

ri // R t ~ =

ri .Rt ~
Rt ~ + ri

Sau khi bin i ta c:

Ku =

.R t ~
ri + (1 + ).R t ~

(1-84)

Chia c t s v mu s v phi cng thc (1-84) cho 1 + v thay Ku=Ut/UV, ta c:

Ut =

1+

.U V .

Rt ~
ri /(1 + ) + R t ~

(1-85)

Da vo (1-85) ta s c s thay th ca tng hnh 1-21b. mch ra ca s thay th


c ngun in p tng ng

+1

.U V

Vi in tr tng ng ri /(1 + ) . Mch vo ca s thay th hnh 1-21b gm ba phn


t ging nhau nh s thay th SC.
Da vo s hnh 1-21b xc nh c in tr ra ca tng DC

R r =RS //

1
1

1+ S

(1-86)

in tr ra ca tng DC nh hn tng SC, v vo khong (1003000) .


V in p gia cc ca v cc ngun ca tranzito trong s lp li cc ngun bng
U V U r nn dng in vo bn thn ca tranzito s nh hn trong s SC, v khng n

31

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


nh nhit ca in tr gia ca v ngun nh. Do cho php ta dng R1, RG ln. V vy tng
DC c in tr vo RV ln (ti vi M) hn tng SC.
in dung vo ca tng DC s nh hn ca tng SC.
i vi tng DC th cn thit phi tnh n thnh phn dng in dung vo mch ca mng v ca - ngun ca tranzito, cng nh thnh phn dng in dung lp rp mch vo ca
tng. V in p cc mng khng i, thnh phn dng in dung CGD v C1 c xc nh bng
in p vo. Thnh phn dng in dung CGS ph thuc vo in p

U GS = U V U t = (1 K u ).U V
Dng vo tng l:

I CV = j..U V [ C GD + C GS .(1 Ku ) + C L ]
CV = C GD + C GS .(1 Ku ) + C L

t :

(1-87)

Nh vy in dung vo ca tng DC nh hn ca tng SC. T (1-87) ta thy nu Ku 1


trong tng DC th nh hng ca in dung CSG n in dung vo s gim nhiu.

1.7. CC PHNG PHP GHP TNG TRONG B KHUCH I


Mt b khuch i thng gm nhiu tng mc ni tip nhau nh hnh 1-22 (v thc t mt
tng khuch i khng m bo h s khuch i cn thit). y tn hiu ra ca tng u hay
tng trung gian bt k s l tn hiu vo cho tng sau n v ti ca mt tng l in tr vo ca
tng sau n. in tr vo v ra ca b khuch i s c tnh theo tng u v tng cui.

Rn
En

UV
1

Ur

UV(N-

Ur

Ur1=UV2

N-1

Rt
H

Hnh 1-22: S khi b khuch i nhiu tng


Theo h thc (1-88) h s khuch i ca b khuch i nhiu tng bng tch h s khuch
i ca mi tng (tnh theo n v s ln) hay bng tng ca chng (tnh theo n v dB)

Ku =

U t U ra 1 U r 2 U rN
=
.
...
= K u1 .K u2 ...K uN
En
E n U V 2 U VN

K u (dB ) = K u1 (dB ) + ... + K uN (dB )


Vic ghp gia cc tng c th dng t in, bin p hay ghp trc tip.

32

(1-88)

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


1.7.1. Ghp tng bng t in
B khuch i nhiu tng ghp t in v trn hnh 1-23. Cc iu phn tch trong mc
1.6, ng cho mt tng trung gian bt k nu thay Rt cho RV. S tng trong b khuch i nhiu
tng xc nh theo cng thc (1-88) xut pht t h s khuch i yu cu. Vic tnh ton cc tng
(chn v m bo ch lm vic tnh, tnh ton ch xoay chiu) phi theo th t t tng cui
cng tr v tng u tin.

+EC

R2
R1
CP1

C2

R3
T1

CP2

R5

R7

T2

R9

CP3

Rn
En ~

UV R2

R4

CE1

R6 R8

R11

T3
Ur
R10

CE2

R12

CE3

Hnh 1-23: S b khuch i nhiu tng ghp in dung.


Trc ht ta tnh tng cui cng. Tng ny phi m bo a ra ti Rt cng sut tn hiu yu
cu. Da vo h s khuch i tng cui, ta xc nh cc tham s tn hiu vo ca n. V chnh
l s liu ban u tnh tng trc cui, v tip tc cho n tng u tin ca b khuch i.
u tin ta tnh tn s trung bnh f0, b qua nh hng ca t in trong b khuch i v
khng tnh n s ph thuc ca cc tham s ca tranzito vo tn s. Trong trng hp cn thit
phi ch n c tnh ca tranzito v nh hng ca t in bin tn ca tn hiu cn khuch
i, iu ny s lm cho in p u ra ca b khuch i thay i c bin ln pha khi tn s
tn hiu vo thay i. min tn s thp, khi ti thun tr th nhng s ph thuc k trn l do t
in trong s quyt nh, cn min tn s cao th ch yu l do cc tham s ca tranzito
quyt nh. Trong thc t ngi ta c th nghin cu nh hng ca cc yu t trn mt cch c
lp hai min tn s thp v cao.
Di y ta xt c im cng tc ca b khuch i min tn s thp.
Trong (1-4) khi tnh h s khuch i ca tng n gi thit in tr xoay chiu ca t
in bng khng. Nhng gi thit nh vy ch ng tn s trung bnh. Khi tn s gim th
dn in ca cc t ni tng s gim. Do c h p trn t nn in p ca ngun tn hiu t
vo tng u tin hay in p ra tng trc t vo tng sau s b gim. H p trn t s lm gim
bin tn hiu u ra mi tng ca b khuch i ni chung tc l lm gim h s khuch i
min tn s thp (hnh 1-24).
nh hng ca t ni tng th hin rt r trong b khuch i ghp t ch h s khuch
i Ku 0 khi f 0. Nh vy l tr s ca t ni tng c nh hng n h s khuch i min
tn thp.
33

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


T CE cng nh hng n h s khuch i min tn thp. V khi tn s gim s lm
gim tc dng r mch ca t i vi in tr RE v do lm tng mc hi tip m dng xoay
chiu trn RE v do lm gim h s khuch i.
Vic gim mun h s khuch i tn s thp Kt c c trng bng h s mo tn s
thp ca b khuch i.

Mt =

K0
Kt

chnh l tch h s mo tn s ca mi t trong b khuch i.

M t = M t1 .M t 2 ....M t N

(1-89)

KU

Di tn trung bnh

K UO
M1
0

2C''P > CP' > CP

K UO
Mt

KUO
ft

Di thng
a)

fC

KU0
f

f''t f't ft
b)

Hnh 1-24:

a) Dng tng qut c tuyn bin tn s ca b khuch i ghp in dung;


b) nh hng ca t ni tng n c tuyn tn thp
H s mo tn s tnh theo:

Mt = 1 + (

1 2
)
t . t

(1-90)

i vi t CP1 hnh 1-88 th hng s thi gian = C P1 .(R n + R V1 ) trong Rn l in tr


ca ngun tn hiu vo, R V1 l in tr vo ca tng u tin. Tng t ta s xc nh c hng
s thi gian cho cc t khc trong s .
Tn s thp nht ca gii thng s c chn lm s liu ban u khi tnh b khuch i
vng tn s thp. H s mo tn s ng vi tn s thp ca gii thng c gi tr tu thuc vo
nhim v ca b khuch i. V d i vi b khuch i m thanh thng chn bng

2.

Nh trn gi thit, min tn s trung bnh cc t in khng gy nh hng g v s


dch pha ca tn hiu u ra ca b khuch i i vi tn hiu u vo s l n, y n l s tng
khuch i lm o pha tn hiu.
min tn s thp v trong mch c t in nn dng in nhanh pha hn so vi in p.
Nh vy s dch pha ca in p ra b khuch i so vi in p vo min tn s thp c c

34

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


tnh vt trc. Gc dch pha ca b khuch i bng tng gc dch pha ca mi t, v gc dch
pha ca mi t l:

t = acrtg

1
.
t . t

(1-91)

c tuyn bin tn s v pha tn s ca b khuch i min tn thp v trn hnh 1-25.


ng nt lin l c tuyn xt khi nh hng ca mt t, cn ng t nt l c tuyn xt khi
nh hng ca tt c cc t trong b
khuch i.
KUO
c im cng tc ca b khuch
i min tn s cao l s ph thuc h
s khuch i ca tranzito vo tn s
v s tn ti in dung mt ghp gp
CCE. Nhng nhn t ny nh hng n
c tuyn tn s ca b khuch i
min tn cao. min tn cao s gim
mun h s ca tranzito cng nh
tc dng r mch ca in dung CCE
lm gim h s khuch i.
H s mo tn s cao xc nh
theo cng thc:

M C = 1 + ( C . C )

a)

KUO

0
t
b)

/2
/4

f
ft
C
Hnh 1-25: nh hng ca t ni tng n c tuyn
1

a) Bin - tn s; b) Pha -tn s.


(1-92)

KU

y C l hng s thi gian tng


ng ca tng min tn s cao.

KU

Gc dch pha do mt tng


khuch i gy ra l:

C = arctg C . C

a)

(1-93)

Trong b khuch i c nhiu tng


th: mo tn s cao bng tch mo
ca cc tng, cn mo pha bng tng mo
phaca tng tng

b)

-/4
-/2

Tc l:

C = C1 + C 2 + ... + Cn

K1U0

c tuyn bin tn s v pha tn


s min tn cao hnh 1-26

M C = M C1 .M C 2 ....M Cn

K 1UO
MC

Hnh 1-26: nh hng tnh cht tn s


(1-94)

caTranzito n c tuyn

(1-95)

a) Bin -tn s; b) Pha-tn s.


35

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


1.7.2. Ghp bng bin p
Hnh 1-27 l s b khuch i ghp bng bin p. Cun s cp W1 mc vo cc gp T1,
cun th cp W2 mc vo cc gc T2 qua t CP2. Ghp tng bng bin p cch ly in p mt
chiu gia cc tng m cn lm tng h s khuch i chung v in p hay dng in tu thuc
vo bin p tng hay gim p.
u im ca mch ny l in p ngun cung cp cho cc gp ca tranzito ln v in p
mt chiu cun dy b, do cho php ngun c in p thp. Ngoi ra tng ghp bin p d
dng thc hin phi hp tr khng v thay i cc tnh in p tn hiu trn cc cun dy. Tuy
nhin n c nhc im l c tuyn tn s khng bng phng trong gii tn. Kt cu mch nng
n, cng knh, h hng sa cha thay th phc tp.

+EC
R1

RC

CP2

CP
Rn

R3

W2

W1

T2

En

R2

RE

Ur

R4

CE

Hnh 1-27: Tng khuch i ghp bin p

+EC
R3

1.7.3. Mch ghp trc tip

R5

R1

Mch ghp trc tip cho hnh


1-28. mch ny cc gp ca tranzito
trc u trc tip vo cc gc ca
tranzito sau. Cch trc tip ny lm
gim mo tn s thp trong b khuch
i, c dng trong b khuch i tn
hiu c thnh phn mt chiu (tn hiu
bin thin chm). Nhc im ca
mch l khng tn dng c
khuch i ca tranzito do ch cp
in mt chiu.

T2

T1

uV

R2

R4

R6

ur

Hnh 1-28: Mch khuch i ghp trc tip

1.8. MT S MCH KHUCH I KHC


1.8.1. Mch khuch i arlingtn
Khi cn tr khng vo tng khuch i ln dng vo nh, h s khuch i ln ta ni
mch khuch i theo arlingtn. Mch gm hai tranzito T1 v T2 u nh hnh 1-29.
Khi cp ngun tho mn T1,T2 lm vic ch khuch i ta c:

36

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

I C = I C1 + I C 2
I E1 = I B 2

cn

IC

IC1
T1

B qua thnh phn dng ngc ban u ta c:


I C = 1 .I B1 + 2 .I B 2 = 1 .I B1 + 2 .(1 + 1 ).I B1

IB1

IC2
T2

= 1 .I B1 + 2 .I B1 + 1 . 2 .I B1 1 . 2 .I B1
V 1 , 2 >> 1 trong 1 , 2 th t l h s

IE1=IB2

IE2

khuch i dng ca tranzito T1, T2.


Vy h s khuch i dng ca s arlingtn:

= 1 . 2

Hnh 1-29: Mch arlingtn

(1-96)

Ta tnh c in p vo ca mch:

R1

R2

RC

U BE = I B1 .rV1 + I B1 .(1 + ).rV 2 .


Nn in tr vo l:

rV =

CB

U BE 2
= rV1 + (1 + 1 ).rV 2
I B1

(1-97)

1.8.2. Mch Casct (Kaskode)

CP1

R3

T2
Ura

T1
Ura1

UV

Mch gm hai tranzito ghp vi nhau, T1


mc pht chung cn T2 mc gc chung. S
nh hnh 1-30.

CP2

Hnh 1-30: Mch khuch i Casct.

Khi c tn hiu vo T1 khuch i t tn hiu ra U ra1 ln cc pht gc T2 iu khin tip T2


khuch i tip cho U ra 2 .
Ta chng minh c h s khuch i in p ca T1: K u1 = 1
ca T2: K u 2

2 .R C
rV 2

nn h s khuch i chung:

K = K u1 .K u 2 =

2 .R C
rV 2

(1-98)

trong rv2 l in tr vo ca tranzito T2.


u im c bn ca mch ny l ngn cch nh hng ca mch ra n mch vo ca tng
khuch i, c bit tn s cao.

37

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


1.8.3. Mch khuch i gii rng
Tn hiu c gii tn rng in hnh l tn hiu video. khuch i c gii tn rng nh
vy mch khuch i thng dng thm mt phn t hiu chnh. Mch in ca mt tng c hnh
1-31.
mch ny L, R3, C2 l cc phn t hiu chnh c chn ph hp sao cho khong tn s
1
<< , xem 0 nn ti ca tng l R4. Thng R4 chn nh
trung bnh ca gii tn tb .L <<,
tb .C 2
hn cc tng khuch i khc. khong tn s cao fC c C.L ln nn ti ca tng gm R4 v
C.L nn Ura tng ln.
tn s thp t .L <<,

1
ln nn ti ca tng l R4 v R3. Nh vy nh cc phn t
t .C 2

hiu chnh lm tng ti xoay chiu vng tn s hai u ca gii tn nh vy in p ra tng ln


hai u vng . ng 1 biu th h s khuch i tng i khi khng c phn t hiu chnh,
ng 2 l khi c cc phn t hiu chnh.

R1

T
L

C2
R4

CP1

CP2

uV
U

K/K0

+EC

R3

ura

R2

RE

ft

ftb

U
a)

fC

b)

RHnh 1-31: a) Tng khuch i gii rng


b) c tuyn bin tn s.
1.8.4. Mch khuch i cng hng (chn lc)
Mch khuch i cng hng dng ph bin cc tng khuch i c tn s cao.
Ti ca tng l mch cng hng song song. Mch in hnh hnh 1-32.
mch ny L1C2, L2C3 cng hng tn s vo. Khi tn s tn hiu vo thay i cc
mch L1C2, L2C3 cn phi iu chnh tn s cng hng theo. Tc l:

1
L 1C 2

1
L 2C3

= f 0V .

38

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

+E

C3

L2

L3

ur

CP

L1

uv

C2

C4

Hnh 1-32: Tng khuch i cng hng dng Tranzito trng


c im ca mch, ngoi tc dng khuch i tn hiu n cn c kh nng chn lc tn
hiu theo tn s. Khi c tn hiu vo th thnh phn tn hiu tn s bng v ln cn tn s cng
hng ca khung C2L1, b khung ny chn li a vo tranzito khuch i. Dng in ra st p
trn khung L2C3, cm ng qua L3 cho in p ra cc tn s .

1.9. TNG KHUCH I CNG SUT


1.9.1. c im chung v yu cu ca tng khuch i cng sut
Tng khuch i cng sut l tng khuch i cui cng ca b khuch i, c tn hiu vo
ln. N c nhim v khuch i cho ra ti mt cng sut ln nht c th c. Vi mo cho
php vo bo m hiu sut cao.
Do khuch i tn hiu ln, tranzito lm vic trong min khng tuyn tnh nn khng th
dng s tng ng tn hiu nh nghin cu m phi dng phng php th.
Cc tham s c bn ca tng khuch i cng sut l:
- H s khuch i cng sut Kp l t s gia cng sut ra v cng sut vo.

Kp =

Pr
PV

- Hiu sut l t s cng sut ra v cng sut cung cp mt chiu P0.

Pr
P0

Hiu sut cng ln th cng sut tn hao trn cc gp ca tranzito cng nh.
Cc ch lm vic ca tng khuch i. Tng khuch i c th lm vic cc ch A,
AB, B v C tu thuc vo ch cng tc ca tranzito.
39

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Ch A l ch tng khuch i c tn hiu hnh sin vo. ch ny gc ct =1800,
dng tnh lun ln hn bin dng in ra nn mo nh nhng hiu sut rt thp - ch dng khi
yu cu cng sut ra nh.

IC

IC
a)

UBE

UBE

t
0

IC
PCm
t
Khu vc
bo ho

A
AB
B

IB=
0

EC

Khu vc tt

UCE

b)
IC

IC

IC

(A)

(AB)

IC

IC
(C)

(B)

IC
0

t 0

t 0

t 0
c)

Hnh 1-33: Minh ha ch cng tc ca tng khuch i cng sut


a) c tuyn truyn t ca Tranzito
b) c tuyn ra ca Tranzito
c) Dng in ra ng vi cc ch khi in p vo l sin

40

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Ch AB tng khuch i hn na hnh sin ca tn hiu vo, gc ct 900< <1800. Lc
ny dng tnh b hn ch A nn hiu sut cao hn. im lm vic ca ch AB gn khu vc
tt ca tranzito.
Ch B tng khuch i na tn hiu hnh sin vo, c gc ct =900. ch ny dng
tnh bng khng nn hiu sut cao.
Ch AB v B c hiu sut cao nhng gy mo ln. gim mo phi dng mch khuch
i kiu y ko m ta s xt sau y.
Ch C tng khuch i tn hiu ra b hn na hnh sin, gc ct <900. N c dng
trong cc mch khuch i cao tn c ti l khung cng hng chn lc sng hi mong mun
v c hiu sut cao.
Ch D tranzito lm nhim v nh mt kho in t ng m. Di tc dng ca tn hiu
vo iu khin khi tranzito thng bo ho l kho ng, dng IC t cc i, cn kho m khi
tranzito tt, dng IC = 0.
Hnh 1-33 minh ho ch cng tc ca tng khuch i cng sut.
1.9.2. Tng khuch i cng sut ch A
Trong tng khuch i ch A, im lm vic thay i i xng xung quanh im tnh. So
vi tng khuch i tn hiu nh, n ch khc l tn hiu vo ln nn IC0 phi ln theo. Xt tng
khuch i n mc pht chung v c h s khuch i ln v mo nh. Mch in tng khuch
i hnh 1-34.
I
C

EC
RC

+EC

I
C

IC0

IB0

RC

IB=0

RB
0

CB

UC0

EC

U
UCE

ur=uCE

uV

U
C

t
Hnh 1-34: Tng khuch i cng sut ch A Zmc pht chung
a) S

b) Minh ho dng tn hiu trn h c tuyn ra


41

UCE
T

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Vi ngun EC chn, RC cho ta dng ng ti theo phng trnh.
UC + IC.RC = EC.
Chn im lm vic sao cho khi tn hiu vo tn hiu ra ch bin i trong vng khuch i,

t xc nh c U , I .
C

Chn tranzito cn tho mn:


I CCP > I C max = I C 0 + IC

U C.CP > E C = U C 0 + U C

(1-100)

PC.CP > PC = E C .I C 0

(1-101)

(1-99)

 
T hnh 1-34 ta thy cng sut ra ca tng Pr = IC .U C / 2 chnh l din tch tam gic OPQ.
Theo gi tr IC0 tm c IB0, sau xc nh UB0 v RB.
Cng sut ra ca tng:
 
I .U
Pr = C C
2

(1-102)

Cng sut tiu th ca ngun cung cp:

P0 = I C 0 .E C

(1-103)

Hiu sut ca mch cc gp:


 
U C . IC
Pr
=
=
P0 2.I C 0 .E C


E
T hnh v ta thy khi U C = U C 0 = C
2


v IC = I C 0 th c max =25%.

Nu dng mch ra ghp bin p, thc hin c phi hp tr khng v tn dng c


ngun nui EC, hiu sut cc i c th t 50%.
Cng sut tiu hao trn mt ghp gp:

1  
PC = P0 Pr = I C 0 .E C .U C .IC .
2

(1-104)

T 1-104 ta thy cng sut PC ph thuc vo tn hiu ra. Khi khng c tn hiu PC=P0 nn
ch nhit ca tranzito phi tnh theo cng sut P0.
1.9.3. Tng khuch i cng sut y ko ch B hay AB c bin p
S tng khuch i cng sut y ko c bin p ra v trn hnh (1-35) gm hai tranzito
T1, T2. Ti c mc vi tng khuch i qua bin p ra BA2. Mch cc gp ca mi tranzito mc
vi na cun s cp bin p. T s bin p l n2=W21/Wt=W22/Wt.
42

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

IC1

R
T1
R2

W11

UV

- +
EC

WV
W12

W21
Wt

Rt

W22

IC2

T2

Hnh 1-35: Tng y ko ghp bin p


Bin p BA1 c h s bin p l n1=WV/W11=WV/W12 m bo cung cp tn hiu vo cc
gc ca hai tranzito. Tng c th lm vic ch B hay AB. Trong ch AB thin p ly trn
cc gc ca hai tranzito c ly t ngun nui EC bng b phn p R1, R2. Trong ch B thin
p ban u bng khng nn khng cn R1. Khi in tr R2 c dng m bo cng tc cho
mch vo ca tranzito trong ch gn vi ch ngun dng.
u tin xt s lm vic ch B. Lc khng c tn hiu vo in p trn cc gc ca
hai tranzito bng khng. Nu khng tnh n dng in ngc cc gp th c th coi dng in
bng khng. in p trn ti bng khng. Trn cc gp cc tranzito c in p bng EC.
Khi c tn hiu vo, bt u na chu k dng, khi trn W11 ca bin p BA1 c na
chu k in p dng, cn trn W12 c
na chu k in p m i vi im
IC
chung. Kt qu l tranzito T2 tt, T1 lm
vic c dng I C1 = .I B1 . Trn cun W21
s

to

nn

in

U 21 = I C1 .R t ~ = I C1 .n 2 .R t Trn ti c
na sng in p dng U t =

U 21
.
n2 2

Khi tn hiu vo chuyn sang na


chu k m, cc tnh trn cun th cp
bin p vo i du. Lc T1 tt, T2
khuch i a ra ti na chu k tn
hiu sau. tn hiu ra khng mo cn
chn 1=2=. Nh vy hai tranzito T1,
T2 thay nhau lm vic theo cc tnh ca
tn hiu vo Qu trnh lm vic m t
trn hnh (1-36). ng ti mt chiu
xut pht t im to (0, EC) v in
tr mt chiu ca cun dy khng ng

I
C

iC

0
UCE

IC0

UCE

u C
Hnh 1-36: th tnh tng cng sut
43

EC

UCE

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


k. Do U BE 0 = 0 nn dng cc gp xc nh t dng in ngc ca n. ng ti xoay chiu
2

ct ng ti mt chiu ti (IC0, UC = EC) vi R t ~ = n 2 .R t .


Cng sut ra ca tng tnh c theo din tch tam gic:
 
U C . IC
Pr =
2

(1-105)

Cng sut a ra ti c tnh n hiu sut ca bin p l:

Pt = Pr . b / a 2

(1-106)

Tr s trung bnh dng tiu th t ngun:




2.I C
1 
I 0 = I C sin .d =
0

(1-107)

Cng sut tiu th t ngun cung cp:



2.E C . IC
P0 =

(1-108)

Hiu sut ca mch cc gp:

C =

Pr .U
C
=
P0 4.E C

(1-109)

UC

= b / a2 . .

Hiu sut ca tng:

4 EC

=E .
Nu b / a = 1 th = 78,5% khi U
C
C
< E do vng cong ca c tuyn v b/a = 0,8 nn =0,6 0,7.
Thc t U
C
C
Cng sut tiu th trn mt ghp gp:

2.E C . IC 1  
.U C IC
PC = P0 Pr =
2


2.U C EC 1 U C2
PC =

hay
2 Rt ~
.R t ~

PC ph thuc vo U C .

(1-110)

(1-111)


PC max khi U C = 0,64.E C
2

E
PC max = 2 2 . C
.n 2 R t
2

(1-112)

44

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


trnh mo do tnh khng ng thng on u c tuyn vo tranzito khi dng cc
gc b, l hin tng mo gc nh v trn hnh 1-37.Ta cho tng lm vic ch AB. Khi
cn c in p UBE v IB0 ban u (nh c R1, R2). ch ny UBE0, IB0, IC0 b nn cc cng
thc dng cho ch B vn ng, xem hnh 1-38.

IB
T1

IB
T1
UB

ib1
IB0

ib1

IB0

0
ib2

UBE

ib2

UB
T2

T2

Hnh 1-37: nh hng khng ng thng ca


c tuyn vo Tranzito n mo dng tn hiu
trong ch B

Hnh 1-38: Gim mo khng ng


thng trong ch AB

1.9.4. Mch khuch i cng sut y ko khng bin p


1.9.4.1. Mch dng tranzito cng loi:

+EC
R1

R3
T2

CP2
UV2

R1

iC2
Rt

UV1

T1
R4

R3
T2

CP2
_

UV2

CP1

R2

+EC

iC1

C
CP1

T1
iC1

UV1
_

R2

a)

iC2

R4
b)

Hnh 1-39: Mch y ko khng bin p dng tranzito cng loi.


45

Rt

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Cho trn hnh 1-39.a, b. Mch 1-39a cp ngun xng cn hnh 1-39b cp ngun n.Do tn
hiu c bin bng nhau nhng pha ngc nhau nn hai tranzito T1, T2 thay nhau lm vic
khuch i tn hiu ra ti. tng lm vic ch AB cn chn b phn p R1 R4 ph hp.
1.9.4.2. Mch dng tranzito khc loi trn hnh 1-40.

-EC

_
R1

R1

T2
Rt

CP

UV

T1

T2

EC1
CP

C
Rt

T1

UV

EC2

UV

R2

R2
+

Hnh 1-40: Mch y ko khng bin p ra dng tranzito khc loi


Cc tranzito T1, T2 khc loi: n-p-n v p-n-p nhng phi cng tham s, c bit l h s
(1 = 2). c im ca mch ny ch cn mt tn hiu vo hai n thay nhau lm vic cho tn hiu
ra ti. trnh mo do tranzito lm vic ch B, mc hai it vo gia cc cc gc to in
p U BEO ban u, khi tranzito cng sut lm vic sang ch AB.

U D1 = U D 2 = U BE 0T1 = U EB0T2 .
Mch in nh hnh 1- 41a; hnh 1-41b dng cho tranzito arlingtn .

+EC

+EC
R3

R3
T1

R1

R1

D1
D2

2 U BE 0

CP1
UV

T2

Ur

R2

D1

T1'

D2

T2'

D3

Rt

CP1
UV

a)

T1

-EC

Ur

T2

D
R2

T3

b)

+
+
-E
C

Hnh 1-41: Tng khuych i y ko ni tip v tng kch


a) Dng tranzito khc loi; b) Dng tranzito arlington khc loi.
46

Rt

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

TM TT
Vn chnh ca chng l khuch i tn hiu. Mch khuch i c nhim v khuch i
tn hiu ln ln vi mo cho php.
Kt thc chng yu cu ngi hc hiu v nm c:
nh ngha mch khuch i, cc tham s c trng cho b khuch i: h s khuch i
in p, h s khuch i dng in, h s khuch i cng sut, tr khng vo, tr khng ra, mo
tn s, mo phi tuyn, hiu sut.
Vn phn cc cho tranzito ch khuch i. Vi tranzito lng cc thun PNP cn
cung cp in p mt chiu sao cho UBE <0, UCE < 0 tip gip pht phn cc thun, tip gip
gp phn cc ngc. Loi tranzito NPN cn cung cp in p mt chiu UBE > 0, UCE > 0. Cn
nm c bn kiu mch cung cp in p mt chiu phn cc cho tranzito, tc dng cc linh
kin trong mch, so snh c u nhc im ca cc phng php .
Hi tip: hi tip l ly mt phn tn hiu u ra a tr v u vo. C hi tip dng v
hi tip m.
Hi tip dng l in p hi tip v cng pha vi tn hiu vo, loi hi tip ny dng trong
cc mch to dao ng.
Hi tip m l in p hi tip v ngc pha vi tn hiu vo. Hi tip loi ny lm gim h
s khuch i ca mch nhng ci thin c nhiu ch tiu cht lng ca mch khuch i: lm
gim tp m, gim mo tn s, gim mo phi tuyn, tng n nh khuch i.
Xt u ra ca mch khuch i c hi tip c khi nim hi tip in p, hi tip dng
in. Khi in p hi tip t l vi dng in ra gi l hi tip dng in, t l vi in p ra gi
l hi tip in p.
Xt u vo mch khuch i c hi tip c khi nim hi tip mc ni tip, hi tip mc
song song. Hi tip mc ni tip l in p hi tip mc ni tip vi tn hiu vo, hi tip song
song l in p hi tip mc song song vi tn hiu vo. minh ho phn hi tip phn tch
mch in hnh 1-11. hnh 1-11a c hi tip m dng in trn in tr RE: Uht = IE.RE. hnh
1-11b c hi tip m dng in trn RE1, RE2 v hi tip m in p t tng sau a v trn RE1:
Uht = Ur.RE1 /(R + RE1).
Cc s khuch i c bn dng tranzito lng cc:
Tng khuch i cc pht chung: mch ny c cc pht ni t v xoay chiu chung cho
u vo v u ra. Cn hiu c tc dng cc linh kin trong mch. Ti mt chiu ca tng RE
ni tip vi RC, ti xoay chiu ca tng RC // Rt. Cch chuyn v s tng ng xc nh
tr khng vo, tr khng ra, h s khuch i in p, h s khuch i dng in ca tng. S
hnh 1-14 c c khi cc t Cp1, Cp2, CE ti tn s lm vic rt nh, xem nh bng khng.
Tranzito c thay bng in tr rE, rB, rC v ngun dng IB. Ngun cung cp EC c ni tr rt
nh xem nh bng khng nn v xoay chiu im dng ngun v t l nh nhau. Tng ny c
h s khuch i in p m c ngha l tn hiu ra ngc pha vi tn hiu vo.

47

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


Tng khuch i gc chung, gp chung cng phn tch tng t nm c cc vn trn.
c im ca hai tng ny l tn hiu ra cng pha vi tn hiu vo, hai tng u c h s khuch
i in p dng. Tng khuch i gp chung c ti mt chiu RE, ti xoay chiu RE //Rt.
S khuch i dng tranzito trng nghin cu hai s cc ngun chung v cc mng
chung.
Tng khuch i cc ngun chung c cc ngun ni t v xoay chiu, tng khuch i
mng chung c cc mng ni t v xoay chiu. Cn nm c cch v mch, tc dng cc linh
kin trong mch, ti mt chiu, ti xoay chiu ca tng cng nh xc nh c cc thng s: tr
khng vo, tr khng ra, h s khuch i in p ca cc tng. Tng khuch i cc ngun chung
c ti mt chiu RS ni tip RD, ti xoay chiu RD//Rt. Tng khuch i cc mng chungc ti mt
chiu RS, ti xoay chiu RS//Rt.
Tng khuch i o pha: tng c nhim v khuch i v to ra hai tn hiu u ra c bin
bng nhau, pha ngc nhau. C hai mch c bn l mch khuch i o pha chia ti v mch
khuch i o pha ghp bin p. Cn nm c nguyn l lm vic thc hin c nhim v
trn.
Phng php ghp tng trong b khuch i: c ba phng php ghp tng: phng php
ghp bng t in. Cc tng ghp vi nhau qua t in cch li in p mt chiu, dn tn hiu
xoay chiu qua. Cc t ni tng c chn sao cho i vi tn hiu tr khng ca chng rt nh,
xem nh bng khng. u im ca phng php ny l mch gn nh, tuy nhin c nhc im
khng phi hp c tr khng ra tng trc vi tr khng vo tng sau. Phng php ghp tng
bng bin p: tng trc ghp vi tng sao qua bin p cch li in p mt chiu. Mch ny c
im l phi hp c tr khng gia tng trc vi tng sau, tn dng c ngun nui. Tuy
nhin mch c nhc im l nng, cng knh v bin p c kch thc ln khi lm vic tn s
thp. Mch ch thch hp khi lm vic tn s cao. Phng php ghp tng trc tip gim c
linh kin, gim mo tn s. Nhng vic phn cc cho cc tranzito kh khn v c s nh hng
ln nhau.
Mt s mch khuch i khc: Mch khuch i Darlingtn. Mch ny c h s khuch i
dng in bng tch h s khuch i ca hai tranzito nn rt ln. N c th cho dng ra ln khi
dng vo nh. Mch khuch i Casct gm c hai tranzito u ni tip vi nhau v mt mt
chiu mch ny c dng khuch i tn hiu vng tn s cao trnh ghp k sinh gia u ra
v u vo qua in dung thng ng CBC. Mch khuch i cng hng c ti l mch cng
hng song song. Ngoi nhim v khuch i mch cn c nhim v chn lc tn hiu theo tn
s, thng dng lm mch khuch i tn hiu c tn s cao.
Tng khuch i cng sut dng khuch i cng sut ra ti. Yu cu mch khuch i
cho cng sut ra ln vi mo cho php v hiu sut cao. c im ca tng l bin tn hiu
vo ln. Khi phn tch v tnh ton dng phng php th trn c tuyn c chnh xc
cao. Tng khuch i cng sut n lm vic ch A cho cng sut ra b. Tng khuch i
cng sut y ko cho cng sut ra km lm vic ch AB gim mo v c hiu sut cao.
Mch khuch i cng sut y ko dng tranzito cng loi c th dng mch ghp bin p hoc
mch khng dng bin p. Khi dng mch khuch i cng sut y ko khng bin p pha trc
phi c tng o pha chia ti. Mch khuch i cng sut y ko dng tranzito khc loi c u
im n gin, pha trc khng cn tng khuch i o pha v c hi tip m dng in ton
48

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


phn trn ti Rt: Uht = Ir.Rt (hnh 1-41a) . Cn ch hai tranzito trong tng khuch i cng sut
y ko c tham s ging nhau c bit l h s khuch i dng v kt cu mch i xng c
mo phi tuyn nh.

CU HI V BI TP
1.1. Nu nh ngha v cc tham s ca mch khuch i?
1.2. Nu cc phng php cp ngun phn cc cho tranzito ch khuch i? u nhc im
ca cc phng php ?
1.3. Th no l hi tip trong mch khuch i? hi tip m, hi tip dng?
1.4. Th no l hi tip dng in, hi tip in p?
1.5. Th no l hi tip mc song song, hi tip mc ni tip?
1.6. Nu cc u im ca hi tip mtong mch khuch i?
1.7. Trnh by tng khuch i mc cc pht chung?
1.8. Trnh by tng khuch i mc cc gp chung?
1.9. Trnh by tng khuch i mc cc gc chung?
1.10. Trnh by tng khuch i mc cc ngun chung?
1.11. Trnh by tng khuch i mc cc mng chung?
1.12. Trnh by phng php ghp tng bng t, u nhc im?
1.13. Ti sao trong b khuch i ghp t, t ni tng gy mo tn s thp?
1.14. Trnh by phng php ghp tng bng bin p, u nhc im?
1.15. Trnh by phng php ghp tng trc tip, u nhc im?
1.16. Nguyn nhn gy mo tn s cao trong b khuch i?
1.17. Nu phng php nng cao cht lng ca b khuch i?
1.18. c im ca tng khuch i gii rng?
1.19. c im ca tng khuch i cng hng?
1.20. Trong tng khuch i cng sut y ko dng tranzito khc loi c hi tip khng? nu c
thuc loi hi tip g?
1.21. Th no l ch A, B, AB, C ca tng khuch i?
1.22. Ti sao tng khuych i cng sut n cho lm vic ch A, tng y ko lm vic
ch AB?
1.23. Th no l tng khuch i o pha ? Nu cc loi mch o pha hc?
1.24. Ti sao khi phn tch cc tng khuch i c bn ta dng phng php mch tng ng?
49

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


1.25. Ti sao khi phn tch tng khuch i cng sut phi dng phng php th (trn c
tuyn vo, c tuyn ra ca tranzito)?
1.26. Nu c im ca tng khuch i Darlingtn?
1.27. Nu c im ca tng khuch i Casct?
1.28. Phn tch cc loi hi tip hnh 1-11? Xc nh biu thc tnh cc in p hi tip ?
1.29. Cho tng khuch i hnh P 1.29 bit cc tham s ca mch Ec = +12v,
+Ec

R1

Uv

T
C2
C1

Hnh P1-29.
R2

Rt

R1 = 300k ; R2 = 2,7 k ; = 99, chn Ube0 = 0,6V.


a. Xc nh cc gi tr dng in v in p mt chiu trn cc cc ca tranzito?
b. Bit Rt = 2,7k , xc nh ti mt chiu v ti xoay chiu ca tng khuch i ? V
ng ti mt chiu v xc nh im lm vic tnh Q ?
1.30. Cho tng khuch i hnh P1.30. Bit Ec = +12v, R1 = 20k,
+EcR2 = 4k, R3 = 4k, R4 =
1k, = 99.

R1

R3
C2

C1
T

Hnh P1-30.

Rt
R2

R4

C3

a. Xc nh ch dng in v in p mt chiu trn cc cc ca tranzito ?

50

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito

b. Bit Rt = 8k, xc nh gi tr ti mt chiu, ti xoay chiu ca tng khuch i. V


ng ti mt chiu v xc nh im lm vic Q?
1.31. Cho tng khuch i cng sut y ko trn hnh P1.31. Gi thit tranzito l tng. Bit Ube0
= Ud = 0,5v. Thin p cho tranzito c thc hin sao cho t bin tn hiu ra cc i khng
mo. T C1, C2 tr khng xem nh bng khng ti tn s lm vic.
a. Gii thch nguyn l lm vic ca s ?
b. Tnh R1, R2 sao cho dng phn cc qua chng l 1mA?
c. Cho Rt = 100 . Tnh cng sut ra cc i v hiu sut ca tng (b qua cng sut tn
hao trong mch thin p)?
+Ec
R1
T1

D1

Uv C1

C2

Hnh P1-31.
D2
T2
Rt
R2

1.32. Mo tn s trong mch khuch i l:


a. Mo m h s khuch i ca mch b thay i khong tn s hai u ca gii tn.
b. Mo lm xut hin thm tn s mi u ra.
c. Mo m h s khuch i khng thay i theo tn s.
d. Mo m h s khuch i khng ph thuc vo tn s.
1.33. Mo phi tuyn trong mch khuch i l:
a. Mo lm xut hin thm thnh phn tn s mi u ra.
b. Mo lm gim tn hiu ra hai u gii tn.
c. Mo lm tn hiu ra ngc pha tn hiu vo.
d. Mo lm tn hiu ra lch pha vi tn hiu vo.
1.34. Ti mt chiu ca tng khuch i l:
a. Cc in tr m dng mt chiu u ra chy qua.
b. Cc in tr m dng xoay chiu u ra chy qua.
c. Cc in tr m dng mt chiu v xoay chiu u ra cng chy qua.
51

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


d. Cc in tr dng mt chiu u ra khng chy qua.
1.35. Ti mt chiu trong tng khuch i cc pht chung l:
a. Rt- = RE + Rt.

b. Rt- = Rt + RC.

c. Rt- = RC + RE.

d. Rt- = RC.

1.36. Ti mt chiu trong tng khuch i cc gp chung l:


a. Rt- = RE + Rt.

b. Rt- = RE //Rt

c. Rt- = RE.

d. Rt- = Rt.

1.37. Ti xoay chiu ca tng khuch i l:


a. Cc in tr m dng mt chiu v xoay chiu u ra cng chy qua.
b. Cc in tr m dng mt chiu u ra chy qua.
c. Cc in tr m dng xoay chiu u ra chy qua.
d. Cc in tr dng xoay chiu u ra khng chy qua.
1.38. Ti xoay chiu ca tng khuch i cc pht chung l:
a. Rt~ = RE //Rt.

b. Rt~ = RC //Rt.

c. Rt~ = Rt + RC.

d. Rt~ = Rt.

1.39. Ti xoay chiu ca tng khuch i cc gp chung l:


a. Rt~ = RE.

b. Rt~ = RE //Rt.

c. Rt~ = Rt + RE.

d. Rt~ = Rt.

1.40. Ti mt chiu ca tng khuch i cc ngun chung l:


a. Rt- = RS + RD.

b. Rt- = RS.

c. Rt- = RD.

d. Rt- = RD//Rt.

1.41 Ti mt chiu ca tng khuch i cc mng chung l:


a. Rt- = Rt //RS.

b. Rt- = RS.

c. Rt- = Rt + RS.

d. Rt- = Rt.

1.42 Ti xoay chiu ca tng khuch i cc ngun chung l:


a. Rt~ = RD //Rt.

b. Rt~ = RD + Rt.

c. Rt~ = RS + Rt.

d. Rt~ = Rt.

1.43. H s khuch i in p ca b khuch i c n tng khi h s khuch i tng tng th t


K1, K2 .Kn l:
a. K = K1.K2 .Kn.
b. K = K1 + K2 + + Kn.
c. Bng tng i s cc h s khuch i.
52

Chng 1: Mch khuch i Tranzito


d. K = K1 + K2 + - Kn.
1.44. Mo tn s ca b khuch i c n tng khi mo tn s ca cc tng th t M1, M2 Mn
l:
a. M = M1.M2 Mn.
b. M = M1 + M2 + + Mn.
c. Bng tn i s cc mo.
d. M = M1 + M2 + - Mn.
1.45. H s khuch i dng in ca cp khuch ai Darlingtn khi h s khuch i ca cc
tranzito 1, 2 l:
a. = 1.2.

b. = 1 +2.

c. = 2 - 1.

d. = 1 - 2.

1.46. Tc dng ca it D1, D2 trong tng khuch i cng sut y ko dng tranzito khc loi l:
a. phn cc cho cc tranzito cng sut lm vic ch AB v n nh im lm
vic cho tng.
b. cho cc tranzito cng sut lm vic ch A.
c. n nh im lm vic cho cc tranzito cng sut.
d. cc tranzito cng sut lm vic ch B.
1.47. Tng khuch i cng sut y ko dng tranzito khc loi:
a. C hi tip m dng in.
b. Khng c hi tip.
c. C hi tip m in p.
d. C hi tip m dng in v hi tip m in p.

53

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

CHNG 2: B KHUCH I THUT TON

GII THIU CHUNG


Chng ny nu cc tnh cht ca b khuch i thut ton (BKTT), tng khuch i vi
sai v cc mch in ng dng BKTT. Ni dung ca chng gm:
- Tnh cht chung ca BKTT: tr khng vo, tr khng ra, h s khuch i. Gii thiu
c tuyn truyn t, c tuyn tn s ca BKTT
- Mch khuch i vi sai: cu to ca tng khuch i vi sai c bn, tng khuch i vi sai
c ti ng kiu gng dng, tng khuch i vi sai dng tranzito trng.
- Mch khuch i o, mch khuch i thun, mch khuch i lp li.
- Phng php chng tri v b im khng: dng in tr cn bng, dng ngun nui
hiu chnh in p mt chiu u ra ch tnh ca BKTT. Mc ch ca nhng phng php
ny l gi cho in p u ra cn bng khng khi khng c tn hiu vo.
- Mch cng: c mch cng thun, mch cng o. Mch cng thun cc tn hiu cn cng
a vo ca thun. Mch cng o cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca o.
- Mch tr: tn hiu a vo hai ca thun v o. Tn hiu b tr a vo ca cng, tn hiu
tr a vo ca o.
- Mch vi phn: mch vi phn l mch m in p ra t l vi vi phn ca in p vo.
- Mch tch phn: mch tch phn l mch m in p ra t l vi tch phn in p vo.
- Mch to hm loga: in p ra t l vi logarit t nhin ca in p vo.
- Mch to hm m: in p ra t l vi m logarit t nhin ca in p vo
- Mch nhn tng t: cho in p ra t l vi tch tc thi cc in p vo.
- Mch lc tch cc: cu to mch lc tch cc gm c BKTT kt hp vi cc phn t RC.
Mch lc tch cc lm vic vng tn thp c u im gn nh, phm cht lc cao. C cc mch
lc thng cao, thng thp, thng gii, chn gii tng t nh cc mch lc th ng. Bc ca b
lc l s t in cha trong mch lc .
- Cc mch in s dng BKTT trn u lm vic ch tuyn tnh.Trong qu trnh
chng minh cc cng thc in p ra ca mch lun coi hiu in p gia hai ca vo BKTT
U0 rt b, gn ng xem nh bng khng.
- Cn ch cc mch in BKTT u c cp ngun i xng E. Khi v mch nhiu
lc khng v ngun vo, nhng xem nh mc nh. in p ra t cc i Ur = +Urmax khi
BKTT bo ho dng. in p ra t cc tiu Ur = -Urmax khi BKTT bo ho m, trong
gn ng | Urmax| = E 2 vn.
54

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Kt thc chng ny yu cu ngi hc vn dng l thuyt lm tt cc bi tp . Qua hiu
bi su sc hn ,nh mch in chnh xc hn.

