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7/7/2014

Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --


1
Chng 9
H thng truyn dn SDH
on v tuyn
Cu hnh h thng
Cu hnh node
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng
ng b mng
Cc tham s nh gi cht lng h thng

7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
2
on v tuyn
on (Section)
Trong h thng truyn dn c 2 loi on:
on lp
on ghp

on lp: L khong truyn dn gia 2 b lp gn nhau nht hoc gia b lp v
b ghp (ngha l on c cha trm lp)
on ghp: L khong truyn dn gia: 2 thit b u cui, gia 2 thit b xen r,
gia thit b u cui n thit b xen r
on lp on lp on lp
on ghp
TE REG REG TE
TE: Terminal Equipment: Thit b ghp u cui
REG: Regenerator: Thit b lp
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
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Tuyn (Path)
Khi lu thng trn mng, VC c ng gi (assembly) v m gi
(dissembly) mt ln duy nht ti node ngun v node ch. Khong cch t
ngun n ch y gi l mt Tuyn.
Tuyn l khong cch ni logic gia mt im ti VC-n c ng gi v
mt im khc ti VC-n c kt cui.
Mt tuyn c th xem nh mt ng dn i ngang qua mt s on ghp v
ni trc tip gia 2 im truyn d liu.
Khong ni gia 2 VC-1X hoc VC-2: Tuyn bc thp
Khong ni gia 2 VC-3 hoc VC-4: Tuyn bc cao


7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
4
Cu hnh h thng
im ni im: Hai thit b u cui kt ni vi nhau qua cc trm lp.
STM-N TRM TRM
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
5
Mng ng trc
-Trong mng ny ,thit b c s dng theo ch ghp knh u cui ti 2 trm u
cui mng. Gia hai trm u cui, thit b c s dng theo ch ADM (rt/xen) v
REG (lp li).

Cu hnh h thng (tt)
TRM ADM TRM ADM REG
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
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Cu hnh h thng (tt)
Mng hnh sao (HUB)
Trong mng ny, thit b c s dng theo ch ghp knh u cui
(TRM) hay ch rt/xen knh (ADM) ti trm lung trung tm.
TRM
ADM
TRM
TRM
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
TRM
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
7
Mng mc li :
Trong mng ny, thit b c s dng theo ch ADM c kt ni
cho
Cu hnh h thng (tt)
ADM
ADM ADM
ADM
ADM ADM
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N STM-N
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Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
8
Cu hnh h thng (tt)
Mng vng :
Mng bao gm cc trm thit b c ni vi nhau theo mt vng
khp kn . Cc thit b ny c s dng theo ch ADM . Kh nng
bo v trong mng ny rt cao.
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
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Cu hnh node

Cu hnh NE u cui
Thit b u cui ghp cc lung nhnh thnh tn hiu STM-N
(N=1, 4, 16, 64) v ngc li tch tn hiu STM-N thnh cc
lung nhnh.
STM-N
Lung nhnh PDH,
STM-m (m<N)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
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Cu hnh node (tt)
Cu hnh NE xen r
Tn hiu nhn c t hng X s c x l con tr, c kt ni n
hng Y v hng lung cc mc VC-12 ,VC-3 , VC-4 ty theo thng
tin yu cu .
X
Y
Lung nhnh
PDH, STM-m
(m<N)
STM-N STM-N
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Cu hnh node (tt)
Cu hnh NE lp
Tn hiu t pha X (Y) c x l con tr v a n pha Y (X) trn
cng mt khe thi gian.
X Y
STM-N STM-N
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Cu hnh node (tt)
Cu hnh NE ni cho s
Tn hiu vo t hng X , Y hoc hng giao tip lung s c x
l con tr ; sau , chng c th c kt ni n X ,Y hoc hng
lung cc mc VC-12 ,VC-3 , VC-4 ty theo thng tin yu cu .
X Y
Lung PDH,
STM-m
STM-N
STM-N
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Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng
SOH: Cha tn hiu nghip v qun l , bo dng v gim st trn cc
on lp v on ghp knh .
POH: Cha tn hiu nghip v qun l ,bo dng v gim st cc on
cc lung nhnh.

1. Cu trc SOH trong khung STM-N
- STM-1: SOH gm 8 dng 9 ct : 3 dng 9 ct : RSOH
5 dng 9 ct : MSOH

Cu trc chi tit ca cc byte trong SOH nh sau :
Data comm
channel
D3


Data comm
channel
D2


Data comm
channel
D12


Data comm
channel
D9


Data comm
channel
D6



APS
K12

Data comm
channel
D11


Data comm
channel
D5



APS
K1


Timing
Marker
S1

Data comm
channel
D4


Data comm
channel
D7


Data comm
channel
D10


Data comm
channel
D1


STM
ID
C1/J0
User
channel
F1
order
wire
E2
order
wire
E1
BIP-8
B1
A2 A2 A2 A1
B2 B2 B2
A1
A1
AU-4 Pointer

FEBE
M1

Spare
Z2

Spare
Z2

Spare
Z1

Spare
Z1
BIP-24
Dnh cho cc tiu chun quc gia .
Ch c trong STM-1 u tin ca STM-N .
Dnh cho cc tiu chun quc t trong tng lai .
Data comm
channel
D3


