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Innovative Organo Mineral Resins for CIPP

Jaymes Khell, Oliver Czysollek


Minova Asia Pacific Africa
Keywords: lateral lining, tailored solutions, market specific systems, low entry level cost,
immerging markets.
Abstract
Organo Mineral resins have a long history of application in German coal mines. In the early
1970s, a non foaming type of these resins where used for strata consolidation and a high foaming
type for cavity filling. By the mid 1990s alternative Silicate resins started to appear in the sewer
rehabilitation field thanks to increased product properties well suited to the sewer rehabilitation
field. These characteristic included much improved chemical resistance, adjustable setting times and
finally a lower production cost.
Today, we can find different Silicate resins based on waterglass isocyanate emulsions for the
application of Cured In Place Pipes (CIPP) in the modern sewer rehabilitation environment. The
following report will explain why these resins are advantageous in offering cost effective
rehabilitation systems. Advantages include, less dependence on expensive equipment, faster
turnaround times per application, ease of application and the advantages of ambient cure systems.
These features benefit experienced and new contractors alike.
In recent years, advanced research has resulted in improved structural strength in these silicate
resins. Additional focus on differing global markets/climates and the individual requirement in
handling and repairing parameters has also led to the creation of tailor made solutions. The ability to
tailor a solution to a specific problem/contract is particularly useful. Equally, existing and new
rehabilitation processes in both established and emerging markets can benefit from tailor made
solutions. Off the shelf solutions have been available for a while and are useful. However they
cannot offer the complete and total benefits provided by tailor made system.
History of Organo Mineral Resin
In 1979, non-foaming Organo Mineral resins were invented in Germany for consolidation of the
coal strata in underground coal mines. Until that point, foaming Poly Urethane resins (PU) had been
used successfully since 1969 for the same purpose. However, the established application with Poly
Urethane resins was expensive in comparison to the new Organo Mineral resins and so an
alternative resin type was requested by the German Coal industry.
The advent of waterglass isocyanate emulsions using standard MDI (Diphenylmethane
Diisocyanate) technology provided a non-foaming silicate resin alternative to PU, suitable for strata
consolidation in underground mines. The benefit of these non-foaming Silicate resins is that they
will not foam in contact with water. In comparison, other chemicals like the previosly mentioned
PU resins are very water reactive and tend to foam in contact water. A very important further
advantage of silicate resins is thier low reaction temperature, Silicate resins generate much less
exothermic heat with a maximum of 80C during the curing process what brings especially in
underground mines a very significant safety advantage.
However, these early original Organo Mineral resins were developed for the application in
underground mines and not yet suitable for the repairing of sewer pipes. The physical properties
simple did not fulfill the technical requirements for liners. They were too brittle and the adhesive
strength was relative low. Equally, it took a long time in thin layers to cure to the final strength. To
overcome these lack of physical properties, further development was required and in 1994 with the
addition of Pre Polymers into the B Component of the formula, the product properties could
achieve a new quality. The curing times were shortened dramatically and the physical properties and
elasticity greatly could be improved. Followed by the change from the 1:1 mixing ratio used in
mining to a 1:2 mixing ratio, Silicate resins were considered for use in the CIPP sewer rehabilitation
market.
Market Introduction for CIPP
In 1994 Silicate resins were first used in the Part Lining systems. The curing properties simple
allowed for faster turn around of patching repair works compared to Epoxy resin. At this moment
the silicate resin technology had moved forward due to the inclusion of pre-polymers. Additional
benefits when using silicate in the Part Lining repair process had become apparent.
These benefits included:

Greatly improved chemical resistance and adhesion; most chemicals that come into contract
with the silicate lining have only a little influence on the product properties

Fast curing even at ambient temperatures

No foaming: In comparison to other resins, Silicate does not change its properties under
influence of water.
Page: 2
The following diagram shows the resistance of a Silicate resin used for a part lining system against
different chemicals. The blue color column shows the tensile strength in bending after 28days and
the red one after 356 days.

Diagram 1: Resistance against different chemicals; short and long term examination
Development from short to middle long liners
Silicate resins had been successfully used as part of the Patch or Part Lining repair market for
many years. Non foaming silicates enabled ease of system application in conjunction with specially
woven fiberglass matting. Due to the relative low E-modulus of the early silicate resins, the
fiberglass has the tasks of increasing the physical strength of the repair resin and to support an equal
thickness of the part liner. The following diagram shows the system Silicate resin with fiber glass
matt in the final composition.
Page: 3
Chemical resistance of CarboLith PL/Advantex-Composit
Isopropanol
Diethylenglykol
Ethylenglykol
Ethanol, 50%
Lactic Acid, 50%
Sodium chloride sol., 20%
Natriumhypochlorit-sol.
Soda lye, 5%
Sulphuric acid, 10%
Biodiesel
Diesel
Petrol
Water
Air
Tensile strength in bending acc. ISO 178 MPa


Diagram 2: Typical fiberglass matt and silicate resin preparation used for Part Lining
Beside the Silicate resin is the choice of a high quality fiberglass matt very important. For an
optimum result, ECR and not an E-Glass type should be used. The reason is that ECR fiberglass
mats have a very high resistance to corrosion, while E-Glass mats have a tendency to absorb
chemicals resulting in swelling of the mat. The result is obviously a loss in strength of the
composition.
On the back of the Part Lining success, these Silicate resins were introduced to the Lateral Lining or
House Lining Markets. Although they cannot not complete in the larger diameter pipes >DN350 due
to the short pot life and also low physical properties, Silicate resins have been accepted globally for
use in middle length/smaller diameters. The reason for this is that even thought the E-modulus of
Epoxy or Polyester resin is still higher, the repairing of lateral linings with the exothermic Silicate
resin is much more user friendly and less logistics are required. The following table compares the
different resin types of Epoxy, Polyester and Silicate concerning the application and important
features.
Page: 4
Diagram 3: comparison of CIPP resins and the application methods
Traditional forced cure systems using Epoxy or Polyester resin technology required the utilization
of water trucks and boilers at the jobsite to enable the curing of the CIPP liner regardless of the
lining diameter being installed.