NI DUNG
Danh t khuch i thut ton thuc v b khuch i dng mt chiu c h s khuch
i ln, c hai u vo vi sai v mt u ra chung. Tn gi ny c quan h ti vic ng dng u
tin ca chng ch yu thc hin cc php tnh cng, tr, tch phn v..v... Hin nay b khuch
i thut ton ng vai tr quan trng v ng dng rng ri trong k thut khuch i, to tn hiu
hnh sin v xung, trong b n p v b lc tch cc v.v...

2.1. CC TNH CHT CHUNG CA BKTT


B khuch i thut ton c biu din trn hnh 2-1. Trong Ut, It l in p, dng in
vo ca thun. U, I l in p, dng in vo ca o.Ur ,Ir in p ra v dng in ra. U0 l
in p vo gia hai ca. B khuch i thut ton khuch i hiu in p U0=Ut-U vi h s
khuch i K0 > 0.
+EC
Do in p ra:
T It
U r =K0.U0=K0(Ut-U)
(2-1)
+
Ir
U0
I
Ut
Nu U = 0 th U r = K o .U t lc
Ura
U
ny in p ra cng pha vi in p vo U t .
-EC
V vy ca T gi l ca thun ca b
khuych i thut ton v k hiu du +.
Hnh 2-1: B khuch i thut ton
Tng t nh vy khi U t = 0 th

U r = K 0 .U , in p ra ngc pha vi in p vo nn ca l ca o ca b khuych i


thut ton v k hiu du -. Ngoi ra b khuch i c hai ca u vi ngun nui i xng
E C v cc ca chnh lch khng v b tn.
Mt b khuch i thut ton l tng c nhng tnh cht sau:
+ Tr khng vo

ZV =

+ Tr khng ra

Zra = 0

(2-2)

+ H s khuch i K0 =
Thc t b khuch i thut ton c K0=104106 vng tn s thp. Ln vng tn s cao h
s khuch i gim xung. Nguyn nhn do s ph thuc tham s ca Tranzito v in dung k
sinh trong s . c tuyn truyn t, c tuyn bin v c tuyn pha nh hnh 2-2 v 2-3.
IC khuch i thut ton c kh nng nn tn hiu ng pha.

55

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

EC

Ura
u

vo

K0
K0

UV

f
a) c tuyn bin

vo

f
0
45o

90o

Hnh 2-2: c tuyn truyn t ca b


khuch i thut ton

180o
360o
b) c tuyn pha
Hnh 2-3: c tuyn bin v c
tuyn pha ca b khuch i thut ton

Gi K CM l h s khuch i tn hiu ng pha th h s nn tn hiu ng pha c xc


nh theo biu thc:

G=

K0
K CM

(2-3)

Thng G =103 105.


Mt b khuch i thut ton thng c 4 tng ghp trc tip vi nhau. Tng vo l tng khuch
i vi sai, tip theo l tng khuych i trung gian (c th l tng m hay khuch i vi sai hai), n
tng dch mc v tng khuch i ra.

2.2. MCH KHCH I VI SAI


Trong IC khuch i thut ton, pha u vo mch khuch i vi sai c mt n hai tng.
Hnh 2-4 l cu trc in hnh ca mt tng khuch i vi sai lm vic theo nguyn l cu cn
bng song song. Hai nhnh cu l RC1 v RC2, cn hai nhnh kia l cc Tranzito T1 v T2 c ch
to trong cng mt iu kin sao cho R C1 = R C 2 v T1, T2 c cc thng s ging ht nhau.
in p ly ra gia hai cc gp (kiu ra i xng) hay trn mi cc gp vi t (kiu ra
khng i xng). Tranzito T3 lm ngun n dng gi n nh dng IE (l tng dng IE1 v IE2) ca
tranzito T1, T2. Trong s ngun n nh dng cn c R1, R2, R3 v ngun cung cp EC2, T4 mc
thnh it lm phn t b nhit n nh nhit cho T3.
Trong s rt gn (hnh 2-4b) phn ngun n dng T3 c thay bng ngun dng IE.

56

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

IC2

UC1=Ur
UV1

RC2

T1

Ur

IC

UV1
R1

T3
R2

T2

T1
IE1

EC2
+

T4
_

EC2
b)

a)

T2

T1

UV2
IE2

IE

R3

UC2=Ur

Ur

UV2
IE2

RC2
IC2

UC1=Ur

T2

IE1

IC1

RC1

UC2=Ur

+
EC1

<<

IC1

RC1

+
EC1

T2

T1

UV1

c)

IE

<<

<<

UV2
IE

d)
Hnh 2-4: Tng khuch i vi sai
a) Mch nguyn l; b) S n gin ho

c); d) Cc phng php a tn hiu vo (kiu vo khng i xng)


Tn hiu vo tng vi sai c th t hai ngun ring bit UV1 v UV2 hoc t mt ngun (hnh
2-4c, d). Trong trng hp sau tn hiu vo t ln cc gc ca mt trong hai Tranzito hay gia
hai cc gc ca chng. Cc u vo UV1 v UV2 ni theo s hnh 2-4c, d c gi u vo vi
sai.
in p mt chiu cung cp cho tng vi sai l hai ngun EC1 v EC2 c th khc nhau hay bng
nhau v tr s. V hai ngun ni tip nhau nn in p cung cp tng l EC = EC1 + EC2.
Do c EC2 nn in th cc pht ca Tranzito T1 v T2 gim nhiu so vi trong s hnh 25 v iu ny cho php a tn hiu ti u vo ca b khuch i vi sai m khng cn mch b
in p u vo.
Xt mt s trng hp in hnh.
57

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


S tng vi sai yu cu dng Tranzito T1, T2 c tham s ging nhau v RC1 = RC2, do
khi tn hiu vo bng khng, cu cn bng, in p trn cc gp ca hai Tranzito bng nhau v
nh vy in p ra ly trn ng cho cu Ura = Ura1 +Ura2 = 0. S c n nh cao i vi
s thay i in p cung cp, nhit v yu t khc v tri ca hai nhnh ging nhau, in p
trn cc gp thay i cng mt gia s v tri u ra gn nh b trit tiu.
Dng pht I E chia u cho hai Tranzito ngha l I E1 = I E 2 =

IE
. Dng cc gc c xc
2

nh:

I B01 = I B02 =

IE
= I V0 .
2.(1 + )

Dng cc gp I C1 = I C 2 = .

IE IE
.
2
2

v in p cc gp l:

U C1 = U C 2 = E C1

I E .R C
2

(2-4)

R C = R C1 = R C 2 .

Trng thi ny c trng cho ch cn bng ca tng v gi l ch cn bng tnh.


Khi c tn hiu a ti mt trong cc u vo gi s U V1 > 0 , U V 2 = 0.

+
EC1
-

IC1 IC2
RC2

RC1
UC1
Rn
+
En
-

IV

UV

UC2

IC1
RC1

IE1 IE2

IE

EC1
UC1

a)

UC

Ur

IC2 RC2

UC1

Ur

UC2

EC2
b)
Hnh 2-5:

a) S tng vi sai khi c tn hiu vo vi U V 1 > 0 , U V 2 = 0. b) Biu in th.


Do tc dng ca tn hiu vo, xut hin dng in vo ca hai tranzito, dng cc gc T1
tng ln, dng cc gc T2 gim xung. Khi IE1 v IC1 tng ln cn IE2 v IC2 gim. S thay i
dng in ca cc tranzito xy ra ngc chiu nhau v vi cng mt s gia v tng dng in
I E1 + I E 2 = I E gi nguyn khng i.
58

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


in p trn cc gp ca tranzito T1 l U C1 = E C1 I C1 .R C1 gim mt lng U C1 ngc
pha vi in p vo. in p U C 2 tng v to ra s gia in p U C 2 cng pha vi in p tn
hiu vo.
Nh vy vi cch a tn hiu vo nh s ang kho st u ra ca tng ly trn cc gp
T1 gi l u ra o, cn u ra ly trn cc gp T2 gi l u ra khng o (thun). Tn hiu ly
gia hai cc gp gi l tn hiu vi sai.

U ra = U C 2 U C1 = U C 2 + U C1 = 2.U C 2. I C .R C .
Ta xc nh h s khuch i in p ca tng vi sai. Khi hai Tranzito c tham s ging
nhau th dng vo ca tng l:

IV =

En
En
=
R n + rv1 + rv 2 R n + 2.[rB + rE (1 + )]

(2-5)

trong En l ngun tn hiu vo


Rn l in tr ngun
rV l in tr vo Tranzito.
Dng in vo to ra s gia dng in ra nn I C = .I V khi

U r1, 2 = U C = I C .R C = I V ..R C

(2-6)

H s khuch i ca tng ring r:

U r1,2

K1,2 =

En

.RC

Rn + 2.[ rB + (1 + ).rE ]

(2-7)

Nu R n = 0 th

K 1, 2 =

.R C
2.[rB + (1 + ).rE ]

(2-8)

H s khuch i ca tng vi sai khi Rt .

KVS =

2.U ra
2. .RC
=
En
Rn + 2.[ rB + (1 + ).rE ]

(2-9)

Nu tnh n Rt th:

K VS =

2..(R C // Rt )
R n + 2.rV

Khi Rt , R n 0 th:

(2-10)

K VS =

59

.R C
.R C
=
rV
rB + (1 + ).rE

(2-11)

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Trong tng khuch i vi sai ca cc IC thut ton, ngi ta thng thay RC1, RC2 bng
Tranzito, thc hin chc nng ti ng ca tng. S ny c h s khuch i KVS ln hn nhiu
ln so vi s kho st c ti RC. iu ny rt quan trng khi thit k b khuch i mt
chiu nhiu tng. Mt trong nhng s nh vy v trn hnh 2-6. Tranzito T5, T6 dng lm ti
ng ca tng c tham s ging nhau, T5 c mc thnh it. Cch mc nh vy cn c gi l
s gng dng in. Dng IC ca T1 chy qua T5 to nn in p U BE 5 xc nh in p vo
UBE6. V T5 v T6 c tham s
ging nhau nn IC6 ging IC1.Tn
hiu vi sai ly cc gp T2.
cn

UBC

Khi En = 0 s ch
bng
tnh,
dng

T5

IE
. Dng I C 6
2
chy qua T2 nn Ura= 0 v iti = 0.
I C1 = I C 2 = I C 6 =

I C1 =

IE
+ .I V .
2

I C2 =

IE
.I V .
2

Bi v dng

It

IC
Rn
+
En

IV

IC2
T2

T1
U

IE1

IE
EC
2

Hnh 2-6: S tng vi sai c ti ng kiu


gng dng in

IE
+ .I V .
2

Khi dng ti : Iti = I C 6 I C 2 = 2..I V . Nn in p u ra trn ti:

U ra = 2..I V .R t .
Nu ti tn hiu vo i du th lm i chiu I V , Iti v cc tnh in p ra.
H s khuch i in p ca tng.

K=

Rt +
Ut
+

IE2

IC6 = IC1 nn

I C6 =

T6

>>

Gi thit tn hiu vo c
cc tnh nh hnh 2-6. Di
tc dng ca En dng IB1 tng, v
nh vy lm gim dng IB2. S
thay i dng cc gc lm thay
i dng cc gp.

+
EC

U ra
2. .Rt
2. .Rt
=
=
En Rn + 2.rV Rn + 2.[ rB + (1 + ).rE ]
60

(2-12)

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Khi Rn = 0:

K=

.R t
rB + (1 + ).rE

(2-13)

S hnh 2-6 c u im c bn l
kh nng chu ti cao v ti c u im ni
t v h s khuch i ln khong vi trm
ln. Tr khng vo c th t hng chc
hoc hng trm K . Khi cn c tr khng
vo ln hn hng chc dng T1 v T2
l tranzito trng. S nh hnh 2-7.
Nguyn l lm vic tng t nh s
hnh 2-4.

RC1

Ur

Ur1

UV1

EC1
-

RC2

Ur2

T1

T2

UV2

<<

2.3. MCH KHUCH I


Do vi mch khuch i thut ton
c hai ca vo. Khi a tn hiu vo ca
o ta c mch khuch i o, nu a tn
hiu vo ca thun ta c mch khuch i
thun.

IS

EC2
+
Hnh 2-7: S tng vi sai dng Tranzito trng.

2.3.1. Mch khuch i o


Mch khuch i o cho hnh 2-8
c thc hin hi tip m in p qua Rht. u
vo thun c ni t. Tn hiu qua R1 a
ti u vo o. Nu coi IC c tr khng vo

Rht

Iht

IV

v cng ln tc ZV th dng vo IC v

R1 N

Io
_

U0

cng b I0 = 0, khi ti nt N c phng


trnh dng in.

uV

IV Iht
T c:

U V U 0 U 0 U ra
=
R1
R ht

Hnh 2-8: Mch khuch i o

(2-14)
Khi K in p u vo U 0 =

U ra
0 v vy 2-14 c dng:
K

UV
U
= ra
R1
R ht
61

ura

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Do h s khuch i in p ca mch khuch i o K c hi tip m song song c
xc nh bng phn t th ng trong s :

K =

Rht
R1

(2-15)

Nu chn Rht = R1 th K = 1 , s c tnh cht tng o lp li in p (o tn hiu).


Nu R1= 0 th t phng trnh I V = I ht ta c I V =

U ra
hay U ra = I V .R ht tc l in p
R ht

ra t l vi dng in vo. Mch tr thnh b bin i dng thnh p.


V U0 = 0 nn Rv = R1, khi K th
Rra = 0.

Rht

2.3.2. Mch khuch i thun

Mch khuch i thun c hnh 2-9 gm


mt mch hi tip m in p t vo u o
cn tn hiu t vo ca thun.

+
UV

V in p t vo gia hai ca rt b,
xem U0 = 0 nn quan h gia UV v Ura xc
R1
nh bi: U V = U ra .
R 1 + R ht

R1

Ura

Hnh 2-9: Mch khuch i thun

H s khuch i in p ca mch
khuch i thun.

K =

U ra R1 + Rht
R
=
= 1 + ht (2-16)
UV
R1
R1

V R V = nn I V = 0 . c

UV

Ura=UV

dng khi cn mch khuch i c tr


khng vo ln. Khi Rht = 0 v R1 = ta
Hnh 2-10: Mch khuch i lp li in p
c s b lp li in p vi K = 1
(hnh 2-10). in tr vo ca mch
khuch i thun rt ln, bng in tr vo ca IC, cn in tr ra R ra 0 .

2.4. CC PHNG PHP CHNG TRI V B IM KHNG


Khi dng b khuch i thut ton khuch i tn hiu mt chiu c tr s nh th cc sai
s ch yu do dng in tnh, in p lch khng v hin tng tri gy ra.

62

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Cc dng in tnh It, I u vo b khuch i thut ton thc cht l cc dng cc gc
tranzito tng vo mch khuch i vi sai. Dng tnh ca thun It v dng tnh ca o gn bng
nhau. Cc dng tnh It v I gy st p trn cc ca vo. Do s khc nhau tr s cc in tr ca
thun T v ca o nn st p ny cng
Rht
khc nhau. Hiu in th ca chng chnh l
in p lch khng. gi cho in p lch
khng nh, trong mch khuch i o, ca
R1
_
thun khng u trc tip xung t m u
qua in tr RC nh trn hnh 2-11.
RC c tr s bng in tr vo ca o,
ngha l:

RC =

UV

R 1 .R ht
R 1 + R ht

Ur
RC

Lc dng tnh gy ra trn hai u vo


cc st p l It.RC v I.(R1//Rht). Thng
I t I nn cc st p gn bng nhau.

Hnh 2-11: Mch khuch i mc thm


in tr RC

Thc t It I nn dng tnh I0 = It - I


cn gy ra mt hiu in p u vo, gi l in p lch khng U0. Khi in p ra sai s l:

U r0 = (1 +

R ht
).U 0
R1

(2-17)

kh sai s ny dng cc mch b in hnh hnh 2-12. Vic b in p lch khng


c thc hin theo nguyn tc: mt trong hai u vo ca b khuch i thut ton vi mt
ngun in p bin i c mt in p ngc vi in p lch khng trn.
Khi cn phi trng c hai ca vo th mc mch b vo ca khc c lin quan n ca
vo. Cn phi chn cc linh kin mch b sao cho b khuch i thut ton lm vic bnh thng.
Ngoi ra cn c hin tng tri in p u ra do lng tri in p u vo U0 v lng
tri ca dng tnh vo I0.
Lng tri in p u ra c xc nh:

U r 0 = U 0 .(1 +
trong :

R ht
) I 0 .R ht
R1

(2-18)

U 0 l lng tri in p lch khng u vo.


I 0 l lng tri dng lch khng u vo.

Bin i (2-18) ta c:

U r 0 =

R ht
R
.(1 + 1 ).[U 0 I 0 .(R 1 // R ht )]
R1
R ht
63

(2-19)

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

Rht
Vo
R1

Ra

Vo
+

Ra

R3

R4
_

+
R3

R4
R2

Rht

R1

R2

Hnh 2-12: Mch b in p lch khng


T (2-19) rt ra kt lun:
- Nu ngun tn hiu c tr khng ln (R1// Rht ln) th in p sai s u ra ch yu do
tri dng lch khng u vo sinh ra. Ngc li nu ngun tn hiu c tr khng nh (R1 nh) th
sai s u ra ch yu do in p lch khng u vo sinh ra. Do khi cn khuch i dng mt
chiu nh th chn R1 // Rht nh, nu cn khuch i in p mt chiu nh th chn R1 ln.
Trong b khuch i tn hiu xoay chiu khng cn quan tm n vn b lch khng.

2.5. MCH CNG


2.5.1. Mch cng o
Mch ny cc tn hiu vo a ti ca o. S hnh 2-13. Coi cc in tr vo bng
nhau.

R ht = R 1 = R 2 = ... = R n < R V .
U1

I1

R1
Rht

R2
.....

U2
Un
In

Iht

Rn

Ura
+

Hnh 2-13: Mch cng o


64

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Khi IV = 0 th (v RV ca IC xem = )

I ht = I1 + I 2 + ... + I n . hay
n

Ura = (U1 + U2 + ...+ Un ) = Ui

(2 20)

i =1

Tng qut khi R 1 ... R n c:

U ra = (

R
R
R ht
.U 1 + ht .U 2 + ... + ht .U n )
R1
R2
Rn

= R ht .(
vi i =

n
U1 U 2
U
+
+ ... + n ) = i .U i
R1 R 2
Rn
i =1

(2-21)

R ht
Ri

Rht

2.5.2. Mch cng thun

U1

S mch in hnh 2-14, y cc


tn hiu vo a ti ca thun. Khi U0 = 0
in p hai u vo bng nhau v bng.

U V+ = U V

I1

R
.....
R

U2
Un

R1
.U ra .
=
R 1 + R ht

In

U0

Ura
+

UV_

R1
UV+

Khi dng vo u thun bng khng


(RV= ) ta c:

Hnh 2-14: Mch cng thun


U1 U V U 2 U V
U n U V
+
+ ... +
=0
R
R
R

U 1 + U 2 + ... + U n = n.U V

Hay:

U 1 + U 2 + ... + U n = n.

R1
.U ra
R 1 + R ht

U ra =

R 1 + R ht
R + R ht n
.( U 1 + ... + U n ) = 1
. U i
n.R 1
n.R 1 i =1

(2-22)

Chn cc tham s ca mch thch hp c tha s u tin ca v phi cng thc (2-22)
R + R ht
= 1 v khi :
bng 1 1
n.R 1
65

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

U ra = U 1 + U 2 + ... + U n = U i
i =1

2.6. MCH TR
Khi cn tr hai in p ngi ta c th thc hin theo s hnh 2-15. Khi in p u
ra c tnh theo

U ra = K 1 .U 1 + K 2 U 2

(2-23)

C th tm K1, K2 theo phng php cho in p vo tng ca bng khng.


Cho U2 = 0 th mch lm vic nh mt b khuch i o. Ta c:

U ra = a .U 1 . vy K 1 = a .
Khi U1 = 0 mch tr thnh mch khuch i thun c phn p vo. Khi :

Ub =

H s phn p:

U2
.R .
Rb b
Rb +
b

U1

Ra /a

Ra

Ua

b
1+ b

Khi U ra = (1 + a ).

Ub

b
.U 2
1+ b

U2

_
Ura
+

Rb /b

Rb

H s khuch i

K 2 = (1 + a ).

b
1+ b

Hnh 2-15: Mch tr

nn Ura khi c U1, U2 l :

U ra = (1 + a ).

b
.U 2 a .U 1
1+ b

Nu in tr trn c hai li vo l nh nhau tc l: a = b =


th

K 2 = , K 1 =

Vy : U ra = .( U 2 U1 )

(2-24)

66

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

2.7. MCH VI PHN, MCH TCH PHN


2.7.1. Mch vi phn

U ra

Mch vi phn l mch in p u ra t l vi vi phn in p u vo, tc l


dU
= K. V , trong K l mt h s.
dt
Mch vi phn dng IC khuch i thut ton nh hnh 2-18
Xem nh U0 = 0; I0 = 0 nn

IV = C

dU V
dt

IV

M U ra = I V .R nn

dU
U ra = R.C. V
dt

UV

I0
U0

UR

(2-26)

trong K = R.C = gi l hng s

Hnh 2-18: Mch vi phn

vi phn ca mch. Du (-) ni ln Ura ngc


pha UV.
Khi tn hiu vo l hnh sin th mch vi phn lm vic nh mt b lc tn cao.
2.7.2. Mch tch phn
Mch tch phn l mch m in p u ra t l vi tch phn in p u vo.
t

U ra = k U V dt
0

trong k l h s.
Mch tch phn dng IC khuch
i thut ton c mch hnh 2-19.

IC
IV

Ti nt A ta c IV = IC hay:

C.

dU ra U V
=
dt
R

UV

nn
t

1
. U V .dt + U ra 0 (2-27)
U ra =
R.C 0

Hnh 2-19: Mch tch phn

y Ura0 l in p trn t C khi


t=0 (l hng s tch phn xc nh t iu kin ban u)
67

UR

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Thng khi t=0 UV = 0 v Ura = 0 nn
t

1
U ra = . U V dt
0

(2-28)

= R.C gi l hng s thi gian ca mch tch phn.


Khi tn hiu vo thay i tng nc, tc thay i ca in p ra bng:

U
U ra
= V
R.C
t
ngha l u ra b tch phn c in p tng hay gim tuyn tnh theo thi gian.
i vi tn hiu hnh sin mch tch phn tr thnh mch lc thng thp.

2.8. MCH TO HM LOGARIT V LY THA


Trong thc t thng cn to ra mt in p Ur l hm s no ca in p UV, tc l Ur =
f(UV). y f l mt quan h hm nh hm lgarit, hm m, hm lng gic... Ta xt mt vi
mch to hm c th.
2.8.1. Mch to hm lgarit
Mch to hm s lgarit cho in p u ra: Ur = 1.ln(2.UV)
Mun vy ta c th dng biu thc ca dng qua it phn cu kin in t

I D = I S .(exp

U ak
1)
nU t

trong : IS l dng in ngc bo ho.


UT l in th nhit KT/e0.
m l h s hiu chnh. 1 < m < 2.
Uak l in p t ln it.
Trong min lm vic ID >> IS gn ng c th coi:

I D = I S .exp
T U ak = m.U T . ln

U ak
mU t

ID
IS

(2-29)

chnh l hm lgarit cn tm.


thc hin quan h ny, c th s dng nh hnh 2-20. Nu vi mch khuch i thut ton
l l tng ta c th tnh nh sau:
68

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

ID =

UV
,
R

U ra = U ak

U ra = m.U T . ln(

rt ra:

ID

UV
)
I S .R

UV
U

UV

URa

IC

_
U0

URa

Hnh 2-21: Mch logarit dng


Tranzitor ni kiu it

Hnh 2-20: Mch logarit dng it

C th thay it bng tranzito ni kiu it, khi loi tr c m v m rng phm vi lm


vic ca mch.
Lc ny:

U ra = U BE = U T . ln(

UV
)
I ES .R

(2-30)

Mch in hnh 2-21.


2.8.2. Mch to hm i lgarit (hm m)
to hm i lgarit ta mc phn t phi tuyn l it hay Tranzito vo nhnh vo ca IC
khuch i thut ton. Mch nguyn l c biu din trn hnh 2-22.
R
R

ID

IC

UV

U0

_
UV

URa

U0

+
(b)

(a)
Hnh 2-22: Mch khuych i i loga
a) Mch dng it
b) Mch dng Tranzitor ni kiu it
69

URa

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Vi mch dng it ta c:

I D = I S .exp

Uv
.
mU t

U ra = R.I S .exp

Nn

Uv
.
mU t

(2-31)

Vi mch b ta dng tranzito u theo kiu it, lc

U ra = R.I S .exp

Uv
.
Ut

(2-32)

2.9. MCH NHN TNG T


X

Z
k

Hnh 2-23: S quy c ca mch


nhn tng t
Mch nhn tng t c s quy c trn hnh 2-23. Tn hiu trn u ra ca n t l vi
tch cc tn hiu t ln hai u vo.
Z = k.X.Y.
Trong : X, Y L cc tn hiu vo.
Z: tn hiu ra
k: h s t l cn gi l h s truyn t ca mch nhn.
Trn hnh 2-24 l s mch nhn in p v mch tng ng ca n.Mch nhn in p
l tng c tr khng vo hai ca ZVX, ZVY = v tr khng ra Zr = 0. H s truyn t l tng
khng ph thuc vo tn s v tr s cc in p vo UX, UY ngha l k l mt hng s.
X
Y

UX

UZ

UX

UY

UY

(a)

Zra

ZVX

ZY

Ura
k.UX.UY

(b)

Hnh 2-24: Mch nhn in p v mch nhn tng ng


Mch nhn thc hin bi mch khuch i lga v i lga c s khi nh hnh 2-25.
70

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

X
ln
Tng
Y

exp

ln

Hnh 2-25: S khi mch nhn dng mch khuch i lga v i lga
Gi X = kX.UX
Y = kY.UY v Z = kZ.UZ.
trong kX, kY, kZ ln lt l h s t l ca cc in p vo UX, UY v in p ra UZ.
T mch trn ta c:

U Z = exp(lnU x + ln U y )
tc l:

Z
X
Y
XY
= exp(ln + ln ) = expln
kz
kx
ky
kx ky

Suy ra:

Z=

kz
.X.Y.
k x .k y

(2-33)

Cc mch khuch i lga v i lga xt tit trc, cn mch tng nh vi mch


khuch i thut ton thc hin.

2.10. MCH LC TCH CC


tn s cao thng dng cc mch lc th ng RLC. tn s thp cc mch lc c
in cm qu ln lm cho kt cu nng n v tn km cng nh phm cht ca mch gim. V vy
trong phm vi tn s 100kHz ngi ta hay dng b lc khuch i thut ton v mng RC- gi
l mch lc tch cc lc.
Khc vi mch lc th ng, mch lc tch cc c c trng bi ba tham s c bn: tn
s gii hn C, bc ca b lc v loi b lc.
- Tn s gii hn C l tn s ti hm truyn t gim i 3 dB so vi tn s trung tm.
- Bc ca b lc xc nh dc ca c tuyn bin tn s ngoi gii tn. Bc ca b lc
c tnh bng s t trong mch lc.
- Loi b lc xc nh dng c tuyn bin tn s xung quanh tn s ct v trong khu vc
thng ca mch lc. Cn ch rng mch in ca cc loi b lc th ging nhau, chng ch khc
nhau gi tr cc linh kin RC m thi. Ngi ta quan tm n 3 loi b lc: lc Bessel, lc
Butteewroth v lc Tschcbyscheff. c tnh ca cc b lc nh hnh 2-26.
71

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

|Kd| (dB)
10
0
-10
-20

4 3

-30

-40
-50
-60
0,01

0,03

0,1

0,3

10

30

f
fg

Hnh 2-26: c tnh bin - tn s ca mch lc thng thp bc bn:


1-lc th ng; 2-lc Bessel; 3-lc Butteewroth v 4-lc Tschcbyscheff
tin xt cc mch lc, ta a vo hm truyn t tng qut ca mt mch lc thng thp:

K d( p) =
trong : P =

K d0
1 + C1 .p + C 2 .p + C 3 .p 3 + ... + C n .p n

(2-34)

j.
= j
C

Ci l cc h s thc, dng.

Bc ca b lc chnh l s m ln nht ca p. thc hin b lc thun li ta phn tch


mu s ca biu thc (2-34) thnh tch cc tha s - c biu thc:

K d(p) =

K d0
(1 + a i .p + b i .p 2 )

(2-35)

Kd0 h s truyn t tn s thp.


ai, bi l cc s thc, dng.
Vi b lc bc l th c mt h s bi = 0.
tnh ton cc linh kin ca b lc ta da vo loi mch lc, bc ca b lc n v cc h s
ai, bi ( i l s th t cc mt lc ), fci / fc, h s phm cht ca mt lc th i: Qi c tra theo
bng:
a. Bng tham s ca mch lc Butterworth (bng 1).

72

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


Bng 1
n

ai(p)

bi(p2)

fCi/fC

Qi

1,0000

0,0000

1,0000

1,4142

1,0000

1,0000

0,71

1,0000

0,0000

1,0000

1,0000

1,000

1,2720

1,00

1,8478

1,0000

0,7910

0,54

0,7654

1,0000

1,3900

1,31

b. Bng tham s ca mch lc Bessel (bng 2).


Bng 2:
n

Ai(p)

bi(p2)

fCi/fC

Qi

1,0000

0,0000

1,0000

1,3617

0,6180

1,0000

0,58

0,7560

1,3230

0,9996

0,4772

1,4140

0,69

1,3397

0,4889

0,9780

0,52

0,7743

0,3890

1,7970

0,81

2.10.1. Mch lc tch cc bc mt


Loi ny ch dng cho mch lc thng thp hay thng cao.
2.10.1.1. Mch lc thng thp bc mt
Theo (2-35) khi hm truyn t c dng:

Kd =

(2-36)

R
UV

K do
1 + a1 . p

UV

Ura

R
-

Ura

b)

a)

Hnh 2-27: Mch lc tch cc thng thp bc 1


73

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

Mch in nh hnh 2-27 a,b.


Mch (a) ta c:

K=
y

Ur
1
1
=
=
U V 1 + j..R.C 1 + p.C .R.C

(v

j.

= p)

K do = 1
a 1 = C .R.C

Bit a, C ; chn R ta c C =

a1
C .R

Mch b ta c:

Kd =

1
1 + p.C .R.C

y K do = 1 v a 1 = R.C.C .
Khi bit a1 , C v chn R ta cng c:

C=

a1
C .R

2.10.1.2. Mch lc tch cc thng cao bc mt


i ch R bi C v C bi R, mch thng thp ta c mch lc tch cc thng cao.
Mch nh hnh 2-28.

C
UV

-_
+

UV

Ura

a)

Ura

b)
Hnh 2-28: Mch lc tch cc thng cao bc 1

Khi trong cng thc 2-36 thay p


Mch a c:

K=
1+

y:

1
p

1
p.C .R.C

K do = 1
74

1
1
1
1+ .
p C .R.C

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

a1 =

1
C .R.C

Khi bit a1 , C v chn C ta tnh c:

1
a.C.C

K=

Mch b:

R=

1+

1
p.C .R.C

K do = 1

y:

v tng t khi bit C , chn C ta tnh c R (theo a) =

1
.
a.C.C

2.10.2. Mch lc tch cc bc hai


2.10.2.1. Mch lc thng thp bc hai
Mch lc tch cc thng thp bc hai c cc dng hi tip m mt vng, hi tip m nhiu
vng, hi tip dng mt vng nh hnh 2-29.

C1
R

3 R

R2

C2
R

1 R
2

U1
C2

R1

_
+

C1
R3
2

U1

C2

U1

_
Ur

+
b)

a)
R1

Hnh 2-29: Mch lc thng thp bc hai:


a) hi tip m mt vng

C2
R2
1

U1

+
_

b) hi tip m nhiu vng

C1

c) hi tip dng mt vng

U2
(K-1)R3

c)
R3

75

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


+ Xt mch hnh 2-29a ta c hm truyn t (dng phng trnh in th nt):

Ur
1
=
U V 1 + 2.p. C .R.C1 + p 2 .C2 .R 2 .C1 .C 2

Kd =

(2-37)

So snh vi (2-35) ta c:

K do = 1 ;

a 1 = 2.C .R.C1 ; b1 = C2 .R 2 .C1 .C 2 .

Da vo loi b lc xc nh a1, b1, chn trc C1 theo gi tr chun v tnh R, C2 theo:

R=

a1
;
2.C .C1

C2 =

4.b1 .C1
a1

+ Vi mch 2-29b ta c:

Kd =

R 2 / R1
R .R
2
1 + p.C .C1 (R 2 + R 3 + 2 3 ) + p 2 . C .C1 .C 2 .R 2 .R 3
R1

T y xc nh:

K do =

R2
R1

a 1 = C .C1 .(R 2 + R 3 +

R 2 .R 3
)
R1

b1 = C .C1 .C 2 .R 2 .R 3 .
Cho trc C , Kdo, chn C1 v C2 tnh c:
2

R2 =
R1 =

a 1 .C 2 a 1 .C 2 4.C1 .C 2 .b1 .(1 + K do )


2.C .C1 .C 2
R2
K do

v R 3 =

b1
2

C .C1 .C 2 .R 2

R2 c gi tr thc:

C 2 4.b1 .(1 + K do )

2
C1
a1
+ Vi mch 2-29c c hm truyn t:

Kd =

1 + p.C [R 1 .C1 + R 2 .C1 + (1 K ).R 1 .C 2 ] + p 2 .C .C1 .C 2 R 1 R 2


2

n gin chn K=1 khi (K-1).R3=0 .


Biu thc trn vit li:
76

(2-38)

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton

K =

1
1 + p. C .C1 .(R 1 + R 2 ) + p 2 .C .C1 .C 2 .R 1 .R 2

Nu cho trc C, C1, C2 ta tnh c Ko, R1, R2.


Ko =1
2

R 1, 2 =

a 1 .C 2 a 1 .C 2 4.b1 .C1 .C 2
2.C .C1 .C 2

R1,2 l s thc cn:

C1 4.b1
2 .
C2
a1
2.10.2.2. Mch lc thng cao bc hai
Mch lc thng cao bc hai c th dng cc dng thng thp
hnh 2-29. Trong phi i ch C v R cho nhau. V d mch lc thng cao bc hai hi tip
1
dng mt vng c hnh 2-30. Thay p = , C bi R v R bi C vo cng thc (2-38) ta c:
p

K =

K
1
1 R (C + C 2 ) + R 1 .C 2 .(1 K ) 1
1+ . 2 1
+ 2. 2
p
C .R 1 .R 2 .C1 .C 2
p C .C1 .R 1 .R 2 .C 2

Cho K=1 v C1 = C2 = C ta c:

K =

1
.
1
2
1
1
1+ .
+ .
p C .R 1 .C p 2 C 2 .C 2 .R 1 .R 2

y K o = 1

a1 =
nn

2
R1 =
C .a 1 .C

b1 =
nn

R2

2
C .R 1 .C
U

C1

C2
R1

+
-

Ua
(K-1)R3

1
2

R3

C .C .R 1 .R 2

R2 =

a1
2.C .C.b1

Hnh 2-30: S mch lc thng cao bc hai mt


vng hi tip dng

77

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


2.10.2.3. Mch lc tch cc bc hai thng gii
Nu mc ni tip mt mt lc thng thp
v mt mt lc thng cao ta nhn c b lc
thng gii. c tnh tn s l tch tn s ca hai
khu lc ring r.

R
C1
R
UV

K = K1.K2

C2

R3

Ura

Mch lc tch cc thng gii bc hai nh


hnh 2-31.
Hnh 2-31: Mch lc thng gii

2.10.3. Mch lc tch cc bc cao

Khi cn c tnh bin , tn s ca b lc vung gc ngi ta phi thc hin b lc bc


cao. Mun vy mc ni tip cc b lc bc mt v hai bit. Lc c tnh tn s ca mch l
tch cc c tnh tn s ca cc mch ring r.

TM TT
Kt thc chng hai yu cu ngi hc hiu v nm c:
- Cc tnh cht chung ca BKTT: Tr khng vo rt ln, l tng Zv = . Tr khng ra rt
nh, l tng Zr = 0. H s khuch i in p rt ln k hiu K0, l tng K0 = . c tuyn
truyn t BKTT nu quan h in p ra Ur l hm s ca in p vo Uv. Khi Uv cn b Ur tng
tuyn tnh theo Uv. Khi Uv tng m Ur khng tng na l BKTT bo ho. Ur = +Ur max gi l bo
ho dng. Khi Ur = -Ur max gi l bo ho m. C th xem gn ng Ur max = E -2V khi ngun
nui i xng E.
- c tuyn tn s m t quan h h s khuch i K0 theo tn s ca tn hiu vo. Do cc
tng khuch i trong BKTT ghp trc tip nn n c th khuch i c tn hiu mt chiu.
BKTT c kh nng nn tn hiu ng pha.
- Tng khuch i vi sai: cu to tng khuch i vi sai, xc nh h s khuch i in p
ca n. Tng khuch i vi sai c ti ng kiu gng dng c h s khuch i rt ln. vi tng
khuch i vi sai dng tranzito trng cn c u im tr khng vo ln.
- Mch khuch di dng BKTT c mch khuch i thun, khuch i o. c im
chung ca cc mch khuch i h s khuch i ca mch ph thuc vo tr s cc linh kin
ngoi c u ni c hi tip m in p. Mch khuch i o c h s khuch i m, tc l
tn hiu ra ngc pha tn hiu vo. Mch khuch i thun cho tn hiu ra cng pha.
- Cc phng php chng tri v b im khng l tm bin php gi cho u ra BKTT
c in p ra bng khng ch tnh. C th dng in tr cn bng RC thc hin nh hnh
2-11. Cng c th dng mch hiu chnh nh in p ngun nui nh hnh 2-12.
- Mch cng. Mch cng o l mch cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca o. in p u ra
bng tr tng t l cc in p u vo. Mch cng thun l mch cc tn hiu cn cng a vo
ca thun. u ra nhn c in p t l vi tng cc in p vo.
78

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


- Mch tr tn hiu a vo hai ca. Tn hiu b tr a vo ca thun. Tn hiu tr a vo
ca o. u ra nhn c in p t l vi hiu ca hai in p vo.
- Mch tch phn cho in p ra t l vi tch phn in p vo. Khi cho tn hiu vo mch
l dy xung vung u ra nhn c dy xung tam gic.
- Mch vi phn cho in p ra t l vi vi phn ca in p vo. u ra mch ny nhn
c dy xung nhn c cc tnh thay i khi u vo tc dng vo dy xung vung.
- Mch to hm logarit cho tn hiu ra t l vi loga t nhin ca in p vo.
- Mch to hm m cho tn hiu ra t l vi hm m t nhin ca tn hiu vo.
- Mch nhn tng t cho tn hiu ra t l vi tch tc thi ca hai tn hiu vo. Trong k
thut mch nhn tng t c th dng iu ch tn hiu, tch sng tn hiu.
- Mch lc tch cc. Cu to mch lc tch cc gm BKTT v cc phn t RC. u im
ca mch lc tch cc dng vng tn s thp l n gin gn nh v c phm cht lc cao. Nu
dung mch lc th ng L, R, C nng, cng knh do in cm L phi ln, phm cht lc km do
tiu hao nng lng nhiu. Bc ca b lc tch cc l s t in trong mch lc . Phn tch cc
loi mch lc thng thp, thng cao, thng gii v chn gii. Cch xc nh gi tr cc in tr, t
in trong cc mch lc tch cc ni trn.

CU HI V BI TP
2.1. Nu cc tnh cht ca BKTT l tng?
2.2. Ti sao khi dng BKTT lm mch khuch i phi u ni thm linh kin ngoi to hi tip
m?
2.3. Trnh by mch khuch i o?
2.4. Trnh by mch khuch i thun? Mch khuch i lp?
2.5. Nu tc dng ca in tr cn bng Rc hnh 2-11? Biu thc tnh gi tr Rc?
2.6. Trnh by mch cng thun?
2.7. Trnh by mch cng o?
2.8.Trnh by mch tr?
2.9. Cc mch cng, mch tr lm vic ch tuyn tnh hay phi tuyn? Ti sao?
2.10. Trnh by mch vi phn? ng dng ca n?
2.11. Trnh by mch tch phn? ng dng ca n?
2.12. Trnh by mch to hm loga?
2.13. Trnh by mch to hm m?
2.14. Th no l mch nhn tng t?
2.15. Th no l mch lc th ng, mch lc tch cc?
79

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


2.16 Ti sao di tn s 100KHz ta nn dng mch lc tch cc thc hin?
2.17. Cho mch hnh P2-17. Bit ngun nui E = 12v, R1 = 10K, Rht = 50K
Rht
Uv

R1

Ur

Hnh 2-17.
a. Xc nh h s khuch i ca mch?
b. Xc nh tr khng vo ca mch?
c. Xc nh in p ra i vi mi gi tr sau ca in p vo UV = 0v, -1v, 2v, -3v.
2.18 Cho mch in hnh P2-17 vi R1 = 1,2K; Rht = 18K, ngun E = 15v.
a. Xc nh h s khuch i ca mch?
b. Xc nh tr khng vo ca mch?
c. Xc nh in p vo nh Uv mch hot ng tuyn tnh?
d. Xc nh in p ra i vi mi gi tr sau ca in p vo Uv = 0v; 0,4v;
0,8v; -1,2v;1,6v.
2.19. Cho mch in hnh P2-19 vi R1 = 10K, Rht = 50K. Bit E = 15v;
Uv

Ur

Rht
R1

Hnh P2-19.
a. Xc nh h s khuch i ca mch?
b. Xc nh tr khng vo l tng ca mch?
c. Xc nh in p vo nh mch hot ng tuyn tnh?
d. Xc nh in p ra i vi mi gi tr sau ca in p vo :
Uv = 0v ; -1v ;2v ;-3v ; 4v .
2.20. Cho mch hnh 2-19 vi R1 = 12k; Rht = 180k; E = 15v
a. Xc nh h s khuch i ca mch?
80

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


b. Xc nh tr khng vo l tng ca mch?
c. Xc nh in p vo nh m mch hot ng tuyn tnh?
d. Xc nh in p ra i vi mi gi tr sau ca in p vo
Uv= 0v; -0,4v; 0,8v; -1,2 v.
2.21 .Cho mch hnh P2-21. Vi Rht = 100k, R1 = 100k, R2 = 50k, R3 = 25k, ngun E =
15v
a. Vit phng trnh Ur theo ba in p vo?
b. Xc nh Ur khi U1 = 10v; U2 = 3v v U3 = -7v
c. Xc nh Ur khi U1 = 8v; U2 = - 4v v U3 = 5v.
U1

R1

U2

R2

U3

R3

Rht
Ur

Hnh P2-21.
2.22. Cho mch hnh P2-21. Vi Rht = 100k; R1 = 20k; R2 = 10k; R3 = 5k. ngun E=
15v.
a. Vit phng trnh Ur theo ba in p vo?
b. Xc nh Ur khi U1 = -2v; U2 = 1,5v v U3 = - 0,8v.
2.23. Cho mch hnh P2-23. Vi R1 = 10k; R2 = 20k. Ngun E = 15v.

