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LA DONACIN

ANTEPROYECTO
INDICE
I. JUSTIFICACIN
II. OBJETIVOS Y METAS
III. ANTECEDENTES
IV. MARCO TERICO
V. METODOLOGA
VI. CRONOGRAMA
VII. PRESUPUESTO
BIBLIOGRAFA
TTULO DEL PROYECTO
LA DONACIN
FACULTAD:
FACULTAD DE DERECHO Y CIENCIAS POLTICAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD
NACIONAL DE PIURA.
RESPONSABLE DEL PROYECTO
Juan Carlos NEGRO VALAREZO
I. JUSTIFICACIN
El prsn! !ra"a#o s #us!$%$&a n l '&'o ( )$(n&$ar uno ( los
pro"l*as *+s ($s&u!$(os por la (o&!r$na, rla!$)o a s$ l !s!a(or 'a (
($sponr - ($s!r$"u$r l$"r*n! ( sus "$ns para (spu.s ( su
*ur!/ o por l &on!rar$o, !al l$"r!a( 'a ( (sapar&r n l &aso ( la
0$s!n&$a ( (!r*$na(os %a*$l$ars, n!r llos los 1u 'a-a (
rpar!$rs la !o!al$(a( (l 'a"r 'r($!ar$o/ o "$n 'a ( su%r$r &$r!as
l$*$!a&$ons n l &aso ( la 0$s!n&$a ( &$r!os par$n!s.
Nus!ro Dr&'o su&sor$o op!a por un s$s!*a ( l23!$*as (on( r$2
l pr$n&$p$o ( la au!ono*3a ( la )olun!a( (l &ausan!, su#!o a una
sr$ ( l$*$!a&$ons a la l$"r!a( ( ($sponr mortis causa para l
supus!o ( 1u 0$s!an l2$!$*ar$os.
Pus ( s!a *anra, la %$nal$(a( ( lo an!s (s&r$!o s, )$!ar 1u l
!s!a(or pu(a "urlar l (r&'o ( sus l2$!$*ar$os (onan(o sus "$ns
an!s ( *or$r, $*p$($n(o
II. OBJETIVOS Y METAS
Cono&r la pr&p&$4n 1u s !$n so"r la Dona&$4n, la $n%or*a&$4n 1u
0$s! so"r s! !*a - sa"r s$ la so&$(a( s!+ ($spus!a a
R%l0$onar la n&s$(a( ( una "una &ul!ura ( (ona&$4n.
DONACIN
5. GENERALIDADES
N$n26n a&!o ( la )$(a &on!ra&!ual pu( sr *+s 2nroso n$ 2n!$l 1u la
(ona&$4n - por so *$s*o s n&sar$o anal$7arlo *u- &u$(a(osa*n! por1u
su a"uso pu( pro(u&$r pr#u$&$os n la %a*$l$a.
To(a (ona&$4n &ons!$!u- una na#na&$4n - !rans*$s$4n ( (!r*$na(os
(r&'o pa!r$*on$al ( una prsona a o!ra, ( *anra 1u l l*n!o *a!r$al
( !o(a (ona&$4n, s una na#na&$4n 1u (" pro(u&$r un nr$1u&$*$n!o.
Una prsona pu( nr$1u&r o!ro pa!r$*on$o pro no 'a"r+ (ona&$4n s$no s
pro(u& un *po"r&$*$n!o n l pa!r$*on$o (l (onan! o la $n)rsa, al2u$n
pu( *po"r&rs, pro s$no pro(u& un nr$1u&$*$n!o n l pa!r$*on$o
(l (ona!ar$o, !a*po&o 'a"r+ (ona&$4n n sn!$(o r$2uroso.
Ds( los !$*pos *+s r*o!os 'a 0$s!$(o n l 'o*"r la !n(n&$a na!ural a
ral$7ar a&!os ( ($spos$&$4n $nsp$ra(os n un +n$*o ( l$"ral$(a(, al!ru$s*o,
2ra!$!u( - o!ros s$*$lars. El (r&'o 'a r&o2$(o s!as a&&$ons "a#o la %$2ura
#ur3($&a ( la (ona&$4n. Es!a supon un (spla7a*$n!o pa!r$*on$al 1u
$*por!a un *po"r&$*$n!o n l (onan!, - 1u (" sr r2ula(a
a(&ua(a*n! a %$n ( )$!ar s$!ua&$ons 0!r*as para .s! - su %a*$l$a. La
pos$"$l$(a( ( (onar (", n &ons&un&$a, sr a(*$!$(a por l loa"l sp3r$!u
1u &as$ s$*pr la *o!$)a, pro &u$(an(o 1u l sa&r$%$&$o pa!r$*on$al no ll2u
a s$!ua&$ons 0!r*as. Ra-*un(o Sal)a! rsu* lo 0pus!o &uan(o s8ala
1u n *a!r$a ( (ona&$ons l l2$sla(or 'a ("$(o &ons$(rar l $n!r.s (l
(onan!, l ( su %a*$l$a - l ( la so&$(a(
La (ona&$4n pu( sr $n!rpr!a(a n ($)rsos sn!$(os. En un sn!$(o a*pl$o,
s &on&$" &o*o &ual1u$r l$"ral$(a( 1u %&!6a una prsona n %a)or (
o!ra. En sn!$(o s!r$&!o, $*pl$&a l *po"r&$*$n!o ( una prsona, *o)$(a
por un +n$*o ( l$"ral$(a(, &on l %$n ( pro&urar l nr$1u&$*$n!o ( o!ra.
9+s a(lan! anal$7ar*os &on (!n$*$n!o la ($s!$n&$4n 1u 0$s! n!r
l$"ral$(a( - (ona&$4n. D *o*n!o, "as! &on s8alar 1u nos o&upar*os (
la (ona&$4n n su sn!$(o s!r$&!o, &o*o %$2ura &onsa2ra(a n los ar!3&ulos
5:;5 a 5:<= (l C4($2o C$)$l.
55.> ANTECEDENTES HISTORICOS
Es )$(n! 1u, al sr l r%l#o ( una na!ural !n(n&$a 'u*ana, los or32ns
( la (ona&$4n s p$r(n n l !$*po. No s pos$"l, por llo, (!r*$nar su
an!$2?(a(, pro la '$s!or$a s!+ llna ( #*plos.
El (r&'o ro*ano no s!a"l&$4 &on &lar$(a( la na!ural7a #ur3($&a ( s!a
$ns!$!u&$4n, pus 'a"3a ($s&rpan&$a n!r los au!ors. A psar ( llo, -a
Jus!$n$ano s o&up4 ( la (ona&$4n n sus Ins!$!u!as, &ons$(r+n(ola &o*o un
*o(o ( a(1u$r$r la prop$(a(.
III.> NATURALEZA JURIDICA - DIFERENCIAS CON OTRAS FIGURAS
La na!ural7a #ur3($&a ( la (ona&$4n s un asp&!o 1u 'a s$(o o"#!o (
*6l!$pls &on!ro)rs$as n!r los !ra!a($s!as.
Or$2$nal*n! s &on&"3a la (ona&$4n &o*o uno ( los *o(os ( a(1u$r$r la
prop$(a(. Es! &r$!r$o %u (s!rra(o (a(o 1u la (ona&$4n, por s3 sola, no
!rans*$! la prop$(a(. R&'a7a(a s!a !or3a, la (o&!r$na s ($)$($4 n (os
pos$&$ons. La pr$*ra !$n &o*o 0ponn!s a Sa)$2n- - Pu&'!a, n!r o!ros,
- &al$%$&a la (ona&$4n &o*o una &ausa 2n.r$&a 1u (a lu2ar a ($)rsas
rla&$ons #ur3($&as. Para s!os au!ors, no s !ra!a ( un a&!o #ur3($&o n
par!$&ular, - por llo op!an por s$!ua(a l2$sla!$)a*n! (n!ro ( la Par!
Gnral (l Dr&'o C$)$l, $n*rsa n la Tor3a Gnral (l A&!o Jur3($&o.
S$2u$n(o a Cas!+n, po(*os &ons$(rar 1u la (ona&$4n s un &on!ra!o 1u
&un!a &on !rs l*n!os sn&$als@ 5A l *po"r&$*$n!o (l (onan!/ ;A l
nr$1u&$*$n!o (l (ona!ar$o/ - BA la $n!n&$4n ( 'a&r una l$"ral$(a(
CDan$*us (onan($DA.
D lo an!($&'o rsul!a, n &ons&un&$a, 1u no "as!a la prsn&$a ( un
+n$*o ( l$"ral$(a( para 1u s &on%$2ur la (ona&$4n, r1u$r$.n(os
a(*+sE...la sal$(a (l a&!$)o pa!r$*on$o (l (onan! ( un "$n o ( un
(r&'o a .l pr!n&$n!D. CD37>P$&a7o - Gull4n, S$s!*a ( Dr&'o C$)$l,
Volu*n 55, p+2s. BFG>BG5A. D a'3 1u pu(a sos!nrs 1u !o(a (ona&$4n
s un a&!o ( l$"ral$(a(, pro no !o(a l$"ral$(a( s una (ona&$4n. S$ DAD l
&on(ona a DHD una (u(a Car!3&ulo 5;FIA 'a- l$"ral$(a( pro no (ona&$4n.
Cuan(o DAD $n!r)$n n un n2o&$o para "n%$&$o ( DHD Car!3&ulo 5=FGA - no
r&la*a r!r$"u&$4n al2una, !a*"$.n 'a- l$"ral$(a(, pro no 0$s! (ona&$4n.
Es!a s$*pr sur2 n )$r!u( ( una &o$n&$(n&$a ( )olun!a(s n la 1u l
(onan! s o"l$2a a !rans%r$r 2ra!u$!a*n! al (ona!ar$o la prop$(a( ( un
"$n. A (&$r ( San!os Hr$7, D...no !o(o a&!o 2ra!u$!o s (ona&$4n. Por o!ra
par! Ja&!o ( l$"ral$(a(J no &orrspon( sola*n! a1ullos a&!os n 1u l
*po"r&$*$n!o ( un su#!o a&o*pa8a l nr$1u&$*$n!o ( o!ro. As3, no
son a&!os ( l$"ral$(a( l pr.s!a*o, l (p4s$!o o l *an(a!o 2ra!u$!os por no
$*pl$&ar *po"r&$*$n!o (l 1u ($spon a %a)or ( o!roD CSan!os Hr$7, Ja$*,
Dr&'o C$)$l. Tor3a - Pra&!$&a, To*o IV, Dr&'o ( O"l$2a&$ons, p+2. 5B=A.
Co*o &on!rapar!$(a al *po"r&$*$n!o (l (onan!, la (ona&$4n supon
!a*"$.n un nr$1u&$*$n!o n l (ona!ar$o, lo &ual no s o!ra &osa 1u la
$n&orpora&$4n ( un "$n a su pa!r$*on$o. D&$*os 1u s (a s!
nr$1u&$*$n!o por1u l (ona!ar$o no n!r2a na(a a &a*"$o ( lo 1u
r&$". Vol)$n(o al ar!3&ulo 5:;5 (l C4($2o C$)$l, po(*os a%$r*ar
&on&lu-n!*n! 1u >al *nos para nus!ra l2$sla&$4n> s! nr$1u&$*$n!o
n l (ona!ar$o (" (ars *($an! la a(1u$s$&$4n ( la prop$(a( ( un "$n.
Es! "$n a 1u s r%$r l nu*ral &$!a(o pu( &ons$s!$r n un *u"l o
$n*u"l.
IV> DEFINICIKN@
Es a1ul &on!ra!o, n )$r!u( (l &ual, una prsona lla*a(a (onan! s o"l$2a a
!rans%r$r a o!ra lla*a(a (ona!ar$a, la prop$(a( ( un "$n *u"l o $n*u"l
a !3!ulo 2ra!u$!o
Para Esp3n C+no)as, la (ona&$4n &ons!$!u- un a&!o a !3!ulo 2ra!u$!o 1u
a(1u$r la %or*a &on!ra&!ual &o*o )3a ( ral$7a&$4n, !o*an(o a(*+s n
&un!a 1u una prsona ral$7a &on rsp&!o a o!ra una l$"ral$(a(,
$n!ro(u&$n(o l l*n!o ( a&p!a&$4n por .s!a 6l!$*a.
D Coss3o &on&p!ual$7a la (ona&$4n (s( !rs n%o1us ($%rn!s@ l
pr$*ro, &ons$(r+n(olo un a&!o (on( s ($spon ( "$ns, l s2un(o 1u
r6na los r1u$s$!os para sr &ons$(ra(o &on!ra!o, pus s o"sr)a la
0$2n&$a ( a&p!a&$4n (l (ona!ar$o - l 6l!$*o.
V.> CLASES DE DONACION
La (ona&$4n pu( sr &las$%$&a(a !n$n(o n &un!a ($)rsos &r$!r$os. As3, la
(o&!r$na a2rupa los ($s!$n!os !$pos ( (ona&$4n n a!n&$4n al *o*n!o n 1u
pro(u&n sus %&!os, a su &ausa o *o!$)o, a su 0!ns$4n, - a los %&!os 1u
pro(u&n. Va*os a o&upa*os ( &a(a &las$%$&a&$4n.
5A Por l *o*n!o n 1u pro(u& sus %&!os, la (ona&$4n pu( sr un
n2o&$o D$n!r )$)osD o D*or!$s &ausaD, (pn($n(o ( s$ !als %&!os s
prsn!an an!s o (spu.s ( la *ur! (l (onan!.
Es!a &las$%$&a&$4n s r*on!a al (r&'o ro*ano, (on( s$n *"ar2o o"(&3a
a un &r$!r$o ($s!$n!o. Lo $*por!an!, para los ro*anos, no ra &u+n(o pro(u&3a
%&!os la (ona&$4n, s$no l *o!$)o por l &ual s 'a&3a. As3, s$ la (ona&$4n s
%&!ua"a n &ons$(ra&$4n a un pl$2ro ( *ur! para l (onan!, aun
&uan(o sur!$ra %&!os n )$(a ( .s! ra &ons$(ra(a &o*o D*or!$s &ausaD.
A&!ual*n! la (o&!r$na (no*$na D*or!$s &ausaD a a1ullas (ona&$ons 1u
'a"r+n ( sur!$r %&!o a la *ur! (l (onan!, $n(pn($n!*n! (l *o!$)o
1u las $nsp$r. No s r1u$r, pus, 1u l (onan! s n&un!r n pl$2ro
( *ur! o 1u ral$& l a&!o ( ($spos$&$4n n a!n&$4n a lla. El &r$!r$o -a
no s su"#!$)o s$no o"#!$)o.
Ds( lu2o, !an!o la (ona&$4n D$n!r )$)osD &o*o la D*or!$s &ausaD son %$2uras
&on!ra&!uals 1u s pr%&&$onan *($an! la o%r!a (l (onan! - la
a&p!a&$4n (l (ona!ar$o. En a*"os &asos 'a- un &on!ra!o, aun1u las
lla*a(as D*or!$s &ausaD s!.n su#!as a la *ur! (l (onan! C- la
&ons$2u$n! n&s$(a( ( 1u l (ona!ar$o lo so"r)$)aA &o*o &on($&$4n
suspns$)a. Vol)r*os so"r s! !*a al &o*n!ar l ar!3&ulo 5:;; C$n%ra,
p+2. ;5:A.
;A Por su &ausa o *o!$)o, las (ona&$ons pu(n sr s$*pls o r*unra!or$as.
Son s$*pls a1ullas 1u !$nn &o*o *o!$)o la *ra l$"ral$(a( (l (onan!.
Son r*unra!or$as las 1u s $nsp$ran n la $n!n&$4n ( r&o*pnsar al
(ona!ar$o por sus *.r$!os o sr)$&$os. Ln2l Gus!a)o Corn#o s r%r3a a llas
*an$%s!an(o 1u s prsn!an n %or*a ( l$"ral$(a(s 1u s 'a&n n
r&ono&$*$n!o ( '&'os a&a&$(os an!r$or*n! - 1u ($ron rsul!a(os
)n!a#osos para l (onan!/ - a2r2a"a 1u n!ran n sa &a!2or3a las
(ona&$ons %&!ua(as n *.r$!o ( &ons$(ra&$ons r%r$(as a las &ual$(a(s
(l (ona!ar$o o &o*o r*unra&$ons sp&$als, &ual sr3a la ral$7a(a a %a)or
( una prsona 1u 'a sal)a(o la )$(a o l 'onor (l (onan! CA.G. Corn#o,
C4($2o C$)$l, E0pos$&$4n S$s!*+!$&a - Co*n!ar$o, !o*o TI, p+2. ;:=A.
Es $*por!an! s8alar, rsp&!o a s! !$po ( (ona&$ons, 1u n n$n26n &aso
pu(n !nr l &ar+&!r ( pa2o ( (u(as 0$2$"ls, pus llo (!r*$nar3a
su (sna!ural$7a&$4n. En %&!o, -a '*os &o*n!a(o 1u s sn&$al a la
(ona&$4n 1u s !ra! ( la !rans%rn&$a ( un "$n 1u no s ("$(o al
(ona!ar$o. El au!or *o($%$&a as3 la pos$&$4n asu*$(a n la E0pos$&$4n (
9o!$)os - Co*n!ar$os al C4($2o C$)$l C!o*o VI, p+2. ;M;A, Y ($s&rpa a'ora (
Sal)a! 1u$n, ( a&ur(o &on la l2$sla&$4n ar2n!$na, n!n(3a 1u las
(ona&$ons r*unra!or$as s or$2$na"an n sr)$&$os prs!a(os por l
(ona!ar$o - sus&p!$"ls ( )alora&$4n - &o"ro.
El sp3r$!u ( l$"ral$(a( no s!+, pus, ausn! ( las (ona&$ons
r*unra!or$as, -a 1u s$ "$n o"(&n a &ons$(ra&$ons ( 2ra!$!u( o al
+n$*o ( r&o*pnsar al (ona!ar$o, l (onan! no s!+ o"l$2a(o a 'a&rlas -
s$*pr 0$s! ( su par! una $n!n&$4n ( nr$1u&r al (ona!ar$o.
BA Por su 0!ns$4n, las (ona&$ons s ($)$(n n un$)rsals - s$n2ulars. Las
pr$*ras son las 1u &o*prn(n !o(o l pa!r$*on$o (l (onan!, - las
s2un(as son a1ullas 1u s r%$rn a "$ns (!r*$na(os.
Las (ona&$ons un$)rsals no s!+n, n pr$n&$p$o, a(*$!$(as. En %&!o, s$ s
!$n n &un!a la ($spos$&$4n (l ar!3&ulo 5:;F (l C4($2o C$)$l, l (onan! no
pu( 0&(r la por&$4n ( l$"r ($spos$&$4n &on%or* a las nor*as 1u
r2ulan la su&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$a.
Po(r3a o&urr$r, s$n *"ar2o, 1u l (onan! &ar7&a ( 'r(ros %or7osos, n
&u-o &aso !$n la l$"r ($spos$&$4n ( la !o!al$(a( ( sus "$ns - na(a $*p$(
1u (on la un$)rsal$(a( ( su pa!r$*on$o. A psar ( llo, &o*par!$*os la
op$n$4n ( L4n Haran($ar+n, 1u s8ala 1u n !als &asos no 0$s!
ral*n! una (ona&$4n a !3!ulo un$)rsal, 1u s4lo &a" D*or!$s &ausaD Cop.
&$!., p+2. ;B=A. El (ona!ar$o no Dsu&(D al (onan! n l &on#un!o ( (r&'os
- o"l$2a&$ons 1u &ons!$!u-n su pa!r$*on$o.
<A A!n($n(o a los %&!os 1u pro(u&, la (ona&$4n pu( sr pura,
&on($&$onal - &on &ar2o. Las (ona&$ons puras son las 1u s 'a&n s$n
a!n(r a n$n2una &on($&$4n n$ &ar2o $*pus!o al (ona!ar$o. As3, s pura la
(ona&$4n ( ;,GGG sols 1u DAD 'a& a %a)or ( la Fun(a&$4n Pruana (l
C+n&r, por #*plo.
La (ona&$4n &on($&$onal nor*al*n! s la 1u s su#!a a una &on($&$4n
suspns$)a, s (&$r, &u-os %&!os s!+n su"or($na(os a la ral$7a&$4n ( un
a&on!&$*$n!o %u!uro $n&$r!o. Tal sr3a l &aso ( la (ona&$4n ( un
$n*u"l 1u DAD 'a& a %a)or ( DHD, s$*pr - &uan(o .s! o"!n2a l pr$*r
pus!o n un &on&urso (por!$)o.
S$ "$n las (ona&$ons &on($&$onals nor*al*n! son a1ullas &u-a
0$s!n&$a (pn( ( una &on($&$4n suspns$)a, na(a $*p$( &al$%$&ar &o*o
!als a las su#!as a una &on($&$4n rsolu!or$a, s!o s, a las 1u 1u(an
rsul!as s$ s pro(u& (!r*$na(o a&on!&$*$n!o. Por #*plo@ DAD (ona un
!rrno a DHD, s!$pul+n(os s$n *"ar2o 1u la (ona&$4n 1u(ar+ rsul!a s$
DHD no o"!$n la l$&n&$a ( &ons!ru&&$4n rsp&!$)a.
En lo 1u s r%$r a las (ona&$ons &on &ar2o, &a" ano!ar 1u s!as son
!a*"$.n lla*a(as DonrosasD o D*o(alsD por la (o&!r$na. En llas l (ona!ar$o
s!+ o"l$2a(o a asu*$r (!r*$na(o 2ra)a*n o &ar2o. Los au!ors &o$n&$(n
n s8alar 1u n s! !$po ( (ona&$ons, l &ar2o $*pus!o al (ona!ar$o no
(" 0&(r l )alor (l "$n (ona(o. La sn&$a (l &ar2o ra($&a n &ons!$!u$r
un l*n!o a&&sor$o - s&un(ar$o, - n *o(o al2uno pu( !nr l pr%$l (
una &on!raprs!a&$4n, pus l a&!o pr(r3a l &ar+&!r ( 2ra!u$(a( 1u s
&onsus!an&$al a la (ona&$4n. S$ DAD propor&$ona al 9$n$s!r$o ( Jus!$&$a una
&an!$(a( ( ($nro (!r*$na(a - s$n &on!raprs!a&$4n, pro su#!o a 1u par!
