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The fuel-injection system is the most vital component
in the working of CI engine.
The engine performance, power o/p , economy etc is
greatly dependent on the effectiveness of the fuel-
injection system.
Basically the purpose of carburetion & fuel-injection is
the same i.e. preparation of the combustible charge.
But in case of carburetion fuel is atomized by processes
relying on the air speed greater than fuel speed at the
fuel nozzle , whereas in fuel-injection the fuel speed at
the point of delivery is greater than the air speed to
atomize the fuel.
Requirements of a diesel injection
The functional requirements of an injection system are listed
1. Introduction of the fuel into the combustion chamber
should take place within a precisely defined period of the
2. The metering of amount of fuel injected per cycle should
done very accurately.
3. The quantities of fuel metered should vary to meet the
changing load & speed requirements.
4. The injection rate should be such that it results in the
desired heat-release pattern.
5. The injected fuel must be broken into very fine droplets.

6. Proper spray pattern to ensure rapid mixing of fuel
& air.
7. Beginning & end of injection should be sharp.
8. Timing the injection of the fuel correctly in cycle so
that maximum power is obtained, ensuring
economy & clean burning.
9. Uniform distribution of fuel droplets throughout
the combustion chamber.

Diesel injection systems can be divided into two
basic types. They are :

Air injection system

Solid injection system

1. Air injection system

In this method fuel is forced into the cylinder by means
of compressed air to a very high pressure. The rate of
fuel admission can be controlled by varying the
pressure of air .
The fuel is metered & pumped to the fuel valve by a
camshaft driven fuel pump. The fuel valve is opened by
means of a mechanical linkage operated by the
camshaft which controls the timing of injection . The
fuel valve is also connected to a high pressure air line
fed by a multi stage compressor which supplies air at a
pressure of about 60 to 70 bar.

It provides better atomization & distribution of fuel.
Heavy & viscous fuels, which are cheaper can also be injected.
This method is not used now a day due to following reasons:

It requires a high pressure multi stage compression.
A separate mechanical linkage is required to time the
operation of fuel valve.
The fuel valve sealing requires considerable skill.
Due to the compression & the linkage the bulk of the engine
increases . This also results in reduced B.P due to power loss in
operating the compression & linkage.
In case of sticking of the fuel valve , the system becomes quite
dangerous due to the presence of high pressure air.
2. Solid injection system
In this method fuel is injected directly into the
combustion chamber without primary
atomization is termed as solid injection. it is also
termed as mechanical injection.
Solid injection system can be classified into four
1. Individual pump & injector.
2. Unit injector system.
3. Common rail system.
4. Distributor system.

Type of fuel injection
1. Individual pump &
In this system , each
cylinder is provided with
one pump & one injector.
Also in this system a
separate metering &
compression pump is
provided for each
The pump may be placed
close to cylinder as shown
in fig(a) or

May be arranged in a
cluster as shown in fig(b).

In high pressure pump ,
plunger is actuated by a
cam & produces the fuel
pressure necessary to
open the injector valve at
the correct time .

The amount of fuel
injected depends on the
effective stroke of the
2. Unit injector system:
The unit injector
system is one in
which the pump &
injector are
combined in one
Each cylinder is
provided with one
of these unit
Fuel is brought up
to the injector by a
low pressure pump
at proper time, a
rocker arm actuates
the plunger & thus
injects the fuel into
the cylinder.

3. Commmon rail system:
In common rail system a
high pressure fuel pump
delivers fuel to an
accumulator, whose
pressure is kept constant
with the help of a
pressure regulating valve.
A common rail or a pipe
starts from the
accumulator & leads to
the different distributing
elements for each

For each cylinder there is a separate metering &
timing element which is connected to an
automatic injector injecting fuel into the cylinder.

In the common rail system the supply pressure of
the fuel is independent of speed & hence is not
affected by the fuel pump.

The amount of fuel entering the cylinder is
regulated by varying the length of the push rod
4. Distributor system:

In this system the pump
which pressurizes the fuel
also meters & times it .

The fuel pump after
metering the required
amount of fuel supplies it
to rotating distributor at
the correct time for
supply to each cylinder.

The number of injection strokes per cycle for
the pump is equal to the number of cylinders.

Since there is only one metering element , a
uniform distribution is automatically ensured .

Not only that , the cost of the fuel injection
system also reduces to a valve less than two
third of that for individual pump system.
It consists of a reciprocating plunger inside a
barrel. The plunger is driven by a camshaft.
The working principle of jerk pump is as
Near the port A, fuel is always available under relatively low
pressure. while the axial movement of the plunger is through
camchaft,its rotational movement is by mean of rack D. port
B is the orifice through which fuel is delivered to the injector.
At this stage it is closed by means of a spring loaded check
When the plunger is below port A, the fuel gets filled in the
barrel above it. As the plunger rises & closes the port A the
fuel will flow out through port C. this is because it has to
overcome the spring force of the check valve in order to flow
through port B. hence it takes the easier way out via port C.