R2
U1

R1

U2

R1

Ur

R2

Hnh P2-23.
a. Vit phng trnh Ur theo hai in p vo?
b. Xc nh Ur vi U1 = 3v; U2 = 3v.
c. Xc nh Ur vi U1 = 3v; U2 = -3v.
81

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


d. Xc nh Ur khi U1 = 5v; U2 = -5v.
2.24. Cho mch hnh P2-23 vi R1 = 10k; R2 = 50k, ngun E = 15v.
a. Vit phng trnh Ur theo hai in p vo?
b. Xc nh Ur khi U1 = 4v; U2 = 4v.
c. Xc dnh Ur khi U1 = 2v; U2 = 4v.
d. Xc nh Ur khi U1 = 4v; U2 = -2v.
2.25 . Cho mch in hnh P2-25 lm vic ch tuyn tnh. Chng minh in p ra Ur cho bi
cng thc :
U1

R1

U2

R2

Ur

R4

R3

Hnh P2-25.
Ur = (R3 + R4)(R2U1 + R1U2) / R3(R1 + R2).
2.26. Cho mch P2-26. Bit R3 = 8,25k; R6 = 4,7k, ngun E = 12v.
Ux

R1

Uy

R2

R6

R3
R4

Ur

R5
Uz

Hnh P2-26.
a. Thit lp biu thc tng qut Ur theo cc in p vo Ux, Uy, Uz v cc tham s
ca mch?
b. Xc nh gi tr cc in tr R1, R2, R4 v R5 mch thc hin c hm s
sau:
Ur = 2,5Ux - 4,7Uy + 4,1Uz.
2.27. H s khuch i ca mch khuch i o l:
a. K = - R1 / Rht.
b. K = Rht / R1.
c. K = - Rht / R1.
82

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


d. K = 1 + Rht/R1.
2.28. H s khuch i ca mch khuch i thun l:
a. K = R1 / Rht.
b. K = 1 + Rht / R1.
c. K = 1 - Rht / R1.
d. K = Rht/R1.
2.29. in tr cn bng RC trong mch khuch i o bng:
a. RC = R1.Rht / (R1 + Rht).
b. RC = Rht + R1.
c. RC = Rht R1.
d. RC = Rht.
2.30. Mch cng o l:
a. Mch m cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca thun.
b. Mch m cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca o.
c. Mch m cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca thun v ca o.
d. Mch khng c hi tip m.
2.31. Mch cng thun l:
a. Mch m cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca thun.
b. Mch m cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca o.
c. Mch m cc tn hiu cn cng a vo ca thun v ca o.
d. Mch khng c hi tip m.
2.32. Dng xung u ra mch vi phn khi u vo tc dng dy xung vung la:
a. Dy xung nhn c cc tnh thay i.
b. Dy xung tam gic.
c. Dy xung nhn mt cc tnh.
d. Dy xung nhn m.
2.33. Dng xung u ra ca mch tch phn khi u vo tc dng dy xung vung l:
a. Dy xung tam gic.
b. Dy xung nhn.
c. Dy xung hnh thang.
d. Dy xung vung.
83

Chng 2: B khuch i thut ton


2.34. Nhc im ca mch lc th ng R, L, C tn s thp l:
a. Mch in phc tp.
b. Mch nng n, tn km v phm cht ca mch gim.
c. Mch gn nh nhng phm cht ca mch gim.
d. C a v b.
2.35. Mch lc tch cc gm cc phn t:
a. BKTT v cc phn t LC.
b. BKTT v cc phn t LR.
c. BKTT v cc phn t RC.
d. BKTT v cc phn t R, LC.
2.36. u im ca mch lc tch cc vng tn s thp l:
a. Gn nh, r tin v phm cht lc cao.
b. Gn nh nhng phm cht lc gim.
c. Phc tp nhng phm cht lc cao.
d. C b v c.
2.37. Bc ca mt b lc tch cc c xc nh bi:
a. S t in tham gia trong b lc.
b. S in tr tham gia trong b lc.
c. S t in v in tr tham gia trong b lc.
d. S cc in cm tham gia trong b lc.
2.38. Bin tn hiu ra cc i (nh) trong cc mch dng BKTT c ngun nui i xng l:
a. (E 2) Vn.
b. E vn.
c. E/2 vn.
d. (E 2) Vn.

84

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin

CHNG 3: MCH TO DAO NG SIN

GII THIU CHUNG


Chng 3 gii thiu cc mch to dao ng to ra tn hiu hnh sin (cn gi l tn hiu iu
ho).
- Khi nim v mch to dao ng sin. Yu cu ca mch to dao ng sin l to ra tn hiu
c bin , tn s n nh cao.
- iu kin dao ng ca mch to dao ng hnh sin: mch to dao ng sin c hai phn c
bn: phn mch khuch i v phn mch hi tip. Mch hi tip thc hin hi tip dng.
- Mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p loi mch ny phn t khuch i l tranzito hoc
BKTT. Mch hi tip dng bin p thc hin. Khung dao ng song song c hai phn t LC.
- Mch to dao ng sin ba im. Loi mch ny khung dao ng c ba phn t in khng.
Mch khuch i cng c th l tranzito hoc BKTT. C mch to dao ng ba im in dung
(khung dao ng c hai t in, mt in cm), mch dao ng ba im in cm (khung dao
ng c hai in cm, mt t in).
- Mch to dao ng sin ghp RC. Loi mch ny phn hi tip ghp qua cc mt RC. C
mch to dao ng sin ghp ba mt RC, mch to dao ng sin Cu Vin.
- Mch to dao ng sin c thch anh. Loi mch ny cho tn hiu ra c tn s n nh cao
do bn thn thch anh c tn s dao ng ring rt n nh. C th dng thch anh trong mch to
dao ng sin ghp bin p hay mch to dao ng sin ba im. Tu vo mch in c th mch s
c tn s lm vic theo tn s dao ng ni tip fq hay tn s dao ng song song fp ca thch anh.
Do mi ming thch anh ch c mt tn s dao ng c nh nn mun iu chnh tn s dao ng
ca mch trong mt phm vi hp phi ni tip vi thch anh mt t in vi chnh, k hiu l CS.
- Mch to tn hiu sin kiu xp x tuyn tnh. Mch ny c dng ph bin trong cc
mch to sng chc nng. Nh mch in to ra tn hiu hnh sin (gn ng) khi u vo l dy
xung tam gic.
- Kt thc chng yu cu ngi hc nm c th no l mt mch to dao ng sin, phn
tch ch mt chiu v ch xoay chiu. Phn bit c khi khuch i, khi to hi tip
dng v cc xc nh tn s dao ng ca mch.

NI DUNG
3.1. KHI NIM
Mch to dao ng l mch khi c ngun cung cp n t lm vic cho ra tn hiu. S
tng qut mt mch to dao ng nh hnh 3-1.
85

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


Yu cu mch to dao ng to ra tn hiu c bin , tn s n nh cao, t chu nh hng
ca mi trng nh nhit , m.
t cc yu cu mch to dao ng
cn:
+ Dng ngun n p.
+ Dng cc phn t c h s nhit
nh.
+ Gim nh hng ca ti n mch
to dao ng nh mc thm tng m.
+ Dng cc linh kin c sai s nh.
+ Dng cc phn t n nhit.
c bit khi cn c n nh tn s cao
trn 104 ta dng thch anh vo mch to dao
f
t c 10 6 10 8 .
ng. Khi
f

Mch to dao
ng

ura

Hnh 3-1: S tng qut ca mt mch


to dao ng
ura
uV
a
K
a'
uht

Hnh 3-2: S khi y ca b to dao


ng.

3.2. IU KIN DAO NG V C IM CA MCH TO DAO NG


xt nguyn l lm vic ca mch to dao ng ta dng s khi hnh 3-2. N gm hai
khi; khi khuch i c h s khch i K = K .exp j k v khi hi tip c h s hi tip

= .exp j .
Nu t vo u vo tn hiu U V v gi thit K. = 1 th U ht = U V . vi U ht = K..U V .
Vy tn hiu vo ca mch khuch i v tn hiu hi tip U ht bng nhau c v bin v pha
nn ni a vi a , th tn hiu vn khng thay i. Lc ta c s khi ca mch to dao ng
lm vic theo nguyn tc hi tip.
Nh vy trong s ny mch ch dao ng tn s m n tho mn:

K. = 1

(3-1)

Vi K v l nhng s phc nn vit li:

K . = K . .exp j ( k + ) = 1 .

(3-2)

trong : K: Moun h s khuch i.


: Moul h s hi tip.
k: Gc dch pha ca b khuch i.
k: Gc dch pha ca mch hi tip.
C th tch 3-2 thnh hai biu thc vit theo moun v biu thc vit theo pha:
86

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin

K. = 1

(3-3)

= k + = 2.n.

(3-4)

l tng gc dch pha ca b khuch i v mch hi tip, biu th s dch pha gia Uht v
tn hiu vo ban u UV.
Quan h 3-3 c gi l iu kin cn bng bin . N cho thy mch ch c th dao ng
khi h s khuch i ca b khuch i c th b c tn hao do mch hi tip gy ra. Cn iu
kin cn bng pha (3-4) cho thy dao ng ch c th pht sinh khi tn hiu hi tip v ng pha
vi tn hiu ban u tc l hi tip dng.
Thc t c dao ng khi mi ng ngun K. phi ln hn 1 lm cho bin dao ng
tng dn. Do tnh phi tuyn ca phn t khuch i im lm vic i vo vng c S gim lm K
gim n lc K. = 1 mch lm vic ch xc lp. Vy iu kin dao ng ca mch l:

K. 1.
3.3. MCH TO DO NG SIN GHP BIN P
Mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p c
mch hi tip ghp qua bin p hnh 3-3.
Trong mch R1, R2 l b phn p cp
in p mt chiu cho cc gc. R3,C3 l mch
n nh nhit. L1, C1 l khung dao ng, L2 l
cun ghp ly in p Uht, C2 t thot, C4 l t
ly tn hiu ra. Do tranzito mc pht chung, ti
tn s dao ng c ti l in tr thun,nn Ura
ngc pha Uvo. Nh vy m bo iu kin
cn bng pha cn u cun L1, L2 c cc cng
tn cho nhau.
Tn s dao ng ca mch do mch cng
hng cc gp quyt nh.
fd =

1
2.. L1 .C1

+Ec
*

R1

L1

L2

C1

C4
ura

R2

C2

R3

C3

Hnh 3-3: Mch to sin ghp bin p

(4 5)

3.4. MCH DAO NG SIN BA IM


Mch dao ng sin ba im c th dng tranzito hay IC khuch i. Vi mch dng
tranzito mc pht chung cn IC khuch i thut ton c ca thun ni t.
Khung dao ng cha ba phn t in
khng th t l X1, X2, X3.
S i vi thnh phn xoay chiu nh hnh 3-4.

87

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin

X1
X3

uht

ura

uht
+

X2

X1

ura

X3
X2

Hnh 4-4: S mch dao ng ba im vi thnh phn xoay chiu.


X2
=
T mch in ta c:
X1 + X 2
mch dao ng c cn

K. >1 m K < 0 nn cn < 0 mt khc ti tn s dao ng

c:
X1 + X 2 + X 3 = 0
Kt hp li ta thy X1, X2 phi khc du v X2, X3 phi cng du, tc l:
- Nu X1 l in cm th X2, X3 l t in, ta c mch ba im in dung.
- Nu X1 l t in th X2, X3 l in cm, ta c mch ba im in cm. Mch in dng
tranzito nh hnh 4-5.
+EC
+EC

L2

R1
C2

R1

C1

L1

R3
C5

C3
L

C4
R2

ura

R2

C3

R3

R4

ura

C4 C1

b)

a)
Hnh 3-5: Mch to dao ng ba im
a) Ba im in cm.
b) Ba im in dung.
Tn s dao ng ca mch 3-5a l:
88

C2

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin

fd =

(3-6a)

2.. C.(L1 + L 2 )

Tn s dao ng ca mch 3-5b l:


fd =

C1 + C 2
1
.
2. L1 .C1 .C 2

(3-6b)

3.5. MCH TO DAO NG SIN GHP RC


Cc mch to dao ng RC thng dng phm vi tn s thp, v nu dng mch LC kch
thc qu ln, do in cm L phi ln. Trong mch to dao ng sin ghp RC, mch hi tip cha
cc phn t RC.
3.5.1. Mch to dao ng dng mch di pha RC trong mch hi tip
+E

R1

RC

R3

C2
C

R2

Ura R

R1

ura

R2

Uht
R3

C1

Uht

Hnh 3-6
Mch in dng tranzito v IC khuch i thut ton nh hnh 3-6.
y phn t khuch i o pha 1800, nn mch hi tip cng phi c gc pha 1800. Hm
truyn t v gc di pha mi khu RC trn hnh 3-6 xc nh theo:

K=

(3-7a)

1
R+
j..C

= arctg

1
.C.R

(3-7b)

Theo (3-7a) mi khu RC ch to ra mt gc di pha < 900 khi tr s R, C ph hp. Nh vy


m bo v pha mch hi tip t nht phi c ba mt RC, mi khu thc hin di pha 600. Vi
trng hp dng 3 khu RC nh nhau hnh 3-6 cn:
R1//R2//rBE = R. mch dng tranzito
R1//R2 = R

mch dng IC.


89

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


T mch in ta c h s truyn t ca mch hi tip:

U ht
j.3 .R 3 .C 3
=
U ra 1 6. 2 .R 2 .C 2 + j.(5..R.C 3 .R 3 .C 3 )

(3-8)

Vi K l h s khuch i ca mch khuch i th:

j.K.3 .R.3 C 3
K. =
1 6..2 R 2 .C 2 + j.(5..R.C 3 .R 3 .C 3 )

(3-9)

Cho K. = 1 ta c :

2
1 6.dd
.R.2 C 2 = 0

(3-10)

Tn s dao ng:

dd =

(3-11)

6.R.C

Thay dd vo (3-8) tnh c =

1
v
29

5. dd .R.C 3dd .R 3 .C 3 = K.3dd .R 3 .C 3 .


nn

(3-12)

K = -29

(3-13)

Mch c h s hi tip =

R
1
, nn cn mc in tr R2, R3 sao cho 3 = 29 . Vi mch
R2
29

dng tranzito cn chn in tr RC v h s khuch i ca tranzito sao cho:

K=

.R C
29
rvt

(3-14)

3.5.2. Mch to dao ng dng mch cu Vin

R4
R3

+
C2

R2
Ura

C1

R1

Hnh 3-7: Mch dao ng cu Vin


90

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


Mch in hnh 3-7. mch ny Uht a vo ca thun, cn cc phn t ca o xc
nh khuch i ca mch.
T mch in ta c:

1
R1
j..C1
Z1 =
=
1
1 + j..C1 .R 1
R1 +
j..C1
R 1.

Z2 = R 2 +

(3-15)

1 + j..R 2 .C 2
1
=
j..C 2
j..C 2

H s hi tip

(3-16)

U ht
Z1
=
U ra Z1 + Z 2

Thay vo:

j..R 1 .C 2
1 .R 1 .R 2 .C1 .C 2 + j..(R 1 .C1 + R 2 .C 2 + R 1 .C 2 )
2

(3-17)

Khi R 1 = R 2 = R , C1 = C2 = C th :

j..R.C
1 .R .C 2 + j3..R.C
2

(3-18)

mch dao ng c:

K = 1 =

j.K..R.C
1 .R 2 .C 2 + j3.R.C.
2

(3-19)

Hay:
2
1 dd
.R 2 .C 2 = 0

dd =
v

1
R.C

(3-20)

3dd .R.C = K.dd .R.C

(3-21)

nn K = 3
Thay dd vo (3-18) c:

1
3

(3-22)

mch to dao ng c cn chn cc in tr R3, R4 sao cho


91

R4
=2
R3

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin

3.6. MCH DAO NG BNG THCH ANH


3.6.1. Tnh cht v mch tng ng ca thch anh
Khi cn mch to dao ng c tn s n nh cao m dng cc bin php thng thng nh
n nh ngun cung cp, n nh ti... vn khng m bo n nh tn s theo yu cu th phi
dng thch anh n nh tn s. Thch anh c nhng c tnh vt l rt ng qu nh bn c
hc cao, t chu nh hng ca nhit v cc tc dng ho hc.
Thch anh c tnh cht p in, ngha l di tc dng ca in trng thng sinh ra dao
ng. Do c th dng thch anh nh mt khung cng hng. Tnh cht dao ng ca thch anh
c biu din bi s tng ng hnh 4-8b. trong Lq, Cq v rq ph thuc vo kch thc
khi thch anh v cch ct khi thch anh. Thch anh c kch thc cng nh th Lq, Cq v rq cng
nh, ngha l tn s cng hng ring ca n cng cao. Lq, Cq, rq c tnh n nh cao. Cp l in
dung gi , tnh n nh ca Cp km hn.
Thng rq rt nh, nn khi tnh ton b qua. Vi gi thit rq = 0 th tr khng tng ng
ca thch anh xc nh theo cng thc:

1
1
).
j..C q j..C p
2 .L q .C q 1
Zq = X q =
= j.
1
1
.(C p + C q 2 .L q .C q .C p )
+ j..L q +
j..C q
j..C p
( j..L q +

(3-23)

j.Xq

Lq
CP

Cq
0

rq

fq

fP

B
B
a)

b)
Hnh 3-8:

Hnh 3-9 a:

a) S quy c ca thch anh

c tnh in khng ca thch anh

b) S tng ng v in ca thch anh

T (3-23) suy ra thch anh c hai tn s cng hng: mt tn s cng hng ni tip fq ng
vi Zq= 0 v mt tn s cng hng song song f p ng vi Zp = .
Ta c :

fq =

(3-24)

2. L q .C q
92

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin

fp =

Cn

Cp + Cq
Cq
1
= fq . 1+
2 L q .C q .C p
Cp

(3-25)

Cp cng ln so vi Cq th fp cng gn vi fq. c tnh tr khng ca thch anh theo tn s


biu din hnh 4-9a. Thng sn xut thch anh vi tn s fq = 1khz n 100Mhz. Cc thch
anh tn s thp hn t c sn xut, v loi ny kch thc ln v t tin.
Cc tnh cht v in ca thch anh c th tm tt nh sau:
+ Phm cht cao Q =10 4 10 5
+ T s

Lq
Cq

rt ln, do tr khng tng ng ca thch anh R td =

Lq
C q .rq

rt ln.

+ C q << C p .
+ Tnh tiu chun ca thch anh rt cao, vi khung dao ng thch anh c th t c
n nh tn s.

f
10 6 10 10
f0
thay i tn s cng hng ca thch anh trong phm vi hp ta mc ni tip vi thch
anh mt t bin i C S nh trn hnh 3-9b. Khi
tn s dao ng c xc nh theo biu thc:

f q = f q . 1 +

Cq
C p + CS

CS
(3-26)

Hnh 3-9b: Mt bin php


thay i tn s cng hng

ring ca thch anh


3.6.2. Mch in b to dao ng dng thch anh
Mch in b to dao ng dng thch anh vi tn s cng hng song song cho hnh 310. Hnh 3-10a l mch ba im in dung. Nhnh c thch anh mc ni tip vi t in CS tng
ng mt in cm, ngha l tn s dao ng ca mch phi tha mn iu kin (3-27) v t CS
chn theo iu kin (3-28)

f q < f dd < f p

(3-27)

1
< dd .L td
dd .C S

(3-28)

Trong Ltd l in cm tng ng ca thch anh. Ngoi ra CS cn phi tha mn:


C S << C1 , C 2
Tn s dao ng ca mch xc nh gn ng.

f dd f p

(3-29)
93

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


mch 3-10b iu kin pha ch tha mn khi thch anh tng ng mt in cm ti tn
s dao ng ngha l:

f p > f dd > f q
Lc ta c mch ba im in cm, khi :

f dd < f ch =

(3-30)

2. L k .C k

+EC
R1

R2

RC

RE

C1

C2

CS

CE

CK

Lk

q
R2

R1

RE

(a)

+EC

(b)

Hnh 3-10: Mch to dao ng thch anh vi tn s cng hng song song
hnh 3-11 l mch to dao ng dng thch anh vi tn s cng hng ni tip. y
thch anh c mc trong mch hi tip v ng vai tr nh mt phn t ghp c tnh cht chn
lc i vi tn s.

CS
Hnh 3-11: Mach to dao ng sin c
thch anh vi tn s cng hng ni
tip

Khi tn s dao ng f dd

qM
*

RE

R2

R1

+EC
f q th tr khng thch anh Z q = 0 do h p trn thch anh

nh lm cho in p v cc gc tng, mch c dao ng vi tn s dao ng f dd = f q .

3.7. MCH TO TN HIU SIN KIU XP X TUYN TNH

94

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


Trong my to sng a chc
nng (my to hm) n ng thi
to ra tn hiu xung vung, xung
tam gic v tn hiu sin. nhn
c tn hiu hnh sin t xung tam
gic, c b bin i "xung tam
gic - hnh sin dng phng
php xp x tng on tuyn tnh
Hnh 3-12: Xp x dng hnh sin bng 4n nhng on
hoc khng tuyn tnh. Phng
thng c gc nghing thay i
php xp x tng on tuyn tnh
chia hnh sin thnh 4n phn nh v
thay th mi phn bng mt on thng c nghing khc nhau nh hnh 3-12.
S n cng ln th chnh xc cng cao v h s mo hnh sin nhn c cng nh. Mt
trong nhng s thc hin phng php ny c m t trn hnh 3-13. y n = 6. Cc it
D1 D10 trng thi ban u l tt bng cc mc in p cho trc

Trong U
l bin xung tam gic li vo.
U 1 <....< U 5 < U
V
V

UV

+U1

+U2

+U3

+U4

D1

D3

D5

D7

+U5
D9

R0

Ur

D2
-U1

R1

R2

D4

D6

D8

-U3

-U4

-U2

R3

R4

R5

D10
-U5

Hnh 3-13: Mch bin i xung tam gic - hnh sin bng phng
php xp x tng on tuyn tnh.
Khi UV tng dn th ln lt cc it thng v sau tt (nhm it l lm vic na
dng v it chn lm vic na m ca in p xung tam gic) to thnh tng on tn hiu
tuyn tnh c dc khc nhau. dc ca tng on ny c xc nh bi h s phn p tc
ng ln tng khong thi gian tng ng. Khi in p vo Uv nh, cc it ngt v chng c
phn cc ngc. Lc ny h s khuch i ca mch K = 1 do Ur = Uv. Khi Uv tng ln sao
cho Uv > +U1 th D1 thng, R0 v R1 to thnh mch phn p nn h s khuch i ca ton mch
gim, lm cho Ur tng chm hn Uv. Khi Uv > +U2 th D3 thng, R1//R2 cng R0 to thnh mch
phn p c h s phn p nh hn na, do tc tng ca in p ra cng gim...Cui cng khi
D9 thng th mch c h s phn p nh nht tng ng vi im cc i ca hm hnh sin. Tip
95

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


theo Uv gim cc it l tt dn lm cho h s phn p ca mch li tng ln cho n khi K = 1.
Cc it D2, D4..D10 cng c tc dng nh vy khi Uv < 0. Nh vy qua mch ny t tn hiu vo
xung tam gic ta nhn c tn hiu hnh sin u ra.

TM TT
Ni dung chnh ca chng l phn tch cc mch dao ng to tn hiu sin thng gp
trong k thut. Kt thc chng yu cu ngi hc cn hiu v nm c cc vn :
- Th no l mch to dao ng. Yu cu ca mt mch to dao ng l cho ra tn hiu c
bin tn s rt n nh. t c iu mch to dao ng phi c ngun nui n nh,
dng linh kin phi c sai s nh, tm bin php n nh cho mch v khi cn dng tinh th thch
anh.
- iu kin ca mch to dao ng. Mt mch to dao ng c hai phn: phn mch khuch
i v phn mch hi tip. mch dao ng c cn: mch hi tip lun thc hin hi tip
dng K + = 2n, tch h s khuch i ca mch khuch i v h s hi tip ca mch
hi tip phi ln hn 1. Khi dao ng n nh (xc lp) K. = 1.
- Cc mch to dao ng sin:
+ Mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p. Mch ny tranzito mc cc pht chung. Ti tn s
cng hng ti ca tng khuch i l in tr thun nn K = . Mun c hi tip dng cc
cun L1, L2 ca bin p ly in p hi tip phi c cc cng tn u cho nhau. Khi = .
Tng gc dch pha bng 2. Tn s dao ng ca mch do phn t L1C1 trong khung dao ng
quyt nh.
+ Mch to dao ng sin ba im. Loi mch ny khung dao ng c ba phn t in
khng. Do tranzito mc cc pht chung, BKTT mc ca thun chung nn tn hiu sau khuch
i ngc pha vi tn hiu vo. V vy cc phn t in khng ly hi tip v cng phi to ra gc
dch pha bng c hi tip dng. Da trn c s tm cc phn t LC trong khung dao
ng ba im v c c mch dao ng ba im in cm, mch dao ng ba im in dung.
Tn s dao ng ca mch do cc phn t trong khung dao ng quyt nh.
+ Mch to dao ng sin ghp RC. Loi mch ny phn hi tip ghp qua cc phn t RC.
N thch gp to ra tn hiu sin tn s thp v c n nh tn s cao. Mch to dao ng sin
ghp ba mt RC c K = , c = , i ln h s hi tip = 1/29, ln h s khuch i
ca mch K = 29 K = 1. Mch to dao ng sin cu Vin do kt cu mch nn K = 0, = 0,
h s hi tip = 1/3, h s khuch i K = 3 K = 1. Tn s dao ng ca mch = 1/RC.
Cc mch to dao ng sin trn c tn s dao ng ph thuc vo cc thng s LC hay RC
ca mch. Mun thay i tn s dao ng ca mch c th iu chnh gi tr mt trong cc thng
s .
- Mch to dao ng sin c thch anh. Do thch anh c tn s dao ng ring rt n nh,
nn mch to dao ng dng n cng c tn s rt n nh. Tu theo mch dao ng c th,
tho mn iu kin dao ng m mch s lm vic tn s cng hng ni tip hay tn s cng
96

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


hng song song. mch hnh 3-11 mch c tn s dao ng l fq v ti in p hi tip v
khuch i ln nht (do Zq = 0) nn Ur ln nht v duy tr .
- T CS mc ni tip hay vi thch anh iu chnh tn s dao ng ca mch trong mt
phm vi hp khi cn thit.
- Mch to tn hiu sin kiu xp x tuyn tnh dng to tn hiu sin t dy xung tam gic.
Do mch in cha cc in tr, cc it cng vi cc in p nh thin chn s lm thay i
h s khuch i ton mch theo tng khong tn hiu vo. Tn hiu vo cng ln th h s khuch
i ca mch cng gim. H s khuch i nh nht khi Uv bng bin . Nh vy u ra nhn
c tn hiu c dng hnh sin gy khc (gn ng) khi tn hiu vo l dy xung tam gic. Tn
hiu ra cng chnh xc (mo nh) khi s it trong cc dy cng ln.
Khi phn tch cc mch to dao ng cn nm c tc dng cc linh kin, nguyn l lm
vic ca mch, cc cng thc xc nh h s khuch i, h s hi tip, tn s dao ng v cch
bin i tn s dao ng khi c yu cu.

CU HI V BI TP
3.1. nh ngha mch to dao ng?
3.2. Yu cu ca mt mch to dao ng sin?
3.3. iu kin dao ng ca mt mch to dao ng?
3.4. Trnh by mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p?
3.5. Da trn c s no xc nh cc phn t LC trong mch dao ng ba im?
3.6. Trnh by mch to dao ng sin ba im in dung?
3.7. Trnh by mch to dao ng sin ba im in cm?
3.8. Trnh by mch to dao ng sin ghp ba mt RC?
3.9. Trnh by mch to dao ng sin Cu Vin?
3.10. Nu nguyn tc to tn hiu sin t tn hiu tam gic?
3.11. Khi no mch to dao ng sin cn c thch anh?
3.12. Ti sao trong mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p c thch anh mc ni tip cc gc tn
s dao ng l tn s cng hng ni tip fq?
3.13. Ti sao trong mch to dao ng sin ba im hc c thch anh, mch phi lm vic khi
thch anh mang tnh cm?
3.14. Ti sao trong mch to dao ng phi c mch khuch i?
3.15. Cho mch in nh hnh P3 15. Ngun E = 15v.

97

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


R3

Ur
2

R2

1
R1

Hnh P3-15.
a. Gii thch nguyn l lm vic ca mch?
b. iu kin mch dao ng cho ra in p sin?
c. Cho R1 = R2 = R3 = 1k. Phm cht ca mch cng hng Q = 100. Tn s cng
hng ca mch cng hng fCH = 100kHz. Tnh gi tr L v C?
3.16. Cho mch in nh hnh P3 16 l mch dao ng sin c mch hi tip dng ba mt RC.
Ngun E = 15v.
Rht
C

R1

Ur

Hnh P3-16.
a. V dng tn hiu ra theo thi gian?
b. Gii thch nguyn l hot ng ca mch?
c. Cho tn s dao ng fdd = 1kHz, in tr R = 1k. Tnh gi tr cc linh kin cn li?
3.17. Cho mch dao ng cu Vin hnh P3-17 c R1 = 10k, R = 15k, C = 0.02F. Ngun E =
Rht
15V
R1

Ur

C
C

Hnh P3-17.
98

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


a. V dng tn hiu ra?
b. Xc nh tn s dao ng ca mch?
c. Xc nh tr s Rht cn thit?
3.18. Cho mch dao ng cu Vin to sng sin c tn s iu chnh c t 100Hz n 1kHz
hnh P3-18. Bit R1 = 22k, C = 0,01F. Ngun E = 15v.

Rht

R
C

Ur
R1
C

Hnh P3-18.
a. Xc nh tr s Rht?
b. Xc nh khong bin i cn thit ca in tr R?
3.19. iu kin dao ng ca mch to dao ng sin ch xc lp l:
a. K = 1 .
b. K 1 .
c. K 1 .
d. < 1 .
3.20. Mch to dao ng ba im in dung l:
a. Mch m khung dao ng c hai t in v mt in cm.
b. Mch m khung dao ng c mt t in v hai in cm.
c. Mch m khung dao ng c mt t in v mt in cm.
d. Mch m khung dao ng c ba phn t L, R, C.
3.21. Gi tr in tr R3 khi bit R2 trong mch to dao ng sin ghp ba mt RC l:
a. R3 = 2R2.
b. R3 = 3R2.
c. R3 = 29R2.
d. R3 = 20R2.
99

Chng 3: Mch to dao ng sin


3.22. Gc di pha ca mch hi tip v gc di pha ca mch khuch i trong mch dao ng sin
ghp ba mt RC l:
a. k = 2, = 0.
b. k = 0, = 2.
c. k = , = .
d. . k = 2, = .
3.23. Gc di pha ca mch hi tip v gc di pha ca mch khuch i trong mch dao ng cu
Vin l:
a. k = , = .
b. k = 0, = 0.
c. k = 2, = 0.
d. k = , = 2.
3.24. Biu thc xc nh tn s dao ng ca mch cu Vin:
a. = 1/RC.
b. = 1/ 6RC.
c. = 1/3RC.
d. = 1/5RC.
3.25. Tc dng ca tinh th thch anh trong mch to dao ng sin l:
a. to dao ng.
b. n nh tn s dao ng.
c. n nh bin tn hiu ra.
d. nng cao hiu sut ca mch.
3.26. Tc dng ca t CS u ni tip thch anh trong mch to dao ng sin l:
a. n nh tn s dao ng.
b. iu chnh tn s dao ng.
c. bo v thch anh trong mch.
d. ngn in p mt chiu trong mch.

100

Chng 4: Mch xung

CHNG 4: MCH XUNG

GII THIU CHUNG


Chng ny trnh by cc mch to tn hiu xung, gm cc vn sau:
- Nu khi nim v tn hiu xung: tn hiu xung l tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian. Cc tham
s ca tn hiu xung: bin xung, rng xung, sn xung. st nh xung, chu k xung, tn
s lp li, h s lp y.
- Ch lm vic ca tranzito ch xung. Tranzito trong mch xung lm vic hai ch
c bn l ch tt v ch bo ho tu thuc vo in p t vo cc iu khin u vo. Khi
UBE 0 tranzito tt, dng cc gp IC = 0 in p UC t cc i bng EC, khi UBE > 0 IB Ibh
th tranzito bo ho, dng cc gp t cc i IC = IC max, UC = 0.
- BKTT lm vic trong mch xung: BKTT lm vic ch so snh, u ra mt trong
hai trng thi bo ho dng, Ur = +Ur max hoc bo ho m Ur = - Ur max tu thuc in p u vo
iu khin.
- Cc mch to xung:
+ Mch trig Smt dng to xung vung t in p hnh sin u vo. Xt mch trig
Smit o, tn hiu hnh sin a vo ca o cn in p hi tip dng a v ca thun ca
BKTT.
+ Mch a hi i. Mch ny c it mc ca o BKTT c trng thi n nh ban
u. Mch cho dy xung vung u ra c tn s bng tn s xung vo.
+ Mch a hi t dao ng. Mch a hi t dao ng dng tranzito v mch a hi t dao
ng dng BKTT. Loi mch ny khi c ngun nui n t lm vic to ra dy xung vung u
ra. Tn s xung ra ph thuc vo thng s RC ca mch.
+ Mch dao ng nght: mch gm tranzito v bin p ghp cht to hi tip dng su.
Mch t lm vic cho ra dy xung vung hp, c rng ln.
- Mch hn ch: Mch hn ch c th dng it hoc tranzito. Mch dng tranzito ngoi tc
dng hn ch cn c tc dng khuch i tn hiu ln ln. Xt mch hn ch dng it l tng
(it tt in tr bng v cng, it thng in tr bng khng). Mch hn ch mt pha l mch
ct xn mt pha bin ca tn hiu, mch hn ch hai pha ct xn hai pha bin ca tn hiu.
Mc hn ch trong mch hn ch phi tho mn iu kin v bin tn hiu vo. Mch hn ch
hai pha c mch hn ch hai pha song song, mch hn ch hai pha ni tip.
- Mch to xung rng ca: Loi mch ny dng to xung rng ca iu khin tia in t
qut trong my hin sng hoc dng trong cc mch in t khc. Xung rng ca c cc tham s:
bin xung, thi gian qut thun tqt, thi gian qut ngc (yu cu tqt >> tqn), h s phi tuyn
v hiu sut s dng in p . C mt s mch to xung rng ca dng mch tch phn RC, dng
101

Chng 4: Mch xung


mch c ngun dng, dng mch c tng khuch i hi tip. Khi phn tch cn ch cc mch
cho xung u ra c bin ln, mo phi tuyn nh v hiu sut cao.
- Mch to tn hiu tng hp gii thiu s khi ca mch to cc tn hiu xung vung,
xung tam gic v tn hiu sin ng thi. N c dng ph bin trong b to sng dng phng
th nghim.
- Mch to dao ng iu khin in p (VCO). Gii thiu mch a hi t dao ng c
tn s tn hiu ra c iu khin bng in p. Quan h tn s vi in p iu khin theo quy
lut tuyn tnh.
Kt thc chng ny ngi hc cn nm c khi nim tn hiu xung, tranzito v BKTT
lm vic mch xung, cc mch to xung, nguyn l lm vic ca mch to ra tn hiu xung.

NI DUNG
4.1. TN HIU XUNG V THAM S
Tn hiu xung l tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian. Thng c gi theo hnh dng ca n nh
xung vung, xung tam gic, xung nhn vv, nh hnh 4-1.

U
tx
0

t
T

tqt

tqn
T

Hnh 4-1. Cc dng tn hiu xung

tx
T

Cc tham s c bn ca tn hiu. xung l bin , rng xung, rng sn trc, sn


sau, st nh, hnh 4-2.
- Bin xung xc nh bng gi tr ln nht ca tn hiu xung , k hiu .
- rng sn trc v sn sau xc nh khong thi gian tng, gim ca bin xung
trong khong 0,1 n 0,9.

102

Chng 4: Mch xung

U
U

U
Hnh 4-2. Cc tham s ca tn
hiu xung
t

ttr

ts

tx

- rng xung tx l khong thi gian tn ti ca tn hiu xung.


- st nh xung U th hin mc gim bin on nh xung.
Vi dy xung tun hon c cc tham s c trng sau:
- Chu k lp li T, tn s xung f = 1/T.
- H s lp y = tx/T.

4.2. CH KHA CA TRANZITO


Trong cc mch xung tranzito lm vic ch kho, nh mt kho in t c hai trng
thi c bit: tranzito tt v tranzito thng bo ho do in p t ln u vo quyt nh, mch
hnh 4-3.

+Ec
Ic
IB

R1Rc
1k

Hnh 4-3. Mch kha dng tranzito

RB

Ur

Uv

- Khi Uv 0 trazito tt .Dng Ib = o, Ic = 0 nn Ur =Ec.


- Khi Uv>0.Tranzito thng c dng Ib, Ic.
Nu tho mn iu kin Ib Ib bh tc l Uv/Rb Ec/ Rc th tranzito chuyn sang trng thi
bo ho.
Lc ny Ur = Ec- Ic bh. Rc = Urbh = 0 (thc t Ur bh = 0,4v)
- Khi tn hiu vo chuyn i t iu kin UV 0 sang iu kin UV >0, ln th tranzito
s chuyn i tt sang bo ha, khi iu kin ngc li th tranzito li chuyn i t bo ha sang
tt.
103

Chng 4: Mch xung

4.3. CH KHA CA BKTT


Khi lm vic mch xung, BKTT hot ng nh mt kkho in t, im lm vic lun
nm trong vng bo ho ca c tuyn truyn t Ur = f(Uv). Khi in p ra ch nm mt trong
hai mc bo ho dng +Ur max v bo ho m- Ur max, ng vi cc bin Uvo ln.
minh ho hot ng ca kho ta xt v d in hnh l mch so snh.
Mch so snh in p dng IC khuch i thut ton cho hnh 4-4. l qu trnh so
snh bin in p a vo vi mt in p chun (Uch) c cc tnh c th dng hay m.
Thng thng in p chun c nh trc khng i.
Ura
+E
_
U0
+
+Urama
Uv
Ura
+
Uvo
Uch
0
Uch
-Uramax

-E

(a)

(b)
Ur
+E
+

Uv

U0

Uc

Ura

+Urama

Uvo

Uch

-Uramax
-E

(c)

Hnh 4-4: Mch so snh in p dng

(d)

a, c: IC khuch i thut ton


b, d: Hm truyn t
Trong mch hnh 4-4a, in p vo a ti ca o cn Uch ca thun. Uch > 0.
Hiu in p U0 = UV-Uch gia hai u vo ca IC s xc nh hm truyn t ca n. Do h
s ca khuch i ca IC rt ln, xem K0 = nn:
- Khi UV < Uch th U0 < 0 do Ura = + Uramax
- Khi UV > Uch th U0 > 0 do Ura = - Uramax
- Khi Ura = +Uramax th ta ni IC bo ho dng.
- Cn Ura = -Uramax th ta ni IC bo ho m. c tuyn truyn t hnh 4-4b.
104

Chng 4: Mch xung


V gi tr in p ra bo ho thp hn ngun nui 2 vn.
hnh 4-4b in p vo a a ti ca thun cn in p chun ca o. Trong trng
hp ny khi:
- UV < Uch th Ura = -Uramax
- UV > Uch th Ura = +Uramax. c tuyn truyn t hnh 4-4d.
Vi Uch < 0 c tuyn c dng nh trn nhng nm pha tri gc to mt khong bng
Uch. Vi Uch = 0 c tuyn nm ngay gc to .
Khi lm vic vi tn hiu xung bin i nhanh cn ch n tnh qun tnh (tr) ca IC
thut ton. Vi cc IC thut ton tiu chun hin nay thi gian tng ca in p ra khong V/ s.
Trong iu kin tt hn nn s dng cc IC chuyn dng c tc chuyn bin nhanh hn nh
loi A710, A110, LM310 -339; loi ny t mc tng V/ ns.

4.4. TRIG
Trig l mch c hai trng thi n nh. Khi c ngun mch mt trng thi n nh no
. C mt xung vo mch chuyn i trng thi mt ln . Nh vy c hai xung vo mch cho
mt xung ra . Mch trig c th dng tranzito hay IC thut ton. Ta xt mch trig Smt dng IC
thut ton khi tc dng u vo l in p sin a vo ca o. Mch in v dng in p hnh
4-5.
Ura
Uvo
+Ura max
_
Uvo
U
K
U1(+)
Ura

R2
U1(-)
U1

- Ura max

R1
Tra

(a)

(b)
Hnh 4-5: Trig Smt v dng in p vo, ra

T dng sng ta thy khi uv c gi tr m ln, mch trng thi bo ho dng Ur = +Urmax ,
+ U max
trn li vo thun c U1( + ) =
.R1 . Uvo tng dn, trng thi ny vn khng i cho ti khi
R1 + R 2
UV > U1(+) in p vo hai u IC i du nn u ra t bin sang trng thi bo ho m, Ura = U r max
Umax lp tc qua mch phn p a v ca thun in p U1( ) =
.R1 .
R1 + R 2

105

Chng 4: Mch xung


in p vo tng ln ri gim xung. Khi UV < U1(-), in p u vo IC i du lm u ra
IC lt trng thi sang bo ho dng Ura=+Urmax. V c nh vy, khi tc dng in p sin vo ca
o, u ra ta nhn c dy xung vung c rng xung tx=Txvo/2.
Txra=Txvo

(4-1)

mch c hai trng thi n nh cn tho mn iu kin:

R1
.K 1
R1 + R 2

(4-2)

trong K l h s khuch i khng ti ca BKTT.

4.5. MCH A HI I
Mch a hi i c hai trng thi, trong c mt trng thi n nh v mt trng thi
khng n nh. Khi c ngun mch trng thi n nh. C xung kch thch mch chuyn sang
trng thi khng n nh mt thi gian ri t tr v trng thi n nh ban u ch xung kch thch
tip. Nh vy c mt xung vo mch chuyn i trng thi hai ln cho mt xung vung ra. Mch
c th dng tranzito hay IC thut ton.
Mch a hi i dng IC thut ton hnh 4-6a v dng in p cc cc nh hnh 4-6b.
Ban u mch trng thi n nh, u ra bo ho m, Ura= -Umax. Qua mch phn p a
U r max .R1
v ca thun in p U1( ) =
it D c phn cc thun, thng nn UC = 0. Ti t =
R1 + R 2
t1 c xung nhn cc tnh dng ti u vo. Nu bin ln vt qu gi tr u1(+), s lt
trng thi sang bo ho dng Ura= +Urmax.Qua mch hi tip dng a v ca thun
U
U1( + ) = r max .R1 , it D tt. Sau t1 in p ra Urmax np in cho t C lm cho UC tng ln. Ti
R1 + R 2
t2, UC > U1(+) u vo ca IC c in p i du, u ra IC lt sang trng thi bo ho, Ura= -Urmax.
Qua b phn p li a v in p U1(-), t C phng in qua R hng ti -Urmax, n t1 = t3;
uC = 0, it D thng tr li mch tr v trng thi i ban u.
Vi mch c ngun nui i xng Urmax= |-Urmax| ta xc nh c rng xung ra
(khong thi gian mch trng thi khng n nh) l:
tx= R.C. ln(1 +

R1
)
R2

(4-3)

Thi gian phc hi tph l thi gian mch tr v trng thi n nh ban u, xc nh theo
biu thc:
tph = R.C. ln(1 +

R1
)
R1 + R 2

(4-4)

mch lm vic bnh thng, chu k xung vo cn tho mn iu kin:


106

Chng 4: Mch xung


Txvo > tx + tph.

(4-5)

Chu k xung ra bng chu k xung vo:


Txra = Txvo.

Uvo

_
Cg

t1

Ura

UC

.Ura max UC = UN

R2
UV

t1

R1 U1

Hnh 4-6:

+Ura maxUP

t2

-.Ura max

a)

Tvo

- Ura max

tX

Ura

+Ura max

a) Mch a hi i

t1

b) Dng in p

t2
-Ura max

b)
4.6. MCH DAO NG A HI T DAO NG
4.6.1. Mch a hi t dao ng dng tranzito
C mch in nh hnh 4-7 v in p cc cc theo thi gian hnh 4-8. Mch gm hai
tranzito mc pht chung, u ra T1 ghp ti u vo tng T2 qua t C1, cn u ra tng T2 ghp tr
li qua t C2. Nh vy mi tng gy di pha mt gc 1800, hai tng di pha 3600, bo m hi tip
dng khi mch lm vic.
Khi c ngun hai t C1, C2 thay nhau np in v phng in, hai tranzito thay nhau thng
(bo ho), tt to cho mch c hai trng thi cn bng khng n nh: T1 tt, T2 thng (bo ho) v
T1 thng (bo ho), T2 tt v t chuyn i trng thi cho nhau, u ra nhn c dy xung vung.
Xem nh mch bnh thng, xung ra c bin n nh, xt ti thi im mch ang
trng thi T1 tt, T2 thng (bo ho). Lc ny t C2 (trc np in) ang phng in t +C2
qua T2, ngun E, qua in tr R 3 n -C2 t in p m ln cc gc T1 lm cho uB1 < 0 gi T1
tt trong mt khong thi gian.