( la *$s*a s $n)$r!a n la r*o(la&$4n ( la &o&$na ( uno ( sus &n!ros
pn$!n&$ar$os, 'a"r+ (ona&$4n &on &ar2o. Pro s$ DHD l n!r2a a DCD 5G,GGG
sols, &on la o"l$2a&$4n ( .s! 6l!$*o ( %$nan&$arl un )$a# al 0!ran#ro, no
0$s!$r+ (ona&$4n *o(al, pus s )$a# rprsn!a una &on!raprs!a&$4n - l
&on!ra!o sr+ onroso - no 2ra!u$!o. Ca" ano!ar 1u l sp3r$!u ( l$"ral$(a(
no s!+ ausn! ( s! !$po ( (ona&$ons@ n llas su"s$s! la $n!n&$4n (
nr$1u&r al (ona!ar$o, s$ "$n s!a $n!n&$4n s ) *a!$7a(a por la prsn&$a
( un 2ra)a*n $*pus!o a .s!. Ds( lu2o, pu(n 0$s!$r *u&'os &asos
&on%usos, n los &uals "a#o la apar$n&$a ( &ar2os s o&ul!n )r(a(ras
&on!raprs!a&$ons. Sr+ n&sar$o, por llo, 1u &a(a &aso sa ("$(a*n!
anal$7a(o para (s&ar!ar la prsn&$a ( o!ro !$po ( a&!os #ur3($&os
$*prop$a*n! &al$%$&a(os ( (ona&$4n.
VI.> CARACTERES JURIDICOS
La (ona&$4n prsn!a los s$2u$n!s &ara&!rs #ur3($&os@
5A Es un &on!ra!o pr$n&$pal o au!4no*o, lo &ual s$2n$%$&a 1u !$n 0$s!n&$a
prop$a s$n s!ar su"or($na(o o sr a&&sor$o a o!ra *o(al$(a( &on!ra&!ual.
;A Es un &on!ra!o a !3!ulo 2ra!u$!o, &ara&!r3s!$&a 1u l s sn&$al. En %&!o, al
o&upa*os ( la na!ural7a #ur3($&a ( s!a $ns!$!u&$4n '*os '&'o &on!$nuas
r%rn&$as a la prsn&$a ( un sp3r$!u ( l$"ral$(a( 1u (!r*$na un
nr$1u&$*$n!o n l (ona!ar$o - un *po"r&$*$n!o n l (onan!. Ello no
'a& *+s 1u &on%$r*ar 1u la (ona&$4n s n&sar$a*n! 2ra!u$!a, pus (
prsn!ars onros$(a( n la *$s*a (sapar&r3an los !rs l*n!os an!s
&$!a(os.
BA Es un &on!ra!o ( una sola prs!a&$4n. En %&!o, a psar ( !ra!ars ( un
a&!o #ur3($&o "$la!ral, la 6n$&a prs!a&$4n ("$(a s a1ulla a 1u s o"l$2a l
(onan!@ !rans%r$r la prop$(a( ( un "$n.
<A Es pr(o*$nan!*n! un &on!ra!o %or*al, aun1u 0&p&$onal*n! pu(
sr &on&lu$(o )r"al*n! &uan(o )rsa so"r "$ns *u"ls ( s&aso
)alor, (%$n$(os por l ar!3&ulo 5:;B (l C4($2o C$)$l, - !ra!+n(os ( *u"ls
(ona(os &on o&as$4n ( "o(as o a&on!&$*$n!os s$*$lars, &on%or* al
nu*ral 5:;:. Apar! ( s!os &asos, - s$2u$n(o las r2las ( los ar!3&ulos
5:;< - 5:;I, la (ona&$4n (" pr%&&$onars n las s$2u$n!s %or*as@
aA Para "$ns *u"ls, ( a&ur(o &on la L- NN ;:5MF, &uan(o su )alor
no 0&(a (l ;IO ( su Un$(a( I*pos$!$)a Tr$"u!ar$a, s 'ar+ )r"al*n!. S$
su )alor 0&( l l3*$! %$#a(o n l *$s*o ar!3&ulo 5:;B, s ("r+ 'a&r por
s&r$!o ( %&'a &$r!a, "a#o san&$4n ( nul$(a(.
Para "$ns $n*u"ls, (" %or*al$7ars s$*pr por s&r$!ura p6"l$&a, sa
&ual %ur l )alor ( los *$s*os.
"A Es $*por!an! s8alar 1u a 0&p&$4n ( la (ona&$4n ( *u"ls (
s&aso )alor o &on o&as$4n ( "o(as o a&on!&$*$n!os s$*$lars, 1u &o*o
'*os )$s!o pu( 'a&rs ( &ual1u$r %or*a >$n&luso )r"al*n!>, n los
(*+s &asos la l- $*pon %or*al$(a(s Da( sol*n$!a!*D ( *anra 1u su
no o"sr)an&$a a&arra la nul$(a( (l a&!o.
IA S !ra!a ( un &on!ra#o &on*u!a!$)o. Ello no &on!ra($& n na(a su &ar+&!r
2ra!u$!o, pus!o 1u la &on*u!a!$)$(a( (" n!n(rs &o*o la ausn&$a (
ala!or$(a(. En %&!o, l (onan! - (ona!ar$o &ono&n ( an!*ano los
al&an&s (l &on!ra!o 1u &l"ran, - no 0$s! por llo n$n26n l*n!o
ala!or$o o $n&$r!o n la (ona&$4n.
:A Es un &on!ra!o o"l$2a&$onal, pus l (onan! s &o*pro*! a !rans%r$r
2ra!u$!a*n! la prop$(a( ( un "$n. La !rasla&$4n ( (o*$n$o s pro(u&,
por lo !an!o, n #&u&$4n ( la prs!a&$4n.
=A S !ra!a, n pr$n&$p$o, ( un &on!ra!o ( #&u&$4n 6n$&a, pro pu( o&urr$r
1u la n!r2a (l "$n (ona(o sa %ra&&$ona(a n l !$*po. Un #*plo
pu( $lus!rar s!a pos$"$l$(a(@ I*a2$n*os 1u la %+"r$&a DAD (ona a la Cru7
Ro#a Pruana ;,GGG !onla(as ( 'ar$na ( !r$2o. Na(a $*p$( 1u s pa&!
1u l !o!al (ona(o sa n!r2a(o a ra74n ( ;GG !onla(as *nsuals,
(uran! ($7 *ss. El o"#!o ( la (ona&$4n &ons!$!u- la !o!al$(a(, pro por
ra7ons pr+&!$&as s s!a"l& su n!r2a pr$4($&a - %ra&&$ona(a, (a(o 1u la
na!ural7a (l "$n as3 lo pr*$!.
VII.> SUJETOS Y CAPACIDAD
Co*o -a s 'a a(lan!a(o, son su#!os ( la (ona&$4n l (onan! - l
(ona!ar$o. Da(a su ($s!$n!a $n!r)n&$4n n l &on!ra!o Cl D*po"r&$*$n!oD (
uno - l Dnr$1u&$*$n!oD n l o!roA, la (o&!r$na - l2$sla&$4n los so*! a
($s!$n!as r2las n &uan!o a la &apa&$(a( ( #r&$&$o.
5A. El (onan!.> En lo 1u s r%$r al (onan!, s$n(o la (ona&$4n un a&!o (
($spos$&$4n, &o*o r2la 2nral s $*pon la &apa&$(a( plna 1u san&$ona l
ar!3&ulo <; (l C4($2o C$)$l. As3, no po(r+n %&!uar (ona&$ons los $n&apa&s
a"solu!os, n$ n pr$n&$p$o los $n&apa&s rla!$)os nu*ra(os n l ar!3&ulo <<.
Tra!+n(os ( los *nors ( (a( 1u !n2an *+s ( ($&$s.$s a8os, ("
!nrs n &un!a la ($spos$&$4n (l ar!3&ulo <I: (l C4($2o C$)$l, 1u a(*$! la
pos$"$l$(a( ( 1u .s!os &on!ra$2an o"l$2a&$ons o rnun&$n (r&'os &on la
au!or$7a&$4n 0prsa o !+&$!a, o la ra!$%$&a&$4n (l a&!o por sus rprsn!an!s
l2als. En!n(*os 1u la (ona&$4n s!+ &o*prn($(a (n!ro ( los al&an&s
( s! nu*ral, al no 0$s!$r pro'$"$&$4n 0prsa. Por 6l!$*o, (" !nrs n
&un!a la 0&p&$4n pr)$s!a por l ar!3&ulo 5BIM (l C4($2o C$)$l, so"r los
&on!ra!os rla&$ona(os &on las n&s$(a(s or($nar$as ( la )$(a ($ar$a ( los
$n&apa&s no pr$)a(os ( ($s&rn$*$n!o.
En lo 1u a!a8 a los rprsn!an!s l2als ( los *nors o $n&apa&s, - la
pos$"$l$(a( ( 1u .s!os %&!6n (ona&$ons n no*"r ( sus
rprsn!a(os, s pr&$so ($s!$n2u$r las ($spos$&$ons apl$&a"ls a 1u$ns
#r&n la pa!r$a po!s!a(, la !u!la - la &ura!la.
Rsp&!o ( los pa(rs 1u #r&n la pa!r$a po!s!a(, no s a()$r! n$n2una
pro'$"$&$4n 0prsa para (onar, por lo 1u 'a"r3a 1u s!ar a lo pr&p!ua(o
por l ar!3&ulo <<=, rla!$)o a la n&sar$a au!or$7a&$4n #u($&$al para a&!os (
($spos$&$4n. No o"s!an! llo, - s$ "$n !4r$&a*n! s pos$"l 1u los pa(rs
(onn "$ns ( sus '$#os n apl$&a&$4n ( ($&'o nu*ral, llo ($%3&$l*n!
po(r3a o&urr$r n la pr+&!$&a, -a 1u a (&$r ( Ln2l Gus!a)o Corn#o, D...no
'a"r3a, n )r(a(, *a2$s!ra(o 1u ($ra au!or$7a&$4n para 1u s (onn los
"$ns ( los *nors o $n&apa&s, -a 1u la au!or$7a&$4n s4lo pro&( para
a&!os $*pus!os por la n&s$(a( o u!$l$(a( (l $n&apa7, &$r&uns!an&$as
prn!or$a*n! 0&lu$(as ( la (ona&$4n 1u, pr&$sa*n!, &ons$s! n la
($s*$nu&$4n (l pa!r$*on$o (l (onan! s$n n$n2una )n!a#a &orrla!$)aD CA.G.
Corn#o, op. &$!., p+2s. ;=<>;=IA.
Rsp&!o (l !u!or, 0$s! la pro'$"$&$4n 0prsa (l ar!3&ulo IBM, $n&$so B (l
C4($2o C$)$l, 1u ("*os n!n(r apl$&a"l !a*"$.n al &ura(or, n )$r!u( (l
ar!3&ulo I:M.
En rsu*n, - n &uan!o al (onan! s r%$r, po(*os (&$r 1u .s!
r1u$r, n pr$n&$p$o, plna &apa&$(a( ( #r&$&$o. El *nor ( *+s (
($&$s.$s a8os pu( (onar, pro n&s$!a la au!or$7a&$4n o ra!$%$&a&$4n ( sus
pa(rs 1u #r&n la pa!r$a po!s!a(, o (l !u!or Cn apl$&a&$4n (l ar!3&ulo I;M
(l C4($2o C$)$lA. Tra!+n(os ( los rprsn!an!s l2als ( $n&apa&s,
)*os 1u .s!os no pu(n (onar "$ns ( sus rprsn!an!s, -a sa n
)$r!u( ( pro'$"$&$4n 0prsa Cpara los !u!ors - &ura(orsA o ( $*pos$"$l$(a(
pr+&!$&a Cn l &aso ( los pa(rsA.
;A. El (ona!ar$o.> En lo 1u &on&$rn al (ona!ar$o, s )$(n! 1u la
l2$sla&$4n - la (o&!r$na son *nos r$2urosas n &uan!o a la &apa&$(a( 1u l
s 0$2$"l. Ello, n a!n&$4n a 1u la (ona&$4n no pu( sr pr#u($&$al para
1u$n la r&$". Ds( lu2o, al sr un &on!ra!o - r1ur$r ( un a&ur(o (
)olun!a(s, la a&p!a&$4n (l (ona!ar$o (" sr #ur3($&a*n! )+l$(a - por llo
(" 0$s!$r una &$r!a &apa&$(a( n .s!. Las nor*as so"r (ona&$4n no
&on!$nn r2las sp&3%$&as al rsp&!o, por lo &ual ("*os r*$!$*os a las
($spos$&$ons 2nrals. To*an(o &o*o pun!o ( par!$(a l ar!3&ulo 5<G (l
C4($2o C$)$l )*os 1u para la )al$(7 (l a&!o #ur3($&o s 0$2, n!r o!ras
&osas, la $n!r)n&$4n ( a2n! &apa7. No &a" (u(a, n &ons&un&$a, (
1u &o*o pr$n&$p$o 2nral s n&s$!a !nr &apa&$(a( para &l"rar l
&on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n, aun &uan(o la $n!r)n&$4n (l (ona!ar$o s l$*$! a su
a&p!a&$4n. D a'3 1u nor*al*n! no pu(an a&p!ar (ona&$ons los
$n&apa&s a"solu!os a 1u s r%$r l ar!3&ulo <B (l C4($2o. E0$s!, s$n
*"ar2o, una 0&p&$4n !ra!+n(os ( *nors ( (a(@ a1ullos 1u son
a"solu!a*n! $n&apa&s C*nors ( ($&$s.$s a8osA pu(n a&p!ar
(ona&$ons puras - s$*pls s$*pr 1u !n2an &apa&$(a( ( ($s&rn$*$n!o.
As3 lo ($spon l ar!3&ulo <II (l C4($2o C$)$l. S 'a r&o2$(o pus la
!n(n&$a 1u &onsa2ra la (o&!r$na n l sn!$(o ( a(*$!$r, !ra!+n(os (
(ona&$ons puras - s$*pls, 1u l (ona!ar$o sa s$*pl*n! &apa7 (
D1urr - n!n(rD. Es o")$o 1u para s! !$po ( (ona&$ons s a(*$!
!a*"$.n la $n!r)n&$4n ( los $n&apa&s rla!$)os por la *$s*a ra74n@ !$nn
($s&rn$*$n!o su%$&$n! para n!n(r lo 1u 'a&n.
El r.2$*n para las (ona&$ons 1u no san puras - s$*pls Cs!o s, para las
*o(als o &on &ar2oA s ($s!$n!o. En s! !$po ( (ona&$ons l (ona!ar$o no s
l$*$!a a a&p!ar@ (" sa!$s%a&r (!r*$na(o &ar2o $*pus!o por l (onan!.
Es l42$&o, por llo, 1u la l- l 0$#a una &apa&$(a( 1u )a-a *+s all+ (l
s$*plD 1urr - n!n(rD.
D a'3 1u los $n&apa&s a"solu!os no pu(an a&p!ar (ona&$ons &on &ar2os,
n$ !a*po&o los *nors ( ($&$s.$s a8os &on &apa&$(a( ( ($s&rn$*$n!o.
Tra!+n(os ( $n&apa&s rla!$)os, su $n!r)n&$4n s ) r2ula(a por las
*$s*as nor*as rs8a(as al r%r$*os al (onan!@ n pr$n&$p$o no pu(n
a&p!ar (ona&$ons &on &ar2o, sal)o los *nors ( (a( ( *+s ( ($&$s.$s
a8os &on la au!or$7a&$4n o ra!$%$&a&$4n ( sus rprsn!an!s l2als.
En lo 1u rsp&!a a los rprsn!an!s ( *nors o $n&apa&s - la
pos$"$l$(a( ( 1u a&!6n &o*o (ona!ar$os n no*"r ( .s!os, &a" ($s!$n2u$r
($)rsas '$p4!s$s@
aA Tra!+n(os ( (ona&$ons puras - s$*pls, los rprsn!an!s l2als
s!+n %a&ul!a(os para a&p!arlas -, s *+s, pu( (&$rs 1u ("n
a&p!arlas, pus!o 1u la l- o"l$2a a 1u, para no 'a&rla, r&a"n
au!or$7a&$4n #u($&$al C)r los ar!3&ulos <<M $n&$so <, IB; - I:MA. Ello s 0pl$&a
por1u, s26n s 'a ($&'o, la (ona&$4n pura - s$*pl no 'a& o!ra &osa 1u
"n%$&$ar al (ona!ar$o.
"A En l &aso ( las (ona&$ons *o(als o &on &ar2o, s o")$o 1u l
!ra!a*$n!o sa ($s!$n!o, pus llas &onll)an (!r*$na(a o"l$2a&$4n a &ar2o
(l (ona!ar$o. La l-s *+s r$2urosa - 0$2 a los rprsn!an!s l2als (
*nors o $n&apa&s la au!or$7a&$4n #u($&$al, pro a ($%rn&$a ( lo ($&'o
rsp&!o al (onan!, llos no s!+n $*p($(os ( a&!uar &o*o (ona!ar$os.
Pu(n a&p!ar (ona&$ons *o(als o &on &ar2o, pro n&s$!an au!or$7a&$4n
#u($&$al C)r los ar!3&ulos <<M, $n&$so F, IB; - I:M (l C4($2o C$)$lA.
O&up.*onos a'ora ( s$ &a" o no 'a&r (ona&$4n por rprsn!a&$4n,
!ra!+n(os ( prsonas &apa&s. En o!ras pala"ras, Ps pos$"l &on%r$r po(r
para rprsn!ar a un su#!o &o*o (onan! o (ona!ar$oQ La rspus!a s
a%$r*a!$)a, s$*pr 1u l rprsn!an! s!. au!or$7a(o 0prsa*n! para
llo *($an! s&r$!ura p6"l$&a, &on%or* a lo 1u ($spon l ar!3&ulo 5I: (l
C4($2o C$)$l. Nus!ro C4($2o no !$n una r2la &o*o la (l pr$*r p+rra%o (l
ar!3&ulo ==M (l C4($2o C$)$l $!al$ano, 1u (&lara nulo l *an(a!o por l 1u s
a!r$"u- a o!ro la %a&ul!a( ( (s$2nar la prsona (l (ona!ar$o o (!r*$nar l
o"#!o ( la (ona&$4n.
A ($%rn&$a ( lo $n($&a(o n l p+rra%o an!r$or, no s r1u$r la %or*al$(a(
&uan(o s !ra!a ( a&p!ar una (ona&$4n pura - s$*pl, pus n s! &aso no
0$s! na#na&$4n - sr+ su%$&$n! l po(r &on %a&ul!a(s ( a(*$n$s!ra&$4n.
D lo 0pus!o n p+rra%os an!r$ors apar& nus!ra ($s&rpan&$a &on
9ss$no, &uan(o a%$r*a 1u la (ona&$4n (" sr o"ra prsonal3s$*a (l
(onan! - por llo s una ( las rla&$ons n las 1u no &a" la
rprsn!a&$4n CFran&s&o 9ss$no, 9anual ( Dr&'o C$)$l - 9r&an!$l,
!o*o V, p+2.MA.
Ca" $n($&ar 1u r$2n para la (ona&$4n las pro'$"$&$ons s!a"l&$(as por los
ar!3&ulos 5B:: - 5B:= (l C4($2o C$)$l, n lo 1u rsp&!a a la a(1u$s$&$4n (
(r&'os rals por las prsonas 1u ($&'as nor*as nu*ran. No &a",
pus, 1u !als su#!os a&!6n &o*o (ona!ar$os n las '$p4!s$s pr)$s!as. S
!ra!a ( una sp&$al $n&apa&$(a( por ra74n (l &ar2o, %un&$4n o parn!s&o.
F$nal*n!, no 0$s! $*p($*n!o para 1u la (ona&$4n sa &l"ra(a n!r
&4n-u2s, n la *($(a ( 1u %un&$on n!r llos l r.2$*n ( spara&$4n
( "$ns Car!3&ulos B;= a BB5 (l C4($2o C$)$lA o 1u s !ra! ( "$ns
prop$os, s26n s (sprn(, &on!rar$o snsu, (l ar!3&ulo B5; (l C4($2o C$)$l.
VIII.> OHJETO DE LA PRESTACION
Ya '*os s8ala(o, al r%r$*os a la na!ural7a #ur3($&a ( la (ona&$4n, 1u
.s!a supon para nus!ra l2$sla&$4n 1u l (onan! s *po"r7&a - l
(ona!ar$o s nr$1u7&a &on la %&!$)a !rans*$s$4n ( la prop$(a( ( un "$n.
Es (&$r 1u (" 0$s!$r, n&sar$a*n!, un (spla7a*$n!o pa!r$*on$al.
Ha#o l &on&p!o ( "$ns ("*os &o*prn(r no s4lo las &osas *a!r$als,
s$no !a*"$.n !o(os a1ullos (r&'os sus&p!$"ls ( &o*r&$o. D a'3 1u
po(a*os sos!nr 1u la (ona&$4n pu( )rsar so"r !o(o !$po ( "$ns@
*u"ls, $n*u"ls - (r&'os.
En lo 1u rsp&!a a "$ns %u!uros, &$r!as l2$sla&$ons &o*o la spa8ola, por
&$!ar un &aso, pro'3"n !r*$nan!*n! su (ona&$4n.
