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PROJECTILE MOTION

Senior High School Physics


Dorsey
2014
Free powerpoints at http://www.worldofteaching.com
Introduction
Projectile Motion:
Motion through the air without a propulsion
Examples:Essexs Larkin Gross warms up at
Hobbs Hole Golf Course in Tappahannock.
Part 1.
Motion of Objects Projected
Horizontally
v
0
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
Motion is accelerated
Acceleration is constant,
and downward
a = g = -9.81m/s
2

The horizontal (x)
component of velocity is
constant
The horizontal and vertical
motions are independent of
each other, but they have a
common time



g = -9.81m/s
2
ANALYSIS OF MOTION
ASSUMPTIONS:
x-direction (horizontal): uniform motion
y-direction (vertical): accelerated motion
no air resistance
QUESTIONS:
What is the trajectory?
What is the total time of the motion?
What is the horizontal range?
What is the final velocity?
x
y
0
Frame of reference:
h
v
0

Equations of motion:
X-axis
Uniform m.
Y-axis
Accel. m.
ACCL. a
x
= 0 a
y
= g = -9.81 m/s
2
VELC. v
x
= v
0x
v
y
= v
y0 +
g t
DSPL. x = v
0
t y = h + v
y0
t + g t
2

g
x
y
0
Frame of reference:
h
v
0

Equations of motion:
X-axis
Uniform m.
Y-axis
Accel. m.
ACCL. a
x
= 0 a
y
= g = -9.81 m/s
2
VELC. v
x
= v
0x
v
y
= v
y0 +
g t
DSPL. x = v
0
t y = h + v
y0
t + g t
2

g
0

0

0

Trajectory
x = v
0x
t
y = h + g t
2

Eliminate time, t
t = x/v
0
y = h + g (x/v
0
)
2

y = h + (g/v
0
2
) x
2
y = (g/v
0
2
) x
2
+ h

y
x
h
Parabola, open down
v
01
v
02
> v
01
Total Time, t
y = h + g t
2

final y = 0
y
x
h
t
i
=0
t
f
=t
0 = h + g (t)
2
Solve for t:
t = 2h/(9.81ms
-2
)

Total time of motion depends
only on the initial height, h
t = t
f
- t
i
Horizontal Range, x
final y = 0, time is
the total time t
y
x
h
t = 2h/(-g)
x = v
0
2h/(-g)

Horizontal range depends on the
initial height, h, and the initial
velocity, v
0

x
x = v
0
t
x = v
0
t
VELOCITY
v
v
x
= v
0
v
y
= g t
v = v
x
2
+ v
y
2


tg = v
y
/ v
x

HORIZONTAL THROW - Summary
Trajectory Half -parabola, open
down
Total time
t = 2h/(-g)

Horizontal Range
x = v
0
2h/(-g)
Final Velocity
v = v
0
2
+ 2h(-g)
tg = -2h(-g) / v
0
h initial height, v
0
initial horizontal velocity, g = -9.81m/s
2
Part 2.
Motion of objects projected at an
angle
v
i
x
y

v
ix
v
iy
Initial velocity: vi = v
i
[]

Velocity components:
x- direction : v
ix
= v
i
cos
y- direction : v
iy
= v
i
sin
Initial position: x = 0, y = 0
x
y
Motion is accelerated down (y-axis)
Acceleration is constant, and downward
The horizontal (x) component of velocity
is constant
The horizontal and vertical motions are
independent of each other, but they have
a common time
a = g =
- 9.81m/s
2
ANALYSIS OF MOTION:
ASSUMPTIONS
x-direction (horizontal): uniform motion
y-direction (vertical): accelerated motion
no air resistance
QUESTIONS
What is the trajectory?
What is the total time of the motion?
What is the horizontal range?
What is the maximum height?
What is the final velocity?
Equations of motion:
X
Uniform motion
Y
Accelerated motion
ACCELERATION
a
x
= 0 a
y
= g = -9.81 m/s
2
VELOCITY
v
x
= v
ix
= v
i
cos
v
x
= v
i
cos

v
y
= v
iy
+ g t
v
y
= v
i
sin + g t
DISPLACEMENT
x = v
ix
t = v
i
t cos
x = v
i
t cos
y = h + v
iy
t + g t
2
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
Equations of motion:
X
Uniform motion
Y
Accelerated motion
ACCELERATION
a
x
= 0 a
y
= g = -9.81 m/s
2
VELOCITY
v
x
= v
i
cos

v
y
= v
i
sin + g t
DISPLACEMENT
x = v
i
t cos y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
Trajectory
x = v
i
t cos
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2

Eliminate time, t
t = x/(v
i
cos )

y
x
Parabola, open down
2
2 2
2 2
2
cos 2
tan
cos 2 cos
sin
x
v
g
x y
v
gx
v
x v
y
i
i i
i

y = bx + ax
2
Total Time, t
final height y = 0, after time interval t
0 = v
i
t

sin + g (t)
2
Solve for t:
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
0 = v
i
sin + g t

t =
2 v
i
sin
(-g)
t = 0 t
x
Horizontal Range, x
final y = 0, time is
the total time t
x = v
i
t cos
x = v
i
t cos
x
x
y
0
t =
2 v
i
sin
(-g)
x =

2v
i
2
sin cos
(-g)

x =
v
i
2
sin (2

)
(-g)
sin (2

) = 2 sin cos
Horizontal Range, x
x =
v
i
2
sin (2

)
(-g)
(deg) sin (2

)
0 0.00
15 0.50
30 0.87
45 1.00
60 0.87
75 0.50
90 0
CONCLUSIONS:
Horizontal range is greatest for the
throw angle of 45
0

Horizontal ranges are the same for
angles and (90
0
)
Trajectory and horizontal range
2
2 2
cos 2
tan x
v
g
x y
i


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 20 40 60 80
15 deg
30 deg
45 deg
60 deg
75 deg
v
i
= 25 m/s
Velocity
Final speed = initial speed (conservation of energy)
Impact angle = - launch angle (symmetry of parabola)
Maximum Height
v
y
= v
i
sin + g t
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
At maximum height v
y
= 0
0 = v
i
sin + g t
up
t
up
=
v
i
sin
(-g)
t
up
= t/2
h
max
= v
i
t
up
sin + g t
up
2
h
max
= v
i
2

sin
2
/(-g) + g(v
i
2

sin
2
)/g
2

h
max
=

v
i
2

sin
2

2(-g)
Projectile Motion Final Equations
Trajectory
Parabola, open down

Total time

t =


Horizontal range

x =

Max height

h
max
=
(0,0) initial position, v
i
= v
i
[] initial velocity, g = -9.81m/s
2
2 v
i
sin
(-g)
v
i
2
sin (2

)
(-g)
v
i
2

sin
2

2(-g)
PROJECTILE MOTION - SUMMARY
Projectile motion is motion with a constant
horizontal velocity combined with a constant
vertical acceleration
The projectile moves along a parabola