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MC LC

1. B tch ghp quang OADM...........................................................................2
1.1 Tng quan OADM....................................................................................2
2. Cc cu hnh OADM......................................................................................3
2.1 OADM da trn FBG v coupler 3 dB.....................................................3
2.2 OADM da trn FBG v cu hnh giao thoa March-Zehnder.................4
2.3 Cu hnh OADM s dng FBG v Circulator..........................................5
2.4 OADM da trn cch t t gia Coupler................................................6
2.5 Cc tham s ca cc cu hnh OADM......................................................7
2.6 B lc c th iu chnh Acousto Optic...............................................10











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1. B tch ghp quang OADM
1.1 Tng quan OADM
Khi nim: B tch ghp quang OADM l thit b quang c giao tip 3 hng,
cho php tch xung hoc ghp ln mt (vi) bc sng t hng 1, 2 ra hng 3
ng thi cho chuyn tip cc bc sng khc gia hai hng 1 v 2.
H thng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM l mt trong nhng gii
php quan trng nht ca cc h thng truyn dn quang tc cao. S pht trin
ca cc tuyn truyn dn quang im- im vi bc sng n ln thnh h thng
truyn dn quang ghp knh theo bc sng a ra nhu cu v cc b tch ghp
knh theo bc sng OADM dng tch ghp v nh tuyn cc knh bc sng
khc nhau. Cc thit b ny c th c s dng ti nhiu im khc nhau trn
mng dc theo cc tuyn truyn dn quang v c chc nng ghp/tch cc knh
quang vi cc bc sng c la chn, vi chc nng ny mm do linh
hot ca h thng c ci thin r rt. N tr thnh mt phn rt quan trng
ca cc ng dng WDM, chng hn nh cc khu vc khc nhau c th cng kt
ni trn mt tuyn quang bng vic tch / ghp knh t mt ng truyn quang.
Thm vo , s mm do trong tc d liu ca cc knh WDM ring bit cho
php cung cp tc tu theo nhu cu.











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2. Cc cu hnh OADM
2.1 OADM da trn FBG v coupler 3 dB
Cu hnh m bo tnh n nh v thc hin tt chc nng tch ghp knh c
a ra da trn thit b 4 cng PW (planar waveguide) c m t trong hnh
N bao gm cc thit b : b chia 3 dB v cch t mt trong cc cng ra output
ca coupler lm nhim v chn bc sng.

1 .. 16
isolator
1
isolator
3
1 .. 16
G
Drop
3 dB
coupler
3 dB
coupler
In
out
grating
4
2
G
add

Hnh 2.1 : M hnh OADM da trn FBG v coupler 3 dB
Nguyn l hot ng ca m hnh thit b ny nh sau: nh sng a vo cng
1 v c chia lm 2, ti cng ra FBG s phn x cc nh sng c bc sng
G
v
quay tr li cng Dropped 4 v c ly ra ngoi. Cng ra cn li ca Coupler
c ngm chm vo trong vo trong cht lu c ch s chit sut ph hp lm
cho nh sng khng phn x tr li. Tn hiu c chn s xut hin ti c
cng 1 v 4 (cng In v Drop). Mt thit b Isolator t ti cng 1 ca Coupler
bo v tn hiu vo ca h thng khng b nh hng bi cc tn hiu phn x. Tn
hiu tch yu hn 6 dB so vi tn hiu gc a vo. Trong truyn dn, mt Coupler
3 dB th hai s chia tn hiu khng c cch t phn x. Chc nng thm vo ny
c thc hin bng cch a mt tn hiu vo cng 3, bc sng ca tn hiu la
chn sao cho n b phn x bi cch t (
G
) v v vy n c ghp vo tn hiu
quang cng 2 theo nguyn l hot ng ca Coupler. Mt thit b Isolator cng

G
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c s dng v t ti cng 3 cch ly tn hiu a vo v tn hiu truyn dn t
cng vo a ti. Khi s dng hai Isolator ti cng vo v cng ghp thm , cu
hnh khng giao thoa cho php thc hin kh nng tch ghp rt tt. Trong cu
hnh ny khng c gii hn hay iu kin no v di, v tr hay apodisation ca
cch t. Cch t lc bc sng c th c thit k s dng phng php inverse
scattering. Nhc im ca cu hnh ny l vic h tr mt dung lng cho tt c
cc knh thp nht 6 dB. Tuy nhin khi so snh n vi cc thit b da trn c s
PW (planar waveguide) c mt tn hiu tng t nhng li c s linh hot hn
trong vic ch to v iu chnh bc sng la chn ca cch t.
2.2 OADM da trn FBG v cu hnh giao thoa March-Zehnder
Mt phng php khc phc vic mt tn hiu ca cu hnh trn yu cu
thm mt cch t ging ht nh cch t u tin v tt c cc cng ca Coupler
u s dng, v vy cu hnh ny cn gi l cu hnh giao thoa Mach Zehnder.
C hai dng thit b ch to theo cng ngh planar hay cng ngh ton quang s
dng cho cu hnh ny u c m t v thc nghim.
V mt l thuyt thit b ny l i xng v c th mang li nhng kt qu kh
quan trong chng mt tn hiu, s phn x ngc v chng xuyn m.
Identical
grating
1 8
1 8
3 dB coupler 3 dB coupler
G
G
G
1 In
4 drop
3 add
2 out