No 0$s! n!r noso!ros n$n2una ra74n para n2ar )al$(7 a la (ona&$4n (
"$ns %u!uros. Por l &on!rar$o, lla s!+ a(*$!$(a a !nor ( lo ($spus!o por l
ar!3&ulo 5<GF, $n&$so 5, (l C4($2o C$)$l. El l2$sla(or ( 5FM< no 'a s2u$(o, n
&ons&un&$a, la l3na ( o!ros C4($2os, &o*o l spa8ol - l ar2n!$no, &u-os
ar!3&ulos :BI - 5MGG, rsp&!$)a*n!, pro'3"n la (ona&$4n ( "$ns %u!uros
- *plan &o*o ar2u*n!o l '&'o ( 1u a6n no s!+n $n&orpora(os al
pa!r$*on$o (l (onan! - .s! no po(r3a 'a&r $n*($a!a n!r2a (l "$n al
(ona!ar$o/ - 1u l (onan! !n(r3a n sus *anos la pos$"$l$(a( ( r)o&ar
pr+&!$&a*n! la (ona&$4n *($an! a&!os pas$)os 1u $*p($r3an su pr)$a
a(1u$s$&$4n. N$n2una ( s!as ra7ons s, a nus!ro *o(o ( )r, &on)$n&n!,
- no a()r!$*os $*p($*n!o para 1u la n!r2a (l "$n sa ($%r$(a 'as!a l
*o*n!o n 1u 0$s!a/ - por o!ra par! la pos$"$l$(a( $n($&a(a no s *o!$)o
su%$&$n! para n2ar s!a *o(al$(a( ( (ona&$4n - sr+, n la *a-or3a ( los
&asos, una 0&p&$4n o %n4*no po&o usual.
Es &$r!o 1u l (onan! &ar& ( un (r&'o a&!ual so"r los "$ns %u!uros.
Pro !a*"$.n s 0a&!o 1u al &on!ra!ar rsp&!o ( llos s!+ 'a&$.n(olo (
un *o(o &on($&$onal - 1u, n s! sn!$(o, s pu( 'a"lar ( un (r&'o
&uan(o *nos po!n&$al. Ta*po&o s ) #us!$%$&a&$4n n pro'$"$r la (ona&$4n
( "$ns %u!uros para %rnar la pro($2al$(a( (l (onan!, pus lla s!+
("$(a*n! &on!rola(a por la r2la &on!n$(a n l ar!3&ulo 5:;F (l C4($2o
C$)$l.
Tra!+n(os ( "$ns a#nos, &a" s2r$*$r los *$s*os %un(a*n!os para
&on&lu$r a(*$!$n(o la pos$"$l$(a( ( 1u san (ona(os, &on%or* a la r2la
&on!n$(a n l ar!3&ulo 5:;= 1u &o*n!ar*os *+s 0!nsa*n! al 'a&r
su 0.2s$s C$n%ra, p+2. ;;BA.
F$nal*n!, s $*por!an! 'a&r r%rn&$a a la pro*sa ( (ona&$4n, &u-a
pos$"$l$(a( s n2a(a por ($)rsos !ra!a($s!as, s2r$*$n(o ar2u*n!os
s$*$lars a los &$!a(os al !ra!ar so"r la (ona&$4n ( "$ns %u!uros. 9ss$no
'a r%u!a(o a 1u$ns la (s&ar!an, - apun!a 1u s!+ a(*$!$(a n l (r&'o
al*+n. Co$n&$($n(o &on la op$n$4n (l *as!ro $!al$ano, op$na*os 1u
nus!ro C4($2o pr*$! la pro*sa ( (ona&$4n (n!ro (l a*pl$o *ar&o (
pos$"$l$(a(s 1u "r$n(a l !3!ulo so"r &on!ra!os prpara!or$os -,
&on&r!a*n!, l &o*pro*$so ( &on!ra!ar Car!3&ulo 5<5<A.
A C O N TI NU A C I N H E M O S CRE IDO C O NV E N IEN T E H A C E R UN
C O M E N T A R I O D E C A D A U NO DE LO S A R T C U L O S Q UE N O S H A C E N
ME N C I N S OB RE L A D O N A C I N @
CONCEPTO DE LA DONACIN:
Ar!3&ulo 5:;5.> Por la (ona&$4n l (onan! s o"l$2a a !rans%r$r 2ra!u$!a*n!
al (ona!ar$o la prop$(a( ( un "$n.
D s!a (%$n$&$4n s (sprn(n los s$2u$n!s l*n!os@
5A E0$s! una o"l$2a&$4n ( !rans%rn&$a ( la prop$(a( ( un "$n, por par!
(l (onan! - a %a)or (l (ona!ar$o, a ($%rn&$a (l C4($2o C$)$l (ro2a(o,
s26n l &ual por lla s !rans%r3a 2ra!u$!a*n! una &osa Car!3&ulo 5<::A. El
&a*"$o s s$2n$%$&a!$)o, pus la o"l$2a&$4n ( !rans%r$r !$n un sn!$(o - la
!rans%rn&$a prop$a*n! ($&'a, o!ro.
Es!$*a*os 1u ("$4 0!n(rs al usu%ru&!o ( un "$n - no l$*$!ars a la
prop$(a(.
;A Es un a&!o D$n!r )$)osD, pus la 1u pro(u& sus %&!os a la *ur! (l
(onan! s 2o"$rna por las nor*as ( la su&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$a Car!3&ulo 5:;5
(l C4($2o C$)$lA.
BA O!ra ( sus no!as sal!an!s s la 2ra!u$(a(, -a anal$7a(a al !ra!ar so"r los
&ara&!rs #ur3($&os ( s! &on!ra!o Csupra, p+2$na ;GMA.
S 0!$n( a !o(a &las ( "$ns, san &osas C*u"ls o $n*u"lsA -
(r&'os &u-a prop$(a( s sus&p!$"l ( !rans%r$rs, n !an!o 1u l C4($2o
( 5FB: s!a"a r(u&$(o a las &osas.
<A Cr*os n&sar$o $ns$s!$r n las ($%rn&$as 1u 0$s!n n!r la (ona&$4n -
la l$"ral$(a(, para s8alar 1u la (%$n$&$4n (l ar!3&ulo 5:;5 s 'a &$r&uns&r$!o
a la !rans*$s$4n (l (o*$n$o - no s 0!$n(, n &ons&un&$a, a o!ros a&!os
1u &ons!$!u-n l$"ral$(a(s. La a&lara&$4n s $*por!an!, pus los ar!3&ulos
5:;< - 5:;I su#!an la (ona&$4n a (!r*$na(as %or*al$(a(s, 1u no !$nn
por 1u. (ars n o!ros &asos. El l2$sla(or ( 5FM< no 'a s2u$(o, n su*a, la
pol3!$&a 0!ns$)a (l C4($2o C$)$l $!al$ano, &u-o ar!3&ulo =:F (%$n la (ona&$4n
&o*o Dl &on!ra!o n l &ual, por sp3r$!u ( l$"ral$(a(, una par! nr$1u& a
la o!ra, ($spon$n(o a %a)or ( .s!a ( un (r&'o su-o o asu*$n(o %rn! a
lla una o"l$2a&$4nD.
Dona&$4n a la *ur! (l (onan!
Ro&a Sas!r (%$n la (ona&$4n R*or!$s &ausaE &o*o Runa ($spos$&$4n por &ausa
( *ur!, a !3!ulo s$n2ular, o!or2a(a n %or*a ( (ona&$4nE.
Ro&a>Sas!r 9un&un$ll, s$2u$n(o !al &on&p!o, s&r$"@ RD s! s1u*a
&on&p!ual - ( su 0.2s$s rsul!an las !rs no!as &ara&!r3s!$&as ( la
(ona&$4n por &ausa ( *ur!. A las *$s*as rspon(n las r2ula&$ons 1u
( ($&'a (ona&$4n por &ausa ( *ur! %&!6an l C4($2o ( Su&s$ons (
Ca!alu8a - la Co*p$la&$4n ( Na)arraE.
Y s8ala las !rs no!as &ara&!r3s!$&as "+s$&as - !3p$&as ( ($&'a $ns!$!u&$4n
#ur3($&a;;, 1u po(*os s$n!!$7ar (l s$2u$n! *o(o@
Es una ($spos$&$4n por &ausa ( *ur!@ s una l$"ral$(a( 1u una prsona
'a& n &ons$(ra&$4n a su *ur! CE&on!*pla!$o *or!$sEA/ s!a s la &ausa o
l por1u. ( la *$s*a, un$(a al (s$2n$o ( %a)or&r a al2u$n.
La &ausa ( s!a (ona&$4n, o sa, la E&on!*pla!$o *or!$sEpu( a&!uar ( (os
*o(os@ > n &ons$(ra&$4n a la *ur! r*o!a (l (onan! C(a lu2ar al nor*al
!$po ( (ona&$4n *or!$s &ausaA > o &on o&as$4n (l sp&$al pl$2ro
(!r*$nan! ( la (ona&$4n, o sa an! un r$s2o ( *ur! (l (onan!, (
*o(o 1u s$ l (onan! supra l r$s2o, la (ona&$4n 1u(a $n)+l$(a por %al!a
( &ausa.
Y s8ala &o*o &ons&un&$as %un(a*n!als ( sr una ($spos$&$4n *or!$s
&ausa@
>Es sn&$al*n! r)o&a"l, s$ "$n Vall! n!$n( 1u la r)o&a"$l$(a( no s
&ar+&!r sn&$al ( la (ona&$4n R*or!$s &ausaE, s$no 1u &a" la rnun&$a por
l (onan! ( la %a&ul!a( ( r)o&arla.
>La pr*or$n&$a o &on*or$n&$a Car!. BB C.CA (l (ona!ar$o pro(u& su
$n%$&a&$a.
>No 'a- !rans*$s$4n $n*($a!a ( la prop$(a( ( la &osa (ona(a, s$no 1u
.s!a 1u(a &on($&$ona(a CR&on($!$o $ur$sEA por la *ur! (l (onan! CRs$ *ors
s&u!a %ur$!EA. Pro s!a r2la 2nral a(*$! &o*o 0&p&$4n l pa&!o o
)olun!a( n &on!rar$o, pos$"l n !o(a (ona&$4n R*or!$s &ausaE/ por !an!o, la no
!rans%rn&$a $n*($a!a ( la prop$(a( s a&!ual*n! l*n!o na!ural - no
sn&$al, n 2nral, ( la %$2ura.
>El (onan!, n 2nral, 'a"r+ ( !nr la &apa&$(a( para !s!ar.
Es una ($spos$&$4n a !3!ulo s$n2ular@ su &on!n$(o s l *$s*o 1u pu( sr
o"#!o ( una ($spos$&$4n a !3!ulo ( l2a(o ( %$&a&$a ral.
Es una ($spos$&$4n o!or2a(a n %or*a ( (ona&$4n@ la (ona&$4n *or!$s &ausa
s &o*o un l2a(o, 1u n )7 ( or(nars n !s!a*n!o lo s *($an! l
*&an$s*o (l n2o&$o "$la!ral ( (ona&$4n C($spos$&$4n por l (onan! -
a&p!a&$4n por l (ona!ar$oA/ por llo, no !$n ( (ona&$4n *+s 1u la %or*a
( pro(u&$rs, o sa la &on%lun&$a ( )olun!a(s (l (onan! - (ona!ar$o, as3
&o*o la %or*a ( o!or2ars, (on( r2$r3an los ar!3&ulos :B; - :BB C.C, s26n
&ual %ur su o"#!o/ lo (*+s pr!n& al Dr&'o ( su&s$ons n sn!$(o
s!r$&!o, n sp&$al, su r)o&a"$l$(a(.
Y a8a( 1u la &ons&un&$a "+s$&a ( s!a !r&ra no!a &ara&!r3s!$&a s 1u
la (ona&$4n *or!$s &ausa s (sn)ul) $n(pn($n!*n! ( la sur! (l
!s!a*n!o/ l (ona!ar$o *or!$s &ausa po(r+ poss$onars ( los "$ns as3
(ona(os, s$n n&s$(a( ( n!r2a por l 'r(ro o l al"a&a (l (onan!.
Es sn!$r ( la (o&!r$na *a-or$!ar$a pu( r%l#ars &on las s$2u$n!s
pala"ras ( Cas!+n@ RCSA PSu"s$s!n 'o- n nus!ro Dr&'o las (ona&$ons
R*or!$s &ausaEQ> D lo 1u a&a"a*os ( (&$r s (sprn( 1u las
(ona&$ons R*or!$s &ausaE 'an pr($(o n l C4($2o C$)$l su &ar+&!r ($s!$n!$)o
- su na!ural7a, - 'a- 1u &ons$(rarlas 'o- &o*o una $ns!$!u&$4n supr$*$(a,
r%un($(a n l l2a(o. Su"s$s!n, s$n *"ar2o, &on !o(os sus &ara&!rs
prop$os n Ca!alu8a - n Na)arra CSAE.
Y s s !a*"$.n l pun!o ( )$s!a ( la #ur$spru(n&$a. La Sala 5T (l Tr$"unal
Supr*o, n Sn!n&$a ( ;I #ul$o ( 5.FF: r&o2 la s$2u$n! (o&!r$na@ RLa
lla*a(a donacin mortis causa a 1u s r%$r l ar!3&ulo :;G CC Cla &ual,
(s( lu2o, no !rans%$r al (ona!ar$o la prop$(a( ( los "$ns (ona(os
'as!a 1u s pro(u7&a la *ur! (l (onan!A no pu( !nr %$&a&$a s$ no s
#us!$%$&a por los *($os 1u r2ulan l o!or2a*$n!o ( las ($spos$&$ons
!s!a*n!ar$as CSn!n&$as ( ... = ( no)$*"r ( 5.F=F URJA 5F=F, B:<<V,
;< ( %"rro ( 5.FM: URJA 5FM:, FBIV - 5B ( #un$o ( 5.FF< URJA 5FF<,
:IG=VA C...AE.
R&o2$n(o las no!as 1u sn&$al*n! &ara&!r$7an, n la #ur$spru(n&$a, a la
(ona&$4n R*or!$s &ausaE, la *$s*a Sala 5T (l Tr$"unal Supr*o, n Sn!n&$a
( F ( #un$o ( 5.FFI CRJ 5FFIW<F5;A, n rla&$4n &on una (ona&$4n &on
rsr)a ( la %a&ul!a( ( ($sponr por par! (l (onan! - n la 1u, a(*+s,
l (ona!ar$o no po(3a na#nar n$ 2ra)ar la %$n&a (ona(a n$ par! ( la *$s*a
(uran! la )$(a (l (onan! s$n &on!ar &on la au!or$7a&$4n 0prsa ( .s!,
s8ala lo s$2u$n!, n su Fun(a*n!o Jur3($&o Cuar!o@ RC...A Da(os s!os
!.r*$nos l$!rals 'a ( &ons$(rars a&r!a(a la (&lara&$4n ( la Sala Ra 1uoE
( 1u s !ra!a ( una (ona&$4n R*or!$s &ausaE, n &uan!o s4lo 'a ( !nr
%&!o (spu.s ( *or$r l (onan!, &on&lus$4n a la 1u s ll2a s$ l (ona!ar$o
no pu( ($sponr n %or*a al2una ( la %$n&a (ona(a. S a&o*o(a, pus, !al
&al$%$&a&$4n #ur3($&a a lo ($spus!o n l ar!3&ulo :;G (l C4($2o C$)$l, pus lo
1u &ara&!r$7a (%$n$!$)a*n! a las (ona&$ons &on %$nal$(a( R*or!$s &ausaE
s la pr*ann&$a n l (o*$n$o - l$"r ($spos$&$4n (l (onan! ( la &osa
(ona(a - su %al!a ( $n!n&$4n ( pr(rla n &aso ( )$)$r, (!r*$nan(o 1u
l (onan! no !rans%$r ( prsn! la prop$(a( ( la &osa (ona(a, n$ s$1u$ra
($%$r la !rans%rn&$a a pla7o 1u pu(a !rans&urr$r *$n!ras )$)a, s$no 1u s
%$#a para l %&!o ( la (ona&$4n la .po&a o *o*n!o ( su %all&$*$n!o,
($spon$n(o as3 para (spu.s ( su *ur! ( al2o 1u l pr!n& C...AE.
I2ual*n! - &on los *$s*os !.r*$nos, ($&'a Sala n Sn!n&$a ( ;< (
%"rro ( 5.FM: CRJ 5FM:WFBIA, r&o2 la *$s*a (o&!r$na@ Rlo 1u &ara&!r$7a
(%$n$!$)a*n! a las (ona&$ons &on %$nal$(a( R*or!$s &ausaE s la
pr*ann&$a n l (o*$n$o - l$"r ($spos$&$4n (l (onan! ( la &osa (ona(a -
su %al!a ( $n!n&$4n ( pr(rla n &aso ( )$)$r, (!r*$nan(o 1u l (onan!
no !rans%$r ( prsn! la prop$(a( ( la &osa (ona(a, n$ s$1u$ra ($%$r la
!rans%rn&$a a pla7o 1u pu(a !rans&urr$r *$n!ras )$)a, s$no 1u s %$#a para
l %&!o ( la (ona&$4n la .po&a o *o*n!o ( su %all&$*$n!o, ($spon$n(o
as3 para (spu.s ( su *ur! ( al2o 1u l pr!n&, s$n 1u pu(a al!rar
la sn&$a ( s! &on&p!o la %or*a *pla(a para la 0prs$4n ( la )olun!a(
s$ .s!a s 1u sola*n! &on pos!r$or$(a( a la *ur! (l (onan! 'a2a su-o
l (ona!ar$o lo 1u %u o"#!o ( la (ona&$4n C...A - por &ons$2u$n! son
r)o&a"ls, al no pro(u&$r %&!o s$no (spu.s ( la *ur! (l &ausan!, s
(&$r, Rpos! *or!*E, s$n(o $n%$&a&s s$ no s #us!$%$&an por los *($os 1u
r2ulan l o!or2a*$n!o ( las ($spos$&$ons !s!a*n!ar$as C...AE.
D s pun!o ( )$s!a (o&!r$nal *a-or$!ar$o s apar!a un s&!or *$nor$!ar$o ( la
*$s*a, as3 n!r o!ros, Nar!o A7p$!ar! - &o*o s 'ar!o &ono&$(o, VALLET DE
GOYTISOLO, para 1u$n, por &on!ra, Rl ar!3&ulo :;G CC s un &r!$%$&a(o (
)$(a ( la (ona&$4n R*or!$s &ausaE. Es!a*os plna*n! ( a&ur(o &on la
$n!rpr!a&$4n 1u, n la o"ra &$!a(a, 'a& s! 2ran no!ar$o ( los !.r*$nos Rs
r2$r+nE (l ar!. :;G CC, 0prs+n(olo &on las s$2u$n!s pala"ras@ ECSA nos
o&upar*os a'ora !an s4lo ( %$#ar l al&an& ( los !.r*$nos Rs r2$r+nE.
R%r$(os s!os a las r2las s!a"l&$(as por &ual1u$r $ns!$!u&$4n, no &r*os
1u !n2an !an!a a*pl$!u( &o*o para al&an7ar o &o*prn(r a la )7 las
lo&u&$ons Rs &ons!$!u$r+nE - Rs (sn)ol)r+nE. Cuan(o s ($& 1u al2o s
r2$r+ por las r2las s!a"l&$(a para o!ro al2o, s par! ( 1u los (os 'an
na&$(o -a CSA Por lo !an!o, la lo&u&$4n Rs r2$r+nE s4lo pu( r%r$rs al
(sn)ol)$*$n!o, or(na&$4n - r2ula&$4n ( la (ona&$4n mortis causa -a
na&$(a. Es (&$r, 1u ("r+n apl$&ars las r2las ( la su&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$a,
pro no las (l !s!a*n!o &o*o %or*a ( na&$*$n!o ( la rla&$4n, pus!o
1u 'a- 1u par!$r ( 1u .s!a -a 'a na&$(o. CSAE.
En rla&$4n &on llo, a()$.r!as 1u l ar!3&ulo :;G CC s!a"l& 1u las
(ona&$ons a 1u s r%$r Rpar!$&$pan ( la na!ural7a ( las ($spos$&$ons (
6l!$*a )olun!a(E C- s ( o"sr)ar la a%$n$(a( 1u rsul!ar3a, n &uan!o a sus
%&!os, ( la &o*"$na&$4n ( los ar!3&ulos :5M CC - :;G CC para la (ona&$4n
&o*o a&!o ( l$"ral$(a( por l 1u una prsona ($spon 2ra!u$!a*n! ( una
&osa, para (spu.s ( su *ur!, n %a)or ( o!ra, 1u la a&p!a, - l ar!3&ulo
::= CC so"r l !s!a*n!o &o*o a&!o por l 1u una prsona ($spon, para
(spu.s ( su *ur!, ( !o(os o par! ( sus "$nsA. O"s.r)s a(*+s
1u lo 1u l$!ral*n! s!a"l& l pr&p!o s 1u las (ona&$ons a 1u s
r%$r Rpar!$&$pan ( la na!ural7aE ( las ($spos$&$ons R*or!$s &ausaE, pro no
1u san ($spos$&$ons R*or!$s &ausaE. Y ( o!ro la(o, l pr&p!o &on!$n6a
or(nan(o 1u !als (ona&$ons 1u 'a"r+n ( pro(u&$r sus %&!os por
*ur! (l (onan! - 1u par!$&$pan ( la na!ural7a ( las ($spos$&$ons
R*or!$s &ausaE, s r2$r+n por las r2las ( la Rsu&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$aE, s
(&$r, las ($spos$&$ons 1u r2ulan la su&s$4n R*or!$s &ausaE or(na(a n
"as a un !s!a*n!o )+l$(o, - s$ l prop$o C4($2o s8ala 1u s r2$r+n por las
r2las ( la su&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$a s, no por1u la (ona&$4n, para na&r,
'a-a ( s!ar &on!n$(a n una ($spos$&$4n !s!a*n!ar$a Cpor !nr la
&ons$(ra&$4n ( l2a(oA, s$no por1u s!an(o -a ral$7a(a sa ($spos$&$4n
2ra!u$!a n un a&!o R$n!r )$)osE &o*o (ona&$4n, )al(r+, a par!$r ( s
*o*n!o ( la *ur! (l (onan!, &o*o a&!o !s!a*n!ar$o, r$2$.n(os a
par!$r ( s *o*n!o por las *$s*as r2las ( la su&s$4n !s!a(a.
