Está en la página 1de 9




 !"#%$& '()* %+,-.
/01-2354/6
*748!9*7*/(;:<= >!
?A@BC@ DFEG?IJ0H KMLFKN
O PRQTS%UWVYXZS-[\P;O ]C^\X_]CQQ-VWXR]C^a`cbed9fgQ-VWXZ[Pihkj\P_P_Q-^\Ql`Cm2jl]onpj\]qcrtsvu\wyxz`C{M|
} ~-C
!
;Tl-(-ey3FWF-W"& \"lW%
-tecFee.%e_-leepTF-
WTe\%-F-\ eW%lvc-pWvl
elWypTl-Tl( -e&ey3&\%v-
!WTeF"c(leye" !F
iFp2zF;yY3l3F3 
Y-93YMeM-FYWyz\WW% v
e_t pTl-a ll"lk-Yll
2T 0keTMe(\F3#_plRTa
l(-eCYlee -e%T T%W-\
e#lRTc%i%-yT#ee#yl
"F-(- cW3l3e\-a-eWli9-
-&"F"c-F-WW%#"F eWk%
=ZcC\-e3ezl "e%9lWTl9e
lYglo3WyTlyT"e#l-Tl lae3 (l
%-WT/-F e2  M9e%Y_
pTee -l%F eWe%-FW0c- W
lWTp%=c- cl ;We%ve F- 2l(%W
TMWp-3FMc\%-yklz\i3c--l
%F#eW"-MpTee T"#e#lRTyT
RvT(Tl=30e%\(e%Y%3
e#lRT! W%le#"(c\pc\y-il#
(plRTAl&e W=e -
\%-F-\eWT=l_- l9,_W
l-illW=Tl\%CT lp3W&Tl=eF
\W\TlvcpTe,l
eF\!\eWl-y T\y-e
c-;Yle p-yleWZla_ ZlelWy-ec-
c\3W- TTlTvc=(-&ZT
Kk BC"E JMgpL K
VFUWXgSXZ[PCSCQd9XZFUYVWXRQTid&[\\Q"[oFUYV[\SUYX_j\]oVWj\dUWCQ"]o[UWp
V[PaSCQ-dvXZUWVYXR]9UYoQVYQfCVWQYQ-]UW[UYX_j\]9jdvj\P_QSoPRQT-`lfajlfCp
PZ[UWXRjl]o`T[\]on#UYCQ XRdvfCP_Q-dvQ-]U[UYX_j\]j\pVYQT[\S%UWXRjl]o PRUYCjlC^\
[\VFUWXgSXZ[P`UWCQ-zo[lQ [P_VWQ[\nCMfCVWjcX_nCQnYXRdCP_[UYX_j\]oijpUWCQ
S-jcj\fgQ-V[UYX_j\]vj\2d9jlPRQTSCP_Q XR]&dvQ-UW[gj\P_XZSj\VyS-[UW[P_UYXZS"]CQ-UF
j\VWpMo[\VYdvQ-VT`p|[p;d&[] [\S[\VWn`al\l`p[]on!UYCQ
d&[[PZFjFQVYlQvUYjnpXZWSj\QVPZ[ jQ\jlPRpUWXRjl]w([^lPRQ\`
a[VWdvQ-Voj\]UW[\]o[C`T\u\%
x(CQ0FUYanpj\;[\VFUWXgSXZ[PoSCQdvX_FUYVWXRQT o[lUYCQM[\np[]U[^\Q
UWo[UX_]Sjld9fopUYQVFX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]o[P_P3npQ-UW[X_PZS-[\]gQ&d&[\npQ
jloYQ-VW[\CP_Q\` [\]ondvj\VWQ UYo[\]jl]CQUWVW[QSUYj\VWjMUYCQnp
]a[dvX_S"S-[\]gQ#X_]c\QTUWXR^[UYQTn x(CQz^\Q]CQ-V[P;CQFUYX_j\]o"[\VYQ

oVWFU` CQ-]npjFQPVWQ-fCP_X_S[UWXR]C^C]CXRUW[\fCfaQT[VT`MFUW[\VFUWXR]C^
j\]CP_9VYjld<UYCQ#QpXZUWQ-]oS-QMj\FX_dvfCPRQV(Q-P_Q-dvQ-]UW`p[]on^\X_\Q]
Fjld9Q([aUWVW[lS%USoQ-dvX_S[PcVWCPRQTW/qcQTSjl]onpP_\`Cj S[]9VYQfCP_X
S-[UWXR]o^C]CXRUWQ-\jlPRlQ\`[]onnpj[]cQ-gQTS%UW=CVWjl[\nCPR8Fo[\VYQ
P_[ XRUY/Q-lj\P_pUYX_j\]/[]anUWCQjlVYX_^\X_]j\P_XQ=XR]UYoQ=SCQ-d9
X_FUYVW!j]o[UWCVWQT
a[VWd9QV`|[\pgd&[\]= [\S[\VWnvT\lla[\Q3aVWFUYX_d=p
P_[UYQn9X_]UYQ-V[\SUYX_]C^FUYVWXR]C^ XRUYS-j\]oS[UYQ]o[UWXRjl]&[]onvSP_Q[
[^\QVWQ[lS%UYX_j\]a-x(oQ-0a[\Qj\o]on[]!peTWy-`X Q\
[!FQ-U#j\ UWVYX_]C^ CXZS[\VYQ=[\PRPfCVWjpnpoSQTn/VWj\dGVYQT[\SUYX_j\]o
XUWCXR]UWCQFQ-U ]CjUWCQ-V [&j npQ-o]CX_]C^vUYCQSoQ-dvX_FUYVW
X_ a[\YQn9j\]vUWCQ]Cj\UYX_j\]&j;oYXR]o^=UWVYX_]C^3[\3no[UW[[\]onvd&[
SCXR]oQ` CQVYQ&UWCQ!d&[\SoXR]CQT[VWQ&[pUWj\d&[U[UYo[UUYV[]a
j\VWdGFUYVWX_]C^lzbe\Q-^[dvX0[\YCX_dvjUYjT\\(o[lQ=oYQn
npX;Q-VWQ-]U#UcfaQTzjyFUYVWX_]C^lMj\VnC[UW[/[]an,d&[\SCX_]CQl` CX_PRQ
0XRUFUWVYXZS[]onw([]Co[T\llMo[\QvoYQn oFU=jl]CQvUcfaQ
jgFUYVWX_]C^0jlV aj\UYvnC[U[z[]ond&[\SCX_]CQ\"QfCPRXZS-[UYX_j\]v[VWX_YQ
VYjldSP_jlYQnYCC^lVW[\fCo#jkUYCQvV[]onCj\dS-[UW[\PRUYXZSvSCQ-d9
X_FUYVWqUW[lnpP_Q-VT`0Cjl]lU[]o[XRP_P_Q-VT`l\l` CQ-VWQno[UW[
[]on&d&[lSCXR]oQMSjlVYVWQYfgj\]on9UWj=U j=dvj\P_QS-CP_QyS-[U[P_pFX_]C^=[
VYQT[\S%UWXRjl]2
"Q^l[\VWnpX_]C^1UYCQQ-lj\P_pUYX_j\]jG[pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_SYQUW`
wy[\^\P_Q-l`ya[VWd9QV Cj\]U[]o[F\u\9o[lQUWonpX_QnQ-lj
PRpUWXRjl]o[VWdvjpnpXgS-[UWXRjl]o&j\MVWQ[\SUYX_j\].^\V[fCa-`y[]ono[\Q
j\C]onUYa[U0[CUYjpS-[UW[P_UYXZSzFQ-UW"S-[\]Sa[]C^lQ XRUY/[VWcXR]C^
npQ-^lVYQQ"be]UYCQ9nC[U[d&[\SCX_]CQUcfgQ=j YX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]2`gMXRUF
UYVWX_S=[\]on9wy[\]C-a[T\lla[\Qyj\oYQ-VW\QTn[]=Q-CSo[]C^lQ j\
UWVYX_]C^=YQ-^ld9Q]UWkXR]!jl]CQ0Q-C[dvfCP_Q\ x(CXZ XZ VWQ-dvX_]CXZYS-Q-]Ukj\
[!d=CUW[UWXRjl],j\fgQ-V[UWj\VT`oCCU#XRUz[lS%U0jl],XR]anpXRcXZnpo[\PFUYVWX_]C^l
VW[UYCQVUYo[\]9jl]vVYQfCPRXZS-[UYX_]C^C]CXRUW PRX_\Q[\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_S(YQUW
PRPpUWCQYQFUYonpX_Q FC^l^\QTUUYa[U [CUYjpS-[UW[P_UYXZS(FQ-UWUcfp
X_S[P_PR.XR]clj\P_\Q,jl]CPR[Fd&[P_P#fo[VYU j\UYCQ8VYQT[\SUYX_j\]]CQ-UF
jlVY;` [\]onX_]UYCQPZ[VW^\Q]CQU j\VWpnCQo]CQTn.[VYUYXRaSXZ[P
SCQ-dvXZUWVYX_Q]Cjj\UYCQVdvQ-UYCjpnUYo[\]YXRdCP_[UYX_j\]oj0UYCQ
npc]o[dvXZS-j\VCpQnpfgj\X_]UvYj\P_pUYX_j\]aW=FQQ-d&UYj^lXRlQX_]p
j\VWdv[UYX_j\][gj\pU"UWCQYQFQ-UW

 
 