Data comm
channel
D2



APS
K1


Data comm
channel
D4


Data comm
channel
D7


Data comm
channel
D10


Data comm
channel
D1


User
channel
F1
order
wire
E1
BIP-8
B1
Data comm
channel
D8


7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
Cc byte RSOH c s dng cho cng vic gim st , iu khin trn on lp .
Cc byte ny c x l ti cc trm lp v nu cn th c th c chuyn i tip
n cc trm khc . Do , ngay c trm lp cng phi c ng b vi mng .
Cc byte MSOH ch c tc dng gia cc trm xen r vi nhau m khng c tc
dng vi cc trm lp ( ngha l c chuyn tip qua cc trm lp ).
Trong trng hp ghp khung STM-N th SOH gm cc byte SOH c ghp xen k
t cc byte SOH ca cc STM-1 ring l .
STM-4: SOH gm (8 36) byte , trong :
- Cha 12 byte A1, 12 byte A2, 12 byte B2, 12 byte J0/C1 (nu dng C1).
- Nhng byte khc ch xut hin 1 ln trong STM-1 #1
STM-16: SOH gm (8144)byte, trong :
- Cha 48 byte A1, 48 byte A2, 48 byte B2,48 byte J0/C1(nu dng)
- Nhng byte khc ch xut hin 1 ln trong STM-1 #1
STM-64: SOH gm (8576)byte, trong :
- Cha 192 byte A1, 192 byte A2, 192 byte B2, 192byte J0/C1(nu dng)
Nhng byte khc ch xut hin 1 ln trong STM-1 #1
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
STM-4: SOH gm (8 36) byte , trong :
- Cha 12 byte A1, 12 byte A2, 12 byte B2, 12 byte J0/C1 (nu dng
C1).
- Nhng byte khc ch xut hin 1 ln trong STM-1 #1

B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2
B1
D1 D2
E1
D
12
D9
D6
K2 K1
D
11
D
10
D7 D8
D5 D4
F1
D3
J0 J0 J0

A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1
Z2 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z2 M1 Z2 Z2 Z2 E2 Z2 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1 S1
AU-4 pointer
36
Dnh cho tiu chun quc gia
Dnh cho mc ch tiu chun quc t trong tng lai
J0
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
STM-16: SOH gm (8144) byte, trong :
- Cha 48 byte A1, 48 byte A2, 48 byte B2, 48 byte J0/C1 (nu
dng)
- Nhng byte khc ch xut hin 1 ln trong STM-1 #1
J0
D10
D10
D

D9
D6
E2 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1
B2 B2 B2 B2 B2
Z1 Z2
K2
Z2
D11

D8
D5
K1
S1
D7
D4
B2
AU pointers
D1
B1
D2
E1
D3
F1
A2 A2 A2 A1 A1 A1





J0
A2 A2 A2 A1 A1 A1
144
16
Z2 M1 Z2

D12

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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
* Xc nh v tr mi byte SOH ca STM-1 # n (n=1 n N)
V tr mi byte c c trng bi 2 thng s : (a,b)
a = 1 n 3 v 5 n 9: S th t dng trong STM-1
b = ch s ct ca byte ang xt thuc STM-1 # n trong khung STM-N

b = N (i-1) + n (*)
trong :
i: ch s ct ca byte SOH ang xt trong khung STM-1(i=1 n 9)
n: th t ca khung STM-1 cha byte ang xt trong khung STM-N
Biu thc (*) dng xc nh ta cc byte SOH trong khung STM-4,STM-16,
STM-64.
V d: Xc nh v tr byte D2 trong khung STM-4 v STM-16
a=3
STM-4: b= 4(4-1) +1=13
STM-16: b=16(4-1) + 1=49
Ch : Biu thc (*) khng p dng cho byte M1 v byte M1 cv tr c nh trong dng
9 v cch ct th D11 mt ct v pha bn phi
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
2. Tn hiu qun l v bo dng on lp (RSOH)
RSOH 3 hng u ca SOH c chc nng :
-Gim st iu khin trn on lp
-c x l ti cc trm lp v c th chuyn n cc trm lp khc.
Chc nng cc byte nh sau:
A1, A2:
- 6 byte u tin ca SOH c dnh cho cc thng tin ng b khung. 6 byte ny
c cu trc : A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 , trong :
A1 = 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 = F6 (hexa)
A2 = 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 = 28(hexa)
- Cc mu ny c cha trong mi tn hiu STM-1 trong STM-N v khng b ngu
nhin ha .
- Tng t s c 4 6 =24 byte ng b trong mt khung STM-4, 16 6 = 96
byte ng b c ghp trong mt khung STM-16 , 64 6 =384 byte ng b
c ghp trong mt khung STM-64.
- C 2 mc li ca ng b khung l li v ng b khung OOF (out of frame)
v mt ng b khung LOF (loss of frame )
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
Li ng b khung
(OOF)
Mt ng b khung
(LOF)
ng b
2 FAW lin tip
khng li .
4 FAW lin tip
b li .
2 FAW lin tip khng
li sau 0-3ms .
Li ng b khung
Ko di trong khong 0-3ms

7/7/2014
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
J0 :(trc y l C1)
C1: Nhn dng tng STM-1 ring l trong STM-N
Mi mt STM-1 u c mt s nhn dng ID (Identification) xc nh v kim
tra v tr ca tng STM-1 ring ltrong STM-N khi ghp hoc phn knh . S
nhn dng ny c cha trong byte C1 ca t mo SOH trong mi STM-1 .
V d: trong khung STM-16
STM-1#1: C1 = 0000 0001
STM-1#16: C1 = 0001 0000
J0: nh tuyn on lp (G.783)
J0 c tryn trong 16 khung lin tip to thng t m nhn dng im truy
nhp my thu chuyn thng tin n ng my pht nh.
Cu trc J0 trong da khung 16 khung nh sau:

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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
Th t byte Cc bit 1-8
1 1 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7
2 0 X X X X X X X
.
.
.
16 0 X X X X X X X
Cu trc J0 trong a khung 16 khung nh sau:
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
Z1,Z2: byte d tr dnh cho tiu chun ha trong tng lai

B1: BIP-8 (bit interleaved parity)
- Kim tra li on lp.c thc hin trn cc trm lp v truyn thng
sut qua cc trm ghp.
- BIP-8 (t m kim tra chn xen bit) l phng php kim tra li tn hiu.Vic
kim tra ny c tin hnh trn ton b khung STM-1 th n sau khi c
ngu nhin ha . Kt qu ca t m BIP-8 ny s c t vo byte B1 ca
khung STM-1 k tip (n+1)trc khi n c ngu nhin ha .
- i vi khung STM-N , ch c byte B1 ca STM-1 u tin c s dng .
- Mi trm lp kim tra tt c cc bit ca cc byte trong khung STM-1 th n v
cng thm cc bit tng ng ca B1 trong khung th (n+1). Nu tng s l l
th b m li tng 1. Kt qu li khi pha thu c chuyn v trm gim
st h thng.
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
.. .. .. ..
To m
So snh t m
Bng bo li
T m T m
S c
Tuyn
truyn dn
N N N N
Hng pht Hng thu
Hnh - Gim st li bit
To m
-Trn hng pht, t m n bit c to ra trn mi dng bit vi di tun theo
giao thc m c nh .
- hng thu, dng bit cng c m ha theo qui lut trn. T m mi ny
c so snh vi t m m hng pht gi qua . Bt k s khc bit no gia
cc t m mi v c ch ra li bit trong truyn dn
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
P1
1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 N N N 2
N bits N bits N bits
Khi kim tra
To bit chn l
th #N
To bit chn l
th # 2
To bit chn l
th # 1
P
N
P3 P2 T m BIP-N
N
Hnh- BIP-N .
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
BIP-8 ca khung n t vo khung n+1
Hnh- BIP-8 ca 2 bytes 8 bit .
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
E1:Cung cp knh thoi nghip v (EOW-Engineering Order Wire)
- Byte ny to ra knh nghip v ni b gia cc trm lp v cc trm khc trong
qu trnh qun l, gim st v bo dng.
- E1 c truy nhp ti cc trm lp v trm ghp l ni c gn b CODEC-PCM.
F1 :
- Cung cp mt knh thoi hoc truyn s liu tm thi cho vic bo dng h
thng khi c s c h hng.
- Cch s dng byte ny cha c chun ha v ngi ta thng dng byte ny
nhn bit on ng truyn c s c trong mt s cc on lp . Khi mt
trm lp pht hin c s c trong on lp ca n th n s xen vo byte ny mt
chui 6 bit xc nh tn trm lp c s c , 2 bit cn li l tn ca s c .
D1, D2, D3 : Knh truyn s liu on lp RS-DCC
- Cc knh thng tin d liu cho b lp DCCR t D1 D3 , c tc tng cng l
192 Kbit/s .
- Cc knh DCCR c nhim v chuyn lnh iu khin t mt node qun l mng
n trm lp hoc chuyn n cc node cc d liu gim st c ti cc trm
lp thng qua cc cng GNE (Gate Network Element )
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
RF: Dng cho vi ba s, gm 3 byte RF1, RF2, RF3
RF1:
FFK FFK FFK FFK MSI DM
- 4 bit FFK dng nhn bit tng chn trong tuyn nhm m bo cho
b gii iu ch lm vic vi ng tn hiu pht i t b iu ch tng
ng.
- MSI: ch th mt tn hiu bng gc ti b iu ch
- DM: dng choiu khin cng sut pht t ng

RF2:
PAR LFI LFI LFI LFI LFI LFI LFI
-PAR: Bit kim tra chn gim st li ca byte RF2
-LFI: Ch th li ng truyn , v tr cc bit LFI ghp cc bit li do b sa
li trc pht hin nhng cha c sa li.
RF3:Dng cho chuyn mch bo v
Cc byte RF d tr cho vic pht trin dch v v tuyn

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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
3. Tn hiu qun l v bo dng on ghp (MSOH)
Cc byte ny c truy nhp v kt cui ti cc trm ghp v truyn thng sut
qua cc trm lp .
B2 : BIP-N24
- 3 byte ( 3 B2 ) trong mi STM-1 dng kim tra li bit trong phn ghp
knh ca cc trm u cui hay xen r .
-Trong tn hiu STM-N , tt c cc byte B2 ca STM-1 u c s dng (N
3 B2 ).
-Th tc kim tra BIP-N24 to ra t m N 24 bit (3byte ) v a vo v tr
byte B2 trong khung STM-N. Phn chia khung STM-N thnh tng khi , mi
khi N24bit. C ch hot ng ging nh BIP-8.