As$*$s*o, po(*os apun!ar lo s$2u$n! a %a)or ( 1u l ar!3&ulo :;G C.C no
supon l r&ono&$*$n!o ( la (sapar$&$4n ( la (ona&$4n R*or!$s &ausaE (l
r.2$*n (l C4($2o C$)$l, s$no *+s "$n lo &on!rar$o@
Par& &laro 1u l !nor l$!ral (l ar!3&ulo :;G C.C alu( s4lo a una &a!2or3a
( (ona&$ons Cpro )r(a(ras - prop$as (ona&$onsA, n &on&r!o las
(ona&$ons 1u 'a-an ( pro(u&$r sus %&!os Cs (&$r, sus prop$os -
p&ul$ars %&!os,A por *ur! (l (onan!.
H*os su"ra-a(o la pala"ra (onan! por1u s la *ur! ( un su#!o, l
su#!o 1u (on4, la 1u (!r*$na sus plnos %&!os, ( *o(o 1u, al *nos
'as!a la *ur! ( s su#!o (onan!, 'a 'a"$(o (ona&$4n )r(a(ra, &on sus
%&!os - r.2$*n prop$os, por1u al *o*n!o ( la *ur! s su#!o s,
!o(a)3a, (onan! -, s a par!$r (l *o*n!o ( su *ur!, &uan(o l a&!o,
par!$&$pan(o (s( su o!or2a*$n!o ( la na!ural7a ( las ($spos$&$ons (
6l!$*a )olun!a(, pasar3a a r2$rs por las r2las ( la su&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$a.
Ar!3&ulo 5:;;.> La (ona&$4n 1u 'a ( pro(u&$r sus %&!os por *ur! (l
(onan!, s r$2 por las r2las s!a"l&$(as para la su&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$a.
Ds( l *o*n!o n 1u !o(o &on!ra!o &ons!$!u- un a&!o D$n!r )$)osD, la
(ona&$4n 1u (" pro(u&$r %&!os a la *ur! (l (onan! s r2ula por las
nor*as ( la su&s$4n !s!a*n!ar$a -, &on&r!a*n!, por las rla!$)as a los
l2a(os. E0 pro%sa*n! no s u!$l$74 la 0prs$4n D(ona&$4n *or!$s &ausaD,
pus s &on!rar$a a uno ( los &ara&!rs *+s rprsn!a!$)os (l &on!ra!o. En
%&!o, - s26n s 'a )$s!o n la par! 2nral (($&a(a a s! &on!ra!o, la
an!$2ua 0prs$4n D(ona&$4n *or!$s &ausaD s r%r3a a las 1u s 'a&3an n
&ons$(ra&$4n a la *ur! (l (onan!, aun &uan(o pro(u#ran %&!os a&!uals
$n*($a!os. A (&$r ( Al"ala(#o, la lo&u&$4n D*or!$s &ausaD s !o*a n l
sn!$(o ( 1u lo 1u $*pulsa a 'a&rlas s la &ons$(ra&$4n a la *ur!
CAl"ala(#o, op. &$!., p+2$na 5B5A. Nus!ro C4($2o s apar!a pus ( ($&'a
0prs$4n, a %$n ( 1u 1u( &laro 1u l ar!3&ulo "a#o &o*n!ar$o s r%$r a
las (ona&$ons &u-os %&!os s pro(u7&an a la *ur! (l (onan!, san
&uals %urn las ra7ons 1u $*pulsan a .s! a 'a&rlas.
Ds( lu2o !n*os 1u par!$r ( 1u n la (ona&$4n a 1u s r%$r l
ar!3&ulo 5:;; s (an !o(as las %or*al$(a(s (l &on!ra!o - 1u son apl$&a"ls
sus (*+s r2las, n la *($(a ( 1u rsul!n &o*pa!$"ls &on las 1u r$2n
para los l2a(os. Y s!o su&( por1u s n )r(a( un &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n,
pro su#!o a la &on($&$4n (l %all&$*$n!o (l (onan!.
L4n Haran($ar+n, al 'a&r l &o*n!ar$o (l ar!3&ulo 5<:= (l C4($2o C$)$l (
5FB:, 1u s la %un! (l ar!3&ulo 5:;; (l nu)o C4($2o, a%$r*a 1u Dla
(ona&$4nJ *or!$s &ausaJ DO s una ($spos$&$4n !s!a*n!ar$a, por1u s un
a&!o &on!ra&!ual, &on la o%r!a (l (onan! - la a&p!a&$4n (l (ona!ar$o,
aun1u (spu.s rsul! so*!$(o a las r2las ( los l2a(os. Es una (ona&$4n,
( !o(os *o(os, aun1u ($s*$nu$(a por la r)o&a"$l$(a( por par! (l (onan!
- por la n&s$(a( ( la pr*or$n&$a (l (onan!, para 1u sur!a sus %&!osD
Cop. &$!., p+2$na ;<=A.
El pr$*r p+rra%o (l ar!3&ulo 5<=< (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB: ($spon3a 1u la
(ona&$4n ( &osa *u"l pu($ra 'a&rs )r"al*n! &uan(o )rsar so"r
o"#!os ( p1u8o )alor, pro r1ur3a la n!r2a s$*ul!+na ( la &osa
(ona(a. Es!o s lo 1u n (o&!r$na s &ono& &o*oD (ona&$4n *anualD.
Ar!3&ulo 5:;<.> S$ l )alor ( los "$ns *u"ls 0&( (l l3*$! %$#a(o n l
ar!3&ulo 5:;B 'as!a un *+0$*o ( &$n!o &$n&un!a )&s l sul(o *3n$*o )$!al
*nsual, la (ona&$4n s 'ar+ por s&r$!o ( %&'a &$r!a, "a#o san&$4n (
nul$(a(.
En l $ns!ru*n!o ("n sp&$%$&ars - )alor$7ars los "$ns 1u s (onan.
CXA 9o($%$&a(o por la L- NY ;:5MF. Dl ;; ( *a-o ( 5FFB.
Es! ar!3&ulo s!a"l& la %or*al$(a( Da( sol*n$!a!*D para la (ona&$4n ( los
"$ns *u"ls ( *($ano )alor - apl$&a la *$s*a %4r*ula (l ar!3&ulo 5:;B.
Ca" r$!rar lo ($&'o al &o*n!ar l ar!3&ulo an!r$or, n l sn!$(o ( 1u la
%4r*ula %l0$"l 1u a(op!a s! pr&p!o s4lo &u*pl$r+ l &o*!$(o (sa(o n
la *($(a ( 1u s *an!n2a a&!ual$7a(a.
Co*o n l &aso (l ar!3&ulo an!r$or - por las *$s*as ra7ons, la L- NY
;:5MF 'a *o($%$&a(o l !0!o (l ar!3&ulo 5:;<, s$n(o a&!ual*n! n 1u
s$2u@
Ar!3&ulo 5:;<. S$ l )alor ( los "$ns *u"ls 0&( l l3*$! %$#a(o n l
ar!3&ulo 5:;B, la (ona&$4n s ("r+ 'a&r por s&r$!o ( %&'a &$r!a, "a#o
san&$4n ( nul$(a(.
En l $ns!ru*n!o ("n sp&$%$&ars - )alor$7ars los "$ns 1u s (onan.
Es n&sar$o !nr prsn! 1u la r2la 1u &on!$n s! nu*ral s (
&ar+&!r $*pra!$)o - &ual1u$r (ona&$4n ( "$ns *u"ls 1u s!. (n!ro (
sus l3*$!s - 1u no s %or*al$& por s&r$!o ( %&'a &$r!a sr+ nula. Nos
n&on!ra*os, pus, %rn! a una %or*al$(a( Da( sol*n$!a!*D, - no
s$*pl*n! an! un *($o ( pru"a (l a&!o. S !ra!a, n %&!o, ( una
apl$&a&$4n (l pr$n&$p$o D%or*a (a! s s r$D@ la %or*al$(a( $*pus!a s un
l*n!o 0$s!n&$al, ( *o(o 1u s$ no s o"sr)a, la (ona&$4n no !$n )alor
n$ pro(u& %&!o.
El 6l!$*o p+rra%o s 0pl$&a por ra7ons ( s2ur$(a( - para )$!ar
pro($2al$(a(s. Tan!o la sp&$%$&a&$4n &o*o la )alor$7a&$4n son o"l$2a!or$as,
pus &ons!$!u-n &on($&$ons (l s&r$!o ( %&'a &$r!a.
Ar!3&ulo 5:;I. La (ona&$4n ( "$ns $n*u"ls, (" 'a&rs por s&r$!ura
p6"l$&a, &on $n($&a&$4n $n($)$(ual (l $n*u"l o $n*u"ls (ona(os, ( su
)alor ral - ( las &ar2as 1u 'a ( sa!$s%a&r l (ona!ar$o, "a#o san&$4n (
nul$(a(.
Con&p!ua*os ral$s!a - a&p!a(a s!a *o($%$&a&$4n.
D"*os *an$%s!ar 1u l r1u$s$!o s Da( sol*n$!a!*D -, n 2nral !o(a la
%or*al$(a( ( la (ona&$4n 'a s$(o &us!$ona(a por )ar$os !ra!a($s!as -, n!r los
*+s &.l"rs, por 9ar&l Plan$ol - Gor2s R$pr!. Sos!$nn s!os
#ur$s&onsul!os 1u Dla sol*n$(a( s $l42$&a $n%$&a7. Il42$&a n l sn!$(o 1u
0$s!n o!ros *o(os ( arru$nars - arru$nar a la %a*$l$a prop$a !an !*$"ls
&o*o la (ona&$4n.
9u&'as prsonas rsul!an n2a8a(as por *($o ( &on!ra!os a !3!ulo onroso
por '+"$ls s!a%a(ors, - n &a*"$o sas *$s*as prsonas sr3an $n&apa&s
( &onsn!$r una l$"ral$(a( $rr%l0$)a. A(*+s - *u- sp&$al*n!, la
sol*n$(a( s $n%$&a7. Para sr %$&a7 sr3a n&sar$o 1u !o(as las
(ona&$ons, s$n 0&p&$4n, 1u(aran su#!as a lla, lo &ual s $*pos$"l n
s!os !$*pos n 1u s a&u*ula s$n ($%$&ul!a( una %or!una - &o0$s!n la
*on(a, los !3!ulos al por!a(or - l &'1u.
Supr)$)n&$a (l an!$2uo r&lo 'a&$a las l$"ral$(a(s, la sol*n$(a( s, n
(%$n$!$)a, un lu#o &os!oso para uso ( las prsonas alr!as - s&rupulosas,
para las &uals, pr&$sa*n!, !al pro!&&$4n s )$(n!*n! supr%luaD
CPlan$ol - R$pr!, Tra!a(o Pr+&!$&o ( Dr&'o C$)$l Fran&.s, !o*o 1u$n!o,
p+2$na B:<A.
S$ ral*n! $*prs$ona la &on!un(n&$a - &lar$(a( ( los #ur$s!as %ran&ss
&$!a(os, no !r*$na por &on)n&*os. El '&'o ( 1u 0$s!an o!ros *($os
para arru$nar a una prsona o una %a*$l$a no s ra74n su%$&$n! para (s&u$(ar
la (ona&$4n - %a&$l$!ar la pro($2al$(a(. A(*+s, - n nus!ra l2$sla&$4n, s 'an
s!a"l&$(o ($%rn!s n$)ls para la %or*al$(a(, n %un&$4n ( la *nor a
*a-or $*por!an&$a )alora!$)a ( los "$ns (ona(os. En su*a, a%$r*a*os 1u
l r.2$*n $*pus!o n!r noso!ros - n la *a-or3a ( los &4($2os &$)$ls s
&on)n$n! - 1u la l$"ral$7a&$4n ( la %or*a s un r$s2o 1u (" )$!ars.
9ss$no, &u-o !ra!a(o s )ar$os a8os pos!r$or al ( Plan$ol - R$pr!,
*an$%$s!a 1u Dla sol*n$(a( ( la %or*a #r&$!a a1u3, &o*o n o!ros &asos
an+lo2os, la %un&$4n pr+&!$&a ( $n%lu$r so"r la &on&$n&$a (l (onan! a&r&a
( la $*por!an&$a &on4*$&a (l a&!o 1u ral$7a - so"r la &ons&un&$a (l
*po"r&$*$n!o 1u s a&!o $*por!a para .lD Ar!3&ulo 5:;:.> La (ona&$4n (
"$ns *u"ls &on o&as$4n ( "o(as o a&on!&$*$n!os s$*$lars no s!+
su#!a a las %or*al$(a(s s!a"l&$(as por los ar!3&ulos 5:;< - 5:;I.
Es! pr&p!o rspon( a &ons$(ra&$ons pr+&!$&as. Sr3a n2orroso, por (&$r
lo *nos, 1u n l o"s1u$o ( "$ns *u"ls )al$osos C#o-as, !3!ulos
)alors, !&.A &on *o!$)o ( una "o(a, &u*pla8os, an$)rsar$o o s$!ua&$ons
a%$ns !n2a 1u 0$2$rs, para su )al$(7, 1u l (ona!ar$o sus&r$"a un
(o&u*n!o ( %&'a &$r!a Car!3&ulo 5:;<A o una s&r$!ura p6"l$&a Car!3&ulo
5:;IA. Es!o s$2n$%$&a, l$sa - llana*n!, 1u n s!a &las ( (ona&$ons no
sr+ n&sar$o &u*pl$r n$n2una %or*al$(a( - 1u l &on!ra!o po(r+ &l"rars
)r"al*n! - &on la a&p!a&$4n !+&$!a (l (ona!ar$o, n !an!o 1u su #&u&$4n
s pro(u&$r3a &on la n!r2a (l "$n o"s1u$a(o. Ds( lu2o l ar!3&ulo "a#o
&o*n!ar$o no s 0!$n( a los $n*u"ls - .s!os po(r+n s4lo sr (ona(os
&on%or* a la %or*al$(a( pr)$s!a por l ar!3&ulo 5:;I.
Un &aso %r&un! - 1u su2$r *($!a&$4n s l ( las prop$nas - l$*osnas. A
nus!ro *o(o ( )r n$ unas n$ o!ras s!+n &o*prn($(as n l ar!3&ulo 5:;:.
L sr+n apl$&a"ls, n &ons&un&$a, los nu*rals an!r$ors, s$n(o
n!n($(o 1u usual*n! s!+n r2$(as por l ar!3&ulo 5:;B, par!$&ular*n!
las pr$*ras, 1u son ( *o(s!a o rla!$)a &uan!3a.
Sur2 &o*o &us!$4n $n!rpr!a!$)a, l (!r*$nar &u+n(o nos n&on!ra*os
%rn! a los Da&on!&$*$n!os s$*$larsD a 1u s r%$r l nu*ral "a#o
&o*n!ar$o. E)$(n!*n!, 'u"$ra s$(o su*a*n! ($%3&$l nu*rar !o(as
a1ullas s$!ua&$ons &o*prn($(as n s! ar!3&ulo.
Nos $n&l$na*os a &ons$(rar 1u los Da&on!&$*$n!os s$*$larsD r%r$(os n l
pr&p!o &o*o 0$*n!s ( la %or*al$(a(, son a1ullos &onsa2ra(os por los
usos - &os!u*"rs. En %&!o, - !al &o*o o&urr &on las "o(as, 0$s!n o!ras
&$r&uns!an&$as ( la )$(a 1u (an lu2ar a (ona&$ons o r2alos n a!n&$4n a
las *$s*as. Tal sr3a l &aso, por #*plo, ( los an$)rsar$os, &u*pla8os,
!&., s$*pr ( a&ur(o a la &os!u*"r so&$al $*pran! - a las &on($&$ons
&on4*$&as ( las par!s $n!r)$n$n!s. Co*o n *u&'os o!ros &asos, sr+n
los !r$"unals los lla*a(os a (%$n$r los al&an&s ( la nor*a ( a&ur(o &on
las &$r&uns!an&$as, - ( &au!lar 1u no s 'a2a *al uso ( s! pr&p!o a %$n
( lu($r las %or*al$(a(s $*pus!as.
Dona&$4n (l "$n a#no
Ar!3&ulo 5:;=.> El &on!ra!o n )$r!u( (l &ual una prsona s o"l$2a a o"!nr
1u o!ra a(1u$ra 2ra!u$!a*n! la prop$(a( ( un "$n 1u a*"os sa"n 1u
s a#no, s r$2 por los ar!3&ulos 5<=G, 5<=5 Y 5<=;.
D s! ar!3&ulo %lu- 1u la (ona&$4n ( "$ns a#nos s )$a"l, n la *($(a
( 1u (onan! - (ona!ar$o lo &ono7&an. En s &aso son apl$&a"ls las
nor*as &on&rn$n!s a la pro*sa ( la o"l$2a&$4n o (l '&'o ( un !r&ro.
Na(a $*p$(, n %&!o, 1u DAD l pro*!a a DHD 1u 2s!$onar+ an! DCD para
1u s! 6l!$*o l (on al s2un(o un (par!a*n!o. Ca" r&or(ar, a *a-or
a"un(a*$n!o, 1u la prs!a&$4n *a!r$a ( una o"l$2a&$4n 2nra(a por un
&on!ra!o pu( r%r$rs a "$ns a#nos, a !nor ( lo s!a"l&$(o por l $n&$so
; (l ar!3&ulo 5<GF (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Dona&$4n a %a)or ( !u!or - &ura(or
Ar!3&ulo 5:;M.> La (ona&$4n n %a)or ( 1u$n 'a s$(o !u!or o &ura(or (l
(onan! s!+ su#!a a la &on($&$4n suspns$)a ( sr apro"a(as las &un!as -
pa2a(o l sal(o rsul!an! ( la a(*$n$s!ra&$4n.
Ya s 0pl$&4 n la Par! Gnral 1u los !u!ors - &ura(ors s!+n $*p($(os
( "n%$&$ars &on la (ona&$4n ( "$ns ( prop$(a( ( sus rprsn!a(os.
Es! $*p($*n!o s prolon2a *+s all+ ( la !r*$na&$4n ( s!os &ar2os, s!o
s, &uan(o los rprsn!a(os 'an a(1u$r$(o o ra(1u$r$(o, n su &aso, la
&apa&$(a( ( #r&$&$o, n l sano prop4s$!o ( 1u l !u!or o &ura(or &u*pla
&on (ar &un!a ( su a(*$n$s!ra&$4n - no s4lo san apro"a(as las &un!as,
s$no !a*"$.n n!r2a(os los sal(os. En!r!an!o - para no %rus!rar s!as
(ona&$ons, s ls &ons$(ra su#!as a una &on($&$4n suspns$)a.
Na!ural*n!, l pr&p!o prsupon 1u sa l prop$o su#!o a !u!la o
&ura!la, una )7 &apa7, 1u$n a&!6 &o*o (onan!. En n$n26n &aso s a(*$!
1u la nor*a pu(a &on)al$(ar a1ullas (ona&$ons '&'as n pro)&'o
prop$o por l !u!or o &ura(or, &uan(o a&!ua"an n no*"r (l $n&apa7. Tals
a&!os s n&un!ran 0prsa*n! pro'$"$(os C)r ar!3&ulos IBM, $n&$so B, -
I:M (l C4($2o C$)$lA - no son por llo &on)al$(a"ls.
Dona&$4n $no%$&$osa
Ar!3&ulo 5:;F.> Na($ pu( (ar por )3a ( (ona&$4n, *+s ( lo 1u pu(
($sponr por !s!a*n!o.
La (ona&$4n s $n)+l$(a n !o(o lo 1u 0&(a ( s!a *($(a.
El 0&so s r2ula por l )alor 1u !n2an los "$ns al *o*n!o ( la *ur!
(l (onan!.
Es! ar!3&ulo s $*pra!$)o, -a 1u s!+ (s!$na(o a sal)a2uar(ar los (r&'os
( los 'r(ros %or7osos, s!o s, los '$#os - (*+s (s&n($n!s, los pa(rs
- (*+s as&n($n!s - l &4n-u2 Car!3&ulo =;< (l C4($2o C$)$lA.
La (ona&$4n $no%$&$osa, s, pus, a1ulla &u-o )alor 0&( la &uo!a 1u l
(onan! pu( ($sponr por la )3a !s!a*n!ar$a - (" sr r(u&$(a -
rs!$!u$(a por l (ona!ar$o, para 1u ( s! *o(o 1u( sal)a2uar(a(a la
l23!$*a. Es!a )ar3a s26n 1u l (onan! !n2a '$#os u o!ros (s&n($n!s o
&4n-u2 C;WB ( los "$ns, ar!3&ulo =;IA o la *$!a(, s$ s4lo !$n pa(rs o o!ros
as&n($n!s Car!3&ulo =;: (l C4($2o C$)$lA.
El C4($2o 'a $n!ro(u&$(o un &a*"$o ( %un(a*n!al $*por!an&$a n lo 1u
&on&$rn a la a&&$4n ( r(u&&$4n. En %&!o, l ar!3&ulo 5<:F (l C4($2o C$)$l
( 5FB:, ( a&ur(o &on la l3na 0pus!a por l ar!3&ulo IFB (l C4($2o C$)$l
( 5MI;, s!a"l&3a 1u l 0&so ( la (ona&$4n s *(3a al *o*n!o n 1u
s &l"ras l &on!ra!o - no al %all&$*$n!o (l (onan!. Es! s$s!*a 'a s$(o
s)ra*n! &r$!$&a(o - rsul!a"a $na&p!a"l, ("$(o a los %n4*nos ( la
()alua&$4n *on!ar$a - la $n%la&$4n. El !r&r - 6l!$*o p+rra%o (l ar!3&ulo 5:;F
'a *o($%$&a(o &on a&$r!o l r.2$*n $*pus!o n l C4($2o (ro2a(o, pus
($spon 1u l 0&so s r2ula por l )alor 1u !n2an o ("3an !nr los
"$ns al *o*n!o ( la *ur! (l (onan!. CValor a&!ual$7a(o &ons!an!A.