x(CQ#S-CVWVYQ]lU j\VWv[lnCnpVWQWFQT3UWCQCQFUYX_j\] jCj d&[]c


npX;Q-VWQ-]U[pUWjpS-[U[P_UYXZSYQU#[\VYQ9fgjlWFX_CP_QX_]8[ ^\X_\Q][\VF

UWXgSXZ[P(SCQ-dvXZUWVYl8qcX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]o^lXRlQ!j\]oPRj\]oQ YQU9[l=[
FUW[\CP_Q&VYQTFCPRU`[]anFjld9Q-UYX_dvQdvj\VWQ!YQUW=S-[]gQ!VWQSjl^
]oX_YQncUYCQXRVS-j\dvfgQUYXRUYX_j\]9roQ-]8UYCQVYQ j\CPZn,gQ![]
[\CC]ono[]oS-Qj2fgjlWFX_CP_QMYQU X_][YpUWQ-d/`UYCQ]!j\]CQ#SjlCP_n
VWQ-^[VnzUYoQ"fo[VYUYXZSCPZ[V FUYVWXR]o^lXR]v[zFQ-U3[\FjldvQ o[U [\VYoX
UWVW[\VYl`cj\Vyo[cXR]C^vnpQ^\VWQ-QkjiVYQQnpjld/x(oX_yXZ(XRdvfgj\VYUW[]U
jlVoVFUWCQ-V FUYonpX_Qj\oXR]UWQ-V[\S%UWXRjl]o XUW9[\]=Q-]ccX_VYjl]CdvQ-]U`
Ql ^a;XRdvfgjlYXR]C^Sjl]oUWVW[\XR]U0jl]UYCQ&YCVWX_[Pj FUYVWXR]o^lMj\V
jl]!FQPRQTS%UWQn&VWQ[lS%UYX_j\]a-`lj\V X_]QTS%UYX_]C^9UWVYX_]C^l3XR]UYj=UYCQMfajlfp
oP_[UYX_j\]Sj\]aFXZnpQ-VWQn29byUYoQ-VWQ9XZ[/npQ-^lVYQQvj VWQ-QTnpj\dXR]
UWCQ(UWVYX_]C^lUYa[U S-[]=QpX_FUXR]9[0npc]o[\d9XZS-[\PRP_U[CP_QyfajlfCp
PZ[UWXRjl]2`]Cjd&[UYUYQ-VkXR] CX_S![\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_SYQUT`\UWCQ-] FoS
X_]UYQVW[lS%UYX_j\]a XRUY=UYCQyQ-]ccXRVWj\]od9Q]US-[\]P_Q[\nUYj#npQS-X_YXRjl]o
UWo[U#[;QS%U0UYCQ=S-j\]c\QVY^lQ-]oS-QMj\UYCQfgj\foCP_[UYX_j\]2ybe],Sjl]p
UWVW[lUT`aXR3UWCQ-VWQ j\CPZngQ[P [cj\]CP_/j\]CQ=[\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_S
YQU"jlV"j\]CQ[\VFUWXgSXZ[P2SCQd9XZFUYVW\`cUYoQ-]UYCQVYQXZ"]Cj\Ud=oS
VWQ-QTnpj\dGjlVnpQS-X_YXRjl]o=j Q-lQ-VT`g[l#w([\^\P_Q-\`a[VWd9QV
oj\]UW[\]o[=Fllu\o[\Q FUYanpXRQTn`UWCQyS-j\dvX_]C^0X_]UYj0Q-pX_FUYQ]oSQ
j\#[YXR]C^lPRQ/dvj\P_QS-CP_Q/S[]So[]o^\Q/[][pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S/YQU
nCVW[\dv[UYXZS-[\PRP_\
jU3Q-p[\dvfCPRQT j2[\pUYjpS-[UW[\PRUYXZS"YQUW3XR]vUWCQP_XUWQ-V[UYoVYQ
[\VYQ9PZ[\ScXR]o^[/So[\VW[lS%UYQVYXZW[UYX_j\]j UWCQ&]cCd=gQ-V[\]on8FX_-Q
j\iUWCQ=YQU-(x(CQYQUW0VYQfajlVFUWQnj\VQ-C[dvfCP_Q/o[\VYdvQV`
|[\p;dv[\]' [\S[Vn T\ll []ontwy[\^\P_Q-l`#a[VWd9QV
oj\]UW[\]o[T\lul#[VWQ9lQ-VW,PZ[VW^\Q\`2[\]on8XUX_lQ-VWo[VnUYj
^[X_].CVFUWCQ-V XR]aFX_^\UX_]UYjUYoQnpc]o[\d9XZS-qcjXRU FQQ-d&
nCQYXRV[CP_Q#UYj&FUYonpFd&[\PRP_Q-VYpUWQ-d&-` CQ-VWQ#j\V"QC[\d9foPRQ
UWCQ/npX;Q-VWQ-]aSQaQ-U QQ-]UWCQS-j\]C]oQS%UWQn^\V[fCo=j0VWQ[lS%
UWXRjl]o[\]onUYCQvUcfCXZS-[\PRP_Ydv[\PRP_Q-V[\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_SvYQUW=S-[]
gQX_]lQFUYX_^l[UYQn2
QVYQzYdv[\PRP_Q-V(FUYVWXR]C^PRQ]C^UWo([VWQMSCjFQ]!UWjVWQnpaSQUWCQ
YX_-Qj\iUWCQ=VWQ[lS%UYX_j\]/^lVW[\fC2kx(oQ=FpFUYQd oYQ0UWVYX_]C^l0[\
gjUWnC[U[[]ond&[lSCXR]oQMXUYUYVWX_SA w([]Co[`zT\\%`
gQS[oYQzUYoX_(UcfgQj SCQd9XZFUYVW[\npdvXRUW0XR]/fCVWXR]aSX_fCPRQzUWCQ
S-j\]oFUYVWoSUYX_j\]Aj\9[\VYCXRUYV[VW]CQ FUYVWXR]C^-)0XRUFUWVYXZS[]on
w([\]C-o[ T\\dvQ-]UYX_j\][fCa[\YQ CQVYQ0UYCQMUYCQzYcFUYQd
Q-pfCPRjlVYQTUWCQ/Ffo[lSQjMFUYVWX_]C^lj Q-\QV`UWCQ[pUWj\d&[
UWj\]PRX_\Q[S-j\dvfCpUWQ-VfCVYjpS-QWFjlV0UYa[U=UWCQ-8o[lQ&oFQTn`
nCjQTz]CjU=YQ-Qd[fofCVYjlfCVWX_[UYQj\VzoYQ XUW8doSFCjlVFUWQ-V
FUYVWX_]C^l`lYXR]aSQCXRUF j\VnC3[VWQ(UYV[]aFPZ[UWQn9XR]UWjd&[\SCX_]CQX_]p
FUYVWoSUYX_j\]o
nCX;Q-VWQ-]U8WSCQd9Qj\V,UWVW[\]oFj\VWd9X_]C^oXUYFUYVWXR]o^l,XZ
^lXRlQ-]cgjcj\P_Q[\].]oQU j\VWc|[p;d&[]2`zT\\%`(FjldvQ
UWXRdvQT[PZFjS-[\PRP_Qn Q-X_^\UYP_QW]CQ-oVW[\P&]CQU j\VWp P_Q-
W[]anpQ-V! j\VYUYjl]2`0T\ %x(CQ,[VYUYXRaS-X_[\PSCQ-dvXZUWVYXZ
oQ-VWQMnpQ-o]CQn cvd9QT[]oyj\ajcjlPRQT[]!]CQ-U jlVYp3j\VyUYCQMj\PR
P_j X_]C^VYQT[\Yj\]owyjcj\P_Q[\]9]oQU j\VWc [\PRP_j VWQ-PZ[UWXRlQ-P_^\Q]p
QVW[\PyC]oS%UWXRjl]o&npQfaQ]onpX_]C^j\]UWCQ/]cCd=gQ-V&j\0CXRUW9UYa[U
QT[\S.]CjpnpQ/VYQT[\SUW9UYjax(CQ-X_dvfCP_Q-dvQ-]UnpXZYS-VYQ-UYQC]oS
UWXRjl]o!P_X_\QMXUYUYVWX_S[\]onw([]Co[  l\[\pUYjld&[UYjl]2`
YjXRU X_3QpfaQTS%UWQn9UYa[U UYoQ0FpFUYQdo[l3[pUWjpS-[U[P_UYXZS"FQ-UW
XRUYFX_dvXRPZ[V=Sa[V[\S%UWQ-VWX_FUYXZS- ,jlFU=XRdvfgj\VYUW[\]lUWPRl` Fd&[P_P
FUYVWX_]C^P_Q-]C^\UYokS-[]&gQMSojlYQ-]vXR] [FpFUYQdv[UYXZS [\`lYX_]oSQ

UYCQ!FUYVWXR]o^l#]CQ-QTn8]CjUgQvUYV[]oYPZ[UYQTn,X_]UYj,[/FQVYX_Qzj\kX_]p
UWVYoSUYX_j\]o
x(co0UYCQvfo[\VFUWX_S-CPZ[VzloQFUYX_j\]o#[\nCnCVYQTYYQnX_],UWCXZzfo[
faQV[VWQ
\"ro[U!X_&UYCQ,]cCdaQV![]onYXRQj#UYCQ[pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S
YQUW
up0j npj&[CUYjpS-[UW[P_UYXZSzFQ-UW(VWQ-PZ[UYQ#UWj9foVYjlfaQVFUWXRQTYCp
^lVW[\fCo3j\iUWCQVYQT[\SUYX_j\]]oQU j\VWp
CMj0UWCQ(ajcjlPRQT[]=]oQU j\VWcio[lQyYXRdvX_P_[\VSa[V[\S%UWQ-VWX_FUYXZS-
[lMXUYUYVWX_S.[]onwy[\]C-a[  Fl\l=[pUWj\d&[UWj\]2` Q\Q]
XRUYYdv[\PRP2FUYVWX_]C^vPRQ]C^UWoW
x(CQgQ-a[X_j\oVj[VYUYXRaSXZ[P,SoQ-dvX_FUYVWX_Qo[lgQ-Q-]
dv[\XR]oPRX_]c\QFUYX_^l[UYQTncAYXRdCP_[UYX_j\]o/[\]onA]ojU,[]o[\PRUWX
S-[P_P_\`inCCQ&UYj/UWCQ!PZ[VW^\Qv]cCd=gQ-V=j"npX;Q-VWQ-]UFUYVWX_]C^lzX_]p
\j\P_\QTn CjlVFd&[P_PVWQ[\SUYX_j\]]CQU j\VWpkUYCQnpc]o[\dvX_S"S-[]
jUYQ]!gQM[]a[P_cYQn&nCQUYQVYdvX_]CXZUWX_S[P_PR/O XR^lQ-]! qpScoFUYQV`
slCjlVlQ-VWP_[\VY^lQ VWQ[lS%UYX_j\]]CQU j\VWpiFUYjpSo[lUWX_SyYXRd9
CP_[UYX_j\]o"[\VYQzoYQn2`CC]CP_QW[vVWQFUYVWX_SUYQnVWQ[lS%UYX_j\] ]CQU j\VW
S-[]aQQcUYV[\SUYQTnw([^lPRQ\`3a[VWd9QVoj\]UW[\]o[C`"T\u\%
x(CQ,npXZY[lnp[]UW[\^\Q/jFX_d=oP_[UYX_j\]o&XZvUWCQ-X_V npQfaQ]onpQ]oSQ
j\] UYCQX_]CXRUYXZ[P2fgj\fCoP_[UYX_j\]o`CFjvoYo[\PRP_d&[]cYX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]
VYC]a(o[\QMUYj&gQS-[\VYVWXRQTn!jlpU
x(CXZzfo[\faQV[X_dv[U=So[V[\SUYQVYXZFX_]C^UYCQ&gQ-o[cX_j\CVzj\
[VYUYXRaSXZ[P SCQd9XZFUYVWXRQTMX_]onpQfaQ]onpQ]lUWPRjkUYCQvX_]CXUWX_[\P fajlfp
CP_[UYX_j\]owy.YQ[\VWSCX_]C^8j\V faj\UYQ]lUWX_[\PRP_U[CP_QYQUWXR]
UYCQVWQ[lS%UYX_j\]^\V[fo2`CgQ-o[cX_j\CV(d&[!aQj\C]on UWo[UM[\VYQ
d9XZWFQTn&cvYX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]UWonpX_Q([P_j\]oQ\ x(CQMYQ[\VWS!S[] aQ
dv[lnpQ=CXRUYQQ-po[oFUYX_\QPRX_]UYCQFX_dvfCPRQ9[VYUYXRaSXZ[PSCQ-d9
X_FUYVW XRUY&Foj\VYUCX_]o[\VY=FUYVWX_]C^l`\[]anUWCQ[fCfoPRXZS-[\CXRP_XRUUYj
PRjl]C^\QV(FUYVWX_]C^lyXZnpXZYS-oYYQn gQ-P_j
wyjcj\P_Q[\] ]CQ-U jlVYpyo[lQ#doS/aQQ-],FUYonCXRQTn XUW/UYCQ
j\pUWfCpUQQnpX_]C^&o[lS npX_VYQTS%UWPR j\]UYCQ=XR]CfopU"x(CQ^lPRjlo[P
aQo[cXRjlCV"jajcjlPRQT[]/]CQU j\VWp(o[\aQQ-]X_PRP_oFUYV[UYQTn[\
o[\YXR]aij\g[UFUYV[\SUYX_j\]=oQ-PZnC"r8CQ]oYSoQ\`CT\s\%x(oQYQ([\VYQ
npX_[\^\V[d& XUW=[(]CjpnpQ jlV2Q-lQ-VW0npXZUWXR]aS%UFUW[UYQl`T[\]on[(PRX_]CQ
j\VQ\QVYMfajYYXRoPRQyU[UYQ3UYV[]oYXUWXRjl]2ioj\V[]cMX_]CXRUYXZ[PcU[UWQ\`
j\]CQ9S-[],j\P_PRj UWCQvU[UYQTUYV[QTS%UYjlVYCXR]UYCQ&npXZ[^lVW[\d`
C]UYX_P3j\]CQ&Q]oSjlC]UYQVW[FUW[UYQ![\^l[X_]2 qpj/UYCQ[UFUWVW[lS%UYjlVW
[VWQMQXUWCQ-V0[&FUW[UYQ XRUY[9UYV[]aFXRUYX_j\] UYj&XRUWYQ-PR`ojlV[9FUW[UYQ
SpSP_Q\|[\pgd&[\]T\ll"a[\zUWonpX_QnUYCQvSpS-PRQ9PRQ]C^UWo
jUWCQYQ[UYUYV[\SUYj\V
x(CQ#FQT[VS&XR][=VWQ[lS%UWXRjl]&^\V[fC!j\[][VYUYXRaSXZ[P;SCQ-d9
X_FUYVWvX_(Sjldvfo[V[CP_Q"UWjo`cCpU(dvj\VWQ#S-j\dvfCP_QvUYo[\] YQ[\VWSp
XR]C^8jlV!U[UYQ,S-pSP_Q`kYXR]oS-QajcjlPRQT[].]CQU j\VWpjl]UWCQ-X_V
j ]o[\Q!npQ-UYQVYdvX_]CX_FUYXZS!gQ-a[X_j\oV`CpUUYCQFX_d=oP_[UYQn
VYQT[\S%UWXRjl]o![\VYQFUYjpSo[lUWX_S[]onX_]c\j\P_\Q/UWCQSj\P_P_X_YXRjl]o&j\
U jvUWVYX_]C^-
MXUYUYVWX_S[]onwy[\]C-a[=T\llzo[lQ!oYQnUWCQ j\P_PRj
XR]C^VWQ[lS%UYjlV&[P_^\j\VWXRUYCdUWo[US[VWVYX_Q9jlpU&UYCQ,FUYjpSo[lUWX_S
Sj\P_P_X_YXRjl]o
\[\]onpjld9P_YQ-P_QSUyU j&UWVYX_]C^yVYjldI[9fajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]