Hnh 2.2: OADM da trn cu hnh giao thoa Mach-Zehnder
Nguyn l ca cu hnh ny c miu t trong hnh v trn: Mt Coupler 3 dB
chia nh sng a vo t cng 1 v nh sng c bc sng
G
c phn x bi
hai cch t FBG ging nhau. Cc tn hiu phn x ny c a tr li vo
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Coupler v c ly ra ti cng Drop. Tn hiu phn hi ngc tr li cng 1 c
trit tiu hon ton nh s dng Coupler ph hp (b chia 50%). Cc bc sng
pht c lm nhiu trong Coupler 3 dB th hai v th chng n cng ra m
khng c phn d no phn x tr li cng Add, tnh nng ny cng do Coupler
quyt nh. Cu hnh ny da trn c s chia v nhiu ca nh sng v v th kh
nhy trong vic thay i di truyn tn hiu, c im ca cc cch t ging
nhau, tnh cht ca b Coupler 3 dB. V vy n nh ca mi trng, ca cc
Coupler ging nhau, ca cc FBG quyt nh vic thit b thc hin cc tnh nng
ca n c m bo hay khng. S n nh v kh nng chu nh hng ca thit b
ny trong h thng WDM thc t c phn tch bi Erdogan: cu hnh ny nu
s dng cc thit b theo cng ngh Planar c di truyn dn ngn hn v vy
d n nh hn. Nhng mt khc cc thit b da trn si li kp trnh c yu
cu v lung UV s dng trong cu hnh giao thoa Mach Zehnder.
2.3 Cu hnh OADM s dng FBG v Circulator
Cu hnh ny tng t nh cc cu hnh 4 cng ni trn, nhng trong
cc Coupler c thay th bng cc Circulator quang. V l thuyt, cu hnh ny
s dng cc thit b khng giao thoa l l tng. Cc tnh cht ph theo nguyn l
ph thuc vo hot ng v tnh cht ca FBG v c th c thit k nh mt b
lc trc giao l tng s dng k thut scattering ngc, s mt tn hiu v xuyn
m ch yu ph thuc vo hot ng ca cc Circulator quang.

G
grating
circulator
1 .8
1
drop add
out
2
3
4
1 .8
G G
circulator

Hnh 2.3: OADM da trn FBG v Circulator
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Nguyn l hot ng ca OADM dng ny nh sau : nh sng c a vo
cng In 1 v c nh hng ti FBG c bc sng phn x l
G
, nh sng c
bc sng ny c cch t phn x tr li Circulator v c tch ra cng Drop
4, cc phn nh sng cn li s chuyn qua cch t v a ti Circulator 2.
Circulator 2, mt tn hiu khc c bc sng
G
c a vo cng Add 3, tn hiu
ny c cch t phn x tr li v i ra cng Out 2.
Nhc im chnh ca cu hnh OADM dng ny l Circulator tng i t
v cng knh. Tuy nhin, cng vi s pht trin ca cc cng ngh Circulator gi
r v mt mt tn hiu khng ln, cu hnh ny l mt gii php rt tt cho thit b
OADM bi v tnh n nh ca n.
2.4 OADM da trn cch t t gia Coupler
Tnh n nh ca OADM da trn cu hnh ca giao thoa Mach-Zehnder gii
thiu trong 4. 4. 4. 2 cng c th c ci thin nh s dng nhiu gia cc mode
ca Coupler quang. Vic to ra mt cch t gia mt coupler na vng (100%)
c chng minh trong c hai dng cu hnh thit b Planar v thit b ton
quang.
G
grating
100%
coupler
2
3
4
1 .8
1 In
drop
G
add
G
out
1 .8