Con l nu)o s$s!*a s (sprn( !a*"$.n 1u la a&&$4n ( $no%$&$os$(a( (
la (ona&$4n s4lo pu( sr plan!a(a por los 'r(ros, pus an!s (l
%all&$*$n!o (l (onan! s$*pl - llana*n! no 0$s!n - s4lo s !ra!a (
prsonas &on (r&'os 0p&!a!$&$os.
En su*a - &$!an(o a L4n Haran($ar+n, D*+s a&r!a(a s la solu&$4n ( 1u s
!o* n &un!a l pa!r$*on$o !al &ual s Jn su $*por!, n l *o*n!o ( la
*ur! (lJ ( &u#usJ, &ons$(ran(o los au*n!os - l nr$1u&$*$n!o 1u s
'a-a pro(u&$(o, pus s n s *o*n!o 1u s (!r*$na 1u$.ns son los
'r(ros - &u+ls ("n sr sus propos$&$ons l23!$*asD Cop. &$!., !o*o 5,
p+2$na ;<5A.
S plan!a una &us!$4n 1u s la rla!$)a al ($s%ru! ( los "$ns (ona(os,
an!s ( 1u s pro(u7&a l )n!o ( la *ur! (l (onan! -, por !an!o,
an!s ( 1u pu(a (!r*$nars 1u 'u"o (ona&$4n $no%$&$osa. La (o&!r$na s
pronun&$a n l sn!$(o ( s8alar 1u la r(u&&$4n no !$n %&!o r!roa&!$)o
-, &ons&un!*n! an!s ( la *ur! (l (onan! la (ona&$4n !$n planos
%&!os - l (ona!ar$o pu( 'a&r su-os los %ru!os ( la &osa (ona(a.
9u- l$2a(o a s! ar!3&ulo 5:;F s!+ l nu*ral 5:<I, 1u ("$4 sr l 1u l
s$2u -a &u-o &o*n!ar$o nos r*$!$*os Csupra, p+2$na ;<GA.
En l s!u($o (l pr&p!o po(*os ($s!$n2u$r, ( un la(o, l supus!o (
'&'o 1u &on!*pla, 1u &a" &ons$(rar s!+ 0prsa(o n los s$2u$n!s
!.r*$nos@ RPo(r+ rsr)ars l (onan! la %a&ul!a( ( ($sponr ( al2unos (
los "$ns (ona(os, o ( al2una &an!$(a( &on &ar2o a llosE. El 0a*n (l
supus!o ( '&'o (l 1u par! la nor*a nos ll)ar+ a &ons$(rar, una )7
0a*$na(a la na!ural7a #ur3($&a ( la (ona&$4n n 2nral, la na!ural7a
#ur3($&a ( la (ona&$4n 1u &on!*pla l ar!3&ulo :BF CC.
D o!ro la(o0a*$nar*os la &ons&un&$a o %&!o ( !al supus!o ( '&'o,
1u &r*os s!ar3an r&o2$(os n la nor*a &on s!os !.r*$nos@ Rpro, s$
*ur$r Cl (onan!A s$n 'a"r '&'o uso ( s! (r&'o, pr!n&r+n al
(ona!ar$o los "$ns o la &an!$(a( 1u s 'u"$s rsr)a(oE. El 0a*n (
s!a &ons&un&$a nos ll)ar+ a !ra!ar ($s!$n!os asp&!os ( sus %&!os, n
par!$&ular, su rla&$4n &on l ar!3&ulo :;G CC.
As3 pus, l supus!o ( '&'o (l 1u par! la nor*a &r*os s l ( un
su#!o 1u (ona a o!ro uno o )ar$os "$ns -, n s *$s*o a&!o, Rs rsr)aE,
s!o s, rsr)a para s3 o n su %a)or, una R%a&ul!a(E C%a&ul!a( 1u, por a'ora,
no &al$%$&ar*osA, 1u l pr*$! R($sponrE po!s!a!$)a*n! - (uran! su )$(a,
( Ral2unosE ( los "$ns (ona(os o ( al2una &an!$(a( &on &ar2o a ($&'os
"$ns, a&p!an(o l s2un(o la (ona&$4n n sos !.r*$nos/ a su )7, l
s2un(o $n&$so, o $n&$so %$nal (l pr&p!o, s!a"l& la &ons&un&$a o %&!o
( s supus!o ( '&'o 1u, s26n &r*os, s po(r3a nun&$ar (l
s$2u$n! *o(o@ *ur$n(o l (onan! s$n 'a"r '&'o uso (l (r&'o 1u n
la (ona&$4n s rsr)4, - no o"s!an! sa %a&ul!a( rsr)a(a CRpro s$ *ur$r
l (onan!EA, s pro(u&n a %a)or (l (ona!ar$o los prop$os Cs$&,plnosA %&!os
!ra($!or$os ( s!a (ona&$4n n &uan!o a los "$ns (ona(os/ ($&'os %&!os
!ra($!or$os plnos s pro(u&n, pr&$sa*n!, por la *ur! (l (onan! s$n
'a"r ($spus!o Co n lo no ($spus!oA.
La (ona&$4n &on#un!a
Ar!3&ulo 5:BG.> Cuan(o la (ona&$4n s 'a '&'o a )ar$as prsonas
&on#un!a*n!, s n!n(r+ por par!s $2uals - no s (ar+ n!r llas l
(r&'o ( a&r&r.
S 0&p!6an ( s!a ($spos$&$4n las (ona&$ons '&'as &on#un!a*n! a
*ar$(o - *u#r, n!r los &uals !n(r+ lu2ar l (r&'o ( a&r&r, s$ l
(onan! no ($spuso lo &on!rar$o.
En s! pr&p!o s 'a rp!$(o l ar!3&ulo 5<=G (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB:, 1u
&on!$n 'as!a (os ($spos$&$ons ( &ar+&!r supl!or$o, pus s4lo %un&$onan n
(%&!o ( pa&!o 0prso.
D$&'o n o!ros !.r*$nos - &uan(o s %&!6a una (ona&$4n &on#un!a a (os o
*+s prsonas, l &on!ra!o s8alar+ &4*o s ($s!r$"u$r+n 5G "$ns - 1u.
por&n!a#s &orrspon(r+n a los (ona!ar$os, s$ son $n($)$sos. S4lo a %al!a (
s!$pula&$4n la l- $n!rpr!a la )olun!a( (l (onan!, al $n($&ar 1u la (ona&$4n
s n!n(r+ %&!ua(a por par!s $2uals.
La o!ra r2la supl!or$a s la &on&rn$n! al (r&'o ( a&r&r, &u-o sn!$(o
s $*por!an! a&larar.
Nus!ro C4($2o l (($&a l T3!ulo VII ( la S&&$4n S2un(a (l L$"ro IV so"r
Dr&'o ( Su&s$ons, - po(r3a*os (%$n$rlo &o*o la $ns!$!u&$4n n )$r!u( (
la &ual, 0$s!$n(o )ar$os "n%$&$ar$os ( un "$n, s$ al2uno ( llos no 1u$r o
no pu( r&$"$r la par! 1u l &orrspon(, s!a par! au*n!a o a&r& la (
los (*+s. S$ na(a ($& l &on!ra!o a s! rsp&!o, s n!$n( 1u l (onan!
s4lo 'a 1ur$(o %a)or&r a los (ona!ar$os n los "$ns o por&n!a#s
s8ala(os, ( *o(o 1u s$ al2uno ( los s$n($&a(os no a&p!a la (ona&$4n, l
"$n o la &uo!a 1u l ("$4 &orrspon(r s &onsr)a (n!ro (l pa!r$*on$o (l
(onan!. En %&!o, para 1u 0$s!a (ona&$4n (" 'a"r a&p!a&$4n 0prsa o
!+&$!a (l (ona!ar$o, -a 1u s!a*os %rn! a un &on!ra!o - .s! 0$2 la
&o$n&$(n&$a ( )olun!a(s.
Un #*plo pu( rsul!ar ( u!$l$(a(@
I*a2$n*os 1u DAD o%r& (onar un !rrno n %or*a &on#un!a a DHD, DCD, DDD -
DED, n par!s $2uals, 5G &ual s$2n$%$&a 1u a &a(a uno ( llos &orrspon(
una &uo!a (l ;IO. Supon2a*os a'ora 1u DED (&$( no a&p!ar la (ona&$4n.
PZu. o&urr$r+ &on su par! al3&uo!aQ Ca"n (os solu&$ons@ s$ DAD 'a
s!a"l&$(o l (r&'o ( a&r&r, .s!a au*n!ar+ la &uo!a ( DHD, D&D - DDD, (
%or*a !al 1u &a(a uno ( llos s a(#u($&ar+ un BB.BBO (l "$n. S$ por l
&on!rar$o, DAD no 'a s!a"l&$(o 0prsa*n! !al (r&'o, n apl$&a&$4n (l
pr$*r p+rra%o (l ar!3&ulo "a#o &o*n!ar$o ("r*os n!n(r 1u l ;IO
1u 'u"$ra &orrspon($(o a DED no %or*ar+ par! ( la (ona&$4n -
pr*an&r+ n l pa!r$*on$o ( DAD.
D$s!$n!a s la s$!ua&$4n &uan(o los s$n($&a(os &o*o (ona!ar$os son *ar$(o -
*u#r. En s! &aso, l (r&'o ( a&r&r &ons!$!u- la r2la 2nral, por la
)$n&ula&$4n 3n!$*a 1u 0$s! n!r los sposos - l $n!r.s &o*6n ( la %a*$l$a,
( *o(o 1u no s (ar+ s4lo &uan(o l (onan! 5G 'a-a ($spus!o
0prsa*n!.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<=G (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:. Ar!3&ulo 5=FM (l
C4($2o C$)$l ar2n!$no. Ar!3&ulo ;BIG (l C4($2o C$)$l *0$&ano. .
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos ==< al === (l C4($2o C$)$l.
La r)rs$4n
Ar!3&ulo 5:B5.> Pu( s!a"l&rs la r)rs$4n s4lo n %a)or (l (onan! La
s!$pula(a n %a)or ( !r&ro s nula/ pro no pro(u&$r+ la nul$(a( ( la
(ona&$4n.
La na!ural7a p&ul$ar ( la (ona&$4n a(*$! la apl$&a&$4n ( un pa&!o n )$r!u(
(l &ual s l$*$!an los %&!os (l &on!ra!o n %or*a !al 1u l o los "$ns
(ona(os r!ornan al pa!r$*on$o (l (onan!. Sul su&(r 1u l an$*us
(onan($ s &$r&uns&r$"a al (ona!ar$o - no s 0!$n(a a sus '$#os - %u!uros
'r(ros - n s!a u o!ras '$p4!s$s s rsp!a"l la )olun!a( (l (onan!
0prsa(a *($an! &l+usula (l &on!ra!o o por pa&!o a($&$onal.
Nus!ro C4($2o C$)$l, a ($%rn&$a ( o!ros &urpos ( l-s, no 'a s!a"l&$(o
n 1u. &asos !$n lu2ar la r)rs$4n, ( *o(o 1u .s!a s *u) (n!ro (
las ($s!$n!as s$!ua&$ons 1u po(r+ %$#ar l (onan!, pro s$n 1u %un&$on (
*o(o a"s!ra&!o. Por o!ra par! - &o*o s !ra!a ( una rs!r$&&$4n, s 'a
1ur$(o (arl &ar+&!r D$n!u$!u prsonaD - l pa&!o no pu( %a)or&r a
!r&ros. E*pro, s$ s prsn!as s! &aso, la nul$(a( (l pa&!o no
arras!rar3a a la (ona&$4n. Es!a 1u(ar3a &onsol$(a(a - los "$ns sr3an
!rans*$s$"ls a los 'r(ros (l (ona!ar$o.
El ar!3&ulo 5:B5 s una rp!$&$4n (l ar!3&ulo 5<=; (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB:. El
pr&p!o no s8ala &u+ls son los al&an&s ( la r)rs$4n, pro sos!n*os
1u l pa&!o ll)a $*pl3&$!a la $nal$na"$l$(a( (l "$n, l &ual no po(r+ sr
!rans%r$(o, n$ 2ra)a(o o (s**"ra(o, pus ("r+ r!o*ar al pa!r$*on$o (l
(onan! s$n o!ro (!r$oro 1u no sa l ( su na!ural (s2as!. As3 s
(sprn(, por lo (*+s, (l &on!n$(o (l ar!3&ulo 5:B;. Ds( lu2o, s!
r!orno s!+ &on($&$ona(o, a su )7, a la r2la (l ar!3&ulo F<M (l C4($2o C$)$l,
so"r l (r&'o ( prop$(a( ( 1u$n r&$" ( "una % un "$n *u"l, a
!3!ulo ( prop$!ar$o.
No (" &on%un($rs l pa&!o ( r)rs$4n &on la (ona&$4n su#!a a pla7o o
&on($&$4n rsolu!or$a. L4n Haran($ar+n lo a&lara &uan(o ($& 1u n s!os
&asos Ds$*pl*n! la &osa (#a ( s2u$r pr!n&$n(o al (ona!ar$o, por una
&ausa ($s!$n!a a una &l+usula ( r)rs$4n@ por la s$*pl opran&$a ( la
&on($&$4n rsolu!or$a o (l pla7o %$nal 1u s a2r2aron al &on!ra!o (
(ona&$4n. Y n!on&s, no $n!rsa, n$ $*por!a 1u s 'a-a $nsr!a(o la
$n($&a&$4n ( la r)rs$4n. Lo (ona(o )ul) al po(r (l (onan!, o ( sus
'r(ros, por la s$*pl an!r$or opran&$a alu($(aD Cop. &$!., !o*o l, p+2$na
;=:A.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<=; (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:. Ar!3&ulo FI5 (l
C4($2o C$)$l %ran&.s. Ar!3&ulo :<5 (l C4($2o C$)$l spa8ol.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos ;;< - 5:B; (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Rnun&$a !+&$!a a la r)rs$4n
Ar!3&ulo 5:B;.> El asn!$*$n!o (l (onan! a la na#na&$4n ( los "$ns 1u
&ons!$!u-ron la (ona&$4n (!r*$na la rnun&$a (l (r&'o ( r)rs$4n. El
asn!$*$n!o (l (onan! a la &ons!$!u&$4n ( una 2aran!3a ral por l (ona!ar$o
no $*por!a rnun&$a (l (r&'o ( r)rs$4n s$no n %a)or (l a&r(or.
D s! pr&p!o apar& la na!ural7a - los %&!os (l pa&!o ( r)rs$4n.
Es! &on!$n n )r(a( un *an(a!o ( $nal$na"$l$(a( - por llo 0$2 l
asn!$*$n!o (l (onan! a la na#na&$4n, lo 1u (!r*$na, a su )7, la
rnun&$a (l (onan! al #r&$&$o (l pa&!o.
D$s&rpa*os n par!, por lo !an!o, ( L4n Haran($ar+n, &uan(o *an$%$s!a
1u Dan!s ( 1u s pro(u7&a o no l a&on!&$*$n!o 1u pu(a &ausar la
r)rs$4n, l (ona!ar$o no s4lo pu( usar - ($s%ru!ar ( la &osa, #r&$!ar los
a&!os ( a(*$n$s!ra&$4n, s$no !a*"$.n n pr$n&$p$o, pu( ($sponr ( lla -
2ra)arWaD. Y a8a(@ DPro, (s( lu2o, &a" 1u s a2r2u n l pa&!o (
r)rs$4n una &l+usula sp&$al 1u pro'3"a al (ona!ar$o s!o 6l!$*oD Cop. &$!.,
p+2$nas ;=: - ;==A. No &r*os, n %&!o, 1u sa n&sar$a la &l+usula (
$nal$na"$l$(a( para 1u .s!a sa opra!$)a, pus s!$*a*os 1u s n&un!ra
$n*rsa n l ar!3&ulo 5:B;. Ha s$(o &asual*n! (n!ro ( s!a *n!al$(a(
1u no par&$4 n&sar$o $n&lu$r n l Pro-&!o un pr&p!o 1u, &o*o l
ar!3&ulo =F; (l C4($2o C$)$l $!al$ano, s!a"l& 1u la r)rs$4n !$n %&!o
r!roa&!$)o.
Co$n&$($*os n &a*"$o &on L4n Haran($ar+n, &uan(o 0prsa 1u l
(ona!ar$o su#!o a un pa&!o ( r)rs$4n !$n (r&'o al uso - ($s%ru! (l "$n
- a #r&$!ar &ual1u$r a&!o ( a(*$n$s!ra&$4n.
D$s!$n!a s la s$!ua&$4n s$ l (onan! as$n! a la &ons!$!u&$4n ( una 2aran!3a
ral por par! (l (ona!ar$o Cprn(a, '$po!&a, an!$&rs$sA. En s!a '$p4!s$s su
%&!o s4lo s par&$al, ( *o(o 1u su"s$s!$r+ l pa&!o, pro no a%&!ar+ al
a&r(or n &u-o %a)or s 'a s!a"l&$(o la 2aran!3a -, .s!a s &u*pl a
pln$!u(.
S$ "$n l ar!3&ulo 5:B; !$n su an!&(n! n l ar!3&ulo 5<=B (l C4($2o
C$)$l ( 5FB:, su &on!n$(o s *+s a*pl$o - ( *a-or sol)n&$a !.&n$&a, pus
n su pr$*ra par! no s l$*$!a a la )n!a - s 0!$n( a la na#na&$4n/ - n
su s2un(a par! 'a"la ( una 2aran!3a ral, n )7 ( una '$po!&a.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<=B (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:. Ar!3&ulo FI5 (l
C4($2o C$)$l %ran&.s. Ar!3&ulo 55=M (l C4($2o C$)$l "ras$l8o.
Hn%$&$o ( &o*p!n&$a
Ar!3&ulo 5:BB.> El (onan! 1u 'a (s*#ora(o ( %or!una s4lo pu( 0$*$rs
( n!r2ar l "$n (ona(o n la par! n&sar$a para sus al$*n!os.
Pu( su&(r 1u un (onan! s n&un!r n una s$!ua&$4n &on4*$&a ($%3&$l
- &o*o su $n!r.s s!+ por n&$*a ( !o(o, s a"s!n2a ( n!r2ar l "$n
(ona(o, par&$al o !o!al*n!, s26n l al&an& ( sus n&s$(a(s
al$*n!$&$as. Es!a r2la, &u-a 1u$(a( s!+ %ura ( ($s&us$4n, s &ono&$(a n
la (o&!r$na &o*o "n%$&$u* &o*p!n!$a o "n%$&$o ( &o*p!n&$a.
S a()$r! (l nu*ral 5:BB 1u s$ "$n l &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n -a %u
&l"ra(o, a6n no 'a s$(o #&u!a(o, pus la n!r2a s!+ pn($n!. D
'a"rs ral$7a(o ($&'a n!r2a l "n%$&$o no sr+ apl$&a"l, lo 1u s
0pl$&a"l por ra7ons ( s2ur$(a( - %lu$(7 n la &on!ra!a&$4n.
La *n&$4n 1u s 'a& a los al$*n!os (" sr n!n($(a n un sn!$(o la!o,
s!o s, &on la 0!ns$4n 1u s8ala l ar!3&ulo <=; (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Da(a la ra74n ( sr ( s! ar!3&ulo s )$(n! 1u !$n &ar+&!r $*pra!$)o
- no a(*$! pa&!o ( rnun&$a. Por o!ra par! su na!ural7a s prsonal3s$*a -
s!+ &$r&uns&r$!o al (onan!, ( *o(o 1u no sr+ ( apl$&a&$4n para los
al$*n!os (s!$na(os a !r&ras prsonas.
Aun &uan(o no lo s8al l pr&p!o, s n!$n( 1u (sapar&r+ l
"n%$&$o s$ l (onan! r&upra su sol)n&$a &on4*$&a.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<=I (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:. Ar!3&ulo 55=I (l
C4($2o C$)$l "ras$l8o.
In)al$(7 ( plno (r&'o - l &aso ( so"r)$n$n&$a
Ar!3&ulo 5:B<.> Zu(a $n)al$(a(a ( plno (r&'o la (ona&$4n '&'a por
prsona 1u no !n3a '$#os, s$ rsul!a )$)o l '$#o (l (onan! 1u .s! rpu!a"a
*ur!o.
La (ona&$4n '&'a por 1u$n no !n3a '$#os al !$*po ( &l"rar l &on!ra!o, no
1u(a $n)al$(a(a s$ .s!os so"r)$n$rn, sal)o 1u 0prsa*n! s!u)$s
s!a"l&$(a s!a &on($&$4n.
El ar!3&ulo 5:B< s pon n (os &$r&uns!an&$as ($s!$n!as - n ral$(a( l
!ra!a*$n!o ( a*"as ("$4 s!ar spara(o n (os ar!3&ulos, pus sus
solu&$ons son ($%rn!s. Zu(a &laro 1u, n a!n&$4n al pr$n&$p$o
&ons!$!u&$onal 1u &onsa2ra la $2ual(a( ( (r&'os ( !o(os los '$#os, s$n
($s!$n&$4n ( su !$po ( %$l$a&$4n, ("*os &ons$(rar 1u las (os '$p4!s$s
&on!n$(as n s! nu*ral s r%$rn !an!o a los '$#os *a!r$*on$als &o*o los
0!ra*a!r$*on$als - a(op!$)os.
La pr$*ra s!+ rla&$ona(a &on lo 1u L4n Haran($ar+n (no*$na D%alsa
&ausa &on)n&$onalD, s!o s, una (ona&$4n '&'a "a#o la rr4na &rn&$a (
1u 'a"3a %all&$(o l '$#o (l (onan!. La $n)al$(7 s pro(u& n s! &aso s$n
n&s$(a( ( a&&$4n al2una ( su par!, n$ ( *an(a*$n!o #u($&$al - !$n
&o*o %$nal$(a( &on&r!a la (%nsa ( los $n!rss (l '$#o 1u s supon3a
%all&$(o.