K1 v K2: Cc knh t ng chuyn mch bo v (APS) :
-2 byte dng cho vic t ng chuyn mch bo v l K1 v K2 , c chc nng
nh sau :
-Byte K1 , K2 ch c b tr trong STM-1 th nht ca khung STM-N
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
1 byte
K1 R R R P ID ID ID ID
Mc yu cu :
111-Chuyn mch bt buc
110-Mt tn hiu
101-Gim cht lng tn hiu
100-Chuyn mch nhn cng
011-i hi phc
010-Hon thnh chuyn mch
001-Yu cu tr li v tr ban u
000-Ri

Mc u tin
0-Thp
1-Cao
Yu cu chuyn mch
0-Chuyn mch u vng
1-Chuyn mch chng
Nhn dng knh
Nhn dng nt
1 byte
K2 ID ID ID ID T S S S
Nhn dng knh
Nhn dng nt
Phng thc bo v:
0-1+1
1- 1:N
Loi chuyn mch:
0-Chuyn mch u vng
1-chuyn mch chng
Trng thi
111-AIS on
110-RDI
Trng thi
111-AIS on
110-RDI
xxx-chuyn mch do suy gim cht
lng
yyy-chuyn mch do mt tn hiu
APS cho cu hnh ng thng

APS cho cu hnh mngvng
Hnh. Cu trc ca byte K1 v K2
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D4 n D12:
Cc knh thng tin d liu ghp knh DCCM t D4 D12 , c tc 576Kbit/s .
Cc knh ny cho php chuyn cc thng tin d liu gia cc GNE v cc b tch /
ghp lung . Cc knh data ny ch c trang b trong STM-1 th nht ca mi
STM-N .

S1: Trng thi ng b

Vng SSM (Synchronization Status Messages) truyn ch th cho bit cc mc cht
lng ca ng h trm ny truyn ti trm khc.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Cha s dng Vng SSM
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
S1:Bit 5-8 Mc cht lng ng b
0000 Cha c mc cht lng ny
0001 D tr
0010 G.811
0011 D tr
0100 G.812 trung gian(transit)
0101 D tr
0110 D tr
0111 D tr
1000 G.812 ni ht
1001 D tr
1010 D tr
1011 ng h ca thit b SDH(SETS)
1100 D tr
1101 D tr
1110 D tr
1110 Khng s dng cho ng b
Bng- Cc mc cht lng ca ng h
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M1: Ch th li u xa on ghp MS-REI (hoc section FEBE-far end block error )
-Byte ny cha s cc khi b li c pht hin bi BIP-24 (3 byte B2 ) . Cc
gi tr t 0 24 (cho STM-1 ) v t 0 N24 (cho STM-N ) l cc gi tr
hp l .
-Tt c cc gi tr trn c biu th bi 8 bit ca byte M1 .

E2: Cung cp knh thoi nghip v (EOW-Engineering Order Wire)
-Byte ny to ra knh thoi ni b gia cc trm ghp.
-Cc trm lp khng truy nhp c cc byte ny.
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
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4. Tn hiu qun l v bo dng tuyn (POH) VC-1X v VC2:
C 4 byte POH trong a khung 500 s ca VC-1X v VC-2 . POH ca LVC gm V5, J2, N2, K4



125s
125s
125s
125s
V5
J2
N2
K4
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
Hnh- POH ca VC-1X v VC-2
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Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
Nhn tn hiu
Nhn tn hiu




L3 L2 L1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BIP-2
L1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
L3