107

Chng 4: Mch xung

+EC

R1

Hnh 4-7:
Mch a hi t dao ng
dng tranzito

T1
Ura1

C1

R2

R3
C2

R4

T2
UB1

Ura2

UB2

UB1

Ura1
EC
Hnh 4-8:

UB2
t

Dng xung cc cc ca
mch a hi

Ura2
EC
tX1

tX2
T

ng thi vi qu trnh , t C1 np in t +E qua R1 n +C1, -C1 qua rBET2 n -E


nhanh chng n in p bng E (do trong mch c R1<<R 3 ) lm cho ura1 nhanh chng tng ln
E, ura = E.
Do C2 phng lm cho uB1 tng dn, khi UB1> 0 T1 thng xut hin dng IB1, IC1 v tng ln
lm cho Ura1 gim, qua t C1 dn n UB2 gim, dng T2 gim v Ura2 tng. Qua C2 lng tng
a vo cc gc T1 lm cho UB1 tip tc tng, dng n T1 tip tc tng. Hi tip dng xy ra
nhanh chng (xem nh tc thi) lm cho T1 thng (bo ho), T2 tt.
Tip theo t C1 li phng in qua T1, ngun E v in tr R2 gi cho T2 tt trong mt
khong thi gian. T C2 np in t ngun E qua R4 v in tr rBET1 , nhanh chng n in p
bng E do c R4<<R2 lm cho ura2 tng nhanh n mc Ura2 = E.

108

Chng 4: Mch xung


Dng phng gim lm cho UB2 tng ln . Khi UB2 > 0 T2 thng tr li, T1 tt mch chuyn
sang trng thi ban u.
+ iu kin lm vic ca mch:
xung ra vung, t C np in nhanh hn khi t phng phi c: R1,4<<R3,2 v tranzito khi
thng ch bo ho cn R 3 1.R1 v R2 2.R4, trong 1, 2 l h s khuch i dng
ca tranzito T1, T2. Khi cn tn s xung ra ln, tranzito thng lm vic ch khuch i, khng
p dng iu kin ny. Bin xung ra trong trng hp b hn E.
+ Cc tham s xung ra:
Bin xung ra:

Ur E

(4-6)

rng xung tx1 l thi gian T1 tt, t C2 phng in qua R 3 nn tx1 c tnh:
tx1 = R 3 .C2ln2 0,7 R 3 .C2.

(4-7)

Tng t tx2 l thi gian T2 tt, t C1 phng in qua R2 nn tx2 c tnh:


tx2 = R2.C1ln2 0,7R2.C1

(4-8)

Chu k dao ng ca mch:


T = tx1+tx2 = 0,7(R3.C2+R2.C1)

(4-9)

Tn s dao ng ca mch:
f=

1
1
=
T 0,7(R 3 .C 2 + R 2 .C1 )

(4-10)

Vi mch i xng ta c:
R1 = R4 = RC; R2 = R 3 = RB.
C1=C2=C, cc tranzito T1, T2 cng loi, cng tham s th: tx1=tx2
tx1 = tx2 = 0,7.RB.C
T = 2tx = 1,4.RB.C
f=

1
1
=
T 1,4.R B .C

(4-11)

4.6.2. Mch a hi t dao ng dng b khuch i thut ton


Mch a hi t dao ng dng IC thut ton v dng xung cc cc theo thi gian nh
hnh 4-9.
Phn tch nguyn l lm vic ca mch bt u ti thi im mch ang trng thi bo
ho dng Ura = +Urmax. Lp tc qua mch phn p R1 R2 cho in p hi tip:

109

Chng 4: Mch xung

u1( + ) =

U r max
.R1 = .U r max
R1 + R 2

(4-12)

+Urmax

UC

U1(+)
_

UC

Ura
U1

R1

R2

0
U1(-)

t1

t3

-Urmax

U1
U1(+)

t1

0
U1(-)

(a)

t2

t2

Urmax

t3

t
- Urmax

Ura
Hnh 4-9:

+Urmax

a. B a hi trn c s b khuch
i thut ton.

t1

t2

t3
t

-Urmax

b. th thi gian.

tx

Tra
(b)
T C (trc np in) phng in qua +E, u ra IC, in tr R, ri np tip lm cho UC
tng ln. Khi UC > U1(+) th u ra lp tc t bin v -Urmax, mch chuyn sang trng thi bo ho
m.
Qua mch phn p R1 R2 a v mt in p:

U1( ) =

U r max
.R1 = U r max .
R1 + R 2

(4-13)

T C phng in qua u ra IC, qua in tr R lm cho uC gim xung, ri np tip v pha


- Urmax. Khi UC < U1(-) th u ra t bin t -Urmax v +Urmax, mch chuyn sang trng thi bo
ho dng ban u. C nh vy mch t lm vic chuyn t trng thi ny sang trng thi khc
cho dy xung vung u ra.
Khi ngun nui i xng c +Urmax= |-Urmax| th rng xung tx c xc nh:

2R 1
)
R2

(4-14)

tx = R.C.ln3 1,1R.C

(4-15)

tx = R.C. ln(1 +
Nu chn R1 = R2 th:

110

Chng 4: Mch xung


Chu k dao ng:
T = 2tx 2,2 R.C
Tn s dao ng:

f=

1
1
=
T 2,2R.C

(4-16)

Khi cn dng xung ra khng i xng ta dng mch hnh 4-10.

R''

D2
U

R'

Ura

UC(t)

+Urmax

D1

_
+

C
R1

ura

t
-Urmax

R2

tX1
(a)

Hnh 4-10:

tX2
(b)

a. Mch a hi khng i xng


b. th thi gian dng xung ra
Bng cch thay i gi tr tng quan gia R' v R'' s thay i c tx1 v tx2. Khi R' + R''
khng i th chu k T = tx1 + tx2 s c gi nguyn.

4.7. MCH DAO NG NGHT (BLOCKING)


Mch dao ng nght gm mt tranzito mc pht chung v mt bin p xung c hi tip
dng su - nh to ra xung vung c rng hp c (10-310-6)s v bin ln. Mch in
v dng in p hnh 4-11.
Trong mch bin p xung c ba cun. c hi tip dng cun WB v WC c cc tnh
ngc nhau. Cun Wt ly tn hiu ra ti. it D dng hn ch xung cc tnh m ra ti. in tr
R(<<RB) dng hn ch dng cc gc. Cc h s bin p xung:

nB =

wC
wB

nt =

wC
wt

(4-17)

Xt loi mch nght t dao ng. Xem nh mch lm vic n nh, xung ra nh hnh
v. Trong khong thi gian 0 t1 tranzito T ang tt, IB, IC = 0, lc ny t C ang phng in t
+C qua cun WB, t, ngun EC, RB, R, -C lm cho UB < 0, Ur = EC. n t1 UB > 0 T
thng dng IB, IC xut hin v tng ln. Trn WC xut hin sc in ng chng li s tng ca IC
111

Chng 4: Mch xung


c cc dng trn, cm ng qua cun WB in p U2 c cc dng pha di. Qua t C v
in tr R t vo cc gc lm cho UB cng dng. Hi tip dng xy ra nhanh chng a
tranzito T sang ch bo ho UB t cc i, IC IC bh nn Ur= 0.
UB
t1

+EC
D
Ut

U2 *

RB

t2

t3

t4

0
Rt

Ur
EC

R
UB

Ur
0
Ut

t
0

tx

tph

tx

Hnh 4-11: Mch dao ng nght v in p cc cc

Tip theo l thi gian np in ca t C bi in p U2 trn cun WB. Do C np UC tng ln


lm cho UB gim xung v thc t trong qu trnh ny U2 hu nh khng i (m U2 = UB + UC)
t1 t3 l thi gian thit lp nh xung.
n t2 do UB gim lm tranzito ri khi ch bo ho nn IB gim ko theo IC gim. Trn
cun WC xut hin sc in ng chng li s gim ca IC c cc m pha trn. N cm ng qua
cun WB in p U2 c cc m pha di lm cho UB cng gim, IB, IC cng gim. Hi tip dng
li xy ra nhanh chng a tranzito sang ch ct, tt, IB, IC=0. Do sc in ng chng li s
gim ca dng IC trn cun WC m ur c mc bin in p ln hn ngun nui EC.
Sau t C li phng in nh qu trnh ban u. Khi cn ly xung ra ti c cc tnh dng
E
ta qun cun Wt ngc chiu WC vi bin U t = C it D dng hn ch (ct b) phn
nt
xung m.
Cc tham s ca xung ra:
- rng xung: l thi gian np in ca t C.
tx = t2 - t1 = (R + rV ).C. ln(

.R t
)
n B .(R t + rV )

trong : rV l in tr vo ca tranzito.
112

(4-18)

Chng 4: Mch xung

R t = n 12 .R t l ti phn v mch cc gp.


l h s khuch i tnh ca tranzito.
- Thi gian phc hi t2 t3 l thi gian phng in ca t C v c xc nh bi:
tph = t3 - t2 = C.R B . ln(1 +

1
)
nB

(4-19)

- B qua thi gian to sn th chu k dao ng l:


T = tx + tph
- Tn s dao ng l:

f dd =

1
1
=
T t x + t ph

(4-20)

4.8. MCH HN CH BIN


Mch hn ch bin cn gi l mch xn bin, trong tn hiu ra ur lun t l vi tn
hiu vo uV nu uV cha mt gi tr, mt mc ngng cho trc, cn khi uV vt qu mc
ngng th tn hiu ra ur lun gi mt gi tr khng i. Cc linh kin tch cc c s dng
trong mch hn ch thng l it, tranzito hay IC. Sau y ta s nghin cu cc mch hn ch
dng it l tng (tc l cc it m trng thi tt in tr bng v cng, thng c in tr
bng khng).
Tu theo cch mc it l ni tip hay song song vi ti, ngi ta phn bit thnh mch hn
ch ni tip hay hn ch song song. Cng c th phn loi theo chc nng hn ch mc trn,
hn ch mc di (mt pha) hoc hn ch hai mc (hai pha).
D
R

Uv

Uv

Ura

+
_

_
U

Ura

(a)

(b)
Ur

Uv
E

E
0

0
Ur

Uv
(d)

(c)
Hnh 4-12: Mch hn ch trn
113

Chng 4: Mch xung


Mch hn ch mt pha mc song song cho hnh 4-12a. mch ny khi UV E it tt
nn Ur = Uv. Ngc li khi UV > E it thng Ur = E (lc ny UV st p tt c trn R). y l
mch hn ch mc trn.
Mch hn ch ni tip hnh 4-12b, khi UV < E it thng, ni tt li ra vi li vo nn Ur
= UV. Ngc li khi UV > E it tt nn Ur = E.
Trn hnh 4-12c l dng tn hiu ra khi tn hiu vo l hnh sin, cn hnh 4-12d l c tuyn
truyn t ca mch hn ch trn.
Trong cc mch nu, nu ta i chiu cc it th mach s thc hin chc nng hn ch
mc di. V d mch hn ch song song hnh 4-13a, khi UV < E, D thng nn Ur= E. Trng
hp UV E, D tt nn Ur = uV. Cn trong mch hn ch ni tip hnh 4-13b, khi UV E it tt
nn Ur = E, khi UV > E it thng nn Ur = UV.
Trn hnh 4-14a, b l mch hn ch hai pha trong E2 > E1
Mch hn ch song song hnh 4-14a khi UV < E1 th D1 thng, D2 tt do Ur=E1. Nu UV >
E2 th D2 thng ,D1 tt nn Ur = E2. Khi tn hiu vo bin thin trong phm vi E1 UV E2 th
D1, D2 u tt nn Ur = UV.
Mch hnh 4-14b cng c nguyn l tng t nhng cn chn R2>>R1.
cc mch hn ch thc t dng tn hiu ph thuc rt nhiu vo thng s thc ca cc linh
kin trong mch, ph thuc gi tr ti cng nh in dung k sinh. Cc yu t c th gy mo
dng tn hiu ra mt cch ng k nn cn tnh ton mt cch y . Trong k thut, mch hn
ch c dng to xung, sa xung, chn xung hay chng nhiu.v.v..
D
R

Uv

(a)

Uv

Ura
+

Ura
+
-

(b)

Ur

Ur

E
0

Uv

Uv
(d)

(c)
Hnh 4-13: Mch hn ch di

114

Chng 4: Mch xung

R
D1

Uv

E1

D2
+
-

+
-

Uv

Ura

E2

(a)

D1

D2

R1

R2

E1

+
E
- 2

Uv

Ur

E2

Ura

(b)

Ur

+
-

E2
E1

E1 E2

(c)

Uv

(d)
Hnh 4-14: Mch hn ch hai pha

4.9. MCH TO XUNG RNG CA


4.9.1 Tham s tn hiu xung rng ca
Tn hiu xung rng ca c s dng rng ri trong cc thit b in t, chng hn lm tn
hiu qut trong cc my hin sng, lm tn hiu so snh bin i in p hay thi gian.v.v...
U
Trn hnh 4-15 l mt tn hiu xung rng ca
U
thng thng. N bao gm hai phn r rt: phn
bin thin tuyn tnh theo thi gian gi l thi gian
qut thun tqt v phn cn li l thi gian qut
ngc tqn. Cc mch to tn hiu rng ca phi bo
m sao cho thi gian qut thun ln hn rt nhiu
thi gian qut ngc. Bin ca xung rng ca l

U . Tn hiu rng ca c th dng hay m, thc


hin qut ln hoc qut xung v mch to xung
rng ca c th hot ng ch i hay t dao
ng.

tqt

tqn
T

Hnh 4-15: Tn hiu xung rng ca

Trong thc t, phn qut thun ca xung rng ca khng hon ton tuyn tnh. Do nh
gi cht lng ng qut ca xung rng ca, ta a ra h s phi tuyn , nh ngha nh sau:

U (0 ) U (tqt )

(4-21)

U (0 )

trong U (0 ) l dc im bt u ng qut thun.


115

Chng 4: Mch xung

) l dc im kt thc ng qut thun.


U (tqt
Ngoi ra mch qut cn c nh gi theo hiu sut s dng ngun cung cp.

U
=
EC

(4-22)

Vi U l bin , EC l in p ngun. Ni chung tn hiu rng ca c to ra da trn qu


trnh np v phng ca t. Cc mch to xung rng ca u da theo mt trong ba nguyn l c
bn sau:
- Np, phng cho t bng mch RC n gin.
- Np hoc phng cho t qua ngun dng n nh.
- Dng hi tip n nh dng np cho t.
4.9.2. Mch to xung rng ca dng mch tch phn RC.
Trn hnh 4-16 l s nguyn l to xung rng ca dng mch RC. Trong mch tranzito
hot ng ch kho. Bnh thng, khi khng c xung kch thch, tranzito thng bo ho do
c cung cp dng IB kh ln qua, do tn hiu ra U r 0 . Khi mch c kch thch xung
m, tranzito tt, t C np in t ngun EC qua R. in p trn t tng dn theo:

U r = EC (1 e t / R .C )

(4-23)

xung ra tng ln gn nh tuyn tnh cn chn tr s R, C ln sao cho = RC >> txvo


(txvo l rng xung vo)
Khi xung vo kt thc tranzito thng v bo ho tr li, t C phng in nhanh qua tranzito
ti gi tr gn bng khng. Thi gian qut thun ca mch bng thi gian tn ti ca xung vo,
cn thi gian qut ngc l thi gian phng in ca t C.
Nhc im ca loi mch ny l cht lng tuyn tnh ca phn qut thun khng cao, do
cui dng np cho t gim dn. khc phc nhc im trn, c th s dng ngun dng n
nh np cho t.
U
v

+EC
R1

RC

Uv

EC

Ur

Ur

C1
C

Ur
0

Ubh
tqt

Hnh 4-16: Mch to xung rng ca dng mch RC.


116

tqn

Chng 4: Mch xung

4.9.3. Mch to xung rng ca dng ngun dng


Trn hnh 4-17 l s nguyn l mch to xung rng ca theo nguyn tc dng ngun n
dng.

Uv
+EC

RE

R2
R1

0
Ur

T2

Ur

C1
UV

T1

Ura

t
0

Ubh

tqt

tqn

Hnh 4-17: Mch to xung rng ca dng ngun dng


Nh ta bit, khi t np in p trn n t l vi tch phn theo thi gian ca dng np qua n.
t

1
UC =
idt
C

V vy nu dng np cho t ly t mt ngun dng, tc l:


i =I0 = const.
th in p trn t s bin i tuyn tnh theo thi gian.
t

UC =

I
1
. I 0 dt = 0 .t
C
C

(4-24)

Mch hnh 4-17 tranzito T1 hot ng nh mt kho in t. Bnh thng khi cha c
xung vo do c cp dng IB1 ln nn T1 bo ho, do in p ra gn nh bng khng.
Tranzito T2 ng vai tr ngun dng. Nh c it n p D nn in p cc gc T2 lun n nh.
V vy dng qua T2, IE2 cng nh IC2 c gi tr n nh.

I C2 I E 2 =

E C U EB2 U D
RE

(4-25)

Trong khi T1 bo ho, dng IC2 ny bng dng IC1. Khi c xung m vo T1 tt, t C np in
bi dng IC2 v in p trn t tng tuyn tnh theo thi gian:
117

Chng 4: Mch xung

U r = UC =

E U BE 2 U D
1
iC 2 dt = C
t

C0
C.RE

(4-26)

Khi ht xung kch thch T1 li thng v bo ho, t C phng in nhanh qua T1 lm cho Ur
gim xung nhanh chng v in p gn bng khng.
4.9.4. Mch to xung rng ca thm tng khuch i c hi tip
tng tuyn tnh ca ng qut thun, trong mt s mch to xung rng ca ta dng
thm mch khch i c hi tip nh trn hnh 4-18 (cn gi l mch qut Boostrap).
Trong mch ny T1 lun thng bo ho khi khng c xung vo, do in p trn t C lun
xp x bng khng (UC 0). Lc tn ti mt dng in chy t ngun EC, qua it D, qua R
n T1. Tng khuch i T2 mc cc gp chung, c khuch i in p gn bng mt nn in
p ra U r U C = 0 , t C0 (c in dung rt ln hn t C) lc ny np in ti gi tr EC, UC0 = EC.
Khi c xung kch thch, tranzito T1 tt, t C bt u c np in bi dng do t C0 phng
ra qua R. Theo mc np ca t C, in p ra tng dn v do it tt. Ta thy dng np cho
t C kh n nh nh in p trn t C0 hu nh khng i trong sut thi gian qut thun nn
in p ra tuyn tnh.
V mt gii tch, c th xc nh dng np cho t C thng qua in p h trn R.

I=

u R u C0 + u r u C
=
R
R

(4-27)

Uv

+EC

C0
R1

0
T2

Ur

C1
C
UV

RE

T1

Ur

Ubh

tqt

Hnh 4-18: Mch to xung rng ca thm tng khuch i c hi tip


Do tng khuch i T2 c h s khuch i in p gn bng 1, u C u r nn:

U C 0 EC
=
R
R

(4-28)

Trong qu trnh np:


118

tqn

Chng 4: Mch xung

Ur UC =

E
1 t
idt = C .t
R.C
C 0

(4-29)

Sau khi xung vo kt thc, T1 thng v bo ho tr li, t C phng in qua T1. Khi t C
phng in gim xung xp x bng khng it D thng v t C0 li np b sung n gi tr
U C 0 = EC ban u.
Trong mch ny thi gian qut thun cng bng rng xung vo.
Cng c th dng mch tch phn c BKTT to xung rng ca.

4.10. MCH TO TN HIU HN HP


Loi mch ny c s dng trong cc my to sng a chc nng. N c th ng thi to
ra ba loi tn hiu xung vung, xung tam gic v in p hnh sin. S khi ca mch c th
hin trn hnh 4-19. N gm ba khi chnh l M1, M2 v M3. H kn gm mt mch tch phn (mt
mch khuch i thut ton v hai phn t R1C1) phn t chuyn mch M2 (mch khuch i thut
ton v mt khu hi tip dng R1, R2) to thnh mt h t dao ng, cho ra hai dng tn hiu:
tn hiu tam gic (U1) v tn hiu xung ch nht (U2).
M3 l b bin i xung tam gic - hnh sin cho tn hiu u ra U3 l sin. Cc tn hiu ny c
cng tn s, dng in p cc u ra nh hnh 4-20.

U2
M1

M2

U1
U3
M3
Hnh 4-19: S khi my to sng a chc nng

U2
t
Hnh 4-20: Dng in p cc u ra
my to sng chc nng.

U1

t
U3

t
119

Chng 4: Mch xung

4.11. MCH TO DAO NG C TN S IU KHIN BNG IN P (VCO)


Yu cu chung i vi cc mch to dao ng c tn s iu khin c l quan h gia
in p iu khin v tn s dy xung ra phi tuyn tnh. Ngoi ra mch phi c n nh tn s
cao, gii bin i ca tn s theo in p rng, n gin, d iu chnh.
V nguyn tc, c th dng mt mch to dao ng m tn s dao ng ca n c th bin
thin c trong phm vi 10% n 50% xung quanh tn s dao ng t do f0. Tuy nhin
ngi ta thng dng cc b to xung ch nht hn c, v loi ny c th lm vic trong phm vi
tn s kh rng. Trong phm vi ( 1 50 MHz) thng dng cc mch to dao ng a hi. Cc b
to dao ng iu khin bng dng in u vit hn cc b to dao ng iu khin bng in p
ch: n c phm vi tuyn tnh ca c tuyn truyn t rng hn.
Mt s n gin ca VCO l mch dao ng a hi c biu din trn hnh 4-21.
Khi ni u iu khin vi EC th y l mt mch dao ng a hi thng thng. Khi tch
ra v t in p iu khin vo u Ud th tn s dy xungra bin thin theo Ud.
C th nu Ud tng th thi gian phng np ca t gim, do tn s ca dao ng tng v
ngc li. Ta c c tuyn truyn t f = f(Ud) biu din trn hnh 4-22.

+EC
RC
Hnh 4-21: Mch to dao ng
a hi c tn s iu khin
bng in p

RC

T2

T1
R

Ur

Ud
- EC
fr (Khz)

1,1
1,0
0,9

-5V

+5V

Ud(v)

Vng lm vic
Hnh 4-22: Quan h gia tn s dao ng ra ca VCO
vi in p iu khin
120

Chng 4: Mch xung

TM TT
Chng ny nu ln cc mch to xung, nguyn l to xung v dng xung u ra ca mch.
Cc vn chung cn hiu v nm c:
- Khi nim v tn hiu xung, cc tham s ca tn hiu xung.
- Ch lm vic ca tranzito mch xung. Tranzito trong mch xung mc cc pht chung
lm vic ch tt v ch bo ho do in p t ln cc iu khin quyt nh. Vi tranzito
loi NPN, khi UBE 0 tranzito tt IC = 0, UCE = E, khi UBE > 0 ln th tranzito bo ho IC = IC
max, UCE = 0.
- Ch lm vic ca BKTT trong mch xung. Trong mch xung BKTT lm vic ch
so snh. Do c h s khuch i rt ln, l tng K = nn khi lm vic in p ra BKTT
mt trong hai trng thi bo ho dng hoc bo ho m. Bin in p ra cc i bng E 2V.
- Cc mch to xung vung:
+ Mch trig Smit tn hiu hnh sin a vo ca o, mch hi tip dng a v ca thun
qua b phn p R1, R2. Tu theo mc in p vo so snh vi in p hi tip m mch chuyn
i trng thi u ra to ra dy xung vung. Tn s xung ra bng tn s tn hiu vo.
+ Mch a hi i: khi c ngun mch trng thi n nh bo ho m do c it D. Khi c
xung u vo mch chuyn sang trng thi khng n nh (bo ho dng) mt thi gian ri t tr
v trng thi n nh ch xung vo tip. C mt xung vo u ra nhn c mt xung ra, tn s
xung ra bng xung vo.
+ Mch a hi t dao ng: Mch a hi t dao ng dng tranzito. Mch c hai tranzito
mc cc pht chung v hai t C. Khi c ngun hai tranzito thay nhau thng bo ho, tt; hai t
thay nhau np phng cho u ra dy xung vung trn trc thi gian. Khi mch i xng, xung ra
c bin bng EC, tn s xung ra f = 1/1,4RB.C.
Mch a hi t dao ng dng BKTT. Mch c phn t np phng RC, mch hi tip
dng ly in p v so snh qua R1, R2. Khi mch lm vic ti cc thi im in p trn t C
(UC) ln hn hay b hn in p hi tip (U1 ly trn R1) th u ra mch chuyn i trng thi to
ra dy xung vung. Dy xung vung bin i xung quanh trc thi gian c bin l Ur max. Khi
chn R1 = R2 tn s dao ng ca mch f = 1/2,2RC.
Khi thay i mt trong hai thng s RC ca mch a hi t dao ng th tn s xung ra thay
i theo.
- Mch hn ch: mch ny c th dng to xung, chn xung, chng nhiu. Xt loi mch
hn ch dng it. Mch hn ch mt pha c th hn ch mc 0 hoc mc E. Mun thay i
pha hn ch ta i chiu it. Mch hn ch hai pha phi c hai it v hai mc hn ch. Mc
hn ch phi tho mn iu kin ca mch. mch hn ch mt pha mc E b hn bin tn
hiu vo. Mch hn ch hai pha c mc hn ch E1, E2 phi tho mn bin tn hiu vo > E2 >
E1. Xt hai mch hn ch song song v ni tip cng c mc hn ch E1, E2.
- Mach to xung rng ca. Cn nm c cc tham s c trng tn hiu xung rng ca.
Phn tch cc mch to xung rng ca dng mch tch phn RC, mch dng ngun dng, mch
121

Chng 4: Mch xung


dng tng khuch i c hi tip so snh chn mch c h s phi tuyn nh, hiu sut cao.
Trong cc mch trn mch to xung rng ca dng ngun dng c tuyn tnh cao, hiu sut cao
v sut trong qu trnh t C np in dng np khng thay i. Mch to xung dng tng khuch
i c hi tip cng c tuyn tnh cao, hiu sut cao do dng np khng i.
- Mch to tn hiu hn hp: nm c s khi ca b to tn hiu tng hp xung vung,
xung tam gic v tn hiu hnh sin.
- Mch to dao ng iu khin bng in p: nm c mch a hi t dao ng dng
tranzito iu khin tn s xung ra bng in p. Quan h gia tn s tn hiu ra v in p iu
khin l quan h tuyn tnh.

CU HI V BI TP
4.1. Th no l tn hiu xung? Nu cc tham s c trng ca tn hiu ?
4.2. Ch lm vic ca tranzito mch xung?
4.3. Ch lm vic ca BKTT mch xung?
4.4. Th no l mch tri g? trnh by trig Smith o dng BKTT?
4.5. Th no l mch a hi i? trnh by mch a hi i dung BKTT?
4.6. Th no l mch a hi t dao ng? Cng thc tnh rng xung, chu k T v tn s lm
vic ca mch dng BKTT khi R1 = R2 ?
4.7 Th no l mch hn ch, ng dng ca n ?
4.8 Trnh by mch hn ch hai pha mc ni tip?
4.9 Trnh by mch hn ch hai pha mc song song?
4.10. Nu cc tham s c trng ca in p rng ca?
4.11. Trnh by mch to in p rng ca dng mch tch phn RC?
4.12. Trnh by mch to in p rng ca dng ngun dng?
4.13. Cho mch in hnh P4-13. Tn hiu vo hnh sin tn s thp, bin 6v.
in p ngun E = 12v.
Uv
Ur

Hnh P 4-13.

a. V dng tn hiu ra?


b. Khi Uv a ti ca o, ca thun ni t hy v dng Ur.
122

Chng 4: Mch xung


4.14 . Cho mch in hnh P4-14. in p vo sin tn s thp, bin 6v? Ngun nui E = 15v.
5V

2k
Uv
Ur

Hnh P 4-14.

3k

a. V dng tn hiu ra ?
b. Khi tn hiu a vo ca o, in p ngng a vo ca thun. V Ur ?
4.15. Cho mch in hnh P4-15. Bit R = 12k, C = 0,2F, R1 = R2 = 30k. Ngun E = 12v.
R
C

Ur

Hnh P 4-15.

R2
R1

a. V dng tn hiu ra?


b. Xc nh in p hi tip ?
c. Xc nh chu k tn s dao ng?
4.16. Thit k mch hnh P4-15 to tn hiu ra 1kHz ?
4.17. Thit k mch hnh P4-15 to tn hiu ra c tn s bin i t 500Hz n 5kHz ?
4.18. Cho mch hn ch hai pha hnh P4-18. Bit Uv l tn hiu sin bin 10v, E1 = 2v, E2 = 6v,
R1 = 1k, R2 = 9k. it 1, 2 l tng. Nu nguyn l, v dng tn hiu ra. Xc nh mc hn
ch ?

D1

D2

R1

Uv

Ur

+
E1

123

Hnh P 4-18.

R2
E2

Chng 4: Mch xung


4.19. Cng thc tnh tn s trong mch a hi i xng t dao ng dng tranzito l:
a.f = 1/0,7RB.C.

b. f = 1/1,4RB.C.

c. f = 1/1,4RC.C.

d. f = 1/2,2RC.

4.20. Bin xung ra ca mch a hi t dao ng dng tranzito c ngun nui E vn l:


a. E vn.

b. E/2 vn.

c. (E 2) vn.

d. (E + 2) vn.

4.21. Cng thc tnh tn s ca mch a hi t dao ng dng BKTT khi c in tr mch hi
tip dng R1 = R2 l:
a. f = 1/2,2 R.C.

b. f = 1/2,2R1.C.

c. f = 1/1,4 R.C.

d. f = 1/ 2,2R2C.

4.22. Tc dng ca it D trong mch a hi i dng BKTT l:


a. gi cho mch c mt trng thi n nh ban u.
b. gi cho bin xung ra n nh.
c. gi cho tn s xung ra n nh.
d. C a v b.
4.23. iu kin ca mc hn ch E1, E2 trong mch hn ch hai pha dng it hc l:
a. v > E2 > E1.

b. E2 < E1 < v

c. E2 < Uv < E1.

d. E2 = E1 < v.

4.24. Bin xung ra ca mch a hi dng BKTT khi c ngun nui E vn l:


a. E vn.

b. (E 2) vn.

c. E/2 vn.

d. (E + 2) vn.

124

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

CHNG 5: CC MCH BIN I TN S

GII THIU CHUNG


Chng ny trnh by cc mch bin i tn s ca tn hiu: iu ch, tch sng, trn tn,
nhn chia tn s.
- iu ch: Khi nim v iu ch. iu ch l qu trnh ghi tin tc vo dao ng cao tn
(ti tin).
- iu ch bin : ph ca tn hiu iu bin, quan h nng lng trong iu bin, cc ch
tiu c bn ca dao ng iu bin.
- Mch iu bin: mch iu bin l mt mng su cc, c th dng it hay tranzito thc
hin. C mch iu bin cn bng v iu bin vng.
- iu ch n bin. Khi nim v tn hiu n bin. u im trong thng tin khi dng tn
hiu n bin. S khi mch iu ch n bin theo phng php lc hai cp.
- iu tn v iu pha: hai loi iu ch ny u lm gc pha thay i nn gi chung l iu
ch gc.
- Biu thc tn hu iu tn, iu pha. Mch iu tn: nghin cu mch iu tn dng it
bin dung, mch iu tn dng tranzito in khng.
+ Mch iu pha: nghin cu mch iu pha theo Armstrong.
+ Tch sng, khi nim v tch sng.
- Tch sng iu bin: cc tham s c bn. Mch tch sng iu bin.
+ Tch sng iu tn iu pha: nguyn tc chung tch sng iu tn iu pha. Nghin cu
cc mch tch sng: mch tch sng iu tn dng mch lch cng hng, mch tch sng iu
tn dng mch cng hng kp, mch tch sng iu tn kiu tch sng t s.
+ Mch tch sng iu pha cn bng dng it.
- Trn tn. Khi nim v trn tn, nh ngha trn tn. Nguyn l trn tn.
+ Mch trn tn: mch trn tn dng it, mch trn tn dng tranzito.
- Nhn chia tn s: vng gi pha (PLL) v nguyn l hot ng ca n. Mch nhn chia tn
s dng vng gi pha.

125

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

NI DUNG
5.1. IU CH
5.1.1. Khi nim
iu ch l qu trnh ghi tin tc vo dao ng cao tn nh bin i mt thng s no nh
bin , tn s hay gc pha ca dao ng cao tn theo tin tc.
Thng qua iu ch, tin tc min tn s thp c chuyn ln vng tn s cao bc x,
truyn i xa.
- Tin tc c gi l tn hiu iu ch.
- Dao ng cao tn c gi l ti tin hay ti tn.
- Dao ng cao tn mang tin tc gi l dao ng cao tn iu ch.
i vi ti tin iu ho, ta phn bit ra hai loi iu ch l iu bin v iu ch gc, trong
iu ch gc bao gm c iu tn v iu pha.
5.1.2. iu ch bin
5.1.2.1. Ph ca tn hiu iu bin
iu bin l qu trnh lm cho bin ti tn hiu bin i theo tin tc.
n gin, gi thit tin tc US v ti tin U t u l dao ng iu ho v tn s tin tc
bin thin t S min S max , ta c:

U S = U S . cos S t
U t = U t . cos t t

t >> S

Do tn hiu iu bin:
Ub = (U t + U S . cos S t ). cos t t = U t .(1 + m. cos t t ). cos t t
trong : m =

(5-1)

U S
l h s iu ch.
U
t

H s iu ch phi tho mn iu kin m 1 . Khi m > 1 th mch c hin tng qu iu


ch lm cho tn hiu b mo trm trng. (Hnh 5-1).
p dng bin i lng gic (5-1) c:

U db = U t cos t t +

mU t
mU t
cos( t + S )t +
cos( t S )t
2
2

(5-2)

Nh vy, ngoi thnh phn ti tin, tn hiu iu bin cn c hai bin tn. Bin tn trn c
tn s t ( t + S min ) ( t + S max ) v bin tn di t
126

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

( t S max ) ( t S min ) .
5.1.2.2. Quan h nng lng trong iu bin.
Trong tn hiu iu bin, cc bin tn cha tin tc, cn ti tin khng mang tin tc. Ta xt
xem nng lng c phn b th no trong tn hiu iu bin.
Cng sut ca ti tin: l cng sut trung bnh trong mt chu k ti tin.

1  2
P~ t ~ (t l) U t
2
U

Cng sut bin tn:

m.U t 2
)
2
~
2
(

P~ bt

smin

smax
a)

Ub

Ut

0
Hnh 5-1: Tn hiu iu bin
a) Ph ca tin tc;

t-Smax t-Smin t t+Smi

t+Smax

b)

US

b) Ph ca tn hiu iu bin;
c) th thi gian ca tin tc v tn
hiu iu bin khi m < 1 v m > 1

Ub

c)

t
m<1

Ub

t
m>1

127

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


Cng sut ca tn hiu iu bin l cng sut trung bnh trong mt chu k ca tn hiu
iu ch.

P~ db = P~ t + 2P~ bt = P~ t (1 +

m2
)
2

Ta thy rng cng sut ca tn hiu iu bin ph thuc vo h s iu ch m. H s iu


ch m cng ln th cng sut tn hiu iu bin cng ln. Khi m = 1 th ta c quan h cng sut
hai bin tn v ti tn nh sau:

2P~ bt =

P~ t
2

gim mo h s iu ch m < 1 do cng sut cc bin tn thc t ch khong mt


phn ba cng sut ti tin. Ngha l phn ln cng sut pht x c phn b cho ti tin, cn cng
sut ca tin tc ch chim phn nh. l nhc im ca tn hiu iu bin so vi tn hiu n
bin.

5.2. MCH IU BIN


Mch iu bin c th dng cc kiu iu bin n, iu bin cn bng v iu bin vng.
- Mch iu bin n ch dng mt phn tr tch cc nh it hoc tranzito.
- Mch iu bin cn bng c u im gim c mo phi tuyn. Hnh 5-2 l cc mch iu
bin cn bng dng it v tranzito lng cc.
Theo hnh 5-2a in p t ln cc it 1, 2 ln lt l:


U1 = U S . cos S t + U t . cos t t


U 2 = U S . cos S t + U t . cos t t

(5-3)

Dng in qua mi it c biu din theo chui Taylor:

i1 = a 0 + a1 .U1 + a2 .U12 + a3U13 + ...


i2 = a0 + a1 .U 2 + a1 .U 22 + a3 .U 23 + ...

(5-4)

Dng in ra:
i = i1 - i2

(5-5)

Thay (5-3) v (5-4) vo (5-5), ch ly bn s hng u c:

i = A. cos S t + B. cos 3S t + C.[cos( t + S ) t + cos( t S ) t ] +


+ D.[cos(2 t + S ) t + cos(2 t S ) t ]
trong :

128

(5-6)

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

1
2
A = U S + (2a1 + 3a 3 ).U t + .a3 .U s2
2
1
B = .a3 .U s3
2
C = 2.a .U .U
S

(5-7)

3
D = .a3 .U S .U t .
2
Cng c th chng minh tng t cho mch hnh 5-2b.
Trong trng hp cn c ti tin u ra, sau khi iu ch a thm ti tin vo.
Ph ca tn hiu ra ca mch iu bin cn bng nh hnh 5-2c.

i1

T1

CB
US

US

Ub
CB

EC

Ut

Ub

i2

T2
(a)

(b)
Ut

Ub

3S

t - S

t + S

2t - S

2t + S

(c)
Hnh 5-2: Mch iu bin cn bng
a) Dng it; b) Dng tranzito; c) Ph tn hiu ra
Mch iu ch vng:
Mch iu ch vng: thc cht l hai mch iu ch cn bng chung ti.
Gi dng in ra ca mch iu ch cn bng D1 D2 l i I v dng in ra ca mch iu ch
cn bng D3 D4 l i II
129

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

1
3

CB

US

Ub
4

CB

Ut
Hnh 5-3: Mch iu ch vng
Ta c:

i I = A. cos S t + B. cos 3S t + C.[cos( t + S ) t +


cos( t S ) t ] + D.[cos(2 t + S ) t + cos(2 t S )]
i II = i D 3 i D 4
trong :

i D 3 = a0 + a1 .U 3 + a2 .U 32 + a3 .U 33 + ...
i D 4 = a 0 + a1 .U 4 + a2 .U 42 + a3 .U 43 + ...
vi u3v u4 l in p t ln D3, D4 xc nh

U 3 = U t . cos t t U S . cos S t
U = U . cos t + U . cos t
t

thay vo

i II = A. cos S t B. cos 3S t + C.[cos( t + S ) t + cos( t S ) t ]


D.[cos(2 t + S ) t + cos(2 t S ) t ]
A, B, C, D xc nh nh mch iu ch cn bng trc y.

i b = i I + i II = 2.C.[cos( t + S )t + cos( t S )t ]

Nn:
Ph c dng:

t-S

t+S

iu ch vng cho mo nh nht v n kh c cc hi bc l ca S v cc bin tn 2 t .


130

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

5.3. IU CH N BIN
- Khi nim:
Nh trnh by phn trc, ph ca tn hiu iu bin gm ti tn v hai bin tn, trong
ch c bin tn mang tin tc. V hai gii bin tn mang tin tc nh nhau nn ch cn truyn i
mt bin tn l thng tin v tin tc. Ti tn ch cn dng tch sng, do c th nn ton b
hoc mt phn ti tn trc khi truyn i. Qu trnh iu ch nhm to ra mt gii bin tn gi
l iu ch n bin.
iu ch n bin tuy tn km nhng c cc u im sau:
- rng ti tn gim mt na.
- Cng sut bc x yu cu thp hn cng vi mt c ly thng tin. V c th tp
trung cng sut ca ti tn v mt bin tn cho bin tn cn li.
- Tp m u thu gim do gii tn ca tn hiu hp hn.
Biu thc ca tn hiu iu ch n bin trn l:
Ub (t ) =

m
.U t . cos( t + S )t
2

(5-8)


US
trong m =  c gi l h s nn ti tin, m c th nhn cc gi tr t 0 .
Ut
- iu ch n bin theo phng php lc.
T s phn tch ph ca tn hiu iu bin r rng mun c tn hiu n bin ta ch cn lc
bt mt gii bin tn. Nhng thc t khng lm c nh vy. Khi ti tn l cao tn th vn lc
tch ra mt gii bin tn gp kh khn. Tht vy, gi thit tn s thp nht ca tin tc
f S min = 200Hz , lc khong cch gia hai bin tn f = 2f S min = 400Hz (xem hnh 5-1b).
Nu ti tn f t = 10MHz th h s lc ca b lc X =

f
= 4.10 5 , kh nh. Khi s phn b
ft

ca hai bin tn gn nhau n ni ngay dng mt mch lc Thch anh cng rt kh lc c gii
bin tn mong mun. Do trong phng php lc, ngi ta dng mt b bin i trung gian
c th h thp yu cu i vi b lc

US
a

CB1

ft1fS
b

Lc I

ft1+fS
c

ft1

CB2

ft2(ft1+fS)

Lc II

ft2+ft1+f
d

ft2

To dao
ng 1

To dao
ng 2

Hnh 5-4: S khi mch iu ch n bin bng phng php lc


131

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


S khi ca mch iu ch n bin nh vy c biu din trn hnh 5-4 v ph ca
tn hiu trn u ra ca tng khi c biu din trn hnh 5-5.
Trong s khi trn y, trc ht dng tin tc iu ch ti tin trung gian c tn s ft1 kh
thp so vi ti tn yu cu sao cho h s lc va phi lc b mt bin tn d dng. Trn u ra
ca b lc th nht nhn c mt tn hiu c gii ph bng gii ph ca tn hiu vo
f = f S max f S min nhng dch i mt lng ft1 trn thang tn s. Tn hiu ny c a vo iu
ch b iu ch cn bng 2 m trn u ra c ph c hai bin tn cch nhau mt khong
f = 2.(f t1 + f S min ) sao cho vic lc ly mt bin tn nh b lc 2 d thc hin. Khi tn hiu
ra l tn hiu n bin. B iu ch cn bng thng l mch iu bin cn bng hay l mch iu
bin vng. Trn s khi trn y ti tn yu cu l tng ca hai ti tn ph.

f t =f t1+ f t 2 .
Ngoi ra cn c mch iu ch n bin theo phng php quay pha hay mch iu ch
n bin theo phng php lc v quay pha kt hp m ta khng trnh by y.

US
a)

0
Ub

fSmin

fSmax
fSmin

b)
0
c)

ft1

Uc
0

ft1
fSmin

Ud
ft1

d)
0

ft2

ft2+ft1

Hnh 5-5: Ph ca tn hiu ra ca cc khi hnh 5-5


a) Ph ca tn hiu vo b) Ph ca tn hiu iu ch cn bng 1
c) Ph ca tn hiu u ra b lc 1 d) Ph ca tn hiu u ra b lc 2

132

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

5.4. IU TN V IU PHA
Cc cng thc c bn v quan h gia iu tn v iu pha:
V gia tn s v gc pha ca mt dao ng c quan h

d
dt

(5-9)

iu tn v iu pha l ghi tin tc vo ti tin lm cho tn s hoc pha tc thi ca ti tin


bin thin theo dng tn hiu iu ch. Vi ti tin l dao ng iu ho:


U t = U t . cos( t t + 0 ) = U t . cos ( t )
(5-10)
T (5-9) rt ra:
t

( t ) = ( t ) dt + ( t )

(5-11)

Thay (5-11) vo (5-10) ta c:


t

U t = U t . cos[ ( t ) dt + ( t ) ]

(5-12)

Gi thit tn hiu iu ch l n m.

U S = U S . cos S t

(5-13)

Khi iu ch tn s hoc iu ch pha th tn s hoc gc pha ca dao ng cao tn bin


thin t l vi tn hiu iu ch v chng c xc nh ln lt theo biu thc:

( t ) = t + kt U S cos S t

( t ) = o + kp .U S cos S t

(5-14)
(5-15)

trong t l tn s trung tm ca tn hiu iu tn


t: kt .U S = m v gi l lng di tn cc i.


kp .U S = m v gi l lng di pha cc i.
Khi cc biu thc (5-14), (5-15) vit li nh sau:

( t ) = t + m . cos S t

(5-16)

( t ) = 0 + m . cos S t

(5-17)

Khi iu ch tn s gc pha u khng i nn ( t ) = 0 . Thay (5-16) v


(5-17) vo (5-12) v tch phn ln c biu thc ca dao ng iu tn:

m
. sin S t + 0 )
Ut = U t . cos( t t +

133

(5-18)

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


Tng t nh vy, ta c biu thc dao ng iu pha khi cho = t = const :


Up = U t . cos( t t + m . cos S t + 0 )

(5-19)

Lng di pha t c khi iu pha

= m . cos S t
Tng ng c lng di tn l:

d()
= m .S . sin S t
dt

v lng di tn cc i khi iu pha l:


m = S . m = S . k p .U S

(5-20)

Lng di tn cc i khi iu tn l:

m = kt .U S

(5-21)

Nh vy ta thy iu tn v iu pha u lm cho gc pha thay i nn thng gi chung l


iu ch gc. im khc nhau c bn gia iu tn v iu pha l lng di tn khi iu pha t l
vi bin ca tn hiu iu ch v tn s iu ch, cn lng di tn ca tn hiu iu tn t l vi
bin tn hiu iu ch m thi.