S !ra!a, por lo (*+s, ( una r2la ( &ar+&!r $*pra!$)o - s$*$lar a la 1u
0$s!3a n l ar!3&ulo :5; (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5MI; - n l ar!3&ulo 5<== (l
C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB:, 1u 'a s$(o &onsr)a(a ps a 1u no !n*os
&ono&$*$n!o ( su apl$&a&$4n pr+&!$&a. La ($spos$&$4n (" sr s$n *"ar2o
&on&or(a(a &on l ar!3&ulo 5:B:, 1u s!a"l& una '$p4!s$s n la &ual la
$n)al$(7 no opra ( plno (r&'o, - 1u &o*n!ar*os lu2o.
En lo 1u &on&$rn a la s2un(a '$p4!s$s, s r%$r a una s$!ua&$4n 1u no
%u pr)$s!a por l C4($2o (ro2a(o - s la lla*a(a so"r)$n$n&$a ( '$#os, o
sa l na&$*$n!o o a(op&$4n ( uno o )ar$os a&on!&$(os (spu.s ( la
&l"ra&$4n ( la (ona&$4n. En s! &aso no 0$s! D%alsa &ausa &on)n&$onalD
- por lo !an!o l a&!o no 1u(a $n)al$(a(o, sal)o 1u 'u"$s s$(o pr)$s!o
&o*o &on($&$4n $*pus!a por l (onan!. Es!ar3a*os pus %rn! a una
&on($&$4n rsolu!or$a 0prsa*n! pa&!a(a.
S 'a o"#!a(o la 0prs$4n D$n)al$(a(aD - a nus!ro n!n(r s 1u$)aln! a
una nul$(a( ( plno (r&'o.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<== (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:. Ar!3&ulo F:G (l
C4($2o C$)$l %ran&.s. Ar!3&ulo :<< (l C4($2o C$)$l spa8ol.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulo ;5F, $n&$so =, 5:BI Y 5:B: (l C4($2o C$)$l.
E%&!os ( la $n)al$(a&$4n
Ar!3&ulo 5:BI.> In)al$(a(a la (ona&$4n s rs!$!u- al (onan! l "$n (ona(o, o
su )alor ( rpos$&$4n s$ l (ona!ar$o lo 'u"$s na#na(o o no pu($s sr
rs!$!u$(o.
S$ l "$n (ona(o s 'alla 2ra)a(o, l (onan! l$"ra l 2ra)a*n pa2an(o la
&an!$(a( 1u &orrspon(a - s su"ro2a n los (r&'os (l a&r(or.
Par&r3a 1u l ar!3&ulo 5:BI s &ons&un&$a (l ar!3&ulo pr&(n! lo 1u
no s 0a&!o. En %&!o, s$ "$n s!+ *al u"$&a(o - ("$4 n&on!rars (spu.s
(l ar!3&ulo 5:<<, !$n &ar+&!r 2n.r$&o - s 0!$n( !an!o a los &asos (
nul$(a( a 1u s r%$r l ar!3&ulo 5:B< &o*o a la &a(u&$(a( - r)o&a&$4n (l
&on!ra!o, -a 1u la ()olu&$4n (l "$n o la ( su )alor ( rpos$&$4n s
pr!$nn! a !o(as s!as s$!ua&$ons. Tan llo s &$r!o 1u n l ar!3&ulo 5:=B
(l Pro-&!o, 1u s su an!&(n!, s 'a"la"a ( r)o&a&$4n - no (
$n)al$(7.
En ral$(a(, l nu*ral !$n su %un! n l ar!3&ulo 5<=M (l C4($2o C$)$l
(ro2a(o, aun1u &on al2unos &a*"$os s$2n$%$&a!$)os. El pr$*ro &ons$s! n
1u l ar!3&ulo 5:BI 'a"la a&r!a(a*n! so"r l )alor ( rpos$&$4n, lo 1u
no su&(3a an!s, pus s apr&$a"a por lo 1u )al3a al !$*po ( 'a&r la
(ona&$4n. Y n s2un(o !.r*$no, s 'a supr$*$(o (l C4($2o la r2la &on!n$(a
n l r%r$(o ar!3&ulo 5<=M, s2un(o p+rra%o, s26n la &ual &uan(o la &osa
(ona(a 'a-a pasa(o a un !r&ro por !3!ulo 2ra!u$!o, po(r+ r$)$n($&arla l
(onan!. S r&o2$4 as3 la a&r!a(a &r3!$&a '&'a por L4n Haran($ar+n, 1u$n
*an$%s!a"a 1u .s!a ra una solu&$4n 0!ra8a - 1u n la l2$sla&$4n
&o*para(a s rsp!a la a(1u$s$&$4n (l !r&ro, s$n 'a&r l ($s!$n2o s26n
1u s !ra! ( !3!ulo onroso o !3!ulo 2ra!u$!o Cop. &$!., !o*o 5, p+2$nas ;FG -
;F5A.
El s2un(o p+rra%o (l ar!3&ulo 5:BI (" sr n!n($(o &o*o una %a&ul!a( (l
(onan! a 1u$n s l rs!$!u- l "$n, pro &on un 2ra)a*n. Na(a l o"l$2a a
pa2ar lo 1u l (ona!ar$o a(u(a a 1u$n !$n a su %a)or la 2aran!3a ral, pro
s$ (sa )$!ar la #&u&$4n &an&lar+ l $*por! - 1u(ar+ su"ro2a(o n los
(r&'os (l a&r(or, o sa, a(1u$r un &r.($!o &on!ra ($&'o (ona!ar$o.
Pon*os un #*plo@ DAD l (on4 a DHD un !rrno - DHD lo '$po!&4 a DCD, n
2aran!3a ( una (u(a. S$ &o*o &ons&un&$a ( la nul$(a(, &a(u&$(a( o
r)o&a&$4n ( la (ona&$4n, l !rrno r$n2rsa al pa!r$*on$o ( DAD, lo 'ar+
su%r$n(o l 2ra)a*n '$po!&ar$o. S$ DAD (sa l)an!ar la '$po!&a - )$!ar
)n!ual*n! l r*a! (l $n*u"l !n(r+ 1u pa2arl a D&D - al 'a&rlo s
su"ro2a n l &r.($!o 0$s!n! &on!ra DHD. Na!ural*n!, na(a $*p$( 1u l
(onan! no 'a2a uso ( s!a pos$"$l$(a( - r&upr l "$n, pro 2ra)a(o.
PCa" 1u l (onan! r($*a una sr)$(u*"r pas$)a *($an! la apl$&a&$4n
(l s2un(o p+rra%o (l ar!3&ulo 5:BIQ
El !*a 'a s$(o ($s&u!$(o n la (o&!r$na - 'a- 1u$ns &o*o 9anrsa - Na)arro
a%$r*an sa pos$"$l$(a( - la 0!$n(n a (s**"ra&$ons &o*o l usu%ru&!o.
Noso!ros nos $n&l$na*os n sn!$(o &on!rar$o, pus l pr&p!o s r%$r a un
2ra)a*n - no a una l$*$!a&$4n n$ (s**"ra&$4n. La $n!n&$4n (l ar!3&ulo s
&lara@ s !ra!a ( )$!ar 1u l (onan! p$r(a la prop$(a( (l "$n &o*o
&ons&un&$a ( la 2aran!3a 0$s!n!. Es!a '$p4!s$s no s (a s$ lo 1u 0$s!
s una sr)$(u*"r pas$)a o un usu%ru&!o.
Con rla&$4n a los %ru!os pro(u&$(os por l "$n (ona(o, s ( apl$&a&$4n l
ar!3&ulo 5:<B, 1u s &o*n!ar+ *+s a(lan!.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<=M (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos 5;:G a 5;:<, 5:B<, 5:B:, 5:B= Y 5:<< (l C4($2o
C$)$l.
E0&lus$4n ( la $n)al$(7 ( plno (r&'o
Ar!3&ulo 5:B:.> No 1u(a $n)al$(a(a ( plno (r&'o la (ona&$4n n l &aso
(l ar!3&ulo 5:B< &uan(o l )alor (l "$n (ona(o no 0&(a ( la (.&$*a par!
( los "$ns 1u !u)o l (onan! al !$*po ( 'a&r la (ona&$4n. En s!
&aso, s n&sar$o 1u l (onan! la (&lar s$n %&!o.
Es! ar!3&ulo s!+ ($r&!a*n! )$n&ula(o &on l nu*ral 5:B< - ("$4 s$!uars
$n*($a!a*n! (spu.s, lo 1u no su&($4 ("$(o a la rr4na u"$&a&$4n (l
ar!3&ulo 5:BI, 1u -a %u &r$!$&a(a Csupra, p+2$na ;BGA.
El pr&p!o s rpro(u&&$4n (l ar!3&ulo 5<=F (l C4($2o C$)$l (ro2a(o - !$n
&o*o %un(a*n!o l '&'o ( 1u l )alor ( lo (ona(o no a%&!ar+ l (r&'o
(l '$#o 1u s rpu!4 *ur!o, s$n s!arlo. Ya no. pro&(, n s! &aso, la
$n)al$(7 ( plno (r&'o o au!o*+!$&a - s$ l (onan! (sa (#ar s$n %&!o
la (ona&$4n, !n(r+ 1u (&lararlo as3. Aun &uan(o no s 'a s8ala(o un pla7o
para s!a (&lara&$4n, pnsa*os 1u sr+ l ( s$s *ss 1u &on!$n l
ar!3&ulo 5:BF, por apl$&a&$4n anal42$&a. Supon2a*os 1u l (onan! DAD !$n
un pa!r$*on$o &ons!$!u$(o por ;G,GGG *; ( !rrno )alor$7a(o n ;GG GGG
sols, - ( ($&'o !o!al s2r2a una por&$4n ( 5,GGG *; )alua(a n 5G,GGG
sols - la (ona a DHD. I*a2$n*os 1u al 'a&r s!o, DAD &r3a *ur!o a su
6n$&o '$#o, pro pos!r$or*n! (s&u"r 1u .s! )$). Con%or* al ar!3&ulo
5:B< la (ona&$4n 1u(ar3a $n)al$(a(a ( plno (r&'o. No o"s!an! llo, l
pr&p!o 1u &o*n!a*os $n!ro(u& una 0&p&$4n a ($&'a nor*a@ n )$s!a (
1u l )alor ( lo (ona(o C5G,GGG solsA no 0&(3a (l 5GO (l pa!r$*on$o (
DAD al 'a&r la (ona&$4n C;GG,GGG solsA s$ .s! (sa (#arla s$n %&!o ("r+
(&lararlo 0prsa*n!.
Pr&$sa r&!$%$&ar 1u l pr&p!o rspon( a un &aso ( nul$(a( - no (
$n)al$(7 Csupra, p+2$na ;BGA.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<=F (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos 5:B< - 5:BF (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Causals ( r)o&a&$4n
Ar!3&ulo 5:B=.> El (onan! pu( r)o&ar la (ona&$4n por las *$s*as &ausas
( $n($2n$(a( para su&(r - ( (s'r(a&$4n.
El ar!3&ulo 5:B= s rp!$&$4n (l ar!3&ulo 5<MG (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB: - !$n
&ar+&!r $*pra!$)o. En %&!o, sr3a a*oral 1u l (onan! rnun&$
0prsa*n! a un (r&'o 1u l &on%$r la l- por &ons$(ra&$ons
sn&$al*n! .!$&as. E)$(n!*n!, al !ra!ars ( una %a&ul!a(, 5G 1u s3
pu( o&urr$r s 1u l (onan! no la #r&$!, aun &uan(o 0$s!a *o!$)o
su%$&$n!.
S$ "$n n pr$n&$p$o l a&!o #ur3($&o s $rr)o&a"l - la (ona&$4n !$n s!
&ar+&!r, no s pu( $2norar su p&ul$ar$(a( por l (sprn($*$n!o n )$(a (
uno o *+s "$ns 1u 'a& l (onan!. Es! no !$n por 1u. sprar n$ 0$2$r
l a2ra(&$*$n!o (l (ona!ar$o/ pro s )+l$(o r&ono&rl l (r&'o (
r)o&ar la (ona&$4n %&!ua(a s$ su &on(u&!a l 'a& $n($2no. Por llo l
nu*ral "a#o &o*n!ar$o &onsa2ra sa %a&ul!a(, pro por ra7ons #us!$%$&a(as -
!a0a!$)a*n! s8ala(as por la l- - s!o 0pl$&a la r*$s$4n a las &ausas (
$n($2n$(a( Car!3&ulo ::=A - (s'r(a&$4n Car!3&ulos =<<, =<I Y =<: (l C4($2o
C$)$lA.
La r)o&a&$4n ( la (ona&$4n s un a&!o )olun!ar$o - s ($%rn&$a, por lo !an!o,
( la nul$(a( - ( la &a(u&$(a(, 1u s (an ( plno (r&'o. Ella supon, por
lo (*+s, la 0$s!n&$a ( un &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n pr%&!o, pro 1u p$r( su
%$&a&$a por '&'os so"r)n$(os - 1u 'a&n al (ona!ar$o no *r&(or a su
"n%$&$o.
A &on!$nua&$4n %&!ua*os un so*ro an+l$s$s ( los &$n&o $n&$sos (l ar!3&ulo
::= (l C4($2o C$)$l rla!$)o a la $n($2n$(a( para su&(r.
5A El $n&$so 5 s apl$&a"l (s( 1u los a&!os (l$&!$)os 1u plan!a,
&o*!$(os n a2ra)$o (l (onan! - ( sus as&n($n!s, (s&n($n!s o
&4n-u2, son ra7ons ( $n&on(u&!a su%$&$n!s para #us!$%$&ar la r)o&a&$4n.
D"*os s8alar, *pro, 1u l 'o*$&$($o (oloso s!+ 0&lu$(o, no s4lo
por1u la r)o&a&$4n no s !rans*$s$"l a los 'r(ros Car!3&ulo 5:BMA s$no
%un(a*n!al*n!, por1u s !ra!a ( una '$p4!s$s ( &a(u&$(a(, -a 1u l
ar!3&ulo 5:<< la $*pon &uan(o l (ona!ar$o o&as$ona $n!n&$onal*n! la
*ur! (l (onan!.
;A El $n&$so ; s r%$r a 1u$ns 'u"$ran s$(o &on(na(os por (l$!o (oloso
&o*!$(o n a2ra)$o (l (onan! o ( al2una ( las prsonas $n($&a(as n l
$n&$so an!r$or. La $n2ra!$!u( (l (ona!ar$o s )$(n! n s!as &$r&uns!an&$as -
su 2a*a s )ar$a(a, -a 1u $n&lu- los (l$!os &on!ra l 'onor, pa!r$*on$o, !&.
BA Es $2ual*n! r)o&a"l la (ona&$4n n la '$p4!s$s (l $n&$so B, n la
*($(a ( 1u 0$s!a una (nun&$a &alu*n$osa por (l$!o al 1u la l- san&$ona
&on pna pr$)a!$)a ( la l$"r!a(. S$ l (ona!ar$o 'u"$s s*"ra(o (u(as n
&uan!o a una pos$"l $n0a&!a a&&$4n u o*$s$4n (l$&!uosa (l (onan!, s
&o*prn( 1u .s! pu(a (#ar s$n %&!o la (ona&$4n 1u '$7o a su %a)or.
Ds( lu2o no 'a"r+ lu2ar a la r)o&a&$4n s$ la (nun&$a no !$n &ar+&!r
&alu*n$oso.
<A El $n&$so < no s4lo &ons!$!u- un a&!o ( $n2ra!$!u(, !al &o*o la n!$n(
9ss$no n su sn!$(o !.&n$&o #ur3($&o - no pura*n! l$!ral, s$no !a*"$.n (
&ap!a&$4n ( la )olun!a( (l (onan!, al $*p($rl 1u o!or2u !s!a*n!o u
o"l$2arl a 'a&rlo, o para 1u r)o1u n %or*a !o!al o par&$al l o!or2a(o.
Por 6l!$*o, l $n&$so I supon !a*"$.n &on(u&!a (s'ons!a (l (ona!ar$o -
una *an$pula&$4n n las (&$s$ons ( 6l!$*a )olun!a( (l (onan!. Zu(a
0&lu$(a, por lo (*+s, la par! %$nal ( s! $n&$so, pus l (onan! -a 'a"r3a
%all&$(o - no 0$s!$r+ n!on&s la pos$"$l$(a( ( 1u s pro(u7&a la r)o&a&$4n,
(a(o su &ar+&!r prsonal3s$*o.
IA En lo 1u a!a8 a las &ausals ( (s'r(a&$4n, !a*"$.n s 0pl$&a su
%un&$ona*$n!o, a !nor ( lo ($spus!o n los ar!3&ulos =<<, =<I - =<: (l
C4($2o C$)$l.
5A Con%or* al $n&$so 5 (l ar!3&ulo =<<, l (onan! po(r+ r)o&ar la (ona&$4n
s$ l (ona!ar$o lo 'u"$s *al!ra!a(o ( o"ra o $n#ur$a(o 2ra) - r$!ra(a*n!
- s!os '&'os 'u"$sn a%&!a(o a su &4n-u2. No s!+n &ons$(ra(os n l
$n&$so n$ los (s&n($n!s n$ los as&n($n!s (l (onan! - &o*o las
&ausals ( (s'r(a&$4n son !a0a!$)as - por n( rs!r$&!$)as, no pu(n sr
$n&lu$(as por apl$&a&$4n anal42$&a ( la nor*a. Ra-*un(o Sal)a!, al &o*n!ar
s!a &ausal, *an$%$s!a 1u (" !nrs n &un!a la (u&a&$4n, pos$&$4n
so&$al - (*+s &$r&uns!an&$as ( '&'o.
;A En )$r!u( (l $n&$so ;, la r)o&a&$4n !a*"$.n sr+ pos$"l s$ l (ona!ar$o s
'u"$s n2a(o s$n *o!$)o #us!$%$&a(o a propor&$onar al$*n!os al (onan! o
'a"rlo a"an(ona(o n&on!r+n(os 2ra)*n! n%r*o o s$n po(r )alrs
por s3 *$s*o. Nu)a*n! s la $n2ra!$!u(, a2ra)a(a por l $n&u*pl$*$n!o (
o"l$2a&$ons no s4lo *orals s$no l2als, la 1u 0pl$&a su%$&$n!*n! s!a
&ausal. En )3as ( a&lara&$4n, 'a- 1u (&$r 1u la n2a!$)a a los al$*n!os
supon 1u 0$s!a un pro&($*$n!o #u($&$al a"$r!o o &on&lu$(o.
BA El $n&$so B no s apl$&a"l, pus la pr$)a&$4n $n#us!$%$&a(a ( la l$"r!a(
&ons!$!u- un (l$!o Car!3&ulo ;;B (l C4($2o PnalA - la &ausal s!+
&ons$(ra(a n l $n&$so ; (l ar!3&ulo ::= (l C4($2o C$)$l.
<A En &uan!o al $n&$so <, l (onan! po(r+ r)o&ar la (ona&$4n s$ l (ona!ar$o
ll)a una )$(a (s'onrosa o $n*oral. Ds( lu2o, s$ s!a &on(u&!a &ar& (
s$2n$%$&a&$4n para l (onan!, s$*pl*n! no #r&$!ar+ su (r&'o a la
r)o&a&$4n. Pro "$n pu( su&(r, por l &on!rar$o, 1u !n2a nor*
2ra)$!a&$4n por la s!$*a - l rsp!o 1u l 2uar(a"a al (ona!ar$o - 1u al
pr(rlos 1u$ra apl$&arl una san&$4n &$)$l.
IA En lo 1u &on&$rn al ar!3&ulo =<I, l (onan! s n&un!ra au!or$7a(o para
(#ar s$n %&!o la (ona&$4n s$ l (ona!ar$o n$2a $n#us!$%$&a(a*n! los
al$*n!os a los (s&n($n!s (l pr$*ro. Es!a '$p4!s$s s n la pr+&!$&a
$*pro"a"l.
:A El o!ro &aso 1u plan!a l *$s*o ar!3&ulo =<I s 1u l (ona!ar$o 'a-a
$n&urr$(o n al2una ( las &ausals por las 1u s p$r( o s s pr$)a(o ( la
pa!r$a po!s!a(. En ral$(a(, no )*os &4*o pu(a %un&$onar s!a r2la. No
par& l42$&o 1u opr n a1ullos &asos n 1u l (ona!ar$o no s!+ l$2a(o
&on l (onan! por sa rla&$4n %a*$l$ar ( la &ual s (sprn( la pa!r$a
po!s!a(. Y !a*po&o pro&( n la '$p4!s$s ( 1u l (onan! %us '$#o
*nor (l pa(r o *a(r 1u $n&urrn n una ( las &ausals ( p.r($(a o
pr$)a&$4n ( la pa!r$a po!s!a(, por la sn&$lla ra74n ( 1u no pu(n (onars
a s$ *$s*os los "$ns ( sus '$#os.
=A F$nal*n! - ( a&ur(o &on l ar!3&ulo =<:, l o la (onan! po(r+ r)o&ar la
(ona&$4n '&'a a su &4n-u2, s$ .s! $n&urr n al2una ( las &ausals (
spara&$4n ( &urpos pr)$s!as n los $n&$sos 5 a : (l ar!3&ulo BBB (l C4($2o
C$)$l. La 2ra)(a( ( s!as &ausals - l %&!o pr$n&$pal*n! *oral 1u
or$2$nan son ra7ons )+l$(as para #us!$%$&ar la (&$s$4n r)o&a!or$a (l &4n-u2
(onan!.