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
L2

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
c trang b - Khng c th




Khng c trang b




Khng ng b




ng b bit -Floating

D tr
ng b byte -Floating

Tn hiu o th O.181 (TSS4)
VC-AIS

REI

PATH FEBE

RFI RDI
Hnh - Cu trc cc bit trong byte V5

V5
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
36
- Cc chc nng ca byte V5 gm :
Gim st li .
Cha nhn tn hiu .
Ch nh trng thi ng dn ca VC- 1X hay VC-2 .
Chc nng cc bit trong V5 :
BIP-2 : Dnh cho vic gim st li bit trn ng dn VC-1X hay VC-2 .Tt c
cc bit trong a khung u c tc ng n BIP-2 ngoi tr cc byte con tr TU-1X v
TU-2 .Tuy nhin , trong trng hp ng chnh m con tr , byte con tr V3 s c tc
ng n t m BIP-2 .
REI :ch th li u xa (trc y l FEBE Far End Block Error ). Nu c li c
pht hin bi BIP-2 , bit th 3 s c t ln "1" ; ngc li , bit th 3 s c t v
"0" .Bit ny s c truyn v ni bt u ca ng dn VC-1X hay VC-2 .
RFI: Ch th mt tn hiu thu VC-1X v VC-2 u xa. Bit ny c gi t u xa
v trm gc.
Nhn tn hiu: Cc bit t 5 7 ch th cc trng thi ca LVC.
RDI: ch th cnh bo u xa. Trong c 2 trng hp nhn c tn hiu AIS
hoc b mt lung tn hiu , bit ny s c t ln "1" v s c truyn ngc v
trm gc
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
37
J2 : nh tuyn
-Byte J2 dng truyn m nhn dng im truy nhp tuyn bc thp
my thu nhn bit v tip tc chuyn thng tin n my pht c ch
nh trc. M nhn dng c truyn lin tip trong 16 khung VC-1X/VC-2
N2: iu hnh mng
-Byte ny gim st ni chuyn tip (TCM-Tandem Connection Monitoring)
mc VC-1X v VC-2.
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
BIP-2 1 AIS n TC-REI OEI
TC-APId, TC-RDI,
ODI, d tr
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
38
-Bit 1 v 2 to thnh t m kim tra chn c 2 bit (BIP-2) cho VC ni chuyn tip.
-Bit 3: Pht c nh 1 nhm m bo cho N2 khng pht i mt dy cc bit 0.
-Bit 4: hot ng nh b ch th AIS n
-Bit 5: ch th cc khi b li do ni chuyn tip
-Bit 6: ch th cc khi b li trong lung ra VC-n
-Bit 7 v bit 8: hot ng trong a khung 76 khung :
.Nhn dng im truy nhp ca ni chuyn tip, thng bo TC-APId nhn
dng truy nhp ni chuyn tip ) c truyn i.
.Ch th trong tn hiu ni chuyn tip u gn c s c v thng bo TC-
RDI c chuyn ti u xa.
.Ch th TU-AIS xen vo trong lung ni chuyn tip trc hoc trong khi
ni chuyn tip v thng bo ODI c chuyn ti u xa.
.D tr pht trin cho tng lai.
K4: knh chuyn mch bo v t ng
-Dng bit 1n 4 truyn bo hiu chuyn mch bo v t ng cc LVC
-Bit 5-7 ch th u xa c s c (LP-RDI)
-Bit 8 : D tr.
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
39
5. Tn hiu qun l v bo dng tuyn ( POH) ca VC-3/VC-4
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
N1
1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
J1
Mu tin ng dn .
BIP-8 .
Ch nh bo hiu .
Trng thi ng dn .
Thng tin gia cc trm ca tuyn
Ch nh a khung .
Chuyn mch bo v t ng .
iu hnh mng .
Thng tin gia cc trm ca tuyn
Hnh- Chc nng cc byte POH ca VC-3 v VC-4
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
40
J1 :Byte thng bo ng dn
-Byte ny c s dng truyn thng bo ng dn . Thc cht y l mt
knh data c tc 64 Kbit/s thng bo ng m d liu s c truyn .
-Mu tin ng dn di 64 bytes v c 1 byte s c mang trong byte J1 ca
mi khung tng ng . Mu truyn dn bn tin bt u tr li sau 64 khung .
Chui 64 byte gm 4 khung , mi khung c cu trc nh m t trong byte J0
B3: Byte gim st li ng dn dng BIP-8
-Byte BIP-8 (B3) dng kim tra li khi tuyn bc cao . Nguyn tc ny
c m t phn trc. Phm vi cc bit c kim tra l VC-3 v VC-4.
-Vic kim tra s ng ng c tin hnh trn ton b ccbyte ca VC .. Sau
kt qu kim tra c lu li truyn trn byte B3 ca VC k tip .
C2 : Byte nhn tn hiu
-Byte C2 dng thng bo kiu "mapping " (b tr ) c s dng trong VC-3 v
VC-4, hoc ch th cc trng thi bo dng ca VC bc cao.
-Byte C2 c cc gi tr sau :
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
41
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
M nh phn M HEX Kiu mapping
0000 0000 00 Khng c trang b
0000 0001 01 C trang b , khng c bit
0000 0010 02 Cu trc TUG
0000 0011 03 TU kiu Locked (cht)
0000 0100 04 Lung khng ng b 34 Mbit/s
hoc 45 Mbit/s trong VC-3
0001 0010 12 Lung 140 Mbit/s khng ng b trong 1 VC-4
0001 0011 13 ATM (Modun truyn dn khng ng b)
0001 0100 14 MAN (Mng khu vc th )(DQDB)
0001 0101 15 FDDI ( Mng d liu )
0111 1110 FE Sp xp tn hiu o O.181
1111 1111 FF VC-AIS
Bng: Chc nng ca byte C2
DQDB :Distributed Queue Dual Bus
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
42
G1: Byte ch trng thi ng dn
-Byte G1 dng bo ngc v cho trm xut pht bit tnh trng li ca
ng dn v n lun c ci trong t mo tuyn POH ca tuyn ngc v .
- Byte ny mang 2 loi thng tin nh sau :
REI (trc y l FEBE -Far End Block Error ): Cc bit t 1 4 ca byte
G1 s cha s li c pht hin bi BIP-8 (byte B3 ) trm xa .REI c gi tr
t 0 8 , cc gi tr cn li ch th khng c li.
RDI(trc y l FERF-Far End Receive Failure ): Bit 5-7 ca byte G1
c dng bo v trm gc l trm xa pht hin mt s c nghim
trng nh : Nhn AIS .
Li tn hiu .
ng kt ni khng hon thnh .
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
8 7 5 6 4 3 2 1
spare
RDI


REI
(PATH-FEBE)
Hnh -Cu trc cc bit trong byte G1

7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
43
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
Bng 5.4:Cu trc RDI ca byte G1
b5 b6 b7 ngha Nguyn nhn
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
u xa khng c s c
u xa khng c s c
S c ti trng u xa
u xa khng c s c
S c u xa
S c dch v u xa
S c ni u xa
S c u xa


LCD, PLM

AIS, LOP, TIM, UNEQ(hoc SLM)
AIS, LOP
TIM, UNEQ
AIS, LOP, TIM, UNEQ(hoc SLM)
F2, F3: Knh nghip v
- Dng lin lc gia cc trm ca tuyn phc v cho bo dng.
H4: Ch th a khung
- Byte H4 trong VC-3 v VC-4 c lin qian n cc lung nhnh bc thp khi ghp
cc lung ny vo VC3 hoc VC-4.
- 2 bit cui ca byte H4 ch th v tr cc byte con tr TU-1X v TU-2 trong a khung
VC-3 v VC-4
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
VC3/VC4 POH
H4 ( 0 0 )
H4 ( 1 1 )
H4 ( 1 0 )
H4 ( 0 1 )
H4 ( 0 0 )
TU PTR(V4)
VC-3/VC-4 Payload
9 hng
TU PTR(V1)
TU PTR(V2)
TU PTR(V3)
TU PTR(V4)
VC-3/VC-4 Payload
VC-3/VC-4 Payload
VC-3/VC-4 Payload
VC-3/VC-4 Payload
Hnh -Mt v d ca ch nh a khung 500 s ca TU-12 dng cc byte H4
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
45
K3 : Knh chuyn mch bo v t ng (APS)
-Dng bit 1-4 truyn bo hiu APS mc VC-3/VC-4, cc bit cn li l d tr.
N1: iu hnh mng
-C chc nng gim st ni chuyn tip (TCM) cc HVC. Chc nng cc bit c th nh
sau:
TC-REI