5.5. MCH IU TN V IU PHA


5.5.1. Mch iu tn.
C th dng mch iu tn trc tip hay iu tn gin tip.
Mch iu tn trc tip thng c thc hin bi cc mch tao dao ng m tn s dao
ng ring ca n c iu khin bng in p (VCO) hoc bi cc mch bin i in p - tn
s. Nguyn tc thc hin iu tn trong cc b to dao ng l lm bin i tr s in khng ca
b to dao ng theo in p t vo. Phng php ph bin nht l dng it bin dung (varicap)
v tranzito in khng. Sau y xt loi iu ch .
Mch iu tn trc tip dng it bin dung. it bin dung c in dung mt ghp bin i
theo in p t vo. N c s tng ng hnh 5-7a. Tr s RD v CD ph thuc vo in p
t ln it. Trng hp it c phn cc ngc RD = cn CD c xc nh theo biu thc:

CD =

k
(U D + k )

(5-22)

trong k l h s t l.
k l hiu in th tip xc mt ghp, vi it Silic k 0,7 V
l h s ph thuc vt liu: =

1
1
,...,
3
2
134

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


Mc it song song vi h to dao ng ca b to dao ng, ng thi t in p
iu ch ln it th CD thay i theo in p iu ch, do tn s cng hng ring ca b to
dao ng cng bin i theo. Trn hnh 5-6b l mch in b to dao ng iu tn bng it bin
dung. Trong mch in ny it c phn cc ngc bi ngun E2.
RD

+E1

L1

C1
CD

R1
R3
R2

L2
R4

L3 C

(a)
+E2

US
L4
R5

C4

C2
C
(b)

L5 C5

E0

Hnh 5-6: Mch iu tn bng it bin dung.


a, S tng ng ca it.
b, Mch to dao ng iu tn bng it bin dung
Tn s dao ng ca mch gn bng tn s cng hng ring ca h dao ng v c xc
nh nh sau:
fd =

(5-23)

2. L 3 .(C + C D )

CD xc nh theo biu thc (5-22)


in p t ln it:


U D = U t U S E 0 = U t . cos t t U S . cos S t E 0

(5-24)

it lun c phn cc ngc cn tho mn iu kin:

U D = U DMax = U t + U S E 0 0 v



U D = U D min = U t U S E0 U ngcp

(5-25)

Khi iu tn bng it bin dung phi ch nhng c im sau:


- Ch phn cc ngc cho it trnh nh hng ca RD n phm cht ca h to dao
ng ngha l n n nh tn s ca mch.
135

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


- Phi hn ch khu vc lm vic trong on tuyn tnh ca c tuyn C D = f ( U D ) ca it
bin dung (hnh 5-8) gim mo phi tuyn. Lng di tn tng i khi iu tn dng it bin
dung t c khong 1%.
- V dng it iu tn nn thit b iu tn c kch thc nh. C th dng it bn dn
iu tn tn s siu cao, khong vi trm MHz. Tuy nhin tp tn ca tham s bn dn ln,
nn km n nh.

CD

CD
CDma
CDmi

E0

U
U

Hnh 5-7: c tuyn CD=f(UD) ca it bin dung v


nguyn l bin i in dung mc ghp ca it theo
in p dt vo

t
iu tn dng tranzito in khng: phn t in khng dung tnh hoc cm tnh cmc
song song vi h dao ng ca b to dao ng lm cho tn s dao ng thay i theo tn hiu iu
ch. Phn t in khng gm mt tranzito v hai linh kin RC hoc RL to thnh mch di pha mc
trong mch hi tip ca tranzito. Xem thm ti liu tham kho 1.
5.5.2. Mch iu pha
Mch iu ch pha theo Armstrong hnh 5-9 c thc hin theo nguyn l: ti tin t b
to dao ng Thch anh c a n b iu bin 1 (B1) v iu bin 2 (B2) lch pha nhau
900, cn tn hiu iu ch uS a n hai mch iu bin ngc pha. in p u ra trn hai b
iu bin l:

U db1 = U t1 .(1 + m. cos S t ). cos t t


m.U t1
= U t1 . cos t t +
.[cos( t + S )t + cos( t S )t ]
2
U db 2 = U t 2 .(1 m. cos S t ). sin t t
m.U t 2
= U t 2 . sin t t
.[sin( t + S )t + sin( t S )t ]
2
th vc t ca Ub1 v Ub2 v vc t tng ca chng c biu din trn hnh 5-11.

136

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

U t1

B1
Ub1

Tng

U t1

U t2

Tn hiu iu pha

Ub2
B2

Di pha 90

Hnh 5-8: S khi mch iu pha theo ArmStrong


G
U db 2
ub2

U t 2

m.U t 2

m.U t 2

m.U t1
0

U t1

m.U t1
G
U db1

Hnh 5-9: th vc t ca tn hiu iu pha theo mch Arstrong


T th , thy rng: tng cc dao ng iu bin U = U b1+ U b2 l mt dao ng
iu ch v pha v bin . iu bin y l iu bin k sinh. Mch c nhc im l lng di
pha nh. hn ch mc iu bin k sinh chn nh. c iu bin k sinh nh hn 1% th
< 0,35.

5.6. TCH SNG


5.6.1 Khi nim
Tch sng l qu trnh ly li tn hiu iu ch. Tn hiu sau tch sng phi ging dng tn
hiu iu ch ban u. tn hiu ra khng mo th tn hiu vo tch sng phi c bin ln.
Tng ng vi cc loi iu ch, ta cng c cc mch tch sng sau y: tch sng iu bin, tch
sng iu tn, tch sng iu pha.

137

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


5.6.2. Tch sng iu bin.
5.6.2.1. Cc tham s c bn
- H s tch sng:
Tn hiu vo b tch sng l tn hiu iu bin.

U VTS = U VTS . cos t t trong U VTS bin thin theo quy lut tin tc.
Tn hiu ra b tch sng iu bin:

U RTS = K TS .U VTS
KTS l h s t l v c gi l h s tch sng.

K TS =

U RTS
U
VTS

- Thc t, i vi qu trnh tch sng ch cn quan tm n thnh phn bin thin chm
(mang tin tc) m thi, do thng xc nh h s tch sng nh sau:

K TS =

U RTS
U

(5-26)

VTS

- Tr khng vo b tch sng:

Z VTS =

U VTS U t
=
I VTS
I t

(5-27)

- Mo phi tuyn:

k=

I 22 S + I 32 S + ...
IS

.100%

trong I 2 S , I 3 S ... l thnh phn dng in cc sng hi ca tn hiu iu ch xut hin


khi qua mch tch sng.
y khng quan tm n cc sng hi dng in cao tn v d dng lc b chng.
5.6.2.2. Mch tch sng iu bin.
Xt mch tch sng iu bin dng it mc ni tip hnh 5-10. Nu tn hiu vo ln sao
cho it lm vic trong on thng ca c tuyn nh trn hnh 5-11 ta c qu trnh tch sng tn
hiu ln. Lc dng in qua it biu din:

SU D
0

iD =

khi

UD 0

khi

UD < 0

138

(5-28)

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

D
C

Ub

UC = US

U b

(a)

UR = US

(b)
Hnh 5-10: S tch sng dng it.
a, Tch sng ni tip. b, Tch sng song song

Trong s hnh 5-10 it ch thng vi na chu k dng ca dao ng cao tn u vo.


Hnh bao ca dao ng nhn c nh s np, phng ca t C (hnh 5-11). Do tn hiu vo c tn
s rt cao cc na hnh sin rt st nhau, hnh bao do s np phng ca t xem nh mt ng
trn, chnh l tn hiu Us cn tch.
Trong s hnh 5-10 phi chn hng s thi gian = R.C ln sao cho dng in p ra
ti gn vi dng hnh bao ca in p cao tn u vo. Thng thng in p vo ln hn 1 vn
hiu dng v R >> Ri, Rv th c th tch sng c in p nh. Tuy nhin cng khng c
chn qu ln trnh mo do in dung gy nn. iu kin tng qut chn l:

id

id

Ud

Ub

Hnh 5-11: Qu trnh tch sng tn hiu ln


nh mch chnh lu dng it

139

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

Uc

t
0
2
Hnh 5-12: th thi gian in p ra UC trn ti b tch sng ni tip

<< = R.C <<

(5-29)

Trng hp chn C ln qu lm cho v th hai ca bt ng thc (5-29) khng tho mn th


in p ra khi t phng khng bin thin kp vi bin in p vo, gy mo tn hiu nh hnh
5-13.
Thc t thng chn R, C theo iu kin:

10

< R.C <

(5-30)

S max

Mun d dng tho mn (5-30) cn

Uc
U

t 100S max

db

Uc

Ub
t
0

Hnh 5-13: Hin tng mo tn hiu tch sng do ti in dung qu ln.

5.7. TCH SNG IU TN V IU PHA


Tch sng iu tn v iu pha thng c thc hin theo mt trong nhng nguyn tc
sau:
140

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


- Bin i tn hiu iu tn hoc iu pha thnh tn hiu iu bin ri thc hin tch sng
bin .
- Bin i tn hiu iu tn thnh tn hiu iu ch rng xung ri thc hin tch sng tn
hiu iu ch rng xung nh mch tch phn.
- Lm cho tn s tn hiu cn tch sng bm theo tn s ca mt b to dao ng nh h
thng vng gi pha PLL, in p sai s chnh l in p cn tch sng.
Ta xt mt s mch c th:
a. Mch tch sng iu tn dng mch lch cng hng.
Hnh 5-14. l s mch tch sng iu tn s dng mch lch cng hng. u vo hai b
tch sng bin (D1, D2) l hai mch cng hng c iu chnh ti cc tn s 1, v 2. Nu
gi tn s trung tm ca tn hiu iu tn u vo l 0 = t th:

1 = 0 + ; 2 = 0
S iu chun mch cng hng lch khi tn s trung bnh ca tn hiu vo lm bin
in p vo ca hai b tch sng bin (U1, U2) thay i ph thuc vo tn s in p vo. T
mch in hnh 5-14 xc nh c:

= m.U
.Z
U
1
dt
1

U 2 = m.U dt .Z 2

(5-31)

trong m l h s ghp ca bin p vo ( =

M
)
L

M
1
Ut
2

U
1

U
2

D1

D2

US1
US2

US

Hnh 5-14: Mch in b tch sng iu tn dng mch lch cng hng
Z1, Z2 l tr khng ca hai mch cng hng 1 v 2. M Z1, Z2 c xc nh theo:

Z1 =

R td1
( 1 ) 2
1 + [2.Q1 .
]
1

141

R td1
1 + ( 0 ) 2

(5-32)

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

R td 2

Z2 =

1 + [2.Q 2 .

( 2 ) 2
]
2

R td 2

1 + ( + 0 ) 2

Rtd1, Rtd2 ln lt l hai tr khng ca hai mch cng hng tn s cng hng 1 v
2.
Q1, Q2 l phm cht ca cc mch cng hng tng ng.
Chn hai mch cng hng nh nhau ta c:

R td1 = R td 2 = R td ,
0 =

2.Q 0 1, 2
0

Q1 = Q 2 = Q
l lch s tn s tng i gia tn s cng hng ring

ca mch dao ng vi tn s trung bnh ca tn hiu vo.

2.Q 0
0

l lch lch s tn s tng i gia tn s tn hiu vo v tn

s trung bnh.
Theo (5-32) khi tn s tn hiu vo thay i th Z1, Z2 thay i ko theo s thay i ca
,U
ngha l qu trnh bin i tn hiu iu tn thnh tn hiu iu bin
bin in p vo U
1
2
c thc hin. Qua b tch sng bin ta nhn c cc in p.


= K .m.U
.
u S1 = K TS .U
1
TS
dt

= K .m.U
.
u S2 = K TS .U
2
TS
dt

R td1
1 + ( 0 ) 2
R td 2
1 + ( 0 + ) 2

(5-33)

(5-34)

in p ra tng.

..(, )
u S = u S1 u S 2 = K TS .m.R td .U
dt
0
Tch sng dng mch lch cng hng c nhc im la kh iu chnh cho hai mch cng
hng hon ton i xng nn t c dng.
b. Mch tch sng iu tn dng mch cng hng ghp
Mch tch sng iu tn dng mch cng hng ghp hnh 5-15. Mch in lm vic theo
nguyn tc chuyn bin thin tn s thnh bin thin v pha, sau thc hin tch sng pha nh
tch sng bin . Tn hiu iu tn mt mt ghp qua bin p a sang cun th cp, mt mt
c ghp qua t Cgh . Do in p t ln cc it D1, D2 ln lt l:

U D1 = U1 + U 21

(5-35)

U D 2 = U 1 + U 22
142

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

D1

Cg

Ut

Us
U2

C1

L1

C
L2

U2

D2

Hnh 5-15: Mch tch sng iu tn dng mch cng hng ghp.
1

U 21

Hnh 5-16:

U 22

U1

th vc t cc dng in v in p
vo ca b tch sng tn s dng mch
cng hng ghp

U D2
U D1

EM

I2

I2
I, L

Ta phn bit 3 trng hp:


+ Khi tn s tn hiu vo f = f0 ( th vc t hnh 5-16). Trong f0 l tn s cng hng
ca mch cng hng s cp v th cp, dng in qua in cm L1 chm pha so vi U 1 mt gc
900 v c xc nh nh sau:

I1L =

U1
j..L1

(5-36)

Dng I1L gy ra trong cun th cp L2 sc in ng.

E M = j..M.I1L

(5-37)

Gi thit M > 0 nn E M sm pha so vi I1L mt gc 900. E M sinh ra dng I 2 trong mch


cng hng th cp. V f = f0 nn I 2 ng pha vi E M .

I2 =

EM
r2

(5-38)

trong r2 l in tr tn hao ca mch cng hng th cp. in p U 21 v U 22 ngc


pha nhau v lch pha so vi I 2 l 900. V U D1 ,

U S = K TS .( U D1 U D 2 ) = 0 .
143

UD2

c bin bng nhau nn in p ra.

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


+ Trng hp f > f0 (ng t nt trn th vc t hnh 5-16). Mch cng hng th cp
mang tnh cht in cm nn I 2 chm pha so vi E M mt gc < 900. u 21 v U 22 ngc pha
nhau v vung gc vi I 2 . Gia U1 v U 21 , u 22 c mt gc lch pha ln lt l 1 v - 1.
Tn s tn hiu vo cng lch khi tn s cng hng trung tm f0 th bin U D1 cng ln hn
bin U D 2 , do tr s in p ra US cng ln.
+ Trng hp f < f0 th mch th cp mang tnh cht in dung nn I 2 sm pha hn E M ,
do U D1 < U D 2 v uS m.
- Tm li khi tn s tn hiu vo thay i th u nt ca vc t U D1 v U D 2 di chuyn trn
cc vng trn 1 v 2 trn hnh 5-16 lm cho in p ra thay i v tr s v cc tnh. Tr s in p
ra c trng cho lch ca tn s tn hiu vo so vi tn s trung tm f0, cn cc tnh ca in
p ra cho bit tn s tn hiu vo lch khi tn s trung tm v pha no (ln hn hay nh hn f0).
Tch sng dng mch cng hng ghp t gy mo v d iu chnh v c hai mch u
cng hng tn s f0. Tuy nhin in p ra trong b tch sng ny va ph thuc tn s va ph
thuc bin tn hiu vo U 1 nn n sinh ra nhiu bin . khc phc nhc im ny, phi
t trc mch tch sng mt mch hn ch bin .
c. Mch tch sng t s

D1

Ut

US1

U2

U0

U1

US2

D2

US
Hnh 5-17: S mch tch sng t s
Mch tch sng iu tn t s c s hnh 5-17. Cc it tch sng c mc ni tip
nhau. Mch va lm nhim v tch sng va lm nhim v hn ch bin .
Dng qua cc it np in cho t C1. Hng s thi gian = R.C1 (0,1 0,2) giy kh
ln nn in p trn C1 bin thin rt chm lm cho nhiu bin gim. C th chng minh iu
bng biu thc sau:
US = US1 - UR

144

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

UR =

vi

U 0 U S1 + U S 2
=
2
2

Thay vo ta c:

US =

U S1 U S 2 U 0 U S1 U S 2
=
.
2
2 U S1 + U S 2

US =

Hay

U 0 U S1 / U S 2 1
.
2 U S1 / U S 2 + 1

(5-39)

Khi U0 const, in p ra ch ch ph thuc vo t s US1/ US2, hn na US1, US2 ging nh


trong b tch sng dng mch cng hng ghp, ph thuc vo bin thin tn s u vo. V
vy b tch sng t s khng c phn ng vi cc bin thin v bin u vo nn trnh c
nhiu bin .
d. Mch tch sng pha cn bng dng it

1
+

Up

US1

U
1

US

U S2

U
D1

U2

U
1

U
D2

Uch

b)

a)

Hnh 5-18: a) Mch in b tch sng iu pha dng it.


b) th vc t ca cc in p.
Mch tch sng pha cn bng l hai mch tch sng bin dng it ghp vi nhau hnh
5-18. Tn hiu cn tch sng chnh l tn hiu iu pha, Udp c so snh v pha vi mt dao
ng chun Uch. Biu thc Udp v Uch nh sau:


Up = U 1 . cos[ 01 t + ( t ) + 01 ] = U 1 . cos 1 ( t )



U ch = U 2 . cos[ 02 t + 02 ] = U 2 . cos 2 (t )
in p t ln hai b tch sng tng ng l:


U D1 = U 1 . cos[ 01t + (t ) + 01 ] + U 2 . cos[ 02 t + 02 ]



U D 2 = U 1 . cos[01 t + ( t ) + 01 ] + U 2 . cos[ 02 t + 02 ]
145

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


in p ra tng ng trn hai b tch sng bin xc nh c theo th vc t hnh 518b.





 
U 1t = U S 1 = K TS .U D1 = K TS . U 12 + U 22 + 2.U 1 .U 2 . cos (t )




 
U 2t = U S 2 = K TS .U D 2 = K TS . U 12 + U 22 2.U 1 .U 2 . cos (t ) (5-40)
trong K TS l h s truyn t ca b tch sng bin .

K TS =

US
m.U t

(5-41)

(t ) l hiu pha ca hai in p vo.


(t ) = ( 01 02 )t + ( t ) + ( 01 02 )
in p ra trn b tch sng:

U S = U S1 U S 2


 
2 
 
U S = K TS .[ U 12 + U 22 + 2.U 1 .U 2 . cos ( t ) U 1 + U 2 2.U 1 .U 2 . cos (t ) ] (5-42)
Vy tr s tc thi ca in p ra trn b tch sng ph thuc hiu pha ca tn hiu iu pha
v tn hiu chun. Trng hp 01 = 02 v 01 = 02 th in p ra ch cn ph thuc vo pha
ca tn hiu vo (t).

5.8. TRN TN
5.8.1. nh ngha
Trn tn l qu trnh tc dng vo hai tn hiu sao cho trn u ra b trn tn nhn c cc
thnh phn tn s tng hoc hiu ca hai tn hiu (thng ly hiu tn s).
Thng thng mt trong hai tn hiu l n m (c mt vch ph), tn hiu gi l tn
hiu ngoi sai v c tn s fns. Tn hiu cn li l tn hiu hu ch vi tn s fth c nh hoc bin
thin trong mt phm vi no . Tn hiu c tn s mong mun u ra c tch nh b lc, tn
s ca n thng c gi l tn s trung tn ftt.
thc hin trn tn phi dng phn t phi tuyn hoc dng phn t tuyn tnh tham s.
5.8.2. Nguyn l trn tn
Gi thit c tuyn ca phn t phi tuyn c biu din theo chui Taylor sau y:

i = a 0 + a1 .u + a 2 .u 2 + ... + a n .u n + ...

(5-43)

trong U l phn in p t ln phn t phi tuyn trn tn. Trong trng hp ny U =


Uns + Uth
Gi thit
146

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


U ns = U ns . cos ns t

U th = U th . cos th t
Thay vo (5-43) ta c:



i = a 0 + a1 .( U ns . cos ns t + U th . cos th t )
 2
a2  2  2
a  2
.(U ns + U th ) + 2 .(U ns . cos 2 ns t + U th . cos 2 th t )
2
2
 
(5-44)
+ a 2 .U ns .U th .[cos( ns + th )t + cos( ns th )t ] + ...

Vy tn hiu ra gm c tn hiu mt chiu, thnh phn c bn ns , th ; cc thnh phn tn


s tng v hiu ns th , thnh phn bc cao 2 ns ,2 th . Tnh cc v tip theo ca (5-58) ta thy
trong dng in cn c cc thnh phn bc cao:

= n ns m th
trong n, m l nhng s nguyn dng.
Nu trn u ra b trn tn ly tn hiu c tn s = ns th , ngha l chn n = m = 1
th ta c trn tn n gin.
C trng hp ly = n ns th vi n 2 ta c trn tn t hp.
Trn tn c dng trong my thu i tn. Nh b trn tn, mch cng hng ca cc tng
trung tn ca my thu tn c iu chnh cng hng mt tn s c nh. Tn s ngoi sai
c ng chun vi tn s tn hiu vo sao cho ftt = f ns fth = const .
Cn ch rng qu trnh trn tn bin in p ngoi sai rt ln hn in p tn hiu nn
vi tn hiu c tuyn vn-ampe ca phn t trn tn xem nh tuyn tnh cn vi in p
ngoi sai xem nh phi tuyn.
5.8.3. Mch trn tn
5.8.3.1. Mch trn tn dng it.
Mch trn tn dng it c dng rng ri mi tn s c bit phm vi tn s cao (trn
1GHz). Mch trn tn dng it c nhc im l lm suy gim tn hiu. Mch trn tn dng it
c biu din trn hnh 5-19.
Trong s trn tn n mch tn hiu, mch ngoi sai v mch trung trung tn mc ni
tip nhau. C th tnh S tt , Gitt cho s da vo c tuyn l tng ho ca it biu din trn
hnh 5-20. Theo c tuyn :
Vit c biu thc dng in qua it.

S.U khi U 0
i=
khi U < 0
0
147

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

S=

1
di
=
= Gi
du Ri

U th

Utt

a)
U ns

itt1

+
-

U th

b)

itt2

Utt

U ns
Hnh 5-19: Mch trn tn dng it.
V in p ngoi sai l hm tun hon theo thi gian nn h dn S l mt dy xung vung
vi rng xung ph thuc gc ct . Vi im tnh chn gc to th = (90 0 ) =
Theo Furi khi ta tnh c bin S sng c bn l:

 2.S
S1 =

1 
S
S tt = .S1 =

2
cn

Gitt = Gio =

S
2
148

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

S
i

U
Uns

/2

nst

Hnh 5-20: c tuyn volt - ampe


ca it v quan h S = f ( ns t )

nst
chng tp m ngoi sai, dng s trn tn cn bng (hnh 5-19b). Trong b trn tn
ny in p tn hiu t ln hai it ngc pha cn in p ngoi sai t ln hai it ng pha,
ngha l:

U thD1 = U th . cos th t


U thD 2 = U th . cos( th t + )
v U nsD1 = U nsD 2 = U ns . Do dng in trung tn qua cc it do U th to ra:

trong


itt1 = I tt1.cos(ns th )t


itt 2 = I tt 2 .cos[(ns th )t + ] = I tt 2 .cos(ns th )t




I tt1 = I tt 2 = I tt = S tt .U th

Trn mch cng hng ra ta nhn c:

itt = itt1 + itt 2 = 2.I tt .cos tt t


Mch ny to ra dng in tp m u ra ngc pha nhau trn mch cng hng ra nn n
t trit tiu nhau.
Nh vy mch trn tn cn bng lm tng dng in trung tn u ra v gim c tp m.
Cng c th dng mch trn tn vng.

149

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


5.8.3.2. Mch trn tn dng Tranzito.
u im ca mch trn tn kiu ny l ngoi nhim v trn tn cn khuch i nn tn hiu
ra c bin ln. C th dng Tranzito trng hay Tranzito lng cc trn tn. C th dng
cch mc gc chung hay pht chung. Mch mc gc chung dng phm vi tn s cao hay siu
cao v tn s gii hn ca n cao. Tuy nhin s ny khuch i khng bng mch pht
chung.
Mch trn tn dng Tranzito lng cc hnh 5-21.

+E
R1

C2

Utt

C1

Uth

R2

R3

Uns
Hnh 5-21.a: Mch trn tn dng Tranzito.
+E

R1

C2

Utt

C1
Uth
R2

R3

C3

Uns

Hnh 5-21.b: Mch trn tn dng Tranzito.


Mch trn tn dng tranzito trng cng c kt cu tng t. Mch dng tranzito trng c
hai cc ca nh hnh 5-22.
150

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s

+EC
Utt

C3

Uns

C1
C2
R1

Uth

R2

C4

R3

Hnh 5-22: Mch trn tn dng Tranzito trng c hai cc ca.

5.9. MCH NHN CHIA TN S


to ra tn hiu c tn s theo yu cu t mt tn hiu c tn s chun ta dng mch nhn hoc
chia tn s. Mch nhn chia tn s hin nay ph bin dng vng gi pha vit tt l PLL.
Nguyn l lm vic ca PLL c ch ra hnh 5-23. PLL hot ng theo nguyn tc vng
iu khin. Khc vi vng iu khin thng dng trong k thut in t, trong in p hoc
dng in l cc i lng vo v i lng ra, trong PLL i lng vo v i lng ra l tn s
v chng c so snh vi nhau v pha. Vng iu khin pha c nhim v pht hin v iu chnh
nhng sai s nh v tn s gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra, ngha l PLL lm cho tn s fr ca tn
hiu so snh bm theo tn s fv ca tn hiu vo, cho n khi tn s ca tn hiu so snh bng tn
s ca tn hiu ra ( fr= fv ).

UV
fV

Ud=KdUVUr
(fV- fr)

LTT v K

VCO

Ur
fr

(fV+ fr)

Tn hiu so snh Ur

Hnh 5-23: S khi vng gi pha.


c tn hiu iu chnh Ud (hoc id) t l vi hiu pha = v - r phi dng b tch sng
pha. u ra b tch sng pha l tn hiu hiu chnh c a n b to b dao ng khng ch
bng in p (VCO) lm thay i tn s dao ng ca n sao cho hiu tn s ca tn hiu vo v
tn hiu ra gim dn v tin ti khng, ngha l fr = fv.
Cc phn t c bn ca vng gi pha gm c b tch sng pha, b lc thng thp v mt b
lc to dao ng iu khin bng in p VCO.
151

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


hiu r nguyn l ln vic ca mch, ta xt trng hp n gin tn hiu vo v tn hiu
ra so snh u l tn hiu hnh sin, vng gi pha thuc loi tuyn tnh dng mch nhn tng t
tch sng pha.
Vi gi thuyt trn, ta thy khi khng c tn hiu vo th tn hiu hiu chnh Ud = 0, v tn
hiu ra ca b tch sng pha l tch Uv0.Ur. Mch VCO dao ng ti tn s dao ng ring f0 ca
n. f0 cn c gi l tn s dao ng t do. Khi c tn hiu vo, b tch sng pha s so pha tn s
ca tn hiu vo vi tn hiu so snh. u ra b tch sng pha xut hin tn hiu Ud m tr s tc
thi ca n t l vi hiu pha (hiu tn s ) ca hai tn hiu vo ti thi im .
V Ud =K.Uv.Ur nn trong tn hiu ra b tch sng pha c cc thnh phn tn s fv - fr v fv+
fr. Tn s tng b loi b nh b lc thng thp, cn tn s hiu c khuch i ln v dng lm
tn hiu iu khin tn s dao ng ca VCO. Tn s ca VCO c thay i sao cho fv - fr tin
ti khng, ngha l fv=fr.
Nu tn s tn hiu vo v tn hiu so snh lch nhau qu nhiu lm cho tn s tng v tn
s hiu u nm ngoi khu vc thng ca b lc th khng c tn hiu iu khin VCO dao ng
ti f0. Khi f0 v fr xch li gn nhau sao cho thnh phn fv - fr ri vo khu vc thng ca b lc th
VCO bt u nhn tn hiu iu khin thay i tn s dao ng ca n, PLL bt u hot ng,
ta ni PLL lm vic trong "di bt". Di bt ca PLL ph thuc vo gii thng ca b lc. "Di
gi" ca PLL l gii tn s m PLL c th gi c ch ng b khi thay i tn s tn hiu
vo. Di gi khng ph thuc vo gii thng ca b lc m ph thuc vo bin in p iu
khin Ud v vo kh nng bin i tn s ca VCO.
Vng gi pha c nhiu nm nay nhng gn y c ng dng rng ri nh s ra i
ca vi mch PLL lm gim nh c kt cu qu phc tp ca mch.
Mt trong cc ng dng quan trng ca PLL l nhn tn v chia tn.
Mch nhn tn vi h s nhn n nh hnh 5-24.
T mt tn hiu vo l mt dy xung c tn s c bn l fv v cc bi bc cao nfv v cho tn s
VCO bm theo mt hi bc cao no ca fv th u ra nhn c tn hiu c fr = nfv.
Mch tng hp tn s vi tn s ra khng phi l bi ca tn s chun hnh 5-25.

Tn s chun

TSP

LTT v K

VCO

fV

Tn s ra
fr = nfv

CT
n:1
Hnh 5-24: Mch nhn tn vi h s n nguyn
152

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


y tn s ca tn hiu vo trc khi vo b tch sng pha c a qua mch chia tn
vi h s chia m, u ra mch chia c tn s fv/m. u ra ca mch VCO c tn s fr = n/m fv vi
n nh v chnh xc nh ca tn s tn hiu vo.
PLL

fv

CT1

fv/m

1:m

fr =

TSP

LTT v K

VCO

n. f v
m

fr
n

CT2
n:1
Hnh 5-25: Mch tng hp tn s vi tn s ra khng phi l
bi ca tn s vo

TM TT
Kt thc chng 5 ngi hc cn nm c:
- iu ch. Khi nim v iu ch.
Mch iu ch l mt mng su cc: c hai in p vo v mt in p ra. in p tin tc c k
hiu US, in p ti tin k hiu Ut. iu kin iu ch c l tn s ti tin rt ln hn tn s tin tc.
iu bin: lm cho bin ti tin bin i theo tin tc.
iu tn l lm cho tn s ti tin bin i theo tin tc.
iu pha l lm cho pha ca ti tin bin i theo tin tc.
iu bin. Biu thc iu bin khi ti tin Ut v tin tc US u l dao ng iu ho.
Tm ph ca tn hiu iu bin, xt quan h nng lng trong iu bin.
+ Mch iu bin. thc hin iu bin c th dng it hay tranzito thc hin. Mch
iu bin dng it phi s dng loi it cao tn (tip im). Mach iu bin cn bng cho tn
hiu ra hai bin tn cn c cc thnh phn tn s khc gy nhiu. Mch iu bin vng u im
hn v loi tr c cc thnh phn gy nhiu (mch phi dng bn it).
+ Mch iu bin dng tranzito nguyn l iu ch cng tng t, tuy nhin n c kh nng
khuch i lm bin tn hiu ra ln hn.
+ iu ch n bin. Tn hiu iu bin c hai bin tn cha ni dung tin tc nh nhau. C
th lc b mt bin tn m ni dung tin tc vn khng thay i. l tn hiu n bin (mt
bin). Truyn tin loi tn hiu ny gim c cng sut my pht khi cng c ly thng tin, gim
153

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


c gii tn cng tc, gim c tp m. Mch iu ch tn hiu n bin thng dng phng
php lc thc hin. vic lc b mt bin tn thun li thng dng phng php iu ch
qua nhiu cp.
+ iu tn v iu pha: cn gi chung l iu ch gc v hai loi iu ch ny u lm gc
pha chung thay i.
+ Mch iu tn. Mch iu tn in hnh l mch dng it bin dung. V c bn y l
mt mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p c it bin dung ng vai tr t in khung dao ng.
Khi mch lm vic, tin tc US = 0, mch cho ra tn hiu cao tn. Khi c tin tc a ti t ln it
bin dung lm in dung ca it thay i, lm tn s dao ng ca mch bin i theo tin tc.
Trn khung dao ng ta nhn c tn hiu iu tn.
+ Mnh iu tn dng tranzito in khng nguyn l cng tng t nhng thc hin iu
tn gin tip.
+ Mch iu pha. Mch iu pha thc hin theo Armstrong. Mch ny dng hai mch iu
bin c sng mang xung tt cn tin tc US a vo c pha ngc nhau. Cng hai tn hiu iu
bin cho u ra tn hiu iu pha. iu c gii thch d dng qua thi vct.
- Tch sng.
Tch sng l qu trnh ngc vi iu ch (cn gi l gii iu ch). Mch tch sng c
nhim v tch ly tin tc US, lc b ti tin Ut. Do cc phng thc iu ch: iu bin, iu tn,
iu pha khc nhau nn tng ng cc mch tch sng cng phi khc nhau.
+ Tch sng iu bin: tn hiu sau tch sng khng mo, tn hiu vo mch tch sng
phi c bin ln it lm vic trn phn thng ca c tuyn.
Mch tch sng iu bin c it cao tn mc ni tip vi ti RC. T mch in ta thy it
ch thng vi cc na dng ca dao ng cao tn u vo. u ra nhn c hnh bao ca dao
ng nh s np phng ca t C. l tin tc US. tch sng tn hiu ra khng mo cn chn t
C v R ph hp: 1/t << = RC << 1/s.
+ Tch sng iu tn iu pha. C th dng phng thc chuyn tn hiu iu tn iu pha
thnh tn hiu iu bin ri dng mch tch sng iu bin tch sng: mch tch sng iu tn
lch cng hng. Nh mch cng hng lch t tn hiu iu tn a vo ta nhn c tn hiu
iu bin U1, U2. Qua mch tch sng iu bin cho ra tin tc US. Mch tch sng iu tn dng
mch cng hng ghp: mch chuyn tn hiu iu tn thnh tn hiu iu pha sau thc hin
tch sng pha nh mch tch sng iu bin. Mch tch sng iu pha cn bng dng it: a
thm in p chun vo chuyn tn hiu iu pha thnh tn hiu iu bin ri tch sng.
- Trn tn.
Trn tn l trn tn hiu c tn s fth vi in p ngoi sai c tn s fns cho ra tn hiu
trung tn c tn s bng tng hoc hiu ca hai tn s (ftt = fns + fth hoc ftt = fns fth). Thng
ly tn s ftt hiu. Do tn hiu vo c bin nh nn vi mch trn tn xem nh tuyn tnh. Sau
trn tn tin tc khng b thay i. V tnh phi tuyn ca mch trn tn, dng u ra ca n cha
nhiu thnh phn tn s cch bit nhau trong c tn s trung tn ftt = fns fth. lc ly thnh

154

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


phn tn hiu c tn s ny ti ca tng trn tn phi l mch cng hng song song, cng hng
tn s .
Mch trn tn c th dng it hoc tranzito thc hin. Mch trn tn dng it loi cao tn
(tip im) nh hnh 5-19. Mch trn tn dng tranzito hnh 5-21, 5-22.
- Nhn chia tn s.
Vng gi pha l mt linh kin in t hot ng theo nguyn tc vng iu khin. Qua s
khi v nguyn tc hot ng ca n ta thy khi mch lm vic ng b th fr = fv. V vy khi
li vo cho tn hiu vo qua b chia tn vi h s chia m, li so snh v qua b chia tn, h s chia
tn n th khi PLL lm vic ng b c fv/m = fr/n nn fr = nfv/m. Nu thay i h s chia m,n ta c
tn s fr theo mun. l ng dng c bn ca vng gi pha thc hin nhn chia tn s.

CU HI V BI TP
5.1.

Th no l iu ch?

5.2.

Vit biu thc tn hiu iu bin, tn hiu iu tn, tn hiu iu pha khi Us, Ut u l tn hiu iu
ho?

5.3.

So snh mch iu bin cn bng vi mch iu bin vng dng it?

5.4.

u im khi truyn tn hiu n bin trong thng tin?

5.5.

Trnh by s iu ch n bin hai cp?

5.6.

Trnh by mch to dao ng sin ghp bin p?

5.7.

Th no l tranzito in khng?

5.8.

Trnh by mch iu tng dng tranzito in khng?

5.9.

Nu i chiu it bin dung trong mch iu tn c c khng? Ti sao?

5.10. Th no l mch tch sng? Yu cu ca mch tch sng?


5.11. Trnh by mch tch sng iu bin? iu kin tch sng khng mo?
5.12. Ti sao mch tch sng iu tn,mch tch sng iu pha khc nhau?
5.13. Trnh by mch tch sg iu tn dng mch lch cng hng?
5.14. Trnh by mch tch sng iu pha cn bng dung it?
5.15. nh ngha mch trn tn?
5.16. Ti sao ti mch trn tn l mch cng hng song song?
5.17. Nguyn tc hot ng ca vng gi pha? Nu ng dng ca n?
5.18. Cho tn hiu iu bin vi h s iu ch m = 50%, tn s iu ch fs =10KHz, ti tin c bin
5mV v tn s ft = 10MHz.
a. Vit biu thc tn hiu iu bin?
b. Tnh ph ca tn hiu ?
155

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


c. Sau khi khuch i thc hin trn tn. u ra b trn tn tn hiu c bin ln hn
bin tn hiu vo 1000 ln v tn s ftt =1MHz.
Vit biu thc tn hiu sau trn tn?
Tm tn s ngoi sai ca mch ?
V mch tch sng tn hiu trung tn trn?
5.19. iu kin v tn s ti tin t v tn s tn hiu s ca mch iu ch l:
a.

t >> s.

b. t = s.
c. t s.
d. t < s.
5.20. Yu cu v loi it dng trong mch iu bin l:
a. it tip mt.
b. it tip im (cao tn).
c. it bin dung.
d. it zene.
5.21. Tc dng ca it bin dung trong mch iu tn l:
a. gi cho bin tn hiu ra n nh.
b. lm cho tn s ca mch dao ng bin i theo tin tc Us.
c. gi cho tn s tn hiu ra khng thay i.
d. duy tr dao ng cho mch.
5.22. iu kin bin tn hiu vo mch tch sng iu bin tn hiu ra khng mo l:
a. Bin nh.
b. Bin rt nh.
c. Bin ln.
d. C a v b.
5.23. iu kin v hng s thi gian ca mch tch sng iu bin tn hiu ra khng mo l:
a. 1/s << = RC <<1/t.
b. 1/t < = RC< 1/s.
c. 1/t << = RC <<1/s.
d. 1/s = = RC >>1/t.
5.24. Ti ca mch trn tn phi l:
156

Chng 5: Cc mch bin i tn s


a.

Mch cng hng ni tip c tn s cng hng bng ftt.

b.

Mch cng hng song song c tn s cng hng bng ftt.

c.

Mch cng hng song song c tn s cng hng khc ftt.

d.

Mch cng hng song song c tn s cng hng bng 2ftt.

5.25. Tn s u ra ca mch t hp tn s dng vng gi pha khi h s chia li vo m, h s chia li so


snh n l:
a.

fr = nfv.

b.

fr = nfv/m.

c.

fr = mfv /n.

d.

fr = fv/(m n).

157

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A

CHNG 6: CHUYN I A/D, D/A

GII THIU CHUNG


Chng ny nu ln nguyn tc chung chuyn i tn hiu tng t (Analog) thnh tn hiu
s (Digital) A/D v chuyn i tn hiu s (Digital) thnh tn hiu tng t (Analog) D/A. Nu
mt s mch in thc hin cc qu trnh . Cc vn ca chng gm:
-

C s l lun: Khi nim chung v chuyn i A/D, D/A, cc tham s c bn, gii bin
i ca in p tn hiu tng t u vo, chnh xc ca qa trnh chuyn i A/D, tc
chuyn i.
Cc bc chuyn i A/D: ly mu v gi mu, lng t ho, m ho.
Cc phng php chuyn i A/D.
+ Chuyn i A/D theo phng php song song.
+ Chuyn i A/D theo phng php m n gin.
+ Chuyn i A/D theo phng php hai sn dc.

So snh cc phng php chuyn i A/D.


Chuyn i A/D phi tuyn: c tnh ca chuyn i A/D phi tuyn, c tnh ca b
chuyn i D/A phi tuyn. c tnh ca b chuyn i A/D, D/A phi tuyn thc t.
Cc phng php chuyn i D/A.
+ Cc bc chyun i D/A.
+ Chuyn i D/A bng phng php thang in tr.
+ Chuyn i D/A bng phng php mng in tr.

NI DUNG
6.1. C S L LUN
6.1.1. Khi nim chung
phi ghp gia ngun tn hiu tng t vi cc h thng x l s, ngi ta dng cc
mch chuyn i tng t - s (vit tt l A/D) nhm bin i tn hiu tng t sang dng s hoc
dng mch chuyn i s - tng t (D/A) trong trng hp cn thit bin i tn hiu s sang
dng tng t. Qu trnh bin i mt tn hiu tng t sang dng s c minh ho bi c
tuyn truyn t trn hnh 6-1.

158

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A

UD

111
110

UQ

101

100
011
010

1 2
ULSB

3 4

5 6

(UAmax)

UA

Hnh 6-1: c tuyn truyn t ca mch bin i tng t - s.


Tn hiu tng t UA c chuyn thnh mt tn hiu c dng bc thang u. Vi c tuyn
truyn t nh vy, mt phm vi gi tr ca UA c biu din mt gi tr i din s thch hp.
Cc gi tr i din s l cc gi tr ri rc. Cch biu din ph bin nht l dng m nh phn (h
c s 2) biu din tn hiu s.
Tng qut, gi tn hiu tng t l SA (UA), tn hiu s l SD(UD) th SD c biu din di
dng ca nh phn l:

S D = b n 1 .2 n 1 + b n 2 .2 n 2 + ... + b 0 .2 0

(6-1)

Trong cc h s bk= 0 hoc 1 (vi k = 0 n k = n-1) v c gi l bit.


bn-1 c gi l bit c ngha ln nht (MSB) tng ng vi ct ng u bn tri ca dy m
s. Mun bin i gi tr ca MSB ng vi s bin i ca tn hiu ca gii lm vic.
b0 gi l bit c ngha nh nht (LSB) ng vi ct ng u bn phi ca dy m s. Mi
bin i ca tn hiu l mt mc lng t (mt nc ca hnh bc thang).
Vi mt mch bin i c N bit tc l c N s hng trong t m nh phn th mt nc trn
hnh bc thang chim mt gi tr.

Q = U LSB =

U A max

(6-2)

2N 1

trong U A max l gi tr cc i cho php tng ng ca in p tng t u vo A/D.


Gi tr U LSB hay Q gi l mc lng t.
Do tn hiu s l tn hiu ri rc nn trong qu trnh chuyn i A/D xut hin mt sai s
gi l sai s lng t ho, c xc nh nh sau:

1
U Q = .Q
2

(6-3)

159

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


Khi chuyn i A/D phi thc hin ly mu tn hiu tng t. m bo khi phc li tn
hiu mt cch trung thc tn s ly mu phi tho mn iu kin sau:

f M 2.f t max 2.B

(6-4)

trong ftmax l tn s cc i ca tn hiu.

B l gii tn s ca tn hiu.
Theo nh l ly mu, nu iu kin (6-4) tho mn th khng c s trung lp gia ph c
bn v cc thnh phn ph khc sinh ra do qu trnh ly mu.

6.1.2. Cc tham s c bn
6.1.2.1. Gii bin i ca in p tn hiu tng t u vo
L khong in p m b chuyn i A/D thc hin c.
Khong in p c th ly tr s t 0 n gi tr dng hoc m no hoc cng c th
l in p hai cc tnh t -UAm n +UAm
6.1.2.2. chnh xc ca b chuyn i A/D.
Tham s u tin c trng cho chnh xc ca b A/D l phn bit. Ta bit rng u ra
ca b A/D l cc gi tr s sp xp theo quy lut ca mt loi m no . S cc s hng ca m s
u ra tng ng vi di bin i ca in p vo, cho bit mc chnh xc ca php bin i. V d: 1
b A/D c s bit u ra N=12 c th phn bit c 212 = 4096 mc trong gii bin i in p ca n.
phn bit ca b A/D c k
UD
hiu l Q v c xc nh theo
L tng
Thc
biu thc (6-2). Q chnh l gi tr
ca mt mc lng t ho hoc
cn gi l 1 LSB.
111
Trong thc t thng
dng s bit N c trng cho
chnh xc, lc phi hiu
ngm rng gii bin in p
vo coi nh khng i.