up(b2UWCQMVWQ[lS%UWXRjl]
 MQpXZUk[lS-S-j\VnpXR]o^UYj9[oPR
UYQV`pVWQ-foP_[lSQ[9VW[\]onpj\dvP_!SCjlYQ-]UWVYX_]C^9VWj\dUWCQfajlfp
CPZ[UWXRjl] XRUY

x(oQ-X_V[pUWj\d&[UWj\] oYQjl]CQUWVYX_]C^ [\X_]CfCCUj\VnC[UW[
FUYVWX_]C^o`C[\]on UYCQj\UYCQVj\]CQ[l"Q-]oS-jpnpQnd&[\SCX_]CQzX_]oUWVYaS%
UWXRjl]ozx(oQX_]oFUYVWoS%UWXRjl]oM[\VYQ9S-[\VYVWXRQTn/j\pU#UYjfCVWjpSQW"UWCQ
X_]CfCCU/FUYVWXR]o^FQTCQ-]UYXZ[P_P_\oj\V Q[\SoXU/XR]UYCQ8XR]ofCpU
FUYVWX_]C^ jl]CQ=oXUXZ VWXRUFUYQ]X_]UYj UYCQ9j\CUYfCpUFUYVWXR]o^o`Fj/[P_P
FUYVWX_]C^l"a[\Q#UYCQY[\d9QP_Q-]o^UY oPUWQ-V0S-j\]onCXUWXRjl]X_[\fp
foPRX_QnUYj/[\jlX_nFQPVYQfCP_X_S[UYX_j\]jyFUYVWX_]C^l`[]onUYCQ&[\PRPR
FUYVWX_]C^X_npX_W[P_P_j QTn[l QPRPtx(CQVYQTFCPRUW&[\VYQ,Sa[V[\S%
UWQ-VWX_YQn/c[]Q-pfCPRjlVW[UYX_j\]/fCo[lFQ XUWCX_^\,npX_\QVWYXRU j\
UWCQUWVYX_]C^X_]UYCQ/fgj\fCCPZ[UWXRjl]2` o]lUWXRP(UcfCXZS-[\PRP_[8Fd&[P_P
]cCdaQV!jFUYVWXR]C^!YonCnpQ]CPRVYXZYQ&X_].UYCQXRV fajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]
]cCdaQV[]onU[\QT#j\Q-V#UWCQ&fajlfCCPZ[UWXRjl]2&Cj\VQ-C[dvfCP_Q\`
[\]![pUWjpS-[U[P_UYXZS"FQ-U3jQ-X_^\UkFUYVWXR]o^l o[l gQ-Q-]&VWQ-fgj\VYUYQTn`
oQ-VWQ#[\PRP;VWQ[\SUYX_j\]okj[]c9U j9j2UWCQ#Q-X_^\U(FUYVWX_]C^lyfCVWj
nCoSQ[]Cj\UYCQVFUYVWXR]C^j"UYoQ YQUqcX_d9X_PZ[V[\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_S
YQUv[VWQQpfgQSUYQnoYXR]C^UYCQgjjlPRQT[]]CQU j\VWp-` CQVYQ
YCjlVFUWQ-V=FUYVWXR]o^,PRQ]C^UWo=[\PRP_j FQT[VSCX_]C^/XR]UWCQVWQ[lS%UWXRjl]
^lVW[\fCo
x(CQ9]CQcUFQTS%UWXRjl],XR]UWVYjpnpoS-Q0UYCQv[VYUYXRaS-X_[\PSCQdvX_FUYVW
XRUYajcj\P_Q[\]v]CQU j\VWp-ibe]!FX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]o UWCQ"oPRUYQVkS-j\]onpXR
UWXRjl]X_2[\VYX_Qn2x(CQ-]zjlPRP_j [(^\V[fopa[\YQnM^\P_j\o[\PFQT[VS
jlVUYCQ"fgjlWFX_CP_Q"U[CP_QyYQU-` CX_S9XZd9jlVYQyQ !S-XRQ]lUUWo[]
UWCQYXRdCP_[UYX_j\]o

B CL#L @ D <L\ BM@  E5 K ( D  @ K


K ! 3B#" 
x(oQvYX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]YcFUYQdSjl]oFXZFUW#jk[fgj\fCoP_[UYX_j\]j\kCXR
]a[VW.FUYVWXR]o^l[\]on[d&[lSCXR]oQ,UYa[UUWVW[\]oFj\VWdvUWVYX_]C^l`
X_dvfCP_Q-dvQ-]UYX_]C^8[VYQT[\SUYX_j\]WSCQ-dvQiX_^okT gjcj\P_Q[]
]oQU j\VWX_aFQTn[l#UYCQ&d&[\SoXR]CQl`2j\VX_]jUWCQ-V j\VnCMUYj
X_dvfCP_Q-dvQ-]U0[vVWQ[\SUYX_j\]YSCQdvQzj\V(UYoQfajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]/j\CXR
]a[VWUWVYX_]C^-
XR^aMXRP_P_oUWVW[UYQT!UWCQVWQ[lS%UYjlV [\PR^lj\VWXUWCddvQ]lUWXRjl]CQn
X_]UYoQ,XR]UWVYjpnpoSUYX_j\]2 UQ\Q-VWUWXRdvQFUYQfU jFUYVWX_]C^l
[\VYQ9SCjlYQ-]VW[\]onpjld9P_ XRUY8VYQfCPZ[\SX_]C^c"VWj\dGUWCQvfajlfCp
PZ[UWXRjl]2`l[\]on9oYQnvcUWCQ"d&[\SCX_]CQ\`lXR]vUWCXZ S-[lFQ"[zgjcj\P_Q[]
]oQU j\VWXR^aiu\
$M]CQ&jkUYCQ!FUYVWXR]o^lz[\SUW[lMX_]CfCCUUYj
UWCQd&[\SoXR]CQl`UWCQ"jUWCQ-V3XZ3aFQTn=UWjFfgQS-X9fo[\VW[\d9Q-UYQVWj\
UWCQ9dv[lSCX_]CQXRUWYQ-PR`2lQ-VW doSP_XRlQ9YQUYUYX_]C^ UYCQ Q-X_^\UW
j\ [FUW[\]onC[Vn/]CQCVW[\P]CQ-U jlVY;Mqpj!UYoQ=d&[\SCX_]CQ9S-[]gQ
nCX;Q-VWQ-]U!X_]Q-\QVYUYX_d9Q,FUYQf2t VYjpS-QWFX_]C^8j[]XR]ofCpU
FUYVWX_]C^^\X_\Qv[\].jlpUYfopUUWVYX_]C^ CXZSXZ&fCCU!o[\SX_]UYj
UWCQ=fgj\foCP_[UYX_j\]XR XU#fo[\WFQT[voPRUYQV(b UWCQ=FUYVWXR]C^X_0fCpU
a[\S;`XRU VYQfCPZ[\SQT []Cj\UYCQV3V[]onpjldvPR=SojlYQ-]&UWVYX_]C^ax(CXZ
XZ=UYCQj\]CP_j\fgQ-V[UWXRjl]UYo[UvSa[]C^lQUWCQfajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]XR]
UWCQSoVYVWQ-]UFX_d=oP_[UYX_j\]o
x(CQMoPRUYQ-V"X_] X_^o;zS-[] fCVWj\CX_CXRU(S-Q-VYUW[X_] FUYVWX_]C^l VYjld
gQ-X_]C^fCpUa[\S;,QVYQl`iUWCQ!aPUWQ-V9X_SCjlYQ-][lfCpUYUYX_]C^
a[\SUWCQFUYVWXR]C^ XUW[fCVYjlo[oXRP_XUUYo[UnpQ-fgQ-]ono!j\]
Yj\dvQfCVWj\fgQ-VYU!j\iUWCQ=FUYVWXR]C^a`CQ\ ^oCUYCQ]cCdaQVj&
%Z  (XR]