TC-APId,TC-RDI,
ODI, d tr
OEI

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
- bit 1-4 : m li n (IEC) trong t m BIP-8 (B3). M ho 4 bit ca EIC nh sau:
b1 b2 b3 b 4 S lng BIP-8 b li
1001 0
0001 1
0010 2
0011 3
0100 4
0101 5
0110 6
0111 7
1000 8
1111 AIS n
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
IEC
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
46
-bit 5: ch th cc li khi khi ni chuyn tip(TC-REI)
-bit 6: ch th cc khi b li trong lung ra VC-n.
-bit 7 v 8: ch th im truy nhp ca lung ni chuyn tip (TC-APId), ch th
u gn c s c trong ni chuyn tip v thng bo TC-RDI chyun ti u xa.
Cu trc 2 bit ny ging hon ton byte N2.
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
47
6. S truyn tn hiu bo dng
Cc nh ngha v cc s kin v cnh bo trong SDH
Regenerator section on lp
LOS Loss of signal Mt tn hiu
OOF Out of frame Li khung(ngoi khung)
LOF Loss of frame Mt ng b khung
B1 Regenerator Li BIP on lp
RS-TIM Regenerator section trace Li khi nhn dng du
identifier mismatch on lp

Multiplex Section on ghp knh
B2 Multiplex section BIP error Li BIP on ghp knh
MS-AIS Multiplex section AIS AIS on ghp knh
MS-RDI Multiplex section remote Ch th h hng u xa
defect indication on ghp knh
MS-REI Multiplex section remote Ch th li u xa
error indication on ghp knh
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
48
Higher order path (HP) ng dn cp cao
AU-LOP Loss of AU-pointer -Mt con tr AU
AU-NDF AU pointer new data flag C d liu mi ca con tr AU
AU-AIS AU poiter justification event S kin hiu chnh con tr AU
B3 HP BIP error Li BIP ng dn cp cao
HP-UNEQ HP unequipped ng dn cp cao khng
c cung cp
HP-RDI HP remote defect indication Ch th h hng u xa ng
dn cp cao
HP-REI HP remote error indication Ch th li u xa
HP-TIM HP trace identifier mismatch Li (khng khp) khi nhn
dng du ng dn cp cao
HP-PLM HP payload label mismatch Li (khng khp) khi nhn
dng nhn ti tin ng dn
cp cao
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
49
Lower order path (LP) ng dn cp thp
TU-LOP Loss of TU-pointer Mt con tr TU
TU-NDF TU pointer new data flag C d liu mi ca con trTU
TU-AIS TU alarm indication signal Tn hiu ch th cnh bo con
tr TU
TU-LOM TU loss of multiframe Mt a khung TU
BIP-2/ B3 LP BIP error Li BIP ng dn cp thp
LP-UNEQ LP unequipped ng dn cp thp khng
c cung cp
LP-RDI LP remote defect indication Ch th h hng u xa
ng dn cpthp
LP-REI LP remote error indication Ch th li u xa
LP-RFI LP remote failure indication Ch th h hng u xa
ng dn cpthp
LP-TIM LP trace identifier mismatch Li (khng khp) khi nhn
dng du ng dn cp thp
LP-PLM LP payload label mismatch Li (khng khp) khi nhn
dng nhn ti tin ng dn
cp thp
(
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
50
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)



RSOH
MSOH
HP-POH LP-POH
LOS/LOF
RS-TIM
BIP Err




1
MS-AIS
MS-BIP Err
MS-REI
MS-RDI






AIS



AU-AIS
AU-LOP

1
HP-UNEQ
HP-TIM
HP-BIP Err
HP-REI
HP-RDI







1
TU-AIS
TU-LOP
LOM
HP-PLM





AIS






1


AIS

1
1
1
AIS
J0
B1
K2
B2
M1
K2

C2
J1
B3
G1
G1
H4
C2
V5
J2
V5
V5
V5
V5
HNH- CC TN HIU CNH BO V BO DNG
AIS
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
51
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
LOVC HOVC LT REG LT HOVC
LOVC
Tuyn bc thp
Tuyn bc cao
on ghp
on lp
on lp





LOS
LOF
LOS
LOF
LOF LOF
AIS AIS AIS
AIS AIS

AIS

RDI (FERF)
RDI (FERF)
RDI (FERF)
BIP-8 BIP-8
BIP-24



REI (FEBE)

REI (FEBE)
BIP-8



BIP-2
REI (FEBE)
MUX
THIT B U CUI
Hnh- S truyn tn hiu bo dng


7/7/2014
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52
Trong cc on ghp, cc on lp v trong cc tuyn u c cc tn hiu bo
dng v cc cnh bo tng ng.
Cc cnh bo c phn lm 2 nhm:
Nhm th nht truyn cng hng.
Nhm th hai truyn ngc hng (hay cnh bo xa)
Cc tn hiu bo dng l cc tn hiu thng bo v ch th trng thi ca
ng truyn.
Trong trng hp ng truyn c s c hoc b li th cnh bo ph hp
c pht i
Tn hiu bo dng on lp v on ghp
LOS
LOF
REI
MS-AIS

Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
53
LOS: Mt tn hiu
Khi mt tn hiu on no th on y pht AIS cng hng v
pht RDI ngc hng.
V d: u vo STM-1 mt tn hiu th:
Khi STM-1 ci t 3 bit cui ca byte K2 bng 110 v truyn
ngc hng ngc tr li cho STM-1 gc.
ng thi, ci t AIS vo cc bit b5,b6,b7 ca byte G1 bng
111 truyn cng hng n VC-n pha sau.
LOF: Mt ng b khung
Nu 625s tri qua m khng thu ng cc byte A1 v A2 th xc
nhn mt ng b khung.
V d: Khi trm u xa mt ng b khung th:
Ci t cc bit b6,b7,b8 ca bye K2 bng 110 v truyn ngc
li cho trm gc
ng thi, ci t AIS (111) vo cc bit b5,b6,b7 ca byte G1
truyn cng hng n VC-n pha sau

Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
54
REI (FEBE): Ch th li khi u xa
Khi kim tra t m BIP-24 (byte B2) pht hin c li th ci t REI
vo byte M1 v truyn ngc v trm gc.