Con pos!r$or$(a( a la pro*ul2a&$4n (l C4($2o '*os )ul!o a r%l0$onar
so"r los ar2u*n!os 0pus!os por L4n Haran($ar+n, &uan(o al &r$!$&ar l
ar!3&ulo 5<MG (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB: *an$%s!a"a 1u 'a&3a, s$n
($s&r$*$na&$4n, la r*$s$4n a las &ausals ( (s'r(a&$4n. Y, n &on&lus$4n,
pnsa*os 1u !u)o ra74n al s8alar 1u Dn o!ras l2$sla&$ons no 'a- una
($spos$&$4n as3 &on&"$(a, ( r*$s$4n $n($s&r$*$na(a, s$no 1u s $n($&a &on
&u$(a(o los '&'os 1u rprsn!an(o una a&!$!u( ( (sa2ra(&$*$n!o %rn!
al (onan!, #us!$%$&an 1u pu(a .s! san&$onarlos &on la r)o&a&$4n ( la
(ona&$4nD Cop. &$!., !o*o 5, p+2$na ;M;A. En %&!o, no !o(as las &ausals (
(s'r(a&$4n o $n($2n$(a( r%l#an, n&sar$a*n!, 1u l (ona!ar$o 'a-a
%al!a(o a su ("r *oral ( 2ra!$!u( para &on l (onan!.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<MG (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos BB, ::=, =<<, =<I Y =<: (l C4($2o C$)$l.
In!ras*$s$"$l$(a(
Ar!3&ulo 5:BM.> No pasa a los 'r(ros la %a&ul!a( ( r)o&ar la (ona&$4n.
Es! pr&p!o s 0pl$&a por las *o!$)a&$ons prsonals 1u !$n la
r)o&a&$4n. En lla l %a&!or 1u la (!r*$na s sn&$al*n! *oral - las
&ons&un&$as &on4*$&as son s4lo s&un(ar$as. En %&!o, lo 1u s
pr!n( s $*ponrl al (ona!ar$o una san&$4n &$)$l %rn! a la )$ola&$4n (l
("r ( 2ra!$!u( 1u (" !nr para &on l (onan!, l &ual 'a& un sa&r$%$&$o
pa!r$*on$al n )$(a - a&!6a &on una 2nros$(a( 1u no s!ar3a s$n(o
&orrspon($(a. Es!as ra7ons s &$r&uns&r$"n, n !al )$r!u(, a ($&'o (onan! -
no !$nn n&sar$a*n! 1u 0!n(rs a sus 'r(ros. Lo &on!rar$o o&urr
rsp&!o a los 'r(ros (l (ona!ar$o. D la l&!ura (l ar!3&ulo 5:<G s
(sprn( 1u la r)o&a&$4n pu( s!ar ($r$2$(a &on!ra l (ona!ar$o o &on!ra
los 'r(ros ( .s!, s$ 'a %all&$(o.
El ar!3&ulo 5:BM s rp!$&$4n ( par! (l ar!3&ulo 5<M; (l C4($2o C$)$l (
5FB:.
Ca" s8alar 1u la %4r*ula a(op!a(a por l nu)o C4($2o no s un$)rsal -
1u 0$s!n l2$sla&$ons &o*o la %ran&sa o la ar2n!$na, para &$!ar #*plos,
n 1u l (r&'o a la r)o&a&$4n %a)or& !a*"$.n a los 'r(ros. O!ras,
&o*o la spa8ola, n$2an s!a pos$"$l$(a( a los 'r(ros (l (onan! s$ .s!,
pu($n(o, no la 'u"$ra #r&$!a(o.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<M; (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos 5:B=, 5:BF, 5:<G Y 5:<5 (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Pla7o ( la %a&ul!a( ( r)o&ar
Ar!3&ulo 5:BF.> La %a&ul!a( ( r)o&ar la (ona&$4n &a(u&a a los s$s *ss
(s( 1u so"r)$no al2una ( las &ausas (l ar!3&ulo 5:B=.
La $ns2ur$(a( 1u 2nra la r)o&a&$4n 'a& 1u s4lo ("a %&!$)$7ars
(n!ro ( un pla7o "r), pro n l 1u ra7ona"l*n! l (onan! pu(a
&ono&r las &ausals so"r)n$(as.
La r)o&a&$4n no &ons!$!u- prop$a*n! una a&&$4n, ( *o(o 1u l pla7o (l
ar!3&ulo "a#o &o*n!ar$o no s ( prs&r$p&$4n n$ !a*po&o ( &a(u&$(a(, ps
al !0!o (l pr&p!o.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<M; (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos 5:B= - ;GGB a ;GG= (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Co*un$&a&$4n ( la r)o&a&$4n
Ar!3&ulo 5:<G.> No pro(u& %&!o la r)o&a&$4n@ s$ (n!ro ( ssn!a (3as (
'&'a por l (onan!, no s &o*un$&a n %or*a $n(u"$!a"l al (ona!ar$o o a sus
'r(ros.
No "as!a 1u l (onan! r)o1u la (ona&$4n (n!ro (l pla7o pr)$s!o por l
ar!3&ulo 5:BF, s$no 1u s !a*"$.n o"l$2a!or$o 1u 5G pon2a n &ono&$*$n!o
(l (ona!ar$o o ( sus 'r(ros. El pla7o para Js!a &o*un$&a&$4n s
$2ual*n! "r) pro pru(n!, a %$n ( 1u l (onan! s!. n ap!$!u( (
u"$&arlo o u"$&a(os/ - no s 0$2 %or*a al2una, pro ("r+ &ons!ar ( *o(o
$n(u"$!a"l. Es!o s$2n$%$&a 1u l (onan! po(r+ r&urr$r a un no!ar$o $n&lus$)
al #u7, para ponr n )$(n&$a 1u 'a &u*pl$(o &on s! r1u$s$!o.
El ar!3&ulo 5:<G s la rp!$&$4n (l ar!3&ulo 5<MB (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB:. Su
ra74n ( sr s o")$a@ s4lo *($an! la &o*un$&a&$4n l (ona!ar$o o sus
'r(ros s!ar+n n &on($&$ons ( &on!ra(&$r las &ausas ( la r)o&a&$4n.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<MB (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos 5:BF - 5:<5 (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Con!ra($&&$4n ( las &ausas ( la r)o&a&$4n
Ar!3&ulo 5:<5.> El (ona!ar$o o sus 'r(ros pu(n &on!ra(&$r las &ausas (
la r)o&a&$4n para 1u #u($&$al*n! s (&$(a so"r l *.r$!o ( llas.
Zu(ar+ &onsu*a(a la r)o&a&$4n 1u no %us &on!ra($&'a (n!ro ( ssn!a
(3as (spu.s ( &o*un$&a(a n %or*a $n(u"$!a"l al (ona!ar$o o a sus
'r(ros.
Por l &on!n$(o (l ar!3&ulo 5:B= s $n%$r 1u la r)o&a&$4n pu( a%&!ar
s)ra*n! l $n!r.s *oral (l (ona!ar$o o ( sus 'r(ros, a(*+s ( su
&onno!a&$4n &on4*$&a. Fura ( llo, no (" ol)$(ars 1u la %$2ura s
!a0a!$)a - rs!r$&!$)a por na!ural7a. To(o lo ($&'o 0pl$&a l (r&'o a
&on!ra(&$rla #u($&$al*n!, (n!ro ( un pla7o 1u !a*"$.n s ( ssn!a (3as
&on!a(os (s( la &o*un$&a&$4n s8ala(a por l ar!3&ulo 5:<G. Es! pla7o s
uno ( &a(u&$(a( - no ( prs&r$p&$4n. Vn&$(os los ssn!a (3as - s$ no s
'u"$ra plan!a(o la (*an(a, la r)o&a&$4n 1u(a &onsu*a(a, pus la
pas$)$(a( (l (ona!ar$o o ( sus 'r(ros 1u$)al a r&ono&r la l2$!$*$(a(
( la r)o&a&$4n o, &uan(o *nos, la rnun&$a al (r&'o ( &on!ra(&$r sus
&ausas.
Co*o no 0$s! pro&($*$n!o sp&$al para s!a a&&$4n ( &on!ra($&&$4n, l
#u$&$o s sus!an&$ar+ por la )3a (l &ono&$*$n!o Car!3&ulo <I= - s$2u$n!s (l
C4($2o Pro&sal C$)$lA.
El ar!3&ulo 5:<5 s rpro(u&&$4n &as$ !o!al (l ar!3&ulo 5<M< (l C4($2o C$)$l
(ro2a(o - l 6n$&o &a*"$o $n!ro(u&$(o s l rla!$)o a la &o*un$&a&$4n n
%or*a $n(u"$!a"l, n )7 ( la no!$%$&a&$4n, lo 1u s salu(a"l por ra7ons (
!$*po - &os!os.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<M< (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos =IG, 5:B= Y 5:<G (l C4($2o C$)$l. Ar!3&ulos <I= -
s$2u$n!s (l C4($2o Pro&sal C$)$l.
In)al$(a&$4n o r)o&a&$4n ( las (ona&$ons r*unra!or$as o su#!as a &ar2o
Ar!3&ulo 5:<;.> En l &aso ( (ona&$ons r*unra!or$as o su#!as a &ar2o, su
$n)al$(a&$4n o r)o&a&$4n (!r*$na la o"l$2a&$4n (l (onan! ( a"onar al
(ona!ar$o l )alor ([ sr)$&$o prs!a(o o (l &ar2o sa!$s%&'o.
Es! ar!3&ulo 'a *o($%$&a(o ( un *o(o ra($&al l s$s!*a u!$l$7a(o por l
ar!3&ulo 5<MI (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB:. No 0$s!3a n )r(a( ra74n )al(ra
para 1u la (ona&$4n r*unra!or$a o &on &ar2o no %us r)o&a(a - s!a s la
pos$&$4n *a-or$!ar$a ( la l2$sla&$4n &o*para(a - la (o&!r$na.
Ds( lu2o - &on l prop4s$!o ( no 2nrar un nr$1u&$*$n!o $n("$(o, l
nu*ral &o*n!a(o ($spon 1u l (onan! s!. o"l$2a(o a a"onar al
(ona!ar$o >o a sus 'r(ros, n su &aso> l )alor (l sr)$&$o o (l &ar2o.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos 5MI - 5M= (l C4($2o C$)$l.
E%&!os ( la r)o&a&$4n@ %ru!os
Ar!3&ulos 5:<B.> Los %ru!os ( las (ona&$ons r)o&a(as pr!n&n al (onan!
(s( 1u s &o*un$&a n %or*a $n(u"$!a"l la r)o&a&$4n/ - n &aso (
$n)al$(a&$4n ( plno (r&'o, (s( 1u s &$!a &on la (*an(a ( rs!$!u&$4n
(l "$n (ona(o.
Es! ar!3&ulo s s$*$lar al nu*ral 5<M= (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB: - s pon n
la '$p4!s$s ( la r)o&a&$4n, &o*o a&!o )olun!ar$o (l (onan!, - ( la nul$(a(,
1u opra ( plno (r&'o, para (arls las solu&$ons a(&ua(as a una -
o!ra.
En l &aso ( la r)o&a&$4n, l "$n (ona(o (" sr ()ul!o por l (ona!ar$o
(s( 1u s pr%&&$ona, s!o s, a par!$r ( la &o*un$&a&$4n '&'a n %or*a
$n(u"$!a"l, *n&$ona(a por l ar!3&ulo 5:<G. D &ons$2u$n! - &o*o
a&&sor$o ( llo, los %ru!os s$2un $2ual sur!. En!r!an!o, !o(os a1ullos 1u
'u"$sn s$(o pr&$"$(o s por l (ona!ar$o l &orrspon(r+n - no 'a"r+ lu2ar a
rs!$!u&$4n al2una, pus la r)o&a&$4n no opra r!roa&!$)a*n!.
S$ la $n)al$(a&$4n s ( plno (r&'o Car!3&ulos 5:B< - 5:<<A la r2la !$n 1u
sr o!ra - los %ru!os sr+n (l (onan! Co ( sus 'r(ros, n su &asoA (s(
1u s no!$%$&a la (*an(a ( rs!$!u&$4n (l "$n s$n sprar una (&$s$4n
#u($&$al - n s!a '$p4!s$s los %ru!os sr+n (l (onan! (s( l *o*n!o (
($&'a ()olu&$4n, pus son a&&sor$os - s$2un la sur! ( lo pr$n&$pal.
R$!ra*os 5G ($&'o al &o*n!ar l ar!3&ulo 5:BB Csupra, p+2. ;B;A n l
sn!$(o 1u l C4($2o ("$4 r%r$rs a la nul$(a( - no a la $n)al$(7.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<M= (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos MFG, 5:B<,5:<< Y 5:B= (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Ca(u&$(a( por *ur! (l (onan!
Ar!3&ulo 5:<<.> Ca(u&a la (ona&$4n s$ l (ona!ar$o o&as$ona $n!n&$onal*n! la
*ur! (l (onan!.
Es! ar!3&ulo 'a s$(o $nsp$ra(o por l ar!3&ulo 5<M: (l C4($2o C$)$l ( 5FB: -
su 6n$&a )ar$an! s 1u l nu)o C4($2o lo !$p$%$&a &o*o un %a&!or (
&a(u&$(a(, n !an!o 1u l an!r$or s r%r3a a su $n)al$(a&$4n. Pro n uno -
o!ro &aso lo 1u (s!a&a s 1u no s !ra!a ( una s$*pl &ausal (
r)o&a&$4n, 1u s )olun!ar$a por na!ural7a, s$no 1u a&!6a op l2$s por
!ra!ars ( una s$!ua&$4n ( 0!r*a(a 2ra)(a( - *+0$*a $n2ra!$!u(.
O")$a*n!, no po(r3a !ra!ars ( una &ausal ( r)o&a&$4n, por1u .s!a s4lo
pu( sr #r&$!a(a por l prop$o (onan! C)r ar!3&ulo 5:BMA - sus 'r(ros
s )r3an $*pos$"$l$!a(os ( $n&oarla.
D lo ($&'o s (sprn( 1u la &a(u&$(a( s pro(u& ( plno (r&'o - no
s sus&p!$"l ( pa&!o &on!rar$o, pus !$n &ar+&!r $*pra!$)o.
Aun1u no lo ($2a l pr&p!o, para 1u la &a(u&$(a( pu(a sur!$r sus %&!os
sr+ n&sar$o 1u l (ona!ar$o 'a-a s$(o &on(na(o por la *ur! (olosa (l
(onan!, as3 ("r3a 0prsarlo l nu*ral "a#o an+l$s$s.
Ar!3&ulo 5:<I.> S$ las (ona&$ons 0&(n la por&$4n ($spon$"l ( la 'rn&$a,
s supr$*n o r(u&n n &uan!o al 0&so las ( %&'a *+s r&$n!, o a
prorra!a, s$ %uran ( la *$s*a %&'a.
Es! pr&p!o s s$*$lar al ar!3&ulo 5<MM (l C4($2o C$)$l (ro2a(o -, s26n
1u(4 ($&'o, ("$4 s!ar s$!ua(o (spu.s (l ar!3&ulo 5:;F, pus s!+
s!r&'a*n! )$n&ula(o a la (ona&$4n $no%$&$osa.
Cuan(o 0$s! un 0&so n la (ona&$4n, rsul!a )$(n! 1u !n(r+ 1u
r2ular$7ars so"r la "as ( la suprs$4n o r(u&&$4n ( la *$s*a -, para
%a&$l$!ar s!a opra&$4n - no &rar pro"l*as ( ($%3&$l solu&$4n, l C4($2o
($spon 1u su%ra las &ons&un&$as a1ulla 1u sa ( %&'a *+s r&$n!.
Ta*"$.n s 0pl$&a"l - #us!o 1u s$ las (ona&$ons %usn &l"ra(os n la
*$s*a %&'a >lo 1u s $*pro"a"l, pro no $*pos$"l> la suprs$4n o
r(u&&$4n s 'a2a n !o(as llas, ( un *o(o propor&$onal -, por lo !an!o,
1u$!a!$)o.
Cr*os &on)n$n! &$!ar un #*plo@
DAD (ona n 5F=G un (par!a*n!o a DHD/ n 5F=: (ona un !rrno a DCD/ - n
5FM; (ona un au!o*4)$l a DDD. DAD %all& n 5FMI, - lo 'r(an sus (os '$#os.
Al *o*n!o ( su %all&$*$n!o, (#a un pa!r$*on$o )alor$7a(o n 5 J;GG,GGG
sols. D a'3 1u, &on%or* al ar!3&ulo 5:;F C&on&or(a(o &on l =;IA, DAD s4lo
po(3a (onar la !r&ra par! ( sus "$ns, por )alor ( <GG,GGG sols.
Al %all&r DAD, los "$ns (ona(os !n3an l s$2u$n! )alor@ <GG,GGG sols l
(par!a*n!o ( DHD/ 5MG,GGG sols l !rrno ( DCD/ - :G,GGG sols l
au!o*4)$l ( DDD. Ello s$2n$%$&a 1u l !o!al ( lo (ona(o )al3a :<G,GGG sols al
!$*po ( *or$r DAD, - por !an!o, 0&( ( la !r&ra par! )alor$7a(a n
<GG,GGG sols. S prsn!a pus un 0&so ( ;<G,GGG sols 1u s $n)+l$(o a
!nor (l ar!3&ulo 5:;F. S$2u$n(o la r2la (l nu*ral 5:<I, &orrspon(
r(u&$r la (ona&$4n *+s r&$n!@ la %&!ua(a a %a)or ( DDD. N4!s s$n
*"ar2o 1u l )alor ( .s!a CSW. :G,GGGA no "as!a para &u"r$r l 0&so. Ha"r+
1u r(u&$r la '&'a a DCD, &on lo &ual s &u*pl l *an(a!o l2al.
El rsul!a(o sr+ 1u, n s! #*plo, 6n$&a*n! DHD &onsr)ar+ $n!a&!o l
"$n (ona(o. Tan!o D&D &o*o DDD s )r+n o"l$2a(os a rs!$!u$r lo 1u r&$"$ron
o, s$ llo no %ura pos$"l, a pa2ar su )alor a la %&'a (l %all&$*$n!o.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo 5<MM (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos =;I, =;:, =;=, ==G Y 5:;F (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Dona&$4n *a!r$*on$al
Ar!3&ulo 5:<:.> La (ona&$4n '&'a por ra74n ( *a!r$*on$o s!+ su#!a a la
&on($&$4n ( 1u s &l"r l a&!o.
El ar!3&ulo 5:<: s $2ual al ar!3&ulo ;5I (l C4($2o C$)$l (ro2a(o, 1u s
n&on!ra"a n l L$"ro S2un(o (l Dr&'o ( Fa*$l$a - 1u &on *#or
&r$!r$o !.&n$&o 'a s$(o (spla7a(o al &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n.
Es!a*os %rn! a un ($spos$!$)o 1u &on!*pla una &on($&$4n l2al C&on($&!$o
#ur$sA &u-os %&!os son s*#an!s a los ( la &on($&$4n suspns$)a, 'a"$(a
&un!a ( 1u l &on!ra!o 1u(a su#!o a 1u s ral$& l *a!r$*on$o. Zu(a,
por lo !an!o, *o($%$&a(a la op$n$4n 1u ($.ra*os so"r s! par!$&ular al
sos!nr 1u sur!3a los %&!os ( una &on($&$4n rsolu!or$a CC4($2o C$)$l,
E0pos$&$4n ( 9o!$)os - Co*n!ar$os, To*o VI, p+2$na BG:A.
La %4r*ula 1u &on!$n l ar!3&ulo 5:<: s #us!$%$&a(a. El o"s1u$o !$n
rla&$4n ($r&!a &on l *a!r$*on$o 1u lo *o!$)a - s$ .s!, por &ual1u$r
&$r&uns!an&$a no s &on&r!a, (sapar& la ra74n 1u lo or$2$n4 - l &on!ra!o
no s (a.
Ca" ano!ar 1u las (ona&$ons ( "$ns *u"ls por ra74n ( *a!r$*on$o
no s!+n )$n&ula(as a %or*al$(a( al2una, a !nor ( lo ($spus!o por l ar!3&ulo
5:;: (l C4($2o C$)$l Csupra, p+2$na ;5:A.
Fun!s@ Ar!3&ulo ;5I (l C4($2o C$)$l pruano ( 5FB:.
Con&or(an&$as@ Ar!3&ulos 5=B.;<G Y 5:;: (l C4($2o C$)$l.
Irr)o&a"$l$(a( ( la (ona&$4n por ra74n ( *a!r$*on$o
Ar!3&ulo 5:<=.> La (ona&$4n a 1u s r%$r l ar!3&ulo 5:<: no s r)o&a"l
por &ausa ( $n2ra!$!u(.
Co*o n l &aso an!r$or, s! pr&p!o s s$*$lar al 1u 0$s!3a n l C4($2o
C$)$l ( 5FB: Car!3&ulo ;5=A, !a*"$.n u"$&a(o n l L$"ro S2un(o, so"r
Dr&'o ( Fa*$l$a.
S !ra!a ( un &aso s$n2ular, &u-os an!&(n!s s!+n n l ar!3&ulo FIF (l
C4($2o C$)$l %ran&.s - 1u %$2ura"a $2ual*n! n los ar!3&ulos :;; - ;5= ( los
C4($2os pruanos ( 5MI; - 5FB:, rsp&!$)a*n!.
Lu2o ( r0a*$nar s! ($spos$!$)o, '*os ll2a(o a la &on&lus$4n ( 1u no
!$n una %un(a*n!a&$4n sa!$s%a&!or$a - 1u n l %u!uro ("r3a supr$*$rs.
En %&!o, n l %on(o no &ons!$!u- s$no un r7a2o (l an!$2uo &on&p!o ( la
$rr)o&a"$l$(a( ( la (ona&$4n, -a supra(o n las l2$sla&$ons
&on!*por+nas/ - no )*os ra74n para 1u una prsona 1u 'a& (ona&$4n
( un "$n a *.r$!o ( un *a!r$*on$o no pu(a (#arla s$n %&!o s$ l (ona!ar$o
>1u pu( sr la no)$a, l no)$o o a*"os $n&urr n una &ausal ( $n2ra!$!u(
para &on l (onan!.
