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XXTypes of Advertising

XXTypes of Advertising

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Publicado porKeshav Bhatia
This is information on forms or types of advertising, from product to global advertising! Peppered with illustrations- you would find it informative & interesting!
This is information on forms or types of advertising, from product to global advertising! Peppered with illustrations- you would find it informative & interesting!

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Published by: Keshav Bhatia on Dec 14, 2009
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Forms of Advertising

Advertising Management

Who uses advertising?
• Several categories of organizations are large users of advertising • Among them are manufacturing, trading, & service firms • Also, non-profit & government agencies

Classification
• Advertising can also be classified according to type or form

Principal means of classification
• By geographic spread, such as national, regional, local, global • By target group- consumer, industrial or trade advertising • By type of impact such as- primary or selective demand advertising, direct or indirect action advertising, and institutional advertising

Geographic classification
• National Advertising: Some manufacturers may think that the entire country • They select media with a countrywide base • Among them are companies like HUL, Ponds, Nestle,

Geographic classification
• Local Advertising • Small firms restrict their business to state, or regional level;

Geographic classification
• Global Advertising: • Multinational firms treat the world as a market • Firms such as Sony, IBM, or Ford advertise globally

Global Advertising

WWF

TARGET GROUP
• • • • Consumer Advertising Industrial Advertising Trade Advertising Professional Advertising

Consumer Advertising
• Consumer Advertising: • Directed at buyers & consumers • Consumer items are widely distributed over a large geographic area, so advertising is used as a tool • Appeal directly to the direct consumer

Consumer Ads

Industrial Advertising
• Refers to those ads that are directed at buyers of industrial products • Includes machinery, equipment, industrial components • Due to the unique characteristics of industrial buying, importance is lower than consumer marketing

Trade Advertising
• Ads that are directed by the manufacturer towards the distribution channel memberswholesalers, retailers, distributors – is called Trade Advertising • Objective is to promote sales by motivating to stock more or to attract new retail outlets

Professional Advertising
• There are certain products for which the consumers themselves are not responsible for the buying choice • The classic examples are pharmaceuticals where the decision is made by doctors while the consumers are the patients• Same for architects, electrical consultants, builders etc

Professional Advertising
• Firms operating in such market segments have to direct their advertising towards these professional decision –makers • Such advertising is called Professional Advertising

Categories of Advertising
Product To Global Advertising

Categories of Advertising
• • • • • • • Public Awareness Advertising Product Advertising- 3 Types Consumer Advertising Industrial Product Advertising Service Advertising Corporate Advertising Public Relation Advertising

Categories of Advertising
• • • • Public Service Advertising Financial Advertising Global Advertising Internationalizing of Advertising

Public Awareness Advertising
• Mara Fizdale of US based agency- Leo Burnett made a presentation at the 15th Asian Advertising Congress at Bangkok. • She says-” By its very nature, the marketing of causes professionally called public service advertising-PSA) is emotional….

Public Awareness Advertising
• ….It touches people’s deepest fears, anxieties & Values”

Product Advertising
• Advertising is part of the marketing mix • Marketing team decides on mix elements to be used & in which proportion it is to be blended into the marketing programmes • Advertising’s specific role is of pre-selling to the customers- existing & potential

Four Ps
• Four Ps

Product Advertising
• Amount of advertising depends on components of Marketing mix

Product Advertising
• Various elements of promotion mix is to be used- personal selling, POS, Coupons, demonstrations, & trade shows • Advertising ensures that important functions lead to a successful marketing programme for mass produced, mass marketing goods

Product Advertising
• In industrial marketing advertising helps in informing the prospects , enabling the salesman get a hearing • Marketing concepts can also be applied to non-commercial ventures such as family planning, adult literacy, polio drive

Pulse Polio- India

Product Advertising
• Even political candidates advertise

Link
• Candidates Spending More on Cable Ads

Link• http://images.google.co.in/imgres? imgurl=http://s.wsj.net/public/resources/images/N AAS136_CONVIE_NS_20080826190503.gif&imgr efurl=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1219796421 39374843.html&usg=__xZCxV1WzFSCMmxB5A GapUiceiPY=&h=476&w=382&sz=67&hl=en&sta rt=40&tbnid=0FUp7xmCceQ1M:&tbnh=129&tbnw=104&prev=/images%3Fq %3Dpolitical%2Bcandidates%2Badvertise %2Badvertisement%2Bindia%26gbv %3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa %3DN%26start%3D20

Product Advertising
• The product hold the key for success • Consumers should derive satisfaction from the product • Consumer awareness can be created by advertising • Product positioning is essential

Product Advertising - 3 Types
• Pioneering Advertising • Competitive Advertising • Retentive Advertising