replace a randomly chosen string


01011

Population
of
strings

Filter

10011
01011
10010
01100

output
10101

random choice

random choice

memory
string
data
string

machine built
from string
input string

iX_^\oVYQ "Q[lS%UYjlV [\PR^lj\VWXUWCd XRUYt[fajlfCCPZ[UWXRjl]A[]on


dv[lSCX_]CQ\zx(CQ'% dvQ-dvjlVYFUYVWXR]C^ gYQU0fa[V[dvQUWQ-Vj UYCQ
dv[lSCX_]CQ\` CXZSX_[9gjcj\P_Q[]]CQ-U jlVY;
XUTx(CQYQ=fCVWj\a[CX_PRXRUYX_Q#[VWQ=^lXRlQ-]8npXRVWQSUYP_/XR]8[P_jcj\of
UW[oPRQl qpoS[aPUWQ-Vyo[\yFX_dvXRPZ[VyQ;QSUWyj\]!UYCQznpc]o[dvXZS-
[\ycXR]CQ-UYXZSzVW[UYQSjl]oFUW[]U(XR]SCQd9XZS-[\PdvjcnCQ-PZ-
MQU[X_P_jpUYoQ d&[\SCX_]CQ [\VYQ3YCj ]X_]=XR^aTuCix(CQVYQ [\VYQ
[\d&[]c8[]onCj\d S-S-QW=Qdvj\VWXRQT! ,[\UYCQVYQ
[VWQMCXRUWXR]UYoQUWVYX_]C^l O [lS a[\yUYoQY[\d9Qz]cCd9
aQ)
V (j\yV[]anpj\d/`opUCpQn`Sjl]C]CQTS%UYX_j\]azUYj/UWCQ&XR]ofCpU
UWVYX_]C^oGx(CQCXRUW,S-j\]c\Q\QTncUYCQS-j\]C]oQS%UWXRjl]o j\VWd
[CXUY j\VnUYo[U[lnCnpVWQWFQT![dvQ-dvj\VWP_jpS-[UYX_j\]XR]UYCQ
x(oQ(S-j\]UYQ]Uj\oQ[lS GSj\dvQTVWj\d UYCQ(dvQ-d9
j\VWUWVYX_]C^[\vX_]XR^akupbe].UYoQ,[\WFX_^\]CdvQ]lUvVWj\d'UYCQ
d9Qdvj\VW/FUYVWX_]C^UWjUWCQ&+u *dvQ-dvjlVYX_Q#X_]Q[lS `Q-
Q-VW8oXUvX_oYQnFQ\Q-V[P UYX_dvQ` [^[X_]XR].[V[]onCj\d CpU
CpQn [l
x(CQS-j\]C]CQTS%UWXRjl]o&[]onUWCQ,UWVYX_]C^\UWjd9Qdvj\VW[\WFX_^\]p
d9Q]Uy[VWQ"UWCQ0ocQTn&fo[\VW[\d9Q-UYQVW j\UYCQ#gjjlPRQT[]&]CQ-U jlVY;`
CXRP_Q9XU#C]oS%UWXRjl]So[]C^lQ XUWUWCQvdvQ-dvj\VW,UWVYX_]C^/[U
Q-\QVYUYX_dvQ FUYQf2x(CQjlpUYfCCUWjM[\PRP( [\VYQSj\d9
CXR]oQn UYjvUWCQj\pUWfCpUMFUYVWX_]C^o`o[\]on X XRU0X_fo[\WFQTn!UWCVWj\C^l
UYCQ#oPRUYQV`CXRUXZ"fCpUo[lS!X_]lUWj9UYCQfgj\fCoP_[UYX_j\]2

, L 

J DF@ pL K
U UWCQgQ-^lXR]o]CXR]o^j\[YXRdCPZ[UYX_j\]`UYoQfgj\fCoP_[UYX_j\]AXZ
XR]CXRUYXZ[P_XZFQTn XRUYV[]anpj\d UWVYX_]C^lx(CQ]UYCQVYQT[\S%UWj\V[\P
^\j\VWXRUYCd5XZ#VYC]9qcjld9QvQ-p[\dvfCPRQT#jkVWQ[lS%UWXRjl]oVWj\dUYCQ
oVWFUFX_d=oP_[UYX_j\]o"[\VYQzFoj ] X_]xi[\CPRQvl
x(CQ P_[lU2UWCVWQ-Q VWQ[lS%UWXRjl]oX_]=xi[\CP_Q3QpQd9foPRXRzCj UYCQ
[P_P []an![P_PMFUYVWX_]C^lk[VWQ0fCVWjpnpoSQTnvVWj\d<jUWCQ-V(UWVYX_]C^-
x(CQ#[\PRPR#FUYVWXR]o^Q\Q-]UWo[P_PRvU[lQyj\QV UWCQ Cj\P_Q#fajlfCp
P_[UYX_j\]2`CYjvXU % XR]a pX_]UYCXZ(oVU0YX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]8FQQzX_^oo%
rCQ]UYoQ CjlPRQfajlfCCPZ[UWXRjl]o[\Sjl]c\Q-VW^\QTnUYjUYCQ
Y[\d9Q&FUYVWXR]o^o`]ojd9jlVYQ!Sa[]C^lQS-[\]o[fCfgQ-] x(CQ![\PRPR
[]on[P_PRWFUYVWXR]C^&[VWQUYVWXRcXZ[P`kgQS[oYQ/UYCQ.[\VYQ/VWQ-fCVWj

String
to Memory
Assignment

Memory String 0 1 1 0 1

RAM 1

RAM 2

RAM 3

RAM 3

RAM 3

0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0

1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0

0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1

Output

Memory

Random connections
Data String

Input

X_^\CVWQ#u  wkjcjlPRQT[]!]CQ-U jlVY9UWo[U(XRdvfCP_Q-dvQ]lUkUYCQzd&[\SCX_]CQ XUW fo[\VW[\dvQUYQVW3UW[\\Q-]!VYjld<UYCQzdvQ-dvj\VW&UWVYX_]C^aoj\V(Q[lS


jlpUYfopUMCXRU0UWCQ-VWQ=XZ#[&VW[\]onpjld)[lS-SQTYd9Qdvj\VW8 `;XR]UWCXZ0Q-p[\dvfCPRQ9 XRUY (Sjl]C]CQTS%UYX_j\]aQ[lS2O [lS,
a[\M!u */dvQ-dvj\VWP_jpS-[UWXRjl]o"UWo[Uz[VWQoP_PRQTn XRUY,CXRUW0VWj\d UYCQd9Qdvj\VWFUYVWXR]o^oXpQTnfo[V[dvQ-UYQ-V[\VYQUWCQ=V[]anpj\d CpU
ocQTn/Sj\]o]CQSUYX_j\]o`C[]onUYoQUWXR]C^\UWjdvQ-dvj\VW![\WFX_^\]od9Q]U` CQ-VWQzQ[lS CXRUXZ"oYQnFQ\Q-V[PgUWXRdvQ


























x[oPRQ ="Q[lS%UWXRjl]ozVWj\d [aVWFU=FX_d=oP_[UYX_j\]2x(oQ&oVU


FUYVWX_]C^,XZUYoQdvQ-dvj\VWUWVYX_]C^o`UWCQYQSjl]onXZUWCQX_]CfCpUT
x(oQgjcj\P_Q[\]]CQ-U jlVYo[lo\Q/ XUW.8Sjl]C]CQTS%
UWXRjl]o(Q[lS2
nCoSQTnXR]anpQ-fgQ-]onCQ-]UYP_j(UYoQS-j\]C]CQTS%UWXRjl]o=[\]ondvQ-dvj\VW
[lYYX_^\]CdvQ-]U jaUYCQ"gjcj\P_Q[\]9]oQU j\VWgij d=oS9o[\UWCQ
YpUWQ-dUYjgQMSa[]C^lQn9XR]j\VnpQ-V UWj=FUW[oXRP_X_YQ0[Uy[]cjUYoQ-V
j\ UYCQv+u *uXR]UWCXZMS[\YQ= "UWVYX_]C^W $0UYCQVM[CUYCjlVW
a[\Q!npXZY[\PRP_j Qn8[]c8YQ-PRVYQfCPRXZS-[UYX_j\]2`[]on8UWCQ S-VYQT[UWXRjl]
j\(UYCQ[P_P UWVYX_]C^,[\PUWj\^\Q-UYCQV/QVYQ [dvj\VWQ&d9jpnpQVW[UYQ
aPUWQ-V0S-j\]onpXRUYX_j\]o[l(aQQ-]j\C]anY !SX_Q-]UT

   
" !#
 $% #!#

x oQjlPRP_j X_]C^dvQUWCjpnYCj MUYa[UzUYCQ9UWVYX_cX_[\Pfa[UFUWQ-VW]o


(
a[\Q[ d=aSCX_^\CQVSo[]oS-Q=UWj gQvfCVWjcnCoSQTnVWj\d5V[]p
nCj\dX_]CXUWX_[\PpSj\]anpXUWXRjl]o'
&#P_j\o[\PRP_SjlC]UYX_]C^0UWCQyVYQTFCPRUWj\
[\PRPfgjlWYXRCP_QzVYQT[\SUYX_j\]oyVWQ-\QT[PZ-`lUYa[U"j\V(UWCQSCjlYQ-] CpQn
fa[V[dUWQ-V=Sj\]o]CQSUYX_j\]o`;d9Qdvj\VW,[\WFX_^\]CdvQ]lU%(UWCQ-VWQXZ
[,d=oSoXR^lCQ-V]od=gQ-V=j\VYQT[\SUYX_j\]ozUWo[U9fCVWjcnCoSQ&UWCQ
UWVYX_cX_[\P3UWVYX_]C^#UYo[\]8j\UYCQVWvbe]fo[VYUYXZSCPZ[VT`[\PRP3fa[X_V XZFQ

22
11111

20
18
16
14

Population number

 


 




 
 




 












12
00000
10
8
6
4
2
0

50

100

150

200

250
300
Time step

350

400

450

500

550

iX_^\oVYQ 9jlfCCPZ[UWXRjl]8j\"UYCQUWVYX_]C^   [\]on\l\l


XR]UWCQ!aVWFUYXRdCP_[UYX_j\]28 [\]onSjl]C]CQSUYX_j\]o9[\=XR]
xi[\CPRQvlx(oQfajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]/YXRQX_uC
Sj\dCX_]o[UWXRjl]ovj[P_P0fgjlWYXRCP_QFUYVWXR]o^l![\VYQfCVWQYQ-]UWQnUYj
UYCQajcjlPRQT[]]oQU j\VWg`3[\]onUWCQjcSSCVWVWQ-]oS-Qj0QT[\Sj\
UYCQfajYYXRoPRQjlpUYfopU#fa[UFUWQ-VW]o0[\VYQSj\o]lUWQn#x(CQ-],UYCQTFQ
[VWQ![\Q-V[^lQn,j\V=[\PRPyUWVYX_]C^l XUWUYCQ Y[\d9Q&]cCdaQV=j\
%_  `CFQQiX_^o) (a
x(CQyCXZUWj\^lVW[\dYCj UYCQ"[lQ-V[^\Q3UYX_d9QT [MFUYVWX_]C^ XRUY
[!^\X_\Q],]cCd=gQ-V#j

%_  MX_MfCVWjpnpoSQTn,jlQ-VUWCQ Cj\P_Q=VWQ
[\S%UWXRjl]WSCQ-dvQ\zx(CQ9CX_^\CQV0]cCd=gQ-Vzj\3fCVYjpnpaSX_]C^ [\PRPR

Expected frequency

100

50

2
3
number of ones

X_^\CVWQ ( &XZUWj\^\V[d j 0UYCQ ]od=gQ-V9j)%Z -` [lQ-V[^\QTn


jlQ-VyUYoQ   UWVYX_]C^l XRYU UWCQY[\dvQ#]cCdaQV"j %_  
[\]onz[P_P3FUYVWXR]C^;o[\2aQQ-]zj\o]on#UcfCX_S[PjlV2gjjlPRQT[]z]CQ-UF
\j VWp XRUY9npX;Q-VWQ-]UVW[\]onpj\dSjl]C]CQTS%UYX_j\]ai[\]onFUYVWXR]C^\UWj
dvQd9jlVY[\WFX_^\]CdvQ]lU- YYCdvXR]o^,[]8Q-\Q]8nCX_FUYVWXRopUYX_j\]
X_]UWCQ/XR]oXUWX_[\PUWVYX_]C^fgj\foCP_[UYX_j\]2`3UYCQ/CXZUWj\^lVW[\dYCj
UWCQ/CXZ[\UYj [VnCfCVYjpnpaSX_]C^,UWCQUYVWXRcXZ[P"UWVYX_]C^9[UUWCQ
gQ-^lXR]o]CXR]o^&j[vYXRdCPZ[UYX_j\]
 