MS-AIS : Tn hiu ch th cnh bo on ghp
MS-AIS xut hin trong cc trng hp sau y:
Hng thu thit b ADM b mt tn hiu (LOS)
Hng thu thit b ADM b mt ng b khung (LOF)
Lc , thit b s:
Ci t bit b6, b7, b8 ca byte K2 bng 111 v truyn cng
hng ti trm sau
Cc byte con tr ti thi im cng c ci t ln 1 v
truyn cng hng ti trm sau
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
55
Tn hiu bo dng tuyn VC-3 v VC-4
REI
LOP
VC-AIS
RDI

REI (FEBE): Ch th khi li u xa
Cc trm ghp kim tra t m BIP-8 (byte B3) trong VC-3 POH hoc
VC-4 POH, nu pht hin li th ci t cnh bo trong cc bit
b1,b2,b3,b4 ca byte G1 v truyn v trm gc.
LOP: Ch th con tr TU-3, AU-3 hoc AU-4
Ti pha pht, nu con tr no b mt th chuyn i tt c cc bit
trong con tr y bng 1 v truyn ti trm xa
Trm u xa nhn bit s ci t 100 vo cc bit b5,b6,b7 ca byte
G1 v truyn ngc hng v trm gc.. ng thi, ci t VC-AIS
vo byte C2 truyn cng hng

Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
56
VC-AIS: Ch th cnh bo tuyn bc cao
VC-AIS xy ra khi lung nhnh 34368 Mbps hoc 139264 Mbps ca
b ghp b mt.
Lc :
AIS ca b ghp y c ci t bng cch gn cc bit con tr
v cc bit trong VC-3 hoc VC-4 ca lung nhnh mt bng
1 v truyn cng hng.
Khi VC-3 v VC-4 tip theo nhn c AIS hoc LOP th ci t
AIS v truyn cng hng.
RDI (FERF): Ch th mt tn hiu thu VC-3/ VC-4 u xa
Trong trng hp u xa nhn VC-AIS, LOP, LOS th ci t RDI
(101) vo cc bit b5,b6,b7 ca G1 v truyn cng hng



Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
57
Tn hiu bo dng tuyn VC-3 v VC-4
REI (FEBE)
LOP
VC-AIS
RDI (FERF)

REI (FEBE): CH th li khi u xa
VC-n bc thp kim tra kim tra t m BIP-2 ca byte V5, nu pht
hin c li th ci t bit th 4 bng 1 v truyn ngc hng.
LOP: Mt mt trong cc con tr TU-2, TU-12, TU-11
Khi pha thu nhn c cc bit trong cc con tr TU bng 1 th:
ci t bit th 8 ca byte V5 bng 1 v truyn ngc v trm
gc.
ng thi, ci t VC-AIS vo cc bit ca con tr v cc bit ca
a khung VC-n bc thp truyn cng hng.


Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
58
VC-AIS: Tn hiu ch th cnh bo tuyn bc thp
Khi trm u xa nhn c cnh bo LOP, LOS, AIS trong tuyn bc
thp th ci t AIS tuyn bc thp v truyn cng hng.

RDI (FERF): Ch th mt tn hiu thu VC-n bc thp u xa
Khi trm u xa nhn c mt trong cc cnh bo trong lung tn
hiu bc thp nh LOP, LOS, VC-AIS th ci t cnh bo RDI trong
byte G1 ca VC-n bc thp v truyn ngc v trm gc.
Tn hiu qun l v bo dng (tt)
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
59
S cn thit ca ng b
ng b: L cc phng thc gi cho tt c cc thit b s trn mng vin
thng hot ng theo cng mt tc trung bnh.
C 3 cp ng b: bit, khe thi gian, khung
ng b bit lin quan n thit b. Cc u cui pht v thu ca mt
kt ni phi hot ng theo cng mt tc cho cc bit khng
c c sai.
ng b khe thi gian ng chnh my pht v my thu sao cho cc
khe thi gian c th c nhn bit trong qu trnh khi phc d liu.
(Bng cch s dng khun kh khung c nh phn chia cc byte.
Cc vn chnh ca ng b khe thi gian l thi gian nh li khung
v pht hin) mt khung.
ng b khung lin quan n vic my pht v my thu c cn
bng v pha sao cho c th nhn bit s bt u ca mt khung.
(Khung ca T-1 hay E1 gm c 24 byte hay 30 byte tng ng v mt
xung ng b khung, thi gian ca mt khung l 125s )

ng b mng
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Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
60
Cc phng thc ng b mng SDH
Gii m byte trng thi ng b S1
S1 c dng chuyn thng tin v cht lng ca tn hiu ng
b c trao i gia cc phn t mng. Thm vo , gii m byte
S1 gi i bi NE s gip nhanh chng xc nh c ngun ng b
cho NE .
Khi NE c ng b trc tip t ngun PRC (Primary Reference
Clock), bn tin S1 c gii m l G.811. Ngha l: NE nhn c tn
hiu ng b t PRC theo khuyn ngh ITU-T G.811.
Khi NE c ng b gin tip t ngun PRC (Primary Reference
Clock), bn tin S1 c gii m l G.812. Ngha l: NE ang nhn tn
hiu ng b t ng h t (slave) ca PRC theo khuyn ngh ITU-T
G.812.
ng b mng
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61
ng b phn t SDH
Ch ng b ngoi: S dng ngun nh thi c lp vi cc
ngun ng h ni, hoc tch t thit b quang hoc t tn hiu
nhnh thu c. Ngun ng b ngoi thng l ngun ng h c
chnh xc cao nh ng h Stratum.