At this stage rack rotates the plunger & as a result
port C also closes. The only escape route for the
fuel is pass the check valve through orifice B to the
injector. This is the beginning of injection & also the
effective stroke of the plunger.
The injection continues till the helix on the plunger
uncovers port C. now the fuel will take the easy way
out through C & the check valve will close the
orifice B. the fuel injection stops & the effective
stroke ends.
(e) & (f) the plunger is rotated to the position
shown. The same sequence of events occur. But in
this case port C is uncovered sooner. Hence the
effective stroke is shortened.
Nozzle is a part of an injector through which the
fuel is sprayed into the combustion chamber.
Various types of nozzles used in C I engine
A. Single hole nozzle.
B. multi-hole nozzle.
C. Pintle nozzle.
D. Pintaux nozzle.


Single hole nozzle are used in open
combustion chamber. At the center of
the nozzle body there is a single hole
which is closed by the nozzle valve.
The size of the hole is usually larger
than 0.2mm.
The hole may be drilled centrally or at
an angle to the centre line of the nozzle.
Main disadvantages of the Single hole
nozzle are:
i. Single hole nozzle has tendency to
ii. The spray angle is very narrow. This
does not facilitate good mixing unless
higher air velocities are provided.

B. Multi-hole Nozzle:

In order to mix the fuel properly even
with the slow air movement available
with many open combustion chamber
,a Multi-hole nozzle.
The number of holes varies from
4 & 18 and the size from 1.5mm
to 0.35mm.
i. Gives good atomization.
ii. Distribute fuel property even
with lower air motion available
in open combustion chamber.
i. Dribbling b/w injection.
ii. Very high injection.
iii. Close tolerance in
manufacture & hence costly.


In order to avoid the weak injection &
dribbling the spindle is provided with a
projection called pintle , which protrudes
through the mouth of the nozzle body. It
either cylindrical or conical in shape.
The size & shape of the pintle can be varied
according to the requirement.
i. It is self cleaning type.
ii. It prevent the carbon deposition on the
nozzle hole.
iii. It result in good atomization.
iv. It avoid weak injection & dribbling.
i. Distribution & penetration poor. Hence
not suitable for open combustion

It is a type of pintle nozzle
which has an auxiliary hole
drilled in the nozzle body
If the fuel is injected in a
direction upstream the
direction of air, the delay
period is reduced due to
increased heat transfer b/w air
& fuel. This results in good
cold starting performance.
i. The tendency of the
auxiliary hole to choke.
ii. The injection characteristics
are even poorer then multi
hole nozzle.
Modern gasoline injection system use engine sensors, a
computer and solenoid operated fuel injectors to
meter & inject the right amount of fuel into the engine
cylinder. These system is called as electronic fuel
injection system(EFL) use electrical & electronic devices
to monitor & control engine operation.
An electronic control unit (ECU) or computer receives
electrical signals in the form of current or voltage from
various sensors. It then uses the stored data to operate
the injectors , ignition system & other engine related
devices. As a result, less unburned fuel leaves the
engine as emissions & the vehicle gives better milage.
Under full load, the ECU will sense a wide open
throttle, high intake manifold pressure,& high inlet
air flow. The ECU will then increase the injector
pulse width to enrich the mixture which will enable
the engine to produce higher power.
Under low load & idling conditions, the ECU will
shorten the pulse width by which the injectors are
kept in the closed position over a longer period of
time. Because of this, air-fuel mixture will become
leaner & will result in better fuel economy.
EFI system has a cold start injector too. This is an
extra injector that sprays fuel into the center of the
engine intake manifold when the engine is cold. It
server the same purpose as the carburetor choke.
The cold start injector ensures easy engine start up
in very cold weather.
Merits of EFI system:
1) Formation of ice on the throttle plate is eliminated.
2) Better atomization & vapourization will make the engine less
3) Manifold wetting is eliminated due to the fuel being injected
into or close to cylinder & need not flow through the
4) Atomization of fuel is independent of cracking speed &
therefore starting will be easier.
5) Distribution of fuel being independent of vapourization less
volatile fuel can be used.
6) Position of the injection unit is not so critical & thereby the
height of the engine can be less.

Demerit of EFI system:
1) High maintenance cost.
2) Difficulty in servicing.
3) Possibility of malfunction of some sensors.