#    #  
 #

be].Sjl]lUWVW[lU=UYj,aPUWQ-VWXR]C^8j\CU=UYVWX_XZ[P(FUYVWXR]C^S-j\dvfCP_QUWQ-P_\`
oQ-VWQ[fCVWj\o[\CXRP_XRUPRX_\Q/[V[UWQ jlV9CUY]CQTYvXZv[fCfoPRX_QnUYj
oQUYoQ-VfCCUFUYX_]C^,a[\S[FUYVWXR]o^XR]UYj/UWCQ&fgj\fCCPZ[UWXRjl]j\V
]ojU"oj\VQT[\SUWVYX_]C^vUWo[U0XZjlpUYfopUVWj\d UYCQd&[lSCXR]oQ\`
UWCQz]cCd=gQ-Vyjjl]CQyXZ(Sj\o]lUWQn`p[\]on&UWCQ#oPUWQ-V(fCVWj\o[\CX_P
XRUXZ(P_jjl\QTnCf/X_]x[oPRQ=uC
CdaQVjj\]CQT
[UWQvfCVWj\o[\CXRP_XRUp

x[oPRQu /jpnpXRoQnoPRUYQ-V!S-j\]onCXUWXRjl]fCVYjlo[oXRP_XUj\0VWQ
foP_[lSX_]C^Cj\V&YXRdvfCP_XZSXRU\`3jl]CPRUWCQoPRUYQ-VvV[UWQ!j\V&[\PRPR
[\]on[P_Pzfo[UYUYQ-VW]o
XZSCjFQ]!UYj&gQ[VWX_[\CP_Q\
x(CQ0oPUWQ-V(V[UY
Q o[l gQ-Q][VWX_Qn&X_] YXRdCPZ[UYX_j\]a-`c[]on
Y CVWfCVWX_YXR]o^\P_XU=XZ]Cj\U]CQS-QWY[\VY/UWj/CP_PR]CQ-pUWVW[\PRXZYQUWCQ
oX_[l(XR]/XR^a)(o Q-VWQ-P_!cSo[\]C^\X_]C^ /VYjld#UYj C lXR]
UWCQzFpFUYQ-d<VWj\dX_^opd&[lQ UYCQ#fgj\fCCPZ[UWXRjl] S-j\]c\QVY^lQ
UWj[npX;Q-VWQ-]U(UWVYX_]C^F\ o\%Cj\Vy[]Cj\UYCQV Q-p[\dvfCPRQMj[
gjcj\P_Q[\]]CQU j\VW XUWjUWCQ-VS-j\]C]oQS%UWXRjl]o[\]onFUYVWXR]C^\UWj
dvQd9jlVY[lYYX_^\]CdvQ-]U%%`\QVYzd&[]cSo[\]C^\QTj\oUWCQ"[UFUWVW[lS%
UWj\V XRUYUYCQ&[\VYXZ[UWXRjl]jkUYCQ&V[UW
Q 8a[\Q9aQQ-]8j\C]an`
YQ-Qx[CP_QC
x(CQdv[\]cnCX;Q-VWQ-]U VWQYCPRUWnpQ-fgQ-]anpXR]o^jl]UYCQVW[UYQ
d&[zgQyX_]UYQVYfCVWQUWQnjl]UWCQkjl]CQyo[]on[\[0PZ[\Szj\oVYjlCoFUF
]oQW3j;UWCQVWQYCPU-`lCpUyj\]vUYoQjUWCQ-Vko[]on9UWCQ-VWQ0[\fCfaQT[V
UWjgQ FQ\QVW[\P\U[CP_Q VWQYCPU-`YoSzUYo[UiYdv[\PRPSo[]o^\Q2XR][
fa[V[dvQUWQ-V S-[\]9 XUSvaQ-U QQ-]UYCQd x(CQVYQ"[\fCfaQT[VUYj
gQM[faj\UYQ-]UWX_[\PCUYj[\nCn9CVYUYoQ-VkS-j\]oFUYV[X_]UWUWjUYoQMYcFUYQd

V[UWQ FUW[\CP_Q
Cl\
o
 C
oR
 C
oR
 C
o u
 C
o ul
Cl\
o
 C
o
 C
o (
 C
o (c
 C
o
9
o l
 C
o
Cl\
o
Cl\
os
Cl\
os\
z
o
9
o
z
o
Cl\
o
z

z

UWQ-fo
(s 

lu


u\u
u\
Tu
s
l 
s 


s
up


\

xi[\CPRQ  "QYCPRUW0j FX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]o CQVYQzUWCQoPRUYQVVW[UYQ


X_M[VWXRQTnxVWXRcXZ[PUWVYX_]C^M[\VYQ9npQ-]Cj\UYQTn,c % = ;j\V %
VWQYfgQS%UWXRlQ-P_\x(CQgjcj\P_Q[]&]oQU j\VWo[\3o\Q ,y[\
aQ-j\VWQ\`CpU9]Cj u,Sjl]C]CQTS%UYX_j\]aQ[lS2,x(CQ fajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]
FX_-QzXZu C

UWo[UvnpQS-X_nCQ[gj\pU=UYCQ[UFUWVW[lS%UWj\VT/wyQ-j\VWQvUYCQ VW[\]C^\Q&j\
fgjlWYXRCP_Qv[UFUWVW[lS%UWj\VXZMX_]c\QTUWXR^[UYQTn`;[]Cj\UYCQV#YXRdCPZ[UYX_j\]
XRUY/dvj\VWQ#UYo[\]/j\]CQzVWQYCPUWXR]o^vFUYVWX_]C^vX_(fCVWQYQ-]UWQn
16

1111111101
1111111011

14

Population

10

0.5

1.5
Time step

2.5

3
4

x 10

X_^\CVWQ9  ]8[pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S=FQ-Ux(CQ=gjcj\P_Q[\],]CQU j\VW


a[\y# XUWvuMSjl]C]CQSUYX_j\]oQT[\S2x(CQ(fajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]
YX_-QzX_Mu C

10
01

01

10

01

10

10

10

01

01

10

10

01

iX_^\oVYQ9 "QT[\S%UWXRjl]oMXR]c\jlPRlQn/X_],UWCQ9[\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_SFQ-U

jpnpQz[\VYQ9VYQT[\SUYX_j\]o VWVWj MYCj UYa[UzUYCQvU jVYQT[\S%


UYX_j\]fo[VYUY]CQVW"S[]/[P [pkaQfoVYjpnpoS-Qn XRUYCX_]UYCQYQUT

12

01


$  

    # 

x(oQ/YX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]X_]iX_^o 8YCj v[FQ-U!j#FUYVWX_]C^lUYa[U


S-jQpXZU&X_][FUW[UYX_j\]o[\VY [lx(CQfajlfCCPZ[UWXRjl].j\MUWCQ
U jFUYVWXR]o^llQ-QfoooSUYo[UYX_]C^o`;CCUMgjUYU[[UM[!CX_^\
fgj\foCP_[UYX_j\]9]cCd=gQ-VT`lYC^\^lQFUYX_]C^MUYo[U UYCQ=U[CX_P_X_YQ(Q[\S
j\UYCQVX_^o YCj 9UYoQVYQT[\S%UWXRjl]fa[UFUWQ-VW]o]onpQ-VWP_X_]C^
UWCXZ YXRdCP_[UYX_j\]vX_]vUYCQ0FUW[UYX_j\]o[\VYU[UYQl hkP_Q[\VYP_]Cjl]CQj\
UWCQFUYVWXR]o^lS[]VWQ-fCVWjpnpoSQ&[\PRjl]CQ\/0Q-UYQVYdvX_]CX_FUYXZS&QTla[
UWXRjl]oyj\V(UWCXZ"VYQT[\SUYX_j\]/YSCQdvQz[\VYQ





       
      


XRUY

 Au

FT

     

mXR]oQ[VWXZY[UYX_j\][\VYjlC]onUYCQ,CpQn.fajlXR]U 


^lXRlQ=UYCQ/QXR^lQ-]c[P_CQ 
0u[]on  \`3YjUWCQ
YpUWQ-dXZzP_jcS[P_PRU[CP_Q\vCjlVd9jlVYQvnpQ-UW[X_PZFQQvC ]CX_]C^
u lk[]anO XR^lQ-] qpScoFUYQVTs%

 

@ B   2 "E

x(oQyfoVYQX_j\aYQSUYX_j\]9o[\ YCj ]=UYo[U FX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]=VWQYCPRUW
nCQ-fgQ-]on&jl]9UYCQ0oPUWQ-V3V[UWQ `c[]an9UYo[Uk[pUWjpS-[U[P_UYXZS"FQ-UW
S[]!gQMj\C]on!XR][VYUYXRaSXZ[P;SCQ-dvXZUWVYX_Q o[\YQn!j\]!gjcj\P_Q[]
]oQU j\VWckx(oX_MFQTS%UYX_j\][\XRd&[Uo]onpX_]C^&UWCQUWjUW[\P]cCd9
gQ-V0jFUW[\CP_QzYQU-

mXRlQ([UFUWVW[lS%UYjlV SpSP_Q S[]9aQ(jlC]on9c[#^\P_j\o[\PCFQT[VS


j\V=gjcj\P_Q[\]]CQU j\VWp-`CQVYQSpSP_Q9[VWQYQ[\VWSCQTn8j\V9XR]
UYCQ8VYQT[\SUYX_j\]A^lVW[\fC2 0j Q\Q-VT`"UWCQ-VWQ8[\VYQ8[P [pU j
UWVYX_]C^l dvQ-Q-UYX_]C^X_][VWQ[lS%UYX_j\]`0FjUYoQ8^lVW[\fCXZd9jlVYQ
Sj\dvfCP_Qvx(CQvVYQT[\SUYX_j\]o#VWQCX_VYX_]C^ UYCQ!S-j\P_PRXZFX_j\]8jkU j
UWVYX_]C^l^\X_\Q&Q-lQ-VWYXR]o^\P_QUWVYX_]C^d&[]c8fajYYX_CPRQ FoSSQT
FjlVWzX_]8UYCQ!^lVW[\fC2/qcj/UYCQ SpSP_QX_]8UYCQ^\V[fCS-[\]aQ
CQ[cX_PR,X_]UYQVWS-j\]C]CQTS%UWQn`[]onUWCQnpc]o[\d9XZS-X_]ojUS-j\]p
o]CQnUYj![vS-cS-PRQzP_XRlQzj\V"VWQS-CVYVWQ-]U(ajcjlPRQT[]]CQU j\VWp-
be]=[#YXRdCP_[UYX_j\]2`fo[\XRVijaFUYVWXR]o^l[VWQ SCjlYQ-]=VW[\]onpj\dvP_\`
Fj"UWCQyVYQT[\S%UWXRjl]oo[lQ [0FUYjpSo[lUWX_S j\VnpQ-VT $MlQ-VUWXRdvQ\`UYCQ
fajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]jFUYVWXR]C^kS[]!gQ#XRd&[^lXR]oQnvUWj=Cjld9QMXR] j\]UYj
[0FUW[oPRQy[pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S FQ-U`X Ql[MFd&[\PRP]cCd=gQ-VjoFUYVWX_]C^l
SP_jlYQ-P_!Sj\]o]CQSUYQnc&UWCQ-X_V"VYQT[\SUYX_j\]o
x(CQVYQ9[VWQ=fCVWj\fgQ-VYUYX_QMj UWCQvVYQT[\SUYX_j\]^\V[foUYo[Uz[\VYQ
XR]onCX_S[UYX_]C^9UYoQQpX_FUYQ]oSQzj\[\pUYjpS-[UW[\PRUYXZSzFQ-UW
\[\PRPMd9Qd=gQ-V!j\=[FQ-U[\VYQ,foVYjpnpoS-Qn.VWj\dVYQT[\SUYX_j\]o
XRUYCX_]UYCQYQU
up[\PRPVYQT[\SUYX_j\]oaQ-U QQ-]UWCQkdvQd=gQ-VfCVWjpnpoS-Q3dvQ-d=gQ-V
j\UYoQFQ-U
x(CQ9YQS-j\]onfCVWj\fgQ-VYUd&[]CjUCjlP_nUWVYXZS%UWPRl` CQ-]np
]o[dvXZS0SjldvfaQ-UYXRUYX_j\]!VWQnpaSQ UYoQ#YXRQ0j\UYCQzFQ-U#FQQ0fo[\VF
[\YXUWQX_]UWCQ npXZWSoWFX_j\]g%MCQ!UWj[\ajlQ&fCVYjlfaQVFUWXRQTj\
UYCQ9VYQT[\SUYX_j\],^lVW[\fC2`;fajYYX_CPRQv[CUYjpS-[UW[P_UYXZS=YQU#S[]aQ
FQT[VSCQntj\VT`=[lj\XZnpXR]o^FX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]o[\]onUYoQ-X_V8npQfaQ]p
npQ-]oS-Q0jl]X_]CXUWX_[\PSj\]anpXUWXRjl]ox(oQMYQ[VS!jl]CPRv^lXRlQkfaj
FX_CP_Q,FQ-UW`kgQS[oYQ/UYCQXRV FX_-Q,S[]UWXRP_P0gQVWQnpoS-Qn.c
npc]o[dvXZS-[PMfCVWj\fgQ-VYUYX_Q`yQl ^ayS-j\dvfgQUYXRUYX_j\]AaQ-U QQ-]YCp
FQ-UWqcX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]ojlV=[]o[\PRpYX_zj\kUWCQnpc]o[\dvX_S=S-[\]aQ
oFQTn[UYQ-VyUWCQFQT[VSvUYjvXR]clQFUYX_^l[UWQUWCQ#FUW[\CX_PRXRU&jiUYCQ
FQ-UW
x(CQvYQ[VS,jlVU[CP_Q&FQ-UW#XR]clj\P_\QM\QQ-fCX_]C^[ PRXZUj\
UWVYX_]C^l([l"FQ-Ud9Qd=gQ-V-`C[\]onQ-[P_o[UYX_]C^&[P_P2fajYYX_CPRQzVWQ
[\S%UWXRjl]o#aQ-U QQ-]UYCQd/ PRP3VWQ[lS%UWXRjl]VWQYCPUz[VWQ9[lnCnpQn
UYj9UYCQzP_X_FU`CUYCQ]UWCQVYQT[\SUYX_j\]o([VWQ#Q-[P_o[UWQn[^[X_]2`cC]p
UYX_P ]Cjdvj\VWQ!FUYVWXR]C^[VWQ![\nonpQnbe]d&[]cS[\YQXRU=d&[
aQ!Y !SX_Q-]UUYj,FUW[\VFUUWCQ!P_X_FU XRUYU j/FUYVWX_]C^l`CCU=XR]
^\Q-]oQ-V[P dvjlVYQ/Sjld=CX_]o[UWXRjl]odv[o[lQ!UWjgQUYVWXRQTnQc
o[oFUYX_\QPRl S[\YQ CQ-VWQUWCQYQ[\VWS/o[l"UYj U[VYUVYjld