Photo 1: Typical force curing set up for Epoxy or Polyester resin curing
Silicate resins allowed for a much more compact equipment assembly on site to be used. This
resulted in improved turn around times per application due to the ease of equipment set-up and
ambient curing times.
Resin Type Areas of use Curing
Properties
Equipment
Plus Minus
Epoxy

Part Lining

Lateral Lining

T Connection

Suitable for small


& medium
diameter pipes
Forced
High Physical
properties
Low
Chemical
resistance

Bulky and expensive

Hot water or Steam


generators required on
site
Polyester

Lateral Lining

Medium - Large
diameter pipes
Forced
High physical
properties
Low
Chemical
resistance

Bulky and expensive

Refrigeration trucks
required to transport
impregnated lining.

Hot water or steam


generators required on
site
Silicate

Part Lining

Small diameter
Lateral Lining

T Connections
Forced or
Ambient
High Chemical
resistance
Good Physical
properties
Less
physical
properties
than EP or
Polyester

Bulky and expensive or


Compact and Cheap

No need for water or


steam
Page: 5

Photo 2: Inversion drum for lateral lining
Recent Example
An interesting and recent example highlighting the ever increasing benefits and convenience of
using ambient cure silicate resins is the private sewer rehabilitation program at Marina Catchment
in Singapore. The program was requiring easy systems for the rehabilitation work of the drain line
pipes in 2008.

Photo 3: In 2008, Singapore has introduced Silicate resin for the repairing of lateral lining successfully
Some facts about the project

Singapore has over 3,600km of sewer carrying waste water

50% of Singapore land area is already water catchment and by 2009 this will increase to 66%
with the completion of the marina

In the Marina Reservoir catchment area are 1,000km of private sewers

All private sewer repairs will be carried out using CIPP methods

Householders must pay themselves for repairs to sewer pipes that come within their own
property boundary
Page: 6
Due to the limited time constraints for completing these contracts, many new applicators had to be
found to enable the Rehabilitation Programme to be completed on time. With experienced and
inexperienced contractors bidding for the work, the requirement for a easy systems had become
even more prevalent. Package systems have been available for the part liner market for some time.
However, until recently only expensive package systems were available for new comers wishing to
enter the Lateral Lining application market.
Customized product for the project
The core values to providing an optimal, cost effective and efficient system to the Singapore market
were as follows:
A) Equipment and Application Criteria:

Low tech and reliable

Low cost for equipment, e.g. installation gun to inflate the liner

Manpower intensive

Mobile and easy to use in tight spaces (basements allies, backyards)


B) Resin Technology:

Safe resin system, easy to remember 2-component mixing ratio (1:2)

Inexperienced labour and experienced applicators alike could undertake the application,
therefore the system must be robust in handling and fool proof, e. g. fast mixing behavior of
both components or good penetration properties into the felt liner are important

Ambient Cure (no need for extra equipment to ensure full curing)

3 hour completion window, from mixing of resin to cutting out

Flexible method of adjustment to the system to incorporate any increase in application


temperature
The objective was to produce a resin technology that provided advantages to the system in attaining
simplicity with ease and speed of application and a final result without compromise to the quality.

Photo 4: Simple installation system for Lateral Lining in Singapore
Page: 7

Photo 5: Inversion gun moved away to next installation.
Collected experience from the project
The system allowed fast turn around by freeing up the inversion equipment during the curing
process. If force curing or a drum type of inversion system is used the inversion equipment must
remain in place during the curing process as a means of maintaining the air pressure in the installed
liner. However, using ambient cure silicate resin and a compressed air plug (see photo 5), the
invertion gun can be immediately removed once the lining is installed and utilized to commence the
next installation.

Diagram 4: Typical installation turn around once a little experience has been gained
Page: 8
Finish the
first 4 Liners
Finish the last
2 Liners
Installation Process:

Repair from Manhole to


Manhole

Lining 150mm x 10m


lengths

All pipes to be repaired


are within a 200m radius
1
.

L
i
n
e
r
2
.

L
i
n
e
r
6
.

L
i
n
e
r
With first experience in handling of the Silicate resin, the applicator crew could complete 6 pieces
of 150mm x 10metre installations in a regular 8 hour shift. Using Silicate resin therefore ultimately
provides a fast and very cost effective system and litre to litre resin price comparison alone should
not be used as a means of calculating costs. Inexperienced and experienced Singapore applicators
embraced this easy to use and reliable tailor made system.
The Future for Silicate Resins
Resin technology is now enabling Silicate resins to have increased strength. Within the next two
years, high strength Silicate resins will be made available. This will allow for thinner linings to be
used and in turn reducing the costs. Equally, in the developed rehabilitation markets the increased
use of Robotic systems to carry out sewer pipe rehabilitation will become evident. The example of
Singapore has shown that a new resin technology can help to save costs and time with the benefit of
a reliable quality lining system.
Authors:
Jaymes Khell, Sales Manager Civil SEA, working for Minova Asia Pacific in Bangkok, Thailand;
Oliver Czysollek, Product Development Sewer Repair Systems, Minove, Eassen, Germany
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