ng b mng
Hnh- Ch ng b ngoi
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62
Ch b ng b ng truyn (line timimg)
Tn hiu ng b c tch t tn hiu quang thu c t mt
hng v c dng ng b cho c hai tn hiu quang pht
trn c 2 hng v ton b tn hiu nhnh c kt cui bi
ADM .
ng b mng
Hinh- Ch ng b ng truyn
7/7/2014
Ghp knh PDH & SDH -- Chng 9- H thng truyn dn SDH --
63
ng b vng (loop timing)
Ch ny c dng cho cc NE u cui. y l mt dng ca
ng b ng truyn.Trong tn hiu ng h c s dng
ng b tn hiu quang pht cho hng ngc li v cc tn hiu
nhnh ca thit b u cui.
ng b mng
Hinh- Ch ng b vng
7/7/2014
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64
Ch ng b xuyn qua (Through Timing)
L mt dng ca ng b ng b ng truyn c p dng
cho on lp. Trong tn hiu quang u vo c dng
ng b tn hiu quang pht cng hng. S ng b cc tn
hiu truyn theo hng ngc li qua trm lp l c lp. V vy
mi hng cn c 1 ngun ng b.

ng b mng
Hinh- Ch ng b xuyn qua
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65
ng b mng
Ch chy t do (Free run)
L phng thc ng b bng cch s dng ng h ni. ng
h ni thng thuc loi Stratum 3.5 ( 20 ppm). ng h ni b
ca thit b cung cp tn hiu nh nhp cho cc tn hiu quang
u ra v cc tn hiu nhnh.
Nhc im ca phng php ny l tri ca tn hiu ng h
ni ln hn nhiu so vi cc loi ng h khc trong mng.

Hinh- Ch chy t do
ng h
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66
Cu trc mng ng b
Hai phmg php c bn ng b cc ng h node mng l:
ng b ch t
ng b tng h (thng dng cho mng mc li, ang
nghin cu)
Mt mng ng h c bit c thit lp bo m tt c cc
phn t trong mng vin thng c ng b vi nhau.
Mng c phn b theo hnh thc phn cp:
PRC: l mt ngun ng h chun s cp iu khin tt c cc
ng h cho cc node mng (SSU) v cc phn t mng (SEC).
Cng cn phi quan tm n cc tn hiu cn ng b vo trong
mng ng b.

ng b mng
ng b mng
PRC
SSU
SSU
SEC
SEC
SEC
SEC
SEC
SEC
PDH
SSU
SEC
SEC
SEC
SEC
SEC
SEC
SSU
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PRC: Primary Reference Clock
SSU: Synchronous Supply Unit
SEC: SDH Equipment Clock

Chui di nht khi u t 1 PRC khng vt qu 10 SSU. Trong :
S SEC gia 2 SSU 20
Tng SEC 60
PRC: l b dao ng Cesium c LORAN-C hay GPS h tr

ng b mng
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ng b mng
PRC
PDH
SSU
SEC
ng h chun s cp
B cung cp ng b
ng h thit b SDH
ng h t PDH


c
h

n
h

x

c

11
10

9
4.10

8
10

6
4, 6.10

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ng b mng
PRC: l mt ng h ch cho mng
Mt trong nhng loi ng h PRC l ng h Stratum 1(c cht lng cao nht
trong mng)
Stratum 1: L ng h chy t do, khng s dng tn hiu tham chiu ng b.
Thng Stratum 1 l ng h nguyn t Cesium.
Mt loi PRC khc l cc ng h da trn h thng nh v ton cu (GPS) v
cc ng h LORAN-C. Chng khng c xem l Strtum1 v chng c iu
khin. Chng dng b dao ng ni rubidium hay quartz c iu khin bng
cc thng tin ng b thu t GPS hay LOEAN-C ( )
3 12
10 , 2.10

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ng b mng
Not applicable 15 / minute 4
255 slips 130 / hour 3
10 / day 2
Not applicable 2 / year 1
Holdover ( ) Worst-case slip rate Minimum accurary Stratum
11
1.0 10

8
1.6 10

6
4.6 10

5
3.2 10

1 24
st
hrs
10
1.0 10

Slip rate =
S khung b xa (hoc lp li) (frame)
Thi gian o (unit time) ( /minute /hour/day /year)
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ng b mng
V d: Stratum 4

chnh xc:



5
5
3.2
3.2 10
10


=
3.2 (bit b xa)
(bit truyn i)
5
10
=
3.2 (sec b xa)
(sec truyn i)
5
10
=
3.2 8000 (frame b xa)
5
10

(sec truyn i)
=
25600 (frame b xa)
(sec truyn i)
5
10
0.256 (frame b xa)
=
1 (sec truyn i)
=
0.256 60 (frame b xa)
1 (minute truyn i)
=
15.36 (frame b xa)
1 (minute truyn i)
= 15.36 slips / minute
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Go on!