qcQ-U


CC
C`aC
(
(a`;s
(a`pC
s
sp`pC
o

x cfgQ

qcQ-U


oC
o`CC
l`s
o

w
w



  
 

 
 
  



 


   
 
 
 
   

 
   









"QT[\S%UWXRjl]o

qU[CX_P_XU
U[CP_Q
C]oFUW[oPRQ
U[CP_Q

x[oPRQ0 
 xkcfaQT jVWQ[\SUYX_j\]9fo[UYUYQVY]ok[]onUWCQ-X_VkFUW[\CXRP_XRU\
dvjlVYQ UWo[]U j0FUYVWX_]C^lX_j\ViQC[dvfCP_Qk[YX_]C^\P_Sj\]o]CQSUYQn
S[U[P_lUWX_SzSo[\XR]j YQ-PRVWQ-fCP_XZS-[UWXR]o^9FUYVWXR]o^l

#  $      #  #



w
h

xi[\CPRQ! "QYCPRUW=jyUYCQYQ[\VWSj\VfgjlWYXRCP_Q!YQUWoFX_]C^
[]Q-C[dvfCP_Q9]oQU j\VW XRUY []on8/Sj\]o]CQSUYX_j\]o
Q[\S
w

x[oPRQ ( "QTFCPRUWj(UYCQ FQT[VSjlVfajYYX_CPRQ!YQU-/x(CQ


d Qd=gQ-Vjg[zYQU [\VYQ(Foj ]9[lXR]UYQ^\QVW`p (zSjlVYVWQYfajl]onC
v
UWj Cl\o`[]ons0S-j\VWVYQTFfgj\]anCiUYj& o\x(CQYQS-j\]onvYQU
VWj\d UWCQUWj\fnpQ]CjUWQ UYCQ CjlPRQVWQ[lS%UWXRjl]!YSCQdvQ\` CXRP_Q
UWCQVWQ[\SUYX_j\].YSCQdvQ []anw [VWQ ^lXRlQ-].XR]x[CP_Q,p
x(oQgjcj\P_Q[]]CQU j\VW/X_#XZnpQ-]UWX_S[PUYj UYCQ&YXRdCPZ[UYX_j\]XR]
x[oPRQC
x cfgQ

x cfgQ

rXRUY9UWCX_ FQT[VSdvQUYojcn2`UYoQFQ-UWX_]9x[CP_
Q (zo[\QyaQQ-]
jlC]onjlVUWCQY[\d9Q,CpQnfo[\VW[\dvQUYQVWjUWCQgjcj\P_Q[]
]oQU j\VWc#[\0j\V#UWCQ&FX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]X_]x[CP_QvC=,[\]c,FQ-UW
Yo[\VYQUWCQ W[dvQUcfaQT2jpVWQ[lS%UYX_j\]z^lVW[\fC2`Yjjl]CPR0UYCQ3UfgQ
j\i^lVW[\fCXZ(^\X_\Q]X_]UWCQxi[\CPR"
Q (a`C[]on xi[\CPRQ=^\X_\QT UWCQ
VWQ[lS%UWXRjl]8fa[UFUWQ-VW]ox(CQ FQT[VS8YCj zUWo[UUWCQ FUYVWX_]C^l
o\l []an C,S[]gQ8QpfaQTS%UWQnVWj\d YXRdCP_[UYX_j\]o`
[\]onX_]onpQQnj\]CP_UYCQTFQ/FUYVWXR]C^-`3[\fo[VYU=VWj\dUWCQ UYVWXRcXZ[P
FUYVWX_]C^lS%ox[CP_Ql
FX_dvXRPZ[V(ocQTncfajlXR]U[]o[\PRpYX_ UYa[] j\V"Qo[UYX_j\]8T`
opUzj\VzVYQT[\SUYX_j\],fo[UFUWQ-VW]wjyxi[\CPRQ&fCVYjlQ0UYo[UMUWCQ
fa[UFUWQ-VW]jpUcfgQ w8X_C]oFUW[oPRQ0XR]Sj\]UWVW[lU2UWj"UYoQ fo[UFUYQVY]
X_]!XR^a\l $M]oPRj\]CQ"j\aUWCQ0FUYVWXR]C^UW[\\Q3j\Q-VUWCQ CjlPRQ
fgj\foCP_[UYX_j\]2

rXRUY npXR;Q-VWQ-]U,VW[\]onpjld1SCj\XZSQT/j9UYCQSj\]o]CQSUYX_j\]o
[]onFUYVWXR]C^\UWjdvQ-dvj\VW,[\WFX_^\dvQ]lUj(UWCQ!gjjlPRQT[]]CQ-UF
jlVY;`nCX;Q-VWQ-]UiFUW[\CPRQ3YQU2[VWQj\o]onix(oQ-VWQ [VWQfajYYXRoPRQ
FQ-UW XRUYvdvj\VWQkUWo[]9U jzd9Qd=gQ-V-` CQ-VWQ(j\]CP_[zYCoYQU
dv[gQ&npc]o[dvXZS-[\PRP_,U[CP_Q\`i[]ondvj\VWQ9Ycd9dvQ-UYVWX_S9[]on
C]oYdvdvQUWVYXZS#VYQT[\SUYX_j\]fo[UYUYQ-VW]oyjlV(U j\dvQ-daQV"FQ-UW
oj\V3Q-p[\dvfCPRQl`UWCQ0YQUW3XR]!x[CP_Qzo[lQ"aQQ-]vj\o]on9j\V
j\]CQ/V[]onpjld'SCjlX_S-Q j\zSjl]C]CQTS%UYX_j\]avfaQV QVYQ
[fCfgQ[\VW"[&FUW[\CPRQVWQ[lS%UWXRjl]fa[UFUWQ-VW]hFQQxi[\CP_Q\yj\[
U j\dvQ-daQV"FQ-U`pP_XRlQXR]XR^aCv[]onQo[UYX_j\]%
x(CQYQ[\VWS/Foj yUYo[U"UfoX_S[P_PR&UWCQ-VWQ[VWQ[9]od=gQ-V
jyFUW[\CP_Q!FQ-UW`FaSUWo[U=Yd&[P_P [VWX_[UYX_j\]ozX_][YX_d=CPZ[
UYX_j\]P_X_\QUWCQoPRUYQVMV[UWQT"S[],So[\]C^\QUYCQVYQTFCPRU CX_S
j3UWCQ!FQ-UW#UWCQ&FX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]S-j\]c\QVY^lQ0UYj9x(oX_S[]8aQ
XR]UYQVYfoVYQ-UYQnj\]UWCQkjl]CQ a[]on[l2UWCQ-VWQyaQXR]C^MVYjcjldtVWQ-Q UYj
[fCfCP_ S-j\]oFUYV[X_]UW(UWj&UYoQYcFUYQd/j Q-\QV`cUWCQFUYVWX_]C^l
UYo[U(S[]!VWQ-d&[X_]X_] [U[UWXRjl]o[VWvfajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\] [VWQ0]Cj\U([\VF
CXUWVW[\VYlix(CQ"YQ[\VWS=YCj iUYa[U UYoQkUWjU[Pp]cCd=gQ-V j\gnpXR
Q-VWQ-]U0U[CP_Q=YQU"X_0VW[UYCQV0Ydv[\PRP PRUYCjlC^\jl]CQ=FUYVWXR]C^
So[]C^lQkUYoQajcjlPRQT[]]CQU j\VWd&[lSCXR]oQT([UQ\QVYFUYQf2`
UYCQ oj\P_Q=FpFUYQd o[l[&V[UWCQ-V0Yd&[P_P]cCdaQVj3FUW[oPRQ
FQ-UW`MSjlVYVWQYfgj\]onpX_]C^UWjjl]CPR[Q fgjlWYXRCP_Q8dv[lSCX_]CQ
dv[lnpQ#VYjldUYoQUWVYX_]C^l(X_][vFQ-U

