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484 | Properties of Fluids [Nonviscous(fition-fice luis in smooth (nonturbulent) notion follow paths traced out by streamlines. The conservation of mass for @fuid moving in this way is stated asthe continuity equation. IAs = pares 1614) ete p and are the density an speed at some point in «tube of streamlines; Ais the core- spoaliny cioss sexton OF me tube He Tok is nunpnessibie, the (eoHStn Oewsiy cate, and the resulting expression is the conservation of flow rate or ux DAL = vA, (16-15) Tee crag Se ag fle eee peri een oe ee rece eter oe eet eis 06-2) ‘Whe the i iat ret threes to Ey (16-6 when the i wis ez. this rece 0 pth 40-24) ‘This equation isthe bass of the Venturi Flowmeter, which measures the speed of fiuids in pipes, swell a the basis for understanding te fow of fluids from holes and the lift on wings, kis posible co go quite far in understanding fads witha numberof simplifications, The ro- lxation of the simplifying sssumptions brings in rotational low. viscosity. and turbulence. The bbehivier of rel fluids remus afield of active study. Qunderstandi 1g the Concepts n The “ati |. How does hot-air balloon get off the ground” ‘We wigh brik twice witha bothroom ncale. "The fit time, the sale and the brick are inside a tub of wate. an the second time, they are outside the th, Water can enter he scale. Does the scale Indicate a difference in weight in the to cases? (One accurate method of messurine the fat content of your bexly ‘is tomeasure your weight twice: once while you are immersed in tank of water, and once when you are out of the water. Explain how such method might werk. ‘The mest exciting white water for canoeing often cccurs when the river naows, Why i this? Ian exept balloon is weighed on a scale, x certain value is ob tained, If child now blows up the balloon and Waits for several ‘minutes so thatthe temperature ofthe air in the belloon is the same 8 the tom temperature, what valve will the sea ive for the balloon's weight? ‘Suppose that a certain Quid has no viscosity, Wil the secelera- tion of objects falling under gravity within this fluid be indepen en ofthe man ofthe objects? You have two objects in a bathtub—one Heating high up, the ther just rely Heating. Does the hueyant Force cancel gravity in cach ofthese cases? Water storaze tanks for communities noanally are placed high off the ground rather than underground. This i obviously a safe ty hazard so why is it done? ). Mercury is poisonous. Why, then sit typically used in barome= ters to measure amospheric pressure? effect fora racing car. the oppexite of te lift effect on airplanes, is said to be so strong that a car could race on a Upsidedown track. Is this © plausible statement?” Make some rough estitnates of the surface area ofa racing ea, its mass, and fis velocity, and assume that the difference between the air speeds under the ear and over the ea is about 20) Ih Example 16-10 we suggested thet the minimum pressure at the girafe’s head must be p= 0. But why couldnt dhe ein maim alin of premier he negative! Comment om the cigs the three terms in Berreulli' equation, Ea. 16-21 12, One way to get the water out of astopped-up snk st use along piece of ruber tubing. You put one ghd inthe watarand ruck on the other end until you have fille dl ‘You then close off ‘your end. bring that end to. poi kelow the bottom of the sink ‘and reopen that end (Fig. 16-31). The water will flow out ‘hous the rubine ul the sink is emery. You have made use of the siphon mechanism (see Problem 73). Explain how it works AA FIGURE 16-31 Questiens 12.1. sn Problem 73 “The siphon shown in Fig. 16-31 and deserited in Question 12s limited inthe height fg that it can overcome. What determines this lie? 1. Suppose mercury were less dense than it is. Would the height of ‘barometer coluran be (a tale ot (b) sheer?” Do sailboats make use of any ofthe uspects of Bernoulli's las, such a those we described for airplanes? te panieular do sails need to be curved inorder to Work? ‘A-common elasstvom demonstration employs table tennis ball ina funnel. An air hose is connected tothe tube of the funn nel oi x blown threigh. I the funnel is held upside down, the ball does not fall cut. Why? 17, Which weighs more fon of Styrofoam ora ton of lead” Which ‘of the two hus the larger volume? How might you estimate the density of each? 1% People find it very easy to flat inthe Dead Sea. Why’? 