Hnh 2.4: Cu hnh OADM dng cch t nm gia Coupler
Thit b ny rt nh gn, tuy vy v nguyn l ch c s i xng hon ton khi
ch to cch t c dng nh mt b phn x im. iu ny ch c kh nng thc
hin khi s dng cc cch t rt ngn hoc cc coupler rt di. Hnh trn cho thy
7 | P a g e

cu hnh dng ny : nh sng c a vo cng 1 v c truyn ti trung tm
ca coupler. Mt cch t c t ti trung tm ca coupler ni s khc pha gia
cc mode eigen l /4, ni nh sng c chia mt cch u nhau gia hai cc
phn dn sng ca coupler. Knh c bc sng
G
dc phn x tr li do cch t
v phn tn hiu cn li truyn qua coupler n cng ra 2. Trong qu trnh phn x,
cc eigenmode phn x trong coupler t n khc pha tng cng l /2 v v
th knh c bc sng
G
c tch ra ti cng 4. V nguyn l, n nh ca
thit b giao thoa c ci thin vi cu hnh Mach-Zehnder bi v s phn x im
v nhiu t c thng qua vic truyn cc eigenmode ca coupler. Tuy nhin cc
gii hn ca i vi di cch t v di cc coupler ch to i hi phi c
cc tnh ton ph hp.
2.5 Cc tham s ca cc cu hnh OADM
Hot ng ca cc OADM c m t bng cch s dng cc k hiu scattering
S
ij
cho mi cp cng. K hiu u tin i l k hiu cng ch (cng ra) v k hiu j l
k hiu cng vo. Mt vi tham s ca c th m t bng cch s dng cc k hiu
Scattering nh l : suy hao xen, s phn cc ph thuc mt tn hiu PDL
(polarisation depent loss), cch ly knh, phn x ngc .
Cch ly v xuyn m:
Hai tham s chnh lin quan ti s cch ly cc knh trong b tch ghp knh
OADM l tham s cch ly ca cc knh v xuyn m gia cc knh trong h thng
WDM.
1 In 2 out
3 Add 4 dropp
G
G
ADM
P1 P2
P4

Hnh 2.5.1: M hnh cch ly knh OADM
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Nu nng lng ca tn hiu quang cng vo 1 l P1 v nng lng ca tn
hiu c tch t cng 4 l P4 v nng lng cn li ca tn hiu sau tch l P2 th
h s cch ly c tnh bng -10 log (P1/P2).
Xuyn m l do cc tn hiu khng mong mun truyn t cc knh ln cn ti mt
knh no trong b lc, n c tn l xuyn m lin knh. Dng xuyn m ny c
th xut hin trong cc cu hnh OADM giao thoa v l kt qu ca vic t l phn
chia nng lng nh sng trong coupler 3 dB khng chnh xc. Tuy vy dng
xuyn m ny khng nh hng nhiu n hot ng ca h thng WDM.
Suy hao xen:
Suy hao xen lm nng lng ca cc tn hiu quang ca cc knh yu i, m hnh
ca chng c m t trong hnh sau, trong c hai tn hiu ca knh tch v
phn tn hiu cn li sau tch u b yu i :

1 In 2 out
3 Add 4 dropp
G
G
ADM
P1 P2
P4

Hnh 2.5.2: Suy hao xen trong OADM
H s suy hao xen l
ins
tng ng vi hiu sut truyn nh sng t mt cng i
ti mt cng j v nh hng ca n ln tt c cc knh l nh nhau v c tnh
theo cng thc:
L
ins
= 10 log (P
i
/P
j
) (4.4)
Trong P
i
v P
j
l nng lng ca tn hiu quang ti cc cng ra ca OADM v
gi s khng xut hin xuyn m hay PDL.
9 | P a g e

Phn x ngc:
M hnh v cc tham s nh hng n qu trnh phn x ngc c m t trong
hnh (). Nu OADM la chn bc sng da trn cch t Bragg vi bc sng
phn x l
G
v khi cc knh (cc tn hiu quang c bc sng khc nhau) c
a vo cng 1 hoc 3 cc tn hiu c bc sng
G
c la chn s c phn x
v a n cng 4 hoc 2 theo th t . Tuy nhin cng c mt b phn ca nh
sng b phn x ngc tr li cng ban u, ta xem phn phn x ngc tr li ny
c nng lng l P
1
v P
3
. Nh vy h s phn x ngc S
ii
c tnh bng 10
log(P
i
/ P
i
). Cc nh hng ca vic phn x ngc ny c th trnh c bng
vic s dng cc b cch ly Isolator ti c hai cng ny (cng In 1 v cng Add 3).
Cng c mt phng php khc dng trnh hin tng ny l dng b cn bng
OADM ph hp.

1 In 2 out
3 Add 4 dropp
ADM
P1
G
P1'
P3
P3'
G

Hnh 2.5.3: M hnh v tham s ca phn x ngc trong OADM