 L c J
 cL

K
x(CQ"VYQTFoPU j;UYoQ0FQT[VSd&[]CjU UWjUW[\PRP_S-j\X_]oSXZnpQ XRUY
[P_PYQU0UWo[US-[\],fgjlWFX_CP_aQj\C]an,c,FX_d=oP_[UYX_j\]2`;gQ
S-[aFQ 
\oj\VPZ[VW^\QYQUUWCQnpc]o[\dvX_Sd&[!CVYUYoQ-V#VYQTnpoSQUYCQ
YQUMQ\ ^olvSjldvfaQ-UYXRUYX_j\] XRUYCX_]&UWCQMS-PRjFQTn&FCo^\V[fCa
up ]/[\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_SzYQUd&[gQU[CP_Q\`a[PRUYCjlC^\XUMo[\
fo[\VW[lFXRUYQT"YQ-QgQ-P_j % [\VW[lFXRUYXZS oVW[\]oSCQ [VWQ"]CjUknCQ
UWQS%UWQnc&UYoQSCVWVYQ]U"YQ[\VWS
fa[V[\YXUWQ XZv[8YfgQSX_Q9UWo[U&XZ&FofCfajlVFUWQnS[UW[\PRpYQno
/UWCQ&FQ-U`2opUnpjcQ#]CjU^lXRlQo[lS,[]c,YCfCfgj\VYUvnpjcQ
]CjU#o[\Q9[S-[UW[\PRUYXZSP_X_]Co[\SX_]lUWjUWCQvFQ-U%x(CQvSoVF
VYQ]lU=YQ[\VWSdvQUYojcnS[]C]ojU=npQ-UYQSU=fo[\VW[lFXRUYXZS9CVW[\]oSCQT-`
aQTS-[aFQ/XRU [\nCno![P_P"VYQT[\SUYX_j\].VYQTFCPRUW&UYjUYoQFQ-UA [\VF
[\YXUWQ&S-[\]C]Cj\U&YX_d9foPRaQ,npQ-UYQTS%UYQTn[\&npQT[\ncQ-]anfo[UYo`

gQS[oYQvCQ-VWQv[ foVYjpnpoSUQpX_FUW#jlVQ-lQ-VW U j/fo[VYUY]oQ-V-


X_PUWQ-VV[UWQy^\VWQ[UYQVkUWo[]/Q-VWj9npjv]Cj\UVYQTnpoS-QMUWCQ^\V[fo
j\CVYQT[\SUYX_j\]o WYCdvXR]C^z[][pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S FQ-U XRUY9[fo[\VF
[lFXRUYQl`UWCQMYQ[\VWS&[P_^\jlVYXRUYod j\CPZno]on![PZ[VW^\QV3FQ-U`c[]on
XRU=d&[[X_P3UYj,W[UWX_FUYCQS-j\]onCXUWXRjl]ojlVUYCQ FQ-UUYj,gQ
S-PRjFQTn [UYQV[P_P
be]^lQ-]CQVW[\P`"Q\Q-]YQU XRUYtfo[V[\YXRUYXZSCV[]oSCQT&d&[
gQ npc]o[\d9XZS-[\PRP_IFUW[\CPRQl`npQfaQ]onpX_]C^j\] UYoQ Sj\ofCPRX_]C^
FUYVWQ-]o^UYa&O3X_^\Q]8GqpScoFUYQV`3Tsl%vbe]8UYoX_S[\YQ\`nCQ
UWQSUYX_]C^&fo[V[\YXRUYQ j\CPZn^\X_\Q#aQ-UFUWQ-V0VWQYCPRUW(j\[vYQ[VS2
oj\VMfo[V[\YXUWQyUWo[Uz[VWQ]CjU0jl]CP_npQT[\ncQ-]anYCC^lVW[\fCo"XRU
XZ#UWXRP_Pi]ojU#Yj\P_\QTn`gCj Q\QV`Coj [&^\V[fCCo[lFQTn/FQT[VS
S-j\CPZngQQcUWQ-]onpQTnUYj8npXZYS-VYX_dvXR]o[UYQ!ojlFU[]onfo[V[\YXUWQ\`
[\]onfgjlWFX_CP_UWjQ-[P_o[UWQ CXZSjzUYoQ,U jUYCQS-j\d9
fgQUWXUWXRjl]XZ0P_X_\Q-P_ UYj![lj\CVT0x(CQ9npQUWQSUYX_j\],j\3fo[V[\YXUWX_S
oVW[\]oSCQd&[#gQS-j\dvQyd9jlVYQkVYQPRQ[]U CQ]=Yj\dvQyFUYVWX_]C^l
[\VYQ#CP_P_!oPRUYQVYQTnjlpU
ro[US-[] gQQpfaQTS%UWQnj\VP_j\]C^lQ-VFUYVWXR]C^P_Q-]C^\UYo`
o

Q-VWQUWCQQpo[\oUWXRlQ8YQ[\VWStQ-lQ-]jlV,Fd&[\PRPFUW[VYUYX_]C^
YQUS-[]o]CjUaQ"S-[\VYVWX_QnjlpU`gQS[oYQ UWCQy]od=gQ-VjoVWQ[lS%
UWXRjl]o^lVYj XRUY,UYCQ9Yo[\VYQj\UWCQ=]cCdaQV0j\ FUYVWX_]C^l
$M]oQd&[FUYX_PRPgQ[CP_QUYj.oFQ[.Y[\dvfCPRX_]C^.\QVWYXRjl]Aj\
UWCQYQ[\VWS(oj\VMPRjl]C^\QV0UWVYX_]C^"j\VM[\VYXZ[oPRQP_Q-]C^\UYo`gj\]CQ
d&[W[dvfCP_Q3UYoQkfgjlWFX_CP_QyFUYVWX_]C^li[]onj\P_PRj UWCQkVWQ[lS%UWXRjl]
^lVW[\fC!jlV0[vSQVFU[X_]npQfpUY
r8CQ-]oWSCQT\s\&o[lXRdvfCP_Q-dvQ-]UWQnA[.YXRdvX_P_[\VW[d9
foPRX_]C^GdvQUYojcn jlVUYCQ [UFUYV[\SUYjlVto[lFX_]oj\.V[]onCj\d
gjcj\P_Q[\]8]oQU j\VWc!x(CXZdvQUWCjpnfCPRj\UW[/oX_FUYjl^\V[dj\
UWCQ0S-cS-PRQ"P_Q-]o^UYa-` CX_S&d&[9[P_VYQT[\npgQ0YXR^l]CXRaS-[\]lUT`\[PR
UWCj\o^\&j\]oPRv[Fd&[\PRPafCVYjlfajlVFUWXRjl]vj;UYCQ#U[UWQ"UYV[]oYXRUYX_j\]o
a[\"gQ-Q]FQT[VSCQn2yqcX_dvXRPZ[VWPRl`oCQVYQ[!CX_FUYjl^\V[d j\3U[
oPRQ!YQU=SjlCPZngQ&d&[\npQl x(CQ!W[dvfCP_X_]C^\QVWYXRjl]j\kUWCQ
YQ[\VWSd&[UWXRP_P(o[\Q!UYCQ[\np[]U[^\Qj\Q-VFX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]o
UWo[UXRUXZ(XR]onCQ-fgQ-]onpQ]U0jiUYCQX_]CXRUYXZ[PS-j\]onpXRUYX_j\]a-
KM D J
cL K
x(oQ[VYUYXRaSXZ[P2SCQdvX_FUYVWXRQT XUWajcj\P_Q[\] ]oQU j\VWc([\PRP_j
UWCQvUWonp/jkYQ-PRVYQfCPRXZS-[UYX_]C^YQU-qcX_]oSQ]Cj o[\PRXRUW[UYX_\Q
nCX;Q-VWQ-]oS-Q(gQU Q-Q]/MXRUFUYVWXZS/[\]onwy[\]C-a[  T\\ [\p
UWj\d&[UWj\]!VWQ[lS%UWXRjl][]on!UYCQ#gjjlPRQT[]!]oQU j\VWc o[\QMaQQ-]
jlC]on`oUYCQaFQj\gjcj\P_Q[]/]CQ-U jlVYpyo[l[P_PRj QnUYj&aFQ
YCjlVFUWQ-VzUWVYX_]C^lqcX_d=CPZ[UWXRjl]o#o[\Q=YCj ]8[!CX_^\8FQ]oFXR
UWXRcXRUUWj/UYCQ!oPUWQ-VVW[UYQ\`[]on8UWo[U9npX;Q-VWQ-]U=FUW[\CPRQ FQ-UW
S[]&VWQYCPRUk[\k[Sjl]oFQTCQ-]oS-QjYoS&P_XUYUYP_QMSo[\]C^\QT-x(CQ
YQ[\VWSo]onoUYCQnCX;Q-VWQ-]UkFUW[\CPRQ"YQU dvj\VWQ"Q !SX_Q-]UYP_\`[U
P_Q[lUkj\V(Foj\VYUyFUYVWXR]C^-`laQTS-[\oFQMXU(XZkX_]onpQfaQ]onpQ]lU(jUWCQ
X_]CXRUYXZ[P2fgj\foCP_[UYX_j\]/[]on UWCQzoPRUYQ-V"V[UWQ\
be][\nonpXUWXRjl]2`iUYCQYQ[\VWS8dvQUWCjpndv[aQQcUYQ]onC[oPRQ
UWj9[=VYQ\QVWYQ0So[\VW[lS%UYQVYXZW[UYX_j\]&j\X_]CXUWX_[\PSj\]anpXUWXRjl]o CQ-]
UWCQU[CP_QFQ-U"X_(^lXRlQ-]2be]CXRUYXZ[PS-j\]onCXUWXRjl]oydv[aQSo[\VF
[lS%UWQ-VWX_YQn/c/Sj\]U[X_]CXR]o^!F !S-XRQ]lUzFofCfajlVFU0j\VM[FQ-U`gj\V
UWCQnpQTSXZFX_j\]gj\C]anC[VWj\kU j,Sjld9fgQUWXR]o^,FQ-UWd&[gQ
Q-pfCVYQTYYQnc!UYoQFX_-QT(jS-Q-VYUW[\XR]/FoCfajlfCCPZ[UWXRjl]o-

x(CQ#SCVWVWQ-]UkVWQYCPRUW(Fo^\^\QTU UYCQMj\P_PRj X_]C^9[]o QVW3UYj


UYCQCQFUYX_j\]a(VW[\X_YQn XR]UWCQXR]UWVYjpnpoSUYX_j\] 
\
CdaQV []onvYXRQ(j[pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S(YQUWx(CQFQT[VS
^lXRlQ9UYoQ]od=gQ-V!j\zfgjUWQ-]UYXZ[PMFQ-UW![\]onUYCQXRV VYQT[\S%
UWXRjl]FoC^\V[fCa-` CXZSS[]gQS-P_[lYYXRoQnX_]UYjUfgQ
PRPfgjUWQ-]UYXZ[PYQUW(X_]oS-PRonCXR]C^UYoQz[\PRPReUWVYX_]C^vFQ-UyVWQCX_VYQ
UWQFUYX_]C^jlVUWCQ-X_Vnpc]o[dvXZS-[\PzFUW[\CX_PRXRU\ X_]onpX_]C^.UYCQ
]cCdaQVj"[pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S9YQUW [lMdvj\UYX_[UYQTncUYCQ
fgjlWFX_CX_PRXRU#UYo[U[\VFUWXgSXZ[PcSCQ-dvXZUWVYX_QiSj\oP_n=aQ(Sjl]oFXZnc
QVYQTn [ly[lnC[fCUYX_\QFpFUYQdv j Q-lQ-VT`c[vYd&[P_P]od=gQ-V
j\ [\pUYjpS[UW[\PRUWX_SYQUX_]onpXZS-[UWQ0UYjcj!P_XUYUYP_QVWQ-QTnpj\d j\V
[lnC[fpU[UWXRjl]2
up pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_SYQUW.VWQ-PZ[UWQn<UWj YCC^lVW[\fCoT x(CQ
S-PRjFQTn#YCC^lVW[\fCoi[VWQ3[^\jcjpn#XR]anpX_S[UWj\VT`TopUi]Cj\Ui]CQTSQT
W[VW0jlV2UWCQkQ-pX_FUYQ]oSQkja[\pUYjpS-[UW[\PRUYXZS3YQUkFQQk[gj\Q
npXZWSoWFX_j\]jkfa[V[\YXUWQ%=0j Q\Q-VT`[\SSj\VnpX_]C^!UWjUYCQ
U j,SVWXUWQ-VWX_[X_]UYCQFQTS%UWXRjl] YQ[VS8d9Q-UYCjpn o`UYCQ
]cCdaQVyj\iYQUWyUWo[U"[VWQMj\C]on XZkjl]CP_&PRX_dvXUWQn !UYCQ
]cCdaQV0jySj\dCX_]o[UWXRjl]oX_]UYoQ9FUW[\VFUWXR]C^ FQ-UW0bU[fp
fgQ[\VWyUWo[U0jl]CP_ lQ-VW!faQTSCP_XZ[VUcfgQ"j\3[pUWjcS[U[P_lUWX_S
VWQ[lS%UYX_j\]fo[UFUWQ-VW]o j\oP_nVWQCX_VYQ U[VYUYX_]C^YQUW=d=oS
^lVYQT[UYQV UWo[]UWCVYQQUWVYX_]C^l