Product Advertising- Pioneering Advertising
• Attempt to stimulate primary demand of the product category rather than a brand • Product category like microwave ovens, mosquito repellants, tourist places are first introduced • Educative in intent • Appeals to his emotions as well as rational motives

Pioneering Advertising
• This is relevant in the introductory stage of the PLC

Product Advertising- Competitive Advertising
• Selective demand of a specific product is stimulated • The product is well established & has reached the maturity stage in the PLC • This is of two types- Direct & Indirect

Competitive Advertising
• Direct Type: Seeks to stimulate immediate buying action • Indirect Type: Here the benefits of the product are emphasized in anticipation of the consumer’s final action of buying

Product Advertising- Retentive Advertising
• The product is well established in the market • Its sales may decline later • The customer has to be reminded about the product to sustain loyalty • It is a soft-sell approach where the buyer is judged to continue using the product

Advertising- PLC
• Informative product advertising: Introductory stage • Mostly all new products are promoted this way • Basic objective: Create awareness about its existence & availability

Advertising- PLC
• Persuasive Advertising: Aims at building up demand for a specific product or brand • Used in Growth & Maturity stage • Competitive type of advertising

Advertising- PLC
• Reminder Oriented Product Advertising: Aims at strengthening the previous promotional activity by keeping the brand name alive in the minds of the customer

Advertising- PLC
• It is used in the maturity stage as well as Declining stage of the product

Types of Products
• Consumer- Durable & Non-durable • TVs, Refrigerators, ACs- last for a long time • Shampoos, Soaps, Detergents- last for a short time • Industrial products- Plant machinery, spare parts

Consumer Advertising • Most of the consumer goods are in a competitive field- so have to engage in advertising • Both emotional & rational appeals

Rational Appeals In Advertising
• Some of the tactics typically used in marketing communication that is framed upon the logical approach include: • Listing Product Benefits - To use this method effectively, the advertisement must underscore consumer benefits rather than product features. • Convincing Proof - This approach is based upon the premise, "Seeing is believing." Ads or commercials take the form of a product demonstration.

Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• Each of us enters the world as an irrational individual. • For infants, feelings are everything. • Our earliest response is to nonverbal communication. In the first years of life, mother's smile is comforting. • Thunder is threatening. Life is simple. • Meanings are clear. • Then we invest 12 years or more in formal education to learn how to think rationally. By adulthood, it has become a habit.

Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• However, rational thinking is an overlay on the primal vocabulary that continues to influence our decisions and behavior. • So, we invest in a certain stock because "it feels right." We vote for a candidate because "he can be trusted." • We make a critical business decision based on our "gut feeling."

Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• Emotion-based advertising speaks the primal (first; original;) tongue. • It communicates through design and color. Motion and stagecraft. Music and tonality. • While the rational mind acts on logical relationships, the primal mind seeks symbolic relationships.

Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• Symbols are, indeed, the vocabulary of emotional marketing. • Just as we instinctively trust the person with a warm, firm handshake, we have confidence in the announcer with a smile in his voice. • The best radio and voice-over announcers understand this. • They know just when to smile - even though they're not on camera.

Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• The primal mind evaluates the photo in a magazine advertisement or a televised image just as it would a real life situation. • We immediately recognize that the Marlboro man is a rugged individualist because we see his tattoo. • He controls his destiny as we would like to be in command of ours. • By emulating him, we, too, might find fulfillment. • Emulating:(to try to equal or excel; imitate with effort to equal or surpass: to emulate one's father as a concert violinist. )

Dominant Mood
• Choosing the Dominant Mood • (predominant; main; major; chief: Wheat is the dominant crop of Punjab.) • The term "dominant mood" describes where the product's most important appeal resides on the scale between rational and emotional. • Once we select the dominant mood for our brand, it will generally remain consistent throughout all marketing communication.

Dominant Mood
• Marlboro: Come to where the flavour is

Nano
• Now you can find more kilometers in every litre

Industrial Product Advertising
• Industrial advertising is much smaller than consumer advertising • An industrial product is bought after an elaborate purchase process affected by a number of variables • Complicated advertising

Industrial Product Advertising
• Field of advertising directed at commercial business customers. • The advertised products are raw materials, components, or equipment needed in the production or distribution of other goods and services.