110

Thng thng cc b A/D


c s bit t 3 n 12. C nhng
b A/D t chnh xc 14 n
16 bit.

011

Mo phi tuyn

101
100

Sai s khuch i
Sai s n iu

UA

010
Sai s lch khng

1/2 LSB

ng c tuyn truyn t
Hnh 6-2: c tuyn truyn t l tng v thc
l tng ca b A/D l 1 ng
ca mch chuyn i A/D
bc thang u v c dc trung
bnh bng 1. ng c tuyn thc c sai s lch khng, sai s khuych i ca mo phi tuyn v sai
s n iu, biu din trn hnh 6-2.
160

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


Cn ch rng b A/D lm vic l tng vn tn ti sai s. l sai s lng t ho, c
xc nh theo biu thc (6-2). V vy sai s lng t cn gi l sai s l tng hoc sai s h
thng ca b A/D.
6.1.2.3. Tc chuyn i:
Tc chuyn i cho bit kt qu chuyn i trong mt giy c gi l tn s chuyn i
fC. Cng c th dng tham s thi gian chuyn i TC c trng cho tc chuyn i. TC l
1
1
. Thng f C <
. Khi b
thi gian cn thit cho mt kt qu chuyn i. Ch rng f C
TC
TC
chuyn A/D c tc cao th chnh xc gim hoc ngc li, ngha l tc chuyn i v
chnh xc mu thun vi nhau. Tu theo yu cu s dng m dung ho gia cc yu cu mt
cch hp l.
6.1.3. Nguyn tc lm vic ca A/D
Nguyn l lm vic ca b A/D c minh ho trn s khi hnh 6-3.
Trc ht tn hiu tng t UA c a n mt mch ly mu, mch ny c 2 nhim v
(xem th thi gian hnh 6-4)

UA

A/D

UM
Mch ly
mu

UD
M

Lng t
ho

ho

Hnh 6-3: S khi minh ho nguyn tc lm vic ca


b A/D
UA

t
UM

UMt0

t0

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

t7

t8

Hnh 6-4: th thi gian ca in p vo v in p ra mch ly mu


161

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


- Ly mu tn hiu tng t ti nhng thi im khc nhau v cch u nhau (ri rc ho tn
hiu v mt thi gian).
- Gi cho bin in p ti cc thi im ly mu khng i trong qu trnh chuyn i
tip theo.
Tn hiu ra mch ly mu c a n mch lng t ho lm trn vi chnh xc

Q
. Mch lng t ho c nhim v ri rc tn hiu tng t v mt bin . Nh qu trnh
2
lng t ho mt tn hiu tng t bt k c biu din bi mt s nguyn ln mc lng t,
ngha l:

ZDi = Phn nguyn

X Ai X Ai X Ai
=

Q
Q
Q

(6-5)

Trong : XAi: l tn hiu tng t thi im i


ZDi: tn hiu s thi im i
Q: Mc lng t
Xi: S d trong php lng t ho
Trong php chia theo biu thc (6-5) ch ly phn nguyn ca kt qu, phn d cn li
(khng chia ht cho Q) chnh l sai s lng t ho. Nh vy, qu trnh lng t ho thc cht l
qu trnh lm trn s. Lng t ho thc hin theo nguyn tc so snh. Tn hiu cn chuyn i
c so snh vi mt lot cc n v chun Q.
Sau mch lng t ho l mch m ho. Trong mch m ho, kt qu lng t ho c
sp xp li theo mt quy lut nht nh ph thuc vo loi m yu cu trn u ra ca b chuyn
i.
Trong nhiu loi mch A/D qu trnh lng t ho v m ho xy ra ng thi, khng th
tch ri hai qu trnh .
Php lng t ho v php m ho c gi chung l mch chuyn i A/D

6.2. CC PHNG PHP CHUYN I A/D


6.2.1. Phn loi
C nhiu phng php chuyn i A/D, ngi ta phn ra bn phng php bin i sau:
- Bin i song song.
Trong phng php chuyn i song song, tn hiu c so snh cng mt lc vi nhiu gi
tr chun. Do tt c cc bit c xc nh ng thi v a n u ra.
- Bin i ni tip theo m m:
y qu trnh so snh c thc hin ln lt tng bc theo quy lut ca m m. Kt
qu chuyn i c xc nh bng cch m s lng gi tr chun c th cha c trong gi tr
tn hiu tng t cn chuyn i.
162

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


- Bin i ni tip theo m nh phn
Qu trnh so snh c thc hin ln lt tng bc theo quy lut m nh phn. Cc n v
chun dng so snh ly cc gi tr gim dn theo quy lut m nh phn, do cc bit c xc
nh ln lt t bit c ngha ln nht (MSB) n bit c ngha nh nht (LSB)
- Bin i song song - ni tip kt hp
Trong phng php ny, qua mi bc so snh c th xc nh c ti thiu l 2 bit ng
thi.
Sau y chng ta s nghin cu mt s phng php chuyn i in hnh.
6.2.2. Chuyn i A/D theo phng php song song
S ca phng php ny nh hnh 6-5. Tn hiu tng t ly mu UM c ng
thi a n cc b so snh S1 Sm.
in p chun Uch c a n u vo th 2 ca b so snh qua thang in tr R. Do cc
in p chun t vo cc b so snh ln cn khc nhau mt lng khng i v gim dn t S1
n Sm. u ra cc b so snh c in p vo ln hn in p chun ly trn thang in tr, c
mc logic "1", cc u ra cn li c mc logic "0". Tt c cc u ra c ni n mch "V",
mt u mch "V" ni ti mch to xung nhp. Ch khi c xung nhp a ti u vo "V" th
cc xung u ra b so snh mi a ra mch nh FF (Flip-Flop). Nh vy c sau 1 thi gian bng
1 chu k xung nhp li c 1 tn hiu c bin i v a n u ra. Xung nhp bo m cho qu
trnh so snh kt thc mi a tn hiu vo b nh. B m ho c nhim v bin i tn hiu vo
di dng m m thnh m nh phn.

+Uch
_

UM

S1

FF

_
S2

UD

FF

+
_
S4

FF

M
ho

_
Sm

R
2

FF
Nhp

Hnh 6-5: S nguyn l b chuyn i A/D theo phng


php song song

163

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


Mch ny c u im l tc bin i nhanh, v qu trnh so snh thc hin song song.
Nhng nhc im l kt cu mch phc tp vi s linh kin qu ln. Vi b chuyn i N bit,
phn bit c 2N mc lng t ho, phi dng ( 2 N 1 ) b so snh. V vy phng php ny ch
dng trong cc b A/D yu cu s bt nh v tc chuyn i cao. Ngy nay ngi ta ch to
cc b A/D song song 7 bits vi fC = 15MHz
6.2.3. Chuyn i A/D theo phng php m n gin.
Hnh 6-6 biu din s khi v nguyn tc lm vic ca mch. Hnh 6-7 l th thi gian
in p ra ca cc khi hnh 6-6.
+
_

UA

SS

USS

UC To in p
rng ca
+
_

SS

UG

m,
M ha

USS

UD

To nhp

Hnh 6-6: S nguyn tc ca A/D lm vic theo phng


php m n gin

UC

U
UA

t
0

tM

USS2
Hnh 6-7: th thi
gian in p ra cc khi
ca hnh 6-6

t
0
USS1
t
0
UG
t

in p vo UA c so snh vi in p chun dng rng ca UC nh b so snh SS1. Khi


UA>UC th SS1=1, khi UA<UC th SS1=0.

164

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


B so snh SS2 so snh in p rng ca vi mc 0V (t). USS1 v USS2 c a n mt
mch "V". Xung ra UG c rng t l vi ln ca in p vo tng t UA, vi gi thit
xung chun dng rng ca c dc khng i.
Mch "V" th 2 ch cho ra cc xung nhp khi tn ti UG, ngha l trong khong thi gian 0
< UC < UA. Mch m u ra s m s xung nhp . ng nhin, s xung ny t l vi ln
ca UA.
B to xung rng ca l mt b tch phn ta nghin cu chng 4. S nguyn l
trn hnh 6-8.
C

_
UC

Uch

Hnh 6-8: S nguyn l mch to xung rng ca


Dng in p chun mt chiu Uch np cho t C thng qua in tr R, ta c in p ra:
t
U
1
UC =
U ch dt = ch .t

RC 0
RC

Gi s ti t = tm th UC = UA, ta c:

UA =
tM =

U ch
t M , do
RC
UA
.RC
U ch

S xung nhp m c trong thi gian tM gi l Z


Z = fn.tM, vi fn l tn s xung nhp, hay:

Z = fn.

UA
.RC
U ch

(6-6)

Theo (6-6) ta thy rng Z t l vi UA nh mong mun, nhng Z cn ph thuc vo R, C v


fn. Nu nhng tham s ny khng n nh th kt qu m c sai s. Ngoi ra, trong phng php
ny yu cu fn phi ln t c chnh xc cn thit.
6.2.4. Chuyn i A/ D theo phng php tch phn hai sn dc
Mch in hnh 6-9 minh ho nguyn tc lm vic ca b A/D theo phng php tch
phn hai sn dc. Khi mch logic iu khin cho kho K v tr 1 th UA np in cho t C
thng qua in tr R. Trn u ra mch tch phn A1 c in p:
165

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A

U 'C =

K
1

1
1
U A dt =
U A .t

RC 0
RC
C

R
2

(6-7)

A
UA

S
A

Uch
UD

m
Mch
logic

"v"

m
Z0
Nhp

Hnh 6-9: S nguyn l ca b A/D lm vic theo phng php tch


phn hai sn dc
Gi thit thi gian np cho t l t1, ta c in p h trn t sau thi gian t1 l

U 'Ct =
1

UA
.t1
RC

(6-8)

U'Ct1 t l vi UA Tu theo UA ln hay b m in p U'C(t) c dc khc nhau nh trn


hnh 6-10. Trong thi gian t1, b m Z0 cng m cc xung nhp. Ht thi gian t1 kho K c
mch logic iu khin sang v tr 2, ng thi tn hiu t mch logic cng c a n mch
"V" lm cho mch "V" thng i vi xung nhp. Ti thi im ny mch m u ra bt u
m, ng thi mch m Z0 c mch logic iu khin v v tr ngh.
UC

U'C1

Hnh 6-10: th thi gian in p ra


trn mch tch phn

U'C1

UA

0
t1

t'2

t2
Khi kho K v tr 2, in p Uch bt u np cho t C theo chiu ngc li, phng trnh
np l:

166

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A

U C'' =

U ch
.t
RC

(6-9)

Sau mt khong thi gian t2 th:

U Ct'' 2 =

U ch
.t 2
RC

(6-10)

Gi thit sau thi gian t2 th | U 'C' |=| U 'C | , ngha l in p trn t C bng 0. Theo (6-8) v
(6-10) ta c:

U
UA
t1 = ch t 2
RC
RC
hay:

t2 =

UA
t1
U ch

(6-11)

Mt khc, c th xc nh c s xung a n mch m Z0 trong khong thi gian t1 l:


Z0 = fn.t1
Trong :

(6-12)

fn l tn s dy xung nhp. T (6-12) suy ra:

t1 =

Z0
fn

(6-13)

Thay (6-13) vo (6-11) xc nh c:

t2 =

U A Z0
.
U ch f n

(6-14)

Do s xung nhp m c nh mch m u ra trong khong thi gian t2 l:

Z = t 2 .f n =

UA
.Z 0
U ch

(6-15)

Sau thi gian t2 mch m ra b ngt, v UC = 0 v mch logic ng cng "V". Qu trnh
c lp li trong chu k chuyn i tip theo.
Theo (6-15) ta thy s xung m c u ra t l vi in p tng t UA cn chuyn
i. y kt qu m khng ph thuc vo cc thng s RC ca mch v cng khng ph thuc
vo tn s xung nhp fn, nh trong phng php m n gin. Nh vy kt qu chuyn i kh
chnh xc v khng cn chn tn s xung nhp fn cao. Tuy nhin tn s xung nhp phi c n
nh cao sao cho tr s ca n trong khong thi gian t1 v t2 nh nhau php gin c trong
biu thc (6-15) khng gy sai s.
Trong phng php m n gin v phng php tch phn hai sn dc, ta lm cho
in p UA t l vi thi gian t1 v t2 ri m s xung nhp xut hin trong khong thi gian . V
vy cc phng php ny cn c tn gi chung l phng php gin tip thng qua thng s thi
gian.
167

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


6.2.5. Chuyn i A/ D, D/A phi tuyn
Ta bit rng sai s tuyt i ca b chuyn i A/D khng i, cn sai s tng i ca n
tng khi bin tn hiu vo gim. Trng hp mun cho sai s tng i khng i trong ton
gii bin i ca in p vo th ng c tnh truyn t ca b bin i phi c dng loga (hnh
6-11a), sao cho t s tn hiu trn tp m thay i trong gii bin i ca in p vo. Nh
ting ni nh khng b tp m ln t v cng l mt cch lm cho qu trnh lng t ho thch
ng vi c tnh ca tai ngi. l c tnh ln t c tp m khi tn hiu vo ln. Ngoi ra,
lng t ho phi tuyn cn cho php tng dung lng ca knh thoi do gim c s bit vi
cng cht lng thng tin nh nhau khi lng t ho tuyn tnh.

UD

UD

UA
0

UA

0
Hnh 6-11: c tnh bin i phi tuyn b)

a)

a) ca b bin i A/D;

b) ca b bin i D/A

c li tn hiu trung thc nh ban u, b bin i ngc D/A theo phng php ny c
cu to sao cho ng c tnh bin i ngc ca n c dng hm s m (hnh 6-11b). c trng
bin i A/D thng dng hm s:

y=
trong : x =

ln(1 + x)
ln(1 + )

(6-16)

UA
UD
;y =
U Amax
U D max

Theo (6-16) y = 0 khi x = 0 v y = 1 khi x = 1.


dc y' ti x = 0:

y ' | x =0 =

ln(1 + )

Hnh 6-12 biu din hm s ny vi = 100. So snh vi ng c tnh


y = x th ng cong (6-13) c dc gp i ti gc to . Do vi tn hiu b, ng c
tnh c bc "thang" bin i dy hn. Tng ng t s tn hiu trn tp m tnh c l 6dB. Nu
ng c tnh c dc ti gc to y'' = 21,7 th t s S/N = 26,7 dB
Thc t rt kh tng h s , v ng c tnh cng cong th vic thc hin hai ng cong
bin i A/D v D/A c dng nh nhau, bin i ngc nhau v c dc ph hp rt phc tp.
Trong thc t n gin ta chia ng c tnh truyn t thnh 2 on c dc khc nhau:
168

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A

vi tn hiu b ( x <

y2 =

Ax
1
) dng hm s y1 =
v vi tn hiu ln dng hm s:
A
1 + ln A

1 + ln A X
.
1 + ln A

y
1,0
0,9
0,8

Hnh 6-12: ng cong


ln(1 + x )
y=
vi =100.
ln(1 + )

0,7

y=

0,6

ln(1 + .x)
ln(1 + )

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0

0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0

S sc mng

Theo nguyn tc , ngi ta thc hin ng t tnh gm 13 sc mng: 6 sec mng ng


vi x > 0; 6 sc mng ng vi x < 0 v sc mng th 13 i qua gc to c |y| = 2,8 (hnh 6-13).
Cc sc mng k nhau c dc hn km nhau hai ln.

8
7
6
5
4
3

0 2 4 8 16

S mc
32

64

Hnh 6-13: c tnh truyn t ca b


chuyn i D/A phi tuyn dng trong thc t
Bng cch c th ch to mt b chuyn i A/D- 4 bit, trong 1 bit dng ch th cc
tnh ca in p vo, v 3 bit biu din mt tn hiu c gii bin i in p vo ln gp 256
ln sc mng nh nht, ngha l so vi lng t ho tuyn tnh th s bit gim i mt na.
truyn tn hiu ting ni thng dng m 8 bt. Bng cch chia mi sec mng trn
thnh 16 phn nh s thu c m 8 bt mong mun.
169

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A

6.3. CC PHNG PHP CHUYN I D/A


Chuyn i s-tng t (D/A) l qu trnh tm li tn hiu tng t t N s hng (N bt)
bit ca tn hiu s, vi chnh xc l mt mc lng t t 1 LSB.
Chuyn i D/A khng phi l php nghch o ca chuyn i A/D, v khng th thc hin
php nghch o ca qu trnh lng t ha.
ly li tn hiu tng t t tn hiu s, dng s nguyn tc trn hnh 6-14.
Theo s ny th qu trnh chuyn
i s- tng t l qu trnh tm li tn hiu
tng t ly mu c. Tn hiu u ra l
tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian nh trn hnh
6-15. Tn hiu ny c a qua mt b lc
thng thp l tng. u ra b lc c tn
hiu UA bin i lin tc theo thi gian,
l tn hiu ni quy ca UM.

UD

D/A

LTT

UA

Hnh 6-14: S khi nguyn tc bin i


tm li tn hiu tng t t tn hiu s

Sau y ta s xt mt s phng php chuyn i D/A c bn.


UM

UA

0
Hnh 6-15: th thi gian ca tn hiu sau mch chuyn
i D/A
6.3.1. Chuyn i D/A bng phng php thang in tr

S 6-16 minh ha nguyn l lm vic ca b chuyn i D/A theo phng php thang
in tr. u vo b khuych i thut ton l mt thang in tr. M tr s ca chng phn b
theo m nh phn, cc in tr ln cn nhau hn km nhau 2 ln. Tn hiu iu khin l tn hiu s
cn chuyn i. Bt c ngha nh nht (LSB) c a n iu khin kha ni vi in tr ln
nht R, bit c ngha ln hn tip c a n iu khin kha ni vi in tr nh hn R/2...
v MSB iu khin kha ni vi in tr nh nht ( R ). Nu mt bt c gi tr "O" th kha

N -1

tng ng ni t v nu mt bt c gi tr "1" th kha K tng ng ni vi ngun in p chun


Uch to nn mt dng in t l nghch vi tr s in tr ca nhnh , ngha l Io c gi tr b
nht, IN-1 c gi tr ln nht. Dng sinh ra trong cc nhnh in tr c a n u vo b
khuych i, u ra b khuych i thut ton c in p:
N 1

U M = R ht I n

(6-17)

n 0

170

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


thc hin chuyn mch K trong s 6-16 c th dng s 6-17. y l mt mch
khuych i vi sai lm vic trng thi bo ha. Khi tn hiu iu khin c gi tr "O" th Io qua
Rht

20

21

I0

2N-1

I1
R
2

IN-1

UM

2 N 1

K
Hnh 6-16: S nguyn l b chuyn i
D/A theo phng php thang in tr
= Uch Tn hiu iu khin s
T1 xung t, khi tn hiu iu khin c gi tr "1" th Io c dn qua T2 n u vo b
khuych i thut ton.
Chuyn i D/A theo phng php ny yu cu tr s ca cc in tr phi rt chnh xc. V
R
d in tr nh nht N -1 phi chnh xc n mc sai s dng in qua khng vt qu 1
2
LSB, vi N=16 th sai s ny khong 0,5%.

Rht
_
+
T2

T1

UM

Tn hiu iu khin

I0
R

Hnh 6-17: Minh ha nguyn tc lm vic ca


chuyn mch K trn hnh 6-16.

-Uch
6.3.2. Chuyn i D/A bng phng php mng in tr
S nguyn l b chuyn i D/A theo phng php ny nh hnh 6-18. y cc
ngun dng c to ra bi ngun in p chun Uch. Dng in ca chng bng nhau v bng Io.
Tn hiu cn chuyn i c a n chuyn mch K. Khi mt bt no ca tn hiu iu khin
171

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


l "0" th Io tng ng vi bt b ngn mch qua kha xung t. Ngc li, nu tn hiu iu
khin l "1" th Io ng vi bt c dn ti u vo b khuych i qua mng in tr.

Tn hiu

I0

I0 . . .

I0

I0

i0

i1

iN-2

iN-1

iu khin

Rht
_

R
2R

R
2R

2R
2R

UM

Hnh 6-18: S nguyn l b chuyn i D/A


theo phng php mng in tr
Trong s ny mng in tr lm nhim v phn dng. V in tr nhnh ngang bng mt
na in tr nhnh dc, nn dng i qua mi khu in tr th gim i mt na. Dng in ng
vi LSB i qua N-1 khu in tr, dng in ng vi bit c ngha ln hn i qua N-2 khu.....v
dng ng vi MSB c a trc tip n u b khuych i. Kt qu l cc dng in ca
vo b khuych i c tr s tng ng vi bit m n i din. Chng c tr s gim dn t MSB
n LSB theo m nh phn. in tr nhnh ngang cui cng c gi tr s l 2R bng in tr
I
nhnh dc m bo s phn dng cho i N 2 = 0 khu cui cng cng ging nh cc khu
2
trc.
Trong s ny s in tr phi dng kh ln. Nu phi chuyn i N bit th s in tr
phi dng l 2(N-1), trong khi theo phng php thang in tr ch phi dng N in tr m thi.

TM TT
Kt thc chng ngi hc cn hiu v nm c cc vn :
- Tn hiu trong h thng thng tin s l tn hiu s. T tn hiu tng t (Analog) mun
chuyn i thnh tn hiu s (Digital) phi dng b chuyn i tng t- s vit tt l A/D.
Ngc li khi c tn hiu s mun chun thnh tn hiu tng t phi dng b chuyn i stng t vit tt l D/A.
- Chuyn i A/D. Nguyn tc chuyn i A/D c m t trn c tuyn truyn t hnh
6-1. y UA l tn hiu tng t, UD l tn hiu s. Ta thy tn hiu s l tn hiu r rc, mt
phm vi gi tr ca UA c biu din bng mt i din s thch hp di dng s nh phn. Vi
172

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


UAmax l in p tng t cc i u vo, th mmt nc ca hnh thang (cn gi l mc lng t
Q) bng:
Q = UAmax /(2N 1).
Do tn hiu s l tn hiu ri rc nn trong qu trnh chuyn i A/D xut hin sai s lng
t UQ = Q/2.
Trc khi chuyn i A/D phi ly mu tn hiu tng t. qu trnh khi phc li tn
hiu tng t trung thc, tn s ly mu phi tho mn iu kin fM 2Fmax, trong Fmax l tn
s gii hn trn ca gii tn hiu vo.
- Cc tham s c bn ca b chuyn i A/D:
+ Gii bin i in p ca tn hiu tng t u vo.
+ chnh xc ca b chuyn i A/D: c nh gi bng s bt N ca t m, khi xem
gii bin ca in p tn hiu vo khng i. Trong chuyn i A/D lun tn ti sai s c
gi l sai s lng t. Ngoi ra c th c cc sai s khc nh sai s n iu, sai s lch khng,
sai s khuch i.
+ Tc chuyn i: trong chuyn i A/D tc chuyn i v chnh xc mu thun
nhau.
+ Cc bc chuyn i A/D: c ba bc: ly mu tn hiu tng t v gi mu, lng t
ho, m ho.
- Cc phng php chuyn i A/D.
+ Chuyn i A/D theo phng php song song: phng php ny c u im l tc
chuyn i nhanh nhng phi dng nhiu b so snh. Vi mch chuyn i cho tn hiu s N bt
cn c 2N 1 b so snh.
+ Chuyn i A/D theo phng php m n gin: phng php ny mch n gin hn,
ch cn hai b so snh. Tuy vy mun c chnh xc cao cn linh kin RC trong mch to in
p rng ca c sai s nh, tn s xung nhp (fn) phi ln.
+ Chuyn i A/D theo phng php tch phn hai sn dc c u im hn c. chnh
xc ca qu trnh chuyn i cao, n khng ph thuc sai s ca linh kin trong mch cng
nh yu cu v tn s xung nhp.
+ Chuyn i A/D, D/A phi tuyn c u im l lm tng t s tn hiu trn tp m (S/N)
khi tn hiu vo nh. Ngoi ra lng t ho phi tuyn cn cho php tng dung lng ca knh
thoi do gim c s bt ca t m vi cng cht lng thng tin nh nhau so vi khi lng t
ho tuyn tnh.
+ Chuyn i D/A l qu trnh tm li tn hiu tng t UA t tn hiu s UD. B chuyn i
D/A cho ta tn ta li tn hiu tng t ly mu UM. l tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian. Tn
hiu ny qua mch lc thng thp l tng cho tn hiu UA bin i lin tc theo thi gian, l tn
hiu ni suy ca UM.
- Cc phng php chuyn i D/A.
173

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


+ Chuyn i D/A dng thang in tr: mch gm mt thang in tr c s in tr bng s
bt ca t m. Tr s cc in tr lin k cch nhau hai ln R, R/2,...,R/2N-1. Cc bt tng ng ca
tn hiu s UD iu khin chuyn mch, ni in p Uch vi in tr tng ng nu bt nhn gi tr
1 v ni t nu bt nhn gi tr 0. Dng tng qua Rht, cho in p u ra l mt xung c bin
tng ng vi t m m nhim tc ng u vo. Mch ny c nhiu loi in tr bng s bt N,
d gy sai s do tr s cc in tr khc nhau qu nhiu.
+ Chuyn i D/A dng mng in tr. Mng ch dng hai loi in tr R v 2R nn nh
hng ca sai s linh kin t hn. Do cch u ca mng in tr nn dng in t tri qua phi,
c qua mt nt mch phi chia i gi tr. Dng tng gy st p trn Rht cho in p ra l xung c
bin tng ng tn hiu s tc ng u vo.
Ch : cc phng php chuyn i A/D, D/A ti liu ny u xt qu trnh chuyn i
tuyn tnh c mc lng t Q u. Hin nay vi mch chuyn i A/D, D/A dng rt ph bin,
c chia theo cc h. Cc vi mch chuyn i A/D k hiu ADC 0801 - 0805, t tn hiu tng
t cho ra tn hiu s 8 bit. Cc vi mch chuyn i D/A k hiu DAC 0806 - 0808, l b chuyn
i ngc, t tn hiu s 8 bt cho ra tn hiu tng t.

CU HI V BI TP
6.1. chnh xc ca b chuyn i A/D ph thuc vo tham s no? ti sao?
6.2. Nu cc bc chuyn i A/D?
6.3. S v nguyn l hot ng ca b chuyn i A/D theo phng php song song?
6.4. Trong s chuyn i A/D theo phng php song song mc lng t Q th hin u?
Tm biu thc xc nh gi tr ?
6.5. S v nguyn l chuyn i ca b chuyn i A/D theo phng php m n gin?
6.6. Trong s chuyn i A/D theo png phng php m n gin mc lng t Q th
hin u? Tm biu thc xc inh gi tr ?
6.7. So snh u im b chuyn i A/D theo phng php tch phn hai sn i vi phng
php m n gin?
6.8. Th no l chuyn i A/D phi tuyn? ngha thc t ca n?
6.9. Nu cc bc chuyn i D/A?
6.10. S v nguyn l b chuyn i D/A theo phng php thang in tr?
6.11. S v nguyn l b chuyn i D/A theo phng php mng in tr?
6.12. So snh b chuyn i D/A dng phng php thang in tr vi phng php dng mng
in tr?
6.13. Mt tn hiu tng t c gii tn s 300 Hz n 3700 Hz. Hy xc nh tn s ly mu
chuyn i A/D trong trng hp ?
Nu tn s ly mu fM = 8000Hz th chu k ly mu TM l bao nhiu?
174

Chng 6: Chuyn i A/D, D/A


6.14. Mt b chuyn i A/D c Ua max = 5v. Hy xc nh mc lng t Q v sai s lng t ca
n trong cc trng hp: s bt t m N = 3, s bt t m N = 6, nhn xt?
6.15. Tn s ly mu trong chuyn i A/D khi tn hiu vo c gii tn Fmin Fmax l:
a. fM 2Fmin.

b. fM 2Fmax.

c. fM < 2Fmax.

d. fM = Fmax.

6.16. chnh xc trong chuyn i A/D khi Ua max khng i ph thuc vo:
a. ln tn s ly mu fM.
b. rng gii tn tn hiu vo.
c. S bt N ca t m.
d. C b v c.
6.17. chnh xc trong chuyn i A/D dng phng php m n gin ph thuc vo thng
s ca mch:
a. Ch ph thuc fn.
b. Ph thuc R, C.
c. Ph thuc R, C v fn.
d. Khng ph thuc.
6.18. chnh xc trong chuyn i A/D dng phng php tch phn hai sn dc ph thuc
vo thng s ca mch:
a. Ph thuc fn, R v C.
b. Ph thuc R, C.
c. Khng ph thuc.
d. Ch ph thuc fn.
6.19. S in tr dng trong thang in tr ca mch chuyn i D/A khi s bt ca t m N:
a. 2N.

b. N.

c. 2(N 1).

d. 2(N + 1).

6.20. S in tr dng trong mng in tr ca mch chuyn i D/A khi s bt ca t m N:


a. N.

b. 2N - 1.

c. 2(N 1).

d. (N + 1)

175

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun

CHNG 7: MCH CUNG CP NGUN

GII THIU CHUNG


Cc vn chnh ca chng gm:
- Khi nim b ngun, s khi ca b ngun gm cc khi bin p, chnh lu, lc san
bng v n p.
- Bin p: nhim v ca bin p.
- Mch chnh lu: chnh lu mt pha na sng, chnh lu mt pha ton sng, chnh lu cu
v chnh lu bi p. Nhim v ca mch chnh lu.
- Mch lc. Nhim v ca mch lc. C mch lc C, mch lc L, mch lc LC v RC.
- Mch n p. Nhim v ca mch n p. C mch n p dng it zene, mch n p dng
tranzito, mch n p dng vi mch.
- Mch bo v qu dng, qu p. Nhim v ca mch bo v. Phn tch mch bo v qu
dng, mch bo v qu p.
- B ngun chuyn mch: khi nim, s khi v nguyn l hot ng ca b ngun
chuyn mch.

NI DUNG
7.1. KHI NIM
Mch ngun cung cp c nhim v cung cp nng lng mt chiu cho cc mch in v
thit b in t hot ng. Nng lng mt chiu ca n c ly t ngun xoay chiu ca li in
thng qua qu trnh bin i thc hin trong b ngun mt chiu. Hnh 7-1 biu din s khi ca
mt b ngun mt chiu hon chnh vi chc nng cc khi nh sau:

It
U1

Bin p

U2

Mch chnh
lu

U0

Mch
lc

U01

Mch n p U
r
(n dng)

Rt

Hnh 7-1. S khi b ngun.


Bin p bin i in p xoay chiu U1 thnh in p xoay chiu U2 c gi tr thch hp
vi yu cu. Trong mt s trng hp c th dng trc tip U1 khng cn bin p.
- Mch chnh lu c nhim v chuyn in p xoay chiu U2 thnh in p mt chiu khng
bng phng U0. S khng bng phng ny ph thuc c th vo tng dng mch chnh lu.
176

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


- Mch lc c nhim v san bng in p mt chiu p mch U0 thnh in p mt chiu
U01 t nhp nh hn.
- Mch n p mt chiu (n dng) c nhim v n nh in p (dng in) u ra Ur (It),
khi U01 thay i theo s mt n nh ca U1 hay dng ti It thay i. Trong trng hp khng c
yu cu cao th khng cn mch n p, n dng mt chiu.

7.2. BIN P
Bin p l thit b lm vic theo nguyn l cm ng in t dng bin i in p xoay
chiu na thnh in p xoay chiu khc nhng tn s khng i. Trong thit b ngun bin p
ngoi nhim v bin i in p xoay chiu ca mng in thnh in p xoay chiu c tr s cn
thit vi mch chnh lu cn c tc dng ngn cch mch chnh lu vi mch in v mt chiu.
Mt bin p c bn c hai cun dy cun trn li st t hnh 7-2. Cun s cp c ni vi
mng in, cun th cp c ni vi ti.

U1

U2

Hnh 7- 2. Bin p ngun.


Cc thng s pha s cp thng c ghi ch s 1: s vng dy s cp W1 in p hiu dng,
dng in hiu dng, cng sut hiu dng s cp U1, I1, P1. Cc thng s cun th cp ghi ch s
2: W2, U2, I2 ,P2. Ngoi ra cn c cc i lng nh mc ca bin p: in p nh mc: U1dm,
U2dm, dng nh mc I1dm, I2dm, cng sut nh mc Pdm.
Nu b qua tn hao do in tr dy cun v t thng tn hao th h s bin p n c tnh:
n = U1/ U2 = W1/ W2

(7-1)

7.3. CHNH LU MT PHA


7.3.1 Chnh lu mt pha na sng :
7.3.1.1. Vi ti thun tr (hnh 7-3a)
Gi s na chu k u U2 dng, it D phn cc thun, D thng nn c dng qua it,
qua Rt khp kn mch.
Na chu k sau U2 m, it D phn cc ngc nn tt, khng c dng qua ti. Nu b qua
st p thun trn it th dng sng in p ngun, dng sng in p ra, dng in trn ti, dng
sng in p ngc t t ln it D nh hnh 7-3b.

177

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


D

U2
U1

U0

U2

U2m

Rt

a)
uo

U2m
U

Hnh 7-3: S chnh lu v


th dng sng ca chnh
lu 1 pha na sng

io

IM
Io

uDng

t
UM
b)
Ta thy trong 1 chu k ca in p mng, ch c 1 xung dng qua ti m =1.
in p trn ti u0 v dng in qua ti i0 bao gm thnh phn 1 chiu v v s cc thnh
phn xoay chiu t bc mt tr ln, nhng thnh phn xoay chiu ny gy nn p mch (nhp
nh) ca in p u ra b chnh lu.

u0 = U0 + Un
n =1

i0 = I 0 + in
n =1

B qua tn hao trn it, ta c thnh phn 1 chiu ca in p trn ti U0

Uo =

U
m
U 2 m sin tdt = 2 m = 0,45U 2

2 0

U in p hiu dng ca u; U 2 =

(7-2)

U 2m
2

- Tn s p mnh ca in p trn ti:


fd= m.f = f = 50Hz
- in p ngc ln nht t ln it:
UDngmax=U2m

(7-3)

178

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


7.3.1.2. Vi ti dung tnh
Khi u ra b chnh lu mc 1 t C song song vi ti, vi iu kin X C =

1
<< Rt th
mc

ti ca b nn c coi l mang dung tnh (Hnh 7-3a)

U2

UC

U2m

U0

Uo
U1

U2

Uo

Rt

io
Io
2

a)

t
b)

Hnh 7-4: S nn 1 pha na sng ti dung tnh v dng sng trn ti


Nu gi tr t C sao cho XC<<Rt, th tt c cc thnh phn xoay chiu ca dng nn i0
s c ni tt qua t C, trn Rt ch cn thnh phn 1 chiu I0
V s c mt ca t C nn khi D thng, C c np vi hng s thi gian np n=(rS+rv)C.
Khi D tt, t C phng qua ti vi hng s thi gian phng P=Rt.C.
V ni tr ca ngun rS v ca van nn rv(rS+rv) << Rt nn n<<P, v vy in p trn t C
bin i rt t. it ch thng khi gi tr in p tc thi ca ngun (uS) vt in p uC, nn xut
hin gc ct ca xung dng in nn.
in p trung bnh (in p 1 chiu) trn t c tnh bng:
UC=U0=U2mcos

(7-4)

Ta thy U0 l hm ca m li ph thuc vo gi tr ca ti so vi tng tr ca mch.

= 3RS / Rt
Khi h ti (Rt=) th I0hm= 0; = 0 vy U0hm = U2m
- in p ngc ln nht t ln it l trong trng hp h mch (Rt=)
Ungmaxtt=2U2m

(7-5)

S nn 1 pha na sng c u im l n gin nhng c nhng khuyt im:


- Dng trung bnh qua it ln Itbv=I0
179

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


- Tn s p mch nh fd=f=50Hz nn kh lc san bng.
7.3.2 Chnh lu mt pha ton sng
7.3.2.1. Chnh lu 1 pha ton sng dng bin p th cp c im gia
+ Vi ti thun tr
a
u2a
u1

0
u2b
a)

D1

i2a

Rt

i0

u2

u2b
u2M

Uo
i2
D2

u2a

i2a

2
i2a

i2b

t
I2M
Io

Hnh 7-5:

u0

S chnh lu 1 pha ton sng vi


th cp bin p c im gia khi ti
thun tr, dng sng u vo, u ra b
chnh lu v in p ngc trn it

U0
t
b)

Trn s hnh 7-5a: bin p 1 pha c cun th cp ra im gia, to thnh 2 in p u2a,


u2b c bin bng nhau v lch pha nhau 1800 t vo 2 it, khin chng thay nhau lm vic
trong c chu k.
Khi u2a bn chu k dng (a+;b-), it D1 thng, D2 kho c dng i2a (aD1 Rt 0)
cn dng i2b= 0.
Khi u2b bn chu k dng (b+; a-), it D2 thng it D1 kho, c dng i2b
(b D2 Rt 0), cn dng i2a= 0. Vy trong 1 chu k c 2 xung dng qua ti cng chiu, cn
trn mi na cun th cp ch c 1 xung dng, m = 2 v tn s p mch fd=2f=100Hz.

Dng qua ti i0 = i2 a + i2 b = I 0 + in
n =1

Do in p trn ti u0 = U0 + un
n =1

Dng v in p trn ti bao gm thnh phn 1 chiu (I0, U0) v v s cc thnh phn xoay
chiu ( i ; u) thnh phn 1 chiu ca dng in chnh lu:

I0 =

I 2 M = 0 ,636 I 2 M

180

(7-6)

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun

I 2M =

Trong :

U 2M
r f + Rt

rf = rb.a+rD l in tr thun tn hao ca 1 pha chnh lu bao gm in tr tng cun dy


bin p rb.a v in tr thun it rD, thnh phn mt chiu ca in p nn:

U 0 = I 0 Rt =

2 U 2M
Rt
r f + Rt

Nu b qua tn hao bin p v chnh lu (b qua rf) th

U0 =

U 2 M = 0,9U 2

+ Vi ti dung tnh.
u0

(7-7)
u2a

u2b

uC

a
u2a

D1

Uo
i2a

u1~
u2b

+
D2

i0

i2b
U0

I2

Rt

Io
t

_
Hnh 7-6: Chnh lu ton sng bin p im gia ti dung tnh v dng sng.
Khi c C// Rt v X c =

1
<< Rt th b chnh lu c ti dung tnh
m c

Khi ti dung tnh th cc it ch thng khi gi tr dng tc thi ca in p th cp, vt


UC tc l xut hin gc ct ca dng in chnh lu v in p 1 chiu U0 ph thuc .

U 0 = U 2 M cos = 2U 2 cos

(7-8)

Khi Rt = (ch h mch) = 0

U 0 hm = U 2 M = 2U 2
- in p ngc cc i t trn it:

U Dng max = 2U M = 2 2U 2
+ Vi ti cm tnh.
181

(7-9)

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


u2

u2a

u2b

U2M

u1~

u2a
u2b

D1

D2

i2a

+
I0

i2b
u0

Lch

u0

Rt

U0

Uo
i0

a)
I0
t

b)
Hnh 7-7: Chnh lu ton sng bin p gia vi ti cm v dng sng

Ti u ra b chnh lu mc cun chn ni tip vi ti cun dy Lch s chn tt c cc thnh


phn xoay chiu ca dng in chnh lu, vi iu kin:
XLch=mLch>>Rt
RLch<<Rt
th tt c cc thnh phn xoay chiu ca dng in chnh lu s b chn li trn Lch, cn trn
ti Rt l thnh phn in p, dng in 1 chiu U0, I0. Dng in qua Lch v Rt l lin tc khng
i trong sut c chu k (hnh 7-7b)
- B qua cc tn hao trn bin p, it v Lch th:

U 0 = 0,9U 2 ; I 0 =

U0
Rt

(7-10)

Trong thc t loi b tng i trit cc thnh phn xoay chiu ca dng in chnh
lu, ngi ta khng ch dng cun chn ring l m kt hp vi t C mc sau n v song song vi
Rt, gim nh tr khng ra ca b chnh lu.
* So vi s chnh lu 1 pha na sng, th s ny c u im:
- in p, dng in 1 chiu ra ln
- Tn s p mch fd = 2f d lc san bng
- Dng trung bnh qua it nh
* Nhc im:
- in p ngc t ln it ln
- Bt buc phi dng bin p
182

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


7.3.2.2. Chnh lu cu mt pha
S chnh lu cu mt pha: gm ngun xoay chiu vo (c th c bin p hoc khng), 4
it mc theo s cu, v ti.
i2a

D1

D4
U1

Lc

U2
D3
b

D2
i2b

Rt

U0

Rt

Rt

_
Hnh 7-8: S chnh lu cu 1 pha vi cc ti khc nhau
Khi na chu k ng vi a+, b- th D1 v D3 thng, th c dng i2a t a D1 ti D3
b. Na chu k ng vi b+, a- th D2 v D4 thng, c dng i2a t b D2 ti D4 a.
Trong mt chu k ca in p mng, s lm vic hai ln vi ti, c 2 xung dng qua ti
nn fd = 2f = 100Hz.
i vi ti in tr, in cm, in dung cc dng sng v tr s ging nh s chnh lu
ton sng 1 pha vi bin p im gia.
- Vi ti thun tr: U0 0,9 U2

U 0 = 2U 2 cos

- Vi ti dung tnh:

U ohm = 2U 2

- Vi ti cm tnh: U0 0,9 U2 ,cn in p ngc ln nht t ln it

U Dng max = U 2 M = 2U 2
- u im ca s cu so vi s c bin p th cp ra im gia .
+ C th dng bin p hoc khng
+ Nu dng bin p v nu cng in p th cun th cp c s vng gim mt na.

7.4. CHNH LU BI P
7.4.1. Chnh lu bi p na sng

183

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


a

Hnh 7-9: S nn bi
p na sng

D2

D1

u2

u1

C2

C1
b

U0

+
- C1, C2 c gi tr in dung m bo X C1 , X C 2

Rt

1
=
<< Rt th s ny l ti dung
C1,2

tnh.
Gi s na chu k u c a+; b- th D1 thng, C1 c np nhanh vi gi tr UC1 U2M. Na
chu k sau b+; a- th D2 thng, C2 c np vi
UC2 = 2U2M.cos = U0

(7-11)

(in p np cho C2 l tng in p cc i trn cun th U2M ni tip vi in p UC1).


Khi h ti: U 0 hm = U C 2 max = 2U 2 M = 2 2U 2
7.4.2 Chnh lu bi p ton sng.
D1
Hnh 7-10: S chnh lu bi
p ton sng

U1

+
C1

U2

I0
U0

+
C2

D2

S ny c th xem nh 2 s chnh lu 1 pha na sng mc ni tip nhau vi dch


pha gia chng l 1800 v ti dung tnh.
Gi thit na chu k u c a+; b- th D1 thng, C1 c np vi UC1=U2Mcos
Na chu k sau b+; a- c dng i2 (D2 thng), C2 c np:
UC2=U2Mcos

(7-11)

Sau 1 chu k in p mng ta c U0=UC1+UC2=2U2Mcos


Khi h ti ta c: U0hm= 2U2M=2 2 U2
S ny 1 chu k in p mng, s lm vic 2 ln vi ti fd = 2f.
184

Rt

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun

7.5. B LC
7.5.1. Khi nim chung
Sau chnh lu, nht thit phi c b lc san bng p mch (hay lc loi b thnh
phn xoay chiu) ca in p chnh lu n mc cn thit m ti yu cu.
nh gi tc dng lc ca b lc, ta coi b lc nh mt mng 4 u m li vo ca n
c cung cp mt in p 1 chiu vi p mch:
Kv = U0v/U0v
Ti u ra b lc ta nhn c in p vi p mch:
Kr = U0r/U0r

(7-12)

B lc

Hnh 7-11
U0v; U0r l bin ca thnh phn xoay chiu ca in p p mch u vo v u ra
c tnh vi hi bc 1
U0v, Uor in p 1 chiu u vo, ra ca b lc. H s lc (hay h s san bng) ca b lc l:

q=

K dv U 0 v U 0 r
=
.
K dr U 0 r U 0 v

(7-13)

Nu coi b lc khng tn hao thnh phn 1 chiu th q U0v/U0r q>1


H s lc ni ln cht lng ca b lc lm gim p mch i bao nhiu ln so vi
u vo.
7.5.2. B lc C, L
- B lc C thng dng trong cc b ngun c Rt ln, cng sut nh. Khi bit Kd , f =50Hz
th gi tr t C c tnh:
C =3200Kd / m Rt (F)
B lc L dng trong cc b ngun cng sut ln. Khi bit K , f =50 Hz th gi tr Lch c

tnh :

Lch =3,2.10-3 Rt / m K (H)


7.5.3. B lc LC
B lc LC l b lc c dng thng dng nht trong cc b chnh lu cng sut va v ln.
185

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


lc tt cc thnh phn xoay chiu ca in p p
mch, ta chn gi tr LCh sao cho:
XLch=m.LCh >> Rt

(7-14)

LCh

Uo~V

V rLch<<Rt

Uo~r

Rt

- Tr s in dung sao cho:


XC= 1/mC <<Rt

(7-15)

Hnh 7-12: B lc LC

Trong : m l s xung dng qua ti, ph thuc vo s chnh lu.

tn s in mng
rLch in tr thun tn hao trn cun chn, ta c:

U 0~ r = U 0~ v

q=

1
jm Lch +

1
jm C

1
jm C

1
U 0 ~v
= (m Lch +
)m C = m 2 2 Lch C + 1
U 0 ~r
m C

do m22LchC >>1 nn q = m22LchC (b qua 1)

(7-16)

H s p mch ca in p ti u ra b chnh lu c xc nh ph thuc vo s b


chnh lu v c tnh ti ca n, cn h s p mch ti u ra b lc do ti yu cu, nn q lun c
th xc nh c trc nn

Lch C =

q
m 2
2

t (7-14) xc nh c Lch, vy gi tr t lc:

C=

q
m 2 2 Lch

vi f=50Hz; Lch tnh theo Henry; C (F)

C 10

q
(F)
m Lch

(7-17)

Hiu sut ca b lc:

L =

Rt
=
rL + Rt
ch

1
rL
1+
Rt

(7-18)

ch

Thng th rLch << Rt nn hiu sut ca b lc LC kh cao v q t l vi m2, 2 nn h s


lc ca b lc LC rt ln.
Nhng cun chn c th tch trng lng ln, cng knh, gi thnh t.
186

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


R

Uo~V

Uo~r

Rt

Hnh 7-13: B lc RC
7.5.4. B lc RC
Khi hiu sut b lc l th yu n gin cu trc b lc ngi ta dng b lc RC, trong
1 phn t ca mt lc l in tr thun R mc ni tip vi Rt. Tnh q ca b lc RC tng t nh
tnh q ca b lc LC
Ta c:

q = mCRt

Vi

Rtd

(7-19)

RRt
R + Rt

Khi bit trc q; f = 50Hz; C (F); Rt () ta c:

CRtd = 3200

q
q
c = 3200
( F)
m
mRtd

(7-20)

- Cho bit st p UR trn in tr lc R v dng ti, ta tnh c R=UR/IRt


Mun lc tt (q ln) th in tr lc ln do tn hao trn b lc s ln v hiu sut ca b
lc s thp.