CwkjcjlPRQT[]8]CQU=Sjldvfo[VWQnUYj,MXUYUYVWX_S[\]onw([]Co[
[\pUYjldv[UYjl]a 9X_]MXUYUYVWX_S.[]onwy[\]C-a[  Fl\l
YXRdCPZ[UYX_j\]`UYoQ-VWQX_ oVUy[]&QpfCP_j\V[UWXRjl]vfCo[\YQgQjlVYQ
[\].[pUWjpS-[U[P_UYXZSFQ-UX_!j\C]an x(CQYQU&UWo[U [\VYQ
jlC]on8S-[]8o[lQ9dvjlVYQ9UYa[]8j\]CQvdvQ-daQV`FjUYoQvUYCQ
gjcj\P_Q[]&]oQU j\VW9npjcQT ]Cj\Uy^lXRlQVWX_YQUWjnpXRgQVYQ]U(So[\VF
[lS%UYQVYXZFUYXZS-CjlV9Yj\dvQ!gjcj\P_Q[]]CQU j\VWp\QVY8d&[]c
fgjUWQ-]UYXZ[PgFQ-UW [\VYQ(jlC]on` CXZS!FQQ-d& UWjgQM[]&X_]UYQVF
QTUWXR]C^fCVYjlfaQVFUVWQ-^l[\VWnCXR]C^vUWCQYCjlVFUMFUYVWX_]C^!P_Q-]C^\UY,j\
olQCXRUW0j Q-lQ-VT`cUYCQ\Q-VWd&[\] UcfaQTj\VWQ[lS%UWXRjl]
fo[UFUWQ-VW]o&VWQYCPUWXR]o^VYjldYj\dvQ,YQ[VSCQT&UWXRP_P0VWQCX_VYQ
dvj\VWQvXR]clQFUYX_^l[UWXRjl]2vbU=d&[,gQ&fajYYXRoPRQvUWo[UUWVYQ]onC
[\VYQ"jlC]onvUWo[UyCj\PZnvjlVkP_j\]C^lQ-VyUWVYX_]C^P_Q-]C^\UYoy[\ QPRP
qcX_]oS-Q=UWCQgQ-a[X_j\oV0o[lMgQ-Q],jlC]on,V[UWCQ-VMCpQn2`XU
FQQ-d&]CjU UYjgQC]CX_\QVWW[PpQ]Cj\C^l9j\V3[UYUYQd9fCUYX_]C^=[\no[fp
UW[UWXRjl]9UYjQcUWQ-VW]o[PoS-j\]oFUYV[X_]UW fCfCP_X_]C^Yj\dvQ"QcUWQ-VW]o[P
CUY]CQTYkS-[\]&j\]CP_YQ-P_QSU VWj\d UWCQ0V[UWCQ-VkFd&[P_Po]cCdaQV j\
fajYYXRoPRQFUW[oPRQYQUW
[UYCQV9UYo[\].[UFUYQdvfpUYX_]C^C]CX_\QVWW[P([\nC[\fpUW[UYX_j\]2` UYCXZ
UfgQj\FpFUYQd d&[5YQ-VW\QjlVFUYonCX_]C^ Q-\jlPRCUYX_j\]2
wkjcjlPRQT[]8]CQU j\VW,d&[gQYQ-P_QS%UWQnUYa[U=Q-coXRCXRU=CX_^\^lQ-V
FQ-UW oQ-VWQ(UYCQ#npc]o[dvXZS-3XZ3]ojUkFUW[UYX_j\]o[\VYQ\ ^olPRX_\QUYCQ
[lQ2jloYQ-VW\QnzcMXUYUYVWX_S` gXRQ^\P_Q-Vw([]Co[Fl\lY%`
j\V"jUWCQ-V0XR] aCQ-]oS-Q0PRX_\QdpUW[UYX_j\]o"jlVX_]lUWQ-V[\SUYX_j\]o XRUY
[]Q]cX_VWj\]CdvQ-]Uydv[&gQ[\nCnCQn3x(CQznpQTYS-VYX_fpUYX_j\] jiUYCQ
FpFUYQ-dVWQYCPRUYX_]C^9VYjld<UYCQYQ[\VWS S-[] [\S-XRP_XRUW[UWQ[9CXZS
Sj\dvfo[\VYXZYj\].jnpXRgQVYQ]lUFpFUYQ-d&,[\ So[V[\SUYQ-VWXZFQTnc
S-j\]C]CQTS%UWXRjl]o-`TdvQ-dvj\VWz[\WFX_^\]CdvQ]lUk 3XR]CXRUYXZ[Plfajlfp
CP_[UYX_j\]o"[lS-S-j\VnpXR]o^UYjvUWCQfgjlWFX_CP_QzYQUyj\C]ano%





FCCQS%U9jCUYCVWQVWQYQ[\VWSd&[8aQ UYjXR]QTS%U&]CQ
YfgQSX_QXR]UYj/UWCQ&fgj\fCCPZ[UWXRjl]2`2UWj,Sjl]oFXZnpQVFQ\Q-V[PX_]UYQ-VY
[lS%UWXR]C^Yfo[UYXZ[PoS-j\dvfo[VYUYdvQ]lU-`\j\V UWjUWonp9XfCVWQnpXZS%UWXRjl]o
S[]vgQ0d&[\npQ[\ajlpUkS-j\]oYQCQ]oSQT j2[]c9So[]C^lQj\gUWCQ
gjcj\P_Q[\]]CQU j\VWfo[V[d=UYQVW S-j\]C]CQTS%UWXRjl]2`3dvQ-d9
jlVY[\WFX_^\]CdvQ]lU%%vbe]8UYCQ!S[\YQvjkX_]QTS%UYX_]C^,YfaQTSX_QX_]UYj
UWCQ#fajlfCCPZ[UYX_j\]`lUWCQSCVWVWQ-]UkVWQYCPRUWyS-[] CQ-P_f!UWj9Sa[V[\S%
UWQ-VWX_YQ&UWC
Q Yl o - jFUW[UWXRjl]o[VWFUW[UYQTVWj\d ^\X_\Q-]
X_]CXRUYXZ[PS-j\]onCXUWXRjl]o-

 "

K D  E N  Kk 
[]c0UWo[]ocUYjMrTw([\]C-o[`TMXUYUYVWX_S`[]ona gXRQ^\P_Q-V
jlV"CQ-P_fpCPnpXZYS-oYYX_j\]o
x(CXZ j\VW [\3YCfCfgj\VYUYQTnvc=UWCQ0O3oVYjlfaQT[]hkj\dvdvX_F
YX_j\]2`2X_]UYCQ&fCVWj\^lVW[\dvd9Q9xV[X_]CX_]C^/[]on8j\oXRP_XUjyQ
YQ[\VWSoQ-V-



 
 B  KM 
PRQpY[\]onpQ-VT`b%jlVFUWj\]2`=  oY o-!e=-Y
 gp ihko[fCd&[\]0[P_P3T\o
w([\^\P_Q-\`yaR`(o[\VYdvQ-VT`a 3 oj\]UW[\]o[C`kr0T\lul%
O3lj\P_pUYX_j\]j\[,QUW[\ajlPRXZYdkbe]thM 9
& (m[\]C^UWj\]2`hM
x[P_j\VT`a aao[\VYdvQV0q;a[lFdoWFQ]O nC % "!
-$
# %  & (' qp[\]UW[CQvbe]oFUYXRUYpUWQ!3VWjcS-Q-QTnpXR]o^l ) j\P+* `
fof22 a( T\l%c"QTn jcjpnhkXUl`gh  nCnpXZFjl]prQTFP_Q-l
MXRUFUYVWXZS2` 5wy[\]C-a[`r"l\%qpQ-PRO \j\P_pUWXRjl]XR]
[&hkj\]oFUYVWoS%UWXRlQMwyX_]o[VW!qUYVWXR]o^vqcpFUYQd, % k--
# %
. u\`au lu\uC
MXRUFUYVWXZS2`_` gX_Q-^\P_Q-VT`
a 2 w([]Co[`2r3Fl\lQYj
WSj\foX_S ]o[P_pFXZj\qcQ-PReO3\jlPRCUYX_j\]X_]I[] VFUWXgSXZ[P
hkCQd9XZFUYVW\;3VWjcS\oj\/ % y0
# % 21+ 3i m2j ]o^\Q-P_Q`
l C]CQueu\C` T\\,
4 hM nC[dvX`wyQ-P_Q `i=|zXRUW[]ojo`

[]an/hMox[cPRjlVO no-%`o,bxA3VWQW`pfo[^lQ(lW \C
O XR^lQ-]2` 5qpScoFUYQV`3ycs%ix(oQ cfgQ-VSpSP_Q\
3VWX_]oSX_fCP_Q#j\
M[UWCVW[\PiqcQP $MVY^[]CX_[UYX_j\]2p [\VFUw ox(CQ
aUWVW[lS%U!cfgQ-VSpSP_Q\
5=6
 37 Z C-8 C& % :9+;2`
sT (ol
a[VWdvQ-VT
` o#=_`v|[p;d&[]2`q # [\S[\VWn`
=#=
T\ll% pUWjpS-[U[P_UYXZS"VYQfCP_X_S[UYX_j\]&j\2fajlPRcdvQ-V= <p8 !
>
5@?+?2`o esp
C ]CX_]C^o`ou llhkj\]c\QVY^lQ-]oS-Q ]o[P_pFXZj[qcQ-^ld9Q]p
UW[UYX_j\] P_^\jlVYXRUYod j\V!UYCQO \jlPRpUWXRjl]o[VWxiVW[\XR]CX_]C^j\

QCV[
P
Q-U jlVYp(xij[fCfgQ[\V/[U BACC
D E %F
GGG
H  o%    I- g Cv& %G/Jp ; %   >!
gpe K Y =-L 7  NMO ',[v\-Wup`u  C`qp[]
]UWj\]CX_jo`CP
x *`o{Mq
belQ-^[dvX` xz 50[lFoXRdvjUWjo`3xz"T\\% hkjcQ-\jlPRCUYX_j\]j\
,[lSCXR]oQ0[\]on,x[fgQabe]k;jlVW[\]QU#[\POknC Q !
J g R % k-+ # %( ';m
b(lu\C`cfCf2gu (\eul (a
|[\p;dv[\]2`q aT\ll%lQU[gj\P_X_SFUW[\CX_PRXRU9[\]onvQ-foXR^lQ
]CQTFXZX_],V[]onpjldvPRSj\]aUWVYoSUYQTn/^\Q-]oQUYXZS]oQUWT S'QA+oU !
 WV '
W"X '
?+?)` (sT (lcsc

 



 

qUW[lnpPRQV`y_`\Cjl]lU[]o[MrX_P_PRQV`aCF\ll0[]p
npjldS[UW[\PRUWX_SyVWQ[\SUYX_j\]9]CQU j\VWp- <"c%Q
5Y9-Z`lcs
llup
rCQ]oWSCQ\` /ls\% UYUYV[\S%UWj\Vw([lFX_]oj\,0XZYS-VYQ-UYQ

0QU j\VWc(3ox(CQTFXZ-`zx(CQ{]CX_\QVWYXRUj9qcaYYQ`
wyVWXR^llUWj\]2`p{M|v