Industrial Product Advertising
• The end-product is a combination of many manufactured & bought out parts • Many components lose their identity in the end-product • Most common objectives are:

Industrial Product Advertising
• • • • • • • To inform To bring orders To stimulate queries Empanel company name To access top brass- difficult to reach Motivates distributors Build corporate image

Industrial Product Advertising
• • • • Basic appeals used are rational The appeals to patronize is emotional Copy gives facts & figures Specific & gives evidence

Industrial Product Advertising
• Prepared in the form of messages in trade journals, & press • Other media used are product catalogues, brochures,

Definitions
• catalogue is a bound book or booklet show products • brochure - a pamphlet that has more information about a product, event, or service than a catalog has. • leaflet is a single sheet printed on one or both sides and often folded

Definitions
• insert - loose ad inserted into an newspaper or magazine. • pamphlet - usually not bound. Can be a leaflet or multiple pages • flyers - are leaflets that are handed out instead of mailed or inserted.

Catalogue & Brochure- Difference
• http://www.zimbio.com/Brand+Building+an d+Sales+Promotion+Marketing/articles/15/ How+Tell+Difference+Between+Brochure s+Catalogs

Catalogues
• There are many types of catalogs. • Some industries are dominated by catalogsfor example, more than 50% of gardeningsupply sales are made through catalogs. • Catalogs are also widely used for industrial and office supplies, such as computer accessories, stationery, and educational services.

Catalogues
• Some industrial catalogs are intended for use by sales representatives and contain a complete listing of all products sold by that company. • This type of catalog does not have strong promotional copy or design relative to consumer catalogs.

Catalogues
• Some catalog houses go to great lengths to attractively present their goods, using elaborate photographic techniques and settings

Printing terms
• http://www.tridentprinting.co.uk/glossary.ht m

Service Advertising
• Services are activities, benefits, or satisfactions offered for sale • They are intangible, inseparable, variable & perishable. • They require strict quality control, supplier credibility, & adaptability

Service Advertising
• Personalizes services like • laundry, hair grooming, beauty salon, automotive repairs, • when advertise place greater emphasis on the institution offering it • & the advantages in patronizing them

Service Advertising
• The advertisers may project a congenial atmosphere, quickness of service, economy, exclusiveness, status • Luxury hotels & airlines attach great significance to service with a smile, courtesy, thoughtfulness, & claim that they offer a home away from home

Service Advertising
• Banks advertise about the teller system, personalized banking, computer banking • Hospitals may talk about location & specialization

Institutional Advertising
• Advertising intended to promote a company or organization rather than its products; also called Corporate Advertising.

Institutional Advertising
• The institution presents its story to create an image in the minds of the target segment • May present its views on a national cause, like prevention of blindness, & the efforts it has taken to help the cause

Institutional Advertising
• It may list its social contributions or may emphasize its social contributions • It may stress on the mission of the organization & its philosophy • Institutional Advertising is indirect, subtle, & affects our basic attitudes

Terms of Advertising
• http://advertising.utexas.edu/resources/ter ms/index.htm

Institutional Advertising
• Company may build on its history & may build its awareness around it • SBI

Institutional Advertising
• The ad copy may be directed to a potential market, or any of the interest groups like employees, shareholders, govt., • Institutional advertising cultivates or tries to promote a spirit of friendliness towards it among the public • Aims at building a positive image or its internal & external customers

Institutional Advertising
• It does not attempt to sell anything directly • The advertising is integrated to public relations of the organization • It can be informative, persuasive, or reminder-oriented • This advertising gives the face/image to the company

Institutional Advertising
• • • • • • Main objectives: To make the company known Make its products/services known Achievements known Values known Make its socio-political, economic or moral statements known

Institutional Advertising
• Establishes a relationship • Example: Taj Group • A new hotel is trying to create an identity; how can it be done? What is the role of relationship marketing in marketing a hotel chain?

Receptivity to Institutional Advertising
• • • • • • The information is hardly relevant to many Recall rates are low Self-praise It asks for no action- only approval Difficult to evaluate Can have major impact- considered nice, rather than necessary

Trends- Institutional Advertising
• Used to harness investor support • Has become means to an end- end being public issue • Smaller companies go for corporate advertising for getting visibility • This trend was started in the 80s by RIL for its branded issue Khazana

Trends- Institutional Advertising
• The high stakes make a pre-issue campaign essential

Public Relation Advertising
• It is a part of institutional marketing

Public Relations
• Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the communication between an organization and its publics. • Public relations gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment.

Public Relations
Common activities include speaking at conferences, working with the press, and employee communication.

Public Relations
Because public relations places exposure in credible third-party outlets, it offers a third-party legitimacy that advertising does not have.

Public Relations
• PR can be used to build rapport with employees, customers, investors, voters, or the general public. • Almost any organization that has a stake in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of public relations.

• There are number of related sister disciplines all falling under the banner of Corporate Communications, such as Analyst relations, Media Relations, Investor Relations, Internal Communications or Labor Relations.

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