7.6. N NH IN P
7.6.1. Khi nim chung
Nhim v ca mch n nh in p l gi cho in p u ra n nh khi in p u vo
thay i hay ti thay i. nh gi n nh ca mch n p ngi ta a ra h s n nh
Ku.
H s n nh in p Ku ni ln
tc dng ca b n nh lm gim
khng n nh in p ra trn ti i bao
nhiu ln so vi u vo.
khng n nh u vo :

NV =

NV =

U V
U Vdm

B n nh

Nr =

Hnh 7-14: Khi n nh in p

U V
U Vdm

khng n nh in p u ra
187

U r
U rdm

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun

Nr =

U r
U rdm

U V , U r l lch ln nht v 1 pha ca in p u vo v u ra so vi cc gi tr


nh mc u vo, u ra UVm, Urm. Vy n nh in p ca b n p.

Ku =

N V U V U rdm
=
N r U r U Vdm

(7-21)

- Di n nh Du, Di ni nn rng ca khong lm vic ca b n p, n dng.


- Hiu sut: khi lm vic cc b n nh cng tiu hao nng lng in trn chng, do
hiu sut ca b n nh

Pr
Pr
=
PV Pr + Pth

(7-22)

Pr cng sut c ch trn ti ca b n nh


PV cng sut m b n nh yu cu t u vo
Pth cng sut tn hao trn b n nh
7.6.2. n p dng it zener :
it zener c c im l:
- Nu t in p thun trn it zener th c tnh ca n ging cc it thng.
- Nu t in p ngc th n c th lm vic c sau im nh thng A trn c tuyn
V-A (hnh 7-15a), tc l trong khong AB, chng vo dng in ngc thng qua n cha vt
qu 1 gi tr cho php Ingmax no (IZmax).
I
UZ
UZMax

UZMin

-U

IZmin
A

IZTB

It

I = IZ+ It
Khong n
nh

UV

IZ
ZD

(vng Zener)
B

IZMax
a)

b)
Hnh 7-15: c tnh V-A ca it Zener v s
n p mt chiu dng it Zener

188

Rt

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


Ta thy trn c tuyn V-A ca it zener: trn on AB dng ngc bin i I = IZmaxIZmin l rt ln, nhng in p ngc trn n bin i rt t UZ =UZmax- UZmin rt nh.
Ngi ta li dng on AB trn c tuyn V-A s dng it zener lm phn t hiu
chnh n nh in p 1 chiu.
Nu dng ngc qua n nh hn IZmin th it zener khng c tc dng n p.
Nu dng ngc qua n ln hn IZmax th it zener s b nh thng hon ton (b ngn
mch) khong lm vic (khong n nh) ca it zener c chn trong khong AB cn im
lm vic tnh thng c chn chnh gia khong lm vic.

I Z = I Ztb =

I Z max + I Z min
2

(7-23)

Tng ng vi IZ ta c UZ.
S nguyn l mch n nh in p 1 chiu dng it zener nh hnh 7-15b
Theo s ta c Ur = UZ
UV = UR +UZ
Khi Uv tng ln th dng ngc IZ tng ln gn tuyn tnh, do
I= (IZ+It) UR=I.R
Vy lng tng ca UV t trn in tr tuyn tnh R, cn Ur = UZ c bin i rt t khi UV
gim th IZ I UR.
in tr R hn ch dng IZ khng vt qu IZmax
- H s n nh in p i vi in p 1 chiu ng thi l h s lc i vi in p xoay
chiu

Ku =

U V rZ + R
R R
=
= 1+
rZ
rZ rZ
U r

(7-24)

UV, Ur l s bin thin ca in p vo v in p ra ca b n p so vi in p vo,


in p ra nh mc.
rZ in tr ng ca it Zener
Vy nu it Zener c in tr ng cng nh th n nh cng cao.
Mch n nh in p dng it Zener c s dng khi yu cu cng sut ra nh, v hiu sut
thp 50%, do tn hao trn R ln, mch ny m bo s n nh tt th nn chn:
UV = (1,5 3) Ur
Mch n p dng it zener c dng thng dng trong cc b to in p chun cho cc
b n p dng transistor v cc b so snh trong cc mch cnh bo, bo v...

189

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


7.6.3. n nh in p mt chiu vi hiu chnh ni tip kiu lin tc
7.6.3.1. S khi
Cc b n nh in p vi hiu chnh ni tip kiu lin tc cn gi l b n p c hi tip
c s khi nh hnh 8-16.
B n nh c hi tip c h s n nh ln cng nh cho cng sut ln.

(in p 1 chiu)
cha n nh)
Hnh 7-16: S khi b n
nh in p c hi tip

Phn t hiu
chnh

Ti
r

B khuch
i
Ngun chun

Mch hi
tip

B so snh

Trong s PTHC c iu khin bng tn hiu 1 chiu t b khuch i, phn t hiu


chnh l cc transitor cng sut lng cc hay tranzitor cng sut trng, lm vic ch
khuch i ch in tr tip gip (CE hoc DS) bin i theo in p u ra.
in p ra qua mch hi tip a v b so snh, mch hi tip a in p ra hay mt phn
in p ra tr v b so snh, mch hi tip phn ln l 1 b phn p hay phn dng
B so snh thc hin vic so snh gia in p ra trn ti (qua mch hi tip) vi ngun
in p chun, kt qu so snh ta c 1 tn hiu US cng l in p 1 chiu. Tn hiu 1 chiu US
c th a thng n iu khin PTHC hoc thng qua b khuch i tng hiu qu iu khin.
B khuch i: l b khuch i 1 chiu khuch i in p so snh (cn gi l in p
sai lch) trc khi a n iu khin PTHC tng h s n nh ca s . Nh vy b khuch
i c th c, c th khng tu theo yu cu ca h s n nh.
Ngun chun l ni to ra in p n nh khng ph thuc vo s bin i ca UV v Ur
cung cp cho b so snh, thng dng it zener to ngun chun.
7.6.3.2. B n nh khng khuch i

UCE
+

T1 ng vai tr l PTHC kim c b so


snh; ZD to p chun. in p hi tip 100%
(mch lp emittor). Uch a n cc B
UB(T1)= Uch.

T1

UV

UE(T1)= Ur.

ZD
UCh

Gi s khi UV tng hoc ti gim khin


cho Ur tng hn gi tr Urdm, lm cho
UBE= Uch - Ur gim. UBE gim ngha l phn
190

Ur
Rt

Hnh 7-17: S n p 1 chiu


vng khuch i

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


cc thun cho tip gip BE ca tranzito gim khin cho ni tr rCE ca tranzito tng th st p UCE
ca tranzito tng, gi cho Ur khng tng. Vy lng tng ca UV t hon ton trn PTHC.
Trng hp UV gim hoc dng ti tng th qu trnh ngc li.
in p ra ca s .
Ur = Uch - UBE = Uz - UBE

(7-25).

T1

Vi UBE (0,6 0,7).

R2

7.6.3.3. B n nh c khuch i :

R1

UV

Trong s :

T2

Ur
Uht

- T1 l PTHC.
- T2 l b so snh v khuch i.

UCh

R3

ZD

- ZD to p chun.
- R2, R3 l phn p hi tip.

Hnh 7-18: B n nh hi tip c khuch i

- R1 cng T2, ZD nh thin dng cho T1


Khi Ur gim th qua b phn p R2, R3 in p hi tip Uht gim chnh l UB2 gim
UBE2=UB2 - Uch cng gim
UCE1
li.

(v Uch khng i) lm cho UCE2 tng th UB1 = UCE2 + Uch cng tng, T1 tng thng
gim nn Ur tng tr li. Khi Ur tng ln hn tr s nh mc th qu trnh din bin ngc
Nh vy nh c vng hi tip m in p ra Ur lun c iu chnh n nh v:
UB2 = Ur

R2
= Uch + UBE2.
R2 + R3
+

R
U r = ( U ch + U BE 2 ) 1 + 3 (7-26)
R2
in tr R1
dng baz T1; (IC2
sao cho dng qua
IZmin it zener
p.

R1 <

cho dng colecto T2 v


+ IB1) qua, nn chn R1
it zener lun ln hn
lun nm trong vng n

U V min U r
I zmin + I Bl max

T1
ZD2

R1
UB1

R2

T3
T2

UV
R4

ZD1

UB2

R3

(7-27).
Hnh 7-19: B n p hi tip c khuch i so
snh vi ngun dng

Mch n p trn hnh 7-18 n p tt


i vi khi ti thay i, cn khi UV thay i
th tc dng n p khng tt lm (KU 20)
191

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


v dng qua R1 thay i theo UV. khc phc iu ny ta thay R1 bng mt ngun dng gm T3,
R1, R4 v ZD2. Nh hnh 7-19.
Dng colecto IC3 c xc nh

IC3 =

U ZD2 U BE 3
R1

(7-28)
+

Vi
mch
hnh
7-20
th
4
5
KU = 10 10 ln. C th thay i c Ur
bng cch iu chnh chit p R2 m dng
IC2 vn khng i do c ngun dng T3.

T1
R1

R
2

UV

Mun tng h s n nh ca b n p
ta dng b khuch i thut ton lm b
khuch i so snh thay cho T2, v b khuch
i thut ton c h s khuch i ln (nh
hnh 7-20). Trn s T1 l PTHC.

Ur

+
UCh

ZD

Hnh 7-20: B n p dng


khuch i thut ton

BKTT: khuch i so snh.


R1, ZD to in p chun a vo
u (+) ca BKTT.

Ur a hi tip v u (-) qua b phn p R2, R3 vi b n p ny th Ur bin thin rt tv


Uch c to t Ur nn dng qua ZD c bin thin rt t. Mun in p iu chnh dc th R2 thay
bng mt chit p.
Khi dng ti yu cu ln, i hi PTHC phi c h s khuch i dng ln, t c iu
ny ta dng PTHC l mch Darlington. Nh mch Darlington c tr khng vo ln, nn ti thay i
cng khng nh hng n in p u ra ca BKTT, nn Ur n nh.
7.6.3.4. Mch bo v qu dng, qu p
+

T1

F
UV

R6
T4

T2

R1

T3
+
_

R7

Rt

ZD2

R8

R3

ZD1
R4

Hnh 7-21: B n p c mch bo v qu dng, qu p

192

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


Ta bit rng bn dn rt nhy cm vi dng ln, n chu qu dng, qu p rt km. V vy
trong cc mch n p s dng cc tranzito lm PTHC th thng dng thm mch hn dng
trnh qu ti cho PTHC. ng thi phi bo v ti c an ton khi PTHC b ngn mch, phi c
mch bo v qu p, mt loi mch hn dng v bo v qu p nh hnh 7-21.
Trong s 8-23: T3, R7, R6 lm nhim v hn ch dng.
ZD2, R8 v thiristor T4 lm nhim v bo v qu p.
- Nguyn l hn dng:
in tr R6 mc ni tip vi T1, v ti, khi dng ti bnh thng th st p trn R6: UR6<
0,6V, th T3 khng dn (khng c tc dng trong mch) khi dng ti tng ln hn nh mc cho
n khi UR6 > 0,6V th T3 dn, dng colecto ca T3 gy h p trn R7, lm cho in p UB ca
tng dalington gim tng dalington gim thng dng ti tr li nh mc. Mch bo v qu
p:
Khi in p trn ti bnh thng th ZD2 khng thng (UZD> Ur), nn Thiristor cng khng
thng, mch bo v khng c tc dng.
Khi T1 ngn mch th Ur = UV, lp tc ZD2 thng v st p trn R8 m thng Thiristor T4,
ko in p Ur xung bng in thun ca Thiristor khong 1 vn, dng qua Thiristor rt ln v
cu ch F s chy, ti an ton v b n p s khng lm vic na.
7.6.3.5. n nh in p bng vi mch
S ra i ca cc vi mch tch hp khin cho vic thc hin cu trc cc b n p 1
chiu tr nn n gin v thun li hn rt nhiu, cu trc bn trong ca cc vi mch n p bao
gm y cc thnh phn ca mt s n p c hi tip c c mch hn ch dng v bo v
qu p.
Ngy nay s dng thng thng cc vi mch c 3 cc: cc vo, cc ra v cc chung. Mi
loi vi mch nh vy c ch to theo cc mc in p ra tiu chun dng hoc m.
V d cc vi mch xx78xx c ch to vi cc mc in ra tiu chun dng t +5
+24V.
V d: LM 7805 n p dng, in p ra l +5V
LM 7812 n p dng in p ra l +12V
Cc vi mch xx79xx c ch to vi cc mc in p ra tiu chun m, t
-5 -15V.
V

V d AN 7915 n p m in p ra l -15V. Cc vi mch 3 chn ny thng c in p u


vo cc i l +35V hoc -35V (UVmax), c nhng loi vi mch n p 3 chn m in p ra ca n
c th iu chnh c trong phm vi kh rng nh:
LM238 c Ur = +1,2 +37V.

193

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


+

UV

LM78XX
3

C1

Ur

UV

LM238

2
R1

C2

C1

Ur

C2
R2

a)

b)
Hnh 7-22: S vi mch n p dng

Dng vi mch n p dng, trong : chn 1 l in p vo, chn 2 l in p ra, chn 3 l


chung. u vo v u ra c mc cc t C1, C2 c gi tr khong vi chc nF ni tt cc xung
nhiu thi hn ngn khi nh hng n s lm vic ca vi mch.
S 7-22a dng cho cc vi mch c in p ra c nh.
S 7-22b dng cho vi mch c in p ra thay i. Khi iu chnh R2 in p ra ca
mch:
Ur = 1,25 (1+R2/R1) (V)
+ Nng cao in p ra, dng ra.
Vi vi mch c in p ra 1 mc c nh, khi ti yu cu c mc in p cung cp cao hn
th ta dng mt it zener mc nh hnh 7-23a.
1

+
UV
C1

78XX

T1

Ur

UV

R1

Hnh 7-23:

78XX

C2

Ur

C1

a)

Ir +
IIC

R1

C2
ZD1

IC

b)
a) Nng cao in p ra ca vi mch n p
b) Nng cao dng ra ca vi mch n p

S 7-23b: in p ra ca vi mch l in p gia hai chn 2 v 3: Ur(IC) = UR1.


in p ra ca s Ur = UR1 +UZD1= Ur(IC) + UZD1.
Cc vi mch c ch to cho php dng in ra khng c vt qu mt gi tr cc i
no , v d LM7805,7812,7815, LM120 c dng Iramax= 1,5A. Khi s dng vo mch ti yu
194

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


cu dng cao hn ta c th mc theo mch 7-23b, trong dng thm 1 tranzito cng sut T1,
cng vi vi mch to nn 1 bin th ca s darlington ta c Ir = IC + IIC.
7.6.3.6. Ngun n p i xng

1
+
C1

UV

78XX

+Ur

3
0

+
_

C2
1

3
79XX

-Ur

Hnh 7-24: Ngun cp in n p i xng


Ngun n p i xng (cn c gi l ngun n p lng cc) thng hay c s dng,
nht l trong cc mch khuch i thut ton, v cc mch s.
Ngun n p i xng l ngun m c hai in p ra c tr s bng nhau nhng cc tnh
ngc nhau, i xng qua im t (im 0)
Cch to ra ngun cp in n p i xng nh hnh 7-24
7.6.3.7. Mch n dng
Nhng ti yu cu dng qua n c nh khi ti thay i v in p trn ti cng thay i
theo th ta phi dng mch n dng. Mch n dng dng tranzito nh trn hnh 7-25
+

R1

T1

LM238
3

UV

UV
ZD

R2

Rt

it

R1

Rt
Hnh7 -25: Mch n dng dng transistor

Hnh7-26: n dng dng IC 3 chn

Trn mch hnh 7-25 phn cc thun ca tranzito T1 bi UZD khng i.


UZD = UR1+ UBE1. UZD khng i nn UBE1 khng i v vy dng IB1 v dng IC1 cng
khng i. Dng IC1 l dng qua ti nn dng qua ti cng khng i mc d ti thay i v in
p trn ti cng thay i.
Ta c th dng vi mch tch hp n p 3 chn lm mch n dng nh hnh 7-26
Ti mc ni tip vi R1, in p ra ca IC l c nh gia chn 2 v 3
195

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


Ur(IC) = UR1= const
Do dng ra ca IC

I r ( IC ) =

U R1 U r ( IC )
=
R1
R1

Ir(IC)= const nn dng ti it = Ir(IC)=const

7.7. NGUN CHUYN MCH


7.7.1 Khi nim v ngun chuyn mch

Tr

D1

iD1
UV

U1 W1

iu khin
ng m S
c khi nim v ngun n p
chuyn mch ta ly v d 1 mch in trn
hnh 7-27.
Ngun in p 1 chiu UV thng qua
chuyn mch S t vo s cp bin p Tr.
Khi S ng, c dng qua W1 khi S m
khng c dng qua W1. Hai cun s cp v
th cp cun cng chiu nn trn cun th
cp W2 cng xut hin chui xung cng chiu
vi chui xung trn cun s cp, nn khi S
ng th D1 dn, c dng iD1 qua cun chn L
v ti, cun L tch nng lng. Khi S m
dng iD1 mt t ngt, nng lng trn L i
du lm D2 dn, c dng iD2 qua ti, nh vy
dng qua ti c lin tc c khi S m.
Trong :

W2 U2

D2

UR

iD2

Hnh 7-27: M t khi nim v ngun


chuyn mch

U1

UV

U2
UR
T

U1 l bin xung trn cun W1

t
Hnh 7-28: Dy xung in p
trn W1, W2 v in p ra
ca mch hnh 6-10

U1 = Uv

U2 l bin xung trn cun W2 (gi s Tr l bin p h p)


Ur l in p 1 chiu ra trn ti
T l chu k ng m S
196

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


l thi gian ng ca S
n l t s bin p

n=
Ta c U r =
t =

W1
v coi b lc LC l l tng
W2

UV
n
T

(7-28)

gi l xp ca xung (H s lp y)

T (7-28) ta thy in p ra ph thuc Uv v rng ca xung. T ta thy: mun Ur


khng i khi Uv thay i ta lm thay i xp ca xung .
C 3 cch khng ch
- Thay i v gi nguyn T
- Thay i T v gi nguyn
- Thay i kt hp c T v
Cch thay i v gi nguyn T gi l " iu ch rng xung RX" (Pulse - Width Modulation PWM). Phng php iu ch rng xung c s dng ph bin nht trong cc b
ngun kiu chuyn mch.
Tt c cc b ngun bin i t 1 chiu vo 1 chiu bng phng php chuyn mch c
iu khin in p ra th gi l b ngun chuyn mch.
7.7.2 S khi ca b ngun chuyn mch

f
UR

UV~

Hnh7-29: S
khi ca b ngun
chuyn mch

Khi iu
khin

h
i

(1) B lc nhiu tn s cao


197

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


(2) B chnh lu v lc s cp (Nu UVDC th khng c phn ny)
(3) Phn chuyn mch chnh
(4) Phn chnh lu lc th cp
(5) Phn hi tip (ly mu)
(6) Phn khuch i sai lch
(7) To p chun
(8) To dao ng sng tam gic
(9) iu ch rng xung
(10) B khuch i kch thch v o pha
u vo (9) c th cn cc tn hiu khng ch khc (P) ngt b ngun
Tn s cng tc (tn s chuyn mch) ca b ngun xung thng trong khong 15kHz
50kHz gim nh kch thc ca bin p v nng cao hiu sut.
Phn chuyn mch chnh s dng cc tranzito lng cc v MOSFET cng sut ln, c tc
chuyn mch cao, lm vic 2 trng thi: bo ho v ngt nn c tn hao tranzito chuyn
mch rt nh, nn s to nhit cho chng n gin.
Vi nhng c im lm cho b ngun chuyn mch c cc u im hn hn cc b
ngun n p thng thng nh:
- Hiu sut cao t 80% 90%, trong khi cc b ngun n p thng thng c
< 65%
- Di n nh rng
- bn, tui th cao
- Kch thc trng lng nh
- Gi thnh r
7.7.3. Cc khi trong b ngun chuyn mch
7.7.3.1. Khi lc nhiu u vo
Lch

lc b cc nhiu cao tn v ngun


xung nn c rt nhiu cc thnh phn tn s
cao tn s gy nhiu cho cc thit b in t
khc trong vng, nn b lc s chn li cc tn
hiu nhiu khng a ra ng dy dn
gy nhiu. ng thi n cng chn cc xung
nhiu cao tn t ngoi khng cho vo b
ngun khi nh hng n s lm vic ca h
thng chuyn mch.

C1

C2

Hnh 7-30: Mch lc nhiu tn s


cao u vo

198

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


Bin p cao tn, c rt t vng dy v cch b tr nh hnh 7-30 s chn li cc nhiu cao tn
i xng t u vo v u ra. Cn i vi dng cung cp ngc chiu v tn s 50/60Hz th bin
p lc c tr khng coi nh bng 0. Cc t lc C1, C2 l cc t cao tn (khong vi chc nF) lc
cc nhiu cao tn u vo, u ra khng i xng, i vi tn s in mng 50/60Hz th ZC1,2
7.7.3.2. Phn chnh lu v lc s cp
+
C

220~

Hnh 7-31: B chnh lu lc s cp trong b ngun chuyn mch


7.7.3.3. Phn chuyn mch v chnh lu, lc th cp
Phn ny cn thng gi l b bin i 1 chiu vo 1 chiu (DC to DC Converter) v u
vo l 1 chiu v u ra cng l 1 chiu. Nu b ngun cng sut nh v Uv thp th chuyn mch
dng 1 tran zito nh hnh 7-32.
Tr
D1
L
+
+
. .

UV

D2

D3

C1

UR

T1

Hnh7-32: Phn chuyn mch v nn lc th cp ca b ngun


xung cng sut nh
Mch hnh 7-32 bin p Tr c cun s cp v th cp cun cng chiu, nn mch ny c
gi l ng pha dn. Khi xung mc cao kch m T1 bn s cp c dng th cun s cp c xung
dng th cun th cp cng c xung dng v D1 dn. D2 khp kn dng qua ti khi T1 v D1 ngt.
- Khi cn nng cng sut ca b ngun m vi in p vo thp th phn t chuyn mch dng
mch y ko mc song song nh hnh 7-33.
T1 v T2 c kch thch bi cc xung ngc pha nhau v phn nn, lc th cp l nn ton
sng vi bin p th cp im gia.
Vi ngun in p vo cao v cng sut trung bnh th chuyn mch theo kiu y ko ni
tip.

199

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun

Tr

+
UV

D3

D1

T1

Rt

D2

D4

T2
Hnh 7-33: Chuyn mch kiu y ko song song
7.7.3.4. Khi iu khin
Khi iu khin gm cc khi (5,6,7,8,9,10) ca hnh 7-34. Khi iu khin lm cc nhim
v sau:
- To ra cc xung vung c tn s c nh nhng rng bin i ngc vi in p
trn ti iu khin cc tranzito chuyn mch.
- cng sut kch thch cho cc chuyn mch chnh.
Ngoi ra khi ny cn lm cc nhim v:
- Bo v qu dng, qu p trn ti
- Bo v mch kh in p vo qu thp, qu cao
Nguyn l iu ch rng xung:
thc hin vic iu ch rng xung, mch phi c cu trc nh hnh 7-35.
in p DC ra trn ti qua b phn p ly in p hi tip Uht a v u o ca b khuch
i thut ton lm b khuch i sai lch.
+
Rt

Ur
_
U1

U2 =

U1
P

R2
(1)
(5)
+
-

U1
UP

(2) +

R1
Uht

Uch
(4)

(3)

Hnh 7-34 Mch iu ch rng xung

200

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


(1) Mch hi tip (phn p)
(2) B khuch i sai lch
(3) B to p chun
(4) B to sng tam gic
(5) B so snh (b iu ch rng xung)
Uht phn nh y s thay i ca Ur , u khng o ca b khuch i SL c a vo
in p chun Uch. Ngun Uch l c nh khng ph thuc Ur.
in p u ra ca b khuch i SL l:

U1 = (1 +

R2
R
)U ch 2 U ht
R1
R1

(7-29)

in p U1 bin i tuyn tnh theo Uht (tc l theo in p ra) nhng vi chiu ngc, U1
l in p 1 chiu.
B so snh (5) l b iu ch rng xung, tn hiu iu ch (U1) a vo u (+). Tn hiu
sng mang (UP) l sng tam gic a vo u (-) ca b iu ch.
B iu ch so snh 2 bin ca sng mang Up v tn hiu iu ch U1. Dng sng ra ca
b iu ch U2 l sng vung c tn s l tn s ca sng mang (sng tam gic) nhng rng
xung bin i theo tn hiu iu ch U1. Hnh 7-36 m t nguyn l iu ch RX.

UP

(1+R2/R1)Uch khi Uht = 0


UP

U1

UP
(1+R1/R2)Uch=Uht

U2

khi U1 = 0

T
Hnh 7-35: Nguyn l iu ch RX
Nu U1 bin i t 0 n Up = (1 +

R2
R
)Uch ng vi Uht = (1 + 1 )Uch n Uht = 0, th s
R1
R2

bin thin trong khong t 0 n T, chui xung U2 a n kch m tranzito chuyn mch, chuyn
mch ng ngt theo U2
T s

U1
= M gi l h s iu ch.
UP

M bin i trong khong 0 < M < 1.


201

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


C nhng b ngun chuyn mch cng sut nh dui 100w m chuyn mch l tng n,
th c khi c tranzito chuyn mch cng c cu trc trong vi mch iu ch rng xung.
7.7.4. V d 1 b ngun chuyn mch
Tc dng ca cc linh kin trong hnh 7-36:
3

D3

UR2 +14V
+

T1
4

+
C2

R2

R1 C3

C7

C6

D2

2
C5

D1

R3
6
+115

L1

R4
T1

C1
AC 90240V

C4

T2

T3

R5

IC TR50115B

C8

ZD2 U

g
C9

Hnh 7-36: Mt b ngun mch di rng cng sut nh


- IC STR50115B : chuyn mch iu ch XR.
- C1, C2, L1 lc nhiu u vo.
- R1 hn ch dng np cho C3 khi m ngun.
- Cu chnh lu, lc C3 s cp ngun UV~
- R2 to thin p ban u cho T1 dao ng
- Cun 6-7, C5, R3 hi tip duy tr dao ng
- D1 nng bin xung dao ng , ngn C5 phng qua ng Ur1
- Cun 5-6, D2, C8 cp ngun +115V
- Cun 3-4 C7, D3 cp ngun +14V
- C4, C5 lc nhiu u b dao ng, b khuch i sai lch
202

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


- ZD2 bo v qu p cho ti khi T1 ngn mch.
- IC STR50115B:
- T1: chuyn mch, dao ng iu ch XR.
- T3, T2 khuch i sai lch
- R5, R6 phn p hi tip
- R4, ZD1 to p chun cho b khuch i sai lch
- C6 suy gim xung ngc trn cun 5-6, bo v D2.

TM TT
Kt thc chng ngi hc cn nm c nhim v ca cc khi trong mt b ngun y
. Qua hnh dung c qu trnh hot ng ca mt mch ngun t u vo ti u ra c in
p mt chiu n nh. Nm v hiu s khi cng nh nguyn l b ngun chuyn mch.
- Khi nim b ngun, s khi ca b ngun n p mt chiu y .
+ Bin p: c nhim v bin i in p li in U1 thnh in p U2 th cp theo yu
cu.
+ Mch chnh lu c nhim v chuyn i in p xoay chiu thnh in p mt chiu p
mch. p mch ny khc nhau tu thuc vo loi mch chnh lu. Phn tch mch chnh lu
mt pha na sng, chnh lu mt pha ton sng,chnh lu cu. Khi cn c in p ra mt chiu
ln, dng nh th dng mch chnh lu bi p.
+ Mch lc c nhim v san phng cc in p d chnh lu thnh in p bng phng hn.
Tu theo yu cu m dng mch lc cho ph hp. Mch lc C thng s dng vi ti ln, cng
sut nh. Mch lc L thng dng trong cc b ngun c cng sut ln. Mch lc LC c dng
thng dng trong cc b ngun c cng sut va v ln. cn b lc RC dng khi cng sut b
ngun nh, dng ti nh hiu sut ca mch lc khng cao.
+ Mch n p c nhim v cho ra in p n nh khi in p u vo thay i hay dng ti
thay i. Khi yu cu ca b ngun khng cao c th khng c phn ny. Mch n p c th dng
it n p zener, mch n p dng tranzito hay mch n p dng vi mch. Loi b ngun ny gii
in p n nh u vo hp, tn hao cng sut ln trn phn t hiu chnh nn hiu sut thp.
khc phc nhc im ngi ta dng b ngun chuyn mch.
- B ngun chuyn mch. B ngun chuyn mch c nm khi c bn: mch lc nhiu cao
tn, mch chnh lu lc s cp, phn chuyn mch, chnh lu lc th cp v khi iu khin. Vn
c bn ca b ngun chuyn mch l phn t chuyn mch. N l mt tranzito cng sut lm
vic ch kho ng m, di tc dng ca xung iu khin do khi iu khin a n. Do
chuyn mch lm vic tn s cao trong khong 15KHz n 50KHz nn kt cu bin p nh gn,
tranzito lm vic ch kho ng m nn tn hao trong b ngun thp, b ngun c hiu sut
cao. Nguyn l lm vic ca b ngun ny l: khi in p xoay chiu u vo tng, qua nn chnh
lu s cp in p mt chiu cng tng, qua nn lc th cp cho Ur tng. Lp tc qua mch hi
tip, khi iu khin to ra xung iu khin lm phn t chuyn mch c thi gian ng gim
xung (thi gian m tng ln) to xung u ra hp li , qua nn lc th cp cho Ur gim xung.
Ngc li, khi in p u vo gim, qua nn lc s cp in p mt chiu gim, u ra Ur gim.
203

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


Lp tc qua mch hi tip khi iu khin to xung iu khin ng chuyn mch thi gian di
hn (thi gian m t hn), qua chuyn mch xung ra c rng rng hn, qua nn lc th cp cho
Ur tng ln. Nh vy mch t ng gi cho Ur n nh khi in p u vo thay i do thi gian
ng m ca chuyn mch thay i, di tc dng ca xung iu khin.
Trong khi iu khin c mch to dao ng to xung tam gic, mch iu ch rng
xung. Mch iu ch to ra xung iu khin c rng t l nghch vi ln ca in p ra.
in p ra tng rng xung hp li, in p ra gim rng xung tng ln.
u im ca b ngun chuyn mch l gn nh, n nh in p ra tt, gii n nh in p
u vo rng v hiu sut cao.

CU HI V BI TP
7-1. Nhim v ca mch cung cp ngun ?
7-2. S khi ca mt b ngun y v nhim v tng khi?
7-3. Nu cc loi mch chnh lu? So snh cc mch chnh lu ?
7-4. Mch chnh lu bi p? Khi no dng n?
7-5. Nu ngha ca h s p mch K , h s lc q ca b lc?
7-6. Nu cc kiu mch lc san bng? ng dng tng kiu?
7-7. S khi ca mt mch n p mt chiu? Nguyn tc chung ca mch?
7-8. Nguyn l n p ca mch n p it dng Zene?
7-9. Nguyn l n p ca mch n p dng tranzito?
7-10. Khi no dng mch n p c phn t hiu chnh l cp tranzito Darlingtn ?
7-11. u im ca mch n p dng vi mch KTT lm mch khuch i so snh?
7-12. Gii thch nguyn l bo v qu dng, bo v qu in p ca mch ngun hc hnh 721?
7-13. Trnh by mch n p dng vi mch n p?
7-14. S khi ca b ngun chuyn mch? Nhim v tng khi?
7-15. Ti sao b ngun chuyn mch lm vic tn s chuyn mch cao?
7-16. Nguyn tc n nh in p u ra ca b ngun chuyn mch khi in p u vo thay i?
7-17. Cho hnh P7-17 l mt s n p n gin dng it Zene.
Bit Iz max = 60mA, Iz min=10mA, U01 = 20 V, U02 = Uz = 12 V; Rz = 7, Rt = 240.
a) Xc nh gi tr in tr R1?
b) Xc nh gi tr in p gn sng li ra khi in p gn sng t u vo
U01 = 10% ca U01?
204

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun

It

I = IZ+ It
U01

IZ
U02

ZD

Rt

Hnh P7-17.
7.18. Tc dng ca mch chnh lu l:
a. Chuyn in p xoay chiu thnh in p xoay chiu thp hn.
b. Chuyn in p xoay chiu thnh in p mt chiu.
c. Chuyn in p mt chiu thnh in p xoay chiu.
d. C b v c.
7.19. Tc dng ca mch lc l:
a. Gi cho in p ra n nh.
b. San bng in p mt chiu.
c. San bng in p xoay chiu.
d. Chuyn in p xoay chiu thnh mt chiu.
7.20. Tc dng ca mch n p l:
a. Gi cho in p ra n nh.
b. Gi cho dng in ra n nh.
c. Gi cho in p vo n nh.
d. C a v b.
7.21. Khi in p vo tng, thi gian tt ca tranzito chuyn mch trong b ngun chuyn mch:
a. Di hn.
b. Ngn hn.
c. Khng i
d. Lc ngn hn, lc di hn..
7.22. Khi in p vo gim, rng xung u ra ca tranzito chuyn mch:
a. Hp hn.
b. Rng hn.
c. Khng i.
205

Chng 7: Mch cung cp ngun


d. Khi rng hn, khi hp hn.
7.23. Khi in p vo tng, thi gian thng bo ha ca tranzito chuyn mch:
a. Ngn hn.
b. Di hn.
c. Khng i.
d. Khi di hn, khi ngn hn.
7.24. Khi in p vo tng, rng xung u ra ca tranzito chuyn mch:
a. Khng i.
b. Hp hn.
c. Rng hn.
d. Khi khng i, khi rng hn.
7.25. Khi in p vo tng, in tr ca phn t hiu chnh trong mch n p mt chiu s:
a. Gim xung.
b. Tng ln.
c. Khng i.
d. Khi gim xung, khi tng ln.
7.26. Khi in p vo gim, st p trn phn t hiu chnh trong mch n p mt chiu s:
a. Khng i.
b. Gim xung.
c. Tng ln.
d. Khi khng i, khi gim xung.
7.27. Khi in p vo tng, bin , rng xung ra sau tranzito chuyn mch s:
a. Bin tng, rng gim.
b. Bin tng, rng tng.
c. Bin gim, rng tng.
d. Bin khng i, rng khng i.

206

Hng dn tr li

HNG DN TR LI

CHNG 1: MCH KHUCH I TRANZITO


1.1. Khuch i l s chuyn i nng lng mt chiu ca ngun cung cp thnh nng lng
xoay chiu u ra theo tn hiu iu khin u vo, lm cho tn hiu ra ln ln nhiu ln
nhng khng mo, nh phn t iu khin l tranzito.
Cc tham s Ku, Ki, Zv, Zr, Mt, Mc, , .
1.2. C 4 phng php: phng php nh dng, phng php phn p, phng php hi tip
m in p, phng php hi tip m dng in mt chiu.
Mch phc tp th tn linh kin, tn ngun hn nhng n nh im lm vic tt hn.
1.3. Hi tip l ly mt phn tn hiu u ra a tr v u vo.
in p hi tip ngc pha vi in p vo l hi tip m, cng pha l hi tip dng.
1.4. in p hi tip t l vi dng in ra l hi tip dng in, t l vi in p ra l hi tip
in p.
1.5. Xt li vo ca mch, in p hi tip mc song song vi in p vo l hi tip song
song, mc ni tip vi in p vo l hi tip ni tip. Cng c trng hp mc hi tip ni
tip.
1.6. u im: lm gim tp m, gim mo tn s, gim mo phi tuyn, lm n nh b khuch
i ca mch.
1.7. V mch hnh 1-12, nu tc dng cc linh kin trong mch. Vit cc biu thc Ki, Ku, Rv,
Rr, Ur ngc pha Uv.
1.8. V mch hnh 1-15a, nu tc dng cc linh kin trong mch . Vit cc biu thc Ki, Ku, Rv,
Rr, Ur cng pha Uv.
1.9. . V mch hnh 1-16a, nu tc dng cc linh kin trong mch . Vit cc biu thc Ki, Ku, Rv,
Rr, Ur cng pha Uv.
1.10. V mch hnh 1-19a, nu tc dng cc linh kin. Vit cc biu thc Ku, Rv, Rr, Ur ngc
pha Uv.
1.11. V mch hnh 1-21a, nu tc dng cc linh kin. Vit cc biu thc Ku, Rv, Rr, Ur cng pha
Uv.
1.12. V mch hnh 1-32, nu tc dng ca t ni tng.
u im: mch n gin, gn nh. Nhc im: khng phi hp tr khng gia cc tng
vi nhau.
207

Hng dn tr li

Khi tn s ca tn hiu vo cng gim th tr khng ca t ni tng (Zc = 1/C) ngn cn tn


hiu tng trc sang tng sau vng tn s thp nn gy mo tn s thp.
1.13. V mch hnh 1-27, nu tc dng ca bin p. u im l phi hp tr khng gia cc tng
vi nhau. Nhc im l nng, cng knh, ch thch hp khi mch lm vic tn s cao.
1.14. V mch hnh 1-28. u im: gim c t ni tng nn gim c mo tn s thp, mch
n gin, gn nh. Nhc im: kh iu chnh ch mt chiu cho cc tng, c bit khi
phi thay th tranzito.
1.15. Do cc t k sinh CBE, CCE, CCB ca tranzito, in dung lp rp C1, lm thot tn hiu
vng tn s cao xung t (mt) v do s suy gim h s khuch i dng in vng tn
s cao gy nn mo tn s cao.
1.16. Chn linh kin ph hp.
Chn im lm vic ng.
Dng hi tip m.
1.17. Dng thm phn t hiu chnh mt lc RC, in cm L mc ti lm tng ti xoay chiu
vng tn s thp v vng tn s cao, lm tng h s khuch i ca tng hai vng tn s
nn m rng c gii tn.
1.18. Ngoi nhim v lm khuch i tn hiu, tng ny cn c tc dng chn lc tn hiu. u ra
nhn c tn hiu c tn s bng tn s cng hng ca mch v tn s ln cn.
1.19. C hi tip m dng in. V in p hi tip ly trn ti cc pht. in p hi tip t l
vi dng in ra.
1.20. Khi tn hiu vo l sin th tng khuch i ch A cho ra tn hiu sin, ch B cho ra tn
hiu mt na sin, ch AB cho ra hn na sin, ch C cho ra tn hiu b hn mt na
sin.
1.21. Tng khuch i cng sut n cho lm vic ch A trnh mo, tuy nhin hiu sut
thp. Tng khuch i y ko cho lm vic ch AB gim mo phi tuyn v cho
hiu sut cao.
1.22. L tng khuch i tn hiu v cho u ra hai tn hiu c bin bng nhau nhng pha
ngc nhau.
C mch khuch i o pha ghp bin p v mch khuch i o pha chia ti.
1.23. Khi tn hiu vo b, xem tranzito l phn t tuyn tnh, lm vic trong phn thng ca
c tuyn.
1.24. Khi tn hiu vo ln (v qua nhiu tng khuch i pha trc) nn tranzito lm vic
c phn cong ca c tuyn. Dng phng php th c chnh xc cao hn.
1.25. Xem cp tranzito khuch i Darlingtn nh mt tranzito c h s khuch i dng bng
tch h s khuch i ca cc tranzito rt ln, nn ch dng vo nh (tr khng vo ln) m
cho dng ra ln.

208

Hng dn tr li
1.26. Tng khuch i Casct c c im l trnh c hi tip k sinh ca tng qua in dung
thng thng CBC ca tranzito T2 gi cho tng lm vic n nh, c bit khi lm vic tn
s rt cao. (v c ghp v th b thot t do T2 c cc gc ni t). Mt khc tng ny cn
c tr khng vo ln do in dung vo nh.
1.27. hnh 1-11a trn RE c hi tip m dng in. Uht = IE1~ .RE.
Hnh 1-11b c ba in p hi tip m. Trn RE1 c hi tip m dng in Uht = IE1~ . RE1.,
trn RE2 c hi tip m dng in Uht2 = IE2~. RE2.
Trn RE1 cn c hi tip m in p ly t u ra tng 2 a v tng 1 qua RC. T C
ngn in p mt chiu (XC~ = 0) R in tr hn ch mc hi tip:
Uht3 = Ur.RE1/(RE1+R).
1.28. a, Tnh ch mt chiu ca tranzito: t hnh P1-29 c:
IB.R1 + UBE + IE.R2 = E vi IE = (1+)IB.
Ta nhn c IB = (E UBE)/[R1 + (1+)R2] = (12v 0,6v)/(3.105 + 100.2,7.103)
IB = 11,4v/570.103 =20A.
in p colect UC = 12v.
UB = E IB.R1 = 12V 20.10-6.300.103 = 6V.
UE = UB 0,6V = 6V 0,6V = 5,4V.
IC = IB = 99.20.10-6 = 1,98mA.
IE = IC + IB = 1,98mA + 0,02mA = 2mA.
b, Ti mt chiu ca tng khuch i chnh l in tr R2 = 2,7K. Ti xoay chiu c
tnh:
Rt~ = R2//Rt = 2,7K//2,7K = 1,35K.
ng ti mt chiu xc nh t phng trnh dng 1 chiu mch ra:
E = UCE + IE.R2 hay UCE = E IE. R2.
Khi IE = 0 c UCE h mch = E = 12V, khi UCE = 0 c IE ngn mch = E/R2 = 4,4mA. Dng
ng ti mt chiu qua hai im lm vic trn c tuyn ra IE = f(UCE) tm c im lm vic
tnh ti IB = 20A c UCE = 2mA, QA(6,6V; 2mA).
1.30. a. Tnh cc gi tr dng v p 1 chiu trn cc cc ca Tranzito:
V dng in IR1 IR2 (xem hnh P1-30) nn UB = E.R2/(R1+R2) = 12V.4K/(20K +
4K) = 2V.
tranzito ch khuch i khng mo (ch A) chn UBE = +0,6V (loi Si) do vy UE =
UB- 0,6V = 2V 0,6V = 1,4V.
T cc dng 1 chiu IE, IB v IC c tnh:
IE = UE/R4 = 1,4V/1K = 1,4mA; IB = IE/(1+) = 1,4mA(1+99) = 14A.
209

Hng dn tr li
IC = IE IB = 1,4mA 0,014mA = 1,386mA.
in p mt chiu trn cc gp UC = E IC.R3 = 12V 1,386mA.4K = 6,456V.
b. Ti mt chiu ca tng khuch i bao gm R3 v R4.
Rt- = R3 + R4 = 4K + 1K = 5K. Ti xoay chiu c tnh bi R3//Rt: Rt~ = R3//Rt =
4K//8K 2,67K.
ng ti mt chiu c xc nh t phng trnh UCE = E (RC+RE) = E IC(R3+R4).
Khi IC = 0 c UCE h mch = E = 12V, khi UCE = 0 c IC ngn mch = E/(R3+R4) =
12V/(4K+1K) = 2,4mA. V ng ti mt chiu qua hai im (2,4mA; 0V) v (0mA; 12V)
trn c tuyn ra IC = f(UCE) ta xc nh c im lm vic QA ti IC = 1,368mA v UCE =
6,456V 1,4V = 5,056V.
1.31. a, Hai tranzito trong s mc theo kiu mch lp cc pht. c tn hiu ra cc i in
p trn mi cc pht l:
UE = EC/2 = 10V.
Do in p cc gc T1:
UBT1 = UE + UBE1 = 10 + 0,5 = 10,5V.
V in p cc gc T2: UBT2 = UE UBE2 = 10 0,5 = 9,5V.
C2 c np n tr s 10V. Khi UV >0 T2 tt, T1 dn. in p trn cc pht bin thin theo
in p vo. in p trn C2 gi nguyn khng i v in p trn Rt bin thin t (0V 10V).
Khi Uv < 0 T2 dn, T1 tt, C2 phng in. Lc ny t C2 ng vai tr l ngun cung cp cho
T2. in p trn ti thay i t (0 10)V.
Trong na chu k m ca in p vo, nng lng tch tr trn ti rt nh so vi nng lng
tch tr trong C2. V vy in p trn t C2 hu nh khng i, trong na chu k m C2 phng in
rt chm.
b, Tnh R1, R2.