19, ‘The point ofa cone-shaped battle (pointed end up) is remeved to provide an opening. The pressure of the liquid atthe very bottom UF the Luwle i» dhe aunt of te atunapleric premuse ann the ‘weight of the liquid shove. If we consider 2 part ofthe beter that is not diretly below the opening. we might argue that there is ess pressure because, above that point, thete Is les Tiguid and no stmeephors This argumant violate Patras principle What has the argument left out? In Exarople 16-11 we described water flowing from 2 hole cut in a tank. What happens to the flow with the passage of time? In particular, is the rate of flow constant? Is the distance frcm the ‘tank othe Tanding point ofthe steam constant? Suppose that you put mixture of oil and water int # centrifege that rotates at high speeds (be oils less dense than the water an oes not mix wit it). The two liquids separate. Why, and wich ‘omporet wal be farthest rum te cerer ot the cenunuge?” Problems 16-2 Density and Pressure 1. (D Jupiter has a cadivs R = 7.14 X 10" km, and the secekera tion de to gravity nt the surface is gy ~ 229 m/s Use these ata to calla Jopite's average density (The outers ven in Problem 1 we the flowing valves for sowe of the other planets: Venus: R= 605 X 10m, 4-886 m/c%, Mors R~ 299 910% emg 273 fa Uranus: = 2:54 % 10" m, = 9.12 m/s Nepeune R= 248 * 107m, g = 120 m/s, Cale the emits of these bis 4 UD) The density of @ nucleus is about 2 % 10!” ke/m®. The amount of watz in lage lke is 10" IF this amour of Miter were compressed to nuclear desiy, ews many Wes oF water Would there he? 4.) A platinum ephor hme inet of Oem Wha the ameter ofan aluminum sphere ofthe same was, given thal the densities of platinum snd amin sre 21.4 % 10" kg/m and 2:70 * 10" kg/m respectively? (1 tons of an inaginary two-dimensional sl are aranged in a squat atic. The distance of neighboring stoms isa. Assute {hut the solids acted upon by a shear farce and deformed by sail axgle f without any change in he earet neighbor as (ance Fg. 16-32), Caleulate the change in he distance tween Moms stated at opposite comes ofa square ” A FIGURE 16-32 Prebioms. 26, a we, Problems | 485 2. An old proposal for transcontinental tave along a fixed laine isthe following: Take a balloon high into the statesphere. Wait until Earth has rotted the desired distance beneath you, then de scené, Corrament on the feasibility ofthis mode of transpet ‘A snorke isa breathing tbe meant to Be used While you swim under water: it runs from your mouth o the water surface. Why fs the teugt of e suosho Himited? {A pressure of 8 KPa across the eardrum is encugh to cause ser- ‘us pain. and 17 kPa will rupture the eardrum. What fraction of ‘an atmosphere is this? Given your answer, hy Is i that merely stopping eld enor Annigoerte? In the course ofa lazy summer morning, ice cubes loting in a pitcher of water melt. What happens to the waler level in the pitcher? (ignore evaporation.) ‘Suppose that you puta kilogram weight and ajar half-illed with ‘woler on kitchen scale. The scale reads 2.5 ke. Now you place the kilograra weight inside the jar, and no water spills out. You night argue that because the Kilogram weight weighs less in water than in air, the scale would read less than 2.$ kg, bat the reading remnans 2.9 kg What is wrong With your argument? () The density of mereury is 13.6 times tat of water Compare the height of a column of water to that of « column of mercury: suming tha the prossure exerted by the weights ofthe respec tive liquid’ atthe bottom of each ccluma are the sare. (A ceiteus clown stands on a pait of stilts Oat each hive square cross section of 40 em per se, Ifthe mass ofthe clown pls the tiles 6H Kg, wat preaure is enered on the floce’? (A wedge of mass 15 N and opening angle @ = 55° is lot fn on the surface of water in the syrimetrial positon shew in Fig. 16-33. Caleulate the force of the water tht acts on each of the two surfaces A FIGURE 16-22 Problem 8 (A hollow stainless steel sphere of rads 20 em is evacuated 0 that there isa vacuum inside. (a) What isthe sum ofthe mag- ‘tudes ofthe Forces tha otto compres the sphere? (b) There i ‘circular hole of diameter 4 ern on the side of the sphere to ‘cess fo the inside. Calculate the force needed to pul a fet pate ‘ff te hole when the sphere is evacuated. Do you thiak that you could remove such 2 plate by pling on it? {0 During a turicene, the aumospherc resare changes ra ‘naticaly. Explain why itis recummendcd tht house windows be kept slighly pen disng a hurricane. Whats the net force on 4 wall that is 300 fina when the paessure on one side is 1427 bin’ and the presse on the olers 14.0 ie"?