El nu*ral "a#o &o*n!ar$o s4lo &u"r las (ona&$ons '&'as por ra74n (
*a!r$*on$o - por su &ar+&!r 0&p&$onal no s 0!$n( a las ral$7a(as n
a!n&$4n a los a&on!&$*$n!os s$*$lars 1u *n&$ona l ar!3&ulo 5:;: (l
C4($2o C$)$l.
Cons$(ra*os, %$nal*n!, 1u l ar!3&ulo 5:<= s!+ &$r&uns&r$!o a los &asos (
r)o&a&$4n, &o*o lo ($& su !0!o, - no s ( apl$&a&$4n para la $n)al$(7 n$
&a(u&$(a( ( la (ona&$4n Car!3&ulos 5:B< - 5:<<A (l C4($2o &$)$lA.
VIII>LOS HIENES ZUE PUEDEN SER DONADOS
En )$r!u( ( lo prs&r$!o por l ar!3&ulo 5<GF (l C4($2o C$)$l, pu(n sr o"#!o
( prs!a&$ons &on!ra&!uals@ "$ns %u!uros, a#nos, a%&!a(os n 2aran!3a,
*"ar2a(os o su#!os a l$!$2$o por &ual1u$r &ausa.
Es!a &ons!$!u- la nor*a 2nral &on rla&$4n a los "$ns so"r los 1u s
pu( &on!ra!ar, - n !an!o no 0$s!a ($spos$&$4n &on!rar$a, llos po(r+n sr
o"#!o ( &ual1u$r &on!ra!o !3p$&o.
En l &on!ra!o ( &o*pra)n!a, l C4($2o C$)$l r2ula &on pul&r$!u( ($)rsos
supus!os n !orno a las &ara&!r3s!$&as ( los "$ns 1u pu(n sr *a!r$a
(l *$s*o. Es!a *$nu&$os$(a( nos ll)4 a (sarrollar l !*a n ($)rsas
$n)s!$2a&$ons an!r$ors rla!$)as a ($&'o &on!ra!o.
En lo 1u no s opon2a al &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n, nus!ras apr&$a&$ons
)r!$(as n an!r$ors $n)s!$2a&$ons rsul!an plna*n! apl$&a"ls.
No o"s!an! llo, l C4($2o C$)$l Pruano, n l T3!ulo rla!$)o al Con!ra!o (
Dona&$4n, $n!n!a r2ular lo r%rn! a la (ona&$4n ( "$n a#no. S$n
*"ar2o, sa "una $n!n&$4n no !u)o un &orrla!o n!ra*n! pos$!$)o.
Co*o po(*os apr&$ar ( la (%$n$&$4n (l ar!3&ulo 5:;5, l &on!ra!o (
(ona&$4n, al $2ual 1u !o(os los &on!ra!os &on!n$(os n l C4($2o C$)$l
Pruano ( 5FM<, s *ra*n! o"l$2a&$onal. Por !al ra74n, &ons$(ra*os
n!ra*n! )+l$(as, n lo 1u por su na!ural7a l %uran apl$&a"ls, nus!ras
op$n$ons so"r la )al$(7 (l &on!ra!o ( )n!a ( "$n a#no n s!r$&!o. Al
$2ual 1u n l &aso (l &on!ra!o ( &o*pra)n!a, &ons$(ra*os 1u, n !or3a,
pu( )rsar so"r "$ns a#nos. Cr*os 1u ("r3a sr pr%&!a*n!
)+l$(o l &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n ( "$ns a#nos n s!r$&!o/ s (&$r, a1ul por
l &ual a*"as par!s, (onan! - (ona!ar$o, &ono&n l &ar+&!r a#no (l "$n,
- l (onan! s o"l$2a a !rans%r$r 2ra!u$!a*n! su prop$(a( al (ona!ar$o.
En lo 1u rsp&!a al !ra!a*$n!o 1u la (ona&$4n ( "$ns a#nos 'a !n$(o
n nus!ro C4($2o C$)$l, ($r*os 1u s nulo. Solo s $n&lu- una nor*a, l
ar!3&ulo 5:;=, 1u s8ala 1u l &on!ra!o n )$r!u( (l &ual una prsona s
o"l$2a a o"!nr 1u o!ra a(1u$ra 2ra!u$!a*n! la prop$(a( ( un "$n 1u
a*"os Cs$&A sa" 1u s a#no s r$2 por los ar!3&ulos 5<=G, 5<=5 - 5<=;.
El !0!o ( s!a nor*a s l s$2u$n!@
Ar!3&ulo 5:;=.> DEl &on!ra!o n )$r!u( (l &ual una prsona s o"l$2a a o"!nr
1u o!ra a(1u$ra 2ra!u$!a*n! la prop$(a( ( un "$n 1u a*"os sa"n 1u
s a#no, s r$2 por los ar!3&ulos 5<=G, 5<=5 - 5<=;D.
Co*o po(*os o"sr)ar ( la r(a&&$4n (l ar!3&ulo an!s *n&$ona(o, su
s!ru&!ura s 0a&!a*n! la *$s*a 1u la (l ar!3&ulo 5IB=, $n&lu$(o (n!ro (l
T3!ulo rla!$)o a la &o*pra)n!a. Por lo !an!o, sus l*n!os sr+n
pr+&!$&a*n! los *$s*os@
aA A*"os &on!ra!an!s sa"n 1u l "$n *a!r$a ( la prs!a&$4n o"#!o (
una o"l$2a&$4n ( (ar, s a#no.
"A A*"as par!s a&ur(an &ons&$n!*n! 1u una ( llas s &o*pro*! a
o"!nr 1u la o!ra a(1u$ra 2ra!u$!a*n! la prop$(a( ( s "$n a#no.
&A Es! &o*pro*$so s r2$r+ ( a&ur(o a los ar!3&ulos 5<=G, 5<=5 Y 5<=;.
Cons$(ra*os !an $*pro&(n! &o*o la $n&lus$4n (l &r$!$&a(o ar!3&ulo 5IB=, la
(l ar!3&ulo 5:;= "a#o &o*n!ar$o/ -a 1u no &ons!$!u$r3a un supus!o (
(ona&$4n, s$no un &aso *+s ( pro*sa ( la o"l$2a&$4n o (l '&'o ( un
!r&ro. Por !al ra74n &ons$(ra*os apl$&a"ls, n &uan!o rsul!n ( la
na!ural7a (l &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n, nus!ros &o*n!ar$os )r!$(os a&r&a (l
ar!3&ulo 5IB=.
Un asp&!o $n!rsan! ( rsal!ar s 1u l C4($2o C$)$l Pruano ( 5FM<, a
psar ( $n&lu$r n l T3!ulo rla!$)o a la (ona&$4n una nor*a s$*$lar al ar!3&ulo
5IB=, no %&!6a n s T3!ulo s$*$lar r2ula&$4n a la ($spus!a n los ar!3&ulos
5IBM, 5IBF, 5I<G Y 5I<5.
S$ l ar!3&ulo 5IB= 'a 2nra(o una sr$ ( *alas $n!rpr!a&$ons 1u nun&a
("$ron 2nrars, l ar!3&ulo 5:;= &ausa aun pors &on%us$ons, pus no
s!+ su&($(o por nor*as ( s$*$lars &ara&!r3s!$&as 1u las 1u su&(n al
ar!3&ulo 5IB=, - 1u n &$r!a %or*a a&laran l panora*a rsp&!$)o.
Con las o*$s$ons an!s s8ala(as, po(*os sos!nr )+l$(a*n! 1u l
&on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n ( "$ns a#nos, n s!r$&!o, no 'a s$(o &on!*pla(o
sp&3%$&a*n! n l T3!ulo rsp&!$)o/ s$n *"ar2o, &r*os 1u s3 s
pr%&!a*n! pos$"l (n!ro ( nus!ro C4($2o C$)$l Cn )$r!u( ( la nor*a
2nral s!a"l&$(a por l ar!3&ulo 5<GF, $n&$so ;, - ( no 'a"r pro'$"$&$4n
0prsa al rsp&!oA pa&!ar un &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n ( "$n a#no, n s!r$&!o,
1u no s!. so*!$(o a las r2las ( la pro*sa ( la o"l$2a&$4n o (l '&'o
( un !r&ro.
En l +*"$!o ( los C4($2os C$)$ls &onsul!a(os, l C4($2o C$)$l Pruano (
5FM<, al no &on!nr n$n2una nor*a rla!$)a al )$&$o 1u a%&!a al &on!ra!o por
l &ual l (ona!ar$o (s&ono& l &ar+&!r a#no (l "$n, s!+ (an(o un
!ra!a*$n!o ($s3*$l, -a 1u s! pro"l*a ("r+ r2ulars ( a&ur(o a las
nor*as rla!$)as a los )$&$os ( la )olun!a(, -a san .s!os l (olo o l rror, -
no las r%rn!s a la rs&$s$4n, -a 1u s!a, a nus!ro n!n(r, solo pro&(
plan!ars &uan(o la l- 0prsa*n! as3 lo s!a"l&$r.
Pro n ral$(a(, la prsn&$a (l ar!3&ulo 5:;= &ons!$!u- una ($s!ors$4n n
!orno al !*a/ -a 1u s$ las par!s (san &l"rar >- ( '&'o &l"rasn> un
&on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n, s! &on!ra!o ("r+ r2$rs por las nor*as prop$as (l
r%r$(o &on!ra!o - no por las ( una %$2ura &on!ra&!ual a la &ual nun&a
(saron r&urr$r.
En nus!ro &aso, s$ los &on!ra!an!s 'u"$sn 1ur$(o &l"rar una pro*sa (
la o"l$2a&$4n o (l '&'o ( un !r&ro, lo 'a"r3an po($(o 'a&r. pr%&!a*n!
"as+n(os n l &ono&$(o *&an$s*o &on!ra&!ual pr)$s!o por l prop$o C4($2o
C$)$l n sus ar!3&ulos 5<=G, 5<=5 Y 5<=;.
Y l asun!o s a2ra)a &uan(o )*os 1u los pro"l*as 1u n s( (
&o*pra)n!a n&un!ran solu&$4n n los ar!3&ulos 5IBF - s$2u$n!s no 'allan
la *$s*a solu&$4n n l &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n, pus l nu*ral 5:;= no )$n
a&o*pa8a(o ( o!ros pr&p!os 1u a1u3 &u*pl$ran la %un&$4n 1u all+
&u*pln los nu*rals 5IBF, 5I<G - 5I<5.
D lo 0pus!o po(*os &on&lu$r 1u l ar!3&ulo 5:;= solo r2ula un supus!o
*+s ( pro*sa ( la o"l$2a&$4n o (l '&'o ( un !r&ro r%r$(a a la %u!ura
&l"ra&$4n ( un &on!ra!o nor*al ( (ona&$4n, l &ual s &l"rar3a n!r l
pro*$sar$o - un !r&ro, prop$!ar$o (l "$n 1u sr+ *a!r$a ( s! %u!uro
&on!ra!o.
La (ona&$4n ( "$n a#no, prop$a*n! ($&'a, s!+ r2ula(a por los pr&p!os
2nrals &on!n$(os n l ar!3&ulo 5<GF, $n&$so ;, (l prop$o C4($2o.
I\> LA DONACIKN EFECTUADA A FAVOR DE TUTORES O CURADORES
En !orno a s! !*a, ("*os s!a"l&r al2unas &ons$(ra&$ons 1u
s&apan al !0!o (l prop$o ar!3&ulo 5:;M (l C4($2o C$)$l Pruano ( 5FM<.
F.5. S$ los !u!ors o &ura(ors s n&un!ran n %un&$ons
Es! supus!o, r2ula(o por l nu*ral 5:;M, s n&sar$o 1u sa !ra!a(o n
s! pun!o. D&$*os s!o por1u *$n!ras un !u!or o un &ura(or s n&un!r
n plno #r&$&$o (l &ar2o para l 1u 'a s$(o no*"ra(o, no po(r+
prsn!ars l &aso n l &ual l pup$lo o $n&apa7 *a-or ( (a(,
rsp&!$)a*n!, &l"r &on su !u!or o &ura(or al26n &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n Co
al26n &on!ra!o n 2nral, sal)o los &asos (l ar!3&ulo 5BIMA. Es!o s (" a
1u n a*"os &asos s !ra!a ( prsonas &on $n&apa&$(a( ( #r&$&$o@ llas
no pu(n &on!ra!ar por s3 *$s*as, s$no a !ra).s ( sus rprsn!an!s.
S$n *"ar2o, po(r3a*os n&on!rarnos %rn! al (no*$na(o &on!ra!o &ons$2o
*$s*o, 1u s a1ul por l &ual l rprsn!an! ( una prsona na!ural o
#ur3($&a &on!ra!a &on .l *$s*o, s$n(o s$*ul!+na*n! par! - rprsn!an!
( par!.
Es!a %$2ura s n&un!ra 0prsa*n! r2ula(a por l ar!3&ulo 5:: (l C4($2o
C$)$l, pr&p!o 1u s!a"l& lo s$2u$n!@
Ar!3&ulo 5::.> DEs anula"l l a&!o #ur3($&o 1u l rprsn!an! &on&lu-a
&ons$2o *$s*o, n no*"r prop$o o &o*o rprsn!an! ( o!ro, a *nos 1u
la l- lo pr*$!a, 1u l rprsn!a(o lo 'u"$s au!or$7a(o sp&3%$&a*n!, o
1u l &on!n$(o (l a&!o #ur3($&o 'u"$ra s$(o (!r*$na(o ( *o(o 1u
0&lu-a la pos$"$l$(a( ( un &on%l$&!o ( $n!rss.
El #r&$&$o ( la a&&$4n l &orrspon( al rprsn!a(oD.
S$n(o l ar!3&ulo &$!a(o la nor*a 2nral, l l2$sla(or 'a pr%r$(o r2ular (
*anra sp&$al l &aso n l &ual 1u$n &l"ra l &on!ra!o &ons$2o *$s*o sa
!u!or o &ura(or (l (onan!.
Tal )7, las ra7ons por las &uals s 'a-a pro&($(o ( s!a %or*a s
%un(a*n!n n 1u rsul!a $*prs&$n($"l o!or2ar una pro!&&$4n sp&$al a
los $n&apa&s 1u s n&un!ran n s!a s$!ua&$4n, so"r !o(o (a(a la
na!ural7a (l &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n &o*o pr$n&$pal a&!o ( l$"ral$(a(.
As3, l ar!3&ulo 5:;M (l C4($2o C$)$l Pruano ( 5FM< s!a"l& lo s$2u$n!@
Ar!$&ulo 5:;M.> DLa (ona&$4n n %a)or ( 1u$n 'a s$(o !u!or o &ura(or (l
(onan! s!+ su#!a a la &on($&$4n suspns$)a ( sr apro"a(as las &un!as -
pa2a(o l sal(o rsul!an! ( la a(*$n$s!ra&$4n.
Con&or(a*os plna*n! &on l sn!$(o ( la &$!a(a nor*a, pro nos
&us!$ona*os 1u la *$s*a s &$r&uns&r$"a al &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n C1u a
psar ( sr l a&!o ( l$"ral$(a( *+s $*por!an!, no s l 6n$&oA.
En s! &aso, &o*o n *u&'os o!ros, l C4($2o C$)$l 'a &rra(o la pur!a, pro
(#4 a"$r!as !o(as las )n!anas.
En !o(o &aso, a psar ( s!a s$!ua&$4n, 1u(a n p$ la pro!&&$4n 1u "r$n(a
l ar!3&ulo 5::Y &o*o pr&p!o 2nral rsp&!o al &on!ra!o &ons$2o *$s*o.
F.;. S$ los !u!ors o &ura(ors -a 'an (#a(o ( s!ar n %un&$ons
S$ los !u!ors o &ura(ors ( los $n&apa&s -a 'u"$sn (#a(o ( #r&r l
&ar2o - s &l"rara >>n s!as &$r&uns!an&$as> un &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n n!r l
0>rprsn!a(o - l 0>rprsn!an!, solo 'a"r3a pro"l*as n &aso l
pr$*ro ( los *n&$ona(os a&!uara por s3 *$s*o - a no*"r prop$o, supus!o
n l &ual l a&!o sr3a nulo. S$n *"ar2o, s$ l &on!ra!o ( (ona&$4n s
&l"rara n!r l nu)o rprsn!an! (l $n&apa7 - l an!$2uo rprsn!an!
( a1ul, - s !ra!ara ( una (ona&$4n, l &on!ra!o sr3a )+l$(o.
X-CONCLUSIN DE LA DONACIN.
La (ona&$4n pu( &on&lu$r n los s$2u$n!s &asos@ por $n)al$(a&$4n, por
r)o&a&$4n - por &a(u&$(a(.
aA In)al$(a&$4n ( la (ona&$4n.>
S pro(u& n los s$2u$n!s &asos@
> Cuan(o s 0&( l !r&$o o *($o l$"r ($spos$&$4n n rla&$4n &on la
l23!$*a.
> Cuan(o la (ona&$4n s '&'a por prsona 1u no !n3a '$#os, s$
rsul!as )$)o l '$#o (l (onan! 1u s! rpu!a"a *ur!o.
Cuan(o la $n)al$(a&$4n s pa&!a &o*o &on($&$4n, a su )7, !$n los s$2u$n!s
%&!os@
a.> rs!$!u&$4n (l "$n (ona(o al (onan!, o l )alor ( su rpos$&$4n s$ l
(ona!ar$o lo 'u"$ra na#na(o no pu($s sr rs!$!u$(o.
".> In)al$(a(a la r*unra!or$a o su#!a a &ar2o, l (onan! a(1u$r a la
o"l$2a&$4n ( a"onar al (ona!ar$o l )alor (l sr ) $&$o prs!a(o o (l &ar2o
sa!$s%&'o.
&.> S$ l "$n (ona(o s 'allas 2ra)a(o, l (onan! l$"ra l 2ra)a*n
pa2an(o la &an!$(a( 1u &orrspon(a - s su"ro2a n los (r&'os (l
a&r(or.
"A R)o&a&$4n ( la (ona&$4n.>
La (ona&$4n na& &o*o un &on!ra!o pr%&!o - )+l$(o, pro 1u p$r( su
%$& a&$a por '&'os so"r)$n$n!s (l (ona!ar$o 1u no l 'a& *r&(or (
la l$"ral$(a(.
La %a&ul!a( ( r)o&ar s ( &ar+& !r D$n!u$!o prsonaD, pus solo
&orrspon( al (onan! pro no pasa a sus 'r(ros por 0prsa (l ar!3&ulo
5:BM (l CC, l *$s*o !$n &o*o an!&(n! l nu*ra 5<M; (l
&4($2o ( 5FB: (ro2a(o. Su %un(a*n!o, *+s 1u ( &ar+&!r
&on4*$&o, s ( &ar+&!r *o ra l , pus la r)o&a&$4n s una san&$4n &$)$l 1u
s $*pon al (ona!ar$o por $n%r$n2$r las r2las ( 2ra!$!u(.
La r)o&a&$4n pu( 'a&rs )alr &on!ra l (ona!ar$o *$s*o o &on!ra sus
'r(ros s$ s! 'u"$ra %all&$(o.
La %a&ul!a( ( r)o&ar la (ona&$4n s !rna, por l &on!rar$o s su*a*n!
&or!a, apnas al&an7a a : *ss, (s( 1u so"r)$no al2una ( las &ausals
pr)$s!as n l ar!3&ulo 5:B= (l CC.
Para la & o*un$ & a&$ 4 n ( la r)o&a&$4n, l (onan! !$n l pla7o ( :G (3as,
&on!a(os (s( l *o*n!o n 1u s '$7o. La & o * u n$&a & $4n pu( ($r$2$rs
al (ona!ar$o, - s$ s! 'a %all&$(o, a sus 'r(ros.
&A Ca(u&$(a( ( la (ona&$4n.>
La &a(u&$(a( pu( &onsol$(ar la (ona&$4n o su r)o&a&$4n. A(*+s la l- 'a
pr)$s!o &ausal prop$a para (ona&$4n. Ha"$n(o l (ona!ar$o $n&urr$(o n &ausal
( ( $2n$ ( a( o (s'r(a&$4n, l (onan! pu( r)o&arl la (ona&$4n n un
pla7o ( : *ss. S$ )n& s! !r*$no, la (ona&$4n 'a 1u(a(o %$r*, pus
l (r&'o (l (onan! para rsol)rl 'a &a(u&a(o.
I2ual*n! s$ l (onan! r)o&4 la (ona&$4n s$n 'a"rla &o*un$&a(o al
(ona!ar$o o sus 'r(ros (n!ro (l pla7o ( :G (3as, &a(u&a su (r&'o - la
r)o&a&$4n no sur! %&!o al2uno.
Por su par!, s$ l (ona!ar$o no &on!ra($& #u($&$al*n! la r)o&a&$4n (n!ro
(l pla7o ( :G (3as, &a(u&a su (r&'o, 1u(an(o &onsu*a(a la r)o&a&$4n.
F$nal*n! l ar!3&ulo 5:<< (l CC )$2n! s!a"l& una &ausal sp&$al (
&a(u&$(a(. En %&!o, ($&@ DCa(u&a la (ona&$4n s$ l (ona!ar$o o&as$ona
$n!n&$onal*n! la *ur! (l (onan!D.
La &ausal s &orr&!a pus s !ra!a ( una &ausal ( 0!r*a 2ra)(a( - su*a
$n2ra!$!u(.
La &a(u&$(a( s pro(u& ( plno (r&'o. No s n&sar$o sn!n&$a #u($&$al
1u lo (&lar. Tn$n(o &ar+&!r $*pra!$)o l ar!3&ulo n an + l$s$ s , no
s sus&p!$"l ( pa&!o n &on!rar$o. A(*+s sr3a $n*oral 1u l
(onan! l2al$& su prop$a *ur! s$n &as!$2ar al a&!or.
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