EC
U DT
U
10 0,5
R1 = R2 = Rt = 2
=
= 9,5 K
I
I
103
c, Cng sut ra v hiu sut:

Pr =

U hd
Rt

10
)
= 2 = 0,5 w.
100
(

Dng cung cp ch c trong na chu k dng ca in p vo v tr s cc i ca n l:

I Cmax

EC
10
= 2 =
= 0,1A.
Rt 100
210

Hng dn tr li
Cng sut cung cp:

P0 = EC .I th = 20.

101

w.

Hiu sut:

Pr 0,5
=
= 0, 78 = 78%.
2
P0

Tr li cu hi trc nghim:
1-32a, 1-33a, 1-34a, 1-35c, 1-36c, 1-37c, 1-38b, 1-39b, 1-40a, 1-41b, 1-42a, 1-43a, 1-44a,
1-45a, 1-46a, 1-47a.

CHNG 2: B KHUCH I THUT TON


2.1. BKTT l tng c:
Tr khng vo Zv = .
Tr khng ra Zr = 0.
H s khuch i K0 = .
2.2. Lm nh vy a h s khuch i ca mch v mt gi tr theo yu cu (ph thuc vo tr
s cc in tr) v m rng gii thng cho mch.
2.3. V mch hnh 2-8. Chng minh c K = - Rht/R1.
2.4. V mch hnh 2-9. Chng minh c K = 1 + Rht/R1. Khi Rht = 0, R1 = c K = 1 nn Ur =
Uv nh hnh 2-10.
2.5. in tr cn bng Rc c tc dng to cn bng in p hai li vo do dng tnh gy ra, gi
cho hiu in p U0 gia hai li vo bng khng nn Ur = 0.
RC = Rht//R1 = Rht.R1/(Rht+R1).
n

2.6. V mch hnh 2-14. Chng minh c cng thc: Ur =

u khi (R1+Rht)/nR1 = 1.
i

i =1

2.7. V mch hnh 2-13. Chng minh c cng thc: Ur = -

u
i =1

i i

trong i = Rht/Ri.

2.8. V mch hnh 2- 15. Chng minh c cng thc: Ur = (U2 U1).
2.9. Cc mch cng, mch tr u lm vic ch tuyn tnh khi ta dng nguyn l xp
chng thc hin.
2.10. V mch hnh 2-18. Chng minh c Ur t l vi vi phn ca Uv theo cng thc (2-26).
ng dng ca mch: to xung nhn t xung vung, to xung vung t xung tam gic.vv.
2.11. V mch hnh 2-19. Chng minh c Ur t l vi tch phn ca Uv theo cng thc (2-28).
211

Hng dn tr li
ng dng ca mch: to xung tam gic, xung rng ca.
2.12. V mch hnh 2-20. Chng minh c Ur t l vi lga ca Uv theo cng thc (2-30).
2.13. V mch hnh 2-22a. Chng minh c Ur t l vi hm m ca Uv theo cng thc (2-31).
2.14. Mch nhn tng t l mch m in p t l vi tch cc in p tc thi u vo.
Mch nhn tng t c th dng iu ch tn hiu hoc tch sng tn hiu.
2.15. Mch lc th ng l mch lc ch c cc phn t th ng R, L, C. Mch lc tch cc l
mch lc cha cc phn t RC v phn t tch cc nh tranzito hoc vi mch. y ta xt
mch lc tch cc RC kt hp BKTT.
2.16. gii tn f 100KHz nu dng mch lc tch cc th mch lc gn nh, c tuyn lc tt.
Nu dng mch lc th ng th nng, cng knh v tn hao ln.
2.17. (a) K = - 5 (b) Rv = R1 = 10K (c) 0V; 5V; -10V; 10V.
2.18. (a) K = -15 (b) Rv = R1 = 1,2K (c) 0,866V (d) 0V; -6V; -12V; 13V; -13V.
2.19. (a) K = 6 (b) Zv = (c) = 2,1667V (d) 0v; -6V; 12V; -13V; 13V.
2.20. (a) K = 16 (b) Zv = (c) 0,8125V (d) 0v; -6,4V; 12,8V; -13V.
2.21. (a) Ur = -U1- 2U2 4U3 (b) Ur = 12V (c) Ur = -13V.
2.22. (a) Ur = -5Uv 10U2 20U3 (b) -11V.
2.23. (a) Ur = 2(U2 U1) (b) 0V (c) -12V (d) -13V.
2.24. (a) 5(U2 U1) (b) 0V (c) 10V (d) -13V.
2.25. Tm Ur1 khi ch c U1 vo v cc thng s ca mch, (U2 = 0); tm Ur2 khi c U2 vo v cc
thng s ca mch, (U1 = 0), Ur = Ur1 + Ur2.
2.26. (a) 38,775UX//R1R4 4,7Uv/R5 + 38,775UZ/R2R4.
(b) R5 = 1K; chn R4 = 2K, R1 = 7,775K; R2 = 4,73K.
Tr li cu hi trc nghim:
2-27c, 2-28c, 2-29a, 2-30b, 2-31a, 2-32a, 2-33a, 2-34b, 2-35c, 2-36a, 2-37a, 2-38a.

CHNG 3 MCH TO DAO NG SIN


3.1. Mch to dao ng l mch khi c ngun n t lm vic cho ra tn hiu. Mch to dao ng
sin cho ra tn hiu hnh sin, mch to dao ng xung to ra tn hiu xung nh: xung vung,
xung tam gic
3.2. Yu cu ca mt mch to dao ng sin l cho tn hiu ra c bin , tn s n nh.
3.3. iu

kin

dao

ng

ca

mt

mch

to

dao

ng

l K . = 1

trong

K = KexpjK ; = expj nn c K = 1 v K + = n2.


3.4. V mch hnh 3-3, nu tc dng cc linh kin trong mch, vit biu thc tn s dao ng.
212

Hng dn tr li
3.5. Da trn c s v pha, m bo cho mch to dao ng c hi tip dng xc nh cc
phn t LC trong khung dao ng ca mch to dao ng 3 im.
3.6. V mch hnh 3-5b, nu tc dng cc linh kin trong mch. Vit biu thc tn s dao ng.
3.7. V mch hnh 3-5a, nu tc dng cc linh kin trong mch.Vit biu th tn s dao ng.
3.8. V mch hnh 3-6, gii thiu khi khuch i, khi hi tip. Vit biu thc tn s dao ng,
gi tr , K ca mch.
3.9. V mch hnh 3-7, gii thiu khi khuch i, khi hi tip. Vit biu thc tn s dao ng,
gi tr , K ca mch.
3.10. Nguyn tc to tn hiu sin t tn hiu tam gic l dng b in tr cng hai dy it
gim h s phn p ca mch khi tn hiu vo ln (theo tng khong thi gian) lm tn hiu
vo BKTT c dng sin gy khc, qua khuch i cho tn hiu ra hnh sin. chnh xc
cng cao khi s it trong dy cng nhiu.
3.11. Trong cc mch to dao ng sin tn s cn c n nh cao ta dng phn t thch anh.
Khi mch lm vic tn s ca thch anh s quyt nh tn s dao ng ca mch. V thch
anh c tn s rt n nh.
3.12. V ti tn s fq tr khng ca thch anh Zq = 0, tn hiu hi tip a v khuch i ln nht
Ur ln nht. Mch dao ng tn s . cc tn s khc Zq 0, in p a vo khuch
i b suy gim nn Ur b trit tiu.
3.13. V khi thch anh mang tnh cm (L) th mch mi tho mn iu kin dao ng v pha tc
l c hi tip dng.
3.14. Trong mch dao ng phi c mch khuch i l ly nng lng ca ngun cung cp b
vo tn hao cho mch gy ra. Tuy nhin mch khuch i phi c u ni sao cho khi kt
hp vi mch hi tip c K + = n2 v K = 1 mch duy tr dao ng.
3.15. a, y l mch dao ng sin c khung dao ng LC t ca thun BKTT. Khi c ngun
nui trn khung LC pht sinh ra dao ng sin, mch khuch i tn hiu ri hi tip v
qua R3, khung LC. Mch ny c K = 0; h s hi tip = Rt/(Rt + R3) trong Rt l in
tr tng ng ca khung cng hng; h s khuch i K = (R2+R1)/R1. Mch s dao
ng tn s cng hng v lc Rt ln nht nn cng ln nht.
b, iu kin mch dao ng cho ra in p l:
K. = 1
[(R2 + R1)/R1].[Rt/(Rt + R3)] = 1
Hay
Rt/(Rt + R3) = R1/(R2 + R1).
c, T iu kin Rt/(Rt + R3) = R1/(R2 + R1), thay cc gi tr cho cc in tr, suy ra Rt
= 1K.

213

Hng dn tr li

Bit Rt =

1
L
Q = 1K v fCH =
= 100 KHz.
C
2 . L.C

Rtd
103
= 2 .Q.L = 3 = 102.
10
f CH
L=

102
102
1
=
=
.104 16 H
2 .Q 2 .100 2

Ta li c:

fCH .Rtd =

Q
Q
102
106
= 108 C = 8
=
=
= 0,159.106 F 0,16 F
2 .C
10 .2 2 .108
2

3.16. a, Tn hiu ra l sng hnh sin theo thi gian.


b, mch ny in tr R1 mc ni tip vi t C lm in tr ca mt lc th ba, va lm
in tr trong mch hi tip m v ca o ca BKTT l im t o nn R1 = R. Mc ch
mch n gin, gn.
c, V u vo - l im t o nn R1 = R = 1K
V =

R
1
nn K = ht = 29 t suy ra Rht = 29.R1 = 29K
R1
29

Ta c: = 2..f =
Nn: C =

1
6.R.C

1
=
6.2. . f .R

1
= 64,7945.10-9F 65nF.
3
3
6.2. .10 .10

3.17. a, Tn hiu ra l sng hnh sin theo thi gian.


b, Ta c fdd = 1/2RC. Thay s vo ta c fdd = 530,5Hz.
c, Mch ny c h s hi tip = 1/3 nn h s khuch i K phi bng 3.
Ta c K = 1 + Rht/R1 Rht = 2R1 = 20K.
3.18. a, Mch ny cn Rht = 2R1 = 44K.
b, Ta c f = 1/2RC.
Ti f = 100Hz c Rmax = 1/2Cfmin.
Thay s vo tm c Rmax = 159,15K.
Ti fmax = 1KHz c Rmin = 1/2Cfmin. Thay s vo tm c Rmax = 15,915K.
Khong bin i ca in tr R l t 15,915K n 159,15K (ch cc in tr R c
ng chnh vi nhau).
Tr li cu hi trc nghim:
214

Hng dn tr li
3-19a, 3-20a, 3-21c, 3-22c, 3-23b, 3-24a, 3-25b, 3-26b.

CHNG 4: MCH XUNG


4.1. V hnh 4-1, 4-2. Tn hiu xung l tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian, c gi tn theo hnh
dng ca n nh xung vung, xung tam gic. Tham s ca xung c bin , rng xung,
rng sn xung, chu k, tn s xung, h s lp y.
4.2. Tranzito trong mch xung c mc cc pht chung, lm nhim v nh mt kho in t.
V hnh 4-3. Khi Uv 0 kho m (tranzito tt) dng IC = 0 nn Uc = Ec. Khi Uv > 0 vi iu
kin sao cho IB IBbh = Ec/Rc th kho ng (tranzito thng bo ho) Ic = Ic max = Ec/Rc, lc
ny Uc = 0. Nh vy khi in p u vo thay i tho mn cc iu kin trn th kho
tranzito s lm vic thay i gia hai trng thi .
4.3. BKTT mch xung lm vic ch so snh. Do c h s khuch i rt ln, l tng
K0 = nn in p u ra ca n ch mt hai trng thi l bo ho dng (Ur = +Ur max)
hay bo ho m (Ur = - Ur min), khi hiu in p gia hai ca vo khc khng. V hnh 4-4.
4.4. Mch Trig l mch c hai trng thi n nh. Khi c in p tc dng u vo th mch
chuyn trng thi mt ln. V mch Trig Smt hnh 4-5. Ta thy khi in p vo ln hn
U1(+) u ra lt trng thi v - Ur max v gi nguyn gi tr n khi Uv < U1(-) u ra lt
trng thi v +Ur max. C nh vy, u ra nhn c dng xung vung c tn s bng tn s
tn hiu vo.
4.5. Mch a hi i c mt trng thi n nh v mt trng thi khng n nh. C xung tc
dng mch lt sang trng thi khng n nh mt thi gian ri t lt v trng thi n nh
ban u. Mt xung vo cho mt xung ra. Mch a hi i BKTT hnh 4-6a v dng
xung cc cc nh 4-6b.
4.6. Mch a hi t dao ng l mch c hai trng thi khng n nh. Khi c ngun nui mch
t lm vic thay i trng thi cho nhau, cho u ra l dy xung vung c tn s xung ph
thuc cc thng s ca mch.Mch a hi t dao ng dng BKTT hnh 4-9a, dng
xung trn cc cc hnh 4-9b. Khi R1 = R2 th rng xung tx = 1,1RC chu k T = 2,2RC,
tn s f = 1/T = 1/2,2RC.
4.7. Mch hn ch l mch m tn hiu ra Ur lun t l vi tn hiu vo Uv nu Uv cha vt mt
gi tr ngng cho trc, cn khi Uv vt mc ngng th tn hiu ra Ur lun gi mt gi
tr khng i. ng dng ca n c th l to xung, sa xung, chng nhiu, chn xung
4.8. V mch hnh 4-14b. Khi a tn hiu hnh sin vo: Uv E2 lm cho D1 thng, D2 tt Ur =
E2; Uv E1 lm cho D1 tt, D2 thng (v E2 > E1) Ur = E2 (E2-E1)R2/(R1+R2) = E1 (khi R2
>>R); E1<Uv<E2 th D1, D2 u thng Ur = Uv. u ra nhn c dy xung hnh thang trn
trc thi gian t mc E1, E2.
4.9. V mch hnh 4-14a. Khi a tn hiu hnh sin vo: Uv > E2 lm cho D1 tt, D2 thng Ur =
E2; Uv < E1 lm cho D1 thng, D2 tt Ur = E1; E1 Uv E2 lm cho D1, D2 u tt Ur = Uv.
u ra nhn c dy xung hnh thang trn trc thi gian mc E1, E2.
215

Hng dn tr li
4.10. V dng xung rng ca hnh 4-15. Cc tham s ca xung rng ca l: bin , thi gian qut
thun, thi gian qut ngc, tn s qut, h s phi tuyn v hiu sut s dng ngun .
4.11. V hnh 4-16. Nu nguyn l lm vic ca mch t np phng to rng ca u ra khi
u vo c xung vung m. Mch ny c h s phi tuyn tng i ln v hiu sut thp.
4.12. V hnh 4-17, nu nguyn l to xung rng ca u ra khi u vo c xung m tc dng.
Mch ny c h s phi tuyn b, hiu sut cao nh dng np IC2 c gi tr khng i.
4.13. a, Ur l dy xung vung c bin bng 10 vn khi Uv > 0, Ur = -10V khi Uv < 0.
b, Ur l dy xung vung c bin 10V khi Uv 0 v Ur = -10V khi Uv > 0.
4.14. a, Ur l dy xung vung c bin 10V, Uv 3V (mch ny c Uch = 5.3/(2+3) = 3V). Ur =
-10V khi Uv < 3V.
b, Ur l dy xung vung c bin 10V khi Uv < 3V, Ur = -10V khi Uv 3V.
4.15. a, Ur l dy xung vung bin i xung quanh trc thi gian c bin 10V.
b, Uht = Ur.R1/(R1+R2) = 5V khi bo ho dng v - 5V khi bo ho m.
c, Chu k dao ng T = 2,2RC = 2,2.1013.0,2.10-6 = 5,28.10-3s.
Tn s dao ng f = 1/T = 103/5,28 189 Hz.
4.16. Chn R1 = R2 = 45K.
Chn R = 5K, tnh gi tr ca C. Ta c f = 1/2.2RC nn C = 1/2,2Rf.
C = 1/2,2.5.103.103 = 10-6/11 = 0,09F.
Vi mch ny khi c R = 5K, C = 0,09F s c tn s dao ng xung ra 1KHz.
4.17. Chn R1 = R2 = 45K, chn C =300F. Chn R bin i (R l bin tr) thay i tn s
cho thun tin. Khi bin tr R bin i trong khong Rmin n Rmax.
Rmin = 1/2,2C.fmax = 1/2,2.300.10-9.5.103 = 303.
Rmax = 1/2,2C.fmin = 1/2,2.300.10-9.500 = 303.
4.18. Khi Uv E2 = 10V, D1 thng, D2 tt nn Ur = 10V. Khi Uv E1 = 2V, D1 tt, D2 thng, Ur =
E2 (E2-E1)R2/(R1+R2) = 10 7,2 = 2,8v.
Khi 2V < Uv < 10V, D1D2 u thng, Ur = Uv. Nh vy u ra l dy xung hnh thang nm
pha trn trc thi gian vi mc hn ch trn l 10V, mc hn ch di l 10V, mc hn ch di
l 2,8V.
Tr li cu hi trc nghim:
4-19b, 4-20a, 4-21a, 4-22a, 4-23a, 4-24b.

216

Hng dn tr li

CHNG 5:CC MCH BIN I TN S


5.1. iu ch l ghi tin tc vo sng cao tn lm bin i mt thng s no nh bin , tn
s hay gc pha ca sng cao tn theo tin tc. Thng qua iu ch ph ca tin tc min tn
s thp c chuyn ln vng tn s cao bc x, truyn i xa.
^

5.2. Khi us = U s cosst ; ut = U t cost t v c t >> s .


^

udb = U (1 + mcoss )cost t.


t
^

udt = U cos(t t +
t
^

K dtU

s sin t ).
s

udp = U cos(t t + K dpU S coss t ).


t
^

Trong m =

Us
^

l h s iu bin.

Ut
Kdt , Kdp l cc h s t l iu tn iu pha.
5.3. V c bn hai mch ny tng t nhau. Mch iu bin vng c bn it. Mch iu bin
cn bng ch c hai it. mch iu bin cn bng tn hiu sau iu ch ngoi thnh phn
tn s mong mun t s, cn c cc thnh phn tn s thp v tn phn cao gy nhiu.
Cn mch iu ch vng cc thnh phn tn s khng mong mun u trit tiu, ch cn li
hai bin tn cn thit. t c iu yu cu mch phi tht i xng, linh kin hon ton
nh nhau.
5.4. Trong thng tin, khi truyn tn hiu n bin c cc u im sau: gim rng gii tn mt
na, cng sut bc x yu cu thp hn khi cng c ly thng tin v tp m u thu gim do
gii tn ca tn hiu hp hn. Tuy nhin mch iu ch tn hiu n bin phc tp hn.
5.5. V s khi hnh 5-4 v s ph ca tn hiu hnh 5-5. Ta thc hin iu ch hai cp
vic lc b mt bin tn sau iu bin thun li. Nu iu ch mt ln vi tn s sng mang
ft rt ln, vic lc b mt bin tn rt kh khn v cc bin tn rt st nhau.
5.6. V hnh 5-6. y l mch dao ng sin ghp bin p m khung dao ng c it bin dung.
Tn hiu iu ch Us a qua bin p (tn s thp) t vo it. Khi Us = 0 mch dao ng
t lm vic cho dao ng cao tn vi tn s khng i ft. Khi c Us, in dung Cd ca it
thay i theo Us nn tn s dao ng ca mch thay i theo Us. Nh vy trn khung dao
ng nhn c tn hiu iu tn. S thay i ca Cd theo Us biu din hnh 5-7.
5.7. Xem hnh 5-1 ti liu tham kho 1. Tranzito in khng l mt tranzito kt hp vi hai
phn t RC v RL, c iu kin kt ni thnh mng hai cc . Khi lm vic n tng ng

217

Hng dn tr li
mt in khng (in cm tng ng Lt hay t in tng ng Ct). Nu c in p tn
hiu Us t vo cc gc iu khin th Lt hay Ct s bin i theo Us.
5.8. Mch iu tn dng tranzito in khng c tranzito in khng mc vo khung dao ng
ca mch dao ng sin (hnh 5-8) ti liu tham kho 1. Khi c Us u vo Lt ca T1, C, R
thay i theo Us. Lt mc vo khung dao ng sin cha tranzito T2 nu trn khung dao ng
nhn c tn hiu iu tn.
5.9. i chiu it bin dung trong mch hnh 5-6 khng c v khi it lun thng, khung
dao ng b ni tt, mch dao ng khng lm vic.
5.10. Mch tch sng l mch tch ly tin tc Us, lc b sng mang cao tn Ut. Yu cu ca mch
tch sng l tn hiu ly ra trung thc, khng mo, lc b ht tp m v sng cao tn. t
c yu cu tn hiu vo tch sng phi c bin ln.
5.11. V mch hnh 5-10. Khi c tn hiu iu bin li vo it ch thng na chu dng ca
dao ng cao tn. u ra nhn c hnh bao ca dao ng nh s np phng ca t. Khi
tn hiu vo ln, RC chn ph hp ta c mch tch sng nh, ng bao chnh l Us
cn ly.
cho tn hiu ra tt cn: 1/t << = RC <<1/s.
5.12. Do cc phng thc iu ch: iu bin, iu tn, iu pha l khc nhau nn cc mch tch
sng cc tn hiu tng ng cng phi khc nhau.
5.13. V hnh 5-14. mch ny hai mch cng hng ( th cp bin p) c tn s cng hng
lch vi tn s sng mang tn hiu iu tn. Khi c tn hiu iu tn u vo, trn hai
mch cng hng nhn c tn hiu iu bin. Qua mch tch sng iu bin u ra c tn
hiu Us1, Us2. Ur chung = Us1 Us2.
5.14. V hnh 5-18. Ta a thm mt in p chun Uch cao tn c tn s bng tn s sng mang
ca tn hiu iu pha vo mch. Do kt cu mch nn in p t ln hai mch tch sng
pha sau l tn hiu iu bin c bin t l vi di pha ca tn hiu iu pha (dng
th vct 5-18b gii thch). Qua mch tch sng iu bin 1RC, 2RC nhn c tin
tc Us.
5.15. Mch trn tn l mch trn in p tn hiu c tn s fth vi in p ngoi sai c tn s fns
ly ra tn hiu c tn s fns + fth hoc fns fth. Thng thng ngi ta ly tn hiu c tn s
hiu gi l tn hiu trung tn. cn ch rng do bin in p ngoi sai rt ln hn bin
in p tn hiu nn sau trn tn tin tc khng b nh hng.
5.16. Do dng in u ra mch trn tn cha nhiu thnh phn: mt chiu, tn s fns, fth, fns fth,
fns + fth v cc thnh phn tn s bc cao nn lc ly thnh phn tn s ftt = fns - fth th ti
ca tng trn tn phi dng mch cng hng song song cng hng tn s , mc ch
chn ly thnh phn tn s ftt, lc b cc thnh phn khc. Mch in nh hnh 5-21, hnh
5-22.
5.17. S khi ca vng gi pha (PLL) hnh 5-24. Nguyn tc hot ng ca n l so snh
pha ca tn hiu vo vi tn hiu ra. Vng iu khin pha c nhim v pht hin v iu
chnh nhng sai s nh v tn s gia tn hiu vo v ra khng ch mch to dao ng
218

Hng dn tr li
sao cho fr bm theo fv n khi fr = fv. PLL c nhiu ng dng trong k thut. Mt trong
nhng ng dng l dng lm b tng hp tn s nh hnh 5-26. T mch ta c fr = nfv/m.
Khi thay i h s m, n ta c fr tu .
5.18. a, udb = 5.103.(1 + 0,5.cos 2. .104 t ).cos 2 .107 t
b, C th vit li biu thc udb nh sau:




mU
. 1
udb = U1.(1 + m.cos S t ).cos t t = U1.cos t t +
.cos(t S )t +
2

mU
. 1
.cos(t + S )t
2
0,5.5.103
0,5.5.103
= 5.103.cos 2 .107 t +
.cos 999.104 t +
.cos1001.104 t
2
2
= 5.103.cos 2 .107 t + 1, 25.103.cos 999.104 t + 1, 25.103.cos1001.104 t.
Vy ph ca tn hiu iu bin c ti tin.

f t = 10MHz vi bin At = 5mV . Bin tn di f d = 999.10 4 Hz vi bin


Ad = 1,25mV v bin tn trn f tr = 1001.10 4 Hz vi bin Atr = 1,25mV .
c, Tn hiu sau mch trn tn.

utt = 5.(1 + 0,5.cos 2. .104 t ).cos 2 .106 t


Tn s ngoi sai ca mch fns = ft + ftt = 10MHz + 1MHz = 11MHz.
C th dng s sau tch sng.
r l in tr trong ca it.

D
U2

Ur'

Ur

I0
Tr li cu hi trc nghim:
5-19a, 5-20b, 5-21b, 5-22c, 5-23c, 5-24b, 5-25b.

CHNG 6: CHUYN I A/D, D/A


6.1. chnh xc ca b chuyn i A/D ph thuc vo s bt N ca t m. Nu N cng ln th
s mc phn bit cng nhiu nn mc lng t Q cng b dn n sai s lng t cng b.
(UQ = Q/2).
219

Hng dn tr li
6.2. Cc bc chuyn i A/D gm: ly mu v gi mu, lng t ho v m ho. (phn tch
thm ba bc c bn )
6.3. V hnh 6-5. Gii thch qu trnh hot ng ca s t tn hiu vo n tn hiu ra.
6.4. Trong s bin i A/D theo phng php song song mc lng t Q l in p st trn
in tr R. Ta c th xc nh Q khi s bt t m N nh sau:
Q = Uch.R/(2N-2)R+R/2.
6.5. V hnh 6-6. Nguyn l hot ng ca mch l chuyn i s bin i bin tng mu tn
hiu vo thnh xung c rng thay i theo thi gian (UG). Xung lm tn hiu m cng
a xung nhp ra, m s xung nhp qua cng v m ho c tn hiu UD.
6.6. Trong s chuyn i A/D theo phng php m n gin mc lng t Q th hin
chu k xung nhp Tn; Tn = TM/n (n s xung nhp).
6.7. Mch chuyn i A/D dng phng php tch phn theo hai sn dc kt qu m khng
ph thuc vo cc thng s RC ca mch v cng khng ph thuc vo tn s xung nhp
nh trong trng hp chuyn i A/D dng phng php m n gin. Nh vy kt qu
chuyn i chnh xc hn.
6.8. Chuyn i A/D phi tuyn l chuyn i m c tnh ca b chuyn i phi tuyn c dng
lga, sao cho t s tn hiu trn tp m thay i trong gii bin i ca in p vo. Nh
ting ni nh khng b tp m ln t. Ngoi ra lng t ho phi tuyn cn cho ghp tng
dung lng ca knh thoi do gim c s bt t m khi cng cht lng thng tin nh
nhau so vi khi lng t ho tuyn tnh.
6.9. T tn hiu s ly li UA ta dng s hnh 6-14. u tin dng mch chuyn i tn
hiu s ca tng t m thnh cc mu in p UM. l cc xung ri rc c chu k bng
chu k ly mu trong bin i A/D vi bin thay i. Cho dy xung qua mch lc thng
thp u ra nhn c tn hiu UA bin i lin tc theo thi gian.
6.10. V mch hnh 6-16. Thang in tr c cc in tr k cn nhau cch nhau hai ln v gi tr
nn dng qua n s tng ng trng s ca bt t m m nhim. V vy in p tng st
trn Rht c gi tr tng ng vi tn hiu s a n. Nhc im ca mch phi dng loi
in tr chnh xc cao, nu khng s gy nn sai s ln trong qu trnh chuyn i.
6.11. V hnh 6-18. Mch c mng in tr gm loi in tr R v 2R, kt ni vi h thng
ngun dng qua chuyn mch K. Do kt cu mch nn dng in i t tri qua phi ca
mng c gi tr gim dn hai ln theo cc nt mch. V vy trn Rht nh c in p theo
t m c.
6.12. B chuyn i D/A cng thang in tr phi dng nhiu loi in tr, s dn n sai s
trong qu trnh mch lm vic. B chuyn i D/A dng mch in tr ch cn hai loi in
tr nn chnh xc cao hn. Tuy nhin mch ny phi dng s in tr nhiu hn.
6.13. bo m qu trnh chuyn i D/A ly hai tn hiu trung thc, tn s ly mu trong qu
trnh chuyn i D/A tho mn iu kin fM 2FmaxTrong Fmax l tn s gii hn trn
ca ca gii tn tn hiu. y Fmax = 3700Hz nn fM 7400Hz.
220

Hng dn tr li

Khi fM = 8000Hz th chu k ly mu TM = 1/fM = 1/8000 = 125s.


6.14. Khi N = 3 th Q = Ua max /(2N-1) = 5V/7 = 0,714V, sai s lng t UQ = Q/2 = 0,357V. Khi
N = 5 th Q = Ua max/(2N 1) = 5V/31 =0,16V, sai s lng t UQ = Q/2 = 0,08V. Nh vy
khi s bt ca t m cng tng th Q v sai s UQ cng gim.
Tr li cu hi:
6-15b, 6-16c, 6-17c, 6-18c, 6-19b, 6-20c.

CHNG 7: MCH CUNG CP NGUN


7.1. Mch cung cp ngun c nhim v chuyn i in p xoay chiu t li in thnh ngun
in p mt chiu cung cp nng lng cho cc thit b in t hot ng.
7.2. V hnh 7-1. Bin p c nhim v bin i in p li in thnh mt in p xoay chiu
U2 theo yu cu.
Mch chnh lu chuyn i in p xoay chiu U2 thnh in p mt chiu U0 p mch.
Mch lc c nhim v san bng in p U0 thnh in p mt chiu U01 t p mch hn.
Mch n p cho ra mt in p Ur- n nh. Khi U1 vo thay i hay Iti thay i.
7.3. C mch chnh lu na sng, chnh lu ton sng, chnh lu cu.
Chnh lu ton sng c s xung qua ti trong mt chu k ln gp i (m = 2) nn lc thun
li hn. c bit chnh lu cu cun dy th cp khng cn im gia.
7.4. Mch chnh lu bi p l mch to ra in p mt chiu u ra ln hn hai hay nhiu
in p u vo (tu vo mch). Ngi ta dng mch chnh lu ny khi cn in p mt
chiu cao nhng ng b.
7.5. H s p mch Kd = U0~/U0 l t s ca thnh phn xoay chiu vi thnh phn mt chiu.
u vo c Kdr = U0~r/U0v, u ra c Kdr = U0~r/U0r.
Kd cng nh cng tt. H s lc q = Kdv/Kdr U0~v/U0~r > 1, q cng ln cng tt.
7.6. C cc kiu mch lc: mch lc C, mch lc L, mch lc LC, mch lc RC.
Mch lc C dng trong trng hp yu cu lc n gin, in tr ti ln, dng ti nh.
Mch lc L dng khi dng ti ln (in tr ti nh).
Mch lc LC dng ph bin trong mch ngun cng sut va v ln.
Mch lc RC dng trong cc mch ngun cng sut nh, hiu sut mch lc ny thp.
7.7. V hnh 7-16 gm cc khi to ngun chun, b so snh, mch hi tip mch khuch i,
phn t hiu chnh.
Nguyn tc chung ca mch l nu in p ra tng, mch hot ng in tr ca phn t
hiu chnh tng, st p trn n tng, lm cho Ur gim. Ngc li in p ra gim, mch hot ng
sao cho in tr phn t hiu chnh gim, st p trn n gim, lm cho Ur tng ln. Nh vy
mch c tc dng t ng n nh in p ra.
221

Hng dn tr li
7.8. V hnh 7-15. Nguyn l n p ca mch l khi in p vo tng th dng in qua it
Zener tng gy st p trn in tr R tng, gi cho in p trn it khng i. V Uz+Ur =
Uv (Uv tng bao nhiu th UR tng by nhiu).
Mch thng s dng khi Uv = (1,53)Uz.
7.9. Mch n p dng tranzito khuch i c nhim v khuch i in p sai lch iu khin
tranzito cng sut thng nhiu hoc thng t t l nghch vi in p ra (Ur tng th T thng
t, Ur gim th T thng nhiu). V hnh 7-18 v gi thch.
7.10. Khi dng ti yu cu ln i hi PTHC phi c h s khuch i dng ln ta dng PTHC l
mch Darlingtn. Mch Darlingtn c tr khng vo ln nn khi ti thay i t nh hng
n in p u ra ca BKTT nn Ur n nh (xem hnh 7-21).
7.11. Mch n p dng BKTT khuch i in p sai lch c u im l nh n c h s
khuch i rt ln nn lm tng h s n nh ca b n p.
7.12. V mch hnh 7-21, trong T3, R6, R7 lm nhim v hn ch dng. Khi dng ti bnh
thng st p trn R6 b hn 0,6V nn T3 tt. Khi dng ti tng st p trn R6 ln hn 0,6V
lm T3 thng, dng T3 gy st p trn R7 lm gim in p cc gc tng Darlingtn. T1T2
gim thng, lm gim dng ti tr li.
7.13. V mch n p c hai h. H 78xx n p cho ra in p dng, h 79xx n p cho ra in p
m. Loi LM238 c th iu chnh in p ra trong mt phm vi kh rng. V cc hnh 722. C th nng cao in p ra hay dng ra bng cch dng mch hnh 7-23.
7.14. V hnh 7-29, nu tn cc khi t 1 n 10 v tm hiu nhim v cc khi .
7.15. Ngi ta cho b ngun chuyn mch lm vic tn s cao (trong khong 15KHz50KHz)
l lm gim nh kch thc b ngun (gim kch thc ca bin p)v nng cao hiu
sut ca b ngun, thun tin cho vic lc ngun th cp.
7.16. Nguyn tc n p ca b ngun chuyn mch l khi in p vo tng khi iu khin c
nhim v iu khin chuyn mch ng thi gian ngn hn cho xung ra hp, ngc li
khi cho in p vo gim th tn hiu th iu khin chuyn mch ng thi gian di hn
(nh vy rng xung ra t k nghch vi in p vo), sau khi chnh lu v lc ln hai
Ur n nh.
7.17. a, Kh nng cho dng ti ti a c nh gi bng hiu s:
IZmax - IZmin = 60mA 10 mA = 50mA.
Vi Rt = 240 v U02 = UZ = 12V, ta c:
It = UZ/Rt = 12V/240 = 50mA > IZmin = 10mA.
R1 = UR1/IR1 = (U01 UZ)/(It + IZ) = (20V 12V)/(50mA + 10mA) = 133.
b, Bit U01 = 10%U01 = 10%.20V = 2V.
in p gn sng t vo b p p dng DZ c san bng trn RZ v R1 ni tip nhau, ta
ni tc dng lm suy gim in p gn sng ca DZ vi h s suy gim l RZ/(RZ+R1), t li ra
c in p gn sng l: Ugn sng ra = U01.RZ/(RZ+R1) = 2V.7/(133 + 7) =100mV.
222

Hng dn tr li
Tr li cu hi trc nghim:
7-18b, 7-19b, 7-20a, 7-21a, 7-22b, 7-23a, 7-24b, 7-25b, 7-26b, 7-27b.

223

Thut ng vit tt

THUT NG VIT TT
AC: (Alternating Current) dng in xoay chiu.
ADC: (Analog Digital Converter) chuyn i tng t-s.
BKTT: B khuch i thut ton.
DAC: (Digital Analog Converter) chuyn i s tng t.
DC: (Direct Current) dng in mt chiu.
RX: iu rng xung.
IC: (Integarated Cicuits) vi mch tch hp.
K: Khuch i.
LTT: Lc thng thp.
PLL: (Phase Loocked Loop) vng gi pha.
TSP: Tch sng pha.
VCO: (Volt Converter Osillate) to dao ng iu khin bng in p.

224

Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Phm Minh H, K thut mch in t, NXB Khoa hc k thut, 2002
2. Xun Th, K thut in t, NXB Gio dc, 1997
3. L Phi Yn, K thut mch in t, NXB i hc Bch khoa Tp H Ch Minh, 1996
4. William D.Stanley, B khuch i x l v IC tuyn tnh, NXB Khoa hc k thut, 1994
5. Phm Minh Vit, Trn Cng Nhng, K thut mch in t phi tuyn, NXB Gio dc,
2000

225

Mc lc

MC LC
LI NI U ....................................................................................................................................................... 2
CHNG 1: MCH KHUCH I TRANZITO............................................................................................ 3
GII THIU CHUNG....................................................................................................................................... 3
NI DUNG........................................................................................................................................................ 4
1.1. NH NGHA, CC CH TIU V CC THAM S C BN CA MCH KHUCH I........... 4
1.2. PHN CC V CH LM VIC MT CHIU ........................................................................... 7
1.3. HI TIP TRONG CC TNG KHUCH I ................................................................................. 10
1.4. CC S C BN DNG TRANZITO LNG CC (BJT). ..................................................... 15
1.5. TNG KHUCH I O PHA....................................................................................................... 24
1.6. CC S C BN DNG TRANZITO TRNG(FET). ........................................................... 26
1.7. CC PHNG PHP GHP TNG TRONG B KHUCH I.................................................... 32
1.8. MT S MCH KHUCH I KHC ............................................................................................. 36
1.9. TNG KHUCH I CNG SUT................................................................................................... 39
TM TT........................................................................................................................................................ 47
CU HI V BI TP.................................................................................................................................. 49
CHNG 2: B KHUCH I THUT TON ........................................................................................... 54
GII THIU CHUNG..................................................................................................................................... 54
NI DUNG...................................................................................................................................................... 55
2.1. CC TNH CHT CHUNG CA BKTT.......................................................................................... 55
2.2. MCH KHCH I VI SAI................................................................................................................ 56
2.3. MCH KHUCH I ......................................................................................................................... 61
2.4. CC PHNG PHP CHNG TRI V B IM KHNG......................................................... 62
2.5. MCH CNG....................................................................................................................................... 64
2.6. MCH TR.......................................................................................................................................... 66
2.7. MCH VI PHN, MCH TCH PHN .............................................................................................. 67
2.8. MCH TO HM LOGARIT V LY THA ................................................................................. 68
2.9. MCH NHN TNG T................................................................................................................. 70
2.10. MCH LC TCH CC .................................................................................................................... 71
TM TT........................................................................................................................................................ 78
CU HI V BI TP.................................................................................................................................. 79
CHNG 3: MCH TO DAO NG SIN................................................................................................... 85
GII THIU CHUNG..................................................................................................................................... 85
NI DUNG...................................................................................................................................................... 85
3.1. KHI NIM.......................................................................................................................................... 85

226

Mc lc
3.2. IU KIN DAO NG V C IM CA MCH TO DAO NG ....................................86
3.3. MCH TO DO NG SIN GHP BIN P....................................................................................87
3.4. MCH DAO NG SIN BA IM ....................................................................................................87
3.5. MCH TO DAO NG SIN GHP RC...........................................................................................89
3.6. MCH DAO NG BNG THCH ANH.........................................................................................92
3.7. MCH TO TN HIU SIN KIU XP X TUYN TNH ...............................................................94
TM TT ........................................................................................................................................................96
CU HI V BI TP ..................................................................................................................................97
CHNG 4: MCH XUNG ............................................................................................................................101
GII THIU CHUNG ...................................................................................................................................101
NI DUNG ....................................................................................................................................................102
4.1. TN HIU XUNG V THAM S ......................................................................................................102
4.2. CH KHA CA TRANZITO....................................................................................................103
4.3. CH KHA CA BKTT ..........................................................................................................104
4.4. TRIG.................................................................................................................................................105
4.5. MCH A HI I ..........................................................................................................................106
4.6. MCH DAO NG A HI T DAO NG................................................................................107
4.7. MCH DAO NG NGHT (BLOCKING) ....................................................................................111
4.8. MCH HN CH BIN ..............................................................................................................113
4.9. MCH TO XUNG RNG CA......................................................................................................115
4.10. MCH TO TN HIU HN HP .................................................................................................119
4.11. MCH TO DAO NG C TN S IU KHIN BNG IN P (VCO)..........................120
TM TT ......................................................................................................................................................121
CU HI V BI TP ................................................................................................................................122
CHNG 5: CC MCH BIN I TN S.............................................................................................125
GII THIU CHUNG ...................................................................................................................................125
NI DUNG ....................................................................................................................................................126
5.1. IU CH...........................................................................................................................................126
5.2. MCH IU BIN ............................................................................................................................128
5.3. IU CH N BIN.......................................................................................................................131
5.4. IU TN V IU PHA ................................................................................................................133
5.5. MCH IU TN V IU PHA ...................................................................................................134
5.6. TCH SNG ......................................................................................................................................137
5.7. TCH SNG IU TN V IU PHA.........................................................................................140
5.8. TRN TN .........................................................................................................................................146
5.9. MCH NHN CHIA TN S...........................................................................................................151
TM TT ......................................................................................................................................................153

227

Mc lc
CU HI V BI TP................................................................................................................................ 155
CHNG 6: CHUYN I A/D, D/A ........................................................................................................... 158
GII THIU CHUNG................................................................................................................................... 158
NI DUNG.................................................................................................................................................... 158
6.1. C S L LUN............................................................................................................................... 158
6.1.1. Khi nim chung .............................................................................................................................. 158
6.1.2. Cc tham s c bn........................................................................................................................... 160
6.2. CC PHNG PHP CHUYN I A/D ...................................................................................... 162
6.3. CC PHNG PHP CHUYN I D/A ...................................................................................... 170
TM TT...................................................................................................................................................... 172
CU HI V BI TP................................................................................................................................ 174
CHNG 7: MCH CUNG CP NGUN ................................................................................................... 176
GII THIU CHUNG................................................................................................................................... 176
NI DUNG.................................................................................................................................................... 176
7.1. KHI NIM........................................................................................................................................ 176
7.2. BIN P ............................................................................................................................................. 177
7.3. CHNH LU MT PHA .................................................................................................................... 177
7.4. CHNH LU BI P......................................................................................................................... 183
7.5. B LC .............................................................................................................................................. 185
7.6. N NH IN P............................................................................................................................ 187
7.7. NGUN CHUYN MCH ................................................................................................................ 196
TM TT...................................................................................................................................................... 203
CU HI V BI TP................................................................................................................................ 204
HNG DN TR LI .................................................................................................................................. 207
CHNG 1: MCH KHUCH I TRANZITO....................................................................................... 207
CHNG 2: B KHUCH I THUT TON ....................................................................................... 211
CHNH 3 MCH TO DAO NG SIN............................................................................................... 212
CHNG 4: MCH XUNG......................................................................................................................... 215
CHNG 5:CC MCH BIN I TN S ........................................................................................... 217
CHNG 6: CHUYN I A/D, D/A........................................................................................................ 219
CHNG 7: MCH CUNG CP NGUN................................................................................................. 221
THUT NG VIT TT................................................................................................................................. 224
TI LIU THAM KHO................................................................................................................................. 225
MC LC.......................................................................................................................................................... 226

228

IN T TNG T
M s : 497XSU210
Chu trch nhim bn tho
HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG