ENCYCLOPAEDIA

OF BUDDHISM
Volume II
(btt caurtesy of the Brili,sh Museum, Lotdrrpl
.
ARHAT
Chineso glazed pottory l0-llth century from tho I-chu c&vos, Hopei
TNflYCI,$PAH&HA
OF BIJ$H}ffiH$M
edited, by
G. P. MALALASEKERA, o.B.E.
Hox. D. Psrr,. (Moscow), IfoN. D. Lrtr. (Ceyl on),
t{ov. D. Lrtr. (Vi dyodaya Uni v. of Ceyl on),
D. Lr r . ( Lond. ) , l \ I . A. , Ps. I ) . . ( Lond. ) ,
Ilembro d'honneur de I' Ecole Frangaiso d' Extrdme Oriont,
High Comrnissioner for Ceylon in Britain,
Formerly Professor of PaIi end Buddhist Civilization anri
Doan of tbe Faculty of Oriental Studies, {fniversity of Coylon, Professor Emeritus.
VOLUME II
Apa
-
Bharhut
1966
PUBLISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF CEYLON
PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS. CEYLON
l l l
Fascimile Reprint
Reprinted in 1998
by
The Department of Buddhist Affairs
Ministry of Buddhasasana
Direct Copied and Printed at the State Printing Corporation
IV
NOTE
THE system of transliteration used in the case of Pali and Sanskrit terms is that now generally
accepted by scholars and lexicographers. In the case of Chinese and Japanese names and words,
Wade's system has been followed. Where Siamese words are concerned, a system suggested by
H. H. Prince Dhani Nivat has been largely adopted.
In certain cases the textual word (Pali, Sanskrit, Tibetan, & c.) has been retained in prefer-
ence to a dubious English rendering with a connotation foreign to Buddhism. Thus, Sarigha for
the Order of Monks; bhikkhu for priest,
monk or almsman; arahant for saint; karma for action;
bodhisattva for aspirant for enlightenment,
& c. And such term will be used in the language of the
source employed, Nibb-ana (Pali),
Nirv-ana (Sanskrit),
& c. But a comprehensive sysrim of .torr-
references will ensure that the reader who is not familiar with such technical termsis guided from
an English term to the more precise
and classical one; thus, Appeiception, see Jav4na; Awareness,
see Sati; Void, see SEnya; & c.
In Ceylon the dates of events up to the l6th century have been taken from the Chronological
List in the univenity of ceylon, History of ceyton, vol. I,
part
II.
Instead of A. D. the abbreviation A. c. has been used throughout.
ADVISORY BOARD OF THE SANGHA
The venerables:
Phra Ariyanandamuni (Thailand)
Prof. Dr. Polwatte Buddhadatta, Maha NEyaka Thera, Agga Mahe Paqdita (Ceylon)
Phra Nirantarlfr4namuni (Thailand)
Prof. Dr. Dehigaspe PafifidsEra, Ndyaka Thera (Ceylon)
Shirob-Jaltso (China)
Rosen Takashina (Japan)
U Thiuhila, Mahd Thera, Agga Maha Paqgita (Burma)
Iilduruve Uftardnanda, Nfyaka Thera (Ceylon)
U Visuddha, Mahd Thera, Agga Mahe'Papdita (Burma)
BOARD OF HONORARY EDITORS
Phya Anuman Rajadhon
Prof. P. V. Bapat
Prof. Dr. F. D. K. Bosch
Dr. Chao Pu-chu
Dr. E. Cor:.a:€
Prof. Damdin-suren
Prof. Paul Demidville
Prof. Nalinaksha Dutt
Prof. Jean Filliozat
Prof. E. Frauwallner
Dr. Richard A. Gard
Prof. Dr. H. Von Glasenapp
Lama Anagarika Govinda
Prof. Helmut Hoffman
Miss I. B. Horner
Mr. Christmas Humphreys
Dr. B. C. Law
Prof. F. D. Lessing
Dr. U Lu Pe Win
Dr. Shoson Miyamoto
Prof. Dr. Heinz Mode
Dr. Makoto Nagai
Prof. S. Paranavitana
Prof. Nihar Ranjan Ray
Prof. Rahula Sankrityayana
Prof. Tan Yun-shan
Prof. Giuseppe Tucci
Prof. Dr. Ernst Waldschmidt
Prof. Friedrich Weller
Prof, O. H. deA. Wijesekera
vl l
A.
AA.
AAWG.
AbhK.
AbhKbh.
AbhKk.
AbhKug.
Abhs.
Abhcy.
Abhut.
ABIA
ABORI.
AbcPu!.
AbsPry.
Ad{P.
Akanurno 7
Alcanwno
2
AKM.
AM.
AMG.
,
Aniga.
Aneealc'd
Aak.
Au6.
BASR.
BB.
Bbh.
Bc.
Ariguttara Nikiya, f-Vf, ed.
R,.l forri s, E. Hardy, C. A. F.Ii hys
Davi ds, PTS. f 88b-f
gl 0
. o Agrguttaranikdye
Affhakatha,
(l\Lanorathapr-rrani),
I-\/, ed. M.
Walleser, If. Kopp,
pT
S. 1994-56
Abhandlungen der
Alademio der
Wissongchaften in Gcittingerr
Abhidhar,mahoSa (Ndeari
char.a-
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Baaaras, lg30
Abhidharmako6abhEsya,
ed. Th.
Stcherbatsky, BB.- XX, t9g0
AbhidharmakoSak6,rikd, od. L. de
la Vall6e Poussin,
Paris, lg3l
Abhidharnako€avydkhyd,
ed.
U. Woqihara, Tokyo, 1982-86
,A.bhidhammatthasarigaha,
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T. W. B,hys Davida, Jp?,9. 1694,
l _48
Abhidharm&samuecaya,
erl.
P. PraChan, VBS. LZ, l gb0
Abhidh*mrnEvat6ra, ed. A.
p.
Buddhadatta,
BM. l, lglS
Annual Bibliography of Indian
Archmology, Kerrr fnstituto
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Oriontal
P"esea,rch Institute (poona)
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itopadeda35stra (Sanikrii
toxt
errd Tibetan translation),
ed.
Th. Stchorbatsky and E.'Ober-
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Epd-
ramit6vy6J<hy6,
ed. U. iVoei_
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ABBREVIATIONS
AO.
Ap.
ApA'
ArtA.
Arus-
1.,S.
ASCAR.
ASC I.
ASCMem.
A8IAR.
a
ASIMern.
AaP.
Ata.
Archiv Oriont6lni : Journal of the
Czechoslovak
Oriental Insti-
tute
Apg{l}o_,
I-ff, ed. M. E. Lilley,
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ApadEna Atfhakarh6 (Visuddha-
janavil6sini),
ed. C.
'8.
God;-
kumbura,
P?,S. lg54
Artibus Asiao (Ascona,
Switzer-
land)
Arthavini6geya,
od. A. Ferrari,
Iiome, 1944
duvihara Serios (Colombo)
Archeological
Srrrvey
of Ceylon,
A:rnual Report
Archaological
Survey
of Ceylon,
Ilrscnptron
Archeological
Survey of Coylon,
Memoir
Archeological
Survey of India,
Amual Report
Archeologicaf
Survey of hdia,
Memoir
AqJasdhasrikdpraji
6p6ramit6,
od.
R. Mitra,
Caicuita, tggg
A@natil<asrltra,
od. I[. Iloftnann
(Bruchetiicke
dos Atanatiaa-
sritra),
RITwrJ. V, lg3g
AvaddnakalpalatE,
ed. S. C. Das,
ar. 1888-:98
Avg{grafetaka,
ed.
p.
L. Vaidya,
BS?. 19,
l 95g
Bulletin de I'Acad6mie
doe Soienceg
do Russie
Bibliotheca
Buddhiea (Loningrad,
Bodhisattvabhrimi,
U. Woeil
hara, Tokyo, lgBF36
o-
BtITS;".y6vetd,re,.
ed. L. de ta
vaueo foussin,
Calcutta,
l 90t - r 4
Boclhica_ry-qyalerapafijikd,,
ed. L.
de la Vall6e
pouinin,
f
g0Z
Buddhist
Dictionary,
by NyEna-
Iloka_
(reviseh-
-eailiort,
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BeaI, S. : lho Buddhist
T"ipi-
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Bullotin de l'6cole
trlanOaie€
d'Extr6mo
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Bendall, C. : Catalogue of Buddhist
Nanskrit Manuscripts,
Cam-
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Bhadrakalpdvad6na,
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Oldenboirrg,
1884
Buddhist
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Gram-
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F. Edgerbou, Yalo, lgd5
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BD.
Beal.
BEEEO.
Bendall
Bhkd,u.
aIrs.
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Bll.r,k. Bhavasa4nkrd,ntisritra (end com-
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1938
Bibliotheca Indioa (Calcutta)
Bibliogrephie Bouddtriquo (Paris)
Bollotino doll' Instituto Indiano
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A. P. Buddhadatte, P?,S. 19I5,
t927
Bullotin ds la Maison Francc-
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Bhikpqripr6timokga, od. E. Wald-
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Bibliothoca Orientalis llungarica
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Bulletin of the School of Oriental
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Institution
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Buddhist S*nnkrit Toxte (Dar-
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Buddbacarita, ed. E. II. Johrreton,
Cal cut t a, 1935
Buddhaghosuppatti (with transla-
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Buddhavatnss, ed. R. Morris,
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Tho Coylon Journal of Eistorical
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Coylon Journal of Scionce-Ssc-
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cpa-
CPD.
Cuisp.
D.
DA.
Ddlhu.
Dbhg.
Dbha.
DCBT,
DeS.
DeZ.
Dhlc.
Dhrnpr.
Dhp.
DhpA.
Dhpr.
Dhs.
DheA.
Dhscy.
Dhorytg.
Ntry-
BI.
BibtB.
BIIMEO.
BM.
BMFJ.
BTtnPrd,t.
BOE.
BPrdt.
A,S.
B^SO.4,S.
B^gs.
BST.
Buc.
Bup.
Buu.
BuuA,
Cabaton
Cq,tul.
CHJ.
CI T.
CJHSS.
CJSI.
Cku.
Coril,ier
Cp.
I ) P P A .
Dpv.
Dpu. ! .
I)ttltapt.
EI .
Ency. Bsnt.
ERE.
EW,
EZ.
Gg.
G]II,
GOS.
Gst.
G1,.
Guyti.
IIa,tl hu.
Hhs.
Hetub.
HJ AS.
HOS.
Hap.
I A.
IAL
IBK,
I C.
IHQ.
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JDLC.
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Jirgk.
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Ni rl dcsu-r' ar.rr.!Rnri ,
Papafi casi rdani ,
' l )arrr,mutthadi p*ni ,
. .
Paru.m&tthadiped, . .
Pararnatths,dipani, . .
l ' o,rarnal ,thadrpani ,
. .
Prlrrr,rn ult t h*dipani,
l'alarnatt]radipani. . .
Ilaru,r rru,tthaj otik4 f
,
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Parl nraLthamarrj usi ,
Sr;,,t{dharnrnapaj joi,ika f
,
fI,
Sadd ira,nrrnappakE sini,
Sarni rntapasfi di k6,.
S arnrrr ohav i n o rlu,n i,
iSirattirapptr,kEsini, . .
Sumangal avi l asi ni ,
V ru u dclb a1 outt v rhisjni,
\ r l j r r r l i r cl , od. f r r nr {
t r ar , r l r i t er i
) .
S. t t . l l r i khopni l | 1y*r , yr , , ,
S, r r , t i -
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Vi sm.
T' r t t .
\I ZKX,I.
Yam.
YumA.
?.DMG,
Crossrel erencos of speci al ti tl es to Abbrevi ati ons
Dhammasangani Allhaka,tha
ISuddhavamsa Atf hakat h6
.{t'rgutt ara }iikaya A!{,hakatha
Maha-iCrilla- ) niddesa Atlhakath6,
IIaj jhina
Nikdya Af,{,hakat}rd
Cariyapitaka Althakatha
f tir,rrttaka At
t,hakath6,
Paflcappakars,+a Alf,hakathd,
Petavatthu Apthakatha
lllheragathd A!{.hakatha
Therigatla A!,{hakathe . .
Khudclakapalha At thakatha
SuttanipE,ta A1lhakath !,
Visiiddhimagga Atlhakathd
Il ahn-(Cui l a-)
ni ddese Af
l hakatha
Patisam triridamagga A
t,lhakatha
Vinaya A'ythakathn
Vi bhanga
A!!,hakathn . .
Samyutta Nikiiya -{fi,hakrthii
Digha Nika;za Atphakatha
Apadana Agphakat ha . .
(DhsA.\
(BunA. \
( AA. )
(NdA. r, II)
(MA. )
(cpA. )
( I A. I
(PpA.)
(Puv,A.l
(ThasA.)
(ThEsA.)
(Khpa.)
(SnA. )
(ViarnA)
(Nd,4.. I, il)
(PsA. )'
(VdnA. )
( vbhA. )
(,S-4,)
(DA. I
(apA)
2. s. P. (: , e8420
XV
INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS
Andr6 Bareau
A. C- Banerj oe
A. C. S. I{ariyaw&s&ru
Akira llirakawa
A. L. Bagham
Bimala Churn Law
B. I)andaron
Banduls Jayawardhana
Bunyii Matsuda
Bonjamin Rowland
Chii-tsan
Chang K'e-cf i611g
C. Prabha
Constantin Rogamoy
Cbou Shu-chia
C. Sivaramamurti
Choshi Takoda
C. Witanachchi
D, J. Kalupahana
D. M. Lang
Dheni Nivat
D. T. Devendre
Dovapriya VeUsinha
Etatsu Akashi
E. Conze
Ernost Hunt
E. Ilector Perera
Enshrr l(anakura
Enicbi Oeho
Fa-tsun
Lama Govinde
George Coed$s
Gyokusen Ilosaka
Gauri K. Wijesekera
Gisyo
Nakano
G. N. Roerich
G. P. Malalasokers
Huang Ch'au-hua
Iforamba Chatterjee
I{. G. A, van Zeyet
ffohugon fchihawa
K. I I e.
K. IL.
I{. Ifu.
K. Kr.
I(. KE.
I(. I(u,
K. M,
K. N. J.
K. O.
K. s.
I {. Tx.
K. Turi .
I(. Tuv.
I(. Ts.
Ii . Yu.
K. Ys.
K. Yo.
I-,. A.
Hidenori Kitagawa
Hajime
Nakamura
I{. R. Perera
H. S. Cooray
Hakuju Ui
I{ebnut von Glasonapp
II. Sr. Bailoy
Issai Funahashi
Indumatie Karunaratno
fchimyo Suzuki
J. D. Dhiregokera
Jean Filliozet
Jf,shin Ikemoto
Jun Kugao
J. Kunkeler
Joh Myung-gi
J. N. Ganher
Jishu Oda
J. Takasski
Juneho Tanake
K. E. Wells
Kotatsu Fujita
Kyosho llayashirna
Keiki Eigashimoto
Kanyu Kabcse
Kazuyoshi Kino
Kodo Kurebryashi
I(ao Kuan-ju
I(dgen Mizuno
K. N. Jayatilleko
I{6jun Oyama
Kyogo Sasaki
I(anga Takabatake
I(ashiro Tamaki
Koy[ Ta'rnura
I{enryi Tsukinowa
I(yod6 Yamada
Kdsai Yasui
Kuo Yiian-hsing
Li An
XVII
L. C.
L. Cr.
L. d. z.
L. L.
I,. P. W.
L. R. G.
L. s.
L. T.
M. C.
M. K.
M. Z.
S. K.
S. Ku.
S. K. N.
S. Kr:.
S. l l e.
S. III.
S. Mo.
S. \ [ u.
S. Nr .
S. No.
s. o.
S. P.
S. Se.
S. Su.
S. Te.
S. Ts.
S. Y.c..
S. Yo.
T. C. H.
T. r.
T. I(e.
T. Ko.
T. Ku.
T. R.
T. S.
T. T.
T. Yo.
U. K.
w. G. w.
w. P.
w. R.
vt , . s.
w. s. K.
W. S. Kr .
Y. C.
Y. H.
Y. K.r.
Y. I(n.
Y. O.
Y. S'
Y. T.
z. T.
z. N.
Lti Ch'8ng
f.i Chung-r'arrg
Luey de Zoysa
Lung-lion
Lu Pe lVin
Lakehmi R. Goonesekere
Lueng Suriyabongs
Lin Tzfr-ch'ing
Moti Chandra
Morito Kayamoto
Makoto Zen.ba
N. A. Jayawickrama
Novillo Gunoratn-e
Nyanamoli Bhikkhu
Nyenasatta Thore
Nguyon Thang Thai
Osama Takada
Phya Anuman
Phouwong Phimrnasone
Poon Pismai Diskul
P. S. Jai ni
P. V. Bapat
R. A. Gunatilaka
Ryrikai Etani
Ryosetsu Fujihara
Retna I{andurukande
R. I.ingat
Reiho Masunaga
R. ].Iagaswemy
RyOshO
Nakamura
Rahula Sankrityayana
Ryodo Shioiri
Ryojun Shirakawa
RyOshd Taire
Ry0gaku Tsumoto
Ryrijo Yamade
Subhadradis Diskul
S. Dutt
Seibun Fukaura
Shigoru Gorai
Shintetsu ItO
Shriyn Kenaoka
Shozen Kumoi
S. K. Nanayakkara
Shunkyo Katsumata
Seiren Matsunami
Seiichi Mizuno
Sodo Mori
Sokusui Murakami
Seiryu \fasu
Shunjd Nogami
Senshi Ogasahara
S. Paranavitana
Shinten Sakai
Shinjo Suguro
Shinjo Tekonake
Sti Tsin-jen
Susumu Yamaguchi
Shfiki Yoshimura
T. Christmas Humphreys
Taijun Inokuchi
Toshio Kazama
Tokusui Kotani
T'ien Kuang-lieh
T. Rajapatirana
Takoshi Sakurabe
Tokan Tada
Toru Yasumoto
Upali Karunara,tna
W. G. W-eeraratne
W. Pachow
Walpola Rahula Thora
\Vang Sen
W. S. Karunaratne
W. S. I{arunatillake
}-ii Ch6n-sheng
Yu Hsia
Yuichi Kajiyuma
Y. Iiarunadasa
Yriken Ozawa
Yirbi Sanada
Yoshiro Tamura
Zenn} lshigami
Zonky0 Nakagawa
XViii
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
sbhl dhamma ( abhl dhar ma) , ' epeci el
d, har nma, ,
the analytic doctrine of the Buddhist cenon.
Buddhiet philoeophy
;
n&me of the third group
of the sarronieal books,
abhlpeka, rituel initiation, consecration of a rulor.
Eoarlya (icarya), teachsr.
trgama, a division of the Sanskrit cenonical t€rte
corrrsponding to niknyo of tho Peli canon.
tn6glmln,
'novor-rotumor',
ono who hae attained
tho tbird stage of tho path of holinoss.
tpgaras, coleetial nymph.
srshsnt (arhat), the perfected disoiple.
llana,
geat
or support of a god or group of gods.
6sava (6srava), montel intoricant.
tgutt, inferior deity inhabiting a lower world.
aytdtne, Etory illusbrating the rseultg of an act.
Dl8gavtrr, e soction of the Pali texts, e division
for purposes of recitation.
Dllkkhu (bhlkgu),
a Buddbigt monk.
bhlkkhunl (bhtkSuql), a Budd[iet nun.
bh[ml, stago of a bodhinattva'e neligious psogloss.
DIla, lit.
'
seed
', '
germ
',
the eeod of onlightenment;
mystic lotter or syllablo in a magic fornula.
bodhl, enlightenment.
Doilhloltta,
'thougbt
of onlightenmont
,,
mental
efrort for enligbtonmont.
bodhlsatta (bodhlsattva), a boing aspiring to the
supre,mo onlightonment of a Buddba.
brahmaoarlytr, roligioua life, celibacy.
brahmaloka, bighest heaven, abodo of brahmas.
brtrhman, a momber of tbe priestty caete in India,
from Yedic timse onwarde.
brahma-vlhira, Ut.
'divine
abodos', tbo four
gullimo
or divine statee of mind (lovo, pity,
oympathetic joy,
equanimity).
Butlilha, tho Enlightenod Ono.
buddhak6ott8,'Buddhe.field',
domain of a Buddha's
miniotry.
ctltya, so€ oetlya.
caklayattln (cakravartln), world ruler.
c84{ela, an outcaste.
sotlya (caltya), a eepulohral nonument; e shrine.
deva (dovat[), a doity.
-loka,
hoaven.
dhamma (dharma), norm, law, doctrino; thi'lg,
objeot of mind
;
phonomenon.
dh[rapl, a magic foruula.
dharma, soe dhamma.
dbarmaf,[yo, ono of tJre tbree forue of existonce
of tho Buddhe, according to MahEydna, correti.
tutiag the essence of ell Buddhar.
dhy8na (lhtna), rtete of mentat abaorption.
dhyEnt-bodhlsattva, transconclont bodbissttva.
Dhy[nlbuddha, transcendeat Buddhs.
gstrdhabba (gsnalh8rTr), oelortial mueioian.
Stthl,
ver8o,
gt*nza.
gfvuta, a linoar Do€tsurs, lods t'hau two mileg.
guhyantna, m5rstio uaule.
Elnay6nq
'tho
srnall vehiole', Dsno iu Ma,b6ytrna
texte deecribing tbe ea,rly temhing of Buddhian.
Tborevdde being tbe bes0 howa.
lddht (tddhl), psychic powor.
titaka,
story of a previoue birth of ths Bud,lhc.
thdna
(dLyina), state of montal ebsot4ptim.
kalpa (kappa), a world oycle, an a€oD.
karma (kamma), action
;
law of cause
eod offcot,
khattlya (f,latrlye), e menber of the wenior oagte
klnnarl (kltrnara), mythical b€ing, pertly
hunan
ho{lr a croro or lQ
rnilli64.
kgatrlya, eee Mettlyr.
kusalg (kuislr), good, ncritorloue; skilful. rtuarlr
(akuiah), imrropor, wr(xrg, bad; ungkilful.
lona, a Tibetan Buddbigt priest.
lokadhttu, world eystem.
fahiydnc,
'tbe
greet vohicle', nano givea to tbo
developod t6r6ahings of Buddhisn, basod oa tbe
dootrino of seving othors.
xlx
ma4dslS, ma,gic cirele.
mantra, mystic formula.
mudrfl, mystic poso of the hand.
neg8, snako, serPent-demon.
Nibbins
(Nirvdna), cessation of the process of
bocoming, tho ultimato goal in Buddhism.
nlk6ya, sub-division of the Pali canon'
ntnya,
purgatory, hell.
ulrmii4akEys,
one of ths threo forms of the Ruddha,
aceording to Mah6y6na, constituting tho human
fom arloptod by him.
HlrvEUa, se€ Nlbbiina.
Docookrbuatdha
(pratyekabuildba)' &n onlightened
ons who doee not preach to the world.
pr$Clt, lea'rned porson.
pEramlti, perfection by a bodhisattva.
psrlbbelska (parlvrilaka), a wandering roligious
mendicant.-f.
parlbbiilka (parivr[iika).
p8rltt8, protoctive charm, usually part of the canon.
peta (prota), a departed sPirit.
plAiioa (pls6ea), I demon, goblin.-f. pMcl (plsSsl).
pratyekabuililhr, soo paocekabuililha.
purohltS, br6hman chaplain t6 s'
king.
rlf6,
king
or member of the ruling family.
Ialilhl,
s€o ldilhl.
rtkkhasa
(r6kgosa), a,lrind of malovolont demon.-f.
rskkhssl (r6kFast).
rtilhana, forrnula f,or tho invocation of a deity.
sakadegemh
(sakTiltrgilmln),' onoe rotulner', one
who has attainod tho socond stago of holinoes.
$oktl,
enorgy of a god, symbolisod as a fomale.
Sikya, n&mo of a clan to whieh Gotama Buddha
belongod.
$8miilhl, concontration.
sflma4era, e novice.-f. siima4erl.
sambhogakliya, one of tho three forms of existence
of the Buddha, according to Mah6yd,na, consti-
tuting the superhuman form in which he manifoste
hirnself.
sarnslla, round of birth and doath.
Sangha, community of Buddtriet rnonks and nuns.
sEsana, message, teaching, dispensation.
sdvaka
(6rf,vaka),
di sci pl e of the Budtl ha.-f. si vi ki
( sr i vl ki ) .
setthi, wealthy merchant,' treasurer, bankrrr.
si l a, morai practi ce, rnoral i ty.
Sl oka, stanza.
soti panna (Sroti panna),
'
stream-rvi nner' , who has
attained the initial stago of holiness.
sotapatti (Srotdpatti), enteriug upon and attaining
the first stage of the path of holiness.
sti i pa (thi pa), a rel i c-mound.
sutta ((s[tra), a discourse in tho canon.
tantra, a class of osoteric literature.
Tathigata, epithet of a Budclha, genorally used
by Gotanaa Buddha in reforence to himself.
thera, a
gonior
monk.
thori, a sonior nun.
thtipa, see stiipa,
Tipi{aka (Tripitka), the Buddhiat cenon, oonsisting
of threo eolloctions, Vinaya, Sutta, Abhidham"'a.
uddena, summary of contents.
upesaka, a lay devotee.-f. upEsike.
llp8sampAalf,, ahigherordingfisn of a monk or a nun.
uposatha,
'fasting
day', a woekly eaered day,
dopendent on tho pha"se of the moon.
flrqd (unp5), circle of bair botween oyo-brows.
u$Slfa (u4hisa), protuberance on head of Buddhas.
vagg:r (varga), chaptor of a book.
Yehana, the mount, of a doity.
vlhlra, monastery.
Vlnaya, monastic discipline. Collection of rules
of coaduct for monks and nuns, formins &
division of the c&non.
yakkha (ya$a), & domon.-f. yakkhlnt
(yaksi,
yakgi 4i ).
JoBa,
union
;
concentration of mind
;
endgavour;
austoro ascetic practice
;
(magic) powor.
yogln, one who praetisos contomplation;
one
p,ossessod of supernormal powers.
yogini, female demon or eny boing endowod with
magieal power; woma,n reprosenting a goddess
who is the object of adoration.
yot,rng, a linear me&srlre, ahout 7 miles.
XX
EI\CYCLOPAEDIA
OF
BTJDDHISM
VOLTJME II
IPA, weter, one of the mah6bhfita. Soo BIIUTA.
APA, a clase of deities montioned in the Mahfr-
eanury& Sutto (D. II, 259) among those attending
tbo groat concoureo of gods which essomblod to
hear tho preaching of the Buddha. The word
Apo detsd,,literally meaning water-gods, is mentioned
along with threo others, palhansi (oa.rth) detsd,
teio (fire) d,eod, snd a6,yo (air) deud. The
commontary on ths sutta (DA. T1,689) says that
the Apd, d,eud wetc born as such by virtuo.of their
having practised meditation on wat'er (d,pokosi,rw)
in their provious lives. But tbe four groups of
devas mentioned here are, more plausibly, doi6oa-
tions of the four elements, earth, water, fire and air.
B. J.
APABERAilSA, the generic na,me givon to various
Middle Indian Vemaculars es 8ep&rato from the
standard literary Prakrit languages. At first
they were only spoken dialects but later they,
too, roceived literary fom. The word et5rmo-
Iogicelly rne&ns
'doparturo
from correct speech'.
The Apabhrap6a dialects were the immediate
predocoesors of the modern Indo-Ary&n vernecu-
lars, Thoy were used by various Jain and Buddhist
authors but it is d.ifficult to say when they booamo
literary languages-
Early mention of the word apabhra,mia itself
goer &s far back as tho 2nd cont,. 8.0. lho uso of
Ap*bh'a1o.e by writers go6s baok to at least the
?th aont, A,C.; ond wos currerrt fsr somo half a
dozen centuries afterwards. P. C. Bagchi speaks
of a well-known Tibetau tradition that the
efreen sf the MnJrde*nr+etlyee
.rss
written in
Apabhrarn-6a.
I
In its lator days it, was a vehicle
of a class of Buddhist poetry in the dohfr met'to
(couplets of varying measure). Buddhist divines,
suo as TillopEda, Sorahapdda and l{aphapEda,
composed zuch verses on the subjoct of mysticism.
This idiom was then traditionally called eandhyd
bhd,€d (twiligbt tongue). The lator sects, €.8.,
Tantrists and Vajraydnists, also hed some litereturo
iu Apabhra4gSa. (See E. L. Jain, Thc Hi'st'ory and
Qulture of the Inilian Peopil,e, fV, 2I2 ff.)
D. T. D.
APACARA, a king of the first kappe snd e previous
birth of Dovadatta. I[o was tho world's firet li8r.
Ile was better known as Upacara.
APAOAYIKA SUTTA of the Sacw Saqnyutta
(,S. V, 468), incorroctly named Padyikc both in tho
text and thLe uddd,na (DPPN. ff' 92), etetee that
those who pay respect (opdyi'kd) to elders a,ro fbw,
whereas those who do not aro quite numerorrs.
The sutta is very short and was dolivored by the
Buddha to the monks.
APACCAKXHAKAilUA SIITTA. Tbe Buddha
says, in &nswer to a quostion by Vacchtgobtn,
that it is as s result of not making clear the rreturo
of the fivo groups of existence (klwdlnl bllo;r
diverso viows ariso ae to whether tho world is
etornal or not, finito or not, wbether the life and tlro
body are identicel or not, whsthor tho Tatbdgata
exigts after death or not (,S. frT, 262).
APAC0UPALAKKEAIIA SUTTA. Tho arisirrg of
diverse views, given in tbe Apm'cakhlnkornma
$utta, is attributod to not differentieti.E the livo
gtoupB of evistence (S.
rTf,
261).
APACCUPEKKEANA
SUTTA AttribUtOg tIrO
arlsing of diverso views to not looking into the live
groups of erietence (S. III, 262).
APACITADEANA.
PRAPURAUA
-VIDHI.KALPA.
VBKSA-PAU$TII(A-N^[,ilA,
the rtconstructed Sans'
krit title of a text, the authorship of wlrich is
1
"
Fuudamental Problems of the Origins of Buddhism "
Grawi-laa-d*i,a,
New Series, XVII, No.168). See also this
iasre ruthor's &'rdizs in tlu Tarrttay (p- 27
) for his lnterpreta-
tion of scndlra bMil as' lntentional speech
'-
APADA!{A
APADATA
attributod to Ye-$es rdo-rje (Jfiikravajra).
It6
Tibetan vereion cccurs in the Rgyud_trgrd
(ta,ntra
co.mrrrentary) soction
of the Tongyur uudor
tho titts Nar-f,grib-pa
dgari,-bahd cln-ga dpq-baom
lnrgyas-ptt
shes-bya-ba (peking
Ed" Tib. Trip., ed..
D. T. Suznki , Voi . 79, No. BgS4). The work
describes a rito to bo performed
for the rosioretion
of lost wealth.
'Iho
main instruetiong
e€t out
i:r the work are as follows.
An altar should be
erected with a rnixture
of earth brouglrt from
the promisos
of a not ioo poor horrso. An eiqht_
potallod red lolus should bo drawn on it with"the
figuros of a uajra in the micldle, a flask in the east,
a club (gadd) in the soutb, a shield in the north end
a coin (karsd,pana)
in tho rvest. Oblatione (bali)
and offorinp;s
of lamps, inconse, flowors and conch-
sholls should bo propared.
Garlands of flcryars
should bo hrrng on four posts of kL,atlira (aaacia
catechuj wood placed at the four orrtrancee. Irinaily,
precious stones, corr and tho like shoulcl be laid
out, on the top of tho circlo of offerilgs. trlowers,
leaves and fruits should thon be arrangod
along the
border cf the cirr:le (rrnndala).
Various kinds of
scont should be sprinkletl and i;zrsrz grass
strown
around. Curtains of difforent kinds cf silk should
be h.tog enclosing tho venue of t,ho sscrifico.
T'nages
and paintin.gs
of tho Tathdgata are to bs
placed on the sicles, as also offorings of dolicious
food, drink and paps. The priest, aajra and boll
in hand and decked
-,vith
ornaments, sbould. thon
perform the ceremor'-ial ablutions standing on the
ground strewn with lcuia grass.
Ilis assistairts,
also bsdecked with ornaments,
should be instailo,i
in their propor placos. Then those stsnding on tho
right should enter from bohind and drive out
evil spirits with the sound hil,m and, t..un back.
Thoso on tho loft should entor from the north-oast,
chant the formula
O\n uajra yakaa
hd,m hfim and.
so prevent the appearanee
of evil spirits responsible
for the docreaso of *'ealth. Tbo ceromony should
continue for three days. On the third day, the
priest shorrld enter the circlo (ma4dnla)
frorn tho
west, porform & coremony
of consocration,
make a
large offering to I{uvera and nominate trinr to be
in charge cf the r.iches. Theroupon t;he priost, and
his essistqnh should request l(uvera and tri.s
following
'bo
incroaso their woalth aad. prevent
any loss oi'it. IvIoro offerings ero to be rnacle to the
accompanirnellf,
of tho sour.d of e5rrnhals and
further bleesings
solicited.
R" H.
APADANA, the thirtoenth soction of tho Kh,wddaka.
Nikdga of the Sutkt, .Pipaka. ft is a narretivo
wurk entircly in Pali stanzae and, as ths title
of tho book iiadicrtoe, is a coli.ection of taloe of the
piour works of the saiqts cr srahante.
The book ccrnsists of four rnain
gocf,ions,
n&mely,
fi) tho Budd.hd,pailnrr,o,
.
(ii) the Pa.ccekahtddhd-
puldrn, (iii) the Therapadano and lestly, (iv) tho
Therd-a1n&ru,
Theso four eections &ro agaln
subdivid,ed into fifty-nino groups or l'aggas. Of
thsm, the first fifa,y-fivo vaggas consist of 6b0 tales
ubout theras, oach vagga consisting of ten teles,
and :ramod after the titlo of the first tale narrated
in the v&gga. In the first vagga are algo includerl
b}ae B'uddhopad,dno arrd tho Paccelc,abtuldtd,paddna
whi.:b aro but minor soctione of the book. Tho
lest four v&ggas of the book coneist of forty talee of
thoris, o*ch vagge consisting of ten i*rlos.
The Bu<ld,fui1taddno ie & glorification
of tbe
Buddha, tho
'King
of th€ Dtr&rnma, endowod
with tho thirty porfoctions
{parami)'.
Ilere
tho }Juddha hirnself is mado to pronounco i,his
gic-,rifieati.on in reply to a question raised" by the
t:ldor Vedeha. In thie glorification the Buddha is
rnade to deecribo tho various meritorious d.oeds
ho had dono in his provious brtthe and their good
results.
'Ihe
Budd,hd,paidna, en.ds fut 8l strnzas
with a brief admorrition to tho monks to be united,
hoeriful and to follow the Noble Eightfold
peth.
Tho Pqccckab,wlilhapadd,rrq,
is a glorifie*tion of
paccokabuddhas
who
'
go their soiitary way,
like the rhinocoros'. l'he entiro sutta of tt^e
rhinocoros (Khaggaai.siirw
Sutta: Sn. i.
g)
is inserted hers. To tlro 4l stenzas of that sutte
another 17 etanzas have beon added, I et the
beginning and I at tho ond, thus making tho
Paccekabu,Jd,hdpaddna
a compositicrn
of 58 stanz&e.
This sect ion of tho book is written in a metre
differen.t from the rsgt of the book. (The
ffrst three
stanzas of the book are also in the same notr€.)
Tlre 7'herd,7ta,tlfina describos the glorious
do€ds of
55O arahants, beginning with tho story of S6riputta,
the chief disciple of tlre Buddha. This story
alono is longer than both the Buildhrt,yffirw
urrd.
l;ho Paccelcabu.dilhnpa.ddna (2-\4 stauzas). The story
of Sd,rirrr:tta is followed by thoso of other faeous
monks such as Mah6.Moggall6na,
Mah6,-Kassapa,
Anuruddha, Upili, Aflfid-Koldaflfia, pi4dola-
Bh6radv6ja, Auande, Rihula, RsFihapflla and
$opdka.
Thesr: biographies of tho theras are of tho somo
patterr," though thoir length differs considerably
from one another. I)very tale describee Bomo
moritorious deed done by the thera conoernd.
durirrp;
+"he
time
of a former Br:d.Cha and thon ths
APADANA
Apa.lrunl
pleasrrrea obr,ained during his subsequent eris-
Lgnces in nceordance with the prophecy uttered
try theib Butldhn s,nd. uiti:nately, the at,tainment,
of tho per.ferettion of nrr arahnnt," A:rotber charrlc-
teristic leatrrro of th*-.se Apaddnu-,t is fhu,t, like the
,l dtnkrts,l l most, al l of them have a story of t,her past
&Rd B. story c{ tho present,^
Wberess the Jtitolcos
relate a pror,'irrus existenco of the Budclha, the
Apadd,nas relate i.htr,t. of an arahant. Oniy a few
Apa'ildnas devia,to from this stereot5,pe.
"The
Tlteri-upadd,r,a is also compar"atively short.
It consists of biographies of fortv rerrowned nune,
divided into four vaggn,s or groups, each vagga
consilt,ing rrf ton bioqraphios. IIere appoar bio-
graphies of
gome
of tho famous nuns in tsuddhist
liferature, srreh as llahipajdpati Gotami, Khern6,,
ITpl r*rlu,"' ar.ir., 6. Patdc drd,, II r r n daiakesi, Tt i s6,gqt
alrr i,
Nanrtd, Jouapadakai.yir,ri, Yesodhar6, Il,ripananda
and Ambap6,li. These biographies of uuns follow
the same pattern as thoso of monks.
In additicn to these. there &ro & largo
number
of names which are only descriptive titles, e.g.,
the theras,t' Di spenser
of fans ",
,,
Di speneor of
elothes ",
Dispenser of mangoes
", " lVorshipper of
lbotprints ", $nd thc theris,
',
I)ispenser
of
water ", " i)iepenser of fi.ve se&ts ",
,,
Dispenser
cf rico gruol
" and the like.
Tlrc Apxtd,ano is eertainlv one of the latest works
of tfo Khttdd,aka Nikdga and of tbe canon. Ag
B. C. [,aw
ha.q pointed out irr his Histmy af
pali
Litcrrttu,,re (p. 7), th"
Apa.ddno is not includ.od as a
lrrrr.1, .r1' tJ:e K.huil.daka tlikdlta in tlro Di,ghabh^iqtaka
list,, but, it finds mention as the thirtsenth book
of'tho Elrud&rku N'ikdya ir r,he Majjhimobhinalco
list,, Thirr woulcl lead to the inference thet et tho
timei the Dngh,i,bhd,nalca listt was completed the
Apsddrw weg not congiderod ss I text of the
Khu.ddaka N,ikd,ya, and probably also of
+,he
cAnon.
Morerovor, the reforence in tho Apaddna to numerous
Buddhas presupposes tire legencl
of twenty-four
previorrs Buddbas which ie only a later develop-
nrent of the older legend of six Bucldhas
contained
irr other ports of the c&non srrch as the D\gho
!li,hd,ya. B. C. f,aw also sa,ys that
on6 of the
Apadaruw sooms to allurfe tc the Kathduatth,u,
&d &n Abhidita,mtz.z cornposition (Ap. I, B?) and
IlLyu Do-ido B,rBueF tlrst, if it i;i so, fne Apaddna
qr.et
lre o-r of'lhe rrery latest books of tfuo canon,
Tha Apaddnc melces no attempt to ioach the
higlrer doctrineg in Buddhisrn. fts storiee deel
with the merits done by the good pecple, laying
rauch strese ol the formal eepects of religion, 6.g.,
pfr,jd,
aondattti, ddna,, etc. Very often tho good
deed is tbe erection of a cetiya, cleaning round
a cotiya, white-washing a cotiya, sweeping the
compound of a cetiya or a bodhi-tree or some such
comrnonpls,ce action. Thtis, the Apoitdrw
hes aimod to emphasise ths charitable and human-
itarian aspects of Buddhiet life.
Tlne Apad,d,nn is as copious a composition as
the Jita,ka, though of less literary valuo. Its
naffativos boar much in corn'non with thoeo of tho
TheragrTtha, tbe Thertgarha and the Vimd,nantatthu
in their contents and also in their style. Sonnc
n&rratives of tho ApaC,arw give more details of tho
personeges
described in the Thera, Ther*gdihd. o.g.,
Kisdgotami
and Paf dcdr6.
The legends of the Apadana have beoa tbe eubjeot
mattor for many other ,later compositiong, like
the two Pali workg,l}rre Sdd,huenrito and tho Rua-
udhini, and the two Sinhaleso proso works, ths
Puj au alig a end tho K athind,nis ams &y a.
T\e Apaddrwhn its counterpart in t}lre Auaildru
in Buddhist Sanekrit literature.
I I . R. P.
APADAilA-ATTEAI(ATHA, the oommonrary oo
the Apadine. Ses VISIIDDEAJANAVILASINI.
APADAXIYA, Brr crahant thors. Ninety-two
kappas ago ho oulogised the life-hietory
@pffitum
pakittayir.n) of the Budrlhn and paid
homage et
hi.e feet. Ae e conesquoaco of this good deed he
know no svil birtb theroaftar (Ap.I,24).
APADIKA, & river, on the banks of which Vsgabha
thera, in a provioue birtb as the rnattsd
heirod
escetic (jaiila)
Ndrada, erscted t pulirw (sa,nd)
cetiya which was Bneared with gold in memory of
earlier Buddhas (Thag /t.. If, tO). Intho Apaffitu,
Vaeabha thera is reforred fe ss
prrlinathripiyatthera,
aud tbe river Apadiks es Amerike (var.
Apariko:
Ap. TI , p. a37) .
ApAlfUnA, a grove in tho city of S6nkE6ye
in
Irrriia, meationod in the Aaaddna Sda,ka.
'When
Maudgalydyana informed the Buddha in the
'Ird,yatrirpiat
d,euq, world that the people af Jambu-
d:tttpa were &nxious to
gee
him, the Buddha aeked
hivn f6 Bnnounce to them that be would come dowrt
from the deuo world and appeor iu the Apajjura
gr ove ( 4u6. 215, 216) .
U. K.
APALATA 4 A-P'AII
APAIAIA, a nega king converbed by the Buddha,
mentioned in the Buddlmaamsa corn'nentary
(BuaA. 32) along with Arav6la, Dhanapdla and
P6,rileyyaka, whoro it says that tho Buddha was
honoured even by beasts. In the Sama&apd-
sdd,ikd, (VinA. TV, 742\ the conversion of Apald.la
(Apalaladamana) is given among the stories
.not
included in the three Councils (Sohg6ti) but tho
reference to it in the Mahiuamsa (Mha. xxx,
84) as one of the many scenes depicted in ths
relic chamber of the Mahdthripa shows that the
incident was known quite early in Ceylon.
(See Vol. il Pl. I). TIte Dduyd,aadfrna (pp. 348,
385) makes referenco to tbo incident and says that
thon6ga was converted shortly beforo tho death of
the Buddha. I{stian-tsang (Beal, Records of the
'Western
World, f, pp. 168-9) gives the story in
detail. According to him this ndga was borr as a
man called Gangi in the time of Kd3yapa Buddha.
By his charms ho overcame the power of the
dragons and the people were able to harvest much
grain. Thereupon each family agreed to offer him
a peck of grain as a yearly tributo. Later, somo
forgot their promise and Gangi prayed that he rnight
become a dragon after death to destroy their crops.
IIis wish was fulfilled and he began to destroy all
the products of the earth. The Buddha out of com-
passion went there, to convert the dragon. Taking
tb.e mace of the Vajrapdr,'i spirit, he beat against
the mountain side. Tho dragon king, terrified, came
forth and paid him roverence. Ifearing the
preaching of the law by the Buddha ho was pleased.
Tho Buddha forbade him to injure tho crops but
tho dragon in order to support himself begged to
havo ons gathering overy twelvo yoars. The
Buddha granted this request. It is because of this
that tho Whito Rivor (Subhd,aa^str,r) overflowe its
banks every twelfth year.
Fa-hsien, too, gives a short account of the
conversion of the nd,ga. I{o says that the ndga
was the guardian deity of tho Subh6vastu river
and was converted by tho Buddha at Udydna
shortly beforo his death (Leggo, Ia-Eian'a
Traaels, p. 29). Nariman in his Litera,ry Edstow
oJ Sa,nskrit Bud,itrhism (pp. 194, 214) says that
this incident is montioned in the Sil,trdlari,kdra
and other Sanskrit books. Soe aleo AXARARA.
E. Ii . P.
APALOKINA SUTTA. The Buddha s&ys (,S. IV,
370) that the destruction of lust, hatred and
illusion is called the " undecaying "
;
mindfulness
rolating to body (kdyagar'dear?:) is tho path that
loa4s thor€to.
u. K.
AP^I-IIAR G A (Achgzanthes M.entatea), a modicinal
herb.
Tlbo C h' i en
-
s hou
-
ch' i en
-
y en
-
lcuan
-
shih
-
y i,n
- -
p' rt
-
so
-
chdh-pdns-ho-yao-ehing (f+ffiEgfrt*ffi?Affie
#B
Taish6, No.
f059)
says that tho power of
tho mantra of Avalokite6vara is such that if someono
chants it twenty-ouo timos, Avalokite6vera will
como to help him. The slitra goos on to state
many methods of curing diseaso with the help
of Avelokite6vara. Apd-mdrga is to be us€d
according to this sritra for a still birth as follows:
"'When & woman coaceivos and tho baby dies in
her womb, boil one big ounce of apd-mdrga witb
two pints of water, and take the
juice
from it;
and after chanting Avalokite6v&ra's mentre
twenty-ono ti",es, drink the juice. Thon tho
dead embryo will come out. No pain will be felt.
If tho afterbirth has not como out, tako tho eame
medicino onco moro, and it, too, will come out "
(Taish6, Vol. 20, p. l0a).
The Pu.lc'ung-chilan-so.t'o-lo-ni,-chdng (48ffi*
fflfttrffi
Tai,sh1, No. 1096) gives this &s the
medicine for opilepsy.
K. Tvre.
A-P'AN (F{#), the first Chinose Buddhist nun, of
Lo-yang in llonan. According to the Ta-surq-
s€ng-shdh-Iil,eh (^*€F.@ Taish6, No. 2126), she
renounced tho world but did not receive
ordination.
"'Whon
l\Iah6prajdpati becamo a nru1 as the
first Buddhist nun, her ronunciation was not easy.
A-p'an's remrnciation of the world is also wonderfirl
and she took only the throo fomulae of rofuge ae
the first caso of the renulciation of a woman in
China. So, the two
kinds
of the Order, bhikgu
aud bhiksuni, wero not in China yet. ........During
the spring of the eloventh year of the l-iian-chia ora
(434 A.C.), ten Ceyloneso nuns, Tissald and othors,
performed a Buddhist coremony
'at
the sime-
tna4dala of tbe Nan-lin lsvnFlo in Chien-k'o'g
for the ordination of nuns; and llui-kuo, a nun
of tho Cbing-fu templo, Ching-yin and maDy
others rsere ordainod at this seremoDy. And
within twelvo deys, moro than throe hundred nune
received ordination. Thus, they woro the 6rst
Aper.ra
APAI.{NAKA JATAKA
to receive orciiaalion in Chine, and A-p'an is
known to have tnkon the three formulae of ref'ugo
onl y " (Tai shd, Vol . 54, p, 238),
K. Trrrn.
APerye, a city in the Anguttar6pa, a country
north of tho rivor Mahi, evidently a part of the
Ariga country on the other side of that river (SnA.
II, 437). In the SaTnyutta, Ni,lcd,ya, Apar1a is epoken
of ss a township of the Angas, and the Buddira is
mentioned as having stayed there with Sdriputta
(S. V, 225). According to the Theragd,thfr
Atthakoth,a, Apana wa,s a br6,hman village anct w&s
tho home of Sela (ThagA.III, 45). Buddhaghosu
says that tho town was called ApaTa because it had
20,000 bazaars *nd was, tb,oreforo, distinguished
for i ts shops (MA.II[, 37).
The Buddha onco visited the city witb f250
monks, and ths whole company was enterl,sined
by the Jal,ila l{eniya (Vi.n.I, 245). Several suttas
wers prea,ched there, &mong them lbe Potddya
Sutta
(M. f, 359), f}re Laiukl,kopama Suna (M.T,
447), tho Sel a Sutto (M.II, 146; Bn. p. I02), and
the Saddha ot Apaqta Sutta (5. V, 226r. On tho
oecasion of the convorsion of Sela and Koniya,
the Ruddha seoms to have stayed there for ovor a
week and ordained
gQQ
msnLs in the compaay of
Sela (Sn. ll2). Noar the city, on the banks of the
Mahi, was the woodland where the Buddha stayod
during his visits. From Apu+r, he went on to
Kusiner6 (Tin.I, 246).
u. K.
APANAI(A, a monastery rn east fndia during the
period attributod to the Kfukih6r bronzes (9-lfth
cent. A.C.). ft is also nemod in a Buddha image
from Mathurd (JBORS. XX\If, 248 tr
).
D.T.D.
APANA SUTTA. SEO SADDIIA SUTTA.
A-PANG, a demon. See ABO.
APANNAKA, namo of a yaksa, who along with his
retinue, was tamed by the Buddha in BhraetdlB
near Kashmi r. (YdnMS, i n GM.IIf, i , fi rst' page
*fter the lost portion. Soe uota facing p. xiv).
APAryTAKA JATAEA (J. I,95 f.). lbe 6rer erory
in the J6take eolloction, rolated by the Buddha at
Jotavana-near Sdvatthi to An6thapiTdiLa aad his
five hundredfriends, disciples ofthe Bophists (titthiga.
aduaka). It is said that, once, while the Buddha
was rosiding at tho Greet Monastery (Mah.drtihdra\
at Jetavana, ho preached
the doctrine to these
followors of the " sophists
" who were visitirg hirn
with the treaguror AndthapiTr.lika,. They wore
converted, but no sooner had the Buddhs, gone beok
from S&vstthi to Rdjagaba than thoy abaadoned.
their new faittr a,ud revorted to the old onoa The
Buddha, roturning to Sdvatthi somo soven or oight
months lator, discovors this through AnEthapiTrlika,.
Ile theroforo preacbes to thom again, elucidating
meny aspects of his doctrine, a,nd rreletes this
Apanrwka Jdtnka to illustrato thet not only then,
but " even in times past'; those who migtook
apPeerarrco for reality, lilre
e traveller who mistakes
a mirage for an oasis, camo to griof, whilet mon who
in spito of odds adhered to reelity, prospered.
lbo atory is of two merchants who hed to take
thoir carevans across a hot desort on their flgrting
erpeditions. Ons of them bargairu to go earlic,
but, on his way through tho dosort, e demon who
has plnnn6d to dovour hirn and his mon, sppostt
before [irn, creating the semblanee of e man who
hag como from a raiuy region, and edvicoe him to
do away with his wator vessels, aa they aro sn
rurDoeossery burden, when an ooeia is so closo at
hend. The foolish merchant mistaking eppear-
anee for reality, takes tho dsmoa at his word and
dol ro5rs his weter vossels, but to find too lato,
th'at he and his men heve to die of thirst ia the
dosort.
'When
they are woak with thinct, the
demon and hig retinue arrive end eat them up.
Tbo socond morchant, the bodhigattva, comes on
tho sa'no routo, and is met by the sane domon in
similar disguiso and with eimilar advioo, but he is
able to see through tho false report. By reasoning
he'
Lnowe
that there can be no oasis near by. I[e
eon.vinceehie following that tho factual ovidence ig
to the contrary and retains hin ys,fgy
vessols on
the rest of the journey.
Ile completes his tlg.ling
exp,adition successfully, aod on the way seee the
dead bones of the foolish merchant and hie !oeu,
th,ol carts abandoned in the c.tee€rt.
The foolish merehant is idlentified with Dova.
datta and the wise ono with bhe Buddha himself,
while the two companies aro id.entified with their
respeetive followers.
a. G. s. K. B. J.
APAITNAKA SIITTA APANI.{AKATA SUTTA
APA{NAKA SUTTA. Thero a,re two suttas by
this name, one in rhe Majjhirno Ni,kaya (I, 400)
and the other in the Anguttara Nikd,ga (I, 270).
T}ao Majjhima N'ikaya discourse deliverod to
the br6,hman householders of Sala by the Buddha,
while he was orr tour among the Kosalans with a
iarge reti.nue of monls, deals with the question of
what is safe anchorage for a faith fol those who have
none. The Buddha takes several views held by
other teacl i ers and si fts thei r tenets, compari ng
the opposing viewpoint in edch case, asserting
rvhich of t,hese tenets is true and v'hich false, wherr
placed against certail propositions which ho says
are absolutely certain. For instance, he takes
the doctrine held by some recluses and brihrrrans
that " tliere is no result of gift, there is no result
of offering, thero is no fruit or ripening of deeds
well done or ill done, there is not this world, there
is not the world beyond, there is no benefit from
serving mother or father, thero &re no sponta-
neously arising beings, there'are not in the world
recluses and brdhmans who &re faring rightly,
proceediag rightly, who proclaim this world and
the world boyond, having realised them by their
bwn super-knowledge." Against this view, n'hich
ia tho Sd,mafifi,aphala Sutta (D.I,55) is ascribed to
the hereiic Ajita Iiesakambali, he piaces tbe
opposing view of certain recluses and brd,hmans
and then proceeds to analyse tho c&uses for the
earlier view tracing its origin to moral depravity
and the ignorance of the cerbainty of the after-life
which is borne witness to by the intuitions of tho
sages,
'
those perfected ones, who are knowers
of t he wor l d' .
In this
ynarlner,
the Buddha examines the views
placed before people by several schools, such as
thoee of the Natthikavddins as against the Atthi-
kavddins, the I{iriyavddins as against the Akiriya-
v6dins, represonted by statements attributed
elsewhere i;o Makkhali-Gosala and a few others,
which it has not been possible vot to idontify with
any known contempor&neous school of thought.
In the case of those who deny the existence of an
after-lifo, he asserts that the sure (apannnlca)
dhamma, the certain fact, is that there is an a,fter-
life; and so on, with other views as well. These
categorical affirmations are probably the explanation
for the name of this sutt'a, the word apanna,ka
meaning sure or certain. It is interesting to note
hero that tlne A'pannaha Jdtaka, too, makes refe-
rBnce to the views of the heretical toaehers. So
does the other sutta by the same name in the
Aigdtaro Nikdya.
fhis latter sutta discusses the three kinds of
failure and the thres kinds of success. The threo
kinds of failuro are failure in morals, in mind and
in views. Seven of the. ten unskilful actions (daso
alcu,sala) aro mentioned, lapses which are given as
failures in morals. Coveteousness and malevo-
lence are given as failures in mind. As failure in
view is given scepticism about moral values and
rebirth, views elsewhere attributed to Ajita
Kesakambali. Strangely enough, the other here-
tical views norrnaliy mentioned with this aro not
mentioned here. The Buddha asserts that it is
sure " as a true die when t'lrrown resti evenly on
whatever side it falls, even so ", iL is certain that
theso three failures are tho callses of rebirth in hell.
The opposite posit,ions, that is, abstinence from
the seven akusala, tho absence of coveteousness
and malevolence, the holding of viows contrary
to ther assertions of Ajita K.esakambali are referred
to as leading to success. And here again the
Buddha declares this to be a fact &s sure as the true
die cast.
B. J.
APAI.{I{AKATA SUTTA of the Ahguttara Nilcaya
(I, p. ll3) discusses tho three qualities giving a
mo
k proficieney in the practico of
'tho
suro
way' (apannakata-palipad,a) and strengthens his
capacity to destroy tho d,sauan, namely, (l)
keeping watch over the sonses, (2) moderation in
eating and (3) watchfulness. The sutta goes on to
explain further what is meant by these qualities,
and how to acquire them. Tho first is attainod
by refraining from generalisation on sensual irn-
pression. " Seeing an object, (the monk) does not
grasp at the general features or at the detaile
tbereof. Since coveting and dejection, evil,
unprofitable states might ovorwhelm ono who
dwells with the faculty of the oye uncontrolled,
ho applies himself to such control, sots a guard
over the faculty of eye, attains control thereof.
lVhen he hoars a sor:nd with the e&r or with the
noso smells I scent,, or with the tongue tastes a
sa,vour, or with body contacts tangibles; when
with mind he co6prises montal states-ho does
not grasp at the goneral features or details thersof.
But since coveting and dejection, ovil, unprofitable
states might overwhelm one. .. . he sets a guarC
over the faculty of mind, attains control thereof
"
(trsl. Woodward, The Book of Groilual Sagings,
I , p. 98) .
The seeond quality is achieved by taking food,
not for pleasure or out of induigence, but as e
APAryNAKA VAGGA
APARADITTHI
SUTTA
treeeEsity for attaining tho ideal of self,restraint
leoding to Nibbdna. The third quality is aohieved
by tho pract,ice of meditation throush the three
watches of the night.
The term apaltnakata-pati,,pacl,d, (the Sure Way)
i s probabl y an al ternati ve for i l re
' Mi ddl e
Way
,
leading to Nitrbana.
B. J.
APA{ryAKA VAGGA (l ), the ei ghth chapter of the
Catukka Nipata of the ,4.ngu,ttara Nilcd,ya (II,
76-83). ft consi sts of ten suttas on vari ous topi cs.
In the first and thc sgsqn4 suttas the Buddha
decla,res tlrttl a monk who is endowed with the
following qualities, namely, virtue, learning, ardent
energy, wisdom, dispassionate,
benevolent a,nd
harmless thoughts,
and right view has entered
on the path to surety (apanynkatd)
and is with
determination bent on the destruction of the mental
intoxicants (asaaa).
This
.
path of surety
,
(apanqtakatfr)
has given the title to the entire
chapter.
The third sutta is devoted to the oxplanation
of the fourfold low qualities,
and their opposites,
which are found in an unworthy person (asappuri,sa)
a.nd a worthy person (seppurisa),
respectively.
Tho former speaks ill of another oven when aot
questioned ^nd
when questioned utters more of
it in detail. Ife does not speak good of nnotber
and when asked, grudgingly
speaks a fow good
things about him. On the other hand, he d.oes not
speak what is discreditable
to himself, but, when
questioned utters grudgingly
in brief what is to
his discredit. Even when not questioned
he spoaks
out what is creditable to himself and whln ques-
tioned gives more of it in detail.
In the fourth sutta, the Buddha says that, a
monk who has just
entered the Order is full of fear
and bashfulness liko a young wife just
brought to
tbe busbsnd's home. fn both cases fear gives
placo to bolrlnsgs, but a monk should alwavs be
like a newly-wed wife.
The fifth sutta is dovotod to a d.iseussion on the
fourfold perfections (aggani,),
n&mely, the perfcc_
tion of virtue, of concentration,
of wisdom and of
releage,
Iu the eixth autta, which is an oxtract from the
Mah,apari,nibbd,na
Sutta, the Burldha just
beforo
bil d€ath invites the monlrs to question
him with
regard to any doubts or misgivings they
may have
ebout the Buddha,
Dbamrna and Sangha.
fn the seventh sut,ta. the tsudd.ha
cleclares that
there are four unthirrlr ables (acinteyydni,),
namely,
the Buddhas, their musings (jhona).
the fnrit trf
action (karnma,-uipaka)
and world.spoculation
(lokact)ntd.).
Ile also says iliat by thinking
of theso
things one would be distraught and ryould
como to
grief.
The eighth sutta discusses the fourfbld
puritSr
regarding gifts. Irr one caso the giver is virtuous,
and not the receiver. In the second tho receiver
is pure, but not the giver, in the third neither
ie
pure and in the fourtlr both are pure.
fn the ninth sutta, the Buddha explains
to
Sdriputta, why it is that, 6ome people
suceeed.
in
their trade and others do not, while yet otbere
prosper even boyond their hopos.
The tenth sutta is devobed to oxplain to Anauda
why women B,ro excluded from public
assemblieo
and serious business. They are uncontrolled,
envious, greedy and week in wisdom.
I. K.
APANUAKA VAGGA (2), the firsr chaptor
of tho
Eka Nipdta of tho Jatalcatlhakathd,,
consisting
of ten
Jd,nkas (Nos. l-10) and deriving iis titls from the
frst of them, viz., ATnqtnako Jd,taka (J.I,
96_14g).
L. R. G.
APAPA (var.
Aheha, Ilaheve),
name of a cold
hell. See AIIAIIA,
APARA, ono of the five hundred paccekabuddhes
who were in ancient times living
on the Isigili
mountain in seclusion.
He w&s seen by the p"optu
of that tirne entering the mountain
ra,nge,
but was
never seen thereafter.
Ilence the people usecl to
say that the mou.ntain
had swallowed
up the sago
(isi gilati)
and n&med it fsigili.
The n&mes
of
these paccekabuddhas
are given
by the Budd.ha
in the Isigili
Sr;tte (M. TTT,
69 f.).
Buddhaghosa
i n hi s commentary
(MA.
TV, ZI7)
relates how these sages had
msd,e their dwelling*
inside the mountain behind a rock which
*ooid
open and close like a folding
door.
Apar* is further
distingrished.
in tbe Isigili
Suttaby the epithet
.
the sage
,
(muni,).
I{. G. A. v. Z.
APARADITTHI
SUTTA (^s.
I, 144_6)
descri bes
how the Buddha
refuted, b;r means
of a miracle,
APARAGAUDAM
APARAGOYANA
the wrong notion held by a Brah:rei that no recluse
or brdhman could come to his world. The BuddlLa
went to that Brahma-world a,nd sat cross-legged
in the air above the Brahm6,, flames radiating from
his body. The Buddha was followed in this by
Moggalldna, Ilahdkassapa, I\Iahakappina and Arru-
ruddha. The BrahmE was first agitated by their
rctions, but, later ho was delighted on learning
from Moggallana that there were many more
disciples of the Buddha who could do iikewise.
u. K.
APARACAUDANI'
according to Rockhill (Life oJ
Bwdd,ha, p. 84), occure in the Dulua as the name of
one of the four great (Buddhist) continents into
which tho earth is divided. Soe APARAGO-
Y.5,NA.
APARAGAYA,
' farther ' ,
i .e., west€rn Gaya
mentioned in the lWahdautu (trsl. J. J. Jones,
Vol. IIf, p. 3I5) es a placo where a ndga king named
SudarSana had invited the Buddha to stay and
teke his meals. From bere tho Buddha
journeyed
on to Vai6dli. Tho tranclator notss thet the
incident is peculiar to the Mahda*ctu and that in
ths Laldtavistara it occurs aftor the meoi;ing with
Upaka.
D. T. D.
APARAGOYANA
ie the western continont in the
set of four continente mentionod chiofly in Buddhist
commontarial litoraturo' es found i:r each thousand-
fold world-system
(cokkaudto). The $sdrlhint
conception of cosmography resembles tho brah-
manical geograpbical conception (soo: Jacobi,
E&E.IV, pp. f 55 fr.) in which Mount Moru is in the
contre of the univorse, eurroulxded by four great
doi,pa, islands, continonts, or dwellings of men.
Thess island-continents are outside tho seven rings
of oceans (seo SAGARA), which surroulxd Mount
Meru, and Aparagoy6na is the continont which
lies to the west of Moru. Ths word Aparagoydna
bas boen translatod frequently as
''Westorn
Pastu-
rage
'
(De La Vall6e Poussin, ERE.IV, pp. 132 ff.)
and Iiterally as " Westorn Ox-Wain "
(o.9., Wood-
ward, Grad,ual, Sayings, V, p 4l). Variant readings
are Ap'aragodinika, Aparagod4,''iye and Aparago-
ddna.
The only Nik6,ya references to Aparagoyina are
found in the Anguttara, where in one instance
(A.Y,59), the Buddha illustrating the universality
of chango describes tho a'akkoudlo, t}re tbousendfold
world-svstem, as containing thousands of suns,
moons, etc., and among them thousands of each of
the four continerrts, of wtricb Aparagoyd,na is
mentioaed a,s one. I{ere tho lluddha is apparently
using conventionai syrnbols to demonstrate tho
universal nature of the laws of anicca and dulckha
rather than to assert, tho literal existence of thou-
sands of continents Aparago5rdna by na,me.
The general tone and trend of tho argurnent shows
that his atbempt here is to give examples of
' enti ti es ' ,
convcnti onal l y bel i eved to be sol i d and
eternal, and to show that they aro far from being
so, thus destroying the iliusion of their pcrpetuity.
To attempt (seo, o.g., Hardy, Legend,s and, Theories
ol the Buddhi sts, Edi nbugh, 1866, especi al l y. p. 80 f.)
to buiid up a Buddhist cosmography on the basis
of this t5,pe of evidence &ssumes a character far
removed from the spirit of a schoiarly researclr.
That the illustration is merely symbolical is con-
firmed by another reference in the same Nik6ya
(A. 7,227) in which, answering a quostion askod by
Ananda, tho Buddha declores rhetorically, that his
voico exterrds to the ends of ths universo, which
is deseribed in the same stock d.escription of the
cakkaad,ln with its thorusnds of suns and moons
andfour continents. i:rcluding the western continent,
Aparagoyd.na.
In tho soynrnent&rial literature, however, tho
notior, of Aparagoydna is teken more literally.
The Sutta Nipata commentary describes it as
surro
'nded
by fir'o hundrod islands and ths whole
continent, as being 700 yojanas in extent, a fi.gure
caloulatod by l{ardy (op. cit., pp. 85, 89) to bo
roughly 70,000 miles.
Tha Digha Nikoya cornrnontary (DA. II, 888)
says that the hours of sunrise and sunsot vary
from continent to continent. Thr:s, sunset in
Aparagoy6na coincides \rith mid:right in Jambu-
dipe, the southern continent,
gunrise
in which
occurs simultaneously with mi,lnight in Apara-
goy6,ua.
The cornrnentaries also speak of Aparagoydna
a,s s [rrrn6n habitation, (KhpA. 123), the peculiar
characteristic of the inhabitants being that they
have no houses and sleep on tho ground (ThagA.
r r , I 87
) .
The m1'thical l;adamba troo (nau,clea cadantbu)
Lc believed to stand at the contre of the continent,
Aparagoy6.na, and to remain there for a wholo
Inppo (Dl BA.298l . The Buddhauamso commen-
tary (BuaA. If3) includes Aparagoydn& &s being
in the orbit of krng Videha aloag with Jambudipa.
It is thus eyideu! thet the idea is associated with
APARAITTA APARAJITA.
a
tho conception of wkkaaatttin. Tlro Ddugd,uadina
con-flrus this conclueion with the description of
Mandhdtd's campaigns. The Diuyd,uaitrana also
add-g that Aparagoydna, along witb the other
continents, roste on I cirele of gold and is on a
level with the ocean (Diuy. 215).
Ibe j6,bakas mention a magical
jewel
supposed
to bo capablo of roflecting, among other wonders,
the four continents, Aparagoydna being one of
tbem (Vidhuro Pand,ito Jd,talca: ..I. \{I, 278).
It is of interest to note that Aparanta is
said to have been occupied by migrants from
Aparagoydne who came along with the conquering
MandhE'0e,.
Ilardy describos the continent as being shaped
like a mirror
(op. cit. p. 85) but gives no referonce to
the source. See further COSMOLOGY.
B. J.
APARAJITA
(l), & for:mer Buddha. IIe waa
proclaimed by the Buddha Dhvajamapardjita and
he himself proclairned the Buddha Supratdpa
( Mhau. I I I , 230. t 0 f . ) .
c. w.
APARAJITA (2), one of the five hundred pacceka-
buddhas who ia ancieni t,irnes lived. on the fsigili
mouatain in seclusion. Tlrey were soen by the
peoplo of that timo ontering the mountain r&nge,
but, were nover soon thoreafter. Ilsneo the name
of the mountaio, that it swallowod up sages (isi
gtldi,). The n&mes of those paccokabuddhas
sro given in tho Isngi'ltn 6untu
(lW,IIT,09
f.).
Buddhaghosa soys in his commontary (MAt IY,
217) that these sages lived inside ths trountain
behind a rock, whicb would open aod closo iike
a folding door.
AparEjita is distinguished in the Isigili Sdto
by the epithet : he wbo triumphed over Mi.ra's
might (M d'rabalarT' ai esi,).
g.
G. A. v. Z.
APARAJITA
(3), & world-ruler (cakrauartin), &
former birth of tbe bodhisattva in his fifth stage
(bh{trni) of bodhisattvahood. IIe dedicated
to the Buddha ].Te,resvara sixteen mongsteries
studded. with the seven precious stones and many
other valuable
gems, aad wished for Buddhahood
hi mnsf f ( Mhuu. I , t t Z; .
c. w.
APARAJITA (4), a, world-ruler (calchauattin)
wllo
lived sevon aeons &go, B,n earlier trirth of Avyadhika
t hor a ( Ap. I , 2I 5\ .
c. w.
APARAJITA (5), a househotder of Bandbumati.
Ile sought the advice of his elder brothor, Sena,
who was en arahant monk in the time of the Buddha
Vipassi, as to how he should uso his wealth to
perform an act of great merit,. Ife was asked to
build a gondhakuli for the Buddha which ho did,
using all kinds of procious metals and gems, and
offered it to the Buddha. Tho monastery sur-
ronnding tbe gard,haltuti,
ho thrice filled knee.deep
with the seven precious things (satta ratarm) to
be takon away by the peoplo coming to hear the
Buddha preach. To colobrate the dedication
of
the gand,haku{i,
he ontertained 6,800,000
monke
for nino months and at the end presentod them
each with tho three robes. L&tor, he made known
his wish that he should n6ver be deprivod
of
anything belonging to him either by many hundreds
of kings or thieves or by fire or wator. Tho
Buddha wished that his desiro be fulfilled. In
a still earlier birth he had given sugar-cane to
a paccekabudCha. In the time of the Buddhe
Gotama he was born as the troasurer
Jotika
( DhpA. I V, 199 f f . ) .
Apard,jita had a nephew, his sister's son, by
tho samo name. Ilo was refused by his rrncle e
sharo in the building of tbe gondlwkug|
and so
he built next to it a kufrjarasdl&-sn
elephant
stable according to DPPN. f, p. llg-tho mea,ning
of which is doubtful. Ile was a former bturb
of the treasuxer Menda,ka.
c. w.
APARAJITA (6), & yaksa mentioned iu thc
M ahimi,yzirl (BE S. s.v.).
APARAJITA (t), one of the ei ght deva mai dens
of the eastern quarter. The Buddha is said to
have invoked their blessings on Trapr:.sa and
Bhailika who gave hiru his first meal after the en-
lightenrneat (Lal. 282). According to the
Mahouastu (III, 306) he invoked the blessin.gs
of
Dh;tard^sfra, the sovereign lord of tbe eight deva
meidens.
c. w.
APARAJITA l 0 APARAJITA-IWERU.
APARAJITA e),
& goddess montioneci ;n f,he
Mai l j utvt-n' aul a' l col pa
(318. l 2
;
396.1 f.), presumabl y
tho eanro es .Lryaper5,jit5, in the same rvc,rk (312.
6; e.v. Apard,j i ta tn AES.),
Tho narn€ ApardjitE oLrcurs several times in
tbe Sdil,hanamd'la. In the Aptahfut.iu-kuntktilcT-
adlwna, she occupies t'ho sorrth-e&etsrn potal of t,ho
eight-petalled lotue seat of Krrr':rl<uila Bha,gavoti
(Sddh. E, p, 35t. 6). fn the Apardj;'tp,-sdnl.hu'tt'o,
she is representod as a tlvo-arrned goddess, yellow
in eolour end adorned with all kinds of ieweller.v
(i bi d. p. 403). Her ri ght hand i rs i n a rui secl
poeition displaying the abt of slaJrping
(c<tp4a.d,inabhinayannkpindkd,ra), while her left
hand carries & nooso round its index f;.ngor whicir
ie held against hor cirest. Elor face Lrr,s & ferocious
sppearenoe. A psrusol is treld above her head
by e nurnber of ferociour gods. She is referred t'-r
n Gana,patiaamikra,rdd (one who tramplos Ganapati)
and sometimes she is representod in this posturo
(eee B. Bhattacharyya, Iru7ian Buld,hist Iconogru,phll.
Cal eut t a, 1958, p. 246 and f i g. I 89) . I n t he
Jodtrdrnukhi,-sal,hana, Va
jravb,rfi,hl
is called
Ary&par6jita, the mother of the throo wcrlds
(Sddh. II. p. 4S4 tr
).
There i e arrobher Si dhana
named Ar,ya-sitd,tapatra-apard,lita
(ibid. p. 395).
It is difficult' to say whother the s&me persons,ge
ie meant in all thsso casos or whether any of them
can be identified with tho Aparajiia mentioned
in the M aiiju"{n,-rnwlakalpa'
c. w.
APARf,JITA
(3), orro of the sister goddosses
(ltum&rr, bhaini,) related to Maiijui;ri. the oliror
throe 56ingr Jay6, Vijaye and Ajit6.
In tho Maflju6ri sect,ion of the LkirL'tradlratu
mapd.ala, Aparajiti ie at t,lre left of Trrmburtr,
her trrothor, and belorB A)iLd (Mmk. 537, it4{.J, 513).
IIer mystic syllable is c, her s1'mbol (sarrtaya)
ie a bar, and her secrot l)&rlte is Yajrd. These
are manifirstations of the Pure Wisdom.
Rogarding her figrue, tlna Pi,-tsenq-chi
(#ffi;e)
moutions that Aparajii6 is flesh-coloruod and
holds a bar in her hand.
'Ihe
,Shosetsu-fuCo-ka
(ffit||Tfilm etetes thst she has
gome
object in her
right hand, aad that eho keops her closad left hand
at
lor
waiet. the sits facing front. Opirrions
diffor as to what she hBB in ber right h&rd.
Aocordi:og to ths ma4r{ale of tho Li'ch'{c'ching
(EilIf)
sh€ is to the woet of Tumburu, and her
figure is rathor difrsrpnt from thst of the Gerbha-
dbitu-ua+dals.
tr(. T@.
APARAJI TADI MJA, t i re Tn, t hi gabn, ur: i l er whom
S6, kyamuni , &s & i : u, l hi sat t va, l ong ago pi ant ed
t he i i rst seeds of rneri r,
v, ' h. i i e l t i ri g bori r rl s a
caktat' tlrt i lir,jr-r, f ,rllowrng tirc nn,Lural c,aroer
(prokrt ' i , cc. rud), t he f u' st o1' l , he {' ourf ol C oonci uct of
a l i odi i i r: ai t va, (] / hr, . rr. i . +). Al sc-r i l re rrarne of a
bodhi s*r, t , t r. s, rnent i cnert ut
(' i t : t 1t i .
115. 9.
\\r.
().
w.
APARAJITADHVAJABALA. a JJi i i l rl hrr I"' }Tos,;
nrLrrrr,. ie rneni iorrcri trrtone thost: (|, ,i.r,ll tu.i_rltlken
i i ne rtt j i .tLus u' l i o, boi n[ hel
i l l ' Lr' :ul rt,ors,
wcro
propi ti trt,cd b:". tl ,c nl gfrr,-gori dr.-rs Samal r.urrsat,-
tvu,tra.r.roj ul .r,ri ' t
..i i l ri i t,
strtvi trg tu q,-1rri the i torl frrsu,ttvrr,
sn,l vnt,i ;;r r t badi ti .:' ri t
t :u -
r i i t r,; A: sa
),
r rn r rttl , l Srrr,,' sl .l <h.
bhimu khaj rignd\-rn:Ivrlniri rr,it:a,rr ti [.!'
i L:
t
t u,
"
I Sir
"
! 0) .
,1' .
R.
APARAJI TAJf f AI { ASTf i Af f A, n' [ ' ar hi i qa1. a
u: h. i r e
namrl oecrlrs i)61 \4'eelt. i\rriri,.r,,n,navir1'ri rind Srirls,n-
tavi l oki taj frfi ,na, i n a i i st, ol
' l ' athagata.;
rrho wol e
yr r oJr i t i at er l ( ar r i gi t al by t he Sak3, r i - gi r l , f l opl r . i n
l r er pr evi ous bi r t hs
( Gr l u. . { 21.
20) .
T. I t "
APARAJITAMERU, a trorl hi sabLva
rvhoser ni tnl c
e(:ctl rs ui a l i st
r-rf'
Iuturo T' ri thagata,s (Gtrqi l ,. {49.1).
!-or Ll etai i s soe IIAYADIJVI.
A PAR A J I T A. TUP R U V A R ABH ADR Ei T
g
ARA.
RATNASADHANA, r' . Sari sl i rrt, work. tl i e T' i betan
transj ati on oI whi c]r occri rs urrdor ti re ti tl e
G s h,art,
-
g
11
is
-
r rr i..t lt u,b
-
y'a tiu iu r i
-
r a.b t nc hog
-rrta,
r L n
-
po
-
che bzari -' poLi
i tsqr:"ti t-tha,bs
rt 1he Rg;.ud-hgrel
(tantra commentary) secti on of t,l re Tcngv-ur
(Pekrng Ed. Ti b. T' r' i p., ed. I).
' l ' .
Suzuki , Vot. 86.
No. 4:i 30). J.' ht r:ol cphon, whi ch states that
Intrabucte
(In<l rabl i i ti )
\!-i r,s the author of the
' work
arrti " 1l i t.r,t 1{}ru,-cri re f)u,n-t,l i en *i ,nci _l ' sl tul ,fi }rri rns-
gsl ron-nrr $:t' ro t]),e t.rrrnsl ator*s, gi ves Gnod,-sbu.i tt,
y,kJ
-
h
Jt
h, r o g
-
g z bs g r ub t i t u it t ( Y nii s ct n,u n a l t,it r as,icilt o n t-t
j
as the ti t l e oi tJre *-orl .:.
(,' orrl i e,r
quotes
yak-
ai t t , t t n, anohq, r i
. sdi Ji i , a, r r , t ' r nd, l
pcr aci t ant
e, r u- i , l r ct l u-
ti l :ururatti ,aoi trtl c*gri cl ,l *1,/i arr, us otl i er. n&rncs,tf the
r vr ; r k ( ( ) or Ci ey, LI I , p. I 7: t , No. 43i . Thn t c: i t i s
not pr esor vor , l i n t . hc Sdo- t j gt ; edi t r on ( i l , M. . ) .
A
doscri pti on oi ' thc
l rrot.ttri rtrrl
crt ti ;e per{brmarrce
of a ri te forrns l l re couterrt o{' ttter s"orl i _
Incanl ati ons to i :e charrtcd i i rrri ng the cerenrorrv
aro quoted.
n. H.
APAR AJITA.}IAMA-SADEANA
t t APARAJITAVRATADEVAJA
APAEAJITA-ilAUe-sAoxlxA,
rhe Sanskril tftle
of * work ertant in its Tibetau translation under
ths n&me Gsh,an-gyie m,i thub-mn, ahes-bya.balrd
agrub-tlpba ia the Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra commenta4r)
e€ction of the
'Iengyur
(Poking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed.
D. T. Euzuki , Vol , 6?, No. 292I). Thi s work i B
different from the Apar6,ji,td,-sdd,henar (q..r.). The
prescnt work deale with a procedure of worship
presumably for the invocation of the Buddhist
goddese Aparajita. There ie no deecription of the
form af AperEjitL. The Sanskrit title is montionod
in tho work but the names of tho author and the
traneletsr
ar6 not given. The Sde-dge edition
givee the neuree $og-rab akyon and Dana6ils es
those of tho eutbor end translator, respoctively
( ?r 11. No. 2004) .
R. H.
APANTJITA. NATI{A.BEAIInA. SADEAilA. ilATA,
e Sanskrit text, the Tibetan tra,nslation of whiah
oocura in the Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra cornmentar5r)
aoctiou of the Tengyur, undor the title A-pa-ra-ei,-
b in-chen bzan-pahi egrub-tlnbe ehu-bya-ba (PeLing
Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 86, No. 49g7,
pp. 2f6-18). Tbe
'work,
which begins rilrith &
ealutation to Yajrapd^li, doscribes tho procedure
of worsbip of a deity, whose norne appoers to be
tho yakqa Apar6jita,
juAgtng
from the namo of tbe
tnxh Gnod-abgin Aparajdta,l.ti, qrub-tlnba (Yakpo-
Apordjdn-addlwtnol given in tbo colophon which
ney tre nn altoraative nemo for Apardjite-ratna-
bhadra, occurringin tbetitle at tho treginning of tho
tort. According to a descriptioa in thc s6dhana,
tbe deity bears the form of a demon (yakgol,
white in complexion, one-facod and two-arned,
who carrios an iron hook (Tib. lcags-kyu, Skt.
aiku6a\ in his right hnnd,
holde e water-pot made of
jewela
in the left, is decked with jewel
ornaments,
we&rs
A?r
rrnder-ga,rment (Tib. Carn-thabe,
gkt.
ontanfisal of groon silk, snd has largo 6yor.
Instnrctions about tbe offorings to be made to the
deity are grverr aud tho topice of meditation aro
specified. Inceotatione to bo chsnted in tbe
course of the perforo.ance of the ritual are intoq-
sporred in the toxt. Tboee eppe&r to be quotetiong
from tho original Sqnsl;r'it work. The following
examples tn'ay be given I O\n andra ma,hdropaqta
httla pha{, Orp irE dza A-pa-,ra-ji-to dzq dzn
.ot'1te-ma,?e. , . wdlui
;
batrim lcha lclw khfrhi khnhi,.
fto colophon givos
the name of the author ae
lndrabodhi.
Acoording to Cordier, Gnod,-sbyin a-pa-ro
-iti,-tahi
sgrrfr
=tlwba
zob,ma y ah-d,ag (Y aksdparaj,ita-gfi.8.ha-
stdbh&-h-uddlwr.e) b sleo a title of tho work
(Cqrdder,
3, S. P. ( ' . eB4zo
III, p. 222, No. 62). The Sde-dge edition
of the
Tibetao Tripigeka does uot oontaia tlris text.
R. H.
APARAJITA-SAOXeI{A,
a very ehort e6,dhaas
iext devoted to the worship of the Buddhist
goddess Apardjit6 ($ddh. 408. For an English
traneletion of this sddhana seo fhg Inilian
Buddhist I corcgraphg,lB.
Bhsttachaq4ra,
Calcutts,
1068, p, 246). Ibe following Tibetan translationE
of the tert oocur in the Rgyud.trgrel
(tantra
cornyngntsry) aection of the Tongyrrr.
(I) Gslvan-gyis mi-thub-mahn agrub tftoba (peking
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T, Suzuki ,Vol .
g0,
No. 40g2t
Tho Saaskrit title Apord,jitd,-sdd,Iwrzary
ie giveo
iu the text. 4ss6r.ding to the colophon, Abhayo
and Tshul-kbrims rgyal-mtehan trenslaired
ths
work into Tibetao (cp.
TM. Nos. 3240, BpEg).
(2) Enorn-par rgyal.mahi agrub-pal.ti, tlta,bs (poking
Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 80, ll'o. 4208).
Ihe S^nnkrit titlo Apord,jitd-eddha,nar.n
is quoted
in the iext. The colophon states that
Don.yod
rdo-rjo and Ba-ri woro the translators.
(3\ Gdnn.gyie mi-thuh-n ohd sgrub.tlnbs (peki,,g
Ed. Ti b. T"i p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 81, No. 4416).
Tloa Sanskrit title Apordjifri.sdillwnwqn
occurg
in tho toxt. Grags-pa rglral-mtehan trenslat€d
tho work into Tibetan (cp. TM. No. 3893).
Geh,an-gyia rni thub-rna,hd egrub-tlnbo is the title
of yet anothor tort in the Rgyud"l+g"ut (tantre
coynr,'etrt&try) section of the Tengyur. The Sanskrit
title Apard,jitd-sddharuar.tt, occvrs at tho beginning
of the text. Ilowovor, the contents of the work
indicate tbst the sddhsns is devoted t,o the worship
of the goddoss Sitdtepatrd. The corroct titlo
of the work, Ephage-ma gshan-gyi^* rni thub.trra
gihtga dkar-molti qrub-thabs,
occurs in the colophon.
Thie text is a transiation of tbe Sanskrit work
Aryudtiinpofid,pardjitd-sddhana (Sadh. p.
gg5.
For an English translation of a section of this B€e
T he I ndion Bud,,ilhdst I conngr aphg,B. Bhattacharyya,
Cal cut t a, 1958, p. 216) .
R,. E.
APARAJITATETAS, n me of a bod.hi settva
occurring in a list 6f !6rihiss,btvas (Mhvyut. i32).
APABAJITAVRATADfl VAJA, A BUddhA WhOSE
D.&rne is mentionod
ottrong
thrgs of
o^
unhroken
APARAMAEAVTNASETIYA T2 APARAr{TAKA
T. R.
and eveD more women entered the Order.
ApARAMAEAVINASELIyA, n&me of ono of the
Buddhism could have heen known in Aparantaka
early Buddhist (sub) socts, whose monastery at
ovon during the time of the Buddha (Dutt,
the site of NagdrjunakoTda was found by Esiia,n-
Early E'iatory of Buililhisrn, p. I90). But the
tsrng, though the sect, lrad. ceasod to oxiot by
reference ie to Sundparanta which R. G. Bhandarkar
tbat time. Along with the Uttara6ailas, this hill
(Early Eistorg oJ Dee,can, t9) has ideutified with
community had probably been a local branch of
modora Konkan'
line of
jhws, who, boing her preceptors, were pro-
pitiated by the night-goddess Samantasattva-
tr6'lojalr6ri while striving to gain the bodhisattva-
salvation (bod,hisattaa-uimoksa) named Sarvalokd,-
bhimukhajagadvinayanidar3ana
{Guye.
284).
the Mahd,sanghik6. They wero found in tho
south.oast of Indie and noa,r such places ag
N6gdrjrnakonda, Amard,vati, otc. The Apara-
mahdvinaseliyas aro rnentioned in tho inscriptions
in the ayaka columns, of 2-3rd cent. A.C., at the
former sito. It eeoms to be this word which has
been abbreviated into " Aparaselika(ya)s " in the
Dipoaamso and tho Molfiuaryt.eo of Ceylon. The
ogaka pillars where the inscriptious were found
wero thoso attached to the Mahdcetiya (great
thfipa) of Ndgirjunakoqda. The following
extract from & translation of one is
given as &n example (J. Ph. Vogel) : " For the
bonefit of tb.o Masters of tbe Aparamah6vine-
seliya eect this pious foundation of tbe Mahdcetiya
hse been completed by the Rovorond Ananda,
who
lr^ows
lh.e DEglw-and the Mojjhdtna Ndkdgrc
by heart, (utho i,s'1 a dieciplo of tho Maeterr of tho
Ayira.harbgha (Skt. Arya-eohgh.a) who are residont
in Parh4agdma and who are preachors and pre-
coptors ot' the Di,gha, the Majjhnrna- (ni,kd,yal
and of the fivo M6tukas," otc. (ASIMein:
Nos.
64, 7L; . Ef . XX, et c. )
D. T. D.
APARAIINA, tbo aano of the bodhisetta in his
birth as a vultr:re in Gijjhapabbata (var. Apar+B-
qagijjha). According to the Migdlopo Jdr,oka
(J. III, 255 f.), in wriich be figures, he advises his
son, Migd,lopa, not to fly too bigh, but the latter
clisdafuxs his advico and comes to grief. Tho
story provides an interesting parallel to the myth
of lcarus, Apara++a's rolo il, this story being
that of Daedalus in the Greek. In the Buddhist
legend, Migalopa moots with his death by being
gtruck
by the Verambha winds, while Icarus
moets with his death as a rosult of his comirrg
too close to the sun. See further MIGALOPA
JATAKA.
APARANTAKA (var. Apard,nta), one of the nine
regions to which Asoka sent missionaries after
the third Council. According to the Ceylon
chronicles (Mhu. xii, 4, 34-6
;
Dpu. viii, 7)
Yonaka DhamrnarakLlpta preached the Aggik-
khandhopoma Sutta there and 37,000 poople
embraced tho new faith while a thousand men
Aparantaka in anciont times referred to wsstom.
India. The MarkanQ,eya Purdna (cb. lvii) calls
it a
jona'pada
whereae tho MaMbhdrato (Bhiprrw
Paruon, ix) refers to it ae ono of tho provinces of
ancient ludig. Accordi'g to the Kduyamimdr,ned
(Gaekwad Orieatal Series, No. I, p. 94), it is tho
country to the weet of DevasabhE (identified
with
moderu. Dewas in central India) and aecording
to the Pili Sdsanaao\nso (p. lI), Aparantake or
western lndia lies to ths wost of the upper lrawady.
Aparantaka is referred to in Asoka's Rock
Edict V. T'be Nasik Inscription of Geutami
B&la3ri eays that her eon oxtendod
hin
sway over
Apar6nta. This w&s later conguerod by the
Saka Satrap Rudradi.'.'an as evidenced by the
Junagadh Rock Insoription of 150 A.C.
According to B. C. Law (India, ag Descri,beil dn
Early fcntu, 73), Aper6nte may have comprisod
that pert of wosteno Indie which lay to the west
of the Buddhist mid-land and to the north and
south, rospectively, of the
pglrkhine,patha
eDd
Uttardpetha. Bhagavanlal Indraji, says B.C. Law
(Histnricol Bngraphy of Anci,nt lnd,fu, l3), took
Apar6nta to bo the wsstern
gee-boa,rd
of India.
According to
Tfeiian-tsang's
acoount, westem,
India Boeyns to heve se'.'Frised Sindh, westenr,
REjaputdn6, Cutcb, Gujarat and a portion of
the adjoining coast of tbe lower courso of the
Narmad6.
According to the Dharnmopadaftlwhathi, (DhpA.
III, 482) and the Mojjhirna Ni,kdya A{thakothd,
(MA. f, 184), when Mandhat6 conquerod all
the four continents, people from the three other
continent,s c&mo over to Jambudvipa and lived
thero. Finding it impossible to go back to their
own countries after the king's death. they obtained
the minister's permission to stay in Jambudvipa.
Thus, the land where the people co'ning from
Aparagoyina settied down is said to
bsve boon
known as Aparanta. B. J.
APARAP ARIYA.VED
AT{IYA.KAMMA
l 3
APARASAITA
the Apar6,ntas
(lit,.
'wesf-enders ')
have
sometimos been regarded. as & Beparate ra,eo or
trihe. Ilultzech (IruieriTttiorts of Asoko, I, xxxix),
howor-er, takqrs the term to Ine$n
.'
west,eru.
borrlerors ", g€.o€rrrlly, u,mong s'horn sre included
tho Yonas, tho Kambojus and l,be Pitinikas.
Tlre word has varrous roadings, e.g., Aytalaqntd
in Iiock lldicr V in Ku,lsi, Altola'm,td, in Dhauli
and Aparamta iry Shahbazgarhi.
II. R. I' .
APARAPARI Y^A- VEDANI YA- KAMMA,
mor al &c_
tion w-hiich will bear frr.rit, nof, in the present
cr
i n the i mmedi atel y i ' ol l oni ng l i i ' e-span" but i n
sorne indefinile future., whenover the opporrr:nity is
right to procluce its result. In ite reduplieative
formatiori (opardpara)
iho word indicates such
karma as wili be knorryn (ued,an[ya) or experierrced in
any possible successive existence. A rjiaesical
exarnplc of such indofinitoly ofl'ectivo actiorr is
f,ounr1 in the story of the dea,"lr of the srahant
Malr6,-M,rggaliEna (SarabharLga
Jd,talca; J. V, 126).
Tn a previous iif'o ho wanied to put his agod father
anrl mcthr:r t,u deatli ae a result of listening
+,o
his
rrife" .r{lthough he ditl not actua.lly kill his par-
ents, his sharrroful action remained like a ci:re of
firo hicidon under &shes, for over biding its tirno
tiil it could find an opporl,unity.
'Ihen,
in tlrr:
List, life of the arahant, this act comrnitted of
uld and carr-r'ing with it consequences to be ex-
periencecl on sollre fubure occ&sion, got its chanco ibr
mischief, when Moggall6rra's superrror:mr,,l powers
failed him and he beeame unsble to oscape the
seventh ati,empt on his lil'o by some hired brigencls.
IIe vras beaton up so se\zeiely that all his bones wore
crusheci
;
but he kept his miud sready i:r rnodiiation
r:n t;ho Ruddha till lle furall;r. riied.
'I'lre
MiliruTa-ptartha (p. 1t)B) also i:elates rif
Uevadatta hoq" ho heapc,ci up kar.ma on kurliia, :lrri!
rvould pass for an eniiless sories of .iirr,ip*s irr::ri
tcrmenl , to torrnent i ,l nd i rom per.dri rr,n l t r' ,._ri i ri ro' ,-.
Hi s suft' cri ng, houever, bccunro f-i rri tr:
t' t.,' rl i !r
i 1::
had entored the Order, and fi rtl eri :;v tl i L, i rr;,_. ,.i j t-rs+d
i-,y previous karrna woultl aiso becciuil,
ij1;1i1;r;',1.
AparrTpariyu-.t,ed,a,nzya-kanttnq. t$. oiie oi i.ire
sirte.:n kincls of karrna classi{ied in fcrirr groups
a::cordinq to their fu;rctir,,n (kirt:a1, their ejTicir,ct,
(palcuddnu),
thelr time
,.rl
taklng efftcb (nakakuJa)
anrl t,ho plat-e of their effect
(pakutliwna).
EI " G A. v. Z.
APARAPUHAMJAYA, name of rr yo,ksa, roenl i .cnoci
i ti tl re Mul ui ntl i :trt,ri
(l i /{i i "
s;.r,.).
APARARAJAVAVADAKA
sUTRA, 8 Srr.rrskri t
srLtra rr:ferrod to in tho S,iksd,samuccay& (g.l2).
Tbe sfitra purports to admonish a king rogardiug
the practice
,...f
virdue without negl,ect of his cblige-
t'ioa.c to the poople.
W" G. lV.
APARASAII,A, onc of tho schooi s of r:arl v
Iluddirism. As a secrt they were not, kn,lwrr to the
trarLition of the $arnmatiyas according to llhavya,
and the Sinhalese clrronicles do noi. cr)Lint t,hom in
the coruposition ir,nd rr,lTiiiation of {r;,'lr secrs
but onJy amongst a
Fpoup
of si-x sch*til,, u.ppearing
iater. \r;sumitra plocers then sirl' i,';' sr.i..,. u.ith tho
Cu,iti.yas and the Ut,tu,r'u,iaiias anl.,rng
,r.he
lrrtcst,
developmonts of the Mahi,,sdrrgr.11n,,=. but P*rami,r-
t,ha does ;eot rnontion tlrem ii. l,l. {-:orriiJf.,r'i'.r\r on
Vasumi tra. I' i re }l ahd,sai i gi ri k,, l .' i ,
' ri
' l i r,rr.eLl
by
Bhuvytt and Vinitadeva piact.s l-hi,ur :l,rrlrng the
r\Iahd,e6,nghikas sido by sicit-. wil-ir the I'iu.;aiailas.
Ituddhaglrosa, mer.l.io&.s tLt,ru i.::.
(!nc)
of t,ire four
Andiraka schools.
If they were at il dist,i-ngLrishod irorn the
Prlrva3ailas t,he;' 1l'r r.'(' probtrbly orre of i,heir
school s, for i r,Ii ti re :.,r.,
,,.' -*
whrt:i l aro a,ttri bnu' i l
gg
them by r"ari otts
:,r
i ' {r...r i trr' r cr)nuttt.' n tu f ;r)t}t.
Thei r ear l i est &pl ) c. . ' ; - t : "' i ' , r t t t he seconr , l hal t , ' . 1 t l r e
thircl cenrurv TJ./ -
Their pl'eserlc'r rr;.1 i{iilri rj,.irriikor.rtltr d,,rlir.; t}to
f kFvaku r i vnr =' t t ' ( j i r i t ' . ' r , . t . . \ . C, ) r s t , er t r l i . r , d by
severai i nscr' ,- 1.i ..' ; ,,
i JtI"
i i rl st,r' i , l :j /. ,i X, l 7 ff.).
t' hi s corrfi -rr, rr,
i .rtt"
i .-,1' ,' wl ,:db,ri f.i ..rr:;-r trth+:r soi u' i i os,
whor r , I i t i r . : , i l l . r . i ' : l , , . i si r , e. g o
. . u. n. i . l ' - s
t , hem a secr t ,
c; f . ! ' 11, . . . i l i l , i , . , : : , i ' l ; o: r ( 1r * ) . r ! . . , : l .
i l r - i ; t r .
I , 9) . Hl t i au.
ts.ar;;; f r' .i a r:rori *ster' ;' ci t,rro Apara6ai l as orr e
r!-.(.,i l .ri .r, r frr-sL
.,f
l )h.ur.ryui rul r.i r,Lr-r,, brrt at that
+,i mo
i t vi l r ,,i r.ua,l 3' ;;ri si l ' l ,a' i -l
{{rI' rtri }l ' l .: than a huni 1' gd
. I y' ( l t t t l
{ ' { r r i . r i . , l ; t t ' i ,
i . , i " t r , '
J
Lr 1l i r . . i , i 5' , 9 ! [ ' r an: el s on
i i . t t ] , 1, . l l i i r ; .
'
' , ' i , 1' , 1,
11, r s
{ $r : l ; ' - . : or
I J. i . p. l l i i )
f-rf' :.ri i !.i rtti t .
t'
.o.,.i .",
-rAd
di sappeafed
i .1,1
,
,
i i ti i r"
,.,1"
.l ;i -tti fr:-rtt.; .-i ,l i i ,.r.: ..i l " i r"-.l r.utl i i (7th
f :(-rxr i
1l
,
A
r r ' . : r j : r i l i l 1+: r i [ ] t l ' i ' . o" . . ,
'
; ' 1, - 5f t g1. " ' :
.
j ' . ' - r s
ug I
$t i i r i '
: r , . " ' " . . 1: r l { : i l r : 1 r : . ] - l i , ol 1' . 1/ . ; : : ' ; t ; . . i - ) ( '
I ' I Li f t ) nt i Oni ng
agc, L; ; . :
. , . . . : . 1: i , . , i l x. + i . ' t t ; i t " t ^ l ! i - ' r r " . t 7l dnw- . *nd
SUfi i ,,t,tt,,i 1S .,r,,t*i j 3,rl , l i )j ],tr.-'
.r .,+.i ,.,1r
ti rr6 l l IAtUk*S
{ E[ "
$a: , i i r i . t , i r . ci t . l ' ; ' t ; , r . . ; i l r . l l i u1i ewur ' t , l r y t het t ] r s
ri ,.vi si i i ne of i he $ett,rl -st+r::,tol :t al ' r ;e-ferrod to as
nikriyus arl i.s duno by ti;n Th,cr*i.'ri,-iiae of Ceylon,
ri,D.{i llot a*s ngamea ns in r:t-}i'th-weut lr'i.ia (Ka6rnir}"
N. Duti is rif opinion i,hBt ihe five llldl,u'kaa wore
sulrrrnr{riag of tbr {irntyt; .Pi,;aka, &s tbo Vinaya
of ihe Mah6;,;S .;i!- *-a-s c{,i}'tists cf five parts (Ecdy
trTonasti,c Bu{i;lo,"s1lt, II, pp. 55'6}. But it is
APARA ST'TTA 14 APARIEAT{A DHAUMA
not likely thab in tho
third
century A.C. the Vinaya
of this soct would have treon nut dore than five
separato tables. ft is much more likely that they
rsfor to Abhidhamms summaries, for this colloction
was developed by all schoois but latoly, nnd ronuained
for a very long i,irne in tho form of separate
md,t'i,kd.c.
Vusumitra observes that most of tho thoses
of the Aparaiailas, as those cf tho lJttara6ailas and
tho Cait,iyas, from whom ho does not disiingrrish
thom, are sirnilar to thoso of the Mahasinghikas.
Th,oy are :
(l) Bodhisattvan aro not freen (a,imukta) from
rebi-rth in evil statos (durgati).
(2) Worship &t I erfipa or caitya does not produco
g'reat results.
(3) An arahnnt rney have impuro seminsl
discharge (asuedsukkatisal{hi,).
(4) An arahant has ignoranco (ajfrdna).
(5) An arahant has dgubts (kanksa).
(6) An arahant is takea ecross (paroaitdranaj,
i.e., savod by someons else.
(7) Although one rnay have attained the path
of hclr:ress (sumrt.pdnna,)
one mey yet
break tho rules as to speecb
{aac6bhetl,a\.
(8)
FIo wbo is assured (ni,yata)
as to the future
enters tho path to the goal (ni.yd,ma\.
(9) The six spheres of ihe senses aro sstablished
sinrul6sngeusiy
in the mother's womb.
(10) Supramnndane
knowle,Jgo (lokutta.ra-fid,no)
has twelvo objects (dudd,asaua.tthuka).
(l l ) Al l thi ngs (sabbe
d,hammd,) l ast onl y ono
thought -moment
(elcacittalcklwnika).
A. B.
APARA SUTTA (t), also ealled tl:le
pdragdmtr
Sutta
(S. V, 81), says that the seven l i mbs of wi sdom
(saff,a-bojjha,ngo),
if cultivated, conduce to the
going from this shore to thc furtbsr shore, Nibbd,na,
i.o., &cross the ocean of .samsdra,
u. K.
APARA SUTTA (?) says rhat the four bases of
psychicai pow'er (aattaro ;ddhipddd,l. if cultivated,
condrrco t,o the going from this shore to the further
shnrs (,S.
V, 984)"
APARIBfiINHA, the 54th n&Ino in the first' list of
approximatoly 100 Buddhas
(actually only 97 are
named in this fi.i'st list), which was recited by
Ifaha-KAtviyane 8,t tihe request of Maha-Ka'(yapa'
The list cont$ins bho names of Buddhas undor whom
the Buctdha SaLyamrini acquired merit when ho was
abwancirrg as a bodhis&ttva from tho first to tho
soventh stago erf development or bh&mi (Mhuu'
I , 1. 37) .
H. G. A. v. Z.
APARIHANA DHAII{MA,
also eailed a'parihdni'ya
d,hamma., the conditions of welfaro. There aro a
nu-mter of lists in Pali and in Sanskrit ]iteraturs
enumerabing the conditions of welfare. Some of
tho lists aro identical, whiie others ovoriap ooch
other, and still others are entirely different from ono
another.
'Ibey
enumerato conditions, both positivo
and negative, v-hich lead not, to the decline but to
the rarelfare of individuals, bot'h monks and laymen.
Tbe Anguttara Nikd,ga g"ives twelve conditions
in six pairs which savo tho trainee (oehha) from
decliniag, namely, the absence of anger and malovo'
lence (aftftodho and anupnniha), of hypocrisy
and
spito (amalckha and. apnld,sa), of enwy and grudging
(onissti and ama,cchariya), of deceit, and troachery
(amaya anld asd{heyya}, ar.d finally the prosence of
modesty and scrupulousness (hiri' and ottoptpa: A.
r , 96) .
llhree conditions aro given in the ltdauttalca as
not, ieading to the decline of a trainee
;
they aro,
takingno deliglrt in worldly affairs (nc kanmrd,rd,rnatd\,
in gossip (nabhassdrdnntii), and in sleep (roa niddi'
rdrrtutrt : It. 7I-2\.
'Ihese
threo conditions, in addition to taking no
clelighf in compeny (na sangani,lcdrdmatal and
reflect.ing on the rninci as it is released, form a list
of fir'e conditions that do not learl to the decline of
a trainee, or of one
-wlio
has gained temporery release
(1. I1I, l 16, 173;. l ' he fi rst i ;hree condi ti ons i n the
above two lists with the addition of taking dolight
in guarding the doorg of the senses and boing
modoratei in eating. form another list of five at, A,
III, l?3. Tho first three conditions in addition to
taking no delight in company, being graceful in
speech and having good friends forrn a list of six
at, '1. IiI. 310. The same list occurs elsewhero with
the last two conditions being replacecl by having
guarded sense-doors aad being modorato in eating
( . 4. I r I , 330) .
Tho fu'st three conditions given in the above
list,s together with iaking no delight il. company'
not, falhng uader the influence of wrons dasirm, u. K.
APARIHANA DHAMMA
t 5 APARIHAI{A DHAfitl[A
beiog not friendJy with evil-rloers and not 4erning
to a stop on the way to Nibbd,na ibrm a list of Eeven
condi ti ons of wol fare of monks (D. fI, 77^g
: A. W,
22
;
Mhytt. t?5-6). The first four conditions
siven in the list immediately preceding, together
with having guarded doors of the serrsos, bning
moderato i n eati ng and gi vi ng cl ue pl i i ee to the
cldors, forrri another list of seven conrlitir:ns I,hich
do not l er-r,d to the decl i ne of a trai nee (/. Il I, 2*_S
:
IV, 25). Tl re l i rst si x condi ti orrs i n the precocl i ng
i i st together wi th sol i tary l i fe and taki ng
no cl ehght
i n cl i ffuscness form a l i st of ei gl tt
(A.I\2, g3l ).
Four con<litions--listening
to clhumlna, ol.rsonce
of confi rsi on i n the dhu,mma l i stened to, rofl oc|"i on
on ihe dhamna already listoned to and unclor_
standing of what is not underslooti-t,hese
do not
l ead to the rl ecl i ne of any porson (,4. \/, l 0l ). Four
rnore conditions are givern again, namcly, grtrduoi
decreaso of lust, of ho,tred a,nd of delusion anci tho
possession of tlie e;e of rx'iscloru pcrnetrating into
profound matters (A.II, 144).
The possession of faith (sodd[c7), morlesly (hiriJ,
senrpulousnoss (ottugryta), energy
{uiriya)
and insight
(pafr,fr,a) are also t,he contlitions of welfaro (^S. II,
207
;
A. V, I25). These fi vo concl i ti ons together
with much learning (balurcsuta,ta)
and rniudfulness
(caio) form a list of seven at D. II, ?8-g and at
4.TV,23. fn the Ma,hdparinirudna
Stttra is fourrd
the s&mo list with learning boing replacod by
concentration (Llhps. p. 126).
Tho traineo rrho is possessed of the following frv+;
qualities doeg not, decline: he is not busy nor elever
at worldly affairs; he does not spend tho day. use.
lessly
;
ho docs not, livo in comprlny with either
layrneu or. recluses
; ho does not, enter tho villago
too eorly or leave it t<",o la,tu
;
and ho spoaks wor<ls
full of moonirrg, tloes rrot, let tho time for solitudo
slip try *nd r+pyrlies him*self to calrrririg the heart
wi thi n (.tt. IIT, 177-8).
'Jaking
no tlolight irr visuri.l objects, irr sounris, in
odour,q, i rr t,astos, i rr phyai cal torrch arrrl i n thoughts
arisen rl th*> mind a,r.r) siven ilr iS. IV, T? rrs six
conditions of wel.far.e.
Practising l<indncss
of action, speeeh and thought,
towal ds t,l rei r col l c,ogucs, usi ng thei r tl i i ngs i n
corrunon, Lving &lltorlg su,int,s possessing vir.tues
which are produet,ir.*l
rif fi.eedonr, praised lly the
wi se,' untrl rni sheri ,
and cond.uci ve bo concerrtnrti on
of mincl, s.ncl also living
arnong saints chorishing
th&t, rx)l ,l (: i nsi ght whi r.h l cacl s t,o l ,he compl ete
dest,rrrrrti on ot' serrow, such are l he si x condi ti orrs
that do not loacl i,u the tlecline of morrks (,D. II,
g0).
The following six ccrnditirrns are givon in the
Angv.ttara Nikriya: rovororrco for tho lfeecircr" the
teaehing, the community of the Sangha, the trairring,
tlre pnseession
of diligenee (appamada) and good
friendship (pa,titanthdra : A. IJI,
gB+-l):
.I'!rs
same iist is found in tho same nikdya, having tle
last two conditions eubstituted with modesry antl
scruptrl or.rsne-"s (.4. fII,-3.?l ); end wi th the fi fth
being replaced with graco in speech (untaeaasa,td
:
A. III, 423-4). Tho Mahdgtardruirad.na Sfr,tra
gives a list of Ber/en conditions wbere the firat threo
<ronclitions are the s&mo ea in the precoding liat,, and
the forrrth is adrnonition (anuidaarfi,), the fifth
cliligence, the eixth good friendship tur<l the seventh
concontration (sawul,rlhi, : Mltps, p" lZa).
Ihe Buddha onur.rorates, with referenco to tha
Vajjie, Beven conciitjorrs that Iead not to the dealins
tnrt, to the welfare of a natiorr. Thoy are: (l) meoting
constantly t,c discuss matters of publio ivnpcrtance,
(?) meeting end carrying out thoir trerrsacbions in
r)oncord, (3) enacbi4g nothing not already estsblished
nnd abrogating nothing already enactod, (a) paying
tittontion to elders, (5) not aloducting women or
rnaiderre, (8) honouring their shrinos
{ceti.ya)
anil,
(7) defending and supporting the arahsrntg (D. fI,
73- 5; . 4. I V, 16- 17; 18- l g
;
*I hpt . pp. l 08- - l l S) .
Soven conditions ero
Freacribed
oe conditions
ftrr ttro u'elfare of rnonks. They aro: (l) moeting
conetantly, (2) moeting in concortl, (B) enncting
nothing not already establiahed and abrogeting
nothing already enacted, (a) paying ettention to
elders, (l'r) not falling under the inffuence
of craving,
(6)
taking delight in a life of solitude in forests end
(7) traini-g their minds in self-possesaion (t. ff,
7&- 7
;
A. I V, 2l - 2
;
Mhps. l : ?0- 1) .
-
Tlre sevon limbe of wisdom
{satta,-ba-ijha,hgal,
too,
are oxplainod ae seven condit,iorrs of vi'elfaro (D. If,
79; A. I V, 23
;
S. V, 85
: Mhpt . p. 128) .
l'ho dovelopruoni of
geven
ideas, as objects of
meditetion, foun anothor list of Boven, nomely, the
idea of irnperm&nonce (anicca-aofifr.d),
of non-self
(areatta-aari.fr,a),
of impurity (aaubha,-s"'1,
of dangor
of evils
{fuJirw,uo,-s''),
of getting rid of evils(p,hdrw-
.e''), of detachment (uirdga-s'') ond ceseation
( ni r od, ha- s" ; D. I I , 79
;
A. I V, 24) "
Seveu conditions aro given &s eonducive to
welfirre of lay disciplee, narnoll', visitrng monks,
listening to t,he dhamrna, being trained il lrighor
virtue, trusting monks, listening to tho dhamr''o
without seeking faults, rrot seeking gift-worthy
oues outsicle tho Sangha an<l s€rving rhe Sairgha
fi rst.
Seven couditions rrre givon in tho llahfiEorinir"
vd.lt<l S&tru as conditions of wolfsre c,f rnorrkq ; thov
APARIHANI
SUTTA APARTMTTAYU(
E)-STOTRA
t 6
are the reaiisation of dhsrma, meaning, tirr,e,
proportion, oneself, people and thoir rninds
{Mhps"
p. 126) .
Wben the two words oTta,rihdna and d,harnmo ara
eomponnded to rosd aparihd,nadhamm,a., it rrreans
the individual wllo by virtue of his acquired na,rure
will not, decline" Tho Puggola,pa,fi,frattd says that all
noble iadividuals (ariyapuggal,a)
are not subjoct
to decline by virtue of their nature (apariharw-
dhanvma: Pug. p. f 2).
U. K.
APARIHANI SUTTA of ihe Bojjlwnaa Sar.nyutta
of the Samyu,tta, Nikd,ya (V, 8b) givos the Bov6n
fectors of enlighten:arettt, (bojjhangaj as tho sevon
thin gs that declin a nob (apariltdnig a
-
d,lnnwn,a).
Cr W.
APARIEANIYA SUTTA (l ),' the eecond sutta of
tbe Anuttariya
Vagga of tho Ari4utta,ro Nilcdya
(IIf, 310), proached by the Budclha to the bhikkhus,
while staying a,morrg tha Sakkas at S6,mag6nia
near the lotus pond,
llere the Buddha informs the bhikkhris that
thero are six things which do not c&use one,s
downfell (Ttari.hani).
They &re: not <ielighting
in worldly activity (kamm.d,rd,matd,),
no| tleliehting
in talk (bhassdrd,matd,),
not derlighting in sleep
(nid,iloramatd),
rl.ot delighting in cornpany (eaiqa-
nikdrdma,td), engaging in fair speech
{souacercsati,),
and cultivating frienclship with goocl tnen (kalydna_
ni,ttot&).
I. K.
APARIHANIYA SIITTA (2), the seconrt sutta of,
tbo Deuatd, Vagga of the Ahguttara Nikd,yrt. (III" 930),
preaehed by tho Buddha, while iiving arnong the
Sakkas of SdmagS.rna near the lot,us pond.
A certain devatd approached the Burldha and
informed him that there were six things whir:h
did not lead to a bhikklru's failure. Thev e,r.e:
rovorence (gd,ra,uatd,)
for the teacher, for ilre dhamma,
for the bhilrkhus, for ttre training, for earnestness
and for friendship.
The Buddha agreed with the view of the devu,tfr,
and informed'the
bhikkhus of oll that had taken
pLoce.
APARIMITAGUNADHARMA, a bodhi satr,va whose
rra,rno occurs in a l;st of futriro Tu,thfr,gatas (GvyrZ.
442. 2j . For detai l s seo MAYADEVI.
APARTMTTA c{I$A
-ANUSA
MSA-n AUe-
pHARAHI
(Arya-Ap'), the iitlo of a Sanskrit text the Tibetan
iranslation of which occllrs in the ltgyud (tantra)
section ot"the Kangy-rr under the trtlo Hphags-po
gon-tan h.sttags-pa dpag-trt, mcd,-.pa shes-bya-bal,i
gz' u,n-s (Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. ' Suzuki ,
VoI. 7, No. 286
;
Vol . l l , No. 476). Aecordi ng to the
Sde-dge erdition, oue vereion (?i14. No. 679), occurs
in the Rg;'ud
lrbum
(100,000
tantre) soction aud the
other, 7M. No. 851(6), i n tho Gzui s-hdus (dharani )
section. Tlie work which begrns with an adoraticn
of the Tl:ree Jewels eontains the following dhdrani:
Nanw ratnrttrayd.ya'ns,m,o bfugavare Arni,tdbluiyo
tntlwgatdyet, arahate santgoksumbuddhdya. fad
yothi. Cm. Amfie Arnftorl,bhoae Amytaaamblwae
Atn'ftavikrante A,mrtagd,minL Goqarwlcari,ti'kare
Sa,rrakleiakgayahkare wdhd.
'fhis
iE followed by
a,n onumoration of the benefits of chanting it.
It is stated that chanting it once will expiete
the sinful deeds accurnulated through a hundred
tlrousand aeons (halpul; chanting it three times
each day will purify the effects of all sins and
generute themerit acquirod by *thousand Ruddhas;
chanting it, t'"ventJ,-one times will lead to tho
expiatiorr of the four rnoral transgressions
;
one
who chants it a irundred tbousand times wiil
seo Maitreya
;
one who chants it two hr-rndred
thousand times will see Avalokite6vara,
;
and one
who chants it threo hundred thousand tirnes wiil
see Amits,bha. Tho colophon does not give the
n&me of thel author or tr&nsl&tor.
Tho ibllowing Chinese translations of tho
sitr'& aro known to exist t A-rni-t'o-Ju-shuo-chqu
(FqtHFE{#ffiH, Ta.ish6, No. 369)
;
Kan-tu.ehi,n4-
t'o-!o'ni-cito?, (fffiffiFbffiE,\n Tai.th6, No. lStG ;
ep. Tai ,sh6, N<r. l 3l 7)
;
Kan-l w-t' o-l o-ni -chou
(fiFpEffim,FR roithi;, No. 1317
;
Nanjio, No. 540),
translateil by Siksanand.a of tho T'ang dynasty,
618-907 A.C.; Wu-l i an4.kttng-t6-t' o-l o-ni -chi rq
(ffi
RsffiFtffitr ffi T aish6,No. I34, N on'iio,No. 892).
R. E.
APARITUITAYU, another oamo for Amii:Eyu(s).
See AIIITA
(1), AIIITA (2).
APARIMITAyUTH)-SfOTRA.
tho reoonstructed
Sanslirit title of tl. Tibetan text extant in tho
Rgyud-lgre\ \tantra
coumenlary) aecticrn of ttre
l . l t .
APARIMITA YTIR.II OMA-VIDHI. L7 APARIMITAYTIR.J fr AI{AHRDAYA.
Tongyur under the titlo Tsha.d,pag-rn,ed-Ia bstorl-pa
(Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . Zg,
No. 3522). Tho col ophon whi ch statos that Jetdri
was the author of the work, givos tho names of
six translators, viz., Ba-ri lo-ts6.ba, I.{chims-pa
Brteon-hgrus sot'l-ge, Rgyu rrari phug-pa, Dbus.pa
rai.s-rgyas
lrbum,
Bla-ma dge-sdins-pe and Bla-ma
baam.gtan bzan-po. Cordier quotes tho name
Dgatr-batri dpal as thet of a transl;rtor (Cordier,
I I , p. 298, No. 0) .
Ihs work eonsists of torr sfanzt-i,s of ilcloration
addroseed to ths Buddha (Sakyamuni), Ildo-rje
(Vaj ra), Padma, Ri n-chen (Ratna), Phri n-l as
( Avalokito$vara),
Kun
-
gshi gs (Adibuddha
),
yon
-tan
(Gu+s), Yo-6es (Jfr6ne), Mi-gyo (Acaia) and Tsho-
dpag-mod (Aperimit6y u).
R. II.
APARIMITAYU N-g OMA.VIDEI.NAMA, A SANSKTit
text translated into Tibetan by Balacanda bla-ma
and Darme tehul-khrims and included in the
Rgyud.l.rgrel (tantra commentary) section of tho
Tengynr rrnder tho titlg Teh.e dpag-tu med,-paltd
sbgin-treg-gi cho-ga she*bya-ba (Peking Ed. Tib.
Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 2e94).
The formula of salutation addressed to
Aparimit6yu ie followod by a commendation of
the great morit that followr tho performance of a
horna
{bunrt
offeri.g). Ths procedure of the
porfomance
of the homa is then explained in
detail. The mantra, Oqn agneye wdha
Oqt saruapd,parn daharw uajra ga aad,hd,
Om aajraaijaye wd,lfr. Om mah.duegaye'ndhd.
Orp ma,hd,balaEe aud,hd Om uajra
tiyuge ge eadhd,. Orp, apratihata,va.iraye md,hd, is to
be recited while making an offering of butber,
ourd, sesame, rice, barley and lontils to Agni,
the god of fire. The formulae, Ayu pufijiryt, Icuru
oqr and Oqn aajra ayuqe a,myta sidd,hi hilm, are to
bo rocited along with an offoring, soliciting longevity.
Tho rospoctive rswards of differont kinds of offerings
are also enumerated in the text. It is said that
an offoring of butter increases wealth, that of
sesnms destroys sin, that of curdlod milk and
cookod food promotes knowlodge, that.of barley
develops zoal, thet of rico confors atrility, that of
wheat and lontils diepels dieease, that of d,urua
gra€s granter long life, freo from diaoaso, thet of
Euda grasa ,affordB protection against all impodi-
mente ond t,hat of rnilk and honoy boetowa per-
foction (Skt. .nddii, Tib. ilrrygtr.witht.
The text ends with the statoment that all beingr
will obtain a,parimi.tdy'z (Tib. tthe dpag med,-po)
tlrrorrglr the merit of the performance of tbe horna
describod in the text.
R. H.
APARIMITAYUN..Ifi AHAF" i :IDAYA. NAMA- DHA.
RAI,JI (Arya
-Ap' ),
tl r,r ti ti o of * Sanskri t work, tho
Tibetan translation of vlrich occurs in the Rgyud
(tantra) section of the Kang'yur under the title
Il'phag s-pa t,she-d.ai, q e
-
i es d, pag
-tu -med -
pahi s iii n
-po
shes-b' t1a-bahi gzttns (Peki ng l i d. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 7, No. 363; Vol . l l , No. +75) . f he
work begi rrs wi th an adorati on of the Buddha and
al l bodhi sattvas. The substance of the sfi tra i s
ae follows : The Buddha addressed an assombly of
monks and bodhisattvas and said. . In the world
called Sukhdvati, in tho western region, thero is a
Tathdgata called Aparirnit6,y'u. They who chant
hi s name wi l l be born i n that worl d. Thore,
no women are to bo found and birth in a womb is
unknown. Beings there emorge from lotuees of
jewels
in a miraculous m&nner and they obtain
food, cl othes, medi ci nes, robes, couchos and the
like, as soon aB they think of them. The Buddhas
i.rr the ten directions praise Sukhdvati. The
Buddha who lives thero, the Dharma he preaehes
and the Sangha aro boyond the reach of intellect,
and tho resulte of boing devotod to thom &ro ag
incomprohensiblo. The palaco of tho Tathdgata
Aparimitdy'u is ten thousand miles in ertent. A
cakravarti k.itrg called Bzafr-pobi mchog (Bha-
drottara) was tho father of the Tathdgata Apari-
mitdyu. His kingdom w&s Gzi-brjid-can (Tejasvi)
and his
euo€rn
was callod Bzafr-skoyfr-ma (Bha-
drapdli). The Tathd,gata AparimitEyu had a son
called Zla-bal.ri ho{ (Candraprobha).
If ono wero to bear in mind tho name of tho
Tath6.gata Aparimitdyu for sovon days and chant
the dh6rani, AmTtad,und,ubhisaarard.ja, throo times
during the day
'and
throo times at night, ho will
seo the Tathd,gaba Aperimitiyu and also the Buddhas
living in the ten directions. Aftor doath the
devoteo will be born in the Buddha-field of Apari-
mitd.yu. The dharani is as follows : dabale abal,e
eornu.iale nird,e6e n'irjate nirugate nirmukhe
ir"lo-
pari6od.ha,ne sukhaaate ni,rd,e$e amite I dyugarbha-
nirhara am'ite dguprasddhane ni,rbuddhe dlcd'lanird,elc
nlcoia-nirjate d,kdianirkulale dkaionirde$ane. . ., . .
Ctttudridharma-prasdd,ane m,tudrd dryapatya-praad-
dane catudri,mfrrgabhana prasfune,balauEsta pna-
eddane ... . ku.iale kuial,an'irdeie kula,Laprati4llwpa
buddlmlcuiale v6u,&llwprobln etffilwrm&armta
ApARmrrA Y u R-J ff Al{A-r[A I.{
pAtA-
t 8 APAR I}1IT AY U R-J fr ANA-NAUE.
nhjdte nirbuildhe u'i,ma'le airaje. . . . rasd,gre ra,sd-
grabale rasagre adhistrhi'te lcu,le pratikule u'ikule
ildntoaudd,ntacitte attpraii,ntacitte su'prat'ist'hi't'e' .' .
onulay abale budilha
-alcdla-
gu. nabuddhe 6kd,6an'ir gun,e
Arnftadun ilubh ihs x ar e s a d'hd,.
l'trey who preach this dhdrar.ri will be born in thtr
world of Aparimit6,yu, where ho sits surrounded
by e vast nurnber of bodhisattvas, with Avalokite!-
var& on his right. Further, if a thera or then, or a
lay devotee, either male or fernale, rememJrers
the name of Aparirnitdyu he or she will ]rtlve no
foar of danger from fire, water, poison, weapons,
demons or evil spirits. The srltra ends n'it'h the
statoment that the congregation, delighted, lauded
tho sorrnon of the Buddha. According to the
colophon, Punyasambhava and Ba-tshab-iri-uui-
grags translated the work intrr f ii-retan. A Chineso
trarrslation of the v'ork, A-rni-t'o-ltrt'-t1in-shdn'g'
ruans-t'o-to-ni-chins (FqlffiffifiFffiEfeffitrffi Tai
s/ i . d, I r f o. 37A; Nani i o, No. 485) i s er t ant .
R. H.
APA RI MI TAYU R.Jfr AN A.M A
N P
A t A.VIDHT.
I{AMA, a Sanskri t t' ext, a Ti betan vorsi on of whi ch
occurs twice in tire Rgy'ud-hgrel (tantra comlnen'
tary) secti on of tl re Tengl mr under the ti tl e ?she
dam ye-6es d.pag-tu. nted,-pahi dkyil-hkhor'-gyi cho-ga
ahes-bya-bor (Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 2993
;
Vol . 86, No. 4887).
Zla-ba bzan-po and Glan Darma tshul-khrirns are
citod as tho translators of the rvork. The fc-irmula
of adoration is addressed to the Tattrdgata Apari-
mit6,yu.
After an initial statement tlrat the priest should
p&y reverence to Aparimitayu and eornmenco t'he
nfe
@id,hi)
as declared in tho tant'ras, the methotl
of its perforrnanee is detailed. The priest shoukl
choose a, suitablo spot, ongage in meditation,
offor flowers and make preparations for the drawing
of tho man{ala. Then a yellorv-complexioned
deity decked with ornaments is said to appear,
her body only partly visible. Instrtrctions for
p6,king
offerings to her and singing praise of her
aro givon in the text after the carr5'ing out of whiclr
sho is said to disappear into the oarth. Offerings
are to be then made to the guardians of the quarters.
Tho blossings of the gods should be invoked by the
recitation of mantras. The priest should therr.
enter tho maqdala and proceed with tho rito as
onjoined in the toxt. Tho following are some of
tho
mantras quoted as those to be chanted in the
corrrse of the performanco of tlre rite t Ory, hrtrlt
'uilttrldha
dltarnto saruapdparp . . . . vi$odhayoaikolpa
apan,atle h'un. Orn n,ama,ste hftm. Om nq,rndrni hil1n.
Namo narn.ah h'ufn sudhd'. Om' sarua-ta,thd'goto-
bud,d ha ab h, is elcu,q u,ta iit rnd,tt
q,nt
ni,ryt ata'11 d n t'i s u,rx sta
-
thagatu uu-irarotnu ubltisi,fraa rrud'r7t. l'ajra uh ka
om i l ft. hi l ,rn. The authorsl ri p of the work i s <rredi ted
bv
(' l r-r' rl i ,:r
1o Si dcl l raraj i i i (Grub-patri l gval -mo).
Candrabhadra (Zla-ba bzari-po) and l)harrnaSila
(Dar-ma tshul -khri ms) are sai d to have transl ated
tl re work i nto Ti l ' retan (Cordr,er,II, p. I98, No. 51
;
f ) I ,
i r .
1$0, No. 59
t
TM. No. 2l . t l ) .
R. H.
ApARrMrrAvun-
(JfrANA-) i l AMA- DHARANI,
the title of a Mahaf ii,na text extanb in the original
Sir,nskrit and also in Tibetan, Chinose aritl l(hotanose
versi ons. Sce APARII{I' f.I.YI]-R,-JNANA- NAMA-
lt-\ T{A \lA i*iA
-
st-r T li .\ .
APARI MI TAYUN
-
JNANA
.
NAMA
-
MAHAYANA.
SUTRA (Ar1' a
-AI,
),
the n,rrne of a l {ahi r,ydna texl ,
containing a sr-rt,ra s:r,id to liave beon proachod b.y
tho Srikyarnuni :r,t.tire rnonastery of Anlthapinda,da
in ,lettr,r-ana in Sr6,va,sti. The work begins with
an adorati on Lo ,\val oki tei vara antl to tr,l l Brrddhag
antl hodhi sattvas. -\ceorcl i ng tr-r the sri tra, t he
Buddli.a addressed llairjuAri Kumd,rabhfrta st
l, large assernbly of monks and bodhisattvas
l,nd said :
'Ihere
is a rvorld in the regions above,
Aparirnitagunasaff.cay6 by namo, whoro a Buddha
called Aparimit,af urjfld,naslvini6citateja proachos
the doctrine. If the people in Jambudvipa, who
a,t present are short-lived, were to write the religious
di scourse prai si ng the vi rtrres of the Tathdgata
Aparimitd,t'us&, or callse it to bo written. or hear the
rnere name thereof, bear it in mind or recite it, or
keep a, book containing it in their houses an.d pay
respects to it, then they will li"'e s, hundred yo&rs.
Further, they who hear the n&me of AparirnitS,5mr-
j fl 6,na-suvi ni 3ci ta-tej a,, boar i t i n mi nd or utter i t a
hundred and eight times will also have their span
of l i fe l engtl rened. They who wri te, c&use to be
wri tten, reci te or keep i n Lhei r houses a book eon-
tairring tlre fbrn-nrla, Oryt n'arno bhu,llauate Aparitni-
I d,y u,r
-.i
fi,a r t rt
-
s u t: in i i eit a
-
t ej o
-r
d,j d,y a tath.tig atd,u drh at e
saltt.llak-sant.budrlld,yu,. Tad yathu. Orlt. pufly6-
p tt n y a
-
mal td,
-
7
t tt t.t y a
-
ap ar'im,it a
-
pu 11'!J u
-
ap ar imi td'y uh
-
punya-j fid na- sambhdropacite. Orir, .torro-,ramskd,ro-
pari6zrddha-dltarnuate gagolla-samud'gate suabhfrao-
ui,,iudd,lrc malr,anaya-ptariad're sud'hd, will live a
hundred yea,rs and bo born in the Buddha-field
(Bud,dhaksetra) of Aparimitdyusa, in the world
Aparimitaguna,saicay5. The abovo forrnula termod
Apari.nuitd,yuh eil,tram in the toxt occurr
twenty-one timos moro with tho rtctoment thot
APA RIMITAYUR.J ff ANA.IIAMA- APA RIMIT A YTIR-J fr AXA.SADHAITA
t 9
roveral crcres of tsuddhae recited it or with an
snumeration of the berrefi.te of writing it or cawing
it to be written, Tho m$ntra, runs:
'O4l,
saluta-
tion to tlle Flltga,vtr,t : fo the soveroign of end.less
life, wiedorn and urrfailing glory
;
io the Tath6gata;
t,o the Arhat
;
to the perfect, Buddha
;
thus, O4p, to
the soul of the virtue of virtuee; the great wirtue,
tho mongrrrolese virtue, tho knowledge of measure-
iess load of virtuo
;
and Om to the possessor of all
purif,od and
irure
duty
;
to hi'n who can riso t,o tlro
sky
;
to tho scion ofthe naturally pure and rightoous
r{ico, ma.y this be propitioue.' The sfrtra errcls with
six stanz&s the first, of wirich is &s follows :
dfrna-balerw-sarnud.gata-buddlw dd,rw-bald,tl,hlgato
nara-timho dd,no,
-balasy
a ca 6r[t yati, iabdo kdrunilcasy a
Twre Trrau,i.fantonn
(?j. The other five stenzas have the
eeme vsord.ing excopt fcrr the tact that the words
Ir,lrt, ktrl,nt'i, utrya, dhyarw arrd prajfid occur in
place of dd,na,
Thero &re three Tibeta,n translations of the
work in the Rgyud (tantra) section of the Kangyur,
rrnder tlre title
llphags-pa
tshe-d,q,n ye-{es d,pag-tu-
nued-po ahes-bya-ba theg-pa chen-ptoh,i zrxio (Peking
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 7, Nos. 361,
302; Vol . l l , No. 474). hi the Sdo-dge edi ti on
two of tbo translations are in t'he Rgyud-hbu-ur
(100,000 tantra) section of the Kangyur (7M. Nos.
674, 676) and the thi rd, ?M. No. U49 (4), i s i n the
Gzuns-lldus (dhArafi,i,) section. The naruos of tho
tra,rrelators are not known.
Copies of the sfitra have been fouLd nmong tho
Tibotan manrrecripts from Tun-hua,ng which Sir
Ar"rrel Stein broright back t'roru his secorrd expcdil,iorr
to central Asia in 1906-8 and whish were eventually
reeeived in the Indin Office Library (I{os. 308-10;
403, 2 iu tho Cata,logue af Tdbenn Manuacri'ptta
Jrorn
Tun-htnng, published by the Co'.'tt-tonwoalth
Relatione Office, f962). L. de Ia Vell6o Poussin
states that these doserve special notice and that
the paper is quite different lrom the paper of the
other manuscripts in the collection (ibid. p. xv).
Tbo Chinese translations of the sfitra aro oxtant :
(i) the Ta-ch,'eng-wtt-li,ang-shou-tswng-gao-ch,i,ng
*lftffiltt$lffi
o" the Ta-ch'eng-uru-Iiang-shut-
chdrry (Taishb-, No. 936) translated during the T'ang
dynasty (618-80?A.C.). Thonamo of the transl ator
is not known. (ii) The (Fu.shu,o-) Ta-ch'eng-ah.6rq-
uru-l,i<zn g -shou-chiieh-ting -lanang -
nitq
-
warLg
- ju -
bn-
t' o
-Io -rvi -chins
(^tFgffi
tFRiE)b EE Efu
*fffStr
g
l|stah6, No. 937
;
Nanj'io, No. 786).
A compleio manuacript of a
T(hotaneso
version
of the sttra was found by Sir Aurel Stoin in the cave
fornplos at the I[aUe of the Thousatrd Buddhm.
Sten l(onow has edited this vereion together with
the Sarrskrit toxt arr<l the
'l'ibetan
tranelation.
trIe has also given an English intorpretation of tho
Tthotanese Lext (I'urk. Rent. pp. 289-329).
'fho
Khotaneso Aparinr,itd,au|3. Sutra has also been edited
Lr1. I{. W" Railey (Khotanese
Buddhist Terts, Loudon,
1951, pp. 94 tr.). For an edi ti on of the Sanskri t &nd
Tibetan texts and a translation of the Sanskrit
and Chinese versions into German, aeo Aparim'ild.
31
ur
-j
iiuna-nama-m,ahay
d,na- cfr,tram by Max Wailesor,
Iloidelberg, 1916. According to the colophon of a
Nepalese manuecript that Sten Konow used, the
work wus known by tho namo Ar11o-Aparinuitdyur-
rwm,o-dhd,rar.ti, (Turk. Rem. p.292). Wollwor, tno,
notes this reodirrg in hie odition of ths text.
R. H.
APARrUrTAyun-fff,xA-rrADEAtA (1) (Aryr
Ap'), a Banskrit work extant in its Tibetan tmm-
lation undor the title (flphage-prl Ttha il,o* yl--{a
dpag-tu-med,-pahi agrub-thabe in tho Iigyud-b$€l
(tantra commentary) soctionof ths Tongyur (Peking
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . ?9, No. 3523).
Tho opening aalutation addressod to Arya-Apa,ri.
mitdyur-indna is followed by the etatement thrt
all beings doeiroua of guarding their livoe should
writ,e out this work degcribing tho procodure
of
worship of Arya-Aparimitiyu. The subioct
ynattar
of the work consists of a description of thie proco-
duro of worship. After making tho prelirni-n'?
vows ons should perform th.;e rnoft$aln worahip
s,nd. the ceremonios of ablution at e solitary elrd
suitablo spot,. Pure in body, epeech and
tt ind,
tho lamas, the Buddha and othor doities ehould be
propi ti ated.' fhe four' i mrne&srrr&bl es' (tho quati -
tios
of rna'itrl,, lcaru4fi,, nuditd urrd, upekEd) and the
emptinoss or illusory nat'are (6&nyotal of all things
shouid be contemplatod upon. fhen one ehould
refleat on tho moaning of tho maglo formula,
Om saabhd,ua-ttdiuddlwb suroadlfirt/fr aa&lfruo.
vitudillw'lwr7t', and proclaim tho might, and power
of
tho ono-faood, two-armed, red-cornploxionod deity
Ary*-Aparirnit6vu who sits croea-Iogged, with a
smile on his fsco. Two mantraa ar6 to be reoited,
b}ae mi,it-gi' sings
{l
nema montra), vw., Oqt td
VdhA
Aparimite Ayurjfrdrc hrib inTm ndhd
ac quoted et, tho ond of the tort and the afrih poln-
eioge (t aqjrunwntra\. A rocitatlon of tho
Arnftdm'dubhistora-dhi,ro4,1, should follow. Ibig
dh&nanl is not quoted here hrt it ocours in tho
text Aptoritndt eyw
-j
frdna,hTdag o.ri&ma. itrhfironi, (q.v.l.
Frrrthor ofreringr should
tre rnado
to tbe deitiGs
APARIMIT A YU R J fr AI{A.S A DH A NA 20 APARIMITAYUS SIITRA
after the recitation of theso formulas. Ths work
ooncludes with the etstement that through the
morit of the porformance of thie rito all tho beings
in the eix rrorlds will receive tho injunctions of
Aparimibdyu and be froe from ali sorrow. The
c0lophon ascribes ths authorship of tho work to
Jetdri.
Hjam-polti
dbyafrs and Lce Dgab-bal:i
dpal are ssid to havo translated the work into
Tibotan.
R,. I[.
APARIMITAyUn-rffANA-SADE.ANA
(2), a sans-
krit toxt the Tibetan vorsion of which is oxtant, in
the Rgyud-hgrel (tantro commontary) section of tho
Tongyur undor the title Tahe dan ye-du dpag-tu
med-ptohi egrub-thaba (Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed.
D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 2990). The authorshi p
of the work is ascribod to Ye-6es-kyi mkhab-bgro-ma
Grub-pa!ri rgyal-mo (Jf,6na{6kini Siddharejai).
Tbe work is identical in content, with the
Apnrimitdyur-nfrn'w-addhonn (q.v.) writton by tho
same author.
R. E.
APARIITIITAYUN..IfrANA.VIDHI.NAMA,
a Sans.
krit text the Tibetan translation of which is found
in the Rgprd-fgrel (tantra commentary) section
of the Teng;rur, under the title Tehe dan
g e-{ec dpag
-tu -meil -
pahi, cho
-
g a shes
-by
a'ba (Peking
Ed. Ti b. Tr i p. , ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 79, No. 3524) .
The opening salutation of the text is addressed
to AparimitEyur-jfl6na. Instructions regarding the
porformanco of a rito to worship him form tho
subject matter of the work. The text states
that a chosen spot should be sprinkled with water,
incenso burnt and a mystic cirelo (manQalal drawn.
The circlo, to be adorned with flags and canopies,
should heve eight lotus petalled entrances. Four
initial offerings to be mado &ro specified-an
offering of milk in the east, fish in the south, blood
in the west and liquor in the north. Topics like
ths four
'irnmeasurables'
(the qualities of maitri,
lcarupd, m,uditd and upekgd,) and the omptiness or
illusory naturo (9fr'nyota) of all things, that are
to bo contemplated upon, aro then rnentioned.
A description of Aparimitdy'u-a red'com-
plexioned doity bearing marks of water-vessels
on his hands, who emerges from the mystic
syllablo hri,h and sits on a lotus with a calm or-
pression on hig faco-follows wit'h tho instruction
that ho should be circumambuiatod to 1,he
accompaniment of the rocitation of the msntro:
Om namo Wory Ayurifrdna hril.t aroldko h&'q hrdl.t.
Further, meditation on the following
irnmortsl
deities is enjoined : Rda-rje (Vajra) in tho eest'
Padma in tho wost, -Qin-chen (RNrw) in the south,
Las-kyi (?) in the north, Kun gzi,gs (the All-seoing
One) in tho north-e&st, Yom-tan (Guf,nl in thc
south-east, Ye-$es (Jild,rul in the Bouth-west arxd
Mi-gyo (Acala) in the north-weet. All theee
deities aro deecribed as boing red-complexionod,
possessing cahn facial exprossions and bear:Ing
marks of water-vossels on their bands. More
irrstructions &ro given about' tho continuation of
tho rite and the following formula is quotod aa a
rnantra to be chantod during a consecration
ceromony . Or.n uairomna dywifid'rn siddhi aamagd
&hirydilco hil.tp.
The colophon ascribos the authorship of tho
work to Jet6ri. SrImafiju and Lce Dgab-bahi
dpal are said to have translated the work into
Tibetan.
R. E
APARIMITAyUn-}{
AMA-SADEANA, tho possiblo
titlo of a Sanskrit text, tho Tibotan vereion of
which occurs in the Rgyud-tr$ol (tantra com-
montary) soction of the Tongyur undor the title
Tahe dpag-tu m,ed-pa ahes-bya-bal.td sgrub-thabc
(Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 86,
No. 4886). The titlo as quoted in tho text ia Ayu-
aparimita-sriilhana. The authorship of the work is
ascribed to Yo-ies-kyi mkhab-l1gro-ma Grub-pahi
rgyal-mo (Jfrdnadakini Siddhar6jfli). The formula
of salutation is addrossed to Aparimitd,yurjf,ana.
The work proscribes moditation on several objects
somo of which ars s&id to arise from tho mystio
syllablo lri. Among those to bo meditatod upon
is tho Tathd,gata AparimitS,yu, a red-complexioned
deity, docked with ornamente, who sits on a
fivo-petalled red lotue. Tho following mqntr&a ar€
quoted as those to bo rocitod while oircurnambu-
lating i,he sacrod objocts I Ory hrdP brdTn uoiro
jfi,drw ayuge wdhrt. Ory hilrn bnhp oaira
ifi.dna
dyupe wdlfr. Or;n &x, ffim uaira
iilarw
6yufc
wd,hd. Or.n bhrttry bn7 aaira
iltana
dgugc ttdhlt"
O\n o brttqn aajro
iilarw
dyupe ettdM. Ory bnbp
aparimdto d'yurjfrana suuini,lcdn tuiardi&ya ildh,lt.
. . dza h&m bam lw opardrnira' d'yurif|d'tu
wahi.
R. H.
APARIMITAyUS
SUTRA, a sfrtra bagod on the
Pure Land doctrino, oxtant in its Chinose trans-
lation nndor the titls A'md-t'o'chirry
(F{ffiF[&
Tai,sh6, No. 362) in two fasoicles translatod
by Chih-oh'ien
during tbe Wu dynasty (222'80 A.O.).
APA RNUITAYUS-S
UTRA.SASTB A
APARIMTTAYUS-S
OT ROPADESA
2T
lhis sfitra eontains the twenty-foru vowi of
Dharm&kara
as well as the llu-tia,ng-ch,in4-ching-
p'irry-t&ng-chueh-chdn4
(fttffiF+Sft,ffi
Taish6,
No. 361) as opposed to other ,gix
puro
Land sfrtraE which mention tho forty-eight vowe
of Dharrn6.kara.
Ac thia sfrtra is wrjtten in prose
rtylo, it must bo the oldest slltra of the rnany
C)hinese, $enekrit and
'Iibstan
editions of the
Sukhduatio.sgfr,ha.
Tllro sfrtras catalogued as Aporimitd,yu,lt
Sil,tra by
Taiahd sag Nos. 360, 86l, 862 ancl 368, eorrespon-
ding to Nanjio Nos. 2?, 25,26 and
g68,
soern to be
relatod.
K. Tmn.
APARIUIITAYUS.SUTNA.6ASTNA.
SEO APAN,I.
MITAYUS.SUTROPADNSE.
APARIMITAyUS-SUfROpADEi A,
che rosrored
Sanskrit title of a work by vasuband.hu, extant in
ite Chinoso translation. ft doais with the doctrine
of tho Puro Land.
This work consiste of two parts, viz., the verse
ahd ths proso. T'an-luan, a commentator, des-
cribes the vorse part es a general teaehing and
tbe prose part as an intorprotation.
The vereo part contain+ twearty-four verses'
oacli of which has four lines. fn this part Vasu-
bandhu exprosses at first hig undivided dovotion
to AmitEbha. Then, he saye that he summaris€s
whet is taught in sitras and spoaks of the poth
to Amit6bha. Tho noxt twenty.one vorses
describ| tho adornmeni r of the
pure
Laud. In
the last verse Vasubandhu confesges
his aspiration
to bo born in tho Pure Land with othere.
In the proso part, \rasubandhu interprots tho
verses and explains the
'Five
Spiritual Gatea'.
viz., tho Gate of lYorehip, tho Gato of
praise,
tho Gato of dspiration, tho Gate of Porception and
the Gate of Merit Transforense. Tho Gato of
Worship me&ng bodily action and ths Gate of
Praise oral action. The Gate of Aspiration is
sololy and oxclusivoly the aspiration to be born
in the Pure Lend. Tbe Gato of Perception which
is taught in detail will be oxplainod below. The
last, the Gate of lfforit I'ransferonce is the accom-
nlishmeut of tho compassionato
heart in trane-
ferring merit to all boings in suffering.
In the Gate of Perception, tho three kinds of
adonnments may be porcoivod. Tlress ar.o the
l7 kinds of edornrnonts of the Buddha Land,
the I kinds of ador.nments of Arnitdbhs and
the 4 kindg of ador:rmonts of the bodhisattvae in
the Pure Land. Thus, the throo kinde of adom-
mont ers furthor divided into twopty-nine- But
all thoeo can be aondensed into one word, i.o.,
dhanna, which me&na
'purity'.
By the word
purity ie meant tho true wisdom and non-oreeted
ilharmakdyo.
This iB the most impor{ant doctrine of the
I]ure Land. All adornmeute of the Purs Land
oro condensed into one dlnrma, namely, Whati.
In other words, it msane that the Pure Lend ie
the rnanifeetation of the tatlnld. T'an-lusn toaohe
two kinde of dhornnkdya of Buddhas end bodhi-
sattvas, namoly, ttro dlwrrrutkiiyo of trutb (resli-
eation of Cfinyaffi) and the dlwrmakri'yoof expedienoy
lupd,yo,
purpoeo and moans to sslvation of othots
arld roalisatron), The twenty-nino adonements
of the Puro Land are produced as tho dlnffiya
of expedient moena to save all beinge.
According to Vasuhandhu, if a porson prectisa
the
'tr'ive
Spiritual Gatee', ho can obtsin the
rnerits of the Five Gates,
yb.,
the Gate of Approach,
the Gate of Great Congrogation, the Gato of
Premise, t'he Gate of the l{ouse, and tho Gete of
Strolling in ths Gardon and Forest. Tho first
four perfect the merit of ingrees and the fifth
the merit of egresa. The first is so celied bocaue€
birth is gained in the Puro Land; tho eocond
bocaugo one becomes one of ths mombers of the
great conpJregation in tlro Pure Land
;
the third,
because oDe con enter the premiee of the Lotus
World (P'ere Land)
;
and the fourth, becauee ono
enierg the Puro Land and enjoys meny a pleasuro
of tbe perfect enlightonrnont,. The flfth ie called
'of
ogrese' becauee witb groat compassion ono
incarnates in tbe garden of birth and dooth to
seve all rutroring beings. Thus, one can ottain
porfect enlightenrnont.
This work was traneleted into Chineso by
Bodhiruci in 529 A.C. (or in 631) undor the title
Wu-Ii.ong
-shou -
chin4
-yu-7to-t'i-ah€ -ytran-aMng -chi
(ffiflFgfrd'ft€Hs'l&
Ta;aha, No. 1624) in ono
fascicle. This is eometimee callod. Wan4-ohlng-Iurt
(Gs.n)
or Tehry-tu-tzn
(F*,8).
T'ten
-Iuan
(47 E-642 A.C.
)
wrote the con::nentary
bhe W u
-ldarq -
chou
-
chdng
-yu -
4to
-t'
i
-
ah€
-y
dnn
-ebtng -clui
-chu (ffifrHffifr&#EeH€iE#
Tohtti, No.
1819). IIie comnentary, too, is very importaqt
in Pure Land Buddhism. Later, many commant-
aries and troatis€S reero written on this work
and on T'an-luan'a commentary also. Tho oat*-
logue volumo of tbo Toisho Tripifoke. rooords
sixty-ibur eornmontariee and troatie$ on this
work. Marry monLo, includi'S Teo-oh'ao (602-645),
APARISROTAVAEANA n Aperrt
Shan-tao (613-68I)
and Shinran (t174-1262),
quote frorn this work and discuss its conterrts.
The JOdo sh'i, a Japanoso sect of Pure Land
Buddhism, admires Vasubandhu bocause ol' this
rrork and places lrirn as the third in t,he line of
the oiglrt patriarchs,
A6vaghosa being the first
and Nagdrjuna the second, or &s the first in the
liue of the five patriarchs of its own sect. In the
J6do-shin shri, another school of Pure Land
Buddhism in Japan, Vasubandhu occr-rpies the
posi ti on of the second patri tr,rcl r., N[g6r' j rrrra
being the first, in the line of its seven n&srers.
K. Tun.
APARISROTAVAHANA, a former Buctdha, men-
tioned in a list of former Buddhas trnder whonr
Sakyarnuni whilo in ther ninth bhumi acquired
mer i t ( Mhuu. f , 139) .
APARITB$ITA, a former
Buddha, ment,ioned in a
list of former Buddhas under whom Sakyamuni
while in the ninth bhumi acquired merit (Mhuu.
I , 14t
) .
APARMRTYA SUTRA, & Sanskri t work.
See AVAIVARTACAKR,A.NAMA-MAHAYANA-
SUTRA.
APARYANTABIIADRA, a bodl i i sattva whose n&mo
occurs in a list of futuro Tathdgatas (Gryw. 443,
g).
For detai l s see MAYADEVI.
APASADIKA SUTTA, two sutas bearing tho
corrunon title of Apdsd.ddka (var. Appasadika),
occ',-rrring in succession in the Akkosaka Vagga of
tbe Paftcalca l{ipd,to of t}ie Anguttaro l,{i,lcaya (III,
255-6). They each deal with fivo dangers open
to ono with a troubled mind and. uice aersa, with
the advantages to ono whose mind is at peace.
L. R. G.
APASMARA-GRAHA-NIRMOcAKA, the recons-
tructed Sanskrit title of a toxt extant in its Tibetan
version in tho Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra cornmentary)
section of the Tenglrur, under the titlo Brjed-byed,-
kyi gil,an-las thar-par-byed-pa (Peking Ed. Tib.
Tr i p. , ed. D. T. Suzuki , Yol . 79, No. 3813) .
The work the authorship of which is aacribed to
Ye-6es rdo-rje (Jii6navajra), deals with a cure for
opilopey.
Aftor the formula of salutat,ion addrossed to
Vajrtr,pdni it statos that those wtro wish to be rid of
epilepsy should knorr the time of its on-ooming and
the symptoms. Morrlings and evenings of the
eecond, fourth, ninth apd twelfth days irr that part
of the montlr in which the phases of the rnoorr
incroaso arrd tho twent5z'ninth day of the rnonth
frrlling in the dark half of the month are specified
as the times during which lrot-ternpered poople aro
susceptible to sttacks of epilepsy. The symptorns
eited are as follows : letting out froth from tho
rnouth, fainting, perspiring, dizzinoss and falling
on the ground. As part of the treatment, an initial
offering of various kinds of incenee, flower's, roots
of the d,eaadd,ru (juniper) and u{ira (anfl'ropogott
mrtricattls\ trees and cooked rice is recommendod,
alter wtrich the patient is to be bathed, and a
medicino applied. The ingredients to bo rtsed for
the preparation of this medicine aro givon, viz.,
an olulce oach of tluee kinds of grains, black peppor,
long popper and ginger
;
a hundred bulbs of garlie
;
a thousand white mustard sseds and equal portions
of td.Ia (palmyra) seede end root of the bilaa (wood-
apple) treo. Thoso aro to be ground with goat's
urine, and four handfule of tlre mixturo are to bo
boiled in sixtoon handfuls of the urino.
R,. H.
APASSENA,
rlame for ArakLhad6yaka (q.v.) thera
in a provious birth as a king.
APATHY
(thlrw), &s montal indolonco (cdttawa
akarrvmafi,fiatd: Dhs. I156), one of tbo five hindran-
ces or obstacles to ethical perfoction. See NTVI-
RANA.
APATRAPYA (Pali : attappal, fear of blame and
consoquoncos, which prevonts ono from doing an
el-il action &s &n external'c&uso, always combined
with tbo fnf,pinsic shame of moral irnpurity (hr[;
PaIi hi'ri). See ANOTTAPPA and OTTAPPA.
ApATTI, offonco against monastic disciplino,
transgression of rules (tikkhd'parla\ of disciplino
(ainaya). Thero are two media by which a monk or
a nun rnay cornrnit an offence, namoly, tho modium
of bodily action and that of spoech (Vrn. Y, ll8).
Killing a living being comes undor the former
catogory, whoroas telling a lie comes uuder the
iatter. Some of the offencos, killing' for inetanco,
and lying, aro ethically wrong (polcoti'aojia), whilo
others, such as taking meals aftor noon, otc., &ro
only Iegally wTong (pafrilarfi'uajio), bocause thoy
are prohibited to monks a,nd nuns (KhpA.23, 4).
APATTI 2g APATTI SUTTA
The Dhmnmanarigarfi,
hae two divisione of dpatti,
ono division having 6vo groups (pafi,ca-d;pu,ttik-
klmnd,ha) ancl the ot her aeven
{s
atta
-
tl.pattilckhancll n)
(D/zs.
$$
1329-31). "Ibe Atthasd,Ii ni , oxpl ai ns the
formor category sB consisting of
Ttiiruji,lca,
the
gravost offence involving defeaf, the eompleto
destruction, of i.ho nobls life of the offcndo4 sunghd-
rJisesa, an offence which roquiros srrsperrsion from
the Order and which ean be decidecl only by an act
of ths Orrler in assombly (,s<tnghakarmnu); pd,c,i,ttiya,
an offonce roquiring expiation; pd,tid,esanEya, an
offenco requiring confession; and dukkato,, a mero
wrong-doing, a kind of slight offence. The other
clivision consists of the five groups of tho first
division together wibh tlnilI&ccaya,, grs,vo offenco
and d,u,bbhaaila, offerrce of wrong speech (Dh,s A. Bgl),
'Ilrc
lllttktsarud,etiadd,o-uinayauastu
also has five
groups of d,pattd, nam'sly, parajiko, sahghuuaiesa
(sahghiclis esa), pdtay anrilca (pacittiy a), pro,tid,ei aniba,
$td,ttdesantyct)
a,rrd d,u,sk7ta (d,ukl ntu,:
GM. IIf,
g,
109-10). The first four divisions rlro founrl also in
the Mahd.uy,ut,pattd (BB. XIII, 103 ff.). The worrl
Tfi,tayantika
is aleo spelt as
Fauatti,ka,
.pa,patti,ka,
and
Trdya,$cittika.
The pdcittiya-aputti (pd,tayantika)
is of two kincls,
nsmely, n'is saggig a-Ttdnittiu a or naihs argi lca
-
Ttd,tag
an
-
tilca and pure pd,tayantika
sometimes called tudrl,ha-
pd,tayantika.
In Pali, the latter is just
called
pdcittiya.
AII thoso d,pattis ar6 dividod int,o t,lu.ee general
r,a,l ,egori es
of two eubdi vi ei ons ench, namel y, (l )
rhttthulld, d,Ttatt'i, gravo offertces, i.e., pdrajilra and
srtrt.ghfuT'ise^so,
&Rd adalthutlrtr d,pa,tt,i,, offolctrs wlricft
r:!,r-F ilot gTrrvc, i,e., the othsr five groups (Vin. Iy,
i l L: l ' i nA.l v, 886)
;
(2\ gan&eapatti ,maj or
offonces,
zuttl lu,lutkd d,pa,tti, mi:eor offences; and (J) s'd,uasesu
ci,pcrtt,i, partial rl{feuees, offcner,'s that, cau be dono
rrrvrr,.y' rvit,lr antl ututaa^gesrl d,4sutti, eomplete offences,
o1t' ene es that cerurol , be done oway wi th (A.I,
gT g
;
I ' i n. I , 354
;
TI , t i 8; V, l l 5) .
I'ir+rre arg Vtrta.y* rulos (si&/chd,pail,a)
corresl)()1-
r.ling l,o ail tJrcso r:ffrrnces.
: i , . e
Rl go $i I T( t i HApADA. VI NAvA.
ApRITIDESANAVIDHI, ti re bi bl e of two rl i fferent
works extant in their Tibota,n tranglations
in
the Dbu-ma (Marl hyama.ba) sect,i on of the Tengvrrr,
rurder the ti tl e Ltutt-ba bi aos-pahi , aho-ga (Peki ng
l l <1. Ti i r. Tri p., uq. D. T. Suzuki ,
Yol . 103, Nos. SB68
ancl 5369). The authorshi p of No. 5368 i s credi ted
to Deva(d,nt,i and the translation is attributed to
Dipa,nkaro,-(rijfld.na and Tshul-khrims rgyal-ha.
The work deals rvith the. procodure of confession
of ocelesiastical offonc es (d,patti, q.v .) .
'Ihe
offender
should recite a formuln two or throe times in
which ho boseechos tho cornmunity of monks to
forgivo
him the offsnces of body, speech or mind,
committed through passion (rdgal,
hatred (d,uepa),
ip;rroraneo (moh,a) or avarice (rnatsa,ryal , Similarl5r,
ho ehould reqrrest the community of monks to
forgive the offenees rtf his preceptors, toach,ers,
ptrrents, all beings of tho ton clirections, otc. The
text also eontains a list of the ofi'ences.
The authorship of the secorrd Apattidelanaui,tlhi
in the Tibetan I'ripifak*r, (No. 5369 referred to
above) i s credi ted to l )pnl }Io,r-me mdsad ye.fus
(Sri Drpu,i karaj nnna) arrd tho transl ati on
i s
attribrrted to Dpal \,[ar-rne mdsad ye-6es
ancl
Tshul -khri rns rgval -brr.
' Il ro
work i s si mi l ar i n
content to tho previ ous text. The offender i g
recquired t,o recite a, statemont three trmeg,
confossing his offenees in the prosonce of all Buddhris,
Vajradhara a,nd the like, and tlre bodhisattvus
rcsi di ng i n the ten di recti ons. Ths formul n of
confession ct-intains &n onrrmera,tion <lf offonces
of' bod5, speoch or mi nd, occasi oned by ti rs
ovcrpoweri ng nature of passi on, hatred or i gnorance.
Soms of thc-so listecl aro the ten sinful deeds (la.Io-
kuialakarrrto,), thre iive worsf, suts (pafi,cdnantarya-
karnw) an<l thoso comi ng nca,rest to thom, tho
transgression
of the corler of rules cnlled tho
prd,ti.molcga, the disregard of the t,eachings of
the bodhi sattvas and tho vi ol at,i on of sol ernn
\ro\!-s givon in the secret religiotrs insbructions
(Tib. gsan snags, Skt. guptaudda).
APATTI SUTTA, tl re fi rst two sutr,ac of rl rs A?tatt;
l ' aoga of the Ari guttara Ni kd,ya (II, p. 239).
Tho first was preaehed by the Buddha to An..r,rrd,r
in the Ghosita Park near Kosambi. Ananda hrrrl
sai d that he \sns ul abl o bo sottl c a di souto
' l ' l rt' oerrretl rodsu,ro
preseri tred for' ri si ngup' f' rorn
A fragrnent of a text r:.r,l l ed f,turi -ba bsaos-ptr
&lr rrfferrce
olready eomrnittod (dpattd-uu,([hd,ntt);
(Aputt'i.deiand,) occrrrs among the Tun-hua1g ]te.s.
tlro.v aro
Bariud,sa,
livilg un,.ler probntion, abbhd,nq,, (No. 316, 2 in the Catalogue oJ Tibetan )llanuscripts
r.-lralrilital'iorr of & mr)[k w]ro hae uadorgono a
Jrottt,
ll'un-hu.artq published by the Cotnmnnu;ea,lth
penftnco for sn ovpiable
offonco antl rrudnafio, a sori Rel,a,tiott,s o.fice, 1962).
r,rl ponnnce u,ttochocl to tho cornmission of a sanglul-
rl i sesn offerrce
\Vi n.
fff, I 12; IV, ZZE): these
R' H'
uitrLhtrdr oFply to all ttrt, parajikd offences.
U. K.
APATTI VAGGA 24 APAYA
(artrluikarann) bhat had arison arnong the bhikkhus,
rincs Bdhiye weB in favour of disgonsion in the
Ordor and Amrruddba boing Bdhiya's friend did
not want to interfere in the matter. Thereupon
the Buddha said that he sirould not havo depondod
on A-nurrddha to interf'ero in disputes, for lto was
by temperament unfit for such aetion. Fur*"her.
it was the duty of Anenda, Sdriputta and
Moggalldna to havo atl,ended io thet matter.
'I'he
Buddhe then proceed.ed to discourse to Anandti
'u the four probable reasons fcr a monk to tre
desirious of ereating dissension of the Ortlor
(sanghabhed,ana).
A wicked rnonk who is immoral, of a wicked
nritutrg, impure, of suspicious bchaviottr, and of
ccvert deeds, who has wrong views, rrir,t is a wrong
Irvor, and who is desirous of gain and honottr,
wishes for disssnsion in tho Order, sinco ho is of
opinion that when the bhikkhus &ro united blrev
eould harrn hirri.
l ' ho second Apatti Sutta (A. II, :40-3) was
preached at the same piace to the hhikkhus. l'he
tsuddha explains the fotrr kincls of offenees : t,her
are the
Tidrajilca
rlho'tntna (mattels of grave oI'fence),
sahghdd,i sesa-dhattt,t tta (rnatters cal l i ng for a deci si on
of tho Ordor'), pacittiya-dho (rnatters caliing for
exoiation
),
tnd pat id,esani,y aka
-
dh'o (matters reqtrir-
i ng confessi on). Each one of them i s expl ai nerl i n
detai l wi th examni es.
I . K.
ApArn vAGGA, the twenty-Ii fth ehapter of
the Catulclca Niptd'ta of the Ahgutttrrrl Nikaya
(II, 239-46), contai ni ng ten stri tas on vari ous
subj ects. Thi s vagga was preached by i he Buddha
while staying near Kosambi in Ghosita Park. The
flrst threo suttas are ratlier long irncl tho rest
are short,. For tho first two suttas se,nr APATTI
SUTTA.
In the thi rd sutta the Il uddha sa\rs thrr,t a hol y
l i fe i s l i ved for tho sake of the tri l i tri rrc of furtl i er
wisdom, of the ossence of relea,se and oi bhe osson'.:e
of mindf'.rlness.
' f he
f our t l r st t t t i t , t l i sct i sses t he post t t r cs o1- pt : r i l s
who l i e fi at on thei r backs, of the l uxrrri ous wl i tr
Iie on tlieir left -"iCe, of the lion who lios on his
right. side and of the Tathigata wtro enters on
rind abides in the fourfold t,rances (jhdna).
putting an end to.all sensual pleasures (hamal.
The fifth sutta montions the four: persons wirtr
aro worthy of a rel i c moul d (thuparaha)' Tht' y
are a fi rl l y enl i ghtened one, & paccekabuddl i ri '
a dieciplo of the Buclilha, and a world-rril,'r
t cdlckaootti-rdja1 .
trn the sixth sutta tho Buddhn declarss tlrat,
tlrero tr,re fout states which devolop one' s wisdom
i,fta' fifl,ti\, nn,rne.ly, the association with a gor1t1 man,
heari ng of t he good docl ri rr. e, f i xi ng ouo' s nt t ent i on
with a pllrpi)so, anrl living in rlceorCs,ncs with
the Dhamma.
' fire
neixt foirr suitas deal wir,ir tho v*riotrs
rnorl r, : : of spe, oeh i rof h rt obi e (ari t l a) rt ncl i y4rrobl e
(,t,tturiurr,\.
According to t,ho f}rttldhrr, tltet' r: &re
ci ght modes of , nobl o speech ' t nt l oi gl rt , i gnobl o.
lrr tlie seven.th and tl-ro ninth sutta' s tire Burfdha
i {pl l ri rrs i gnohl o spoech, na' mel y, speaki ng of
i l ri ngs n()t , sLren i ns seen. nnd seen as not s$on.
etc.
' llhe
orghth rr,rrtl ttre tsnth suttns are
rl evoi -eri t , r-r di scLrssi ons on nobl t : srreo(, h whi oh
i s t hs opposi t e of i qnobl t , speech.
I . K.
APAYA.
' Ihe
word apci11a, (Sl(t. apaya, frorn
apa*
j)
'
going tlw&y
' ,
is used in thtl tsali Budr-lhisr
l i t orat rrre
' ri t h
several merrui ngs. f t st and-q f rrr
soparat i on ari cl l oss as i n xri ud' pdUa
(I )hp.
Zl l ),
I oss <rf proport , r a, s i rr t he Di gh' a | l i l cauq (I I i , l 8l ),
I l ei r, 1i rr, gr, or ot rt f l ow of wa, t er (D. t , 74), and t r
f al l i ng a, n' av i n conduct ' (D. I , 100). f n i t s bosi ,
l <nol rn rner, l , ni n! : . l t rl wo' . r: r, i t st an, -i s f o; ' t t st t t t e
of sui f eri ng t f t er deat h, i rr rni i ri . y resl -rot rt , s equi -
val ont t o t he not , i on r, rf prrrgrr, t ocv i rr l rt rl l . Never-
t , hel ess, i t rs di i f i et ri t t o l , rt t (i e rrny evi dence i n
earl v l Juddt ri st I i t ert t rrre t ha, t i t , connoi , ed any
part i cul ar l ocat i on as i s rr, ssoei at od wi t h t he
rnedi eval Europet r, n rt ot i on of he' l I , wi ri eh t yt r, s
bel i evet l t o ho undergrount l .
' f l rl oughout ,
t he l {i l <i ri , : r,
l i t era, t , ure, aparyn i sr
l r{' el r. rt l t o as t r st at e o{' sui f t ' r' i nq t hat c. , mt t s i n
bhe l or r n ol ' r e' t l i but i on f i - l r t t ct s of evi l . Tl r e
Sd; mart f rnpi wl a Sut t a, \ D. I , 82) gi vos t hrso eart s: es
f i - r l r e bi r t h i n t hi s st at o, namel y, t ho r evi l i ; r g,
i n i t uL, speeel r
()r
t l i c. rt rght . of t i re Nci i . ri i ' Ones
(arh1a), hol di ng of wrong I ' i ews. ori rl u' ' ' -; t ri ri ng
t he dcmeri t of aet s whi ch rest rl t f rom
' wrrt r, i : t
vi orv. .
l r r t he Ahgut t ar u, ) { i kayo ( I ^ i i 5) ,
' , vl i t r n
l i , , : f l t " l , : 1l r ' .
i s asked wh1' bei ngs are l t orn i rr l , l ri , st t t , t o, he
r epl i es t , i r r r , t i t i s dr i o Lo t ht : i r r t t i " r gi r r t r ; i ' . t ci r r
rlnci crookeci-rioss. lrr the $B,rrlo r:liri^t-tl. l - 5ii)
answt - nr i ng t , ho br al t mar r J. l nt t s: r i , r - : ' , t i r , - I ' r ' dr l he
sl rvs, crvpt i ui i i l -. t , t i ri r, t t i ro ci t . t t ri Lr i s . . t 1: --i t
i : l l i
i r,
i i rri l omi ssi cn
\ kat ot t d
{o r, i , i : of cl f J ! ; . r\ si "; i i
t i r expl aur f ur t hor . i t e enY, ' i l r r i ; , i . r r t , . ; t t l , . ssi . , t t ^
i rr act , speer: h or t hrrughi ' ' ci i rnt l --i l rt . ; , : i : . , ' r3 u. rl rl
t l re orni ssi On, i D rl c' i , , si , t t och r' l t . rr ' i ' rl i : ' , i t i rt . ri ' t l , l
rrr: i s, l oud t o t t re rt s. 1 i ' . i ai t d' yu.
l rr t i re s&rrro
(: oI ri , ext . r{rl et i rl S ' -i i arrrl a t l re
eongequencres of t , he i t , : rrurrl l i i bj i r. of t t u: l norol i t v,
APAYATAEA
25
APAYA
SUTTA
he nontione
guilt (, the aelf upbraida
the self
,),
blrmc by tha wise, loes of reiutatiorr,
insa,nity,
*nd after death afigo.
Those who are elated try gaine and ravourg
as
well ae thoee who
aro moved
by loss and lack
of favours Bre
eleo subject io thie plight
{l 9.
Ir, 23S)"
$o ona but, e etroam=winner
(aotd,panna)
can
ol*im to be free from rebirth
in tho four unhappy
6tatee, viz,, hell (niraga),
the womb
of an *rri_"f
(tdrwelxirw-yoni),
tho reat,- of ghoate (pe&iuiaaya)
anrl the etate of ap6ga (,4.
fV, +Of). The world
with ite gode and men is onvoloped,,
.
tan[fled
like a ball of threed',
unablo to crose over apayt
which ie oomparod
to an ocesn of ruin and des_
tmetion (,S'. Iv, lbg). Not oven a king, roller-
of-tho-whool (calckaaattin),
can, withoui virtuo,
oross it (,S.
V, 842).
Nor c&n prayor
holp
(S. fV, 313), nor ri tual (D.
I, tOt).
It is the privilege
of Buddhaa,
aa S6riputta
points out (D. fTf,
lll), and of arahant$
&ccording
to tho Buddha
himsef (D. I,
gZ),
that when thoy
bave reached the moditativo
etate of reminiscence,
they see in contemplative
vieion tho passrng
away
rnd rebirth of beings in both heeven
ead, apdya_
all fariug aeeording
to their
desorbs. Boo furthor
MRAYA, PETALOKA.
B. J.
AP^IYAJAHA,
n6mo
of o bodhisattva (Mmlc.
{ 0. 13
;
68. 6
;
l l l . B
;
426. 19) .
APIYAUUKHA,
a term
originelly
used in tho
s€ne6
of erit ee opposed to iigamukfta
which moant
ontrqnco.
In theee
sengog the two terms
occur
h tho
Ait4n*aara Nilcdya
with referenco
to the
eluiees
of e lake
thet a.lmit
water and drein it, out.r
T9hile reta.inisg
the underlying
compnrigou,
th6
two torms havo been
employed
in tho Eamo pgssego
with raferonce
to woalth
in order to indicats
esue€c leeding
to the loss
of woalth or incroaee
of
it, reepectively.
Four sueh o&uaes loading
to the
lom
of wealth ars montionod:
namoly, yi"tairrg
to r.reo's pqseion (dhrfi4
for women,
d"iok;S"*Ufi"!
rnd bad frionds
i
and, converaely,
tbo fourfolcl
eontrol of these passions
ie mentionod
ae lead.ing
to increaro
of weelth.
trr tbe DWlfi
Niknyar
eir carrsoe
of loss a,re
mentioned which include
not
only the four alroady
indiented
but two
others as woll. Thoee comprirc
(1) addiction
to liquore
that reeult in intoxioatiou
and hoodleeenesB,
(Z)
street walking
at unusual
l:,r"",
(3) froquenting
theetrical
perfor:manoee,
ilt
gambling,
which
reeults in heedloesneae,
(5)
association
with bad friends,
and (6) lazinese.
Tbe oomraentarios
regarrl theee
as causog for
loss of weelth
bocaueo thoy
not only erh^eurt
wealth
alreedy
accumulated
but also begst
nothing now.8
Thig torm h.as also been oftou oynployod
in the
plural aB apdyamukltini
and thon gonerully
explainod
eornrnentarially
aa o*uae6 of nrin
(ai,ndaa){
or&soccasiongof
ruin (adndoo,rrea
}lffinif
.
Such eauses of lose
aro, hriwevor, not oonfined
to weelth
only. The DWtw Nikdya.
has slso
mentioned four caueee
of loss in regard to thc
acquieition
of supreme
knowledge
and conduot
1ti.j
j d
-
e ar ona
-
s arn p add,) ;
(l) A recluso or brahrnan
without over having
attained flrpremo
knowledgo
and conduet migbt
go into the forest vowing to live only on fr"it"
that have fallen of themeelvee,
or (2) to live only
on bulbs, roote and
fmite, or (B) ho might build
himeelf
a fire hall and servo. ths fire god, or
(4)
he might build
himself a four-doored
alrnr.
houee at a junotion
where
four roade me€t,
and dwoll thore with the hope that he would
srtertain
any necluao
or brEhman
who peseod by.
It ie also eignificant
that ths nofiion
of
apciyomuhln
soems to bave been moro or lsm
sJmonJrmoue
witb that of pard,bhaua
mukln whioh
meens cause of dofeat or ruin. Many auoh cr:us€a
of dofeat are moutionod
in the
pa)ablw,xt
S,uila,
as for inetanco, not aupporting
one'a egeC parentr
while ono hae ro3ourcos,
doceiving people
by
faleehood,
e€lfiBh enjoymoni
of cns'e
-;-i,JhJ,
lttd
aquandering
all that {;o{, ge.i;.r on wo:rrstr,
drinh and dice
?.
H. $. c.
APAYAPRAilAT.HAtf g,
a beirrrieertve
whocc
n&me occurn in a iili ,.:f
i:rtulu
'Iai:h6gatae
(WA.
443. 1-. t" Th'.r fiurl t:ciit,iuir roeds UpByapramath,ane,
BIIS. t r' .). i .i '
._;rai l s
seo IIAYADEVI.
APAT. ii 11'1-- r'Ar & ehort rligoourlo
itr prrorc!
concludod witlr three atanzas,
oa two types
of
poopie who are doomod to downfall and rcbirth
If:Ih,'ffir';'
"''
I Dd. III, pp.
9{41-6.
1 DA. | , D. 268.
5 l l . I t l e .
l B 0 .
I f;l3.niJH'"
APAYIKA STTTTA
28
APFTATAT{A
in hsll
(opdydkd ne'rayikd'), viz., one *ho claime
to bo a saiot although leading a gorlless life
(abrohmudrr) and one who haraseos
nnot'her who
leadg a eaintly lifo by accueationa of moral lapses
(Ie pp. 12-9, sutta 48).
E. G. A, v . Z.
IPAYIKA SUTTA' the ffrgt sutta of t}rle'Apa4liko
Vagga of tho Tiha Nipdta of the Aiguttora Nilfr'ya
( I , 286) .
The Buddha explains to the bhikkhus that
there aro thro€ psrsons who will be born in
puryatory unlosa they givo up their evil habits:
ho who cleirng to lead e holy life while leading
an impure life; he who falsoly chargoe with im-
morolity e
1rcreon
who leade a very holy lifo;
and he who be<romee intoxicet€d Fith luets by
preaching end holding tho vlem that thore ir no
feult in eenruality
lh6]rro).
I. K.
fffnfn VACGA,
the twelfth chapter of the
Tiln Nipdto of bbe Aigutbta Nikd1o
(1, 206)
ooneieting of ton suttas dealing with various topias
and eddressod to the bhikkhus.
For tbe flrst, sutta se€ ApAYIKA SUTTA.
Tho eocond. sutte dsals with three persons who
sppoar only raroly in this world, nomely, a fully
enlightoned ono, a
lrerson
ablo to expound tho
Dhamma taught by the Buddha, and ono who is
mirndful of bonefite end is grateful. Tho third
rutta says that it ie di.fficult to find one who is
easily measurod
(auppan*yEo), ono whom it i8
hard to mo&sure (duppomeyyo\, and one who
is i rnrneasul ablo (appameyga\.
The fourth sutta explains the throe eorta of
p€rsonl who are reborn in the compeny of the
dovas
(goda) in the various spheres of infinity
of epace
(dkaaa), of coneciouanoaa(tifrfrd1.a) and of
noth ingnesa
(uki ilcofl itol.
The fifth sutta merrtione the threofold failures
(uipatti), and thrae Euccosaos (sampe.ddl: the failure
in morale
(ailal, in mind (citto\, and in view (tli!(hi).
A person ie reborrr in hell after death, duo to
theee throo failuros. On the othor hand, tho three
succosaos aro tho opposites of theso failures and
it ie duo to them that ono ie reborn in hesven afbor
death. Tho sixth sutta merely repoats the fi.rst
eoction of the previoue sutta. In tho eeventtr
rutcr, which ropoote the fifth sutta, thoro is e varia-
tion in debail. In place of failure and suecoss in
mind
(cdla), the iatter montions failure and sucoosS
in tiveLlpod
(6ih:ol.
The eighth sutta explains
threo forms of purity
(soceyya), namely, purity of body, of speech and
of mind. The ninth sutta ie only a repotit'ion
of the eighth sutta, but it gives a detailed
explana-
tion on tho purity of mind. The last sutta
speake of throo porfoctions
(mnneyyd'nf), namely'
perfection in body, spooch and mind, and says
iurther that porfoction in mind could be attainod
by the d.eetmction of ths daauoa' This udgga
ends without the usual table of contentn
(udddrut), and thus tho individual suttas have no
titles. Rut it is obvioug that this D&ggo has derivsd
its titlo from the subject matter of the first sutta,
which is tho only one in this cheptar to doal witb
downfall
(t'pdyo).
I . K.
APIYIIIHA VAGGA, the ninth ohaptor of tho
Ebo Nipata of tho Jatakallholcothd
consisting of ten
j6takas (Nos. 8f-90) and deriving its title from
oNWZnha,
tho first word in ite flrst
jdtaka (J' I'
300-70).
APERTURE, ltunited Epaoe' oponing
(paricchintfr'
biiaol, used as e devico (kosinal ftrr eoncontration in
tho dovolopment of montal
abeorption (ifuarc)'
See KASII.{A.
APEYATANA,
a templo in Burma, traditionally
essignod to king Kyanzittha,
1084-lll2 A,C' (Thc
Gtaea Palac'e Chroni,cla of the Kirqs of BurTno, p'
l0S). Arr inscription on tho wall of the tomplo and
datablo, palaoographically,
to tho fifteonth or the
eixtoenth contury, statos that tho temple wae built
by the chiof qrroen of king Kyanzittha and ite
name was Aporatana.
It is said to havo boon
construoted. at the spot whero Apoyatana, hir
quoen, weited for him when ho wae in exils to
u""tpu the wrath of his fat'her Anawrahte' Tbe
monastory is also
L.own by eevoral other variations
of tho namo, such
ae Ameyadana, Apeyadana'
Aboyadana and AbhaYadana.
The tomple is a squaro building with an inner
chamber surmounted'
by a stfipa' Insido the
chamber is a largo image of brick, of a eeatod
Buddha. The main interest of the temple liee in
the paintings with which tho ineide walls of ths
temjle aro decorated
(see VoI' II, Platss f' fI)'
Theso paintings represent, mainly,
the divinities
of the Mah6y5,na
panthoon
(ASIAR' 1930-1934'
43 f . ) .
On the innor face of the outor wall of tbo temple
aro m&ny figures of Mahaydnistic
godsandgoddeesot'
both iD thair peacofu-l and 6eroe forms, ea woll aa
APAIALA, tho rri i ga ki ng, corrvertecl
from Nd,gd,rjunakoncJa.
(ltli
courltslt
of the Archreolo{tital Departntatt, India)
i r1 t l re . l Jrrrl dhn, , B, s repl esent ecl i n a rol i ef
(tty courlery 0.f tht Archrcologil:al Detrturliitt:trl, liurtna'1
APEYATANA
TEMPLE, l \tyi rrl rat{arr, })i rg5"n, Bul rna"
Wal l pr l i nt i ng
i n or r t l i r r e. r l nJr i sf i ng
Vi sr "r u on
i Wt r l l
l r t r , i r r t i r r q
i r r out l i ne, r l epi ct i ng
Si vaonhi s
Car ut J+1, . I , l r t r l n1i , : r l : u, i t , h
t r l , o sr ; nkos.
I l l r . r l l .
4 s. l ' . { _r s8420
PI , , \ TE I I
f:.,t tt
APEYATANA TEMPLE, Myi npag&n, Pagr i r r ,
western portion of the south rvall.
Qu courteqt oI the Archeotqizal Deportmenl, Bunnt)
lJurzna. Orr.tline of a wnll painting on the
APEYATANA
27
A-P' I-TA.M
O
-CH' U.SH
F]-SB IH.LU t{
images of bodhi-qattvas. The borlhisattvs images
aro in three rows, one above the other. The imagers
of the lowest row inre in the artlhaparyan&o postrrre
caclr with a cn,akutct., & crown, ear-rings and other
bodhisetbvn,-orni+ments and folt boots. The i'.'agce
in the middle row &re i-u tho lal,i.ta-mud,rd on double
lotuses with the rigirt leg pendant, and the foot
resting on a, lotus. Tho right hand is resting on
ttre right knee with the palm in the aarad.a,-mud,rd,.
The left hand is brought to the breast in the abhaya-
tnudra. Eaeh i mage i s worshi pped by two gods,
one seat,ed on either side. Irr the upperrnost row,
t,he images stand on lotrues
.rvith
the outer hand
raised and holding a ring. Tho other hand is
pl aced on the breast wi th a wea,pon i n i t. Ai l
these
images
in the three rows are in non-trrntric
form and they are all devoid of any legend. Judgecl
bv the attributes in their hands tbey may bc
identified v'ith Vajrapini, Padmap6ni, Avalokit,es-
vara and Matiju3ri, or they ma,y even represent
Avelokiteivora, in his various form,s.
Ami dst the other pai nti ngs on tbe wal l s of the
temple ere figuro's of the Buddha, paintings of gods
and goddosses, rnonks, ascetics and kinnaras.
Isolat'ed scenes, presumably from jEtakas,
appear
amidst them but t,heir identification has not becrr
possible. A series of fivo such scenes ha"s beon
identified a,s depicting Bome scenes fiom the
Unmagga Jdtaka. They depict arr a^scet,ic s'ho
was enticed by & kirnari in order to induce
him to kill a blood-sucking spider. These seenes
from the jdtakas
aro HrnayS,nic in character.
Some of the paintings of the temple aro tarrtri<r
in character. One of them depicts a goddess
holding snakes in both hands. Another figunr, l,
god, is depicted with a terrific expression shou'ing a
row of fangs and with snakes as wristlets trnrl
bangles. and. a garland. of human heads as the
no<;klace. A god holding il human skin ircross
l ri s back an<l another standi ng on rr c()rpse are
others of that type.
'Ihe
godrless rvith six arms
carryi ng a ri ng, a, kni fe, a hos,, an arro\r, a head and
I sr,+'ord, arrd with a garland of heads rorrncl her
neck, al so bel ongs to the srl mo orrl er.
Gocl s l i ke Bral i rnA,, *i v,r, Yi snrr i l nrI Ci l ,r.resi r i l r,,
olso depicted on the rvalls. Bralund is on rr, guos€.,
*i .ra or, o bul l (1-ol . fI, Pl ate f), ancl Vi :i r.rl r on rl
ganrcl a tri rd (zl SJ.dfi . l 9:10-34, l 8l tr.).
Thc Apc,yat'rr,na t,emplc i** onc of the ourlv Bu,,l-
dhi st monuruerl t.s of Il urrrra. Its tl i scti vtrrr,' rrri r.l
l r r osr r r vu, t i on
i n 1930 l r r r , s f i r ci l i t l , t , er l t he si r r r l v oi '
Il uddi ri sru .rrr IJuri nA of ri rat Deri od.
APHEGGUSARA,
a wor k r ef er r ed r o i n t he
Sdsana-
t:a,msa(48)
as being c,omposed
in Hamsavati
in .lJurmg
about tho fourth
century
A.C. Tho work is B{riC
to contai n
di scussi ons
on sbhi dhamma topi os.
The ,SoscnoLtefft,sa
is silonr about its author.
w. c. l v.
APHEGGUSARA-DIPAi l I,
a book composecl
at
Ilarnsavati,
probably
by Mahdsuvan{radipa,
teacher
of queen Sivali. In
Nevill,s lIS. Cataloguo in tlre
Britislr
Museum it is describoil a,s an anutikd
dealing
v"ith matter in the Abhdd,hommat
ho-
t ibhuuinr
(Rorle.
peti
Literature oJ B,urma,
36, n. 2) .
w. G. w.
A. PHREN
KA- PHREX BNB UCHOG
HKEOR-
LOHI RNAL-HBYoR
cHEN_po BsGoM-pA
SHES-
BYA-BA, a transl ati on i n Ti bet*l n i rom a Sanskri t
tt:xt. See SA}TRARACAKITALIKALI
MAHA.
}. OGA
-IJHA\-AN.{
-NAN,TA.
A. PHREN KA. PHREf i -GI
Si l AGS. KYI
RI M-
PA SHES-BYA-BA, & tran-ql ati on i rr Ti bstm
frcm a Sanskri t tort. See ALIKALt-l tANtnR_
JNAt.i A.NAl ta.
API LAPI YA, nrrme i bl Ti kandi pupphi ya (q. r. . )
thera i n a pl t' r' i ous bi rti r, ts a ki ng.
A-P' I -TA-MO-CHI EH-SI {EN-TSU-LUN,
ri t rans-
l at i <i rr i nt o
(l hi nese
f rom & Sanskri t t cxt . Seo
,\BHIDI{^\RU..\.
.
DHA' I' U KAYA
-PANA
" SASTRA.
A-P' I -TA-MO-CHI -I -f Ui U-t SU-LUN,
. r r, rl , rrsi at i on
i ni l r
( l i i i nt ' sc
f r om a, Sar r sl i r i t t ext . See ABHI -
l ) H. . \ I t t L\ - S. \ \
( ; I 1' I - PAr t \ ' AYA.
A- P' I - TA- MO- CH{ f - SHE- " Un, : r , t r . t nsl i r t i on i r i t o
( - l hi t r csi '
f r om a Sansl ; r i t t r : xt . St t e Al l Ht l ) FL\ l t l l . \ -
i i os^{-sASTtIt,\.
A- P' I - TA- Mo- CH U- sHi - Luu- pEN- s UNG. i r 1 r ans-
i rr,ti on i nto Chi :rese frorn a Sanskri t t€)xt. See
, \ RHI I XTA R} I , \ - KO S. \ ( S. \ ST11. \ ,
) I i ARI KA
A- P' I - TA
- MO- CH
t r - SHi - , n, n- , Un, a t l ansl at , i on
i nt , - r t l l r i r r ese f r om r r Sar r skr i t t cxt . See r l l i HI -
r )H A rtl l A-1i O s.\- (VYAXHT: Ll
-;
SASTRA.
F. , R. P.
A+'I-TA.MO-FA-CEIE-LIIN 28
APO-KASTNA
A
-P'I-TA-UO-FA-CEIE-LIIN
( Abhid,harna
- j
fiC na
-
prasthdna,-ddstra1
,
e translation into Chineee from a
SansKrit text. See JfiANAPRASTEANA.
A-P' I-TA-UO-FA-Y0N-TSU-tUN
(Abhi dharnw-
dharmz-skandha-pad,a-idstra), & trenelation into
Cbineee from & Ssnskrit text. See DHARMA-
SKATVDHA.
A-P' I-TA-UO-FEN-LEI-TSU-tUN (Abhi i trharma-
prakarana-idstraj, a translation into Chinose from a
Sanskrit text. Soo PRAK-ARA\TAPADA.
A-P' I T-A-DIO-KAN-LU-WEI-LUN, a transl ati on
into Chinogo from a Sanskrit text. See ABHI-
DHARMAMBTA
-
(RASA-
)
SASTRA.
A-P' I-TA-IUO-MING-CHING-LUN, & tranel ati on
into Chinese from a Sanskrit text. See ABIII-
DEAR}IA.PRAKASA
-SA-DHAXE.
SASTNT.
A-P' I-TA-UO-P' IN-LEI-TSU-LUN
(Abhi d,herne-
prakora2te- pd<l,a.dd,stra), e translation into Chinese
from a Sanskrit tert. Seo PRAK-ARAITA-PADA.
A-P' I-TA-UO-SHIH-SHEN-TSU-LUN, & transl a-
tion into Chinese from & Sanskrit text. See
ABIIIDIIARMA.VIJNAWEXAYA. PADA.
A-P'I-TA-UO-SEUI{-CEEI{G-LI-LUN, a tranela-
tion into Chinee€ from & Sonskrit text. See
AB HIDEARMA.IVYAYANUSAR,A.
A-P' I-TA-UO-TA-P' I-P' O-SEA-LUN, a transl a-
tion into Chinese from & Sanskrit text. Soo
ABr{rDEA-RMA. MArrA
-laBEA$4.
A-P' I-TA-UO-TSANG-E8IEN-TSUXG
-LUN,
a trans-
letion iato Chineso from the Sanskrit text Abhd-
dlnrma-praka,raqta-idaanta-4dstra, also known &a
Abhidharmo
-
sornoy o
-
pr adifikA- Cdatra
{q.v.).
A-P'I-T'AN-ESIN-LUN, a trenslation into Chi''ege
from a Sanskrit text. See ABEIDEARMA.
EBDAYA-sAsrne..
A-P' I-T' AI{-KAN-LU-WEI-LUN, a transl ati ou i nto
Chineso from a Sanskrit toxt. See ABEfDIIAR-
MAMBTA-(RASA-)
SAsrne.
A-P' I-T' AN.-PA-CHIEN-TU-LUN, e transl ati on i nto
Chineee from a Sanskrit text. See ABTTTDIIAR,-
MASTAGR,ANTEA..
A-P' I-T' AN-P' I-P' O-SHA-LUN'
a l ransl ati on
i nto
Chinese from a Sanskrit text. See ABIIIDEAR-
M-{-vrBHAgA.sAsrne.
A-P' I-T' AN-WU-FA-ESING-CHINC,
a transl atron
into Chinese from a Sanskrit toxt. See ABEI-
DIIAR,MA.PANCA.DEAR,MA-CAR,ITA.
SUTR,A.
APKBTSN A, a samfid,ha or a concentretion of both
r.ir\d
and body attained through tho deep medita-
tion performed by me&ns of concentrotion on water
(ap). It is possessed by the bodhiss,ttva Gadga-
daevara who lives in the world system (Iokad,hnful
called VairoeanaraSmipratima+dita (S drnp, p. 3d3
).
See al so APO-faSfWe.
U. K.
ApO-OgAfU, water-element, &s one of the malrd-
bhflta. See BHUTA.
APOHASIDDHI, a Sanskrit work extant, in its
Tibetan translai:ion under the title Sel-ba grub-pn
in the lletr;r:idy5, (Tshad-ma) sritra-commentary
(Mdo-hgrei) section of the Tengyur. The work is
credited to the authorship of Sankar6nanda.
Manoratha of I{a6mir and Dhimatprajfia (Blo-ldan
Ses-rab) tranelated the work into Tibettn (Cordier,
IfI, p. 453, No. 20 t TM. No. 4256).
E. H. P.
ApO-XASIIA, an aid to concentration by means of
which a state of mental absorption (jludrn) may be
obtained. Tl.ere are ten dovicos (kasiqta),
four of
whiclr are based (kamnwehnna) on the four elemeuts
(bhilta, q.v.). Those four olements are represented
and visualised as follows : extonsion and solidity
by earth (pa,ghaul, cohesion and saturation by
wator (dpo), heat and temporature by,firo (teJo),
motion and oscillation by ab (odyo).
Apo-kaai,na, then, is a device using t\g element of
water to concentrate one's thought
; end physicat
water becomee the material object of coneentration
by fixing one's ga,zs on this particular object. In
preparing the object of concontration (parikamma-
nirni,tta) one should uso & bowl or pot filled brimful
with elean and colourless water (Vi,am. v,
S
B, p. f 33)
for any contarnina,tion or colouring would merely
diritract the mind. But, it is irnrnaterial
whether
water is collected frorl rain (arnbu), from dow (udri\,
from flowing water (udaka), from rr.nning warer
(solila) or stagnant water (apo), as long as it is
clean and colourless. The bowl or pot should be
filled with water to the bri'n, lest the reflection
of tiie upper edge of the bov.l be seen in the warer.
Just as in the caso of other meditation-dovices,
the bowl of water shouid not be placed in the middle
APPAKA STITTA
29
APPAUADA
SUTTA
trf n courtyard,
but i n a remote pl ace whi ch can be
eereened
off, insirle a dwelling or under an over-
hangi ng roek (i bi d. i v, g
94, p. l 0O). Ite si ze shoul d
be not more than a cps,n and four fingorbreadths,
i ,e,, l 13 i nehes, i n di ameter.
After having thus prepared the object of conoen-
tration one should sweep the place around aad hevo
a bath, so that one feels cool and comfortable.
Facing the bowl of warer at a distance of,slightly
less than four feet (2| cubits), ono should prepare
a low stool of about one foot in height. Seated on
the stool one should next propare the mind by con-
centrating for some tirne on the special qualities of
the Buddha, his teaching and his Order of monks,
leading a life of renunciation, till there arisos a
longing to escapo from senso desires which is the
only means to solve all conflicts and problems.
After this when the mind is calmed and.lieinterested,
the eyes should tre opened modorately and thoir
gaze fixed on the object : water.
Every little detail of instruction has its proper
significance as oxplained by Buddhaghosa: if ono
sits too far off, the meditation object is not distinct
;
if ono sits too near, the faults of the object become
apparent nnd
c&use distraction
;
if one sits too high,
ono has to bend the head and neck low down in
order to view lhe kasina; if one sits too low, tbe
knees wi l l begi n to acho (i bi d. i v, g
26, p. l 0t).
Itrus prepared in mind and body, no attention
ehould be given to the qualities of the object, w&ter,
but
just
the general concept should be refl,ectod. on,
and brought beforo the mind's eyo a hundred
timee, a thousand tirnes, and even more than that,
until the concept is established, whether the physical
eyosi aro open or shut. This is eailed the arising of
the learner's sigtr (uggchanirnittarn
upTtajjati:
i bi d. i v, g
29, p. l ol ) .
From now on tire material <ievicer (l:asina\
has s€rved its purpose, and further concentration
should bo developed on the mental image ttrereof
whicb with the approach to the contemplative
stago (u7ta,cd,ra-samadhi)
unfolds into the transfor-
med efter
-
image or e ountcr. aign (p at ibhng a
-
nimrtta\,
which forms the basis of mental absorTtion. See
JEANA.
H. G. A. v. Z.
APPAKA SUTTA of the Kosala Samlqutta
1^\-.
I, 73 f.)
etates how king Pasenadi
of Kosala told the Bucidha
that i n hi s vi ew nrost peopl e, when tl -rev acqui rc
groat, wea,lth, beeorrre intoxicated therebw and
indulge in greed
of sense.desiree, and rnisconduct
themselvee, wherras only a few (appa&o) would
not be eo. The Buddha agrees and utters a stanza
in confimation.
The sutta ie nahed Parndda Butta in the Sutto
Sartsotu (p. 19?).
H. R,. P.
APPAilADA, diligenee,
earnestnesc, hoodfulnoes,
lit. non.larity, is coneidered in Buddhism as the
foundation of all spiritual progr€ss.
,,All
whole-
somo msntal qualitiee (kwala-dltamnta,)
are rootecl in
diligence (apparn&,a-mfrJoho\,
aro united in zeal
(appantddasq,rnaara?dl
and heedfulness
is among
them the most import, anl" (oppamddo tesam d,hantmd.
-
ntorn aggarm akkh.dyatd : A.' V, 2ll.
fllustrations ehowing this importance are not
lecking. It towers over all other montal qualities,
like the Buddha over a,ll other beings, like the
elephant's footprint over thoso of all others, liko
the main beam of a house over all rafters, liko the
scent of sandal-wood and of the jasmino
flower
over all other porfumes, like a world-ruler over all
princes, like the moon. at night over all start,
like tho ocear over all the water of tho rivers
( l oc. ci t . ) .
The cornm.entary (D A. T, I 04) explain s appam,,i d,a
as the pr€sence of mindfulness (satiyd auippud,sa)
which is the one nnd only way (ekdyana,
moggal
that leods to purification and realisation (M.I, S5).
It is called the wey to the deathless (amatapadam:
Dhp. a. 9l ); and ono who del i ghts i n vi gi l ance
(appamdd,arato)
is not liable to fall (abhabbo pari-
hanaya) but is as though
h the prossnce of
emancipation (nibbdnaas'exa
sarrtilce: ibid. u. BZ).
Its supreme importance, however, is shown in the
fact that this was the final e.rhortation of the
Iluddha, just
before ha departed from all oxistence
in samsara : " Impermenent is all that is condi_
ti oned. Stri ve to accompl i sh your ai m wi th
diligence " (ap,punrid,ena sampdd,etha: D. II, 120).
Ifence, t,he wise praise diligence in virtuous
deeds (appamddam posamsanti pufi,fi,akiriyu.su
panSi t a: . f t . p. l 6) .
E. G. A. v. Z.
APPAMADA SUTTA. There are fourteen suma,s
by this n&me, of v'hich nine appear in the Samyutta,
f'our in the Aiguttara l{ilcdvo and one in tlne lti-
uuttal ;a. (i ) The Buddha, i n answer to a questi on
by P.r,senadi , ki ng of Kosai a, says that di l i gence
is the one quaiitv that aequires and keeps
.relfaro
botb i r thi s i i fe end i n the nexr (S.
L SOJ.
APPAMADA SIITTA 30
APPAUANASUBHA
(2) A clialoguo between the Buddha and Pasenadi,
king of Kosala (,S. I, 87), where the Budelha reports
to the king a previorrs discussion he had hnd with
Ananda : Tbe whole of this life in religion consists
in righteous friendship. r\ monk in friendship
with the righteous is expected to follow tho Noble
Eightfold Path
;
an<l it is because the Buddha
hirnsolf is the best of good friencls that boings rrre
delivered from suffering. It is the dut5r of the
king to beeome a good friend
;
in order to be such,
he must be diligent. When ther king is diligent
all his subjects will also be diligent, rvith the
rosult that his life, his rromen, his rvealth, all will
be guarded and safe.
(3) The Buddha says that those recluses and
brihmans who do not know the nature, the origirr.,
thc cessation and tho path leading to tho cesss,tion
of decay and death, of birtb, becoming, clinging,
eraving. of sensations, sense contact, of the six
spheres of sense contact, name and form, of con-
seiousness and of mental formations. must be
di l i gent (^S. II, I32).
(a) The Buddba says that diligonce is the ha,r-
bingcr of the arising of the Noble Eightfcld Path,
just as the dawn is the forerunner of the arising
of the sun (S. V, 30).
(5) The samo sutta i s repeated (i bi d. 32).
(6) Diligence is the most, useful factor for tho
arising of the Noble Eightfold Path (ibid. 33).
(7)
The same sutta i s repeated (i bi d. 35).
(8) There is no other factor except diligence
that is conducivo to the arising of, and tho pro-
gress in, the Noblo Eightfold Path (ibid. 36).
(9) The same sutta i s repeated (i bi d. 37).
(10) The Buddha advi ses monks to be di l i gent
on four occasions, i.e., in giving up evil decds,
words and thoughts, and wrong vicws, and in
cul ti vati ng thei r opposi tes (.4. II, l l 9).
(l f) The Buddha. i n answer to a brShman' s
question, explains in six similes that diligence is the
quality which, if developed, brings succoss both
i n thi s worl d and i n the next (1. III, 36,1).
(12) A dei ty vi si ts the Buddha at Jetavnna ancl
mentions seven things v-hich lead &w'&v frorn
ruin, nameiy, respect for the Tcachdr, the f)tramma,
the Sangha, the training, concentratiorr of the
mind, diligence and goodw-ill. Tlie Buddha reports
the i nci dent to the monks (1. I\r, 97-8).
(13) The Buddha expl ai ns to monks i n ni ne
similes t,hat diligence is the basis and liighest
quality among all good qualities (kusala tlh,arnrnct),
just
as the Tathd,gata, is thc highest, among oll
bei nge (-4. V, 2l -21.
(I4) Nanre given in the Suttasaigaha (199)
to a sutta quoted from ths ltiautta,ka, on the value of
diligence (applmdda). It
'is
said in this sutta
that a person would bo benefited in this world
as wel l as i n' tho next, i f he i s di l i gent (Abbo-attha
sui l a : r r . 16) .
u. K.
APPADIADA VAGGA, the tenth chapter (aogga)
of ttre Bo.jjlnnga Samyutta of the Samyuttu Nihdya
(V, I35). It contai ns the fol l owi ng ten suttas: (l )
Tuthdgaua, (2) Pada, (3) Kuta, (4) MuIa, (5) Sd'ra,
(6) \'asstba, (7) Raje, (8) Aan'di,md, (9) Suriya,
(I0\ Vattha. The title of the vagga is derived from
a, ppamdd, a meani ng' ear nest ness' ( Woodwar d,
Kindred Sayings, V, p. 115). See under relevant
headword for each sutt&.
Anothsr Appurruoda Vaggo occurs in ths samo
Bojjhango Sar.nyutta in an extremely condonsed
form, obviously intendod for repetition and memoris-
ing. Mere titles of l0 suttas are given, " to bs
developed under the title of lust
"
(rd,gaaasena
vitthd,retabbo .. ,S. Z, 138).
B. J.
APPAMA[{ABHA, & class of gods who form one of
two sub-groups of the genus
AUUa
deva, tho other
being the Poritt6bha. Tho Appama+abha aro
mentioned in the Sankh'druppatti Sutto (M. III,
99) and the Anuru.ddha Sutta (M. IJJ, 145), tho
latter going into a detailod discussion regarding
their characteristic quality of luminosity, which,
in contrast to ttrat of the other sub-group, is bound-
less or infinite. A}.e Abhid,ham,n'tatthasahgalw (p.221
places them in the second jhdna plane of the
Rrlpaloka, while this work and the Kathd'uatthu
(p. 207) cal cul ate tl rei r l i fe-sp&n as l asti ng for four
great aeons (mahakappa). Tlrc Vibhangatthakathi
(p. 520) al so menti ons the AppamEnabha devd.
Seo ABITA DEVA.
B. J.
APPAMANASUBHA, a cl ass of gods menti oned i n
the Sahkl wuppatti Sutta (M. fII, 102). They
apparentl v bel ong to the Subha genus (s. v.
AsrrA DEVA), wi ti r tho Pari ,tta-subha ai the other
sub-group, but they are significantly absent from
the parallel list in tlna An'urtrd'd,lt'q' Suttz, (M. III'
147). The Al.,hid,harnnwttho-suigaha
(p. 22),
the Kathq"*atthu
(p. 207) and ti re Sarnmoha-
,;inodani (VbhA. 520) calculate their life-sPan a.s
being thirty-two great aoons (mahukap'pa) n.
APPAMAfi frA 3l APPANA
durati<ln, The first mentioned of these commen-
t ari al works f rrrLl rer pl a, r: es t hem i n t he t hi rd j hnna
' pl ure
of t he Rf rpal ol i a. See i urt her ABHA DEVA.
B. J.
APPAMAfrfrA, the four Boundl ess State-q, namel y,
l ovi ng-ki ndness (ntetta,), eompassi on
\karuna),
altnristic joy (mud,itr.r,) and ecluaninrity (upekkhd).
See BRAH}IA.VIIIAR.\.
APPADTATTA VAGGA, t he ni net eent h chapt er
of the Eka l i i puto of the Anl tnttara Ni katl a (I,.
35-8). Just as i n Jrrmbudi pa, tri fl i ne (appurttattaka)
are the pl easant pi rrks and the pl easant l akes
whi l e much more numerous are tho thorny brakes
and i naccressi bl e mountai ns, si mi l arl y. verl - few
i l re thoso who rvi l l crornl rr.el rt' nd the doctri ne ar_rd
i rttai n sal vati on wl ri l e rni ul v more &re those who
v-i l l not .so attai n.
Thi s chapter i n tu' o secti oi s gi vcs vari ous other
combina,tions contrastinr tlre i'es- wito u'ould fare
well with thc' rnanv l'lro rvould fare bildly. Thu*s,
few are those mcn r+'lio u'oulcl brr reborn os human
beings while mony are those rvho woulcl be born in
the states of woe, etc. ft seems l i kel y tl l r,t most oI
the combi nati ons have de.r.el oped round the kernel
of the ori gi nal combi ni tti on and are of a l atcr date.
L. R. G.
APPAMATTA
SUTTA. Si ' c
APPAMATTEYYA
SUTTA.
SUTTA.
, \ S. \ }I ATTA SUTTA.
See ]IA' l ' TIl YY,\
APPAMEYYA
SUTTA, t he t hi r d sr r t t a of i he
A1t <t y, i ku l , ugguof t he Ti t : t t , Ni 7; d: a r : f t he Ar t gut t ur a
Ii i kaya (I, 266).
fn thi s sutta ther Bucl tl l rrr, i rtl drosses the bl ri kkhrr,q
nn<l sa;,' s thl r,t tJrr.rc an' threc' sets of persons l rho
orc- harrl to be l orrnd i n thi s rvorl ti , narnel v, he u-ho
i s easi l y rueusurerl (sttl tprtntc.r.l ya),
he rvl rorn i t i s
di{ficult tu nreasure (luppanrct1.i/a),
and he rvho is
imnrcosura,blo (o1rytut n e
i l ll
u
)
.
Thc Buddha further e-r.pl i ri ns that a monk n' ho
has prrt an encl to rrl l ruerrtu.l i ntoxi cl .l nts (/rl ri nasai ' a)
Ls cal l ecl ' i r nmeasuni bl c' ( nppant eyya) .
I . K.
APPAM SUPATI SUTTA of the' Roj o Vagga of thc
Paricam,oka \ipdta of tbe Aiguttara Nikaya (III,
156) speaks of five individuals who sleep little
at ni ght, and keep awake. for the greater part.
They are: the woman who l ongs for a man, the
man rvho longs for a wom&n, a thief who harbours
the idea of stealing, peopl'e who are engaged in tho
work of the state and the monk who lonss for
relerlse from bondage.
w. c. w
APPANA (Skt. arpana), fi xi ng of Lhe mi nd i n the
state of
.
ecstati r: medi tati on (j hd,na).
In the
process of concentration (sarrua,rlhi) it is distinct
from and succeeds nei ghbourhood or accoss-concen-
tri rti on (upacdra-samndhi ) whi eh i s tho fi nal stage
frorn where mental absorption (jhnnu) is attained.
The attainmerr.t, of absorption itsolf is thcn ths
beginnirig of ecstatic concontratioa (appand- samd-
dhi ). I{ence. i t i s the mosb i mportant step i n the
entire process of rnind-culture (bhauanu), whieh
opens up & neu' t5,'De of mental life, in which the
rnind perretraies witlr mental application (appand-
uitakka) into tho inncr nature of the object of
contcrnpl ati on. ,\ grarl ual di spensati on wi th the
constituents of the lower stages of mental *bsorp-
tion (application through diseursive thought :
z"i takka-ui cd,ra; spi ri tual j oy
, pi ti
;
wel l -bei ng :
sukha) letrds to a stato of equanimity (upekkh,i)
irnd the fullest development in mental absorption.
A7tpand, although applied to the entire process of
concerrtration (sonr,ddhi) and absorption (jhana),
is prirnurily intended tbr tho o*itakka-factor in tho
initial stage of absorption, for it, is this factor of
cliscrrrsive mental .rpplication (uitalclca) which in-
serts (ttppel i ) the mi nd, as i t were, i nto the obj ect
of tlrorrght. An internsifi.ed form, uya,pptond, focuss-
ing, is used together v'ith appand, fixation of thought
( Dhs. I ,
\
7
;
DhsA. 142 f . ) .
Buddhagliosa frequently links the terms fixetion
{rnd absorption together, e.9., ekacittaklchanikam
appantt,-jhd.nam, rapt meditation on a eoncept
induccd by tlte momentary faslr of a thought.
Thus the orrhodox vieu' (-I(tru. 458) upholds against
ttre Sa.bbatthivadins and the Uttarapathakas that
concerrtration is involved in each momentary
unit of consciousness, from which some heterodox
teachers concl uded that one eoul d wi n the' ecstasy
of concerrtra,tion
(,appan'u-santad'lti)
on the actual
occrrsi on of anl ' sense-cofi ni ti on, even at tbo very
rnourent of thi nki ng i mmoral thoughts.
Tlre term appani is also used in an altogether
differerrt connection. although maintaining the
APPAITAXA JHANA 32 APPASSUTA SUTTA
of fixation, in tho Dlmrurnman4a,nE,
rhore " throughout Book I, in the cae{, of eecb
inquiry which op€ns up a Dow subjoct, tho snswer
is sat out on e deflnito plan oalled u.dd,eao, oxpoeition,
and ir roundod ofi invariably by bLLe oppand,, or
empbrtio ruaning up "
(Paycholaginal Ethdcs,
Intmd. by C. A. f,. Rhys Davide, p. xxviii).
H. G. 4. v. Z.
APPIFAKA JEANA, a foru. of scstatie med.itation
rbere breathing rs hold up in order to stir up
uneluggish onerg"y end to sot up unmuddled
rnind-
fulnoss. Tbe Buddha after his great renuneiation
practieed it duriag tbe period of eelf-mortification
with the above aim in viow, stopping breathing-in
and breathing.out through ths mouth, nose and
6als. As be pra*tised it, he saw i+"s ills, such &s
th6 ossoedingly loud noise of winds escaping by
the auditory passages, such winde renting inside
tho heerd, s€vero heedecho and fieree heat in i;be
body. In addition, as ho prectised it, lris body was
turbulsnt es he wag striving against, the pain it,
csusod (M.I, 24? tr.
;
TI,2l 2
i
J.I, 67
;
Mhtnr. TI,
l?4). In the foregoiug passqgea tJrs Buddhs
hr obviously diocoureged this form of motlitation
ar trreleer.
H. R. P.
A?PAITIEITA-VIUOKEA-UUKEA (Skt. epro-
Vihi*-vimokpo-muklnl,
gateway to doeirolesg
liberation, is one of the threo gatoweys to litieration
(Cp.
anhnitta-'aimalcha-mulcha : M.I, tg?
;
Pa. trf,
18; Vi sm. 684; Dhamg, 15 ;
I' ank 183
;
Gzryd. 472
;
Lal . 7) .
Buddhaghoea identifies the gatewey to dosireless
liboration with the contempiation on pain
(dukkhrinupaasand,
: V'iem. 564\.
'Wben
ono eontemplates pain, one's facultv of
concentration (aamd"d,hirudriya)
becomes oredo-
minant, and with its predomin&nce, insight reache.g
ite culmination and settles down firmly in the
contemplation
of pain. This faculty of concen-
tration thus strengthened brings a},rout the entry
upon the state of the gatoway to desireless liberation.
T'his gateway leads to the out,let from the world,
that is to say, to the stirrrrrg up of the mind with
respect to all formations and to tho entering of
consciousness into the desiroless eloment
\oppanihita
d.hffiu) which is Nibbana (Ps. II, 48;
Yism. 584). Seo also VIMOKKIIA.
APPARITIOT{AL BIRTE, or spontaneous bi rbh.
See OPAPATIILA.,
APPASSUTA SUTTA (1), the el eventh sutta of
tJoe Peyyd,I,a Vaggd of the Md,tugdrna Sarnyu,tta
(s. Iv, 242).
The Buddha, while staying near R,Sjagaha in
the Ban''boo Grovo (Vefu'uona) at the Squirrels'
Feeding-gpound (Kaland,alcaniadpa), erplains to
Anuruddha the fn'e qualitios which load s woman
to be roborn
'ttr
pt-rrgatory, namely, faithlessness
(asaad,rlha), ehamelessnese (ahdrika), unscru-
pulorxness (anott&po), srnall knowlodge (oppueu,ta)
snd weak wisdom (duppafrf,al"
t. K.
APPASSIITA SUTTA (2), the sixth eutte of tho
Bhan$agamo Vaggo of the Ariguttara Ndkdya
( n, 6 f . ) .
The Buddha, while stayiog emong tho Vajjiane
at Bha+dag&ma, tolls the bhikkhus about four
classes of persons existing in this world.
There are two sets of peoplo, some of smsll
learning, others of wide learning who havo only
a srrall knowlodge of the nine divisions (anga) of the
Buddhist
texts and. do not live in accordanco with
tho I)hamrua.
Gn tbo other lrarid. ther€ ere two othor sets of
perlJons, anmeil', tlroso who have little lea.rrring.
and tboee whc ira,r'e a wido lrrowledge of the nino
ciivisions of the Buddhist toxts rnoniioned above,
and who profit by th.eir learaing by knowing the
toxts with their mearrings and by living in
accordance \ryith the Dharnme.
I . K.
APPASSUTA SUTTA (3), a group of two suttas
with & common title (apitassuta) contained
i nthesecond chapter of the Dhd' ttt Samyutta of the
Samlltrtta, Nikaya (II, 164-5)" In the u.ddd,no
(the l i st of ti tl es at tho ond of the chapter) thi s
group is referred Lo as D'se Appassutena. Elowever
on the anal ogl ' of tho precedi rrg suttas, e.9.,
Anota,ppa,nt[tlaka t[,n'i, tho corresponding title
for this should be Appassutamfr,Iaka.
In this pair of suttas one filds a restate'ment
of the corrtents of some of the suttas of the samo
chapter and ther next. al l of whi ch sentro round
the l ast that peopl e of si mi l ar di sposi ti on &re
drarrn iogether. The Buddha declares that beings
come together aceording to fheir nat'ure
;
thus,
the uneduceted assoeiate with the uneducated,
the wis€ with the wise, and so on. U. K.
APPATIVAxT
surre . , t ) APPEARANCE
AND REALITY
1l ' hi s grorrp of' suttas rvas preachccl bv the IJuri dhu,
rvhern hc wi i ,s sta,vi ng nt Si rvatthi . The trro are
very sirnilar, both beginning with appa,ssuto
( t he uneduca, t ed) - hence t l r e t i t l e. The onl y
difference is t,hat irr tlie second srrbta rnuttha,satirw
(the muddl erni ncl ed) and thei r opposi tes
u,ptttth' i to.sati ;i o (ti re rl i tenti ve) are srrbsti tuted for
icuslta (the incioieut) and drad,dlwuiriud (tho
energeti c) of the fi rst sutta.
L. P, . G.
APPATI VANI SUTTA, a sut t a ( , S. I I , l B2) wher e
the Buddha sa\-s tirat, by him v'ho knows not
bi rtl r and becomi rrg. gtaspi ng, cravi ng, feel i ng,
contact,. et,u., there rnust be no turni ns back i n
thc search for knou' l edse.
I--. K.
APPATMDHA SUTTA, a sut t a ( S. I I I , 26t )
where the lluddha, in answcr to rr, question by
the pari bbaj aka Vacchagotta, sa5rs 1h*, di verse
views (as to whether the world is eternal or not,
finite
or not : whether life and the body are identical
or not, and whether the Tathdgata exists after
death or not) arise for want, of pereeption of the
five groups of existence.
U. K.
APPATMDITA SUTTA. A dei t-y vi si ts the
Buddha and utters t,wo stanzas: " Tl i ey who
have never grasped the truth of things are led
astray amor.g other creerds. Norr th:rt the Ruddba
has appeared in the n'orid, it, is time for them
to grasp the truth. Thev rvho have tlone so {rre
not l ed astral ' " (r9. f, 4).
tr. Ii .
,
APPEARANCE AND REALI TY. Ther e r vi l l be
hardly anvone s-Iio has not experieneed from
tirne to time that things aro not, alwavs u,.hat t,hey
eppear to be. Such experi ence i s the real i sati on
of an i l l usi on, whi ch resul ts i n maki ng a di sti ncti on
in things as they appea,r to be and as they realiy
&re. The causes of such i l l usi on and del ti ri on
whieh mistake the appeafance for t,he reality
mal ' be touched upon here l ater, but w' i l l be ful l y
deal t wi th el sewhere. See AVIJJA.
This distinet,ion between appearan<re tlnd realitl',
and the search for rea,litl.' ha,r-e erngaged most
phi l osophers throughout the rl ges i u t,he Il ast
and in the l,l.est anci made tbem arrive at the
most, divergent, coaclusions.
Ancient
VedS,nta
believed that everything, e\-ery experienee, was
an illusion (maya), a deception of realitv
;
antl
tl re real i sati on of the non-duu,l i sti c (adua,i ta.\
natrrre of the cosmos as the absoiute Rrahman
is the emancipation frorn the illusion of a senarato
exi stence (r1tma,n\.
Various idealistic schools of western philo*"ophy,
parti cul arl y l (ant' s transcendental
i deal i sm.
which takes the standpoint that, consciousness
embraces ai l experi once, Berkel ey' s subj ecti ve
idealisrn, leading to a tra,ns-subjective
and theo_
logical reality, and llegel's swrthetic idealism,
which merges the world of subjective consciousness
i n the uni versal consci ousness, l ed i o manv
thei sti c, panthei sti c and pessi mi sti c der.el opments
cl nd i nterpretati ons, some mai ntai ni ng ti rat real i tv
i s the oni v exi stence, other-q denvi ng the very
exi stence of real i tl ., some denvi ng tl te real i tv of
phenomena, the real i ty of exi stence, others gi vi ng
real i tv to the i deas thernsol ves.
Without entering hero into the merits and
values of the various systems, it is obvious thab
the point of dispute is a crucial one and c&nnot
be i grrored.
When speaking of appearances or phenomena
it is commonly ulderstood a,nd taken for grantecl
tirat thev are aspects or forms of something
else,
the underlying substsnce, the unknown
essence
which is the real thirrg, the thiag in itself. But
the Buddha's view of appeerB,nce
and realitv
i s the very deni al of such subst,r' ' ce,
whi ch.
however, i s not a doni al of real i ty.
As l ong as
the search l br real i ty i s a qrrest for the i deal , i t
remains unreill, because the problem exists only
in the mentai approach. fn predetermining
that real i ty must be absol ute and must be di sti ncr
from a,ppeera,nces and phenomeua,
the &nswer
to the problem has alreadv been fixetl, and the
seareh for a sol uti on becomes unreal .
To the Ruddha, real i tv meant
,,i ,he
state of
beirrg such "
;
and tho penetration
thereof
(tatlruttd.ya ca,
,pati,pajjanti:
D. f, iT5) is the
attai nrnent of emanci pati on.
Rcal i sati on
(abhi,satna,ya) exists in knowledge of things as
such (yathd,bl ti l tctfi d,na
: S. \' , 144). Compl ete
perfection is found in one's owrr true naturo
(pari ni spanna-s' "*abhd,ra : Lank. l B2, 227,
g4g).
And if this actual nature is rmpermanent (aniccal,
there is also conflict in impermanence (anicce_
dukkha), and confi .i ct i tsei f i s wi t[out base
(.dukkhe-anattd,:
A. IV. 465;. Such i s the actual
n&tu-re of the eosmos in flux, of the flowing rive.
of life, of the individual process of action antl
personality.
APPEARAI{CE AI{D REATITY 34 APPTEA
It should not be tbought that tbis problem
ebout a,ppea,r&nce, and roality rsmained unobserved
in tbe early centurios of Buddhist thought. For,
tbe school of the Snrvdstivddins
broko &wsy
from the original Sthaviras, probably during the
reigpr of Asoka at the conclusion of tbe council
of Pdlaliputta, with their main thesis that every-
thing,
past, present and future; exists (santarm
asti\. ReaI existence was attributed by them
to dreams, to sounds, to reflected
i-agles in water
or in a mirror. Although the concept of indivi'
dual i ty (satkdya-i t' rs!i \' w&s consi dered hereti cal ,
it had according to them a real object, viz', tb.e
five bodil5r and mental aggregates of clinging
(pafi.cupadanaskandhd.),
which are taken for the
*lf
(atta). It is clear that, the Sarvdstividins
did not subscribe to the soul-theory as a permanent
entity and ultimate reality. but for them, ag for
all early Buddhist schools, the ultimate factors
of i ndi vi dual l i fe, i .e., body and mi nd wi th i ts
sensations, perceptions, volitions and consciousness'
were real phenomena. In other words, for tbem
appearence was reality, but there was no reality
as I substance,
underlying and supporting the
phenomena.
Such was not the view of the Puggalav6'dins
who maintained that a person exists in t'ho sense
of a real and rrltimate entity and who were refuted
irr an eiehtfold argu-ment (Kuu. i, l). The use
of popular terrns in their convent'ional sense, such
as individual (puggala) and self (atta), does not
confer on them an ultimate and phiiosophical
meaning as entity and substance or soul'
fn not su-fficiently recognising this fact, meanings
have been attributed to terms, which &re con-
tradictory
to the main tenets of the doctrine'
" These are merely n&mes (Ioka'sam'ailira),
expressions
(Ioko-niruttiyo), turns of speech (Ioka'
aohd,rd), designations
in common use in the world "
(Ioka-pafi ' fi ati yo : D. l , 202), sti i d the Buddha to
Citta. When, therefore, reality is mentioned
it is not as an absolute and permanent entity
or substance, but as the actuality of phenomena
or appe&rances
which are by nature impermanent'
And thus, the Buddha denied the existence of
reality &s an entity, but accepted the reality of
phenomene, i.e., the actuality of n'ppearances'
A desire for conti-n'ued
exist'ence has becloudecl
the mind and substituted an abiding reality for a
Jrhenomenal
actuality,
whereby a sensory illusion
forms the basis for a mental delusion (moha)'
The
real is the fa,ct (.sat'ga), which is the word
for truth
(sacca\. And thus, reality is tbe factual
natr.rre of things snd events, and not
g
stagnant
entity, rrnse€n, unknown and unknowable.
Motives and values are not real, as they are attri-
buios which are not inherent qualities.
And thus, the concept of reality as the actuality
of mdre phonomena stands between the t,wo extreme
views of permanent existence and nihilism.
There is no doer of a deod
Nor anyone to reap its fruit.
Phenomena alone flow on
Ard thi s the onl y vi ew that' s good.
(Kammassa kd,roko n' atthi,
oipd,kassa ca uedako,
s u dl,hadh ammi, p au ott anti,
eu'etam. samm,ad'assarurr.n : Visnt'. xix,
$
20, i'l17;
H. G. A. v . Z.
APPELLATION,
descri pti on, mani fested noti on
or concept. See PANNATTI.
APPEI{DANT
(hi i tcano), the evi l ' somethi ng' t}rat
sticks or adheres to the character of a man, and
which he must get rid of, if he wants to attain to
a higher moral condition
(PED- s.v. kifi'cana).
It is deflned as the three impurities of lust (rd'ga),
hate (dosa) and delusion
(moha : D" III, 217). Its
opposi te,' wi thout attachment' (ki fi ,canaryr, n' uttl ti ),
is used &s &n attribute of an aralrant (Dhp. 2l).
H. G. A. v. Z.
APPERCEPTION,
a phase i n the process of
thought, at which stage perceptivo a,w&reness
becomes vol i ti onal and karmi cal l y producti ve
consci ousness. See JAVANA.
APPICCHATA,
state of being satisfied wibh few
possessions, of de.siring little or nothing, a charac-
teristic of the true spirit, of renunciation in a monk'
See CONTENTMENT-
APPIHA
(var. Ambasuppi ya, Ambi l ri )' a si l maperi r
wiro lived il the Srrvannakufi in Dakkhinagiri
vih6,ra, at Anurddhap-rrra
(Ceylon). It is sai{
that on the day after hi s ordi nati on hi s rnother
prepared seats for eiglrt monks. Ily ttre power of
icldh'i (psychic power) sixty-eight thousand bhikkhus
u'ere able to sit there- This story is relatecl to
illustrate
the po\r'er of iddlz;i that prevailed in
connect,i on
wi th the constructi on of the rel i c
chamber of the Maha Thupa in Anuradtrapura
( MhuA. I I , 552) -
L. R. G.
APPTICATION
APPLI CATI ON. Sust a, i r r c<l anpl i cat i on of r ni ud
(, z, i t : drrt )
i s an cssent i al f i rcrt or i n t he di scrrrsi ve
f unct j ori i ns
o{' ri l re mi nd w}ri r: l r t ri get her wi i , }r appl i ecl
t l rougl rt
(. ui t al ; / ; a)
i s onl y di scardecl i n t i re seconcl
st age of ment al absonr t i on. See JHANA.
APPLI CATI ONS OF MI NDFULNESS ( s t t t i pr t t .
l h. onu, ), t he f i . rrrr mct hocl s of at t encl ance (u, pat t huna, )
on mi n<, l i ' ul rl css (sat i )
ol , awareness i ] , s regards
tire botlv
(,1;r\1tt),
fc<-.linss
h:erktna), thought
' rr:,itto,)
ancl merrt ai obj ect s (Tl nnt nt a, ).
They ri , re sai cl t o
bc
'
t he onl v
g-a, v
t hat l crrcl s t o Lhc at t ai nrnent of
pt rri t y, t o t l re overcorni ng
of sorrow and l srncnt a-
t i on, t o t hc enrl of pa, i rr i rnd gri ef , t o t hc ent el i rrg of
t he ri ci rt
l rt rt h
and t o t he real i sat i on of Ni bbi t na'
( I ) .
I , ! 90r - ! / . l , 5; - f j ) . They nr e f our cont empi a_
t i ons rcl l at i ng t ci t t re f i r-e aggregat cs , l f
exi st . errcc
ftta' ii,cai:klouruIh,o),
le:i-r,rling to insight into the
unsubst i r. nt i . rl i t l ' oi - al l phr, ' nornena. _b. or cl r: t ai l s
see SAI I P, \ ' ] ' THANA.
H. G. A. v . Z.
APPLI ED THOUGHT (ui t akka) t oget her wi t h sus-
t a, i nec-l appl i cat i on (ui cdra) const i t ut es t he di seursi r. e
f unct i oni rrg of t he mi nd. whi ch i s onl 5, di i carded
i n t he sccrond st agc oi " ment al absorpt i on.
See JI {AN, \ "
APPREHEI I SI ON eompr i ses t he t ur ni ng of t he
r ni ncl t or vr l r ds t he st i mul i at t he: , . ense ( i oor s
( Tt ai t cadt ar a" t j j ana) .
I t i s t he r eact i on of t he
mi nd rrl i i ch at t ends t r: or appr, ehends t he obj ect ,
t hat i rnpi nges on t i rc l i vef ol d door of t l i e senses.
' l ' he
t l r, ' o ot l t cr el ement s of rrpprehc' nsi on are t he t wo
l eci pi ent el t : ment s of represent at , i on
{, sant po. t i ccha, na)
: rncl of c. i a; r, i nat i <11. 1 (^-rt
t t t i ru, qut l . Ti ri s t ri pl e f i r, cul t v
of i rpl rrr: l rerr. -i on (rt t cut odhdt ut t i ka)
i s capabl e of
t aki ng pa, r' t onl v i n a prr: sent at i r-e (but never
i n & l epr csent at i r - e
)
ccgni t i on ( Cont pendi ur r t ,
of
Pl t i l osal : h! / , i l t ransl at i on of t l rc Abl i i i t t l arrnt rat t l l a-
sai uqul t u, London. l l f l 0. p. l 0S, n. 3) . See
' t vAJJl , \ - t .
H. G. A. v . Z.
APRAKARA, a" ,gati rcttl l ui or a concentr.ati or-r of
both mi nd arrr-l bodv rnr-nti oned i n the )fol ul ,yrdpatti
i BB. XI I I . 9) t ' her ei n one does not concci ve cven
t he f or r n of al l phenomena ( r l har ma) . I t s l i t cr ai
r neanr ng r s
' l or ml ess'
( Sspp. p. 1{ j l ) .
U. K.
APRAKE$U ( r , ' r i r . , \ i r r i r , pr i sr r ) , a f or mer Bucl r l ha,
mcnti oncd i n rr, l i st of former Rrrddti as undr.r u.hom
Sakya"mr:.ni rrhile ut bbe nintir bhnmi acquired
APRAPTI
mel i t ( JI l t u, u.
I . l 4t ) . Edger t on, whi l e admi t t i nc
that lvhar \zas rrreilnt is not clear to him. sar,-s thai
Senart' s emendati on of thi s name i nto -.\prakrsg,a
i s not pl ausi bl e.
APRAMANABTI A, a cl ass of Rupr i va, car a- gor l s
i n tl re secori d Ll l tyd,na-bhfrnr.f. See Apl ' Al IANAgUe.
APRAMANAGUNASAGARAPRABI I A,
a Tr r , t hi sat a
i n thr: rrortl t-westcrn quarter, i n the worl d-
rcgion (lokodhr:rtu)
Ga,ndhalarikdrlrlrr,rciraSubha_
gar bha. Al ong wi t h t he ci r cl e of al l at t endant
borl hi ss,l .tvas hearl ed by the bodhi sattava Asari ga-
ktl ynrasrni tcj omrr,ti ,
he cornes q' i thi n
ttre.rangc
of
tl re eyos <rf the grri l t{-l eader (i resthi n) }ful i tri k.r who
st ri r-es for i rri ,i :r,ccompl i shes the Tathi gata,
-sal vati on
n.l rned -.\sa,i gavvhha, In t,he Gu,ndaryul l u, ,\fi ,tra,
where rt:ference i s made to thi s
' I' trtl i i gata,
l fuktaka, bei ng trpproached by the youth Sucl hana
who l .ts come.to hi m for i nstnrcti on i n the course
of conduct of bocl hi sattvas, rnenti ons tho Tathagata
Apramdnagrr+asagareprabha
in enumerating
the
narnes of ten Tathdgatas in ten worlcl-regions
i n the ten di recti ons, headed by whorn the
Tathngatas, the worthy-ones (arhot). tl :re ful l y-
enl i ghtened-ones, come wi thi n the range of hi s
vision (t-i,"yu- 8I).
T. R,.
APRAMA{ A- PARAMOPAYA, t } r e Sanskr i t t i t . l o
of a text restored accordi ng to a }fongol i an i ndex
corrcsJ.i ondi ne to the Ti betan ti tl e Tha,bs mchog-
dpag gi s rni l art-pa. Accorrl i rur to the si l me i ndex,
t he t cxt . t he aut hor shi p of r vi r i eh i s ascr i bed t o
Vi rnal a. occi l l s i n the I' .rvud-hgrel (tantra
com-
r nent ar y) sect i on. I l owever . i t i s not pr eser ved
i n tl re Scl e-dce edi ti on (T-II.) or i n the P,--hLng
l i di t i on of l ) . T' . Suzuki .
R. H.
APRAIUAT{A-dUBXA, a cl ass of Rdpavacara-god,s
irr tlre thirci dhyana-bh.ttmi,. See APPAMANA-
SUBHA.
APRAPTI, non-rl ttai nment (Ti betan
: tl rob-pa-med-
pil
;
Cliinese : v'u-so-tcl
fr,ry'f.$). All dharmas
are r-oi d, so no dharm.-r,s can be attai ned.
Tlt e P raj fi.d, pdr a ntitri
-
hrd,a,y a S,itra (SAE'.
XLIX,
Part i i , pp. 153 f.) says, " O SS,ri putra, form hero
is emptiness, and emptiness indeed is form. E*p-
tiless is not different from form, form is not different
from emptiness. \{'hat is form t}rat is emptiness.
what i s empt.i ness that i s form. The same appl i es
to percepti ou, name, coacepti ou and knou-l edge.
li5
APRASAE APRAKI6 N-TT IU A 36 APRATIMA
" I{ere, O S6riputra, all things have the eharacter
of emptiness; they have no beginuing, no end, they
ere faultless and not faultless, they
.
aro not
imperfect and not perfect. Therefore, O S6riputra,
in this emptiness thoro is no form, no perception,
no narne, no coneepts, no knowledgo. No eye, ear,
noso, tongue, body, no mind. No form, sound,
smoll, tasto, touch, objects. . . Thero is no
knowledge, no ignornnce, no destruction of
kTrow-
bdg", no deetruc+"ion of ignoranco, etc., no destruc-
tion of decay and death; there are not the Four
Truths, wiz., that thero iS pain, origin of pain,
stoppage of pain and tbe path to it. Thero is no
knowlodge, no obtaining (of Nirvdna). "
lbe Ta-fin-pan-jo-chirq (tftffi#ffi Taieh,6,
No. 223) says " Since the beginning of the
religioue life, a bodhisattva must learn the law
of voidness and of non-attainment. Tho bodhi-
aettva practieos charity, morality, humility, assi-
duity aad concoatration owing to his achieving
tho law of non-attainment . .non.atta'nrnent
is tho aspect of prajfiapdramil.d; non-attainrnont is
the aspect of ontfttarasamyaksarnbodhd
;
and non.
gtteinment
ie the attitude of the practitioner of
prajffipd,rarnitd " (op.cit. Vol. 8, p. 373).
These sontences indicate that as all dharmas
are void ultimately, there a,ro no differences like
five ekandhae, twelve dyatanas, eigtrteen dhdtus,
twelve-fold causation, Four Noble Truths, and
to on. A bodhisattva must try to realis€ this
Iaw in his roligious life.
On the differences between noa-attainment and
at tainment, the T a
-
pan
-
nieh
-
p' an- ching (^fiR ?g
qg&
Taisl6, No. 374) states that ae bodhisdttvas and
mahdsattvas have not the four misleading views
(ndtg a-ai,pary d,s a, sulcho
-uipary
ds a, ttic,i
-
uip ar.gdso and
6tm,a,-ai,parydsa), tbey are unhindered, and. they are
called non-attained. If someone clings to the
diferent aspects of many dharmas, then he falls
into theso misleading viows. But if all differentia-
tions sre left behind and no
rlharnes
are elung to,
it is called as[-a,t't'a,inrnsnt.
So, the reality of dharuas itself is callod non-
attainment. The Mohnprajfid,param,i,td-,idslro says
that the reality of dhannas is called non-attainment,
because thero can be no special aspects in it
(Tai -*h6, Yol . 25, p. 197).
K. Tm,.
APRASAEAPRAKA;A-NAMA, tne Sanskrit titlo
of s text, the Tibeian voreion of which occurg
in the Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra cornrnoutaqr) section
of the Teugyur undor the title Rab-tu md grws.po
gaal-bar don-po shes-bya-ba (Peking Ed. Tib. Trip.,
od. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 3079). The euthor-
ship of the work is credited to Gflis-med rdo-rje
(Advayavajra). Vajrapini and Nag-tsho Tshul-
khrims rgyal (Jaya$ila according to Cordinr,
f[, p. 214, No. 20) are given as the n&mes of the
translators.
Tho text, which begins with a salutation to Mafr-
ju6rikumdrabhrita,
contains eleven etanzas. Tho
first of tbeso states that the knowlodge set out
in tho work, a heritage coming from the Buddha,
conformity to which promotos the welfare of
all boings, is to be deeired by all. Tho stanzag
tbat follow contain
gtatements
on tho ovil offscts
of lust (Skf. kdma. Tib. hd,od), ttre ineomprohen-
sible naturo of all substances (Skt. d,Inrma,
Tib. chos), the doctrine of {&ny& (the illusory
nature of things) and tho like.
R. E.
APRATIEATACUNAKIRTIVI UO
K$ APR AB E A.
RAJA, a Tathdgata in the zonith, in the world-
togion (Iolcodhrttu) Lak.?anaruciravairocan6. Along
with the circle of all attendant bodhisattvas
headed by the bodhisattva Asangabalavirya-
mati, he comos within the renge of the oyes of tho
gr.rild-leader (6resthdn) Muktaka, who strives
for and accomplishes the Tathdgata-salvation
named Asafigaw5n1ba. Iu the Gand,auyuha S&tra,
where reforonco ismadetothis Tathd,gata, Muktaka,
being approached by the youth Sudhana, who
has eomo to him for insfrustion
in tho course of
conduct of bodhisattvas, montions the Tathd,gata
Apratihatagunakirtivimoksaprabhardja in enumera-
ting the nemes of teu Tathdgatas in ten world-
rogions in the ten directions, headed by whom
the Tathdgatas, tbo
' worthy-ones'
(arhat), tbe
fuily-enlightened.-onos, corno withdi tho range of
hi s vi si on (Guy&.811.
T. R.
APRATIEATA NETR A, name of a deity (deua- putr u\,
one of sixteon guardians of the boilhim,andalo
eccording to the Lal'itaui*tara (BHS. s. v.).
APRATIMA, the n&rro of Ysgodhard in a previous
birth when sho was the queen of king Ku6a, who wae
the bodhisattva in his seventh bh&mi. At that timo
Devadatta was the regional king (prad,e.4ard,ja),
Jafhara. Ilaving heard of Apratim6, he demanded
her of I(uSa, threatening war if sho was not delivered
to him. Ku$a posed tbis problem to his
queerr.
Amidst a flood of tears sbe sssured him that she wae
A PRATISANKH
YA
-I{IRODH
A APRATI$THANA-PRAKASA
, 4
J I
powerful enough, both by physicai mee,ns and
miraculous devices, to dcfea,t Jathara's evil inten-
ti on. " I woul d del i ver you, my l ord, of two such
l bes as he; my magi c nower i s i ncal cul abl e, the
world is as straw to me. Let tlio king, therefore,
bo undismayed, and, wearing sweet-smelling
garlands, let hirn paco his palace-grourids
and amrrso
himseif a,mong his thousand women."
ll-hen Jalhara unsuspectingly came into Ku,Sa's
inner
apartment she carried out her plan. She put
her right foot over his heart, her left on bis ankles
and, with the victirn in her power, chided him with
appropriate words. Jathara cried out to her to
spare him; and KuSa, entering at that moment,,
pleaded with her to release the man who had now
become a suppliant and besought her protection.
" Such mercv is the dharma of the good ", said
Ku6a, the bodhisattva. The incident apparentiy
ended rn this rn&nrler,
for there is no further re-
ferenco to the three persons under these particulqr
namee (Mahdaadtu, trsl . J. J. Jones, I, pp. l 0l -g).
b. r. o.
APRATISAi XEyA-XIRODIIA (' Ii betan
i so-sur-
brtaga-pa ma-yi,n-pahi ioogs-pa
; Chinose :
Jei-tsd,-
m'inh
)Fffidj, mealing,
'
the extinction due to
Iack of a producti\,e c&use
',
which is, accorcling to
the Sarr'6.stivida, ono of the seventv-five dharmas,
and according to tbe VijAanavada, one of the one
hundred dharmas.
The Sarvdstivadins classified all dharmas into five
groups, the last group being
'the
non-conditioned
elements' (asamskyta-d,lnnna) comprising three
dharmas, viz., s;raee (akaia), extinction tlrrough
intellectual power (pratisafikh,yd,-nirod,ha)
and ex-
tinction due to lack of a productive cause (a.prati-
sankh,ya-ni,rodha).
The Ju-a-p' i ,-ta-nrc-tun (
Fi {-Ei *E-# Tai sho,
No. 1554) sa,ys, " There exi st,s a dharma, aprati -
sankhyd,-nirodha, which suppresses the product,ion
of dharmas which otherw'ise would ariso in the
future..
'l'his
dharma, is neither due to the lack of a
producti ve cause nor due to the resul t of
Lnowl edge.
When the eye and the eye-consci ousness concen-
trate orr one fbrm, the cronsciousness of other forms,
of sounds, of smel l s, of tastes, and of contacts do not
take place. Then, they obtain tlne apratisankhya,-
nirodln whichprevents tlrese kinds of consciousness
from taki ng pl ace, so that they do uot occur at al l .
The l ack of a produeti ve cause al so i s due to the
po\frer of this
,ntrorllw.
'Ihus,
the apratisahkhy,i-
n' i rod,ha i s an actual l y' exi sti ng dharma " (op. ci t.
Vol . 28, p. 989). The Abhi d,l tarrna.nyd,ydnusara,-
iristrz aiso mentions that thi,s is an es.istrnq djrarms.
Al l dharma,s oecur wtren thev come to the preseat
from tl rei r posi ti on i ri the future, owi nq to i l re com-
binatiorr of productive causes, u,nd at the moment
of thei r occurrence, al l dharmas become exti nct by
passing into the past,. But, when a dharn:,a ltrcks
productive c&uses, the a,pratisailc4yu-nirod,ha
pto-
vents the occr:rrence of the dharma, so that the
dharma remains at its position of rhe future for ever
and wiil never take place. The number of aprati-
sahkhya-nirodho is the same with that of pheno-
men&, because, when one phenomenondoesnot tako
place, it is due Lo an apratisankhyd,-nirodha,
The doctri ne menti oned above i s that of the
Sarvd,stivS,da, and other schools have different
doctri -nes on thi s. The SautrEnti ka states that
tlrere is no such existing dharma as apratisankhyd,-
ni rodha; and that i t i s onl y a provi si onal name. Non-
occurrence of a dharmu, due to the lack of produc-
tive c&rutes, is called apratisanlchyd,-nirod,4a.
According to somo early sects, it is defined es the
suppression of tho roots of evil which would arise in
the future, but for the uon-existence of those con-
ditions which otherwise would have givea rise to
then (Ency. Bsm. Yol . f, p. 1a9). Accordi ng to tho
Mahdsanghila, by aTtratisankhyd,-nirod,h,o
is meant
the non-recurrence of a dharma, once it has perislred.
But according to the Vijflanavada, all non-created
eiements (asamskrta,-dlmrma),
one of which is the
aptratisankltyd,-dharma, are the aspects of thusness,
which is nrriversal, and tbe apratisanlch,yd,-nirod,hn
becomes manifested when phenomen& do not occur
owi l g to l ack of producti ve causes.
K. Tyn.
APRATI$THANA-PRaXA6e, a Sanskri t work
of eleven stanzas written by Advayavajra in
the llth or the 12th century A.C. The Sanskrit
text is published in the Aduayctua,jrasangraha
in whicli Advayavajra's short works are collected,
and edi ted by M.' II. Shastri (GO,S. XL, p. 48).
It is also translated into Tibetan.
Translated into English the title would mean
" the publ i cati on of the want of basi s (of
towl ecl ge) " and thi s basi s of knowi edge i s the
full faith in the Buddhas, as taught in }lahaydna
Budcl hi sm. Ow-rng to the extreme brevi ty of
the work some of the idea"s expressed evado clear
expl anati on. Yet the contents show that the
author's preference is for the lfidhya"'iks
doctri ne. It i s sai d that consci ousness cannot
exist, for the past, present or the future and,
therefore, it is said that even consciousness is
I
APREMA-SAMANA-GARA-PRAYOGA-
38 APSARAg
absol utel v w' i thout essence
(.nai h.stabhd,ua).
Owing to the fact that the origin of t'he dharma'e
is ineomprehensible,
it is called i&nyatd (verses
6-?). Tbese are .' {ddhl ami ka i deas.
A. G. S. K.
APREMA- d, quaxe- cARA
- P
RA Y O GA- EI hAN-
YAMAT{I-NAMA,
the reconstrusted Sanskri t ti tl e
of a Tibetan work occrirring in the Rgy-rd-hgrel
i tantra
commentary)
secti on of the Tengyur
unrler the tit'le Xli-mth,un-po shi-bar'byed'pahi rtsd'
,sbyor d.byi .g-gi nor-bu shes' bya-ba
(Peki ng Ed' Ti b'
Tr i p. , ed D. T. Suzuki , VoI . ?9, No. 3853 and
Cord,i er, II, p. 351, I{o. 90). The authorshi p of
the text i s attri buted to Ye' Ses rdo-rj e (JfrSnavaj ra)'
According to the injr:nctions set' out in this
text, he who wishes to settle quarrels and disputes
should enter a thick forest, draw a four'spoked
magic circle (mandala), invite the gods to be
present, request them to be seated, perforu the
consecration ceremonies and the like, make offerings,
sing songs of praise and recite incantations for
seven da1' s and seven ni ghts. Furtber ri tual i s
prescribed, during the course of which white
mustard seed, olesnder flowers
(.karabtra) and
ash taken from the premises of a cemetery should
be thrown towards the disputants, to the aceom-
paniment of the chanting of spells. These ritua'
lisbic perforn&nces are said to restore harmony
among the contending
Parties.
R. E.
APRIYAKEYA,
name of a yaksa, menti oned
i n
t be Di uyd' uadd, na
( 41- 4 : EHS. s. v. ) .
APSARAS,
i n the earl i est Indi an concep"i on, a
cclestial and water nymph whose consort' \Pas a
gandharva. Later mythology associated her kind
r*'ith trees, describing them as particularly fond
oi musi c. Apsarases are sai d to have had physi cal
contact wi th mal es, both heavenl y and human'
Al though
they were pri mari l y associ ated wi th
gandharvas,
it was Indra who was tbeir lord
ancl master
(A. A. l facdonel l , Vedi c Mythol ogy)'
In spite of these ideas, the early Buddhists
dicl not incorporato
the apsarases in their scheme'
But these spirits came in later when the Buddhist
panti reon
(so-cal l ed) was bei ng el aborated' In
its formative
process apsarases wero palticuiarly
concerned rvi th two functi ons, i ' e., i n the ci rcums"
t.Inces attendilg the eniigirtenmeqt' ot Slkyamuni
an,L to glorify tite Buddha irr. tht'ir oeo, wsy' I.u
such works a,s tho Mahdua'stu, f'al'ilattistara,
Sukhiuatiugiha and Budd,hacari'ta, t'bey are strown
as attendants in the train of the bodlisattva.
(See BibIB. IX-XX, item 742 w-ith reference
to G. Borsani.)
The Mahiuastu rsferences (trsl. J. J. Jones)
give a picture which could be taken as typical of
&psarases. Tt ey Uved in the Tr6yastrir.nsa
heaven. Thus Gav6, & public laundress, w:aa
reborn here as an apseras in the mansioo, of t
splendid and powerful deve-the good rrgsrlt of
her having offered a Lompon robe to the Bucrdbr
(ibid. III, pp. 299 f.). These nymphs wtln
hear.ily bejewelled (ibid. III, p. 120)
;
thoy wem
expert in singing, making musis and dsncing (ibid.
II, pp. 15, 136, 184). In honour of the bodhi -
sa,ttva'B entry into the womb of his earthly
mother, IIdyddevi, they rained down continuorut
showere of celestial blossoms and aromatic
powder s ( i bi d. I , pp. I 14, 170) . Tr oops of
thom performed tho tasks of bathing, cleansing,
massaging and aaointing the body of the
expectant motber
(i bi d. f, p. l tO). They offered
their services at her a,ccouchement (ibid. I,
p . 1 1 8 ) .
Apsarases wore gariands of land and wator
fl owers, gems and
j ewel s (i bi d. I, p. 172). They
frequented the heavenly grove of Nandano where
Sakra hirnself came for enjoyment (ibid. U'
p. 400). In this is seen the continuanco of the
Vedic connoction betweon Indra and tbe spserB,ses.
When men died and were reborn in the celestial
spheres as req'ard for virtuous actions performed on
earth, vast numbers of apsar&ses would be there to
greet them and mi l i ster to thei r pl easures (i bi d.
II, pp. 34?, 350). Compare the story of Nanda
(Ud. p.22 f.) where Nanda waq promi sed a vast
retinue of n1'mphs if he agreed not to abandon
the rnonk's life. Ile accepted ths offer and later
was tauated by' hi s col l eagues.
Several
jitakas contain informaiion about
apsareses. They are generaill' described as
'
dove-footod'
(.kakuta-pdd' i ni yo).
Sakka had
a multitude of them and wa,s constantly
getti ng more as hi s reti nue (pari cdri ka: J. II- 93)"
They lived in the Nandana Llrove in Tdvatirnsa
and sang and danced to him and, evidently, es
they danced they appeared in diverse bues (puthu
ndnat t aaanni yo:
cp, ] L I ' 337) . f hey coul d
assume whatever col otl r they wi shed. They
seem to have been of several graCes, some of them
goddesses i n thei r osrr ri qi rt l e.g.'
Laj a) and i ndi q'
crimi:ratelv referred to as deuadhltti, deuakaitiid
and ecclurd, wbile others merely formed p*rt
APIITTAKA SUTTA 39
ARADA
of thc retinrre of
guch
goddossea, o.g., Gtt,ttila
Jataka (J. II, 256 ff.). Becuuso of thei r extra-
orrl i nary bearrty, Sakkn worrl d aomoti mee u8o
thsm to tempt aecotics, who by tlieir austers
pract,it'en tondod to become too poworful. Thus,
Alambusd wos sent to tempt fsisiirga
;
ho
ruceumbod and lay in her arms for three years.
fn art the &psaresoB have been roprosented,
ln peinting ee woll as sculpture, in all the known
Il uddhi st l onds. (Soe Vol . I, pl ate VII; Vol . If,
plate IV.) They have aleo b66n reforrod to in litora-
ture. They aro the Tennin who havo oeen shown
in images of the Northern Wei poriod, especially at
ths famed cavos of Yun-kang and Lung-men in
China
(Seo BibIB. YI, item 447 with reforonce to
M. Oguohi ).
D. T. D.
APIITTAKA SUTTA (,S. I, 89) reletoa the etory
of a woolthy burgoes of S6vatthi who diod intestato.
Paaenadi , ki ng of Koeal a, vi si tg the Buddha snd
tolls him that he had
just finished having the
bankor'g wealth removed to the royal coffers,
' ei ght
mi l l i ons of gol d to cay nothi ng of si l ver' .
And yot the banker ete nothing but sour huek-
gnel left over from the provioue day and woro
only hompen gormonts. The Buddha Bays that the
tne&n man who hes aoqr.rired great, woalth does
not maks ths bost us€ of it. Thoee ricfree of hie,
not rightly utilised, aro confiecated by kinge or
robbod by robbors or ar€ burnt by fire or carrisd
swey by floods or &ro eppropriated by heirs for
whom he had no affection
;
tho richee that are not
rightly utilised nrn to waete, like a lake of clear,
oold, delicioue, crystalline weter, with good ehoros,
but lying in a savage rogion. None eould utilieo it.
But, on tho contrary, a gouoroun man, if ho is rioh,
makos the beet urse of his richoe which may be
oompared to a lovely lako situated near e village
or a city whore people can uee it.
Anothor sutta of tho 6amo namo (S. I, 9I)
oontains 6n &ccount of th$t bankor's pest. In
a former birth, he had givon slrnr to e peccoka-
buddha, Tagaraeikhi but later repentod and
wished that ho had
givon
tho food to elavee and
gervante.
As a rerult of the alrns givon he wag
born saven tirnog in hoavon and Bovon timee
ae a rich men of S6vatthi. His repentanco mado
him incline to dorry himself enjoyment of :onse-
doeiroe. Owing to the murrlor of hie nephew in
hie previoua birth, tre re&B ehildloee in this life
and he died intestate. Aftor that he was bonr
i.u lhbe-roruvr purge[ory"
AQUEOUS ELEMENT, an Engl i sh oqui val ont of
d,po-dhotu (el ement of water). See BHCTA.
AnnfngRvATTHII
SUTTA of ths
yomaka
Voggo
of the Atthaka Nipdtn of tho Ahguttaro Nibdyo
(IV, 334-35) descri bes ei ght occaei one on whi ch a
monk should strive hard to attain and rsalise stateE
of mind yet unattainod and unrealised by him.
Before undertaking a task ho should strivo hard
to attain and realise ststos of mind unatf,einod
and,unreslisod by hirn, becaueo during the timc
he sponde for the task he would not bo ablo to
concentrate on tho Master's teaching
;
ho should
etrive hard in tho ssme way aftor a taek ia dono,
becaueo he worrl d not bo abl o to . eoncentrato on
tho Maeter'a teachinz while tho task ie boing done
;
elrnilarly ho should
gtrive
hard beforo unrlertaking
a journoy and afber finishing a journoy,
having
partaken of little food, for then his body would
be light and pliable; end having partaken of
much food, for thon his body would be etrong
and pliable
;
whon ho is indisposed with a slight
illness, for the illnose might grow woree and he
worrld not bo ablo to etrive thon
;
and after
rocovering from an illnees through feer that hc
might fall ill agein.
w. o. w.
AnenHntl SUTTA of tho Tikanfukr vqgs
of the Pailcamokn Nipota of tho Anguttaro Nilcdyo
(UI, 105-7) mont,i ons fl ve ki nde of poopl e: (l ) thorc
who eommit a feult and repent of the fact but do
n-othing good, and do not knss the emaneipetion
of hoart and emancipation through wiedom by
whicb all inflows (deaua) aro doatroyod without
a remeindor; (2) thoso who commit a fsult but
do not ropent of what thoy have done or not
dono, and who do not know emaneipotion; (B)
those who do not comrnit a fault, but repent of
what they havo not dons, and wbo do not know
emaneipation
;
(4) those who do nsft, sernrnit a fault
nor repont, of what they have not done, end do
not know omancipation
;
au,d (b) thoso who do not
commit a farrlt nor ropont of what they lrove not
done, and know emancipation.
A truo followor
of the ttuddha should try to be lihe tho peoplc
of the fffth group.
w. G. w.
AnAPe (var Arada), a Eago undor whom
Sakyemuni $udiod for a tino. Bee undor the
b6tte knovn narYre
AJ-I-RAKALAMA.
u. K-
ARADDEAVIRIYA SUTTA 10 ARAgAf, CEREUOrI
IneppgeVIRIYA SUTTA, n&me gi vcn i n tho
Su.ttasahgoho
(pp. 3I9 fr.) to tha Cara Sutt'a
(q.v.) of ttre Aiguttora Nikdyo (II, 13 f.) which
ig algo found in the ltiautnlca (pp. 116 f.).
ARAET. See ARAE.TNI.
ARAHAIYI SUTTA. Thore sre Eevon suttas by
thie name, six of which occur in the Sarnyutta
Nikdyo and tho seventh in the Anguttaro Nikdya.
The first sutta is in the rSclli Vaggo of the
Dersotd Sor.nyutta
(S. I, 14-16).- A dovat6
questions tho Buddha whether an arahant by
speaki ng of
' I '
and
' mi ne'
shows t her oby
prononess to notions of self or soul.
'Iho
Buddha
denies it and declares that such Bn arahant
thoroby only conforms to common usago in such
metters. According to Buddhaghosa, the
questioner \s&s & forest devat6 who had hoard
tbo forest dwolling arahants talking thus and
who wanted to know whether the arahants had
any' sel f-concei t (rndno) at al l (,S/. tr, 51).
The eecond sutta is found in the Anto Vo,ggo
of the Khand,o Somyutta
(S. III, 16l ). Tho
Buddha tells the monks that an arahant is one
who hae roally soen the arising (samudaya) and
the ending (atthagam'a) of the satisfaction (aasd'do)
irr, the misery
\fulinaua)
of, and the escapo (nza.
earapn\ from, the factors of the fivefold clinging
to existonce (upddarwkkhandha)' viz., body, eto.
The next two suttas occur in the Sudd,hika V"gga
of the Indriya Samyutta (,S. V, 194). The contents
of the two suttas aro idontical, except for slight
variation in detail. The Buddha doscribes Bn
arahant and declares that a monk who sees tho
roal naturo (yothd'bhuta) of, tho satisfaction
(assad,a) in, the misory (od'inoaa) of, the oscapo
(niaaorano\ from, these fivefold controlling powors
(pafi,cindriya), namoly, tho controlling power of
faiL}a (sadtlha), of energ'y (uiri'ya), of mindfulnoss
(eati), of concontration (samd"lhi), and of insight
(pofi,fia), is freed without grasping (anupado).
Furthor, ho eays that such & one is called sn
arahant, booause of having dostroyed the mental
intoxicante (daaua), lived the holy life, done
what had to bo done, Iifted the burden, gained
his own welfare, worn out tho fottors of rebirth
and been roloesed by perfect insight (sommadoft.fii\.
In the fifth sutta occurring in the Capala Vogga
of the lddhipdda Sor.nyutto (,S. V, 257), the Buddha
rays that the Tathagata is called an arahant, a
fully enlightened one, by the fact of bav'ng
cultivated tho four bases of psychic poror
(&t^dhipado)of wbich the featurea Bre desire' oner8tr,
tbought, and invetigation.
In tbe eixth sutta whieh occura in ths Koligdma
Vagga of tho Sacw Samyutta (8.Y,433) the Budrtha
doclaros that the arahants, tbe fuily enlightonod
rlnos, havo tho full undorstanding of ths Four
Noble Trrths as thoy really are.
In tho last sutta whioh occnrr in tho Dara6
Vaggo (/.. III,42I) the Buddha tolle ths monks of
Da4dakappa that tho six qualitioe of sloth, torpor,
flurry, worry, diebeiief a,nd heedlessness should
be given up, if orro w6ro to attain ara]rantahip.
I . K.
ARAHAN, gonorally lrrown as Shin Arahan, a
famoue monk in Burma with whoee essisianoo king
Anewrshta (L044-771 sproad Theraveda Buddhism
in Upper Burma. (Soe Vol. If, Pl. III") Born in o
brFh"'ao family he bocamo e Buddhist, nonk ond
warhtown as Dharnrnedaeoi. Whiie he was dwelling
in e f6est in Pugar6.rna" a huntor took hi'n to
king Anawratrta. Tho monk proeched to the
king and convincod him of tho Dhamma. At
this particular timo a tantric sect callod Ari (q.v.)
had becomo vory poworful in Burma and had
obtained the support of the kings of the oou.ntry.
Shin 6"ut*o who won ths faiih of tho king took s
prorninent parb in sotting tho oountry froe of
thoir dorninetion and faise dootrineg. I{encefortb
Upper Burma boc.amo a Theravdda country (?i.c
Glass Palace Cltron'icle of the Hdctory oJ Kings ol
Burma, 7f ff.). On the advice of Shin Arahan
king Anawrahta obtainod copies of the Tipr(ako
from I'haton in Lower Burma and also holy relior
of the Buddha, Learnod monks oamo to reside
in the domi:rion of Anawrahta from this tirno
(i bi d. 77 tr.).
Shin Arahan livod for a fairly long poriod, for
ho rs&s tlre adviser of Anawratrta's succosaorl
I{yanzi ttha (I08f If 12) and Al aungsi thu(I I12-67).
Tho Shwezigon pagoda bogun by Anawrahta wan
complotod by Kyanzittha on hie advico (ibid.
I08 f.). Ile died in the reign of Alaungsithu
(ibid. llg). In the Ananda temple of Pag6n ir
a life-sizs im"go of Shin Arahan (D. G. E. Hall,
A Hiatory of Soulh East Aeb, l2g).
II. R. P.
ARAHAN CEREIIIONY, a ceremony lbr showing
r:gverancs to arhate.
On the origin of this ceremony tbe Uu-ttu-
t'ung-chi (6mHff3e ?oochd, No. 2036) montiou,
that, at his paruurvaam ths Buddha totd tho
PL,\T}] IIJ
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\blt cou,rtesu oJ the Archaological I)eparttnCnt ol the Iktolrrli.onary Goternmevl rtf llnt Aniott, of Brtrnta,)
ARAHAN, port rai t , f i grt re of Shi rr Ara, harr i n Arranda, Tcrnpl c, Pagi i n, I Jurrna.
-l- m
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i i
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Sj-,'*
5 s. P, L' . 984 20
PLATE I V
'",'
':;l 16;
APSARASES, s,ppoa,ri ng
as mural pai nti ng on si gi ri Rock, coyl on.
(reproduced
Irom
the Art and Arch-itcthtre of India b11 Benjamin Routkrnil, ltt;6
APSAFASES, a r el i r . f i n Ar r gl i or Wr i t , f Ju, nr t r odi a.
ARAHAil CEREMOI{Y 4l ARAEANT
sixLeen srhnts to beeome true fields of merits
(punya-ksetro,J f-or their devotees. Accordingly,
oll orhuts prolonged the length of their life with
thoir supernatural power. And they made peoplo
grve offerings to the monks and went to m&ny
places and temples, whero they reCeived offorings,
without revoaling their holiness in order to heve
the donors obtain splendid rosults (Toish6, Vol. 49,
p. 3I 9) .
In China, the araban ceremony was porfornrod,
from oltlen times mainly by the Ch'an seat.
T?re Ching-t6-ah'u.an-ting-lu (fiffi{Sffiffi Tahld,
IIo. 2076) ment'ione tbat Ts'ui-wei Wu-hsiieh of tho
T'ang dynasty showed great honour to erhats.
Then, a priest asked him,
'Why
do you rovere
arhate, tvhon Tan.bsia burned a wooden
i-age
of
the Buddha ?' IIe anewered,
'Tan-hsia
burnod e
Buddho i*age but ho did not cling to tho buraing;
I revere arhats but I do not sling to tho act of
rdverence' (i bi d. Vol . 51, p. 3I3). And the Mi -on-
ho-shon4-yii-Iu (fri$fif8eFffi Taiah6, No. tggg)
stat€e that arahsn ceromonieg are performed with
a8 much entbueiasm at prosont as in the past
(ibid. Vol. 47, p. 967). These are indications tbet
srah'n ceromonics have been held in China.
In Japan, the srahen ceremony has been
pertbrmod at many temples eincc tho l(arnelmra
per i od ( 1184- i 383 A. C.
) .
Ei sai ( 1141- 1216) ,
the foundor of the Rinzei eect in Japan, wroto
irr his work, K6ze.n-gnle6ku-ron
tfiilFilItslffit,
rhat, ho porformorl the arahan ceremony et
the b ginni:lg of evory January and mede thig
cr:r€rlrorry also a monthly ovent. Koben (1173-
li32), the reetorer of the Kogon (Aaataryd.kd,)
:'ectr eomfiessfl
'the
mothod of porforming the
u,ireruorry lor the sixteen arhats' (J'fr,roku-rakan-
;:oshik'i *'ltffif;ffi*), according to which he
perfbrmed f,hs {r,r&tlrn ceromony at tho l(6zan.ji.
T)ri l i rrg tl re secorrrl year of the Kangon er& (12+4
' ! C.), Ki kai , eno of the di sci pi os of I(Obon,
t-orrstructed the Rakan-d0 or araban-hall in
reruerubf&nce of tho thir[eelr.fh anrtiversary of
ri.e death of his toacher I{6ben. and had three
pri esr"s stay i n the hal t. Kei zan (1268-132b A.C.)
nerlbrmed tho arahsn ceremony at the EikO-3i
i i uri ng the fi rst year of the Gena6 era (1319 A.C.)
lor t'be lirst timo, and established the coromonial
:uethod, Afterwarde he performed the drahan
..rrr.rooD$
on tbe flftoenth day of every monttr.
^{i th6 T6-fuku-ji in Ky6to, when the ff.fty scrolls
:a wtr.ich flve hundred arhats were picturod were
.
-gieted, tlee graLsn
cerern.ony w*s perfOrned
r Ocl ober ol the thi rd year of the Shi toku era
(1386 A.O.), when i t was deci ded to revere arhats
at the Shusho ceremony which ig held il January
el'ery yo&r.
K. ' I r an.
ARAEAHT. The word is dorivod from tho root
orh, to deserve, to be worthy, to be flt, and isr uaod
to denote I porson who has achieved the goal of
roligioue life (in Theravdda Buddhig6)"
This word is not purely Buddhistic in origin.
In t'he earliest stagos; and prior to ite achieving a
technical meaning in Buddhism, it wao ueed to
describe a porson of higb standing not necessarily
on spiritual or moral grounde. Thus in ttro
Sg-
ueda (II, 3. 3) the god Agni is so describ€d. Tho
Sotaptna Brdhmano ug€s thie term probatrly in
the eeng€ of ruler when it etatos that
,.
whe.aever
people cook food for some worChy
Ilerson
(arirant)
then the attendante 6!qut
hirn,
the non_nryal
Li..g-makors,
the horalds and headmen, hevo thoir
share ass{g"ed to thom
"
(f. B. Ifornor, fluilg
Budd,hist WEorv of Man Perfr)ad, p. 64). But
moetly the term was usod to deecribe roligioua
lerders who wore considored to bo greetly edvaaoed
spiritually, particularly of noligigus temherg othor
than ortbodqy fuiFhynnnr. orre of the epithete of
Vordba,mdna Mab6vire, the founderof Jainisn, was
orlnt (BBE. XXII, p. xix). Tlro Bul,:Jhe, too, wag
roferred to by thi. epithet whon the general publio,
includ
i.
g non-Budd hists, qroke ebout h irn (e.g., D.I1
49). Religioue ioaders as well ae their
diroiples
who took to the roligious life in the dirpensation
of their particular teaohers, depeaded aolely oa the
genorosity of the public for their eust€nanee
end
the virtuous ones srnong thom were considersd
Ba
'worthy'
to rscoive honour, salutetious
end
gifts from tho publio. Groat competition
eoorDa
fo bavo exiated smong ascetio gtoupg in their desire
to gain the title orahi (:worthy)
from tho public,
In the C&laa-tlnnil.a
Sutn (M. I,03) wo see ths
Buddhe adrnonishing his disciples to procleim
without fear that'roal reclurrce worthy of honour
are found only in
his
Order.
In its usege in early Buddtrism the torm donotee
e person who had gained insight into the true nature
of tbings (yathobhilafrar.w|. l-n the Suddhist move-
ment tho Buddha was the firnt arahant. Ilo was
rogardod aB an arahant, along with other erahants,
without any distinction. Thue, aftor the conversion
of ths group of five monk.s
\pafreoaaggi,ya),
tlne
{irst converts to tho teechinlgs of Gotama, it is
statod that there wore six arahants in'the world
at tbe time ( Yin.I, l4), the Buddha being rockoned
one of tbem At the outsot, on,co au edhorcau
ARAEAT{T
42 ARAEANT
re&lised tho true nature of things, i. e', that whatevor
h*s arisen (somrtfuya-dlwnmol
naturally has a
ceasrng-to-be
(niroilha'dlwmma'1, he was called an
ara'hant, and with this realisation ono is said to
heve put an end to repoated existence. The Buddha
ie Bsid to be oqual to an arahant in poinr' of attain-
mont,
the only distinction being that the Buddha
was tho pioneer on tho path to thet attainrnont,
while arahents are thoso who attain the same
state having followed the path trodden by tho
Buddba.
The arahants are described as buil'dhdnubuddhd,
i.o., those who havo attained enlightenment after
the Fully Enlightened One (Thag- p. f f I)' This
is brought out very clearly by a simile in the NirIQn'a
SorTryutta
(S. II, f05-6)' A man goiug about in
the forpst soes &n old road used by the people
of yore and, going along it, he sees the remains of
an old kingdom. IIe comes back to the town and
telle the people that in such and such a forest he
had soen tho ruins of a rnagnificent city, and tho
people, too, following the road-marks indicated by
the m&n como to the ruined city and seo it for
themselves. Even so the Buddha was the pioneer
on tho Noble Eightfold Path
@rtyo-a4lh'ahgilca'
nqgal a,nd having followed this path ho reached
tbe city of Nibbaua. Lalor, coming amidst tbe
poople ho revealod this path to them, and following
thie path they, too, abtarned the goal of Nibb6na'
In this rerpect the Buddha as well as his disciples
follow the s&mt prrfih and roach the same goal,
and ttro distroctiou botwoen the Buddha and the
disciples who become arahants is not wi$h rogard
to the attninrnent, but with regard to the fact
thst tho Buddha rediecover€d the age'old path
(,proqnm afijasoml to ths city of Nibb6na, while
the disciples come to the same city having followed
tho path tiiscovered by the Buddha. Tha Buddha
is, therefore, ealled the revealer of tho path
(ntagguao oktch.df'd'). I{o is tho teacher (sctr;id) who
toachos the disciplos to attain the same ideal
as attained by him.
But, &s time passod, the Buddha-concept
developed and special attributes were assigned
to the Buddha. A Buddha posgesses the sixfold
euperknowledge
(chalnbhifr'rtq; ho has matured tho
thirty-soven limbs of enlightenrnent
(boilhipakkhilco
illnmma\; in him compassion
(ka,runi'l and insight
(pafrfra) develop to their fullest
;
all the naajor
antl minor charaeteristics of a great man(mnhi'ptt'riso)
appear on his body; he is possess€d of the ten
powors (da,so balal and tho four confidonces (colz
vend,rajja); and ho has had to practise the ten
perfeotions
(pdramdt'dl during a long period of
time in tho past (seo s. v. BUDDIIA).
When speaking of arahants these attributes
&re never mentioned together, though a pa*icular
arahant may have one, two or more of the attributes
discussed in connection with tbe Buddha (,S. fI,
2L7, 222\. In the Niddna Samyutta (,S. II, 120-6)
e group of bhikkhus who proclaimed their attain-
mont of arahantslrip, when questioned by their
colleagues about it,, denied that they had developed
the five kinds of superknowledge-namelv, psychic
power (idd,hi-aidhti), divino ear (ili,bba,-sol,o), krow-
Iedge of others' minds (paraci,tta-uijd,nana), power to
recall to mind past births (pubbeniad"sd,nussati,) and
k''owledge
regarding other peoples' rebirths (cutil'-
papatti)-and declared that they had attainod
aralrantship by developing wisdom (pafr,iidai,mutti\.
An attempt is made in the Nikdyas as woll as
in later works to define tho content of the attain-
ment of arahantship. The commonest and one
of the oldest, definitions of an arahant is that he'
has in him the thr,.'efold knowledge (tis.so ui;ija),
namely, knowledge of his own previous births,
knowledge of the rebirths of others and knowledge
regarding the utter cessation of mental intoxicants
(dsouaklchayafr,ana). Most of the poems in the
Thera-, Therl,-gathd"s end with tho statement " The
threefold knowledge have f attained and I have done
the bidding of the Buddha" (ti,sso uijjd, a,nuppatt6,
kato\nbuddhassa sd,sanaryt,: o.g., Thag. p. 9). Other
definitions of arahantship &re : " Arahants aro
those in whom the mental intoxicants (dsauo\
are utterly waned " (khl,r.td,saud, arahatrto .' S. f, l3);
oue becomes an arahant by the utter waning of
lust, hatred and ignorance (S. IV, 252); arahants
are thoso who have cut off completely the ton
fetters (samyojana) that bind a man to sarps6ra
(Vin. I, 183); an arahant is ons in whom seven
things, namely, belief in a soul (sakkd,ya-ilitthd),
sceptical doubt (aicdkicchd), holief in vows and
coremonies (selabbatapard,mdsal, greed, hatrod,
ignorance and pride aro not found (A. IY, 145);
he is one who has crossed tho sea of sar.ns6ra (pd,ragtrl.
Ths word arahant is dofined in a fanciful way in
some places.
p61
instance in the Majjhinw Ni,lcdyo
(I, 280) it is said that an arahant is so called because
all sinful evil things are remote (drokol from him.
T}ae Yi,rndnaaotthu Al.thakatha (105-6) definos the
term in the following words: "An arahant is so
called becauso he is remote (draka) from sinful
thirtgg; becauso he has destroyed the spokes (aro)
of the wheel of sar.nsdra
;
bocause he deservss to
receive the requisites : fo od, clothin g, etc. (pancog drwm
arolwtti\, and becauso he does not sitx ovon in socret
(roludbh.d,uo).
The attainmont of arehantebip is expressed in
sovoral formulas of which tho commonesi ono at5rs
ARAHAT{T
'destroyed
is rebirth, lived is the hiqher life. done
is whot had to be done, after this preeent life there
i s no beyond' ( V, i n. I , 14, 95, l 8B; D. f ,
g4) .
The
declaration itself is called
',the
declaration of
knowledge
" (afi,iid, bgd,lcorana: M. III, Zg). The
Buddha has indicated a method of verifying the
trlth of a disciple's statement when he declares
that he has attained arahantship. A few questions
have to be posed to him and if he answers them
correctly then only should
he be taken at hie word..
The first question is with regard to the four con-
ventions (ca,ttdro v9hi,rd,). A true arahant doee
not, feel attracted to or repelle{ by things soen
(di(tha), heard (suta), sensod (muta), or cognised
(tif,fi,ata)
and ho is indepondent, not infatuated,
and dwells with an open rnind, &nd thus his mind
is rvell freed with regard to the four conventions.
The next question is connected with the fivo sggr€-
gates of grssping (upadirwkklnr?dlw).
The true
arahant understands their nature as depondontly
originated, and he is detached from thom, and all
the latent biases that aris€ through attachmont,
to them are destroyed in hirn. The third quoetion
is regarding tho six elements (illfitul.
A truo
arahanthas no notions of
'
I
'
or
'rnine'with
regard
to these elements and all biasee that crop up through
attachment to them &ro completoly- eradicated
in him. The fourth question ie connocted with
the internal and external eenee sphercs (ajjlratti,ka,
bdhi,ra-ayatana,\.
The mind of a truo arahant is
freo from attachment, desire that is born of these
sense spheres, tho consciousness born thereof aud
the things tbat a,re known through tho medi
'rn
of thie consciousnose, The fifth question
relatos tn the vision and insiglrt through which
all latent biaees such a,s
tI'
and
'mino'
aro com-
pletely
cut off. A truo arahant should be able
to reveal how he attained Buprome knowledge,
that is that ever5rthing
has an origin, a cauBo to
its origination, a cessation and a way that leads
to its cessation, through which his mind becomes
free from thirst for serrso pleasure, becoming and
ifnorance (iW. fII, 29-37).
The dieciplino of a Buddhist monk is aimed at
the attainment of ara,hantehip. Thoro aro four
distinct stagee of attainrnent as on6 pursuos tho
,lisciplino from the beginning, namely, the states
of the stream-ent,ra,nL (aotdTtonnrt),
fln6 once-returner
r.saka.digamd),
the nol-netumer (andgfimi) and the
arolwnt. A disciple by attaining the state of a
stream-entr&nt does Bway corrpletely with the
mentsl intoxicent (dsaaal
of falss views (dilthi)
And ths into$06nts of lust (kdm,a\,
becoming
rbil'cl.tal and ignorance (aaijja) which produce
Lirth in low statee (apdAa)-
By atraining the
ARAHANT
state of a onco-returner he does Bway with
mental intoxicants connected with gross (oldrihal
sense pleasuree and Bome moro cankgrs of bocoming
and ignorance. By attaining tho state of a non-
returrrer a disciple completely puts an ond to all
mental intoxicants connected with eonso pleaouree
and also further alleviatos the cankers of becorning
and ignorance. By becoming an erehsnt a disciple
completely puts an end to all mental intoxicants
connected with becoming and ignorance (Pa. I, 94).
In the Mahale Sutta (D. f, 156-7) e cloarer and
moro precise description of the four attainmente is
given. According to it ono becomes I Btream-
entrant by overcoming thlee fetters (eamyojorml,
n&mely, belief in an enduring entity (sokkii,yd,ifihil,
doubt regarding the Buddha; the Dharnms and
the Sanghu (uhikiccfta) and belief rn the effieacy
of :mere rule and ritual (si,l,abbalapa,rdmd,sal.
Ono
becomes & once-returner by dirninighing lust,
hat'red and illusion (rdga-il,osa-nwlw) in addition
to overcoming tho three earlier fetters, and
guch
a trcurg returns to thirr world once only and pute
a' end to the procegs of birth and death (aar.nsdrol.
Ono bec:'mea & non-returner by ov€rcorning the
first five of tho ten fettors which belong to tho
sphere of the sonsos (pafioa oramblfigi,ydni tqrya-
jannni),
i. e., sonsuous dosiro (kA,nncclmnfu) and
ill-will (Wdp,ad,al L. addition to the three fettore
mentiorred in eonneetion with the etream-ontrent
and the once-returner. One becomes an anahq.nt
by conopletely doing &wey with all mental intori-
cants (daaudrwm
khayd) having attainod the ornenci-
pation of heart (eetnui,ntutti,) and emancipation
thlough wiedom (pafrfiauim,utti).
The disciple who undertakes to pursue the peth
to the attainrnent of arahantship has to follow a
graduated procoss. Arahantship ie the result of
understanding tho true nature of things (yfuld-
bhfut{r) and one can Eeo the truo naturo of things
only through a non-prejudiced mind. To develop
a non-prejudiced mind one has to develop conc€n-
tration of the mind, and this is possible only by a
disciplined mind. So the process starts with tho
practice of virtue (sZla) whiclr leads to concentrstion
of the mired (sonaoihil which ultirnately resulte
in true wisdom (pufrfia). In the Deuotd, Samyu,tfu
(.1'. I, 13) a deity asks the Buddha how a persou
disentangles the tanglo of eernsdra and the Buddha
replies that, a wise man, establiehed fi.rmly on virtue,
concentrates his mind and develops true wisdom
by which ho clisentangles the tangle of sar.neer'6
fn several suttas we ffnd detailed descriptionr
of how a disciple initiates hirnsslf into the dis-
pensa.tion of the Buddha arrd
Fraduallv
followe up
43
ARAEANT
44 ARAHANT
tbo path. A son of a noblo family (lculoputta)
ligtens to the Dhammb preachod by the Buddha
and begets confideneo in him and decides to follow
his teaching. Ile entere the Order of monks,
thereby cutting hirnsolf awey from all femily
bonds and making himsolf free from all activities
that keep a la5rman occupied. Ile rofrains from
sinful activities such as haming life, stealing,
uttoring faleohood, back-biting, slandering etc.
and cultivates positivs virtuos such as loving and
pitying all beings, spoaking gentle and kind words,
speaking the truth etc. Ilo guarde the doors of his
sonses so that hie mind is not distracted when
objects of s€nsation como in contact with tho sonse
faculties. IIo is always alert and mindful with
rogard to all his activitios. I{e lives content with
whatovor he gets by way of food etc. Wrtan ho
has cultivated theso virtues his mind is read.y to
embark on concentration. IIe retires t'o a lcrnely
spot in the forest or noar e mountain cave and
sits in a befitting posture to concentrate his rnind.
Ee now Burveys his mind and cleanses it of all
shortcomings and eoes to it t+hat all fivo hindra,nces
to mental cultivation (ni,aara4,al, namely, cove'bow-
neas (abhdjjlfi), ill-will (tyapdd,a\, sloth and
torpor (thEnamiddln), worry and flurry (udil,h'ncca-
hukkucco| and doubt (tti,ciki,cchn) are compl,etely
dono away with.
When he sees himself completely freted of all
these hindr&ncos, he bocomes delighted (p'amujjal
and this in tum loads to
joy
{pl,ti,)
and thirs makes
his body tranquil (paaeadd,ha) end he oxperiebces
happiness and his mind bocomes conc€)ntreted.
Now he proceeds frorn the first ocet&ay (jhfrrwl
gredually up to tbe fourth. When t'he rnind
ie
brought to a high state of concentratiion in this
marmor, in it could bo devoloped tho sixfold
Lnowledge (see ABEINNA), the six'ch being the
L''owledgo
of tho utter destruction of mental
intoxieants (d.eoaalckhaga-ftdr.ta).
'!l'hon
the
disciple has doveloped the knowledgo of tho uttor
deetruction of these eankers ho has completoly
rmderstood the truo nature of things and for him
there will be no more becoming*he isr an arahant
(.D. I, 62-84). Tho arahant is also ctrlled asekha,
(g. v.) because his training is eomplote.
ft should bo stated that this peak of mental
culturo c&nnot be reechod quickly. One has to
cultivate virtues for a considerable lerrgth of time
in order to elean tho mind of its ]atent biases. The
various methode adopted to purify the mind also
vary &ccording io the character of tho individual
eoncorned. There are several types of characters
discussed in this respect, namely, the passion
dominated m'an (rdgo-carita), the ill
-rrill
dominated
man (doso-carito), the ignorancs dominated man
(moha-cariic), tho faith dominated man (sa.dd,hd''
carita,), the intelligence dominated man (buddhi-
cardta\ and the refloction dominated rnan (uitakka'
carin). The detaiis of the training differ according
to the character of the'individual (Vi'sm. p. 82).
Though it is generally accepted that the path to
tho attainment of arahantship is a graduated one,
thero are instances of people who attained arahant-
ship without following all the details, for instance,
Suddhodana, Khemd,, Maha Aritlha and meny
others wbo attained arahantship even before they
entored the Order of monks. There is recognised
a type of arahants called tho sukka^uipassaka an.d
if we accept the view t'hat suklea stands fot sud'd'ho
(pure or mere) the term then donotes ihose who
attain perfection without over having attained
any of the mental absorptions (ihdrn). The
Vhudilhimagga (ch. xviii, 503) calls such persone
tuddlw-uipacsani,-ydni,lco a,s distinguished Jrom
those with " tranquillity as vehicle " (samalha-
yd,nika). T\o Mi,li,ndapafi,ha (&sl. 2, 254) disrcus-
sing this problem says "thero is no realisetion of
arahantship in ono single life without keeping of
the vows. Only on tho utmoet zoal and the most
devoted practice of righteousness and with. the
aid of a suitoble teacher is the realisation of
arahantship attained." It would thus not bo
incorrect to say that the Theravdda view regarding
arahantship is that the practice of virtue is essential
and that evon those who follow the suditrha-aipassanfr-
gdno can do so because thoy have practisod tho
virtues io previous births.
Lay llle 8nd srshanhhip. Though there aro
ma,ny instanoes of persoru a,t't'a,ining spiritual
devolopment up to the thrrd stage of non-returaer,
inetancos
are not many of individuals attaining
arahentship while yet being lay'mon. Yaea attained
arahantship while being a layman, but ho, too,
entered tho Order immediatoly aftorwards ( Vdz. I,
15-20). Khemd,, chief of the Buddha's womou
disciples, attained arahantship before she entered
tho Order, but she entered tho Orderwith tho
congent of her husbend Bimbisdra, protrably on
the same day
ghngA.
f26 f.). Srrddhodana, tho
father of the Buddha, attained araharrtship a
iittle while beforo his death (DPPN. s.v. Suddho-
dana). Tho Mahd'uamsa (ctwp. xvi, l0-ll) records
that fifty-five brothers headed by the chief ministor
Mahari-tlha attained arahantship in the tonsure
hall, while their heads were boing sb&ved prior to
being admitted into the Order. In the Kathiuotthu
(157-6) the questi on whether a l ayman can become
an arahant is discussed. The point maintained
ARAEAI{T 46
ARAHAT{T
in it iE that wba! mut,tonr is not the external charac-
teristice of & rccluse or s layman, and thar enybody
rr'ho ie lree lroru th.o sr.ental fotters nud iives a
life of complete renunciution could attain arahant-
uhip. I(ing Milinda, tr-io, rrraint,*ins this viow
anrl rluotes the following words of tbe tsriddha:
" I would magrrif,v, O brethren, the supremo attain-
men0 eitlr.er in r.r, laJrman or in a rocluse. Whether
he bo a la5rman. 0 brethren. or & recluse, tho man
who has reaclred the eupre.rno trttuiunent sherll
overcorrro all tho diffrculties inherent thoroin, ebell
win his w&y even to tlre excellent conrlition of
araharrtshi p" (M' i l n. trsl ., SBl q. vol . 36, p. 56),
but so far this statement has not heen traced in the
Ti,ptr,laka. fn the Mildnda,pafi,ha. (ibicl. p. 57
i
again, a question is posed as to why & porsorl should
entet tho Order if la5rmen, too, could attain arahant-
ship. In reply it is shown that facilities and
opportunities for cultivating the mind ere greater
if one eniers the Order, since monka ere not bound
up with duties of laymen such s,s earning to maintain
onoself, wife and children and looking after the
needs of relstivee. In ths Subka Sutta
{M"
II, lg7)
tbe Buddha says that a porsoa, whother he bo e
laSrrnan or a rscluee! who loade a virtuouu life,
ever striving to clqanse the mind sf irnpuritiee,
would progreee in the peth to liberation.
'I'hera
ie e current lmlief Brnoug the tsuddhiets
uf Coylou thet when e laSrman ettaine arahautsliip
he should enter th6 Ordcr tlro eemo rlny or eieo ho
would die before tho end of that day. N6gaserne,
too, rioufiruru this viow (MiIn" trsi. pt. 2, 96). It ig
rliffcult to trace from canonical sourcee any €\ridence
t,o Bubets,ntioto this view. The idea developed,
prohably, from the fact tlrat, somo laymen who
attained erohantship joined
the Order immediately
after, rrnd sorno trttained arahantship a little
*lril.: L.:f.ro tlr,oi. .le,rth.
Again, if we examine tho connotation
of the
word aruigdnr.i (non-rotur:rer
to ihe m$teriel worlcl)
lr$ obtoin moro evidence to support the view
th*l, arahantrhip ie attainablo outside tho Order of
nl(rnkg, If an andg6,mi doee not attain arahantship
in that very exieternce, he will pass ewey and will
be rebom &mong tho Suddhd,vd,sa deities, whero
he will put,
en end to reiteroted existenoe ieee
ANAGAMIN
).
Women Bnd arshantship. Ihe lluddha placed
women orr a psr with men in the capacity of develo-
ping tho mind to the higheet, level.
.A
few yea,re
after the inauguration cf the Order of monks, an
Ordor of nu_D,s, too, was set up with Mahapajapati
Gotami, the Buddhs's foster-mother,
as ths firet,
recruft (a. v. MAttAp,t.lAf,,ttl COTAMI). The
Yinaya Pi,laka contains a section of speciel rulee laid
down for the guidance
of bhikkhunis. As is obviour,
the purpose of tho religious iifo is to attain arahput-
ship.
.W'omen,
lile men, entered the Ordor in ordsr
to roaiise this state. Nowhero in Budrthiqt litetature
do we como acroag statements 6sn6unging the
capacity of women to develop tbeir minds, snd.
in this respect no distinction is shown botwoen
rnen &nd women. T\o Ther-r,gd."thdis full of
instencee
of thoris who had attained arahantehip (e. g., Thi,g.
pp. 126, I29, l 3t etc.). M6' ra once attompted to
dissuade Som6, a theri, f19p
gf,ls,ining
arahantehip
sBying t,hat she with littls brains could not ospire
to attain a noble etate atteined by sages with high
montal
liowers.
Som6's reply was that if the
ynind
is properly cultivated so as to develop true lrnow-
ledge by which one u:aderetands the real
gtato
of
things, womanhood is no barrier to the attainment
of arahe.ntetlp (Thtg. 129). Mrs. Rhyn Devids in
the Introduction (p. xxiv) to her transletion of the
Tharigdfhn states that the instnnssg of thErla
declaring their ettainment of arahantship 8ro mor€
in the Therigdthd than of monkB doing so in the
Theragathd,.
Arahants snd $oclety. Whon we study the lilo-
history of the Buddha as well as thoso of
hin
chief
disciples who wore arehants, it becomes abundantly
eleer tbat the Buddhs did not oxpect his diaoiplec
to forsake rociety altogether, before or after the
sffsinment of arahant"hip. During a poriod of
forty-five yearB the Buddha was buay domg
missionary work among tbo poople. Tbo botter
part of his dey wae spent in golng ebout and
mooting peoplo and teaching them how to lead
better livos.
'W'hstr
bo mot p€oplo be did ad
alwaye Bpeek to tbom about the minry of lifo.
When he met s;dinnry p€ople he admoniehod
ther:o to rofrain fmm anti-nooial aotivitis and to
de f,hings which are for the bmedt of the m4ny
(D" Ilt, f8O-93). Whon he met kirgs 61d
higher
mjlisters he spoke to them of wa5rs and means of
good government,
which would r€sult in ths heppi-
nese of all concemed. When he came aor'ogs poople
who w€no grievad by varioug
'nisforturxos,
ho
spoke worde of comfort to them
ghrgA.
f08-f7).
When he cnyno &croBa crirninale he preOched to
reform them for tho bonefit of tbe criminals ag
woll as for tho bonofit of society (TlwgA.III, 5&64).
IIe spoke of the duties of childron towards their
parente and nlca ncrlo, of tho dutioe of a vife
towards hor husband and thos€ of e hrubaud
towards hie vrife, and ho also spoke of the mutual
duties of all people for the better end umoother
run:ring of sogiety. When he
gathor.ed
round him
ARAEA}TT
46
ARAHANT
his first Broup of disciples, sixty in nurnber ancl
ell of them arahents, he dispersed them in all
directions asl<ing
^rhem
to pleach the Dhamrrra f<tr
t ho wel f ar e of t he mar r v ( l ' i n. l
,
2l
) .
Cl , i ef
di sci pl es l i ke Sdri putta. l l oggal l ana, KaecE varra
and other.s, fbl l owi ng the exampl e of the tsucl cl ha,
sporrt al l thei r l i r-es i n v,orki ng for the spi ri tual
upliftment of the rnaises. I'he Buddha ri,s well
as hi s di sci pi e-. l i ved i n srtr,i ety, l :ut tl i ev were not
of soci etv. TheS' l i ys.l i i ves of compl ctc renl l n-
ei ati on, though they deperrrl ed on the gener.osi ty of
the public for their sustenance, arrd worked for their
spiritual upliftment.
,Iheirs
s,as a disinterested
service. The life of a tnro cliseiple of
*,he
Budclha
i s compared to a l obus i n tbo pond (-4. II, 3g ; Sn.
p. l 0l ). The l otus bud grows i n the mucl i n the
pond, i s nouri shed i n i i , but, i t grows through the
water, eomes above the surforret, blossoms out.
and is untouched
b5r the rvaior. Likewise the
disciple rlevelops
into & firilv-awakened
m&n,
while being in eoeiety, brit he is rrot bound by the
fetters of soeial iife. lle is rrol carried awav by
what takee place in it. fn the lIuhrlm,aigalq,
Sutta
(Sn. G-7) it is strid ilur,t if one ciln stand. unmovecl
(citta,m
Stct^esco
rw kompati) when affected l;y the
tbinge of the woricl (phutllwssu
lokadharrr,nteln)
iL
would be a great blessing.
Though such i s the general atti tuCe of a di sci pl e
towards sor:iety, we see a pai.allel
d.eveiopment
in Bome toxte adrnonishing
the true sage
(muni :arahant)
Lo steer cl ear of s,rci ety and make
a quick escape l-rom sarns6,ra. Society is depieted
as a very evi l pl ace, ful l of vi ci ous peopl e, the
hannt of all vilos, and he,nce the mu,ni
ghould
have nothing t,r do with it. -tfe shoulcl wander
about all alone, far away from society, likc the
rhi noceros (,Sn.
pp. 6-l Z).
The lffahd,ydnists
put forward the ideal of tlie
bodhisati;va-a
being dedicated to the serviees of
humanity, probably
&s a protest
against this
development.
1,V.G.W.
As time went on the ward. arhat, which is
the Sanskrit form for the Pali a,reh,,i, arahant,
wa,s gradually
replaced t'y the v,ord ,4rdualcct
and in iater liter&ture, e.g., the fuIaltd,aryrdpatti,
it seems to have disappeared
ahogether,
especially
in referenee ta bod,hi or enlightenment.
A:ed, the word, ird.aalco seems to be used in a dero-
gatory
sense, similar to hina-yd,/ro, in&smuch as
,4rrfurL,kq,.g
mereiy heard t,heir teachers ancl followed
thei r rul es, though someti mes; they themsel ves
wero preachers. ,9rathka-bod,hi
c*rne to bc, usod
&s a rrvnonym of ni ruana as the i deal of the arhat.
Thus, a contrast c:l me to bo establ i sher.L betwoerr
the arhtt, who is content with mer€! Nrn,d,na,
the cessation ol tine tiiraua.s, and the boclhisattva
rvhose ideal is suprerno tl,nd perfcct errlightenment
l u.rtuttarct,-samyak-santbotl hi ). Sanskri t rrri ters fre-
qrrentl v coml rare rr,nri uontrast the two i deal s,
evi,n the highest form of' Nirvfr,na ilttained as a
irauctlca (arltat\
tieing consiciered inferior t,o the
sant,borJlti atta,ined by a badhisattua. fn an interes_
ting ptrssage of tlrc Satusdha.srika-,;prujiiri-paramita
(pp.
l l 90-l ) i t i s sa,i rl ti i rrt i re
-*rho
tri es to persuade
a man to be ccrntent wi th the stage of a i rd,ztaka i s
a brrrl frierrcl (pugtu,.rni.tra)
and is d.oine the work
of the Evi l
()ne
(nrtl rakannary,i ).
The entire sixth chapter of the
Sadd,harmn-
Wndari ka
i s devoted to an el aborati on of the i dea
tha,t the mcst eminent of the Sakyamuni's
dis_
ciples including K66yapa, Mahakdt5zdyana
and
Ilaudgaly6va,rra
who havo won fame as arhats,
shoul d conti nue thei r spi ri tual devel opment ti l l
they attai n Buddhahood.
The conrl i ti on
of Ni r-
vdna wlrich they
have attainerl as arhats, is repre_
sented as bel ongi ng to a l ower stage.r fn another
chapter (the 8th), the i nadequacy
of the ol cl i deal
of Nirvana is set forth in a speech whir:h the 500
arhats (see below) addressed to the Sd,kyamuni
:
" We conl'ess ortr transgrossions,
Lorcl. lVe havs
al ways anu at al l ti mes thought t,hus :
.Thi s
i s
our' final Nirvd,na
;
we are finally released.'
Wo
havo been foolislr and unv,ise, we have not known
tbe right way. A:ed why ? Because we have beon
content with this sort of inferior knowledge, whereBs
rve should havo acquiretl perfect enlightenment
througl r the knowl edge of the Tathagatas.' ,
And
further on, they are made to say :
,,' We
i magi ned
that we had been l i berated through the stage of the
arhat. We can harclly be said to live inasmueh
as
we aro satisfied
with such inferior knowledge.
But our aspi rati orr for the knowl edgo
of the Omni s-
cient One has never: wholll- perished.
Anrl the
Tathdgata, Lord, teaches us :
,O
nonks, do not
t hi nk t l r at t hi s i s Ni r vd, na . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . Havi ng
been taught thus, we hrlve today received the
prediction about our supreme, anrl perf'ect enlighten_
rnent. " The Sadd,harmapurSdariha s&vs quite
categori cal l v
that al l arhats, who have d.estroyed.
the 6Sravas, must go futther anr-l seek the supremo
sambodhi .
I, In. the gradation
of,
!he,
bhiln[ or stages of the bodb;_
sattvs' s_ career, the bodhisrittva in tris sixln- stage is-nride
the oquivelent of au arlurt.
ARAEAI{T
47
ARAgAilT
The MahEydnists Bccuse the arhut of eelfishnoss
trecause
he strives only fbr his o\pn liberation from
aorrow instead
of working for t,ho liberation and
happiness of all beings. They exert themsolves
only for tlreir own completelrlirvdnn (dttut-pa,rinir-
tfr,ru,-hetch : Sclm,p. p, 7b). The Srdvakas think
only of their own good (eurirtha, : Mahd,yu,na,siltrd,-
I,ahkd,ra, 53.4). The arhat s&ves no one but him-
self. IIo is like one confined in a dungeon, who,
baving found a, w&y of escape, hastens to set him-
self at liberty, while callously leaving his fellow. ,
prisoners i:r darkness and captivity.
The bodhisattva, on the other hand. is the
embodiment of supreme unselfishness. Ile solemnly
dedic.atos himself to the service of all beings who
stnrrtl in need of succour, suffering the most
atror:ious tortures, if necessa,ry, if thereby he
may s{rve others from pain and sorrow.
Ii, must be stated, however, th.rt this charge of
s€lfishness made against the arhat, in contrast
with the unselfishness of the bodhisattva, is not in
accordance with fact. In the first place, the con-
eept of the bodhi sattva i s not pecul i ar to Mahdyd,na.
i n the second pl ace, i t,woul d be qui te i ncorrect to
say that the arhat, as depicted in Hinaydna, is
entirely occupied with his own salvation and is
callous of the salvation and sufferings of others.
As has been stated earlier, the word a,rhat rnearts
' one
who i s worthy' and hi s worthi ness i s of a
ki nd that cannot be reconci l ed wi th any form of
=elfishness. " Even as a mother watches over her
,rnlv begotten child," says Lbe Sutta, Nipata, one
of the oldest texts of the llheravdd&, " so let his
ireart and mind be filled with boundless love for
all creatures, great and small, let hirn practise
ir,enevolence towards the whole world, above, below,
e.cross. without exception, and let him seC hi.neslf
utterl y free from al i i l l -wi l l and enmi ty." And,
another text, tho Iti uuttaka (19), savs " al l the
rleens that can be used as bases for doing right are
rot worth one-sixteenth part of the emancipation
, f the heart through l ove. That takes al l those up
:nto i tsel f, outshi ni ng them i n radi ance and gl ory.,'
.\*o selfish being could, therefore, become an arhat.
-{rhnt,ship consists in a spiritual exaltation that
:ianscends the limitations of temporal individuality.
No s-v--stem which aims at tho elimination of the
r,iienomenal ego can be accused of egoism or selfish-
TLBSS. Arhatship is the full realisation <if tho trans-
i endental self and such self-realisation is far removed
:rom selfishness and, indeed, involves self-sacrffice.
In charging the arhat, therefore, with being over-
mndful of his own dovelopmeut and salvation and
Frth igrroring tho moral and spirituul *sll-fsing of
his fellow.men, tho Mahiydniets were hardly fain
The arhat, on the other ha.d, is one who acts in
accordanco with tbe principlo that each man for:mg
part of a spiritual whole of which all his fellow_men
ano also parts and that to sarvo tbem ie to enrich
and ennoble his own higher Bolf, whilo to neglect
them would be 1e irnpoverisb
it. Even at the
lowest estirnnf,6, tho arhat is one who seoks and
attains an enlightenrnent, for hirnnelf so that
he
might subtr&ct at least himself from tho vast
burden of sonow and pain thet woighs upon the
world. Ilaving dono this, ho continuos tho good
lifo for the gain and the welfare of the many, irr
benovolent, actiwity, although it could add nothing
to the reward which he has alroady won.
After he has won arhatship, up to the time of his
death, the arhat lives wishlossly, happy and con-
tented, becauso his supreme achievemont
lsevos
no room for wishes of any kind. Accordi.g to tbo
Milind,apafi,ha (pp. 134 ff., 2b3) he is liable to sufrer
bodily pain, howover, because ho cannot control
his body. But such pain he boars with equanirnity
which nothing can disturb.
Aceording to the Therav6dine, the acquieition
of Nirvdna is final snd d6finite Bnd can nevor ogaiD
be lost. Ths Sa"''.itiyas, Vajjiputtiyas,
Sab-
batthivddins and somo Mah6s6nghikas,
howover,
held that the arhat is liable to fall awey. The
Saddhnrnwpuqtd,ari,ko (v, bg-89) speeks of the
nirvdna of the arhats ae a temporary reposo and
distinguishes it from the flnal Nirvaq.ra of the Budrrhr.
The Theravd,dins regard the arhat as being of almoet
god-like stature but tho Mah6sdnghikas
mein-
tained that he was human and ho had mony im-
perfections, €.g., that he could still be troubled
by
demons, have various doubte and bo ignorant
of
many things. Tho Andhakas said that the srhat
could bo surpassod in knowledge by others, in
opposition to tho Vibhajjavddins in whoso viow the
arhat has completo knowledgo.
The Pubba- aad Apara-seliyaa held that tho gods
of ths Md.ra group (Mdrakdyikd)
could i-po"e
plrysical impurities upon arhata (Kau. i, 2; rt,
2--4; iv, l0
;
xxii, l). In many tomplos in
Thoravdda countries figuros of arhate aro found
sculptured or p&inted on tho walls, generaily
with
the Buddha ae the central figure. Most often it ig
the two 6hief disciples of the Sd,kyamuni--SEriputta
and Moggalldna-who
&rs so ropresented..
Ia
Clr,ina, howevor, oepecially in the more important
tomplos, thers are generally to bo found two
row'B of large figrues, one along the oast, and
tho othor along the weer wall. Thoso figures,
which are nsually numbered and labellod, alro
ARAEAI{T 48 ARAEAr{T
called the eighteon Lohan, the eighteern groat
disciples of the Buddha. In Korue, in tho anoient
Buddhist tomploe, sirnils'f ffguree are to be found,
but only eixt€en in numbor. In Japan,
rinila,rly,
wo get the
gixteon
Rakan and irr Tibet the sirtocn
Sthavires, oooasionally (S€o Vol. II, Pl. V) elghteen.
Loban and Reken stand for A-lo-haa' cqrirrelcnt
of Arhan or Arhst. Ibe nrrmber rnbeequently
increaeod to five hundred. Tbo rtory of thil
devolopment is givsa in deteil in the soctioil tbot
follow
ivnmortiqtely hoeafter. (Scc elro lrtiole xvi
in tho znd psrt of Yol. YIf of frzlrrrplw &tn
Chimc Supereoit&nu by Eenri Dot{, 8. J.' f022).
The Mahiy6ne lit ta$ulo ooateinl aey aooounte
of arhats found innumercus otber worldc, espooially
in Btffiln-lcpetru (Buddha-flelds), where they
funotion as retinuot to tbe Buddhas there. In
moh oos€Gtheirnumbem are moorded by the million.
goo
BUDDEA-KFETRA.
G. P. U.
Thc Slrtcon Arhats. The sixt#n a,rhats wdt
disoiples of Sekyalnuni Buddha. Aooording to
Buddhist te:ts, tbcy were said to heva betn
atnrct€d by tho Buddhe not to mter Nirvlaa bUt
to stsy in thfu world as the obieot of worthip of ths
peoplo and the
"
feld of bless€dnoss
"
to all boing;
In anoiont tnansletionB of Buddhist soriPhret,
suoh ee i:r the Ju-b-ch'&ryJun
(AJf,t MaM-
yMa&ira-ffiEtro: To'icl6, No. fffi4) traoslstod
by Tao-t'ai of the Northera Liq-g . pciod
(397-439 A.C.), it is s8i4 "
Thero arg the lixt€€"l
gmet
grivskacr
Pi4{olabh6radv6je, nehub,
€to., Uving on the various continents' ............
pmteotrng Buddbim." Eut not ell tho
"a".es
of
tbo eix0oon erhstt
a'r,o gtvea. Boaidc thlt,
in the Mi-ln-hnilr-ebeng-ehlry
(ilOTgE
Bturr
on ttn Dcewnt of Udarcyo : Toiel6, No. 458,
a *perate oopy of the *lth faecicle of tho EkM-
gatrc), of wbioh the tmdrtc'8 nlrmo is lost, it is
seid, " trhik{u Mablkl&yapa; bhiksu Ctfdrpan.
tbaka, Shikiu Ptadolabh5redv6je and bhiksu
R6hula, you four grrot 6revakes ehould not errtsr
Nir:reaa trntil my Dhoma ia entirely extinguirhad."
ft ie elso esid in the r9lrd-ti./1r-raer<Illil
(*fl#Ftlt
Strtro
.on
tha
Qwtthu
ol Sa*g*tto: Taial6,
No. 1466) by
an
BnonJrnons trannlator of
the East€rn Tain dytarty
(3U--420 A.C.),
"
AftE
my passing ewayr the four great bhikaur Mahi-
k66yapa, PiTdolabhErud.vBje' Cd{apanthaba a,trd
R6,hula, sbould not enter Ninr6ne, but ctay ia
this world to pnopeg*te my Dharrns." Basrng
his elst€mant on this traditiou' Chih.i (638-0? A.C.)
of the Sui dyaasty remarked in hie Fa-hzn-uen-
dr{t
(*#ffu
AnnJgtilnl Studg of the Sffihor-
*vzpwfurllm
Sfutro, faeo. ii, fcdafro-, No. l7l8i
thus
'
" The Buddho ordered the four great
arhatg not to enter Nirv6ne until his
Dhnms is entiroly extinguiehod." But in ox-
plaining this pessags, Cha.a-jan (7ff-82 A.C.)
of ths T'pnB dynasty eaid in bis Eo-hue-wen-cht*
ahi (ti#{6p Notea on tt& Arwl'ytiel
BAdg ol ttu Seharnryuf4$Iko Sebru : Ta'hh6,
No. l?19),
" Aeoording to the Pn-gun-chirry
ordered sixto€n arbats to suEtein Buddhim
and not to onter NirVir,ra
gntil
the seyning of tho
nort Buddha. In that eritra the n&rnss of arhets,
tJreir piacos of rosidone€ and the numbsrs of their
followers are all fleffnitsly stated. Tbue, the holy
onee took thoir oath in tho pr€senco of tbe Buddha,
saying,
'Wo
shell diseorninal,o and uphold tbis
sritra with our supernatural pcwers and shsll not
oter Nirvdna'. Among those sixteen arhqts
Pi?dolsbhemdv6je and R6hula ero countod, but
Mab6k66yeps
is not."
Now tho Pu-yiln-chdng (R&umeglw BrZtra) has
two differsnt versior$, ths ono trsnel6tod by Man-
drarna of the Liang dynasty (606-67 A.C.) and
the other by Mandraeena and Saighap6la of the
l'm dynady. But this posasgs is formd in noither
of fhm. At, the end of the 7th faecialo of the
lrttc versinn, howev6r, we do not havo tho passage
sbout thc rooeptanco and practice of tho afftre,
whioh i! tbo nrlo eonlrnon to all sfrtras. Perbaps
tomo pa{Fagp fu missing in ths oxtant' vorsion, and
if thet ia the caso, it is difroult for us to make
ony definite ooncltrsion Atl the, oxigting terts
the sixt€€n a,rhats aro based upon
Erifa'n.t ang's tra,nalation of tber,To-o-ln-lnn-nan-
J i'mi-to
-l.o -oo -etnn -fa-chu-ohi (
* FffifrH |F;rt.ffi
fiESA Nordhwitrdcnfrrw : fais!6, No. 2030),
that is a reoord left by tho mhot Nandimitra, a
netivo of Einbala (Coylon) about oight hundred
y6ars after the Buddhe'a Nirvipa.
In tb T o-o-l,o
-lmn-tnn-t'
i-mi-to
-l,o-so-ahuo -fa-chu'
dld (N&di0mi#:dtl,&rc1 thess arhats are enu-
merated as follows: lbe first, PiT{olabh6,radv6ja,
a,nd his retiuuo of ono thoussnd arhats mortly
livo in Aperagod6nrla Continont in ths W'ost; tho
reoond, Kanakav6tsa, and his rotinus of flvo
hundrsd erhate mostly Uvo in l(e$mira in tho
North; the third, Ksnekaparidhvaja (?), and his
retinuo of six hundred srbats mostly live in Pfirva-
wideha Continent intbe Eeet; tho fourth, Subinda(t),
and his retinue of sevon bundred arbats mostly
Iive in Utterakuru .Continent in the Nortb; the fifth,
PT,ATE V
. . l i . - ! . '
".r.1
,t --"t.' ..ii 1 r,, :
' ri*:_!.4.t' ..:;.
."' i1.
'
Ci f i l i
. . ,
' h
:t:'
Y.
ij{
"iral
' : : ' t ' ' '
':\
(bg uturlrsy r{ the I'ublit Relalians Dcpartment, I'ictoria and, ilbert JIueeum. Londan)
THE BUDDHA u,ri tl l ,l te si xtei ' n grt,{ri trt' }rat,' r ryi th Hvrr-sl rang rr,nd Dl rtrr.matdl a, arr
upd8eke.
PI-AfE VI
Imago of an arhat in pottery, possibly
from & te?nple in HoPei, south of
Peki ng, Chi na, oj the Li ao-Chi n
dynaati es (l 0th-l 3th century).
(W courtpw of tlw M dtopolitan
M ueeum of A rt,
New York, t/. S. /.)
Painting of an arhat, attributed'
to l(uan'hsin
Weetern China
(832-900), knowr in Japan
Zengetsu Daishi.
(Irom the colleetion of Baron Takahathi, Tokyol
of
aa
ARAHANT
4g ARAHANT
I',iakula, and his retinue of eight hrurdred arhats
mostly live in Jambudvipa
Coutinent in the South
;
tho sirth, Bhartrra, and his retinue of nine hundred
arhats mostly live in Tamare Continent ; tho
seveuth, Karika, and his petinue
of ono thousand.
arhats mostly live in Sarr.ghata Continent; the
cighth, Vajraputra, and his retinue of one thousand
one hundred arhats mostly live in
porala
(?)
Continent
;
tho ninth, Svapaka, and his rertinue of
nine hundrod arhats mostly live rn Mount Gandha-
rnu,clana
;
the tenth, Panthaka, &nd his rotinrre of
ono thousand threo hundred arhats mostly livo
in
'I'rE,yastrinr$tr,
I{eaven : the eleventh, Rahula,
and his retinue of oue thousand one hundred
u,r'hrlt,s rrrosfllr live in Priyaigu Continent
;
the
tweliLh, N6gusona, and his retinue of one thousand
two hrrndred arhats mostly livo in Mount
Potal aka (?)
;
the thi rteenth, Ingada (?), and hi e
retinuo of one thousand three huldred arhats
mostly live in Mount Vipulapardva
;
the fourteenth,
\:anav6,si, and his retinue of one thousand fou_r
hundred arhats mostly live in Mount Vatsa (?)
;
the fifteenth, Ajita, and his retinue of one thousand
five hundred arhats rnostly live in Mount
Gfdhrakfrta
;
and the sixteonth, Cfrdapanthaka,
and his retinue of one thousand six hundred arhats
mostly live in Mount Nemindhara.
Since the translation of the Na,ndimitrdaadd,na,,
the sirteen arhats have been universally venerated
and praised by Buddhis',s. fn the existing m&nu-
scripts of tho T'ang dynasty found in the Tunhuang
Caves, there are still preserved two verses, each
,:oosisting
of eight lines of scvon characters, in
r-'raise of tho oighth Venerable One, Vajraputra,
asd the eleventh Venerable
One, R,dhula (see the
T,tn-lru.anq-tsu-clrui
trH#ffi Record, of
,
Mds-
:;iizrrcsui Pt)ndi'ngs of Tunhuang)- There is also
,, i ' , rrrk l r-rrcrwn tr,s the Shi h-l i u-ta-a-Io-han-yi n-huo-
,',in.e hien-.\uns (+^*f-JffiKERHEffi
The Verses
the Rnowled4e oJ Cau,se aruJ Efrect r$
:1-: .Si r teen &req,t Arhats), attri buted to an
' Indi an
)i ntr\i ttr8, ,Tfrana.taka' ,
but the dote <l f the trans-
.-;ion is not given. It is prefaced by l'an Chung.
-,-it:
of the Sung dyuasty, wtro said that
:i ---nq the Ch' i ng-l i peri od (1041-3) he once
;' .-: rrr T{trlung
on official duty and passed a. night
-
:i.: Tce Vrlloy l{ostelry at Paote, in presont,
-..,i :-i r
F)fovi rr(,e,
where ho di scovered thi s book
' -::-i i n
the be,rr,rns of tho o&ves, s,nd tl srstttt
.-.: :acie a monk of the Ch'errg-t'ien rnona,stery
- ;1,.
prfffectiuel
city to msks a copy of it,
..: l re$€r\' sti el l ,
In 1048 Hui -ch€, I monk of
:- -:i-.r-nir. produced his copy and said that he had
! E !:.'. ,:d rt f!6m s uob.k haraed P,u-huan at Wuli:ng,
f.: :j:ai he hed treasured it for moro thsn thirty
years. This book contains seven verses spoken by
each of tho sixteen arhats to Manoratha on the
'knowledgo
of causo and effect' as they
had per,
sonally obtainod, making a total number of ll2
verses altogether. But judging
from its shallow_
ness and crudity, it is wrdoubtedly e Bpurious
work writton by eome Chinese people during tho
Sung dynaety. Nevertheless, tho production itself
is evidence for tho prevalence of the worship of tho
sixteen arhate emong the peoplo of that time.
In tho Pi-chuan-chu-l;.n (ffiW*ffi Grwe of
pm,rls
of the Secret Palane) there is preserved
a post-
script written by Chiang I{u'ei of the Sung dynasty
to a scroll of painting about the sixteen erhets
by a I'ang artist, in which these verses woqo_all
quoted. This says that fhe Shi,h-I,iu-ts-o-lo_lwn-
yin-kuo-shih-ehien-eung
(Verses on the Rnmnled,ge oJ
Cause and Efiect) was quito popular during the Sung
dyuasty.
Coneerning the pictures of the sixteen arhats,
there was a painting by Chang Seng-yu of the Liang
dynasty. as mentioned in tha Hsijan-ho-hrm-p,u
(#HfiH
Record, of Pai,nti,ngs of the Hsijan-
ho Collection fasc. II). But it is difficult to ascor
tain whether it was based on the description of tho
arhats in the Ju-ta-ch'iing-lun (Mahiud,nfraold,ra_
iastra), or on that in the Pao-giin-chi,rry (Ratnamqlw
Swtra) as mentioned by Chan-jan. We licrow,
however, that the sixteen arhats were not yet
popularly worshipped by the Buddhists during the
Liang dynasty. After lfsiian-tsang translatod
the T a-o-Io
-ha,n -rwn -t'
i
-mi -to -lo -so -
shuo
-Ja,-chu_ch,i
(Nand,im,itrauad,arw)
during the T'ang d5rnasty,
Lu Leng-ch'ieh
of the Ch'ien-yiian period.
(758.9 A.C.) had a speci al l i ki ng for depi cti ng tho
portraits of the sixteen arhats, and many of hie
works on this subject are mentioned ia bho Hsdnn_
ho-hun-p'u (Record
oJ Paintings of the Hsiinm-ho
Collection, fasc. II). The sam6 book, Vol. X,
mentions forty-eight pictures of the sixte€n arhats
by Wang Woi (70r-61 A.C.). During the Five
Dynastios tho prbductions
on this subject wero on
the increase. Illuetrious painters,
e.g., T'ao Shou-
liof the Sotrthern T'arrg (see Shih-ku-t,an4-ehu-htn-
k'ao
**Hi*E# A Research orl Cal-
I,i,graphical and Pictnriel Collecti,oru oJ Shih-ku-
t'ang, fasc. II), W*tg Chai-han of the same state
lsee
.Esrian-ho-hua-p'u:
The Recmd of
pai,rdhtge
oJ the Hsiimn-ho-Collection, fasc. IV
;
Ching-hn_shu-
hua-fa,rry HiEJ*tffi A Boat of Cailtgraphy
and Pai,nting of Ch'in4-hn, Vol. V; srrl,
pi-chuan-
chu-l,in: A Grwe of Pearla of the Secret,
patrme,
lbsc. IX), Li Sh6ng of the Earlior Shu state (seo
Hetnn-ho-hua-p'u:
The Record, o.f
painlirqe
of tlw
Hsila,n-ho Collection, fsgs. TTT),
Clraag Hstian of tbe
ARAHANT
50 ARAHAT{T
Ba,no stato (seo .H.r'r?on-ho'lwn-p'u
: The Record
of Paint;,n4s of the Hs;ia,n-ho Colleation, l'*sc. III;
Ah''ing-ho-shu-hua-Jan4:
A Boat af Caliigraphy an'd'
Po'intin4s oJ Ch'ing'ho, fa,sc. V). and Wang Tao'
ch'iu of the Wu-5nieh state (seo Shih'ku't'ang'
ehu-hua-ic'ao : A Research, on Calli,gra'phiaal an'd
Pictorial Collecti,ons
"f
Shih-ku't'ang, fasc. II)-_
all had works on this theme, and of these artists
the foremost one was l {uan-hsi n
(832-912 A' C' )
of the Earl i er Sl ru state
(see Ch"i n4-ho-shu-hua'
jon.g t A ]|oat of Catligra'phy and' P'L,inti'ng oJ Ch'ing-
ho, fasc. V; Iii-ku'lu
yEfrffi
4
Reecrd, of
Bel we,T Anti qui ti es ;
Shi h' ktt' -t' anq-shu-hwr,-k' ao
:
A Research on Caltigraplti,cal arul P'ictardal CoI'
l ecti ons of Shi h-ku' t' ang,
fasc. X). After that, we
have Sun Chih-wei
(sao Cth"ing-ho-shnt'-hua-fang :
A Boat of Catligraphy and, Painting of Ch'ing-h'o,
fasc.Vl), Li Kung-li:r (see r-Shan,-hu-u;a'ng ffiIffiffi
A Coral Net, fasc. XXIII ;
Yen' chou-szi l ' -pu'
kao #N[qffffi
The tr'our Worits
"f
W'ang
Y en
-
ch,ou, fasc. CXXX\III ; S hi,It"ktt'-t' ang
-
slt'u'
-
h,ttn
-
k'ao : A Reseo'rch on Cailigraphicol ctnd, P'ictori'ai
Col l ecti ons
"j
Sl ri l t' ku-t' ang, fasa. II; P' i -ch' uatz'
chu-Iin : A Graue of Pea'rls oJ th,e Secret Po'lace,
fascs. IX and X; Shu'hua-ch'ieti-yinS EB:ffiW
g
Mirrw of Call'igraphy and, Pa'int'ings, fasc' II
;
I'ao'
hui-lu fiffiffi
A Record of Prec'iott's Pa'intings, iasc.
X ;
P
"ing
-chlin-lcuan- chien-tsang
-shu-hua-
chi {Fts€'fr€
H€EF8
A Record, oJ the Calligraph'ies ari'd' Paintings
Preserued, in the P"ing'chin Sturlio ; Chiarry'ts'u'n-
shu-hua,-mu lff,'l€EE
A Catalogu'e of the
Cattigraphical and, Pictorial Collect'ion's of Kao
Kian4-ts' un
;
Hao-ku-t' ang-chi,a-tsang
-shu-h'ua-chi
fTfrHXffi€GFe
A Recrtrd
"f
the FamilY
Coliectian
"f
Calligraphies and, Paintings qf
Hao-ku-t'a,n4, Part I, and San-ch"in-lco-sh,u-tbul''
tw
=f^H€$ffi
A Catologue of Cal,l'i.gra-
phi,es oruJ Pa'irrti,ngs Collected' dn the San-cl,'itt'-lco,
Part I), Yen Po-wen, (seo Shi h' ku-t' ang' shu-hua-
Ic'a,o : A Research on Calldgra'phical and, Pdcioriol
Collect'io'tw of Shih-lcu't'arL!1,
fasc. l[), Li S]rih-ts6
(see Shdh-ku-t'ang-shti'ltua-k'ao
: A Reseqrch orl
Caltigraphical and Pi'ctori,al Coll,ectiotts of Shi'h-ku'
t'a,ng, fasc. II), Liang K'ai,
{see
Shu'hua'ahiert'-
ging : A M'i,rrm of CalligraphE
and' Painting,
fasc. llf), and Sun Pi-ta (aee P'i'chuan-chu'-i'in:
A &rou.e of Pearls of the Secret Palace, fasc. fX) of
tho Sung dyreasty. Tho same dynasty produced a
number of monk-artists, e.g.. Fan'lung, (seer ,9han'-
bu-utang : A Coral' Nel, fasc. XXIII
1
Yen'-t:hou-
szil,-pru-lcao: The
Eour Wmks of Wang Yen'chrtu,
faee. CXXX\III ;
Shih-ku-t'ang-shu-hu<t'k'ao:
A Re'
eearch orr Cattigraphical, anl Pi,ctmial' Collectior* of
thdh-ku-t'ang,
faac, ff ;
the Ta'kuan-lu :tH#*
B*ori!, o! Qreat Viettts, fase. XfV;
the Chiang'
ts'un-lwiao'Inia'lu lrf'JlgHffi
Rewrd, oJ Spending
the Summer at Kiang-t8'u'n, fasc. I
;
Ch'in4-lwi'a-
ho-t'i-hua-chiii,eh-chtt, ffiEgffiEffift
The Varses
Wrdtten or., the Paintirqt Col,l'ected, i,n the
Ch'in4-hsi,'d-ko), Yiieh-p'eng
(seo Sh'ih,'lcu-t'on4'
shu-hua-k'ao : A Research on Calligraphi'col'
antl, Pictorial Oollection's of Shih'-\ru-t'ang, fasc.
II), and Hai-l':n (aeo rd-ch,tnn-chu'lin: A &twe
of Pearl,s of the Secret Palo,ce, fascs. IX .t X)
of the samo dlmasty. During the Yiion dynasty'
thore wers Chao l\{6ng-fu (see A Supplent'ent to the
Pi-chuan-ch'u-l'in : Groue of Peatls of the Secret
Palace" faec. X) and Ch'ion llsiian
tvid. Sltdng-
chirog-ku-kun4-shu-hun-lu mHffiBAEffi'
A
Catu,logue of Catligraphies and, Painti'rqs Collecteil' in
the Imperial Palace at Sh€rq-ch'ing, fasc. III)
;
drrring the }Iing dy'nasty, Wu Wei (vid. Pi'chuan'
ch,u-li,n : A Groae of Pearls oJ the Secret Palace,
fasc. II), Ch'ou Ying (seo A Record' of the Calli,-
graph'ies aruJ Painti'n4s
'in
the Collection of Kuo'
'.tru.n-lou
iE€ffi'glF;E fasc. IV; tho Record,
of Spen'ding the Sumrner at Kian'g'ts'tln., fasc. I;
A Catalogue of Callioraphies and' Painti'n11s of the
Irn,perial Palace at Shdng-ching, fasc. III), Wu Pin
(see Shih-ch'ii-pao-chi,
7trtrHfr The Precious
Collection of Shih-ch'& L'ibrary, fasc. III), and
Ting Yun-p'6ng (see Shih-ch"ii-pao'chi, : The Precio'tts
Collect'icn af Sh'ih-ch'il Lilnary, fascs. II & III).
Ail these artists had famous works mentioned in the
records and catalogues of the suceessive dynasties.
Concerning the sculpture,g of the sixteen arhats'
the earliest were the images of the sixteen arhats
c&r.u'od by \\'u Ycn-shuang of the Wu-yiieh state
in the Yen-hsia cave at llangchow. Two of the
images &re on the interior portion of the right wall,
fbur on tiro front
portion
of the sarne wall, and the
other ten on the left wall of the cave. The carving
techn;que of the images is the s.ame. Juan Yiian's
L[.ang-ch€-chi,n-sh,'itt-cttiLt, (ffifff'68f; Record, of
I'nscription L'iterature on Metal.s and Stones dn
Cheki,an,g) conta,ins a, documont from the
Yen-hsi a Cave enti tl ed
' the
Record of Wu Yen-
ehuang's lIerit in }taking Buddhist Images'.
Wu Yen-shua,ng was the younger brother of the
wif'o of Ch'ierr Yi-ian-kuan, the king of tho Wu-
5nieh
state. During the Srmg <iynasty two images
were adtled to the group : one was a monk and
the other the wei l -known
' Monk
wi th a, Bag' .
But the art was very far urferior to that of the
previous sixteen i-ages. Evidently, the statement
rnacLe
jn
the Hsien-ch'u'n-li,n-an-chih (ffiHffi*,*
Topography of Itin-ant., compiled, und,er the
Hs'ien-ch'un Peri,od,) that " formerly thero werne
cnly six stone images of arhats, aud the king of
ARAHAf,T
5l ARAEA}TT
Wu-yi.ieh, being rnspired by a ciream, carved twelve
ruore, mrr,king t* total of eighteen im&gos",
is but a
forced conciusion.
fn view of the paintings and sculptures of the
srxteen arhats &s surveyed above, we may see that
tho worsh;.p of t,hese arhats was developeC durirrg
the tr'ive Dynasties, particularl;.
in tho south of the
Ynngtze River, and the number was fi.nallv evolved.
irom sixteen into eighteon.
The Eighteen Arhats. The evolvement of the six-
teen arhats into eightoen ar:hats seems to have
siarted in paintings.
The earliest known portraits
of the oighteen arhats are in a painting by Chang
Ilsiian of Chin-shui in Chien-chow of the Earlier
Shu state. Su Shih of the Sung dynasty obtainecl
this picturo at Tan-drh and composed. eightoen
verses i.:r their praise (see Tung-pt,o-ch',i-ch,i
H#tR
J'he See-'eru Collectionc of
gu
Tung_po's
Il'ritings, Part II, fasc. XX). Ife has not explicitly
stated the names of ths arhats. The next ono was
the pieture of the eighteen arhats by Kuan-hsiu.
On his retuilr. journey
fror:r Hai-nan, Su Shih
passed by the Pao-lin Monastery at tho Ch,ing-
yiian \rnlloy, where he saw this picture and. wrote
eighteen panegy'ric verses. In each of the verses
the name of one of the arhats was mentioued.
Apart from t,he sixteen arhats, thei sevonteenth one
\sas Nandi mi tra, i .e., the author of the Ta-a_l o-han-
r m n
-
t' i
-
mi
-
t o
-I
o
-
s o
-
s huo
-J
a
-
chr t
-
chi, ( N ardi,rn itr d,u
qd
A
-
iia), and thc eighteenth Fildola, who was in fact a
repetition of the Pildola-bhiiradvija
among tho
{roup <rf eixteen arhats (aee Tung-pt,o.ch,d-chd
: The
Set's77 Callections of Su, T,ung-g;o,s Writinos,
part
vff,
fasc. X). In the Pi-chuan-chou-I'in
{Groue
of
pearls
,,-f
the Secret Palace) of the Ch'ing dynasty there is
rcceirded aiso a scroli painting of the eighteen
ariiats b,y Kuar.-hsiu, with three epigraphs by Su
Kuc cf the Sung Cy-nasty, Chao M6ng-fu of the
Yiian ciynasty and TsuLg-16 of the Ming dynasty,
respectively, but none of them mentions the names
rf tho srhats" In the Inscription on the Tablet of
ihe Fivo Hundred Arhats dated the 4th year of
:i hao-hsi ng, (I134 A.C.) duri ng the Sr:ng dl nasty,
rn the Ch'ien Ming court at l(iang-yin, the name$ of
llLt- arhuts are given in a list before the names of
i.u ijve hundred arhats, in which the seventeenth
nL- \
-as
also Nandi'nitra, while the eighteonth wes
I
'
; n,' i ol e,.
In his tr'u-tsu-t'ung-chd ({.frfrHffi./{ Record,s of the
Ltneage oJ the Budd,ha and,
patri,archs
: Taishd,
)i ,r. 2035, fasc. XX-Xi l I),
composed. i n the Eth
' ,,,rl r
of l l si on.ch' un (1269 A.C.) duri ng the Srrng
rl-nd:iiv, L)hih"p'an ret'pted the above-mentioned
.;,.-.,..rrv under the item " On Making Offerings to
Arhats ", pointingoutthat
Nandimitra as tho author
of tire Nq,nd,i,m'itrduadina could not be among the
arhats who wero asked by the tsuddhe to etay in
this wor1d, while Pitrdola was simply a repetition
of ths B&mo n&me. I{o maintained that the two
lasi, arhats should bo Ka6yapa and Ciidapanthake,
the two of rho four groat Srdvakas who had not
been included in the group of sixtoen arhats, as
mention"ed in the Mi,-lA-hsi,a-sh€n4-chi,ng
{Maitreya-
ayakararm).
The Tibetan group of eighteen arhets consists of
the sixteen arhats and f)harmatdla, an up6eaka,
and the " Ifonk with a BBg," but this was also a
tradition brought from rhe interior of China.
\4'hen king Glari-darma of Tibet deetroyed Bud-
dhism (in the first, year of
'Eui.chang
during the
reign of emporor Wu-tsung of the T'aog d5masty,
B4l A.C.), six Buddhist masters left Tibet and went
to Ilham where they wore irnpreseod
by the general
presenco of pictures snd imagw of tho
gixt€on
srhats in tho various monest€rios. Pa,rticrrlarly
interestod wore Klu-noes and Knrn.chua so much so
that they mado duplicates of the pictures and took
them back to Yor-pa in Tibet. lbeso are the
famous portraits of the arhats at Yer"pa, Aftcr-
w&rd.q, two noro arhats were added in accordanco
with the verious traditions introduced from the
interior, Dhermat6la was ssid to be I Il*tivo of
Ilo-lan Mountain in Kensrr provinco (Ablagohan
Banner). By virtue of his pious dovotion to the
sixteen arhats, ho obtained spiritual rosponso
by
the vision of ihe Amit6bba Buddba appearing
in the clouds overy day (see Dalai Lema V, The
Ritu,al af Makdng Ofreri,nga to the si,xteen Arlwbl.
In the paintings
ho wae always ropresentod as
carrying a sr-rtra-basket on his
!66[ with a tiger
crouching at his right side. But up to now, only
sixteen arhats are montionod io the ritual of
makirrg offerings.
Tlre continued odition of the Pi-chuon-chw-lin
(Groz,e oJ Pea,ils af the Secret Palane), Book fV, mon-
tions a copy work of " tho Eighteen
Arhats "
dono
by Chung Yii-t6 of the Ch'ing d5'nasty after tho
origi-nal of Lu Leng-ch'ieh witb supplomenta,r5r
figures added by I{uan-hsin. The ecroll bears en
epigraph in verso written by emperor l(ao-tsung
in which ho asserts that the sevonteenth arhat in
the posture of subduing & dragon was M&hd-
I(d,6yapa, while the eighteentb, one in.the poeturo
of taming a tiger was Nandimitra. Theso identifr-
cations wero rns,de by the Lcan-skya lluthuk-
thu of that time. But the talo about tho dragon-
subduer and the tiger-tamer w&s & tradition of
leter developmen+". In the " Reeord. of tho Vision
ARAEANT
52
ARAEAI{T
of Arbats in a Dream " in ttre Turug'p'o-chi,-chi'
(Scaen Colleation"s oJ
[Su]
Tung-po'e Writi'ngs),
tbe writer says that in the 4th year of Ytian-feng
(1081 A.C.), he saw i n a templ o at Ch' i -t' i ng an
image of an arhat with a dragon at
hin left and a
tiger at his right side. This showg that ddring the
Northern Sung dynasty it was not yet necessary
to have two soparato arhats, one reprnsented as
conquering a dragon and the other taming a tiger.
If we mako a study of the two supplomontary
rmages in the Yen-hsia cavo carvod by the Sun
artisan, ropresenting a Buddhist monk and the
'Monk
with a Bag', we shall find that the latter
was tho image of monk Ch'i-t'2il of the F6ng-hua
county i:n Ming-chow flourishing under the reign
of emporor Chao-tsung of tho T'ang dynasty, and
ho was believed to bo an incanration of Maitreyo
bodhisattva. Therefore, the imege of tho other
monk must alao bo a Chinose monk wlth supornatu-
ral powers. Aecording to the T''ien-t'ai-slron-chih
(Xeilfi Conuplete Topography of ttw T''ien't'ai
Mounlain, fasc. X), durirng,the Ch'un-hua period
(990-4) of the Sung dynasty, there was & monk
by the n&mo of Tao-jung in tho Kuang-yen
monastery on tho T'ien-t'ai mourrtain, who,
pwing to his constant practico of medita[ion and
his many supernatural manifestations, was regarded
by the people &s an arhat. Aftor
his
death, it wae
seid that Bome people had identified his likoness in
one of tho images of the five hundred arhats in
the Shou-ch'ang monastery. Thus, tho image of
that monk in tho
yen_hsia gs\r6 ,night
havs been
e represontation of this person.
In viow of the devolopment of the various thoories
related above, it may bo concludod that tho tredi-
tion of the eighteen arhats had no scriptural basis,
but was a convontion gradually stabilieed by pain-
ters who wished to initiate two extra figures into
the original tradition of tho eixtoen arhats, thus
giving rise to tho different conjecturos and thoories
about the eighteen arhats. According to tho
earliest tradition, eince the seventeenth in the list of
the eighteen arhats was Nendirnitra, tho author of
t}ne Nand,inxitrdaadi,na, the eightoenth one ought to
be Hsiian-ts&ng, the translator of that work. But
&s no decision could bo made about llstan-tsang
as the eighteenth arhat, pooplo put Piqrdola in his
place, thus making a repetition of tho same person
and leading to a number of variant interpretations,
which are oxtremely puzzling. Tbe rosult was that
the tradition of tho eighteen arhats became gene-
rally acceptod and ever sincs the Ytian dynasty
their images have been as a rule installed in the
main shrine-hails of monasteries, while the tradition
about the sixteen arhats on tho other hand has lost
much ground in its
PoPularitY.
The painters of succossive dynastios who hrd
works on the eighteen arhats, &s are mentionod in
various records, include Tso Li of the Later T'atB
period (see the T'inh-uang-slnn-ku ffil[il
The lron Net Coral by Tu Mu of the Miog
dy-nasty, fasc. XIII) ;
I(uan-hsiu of tho Earlier
Shu state (seo the Pi'chuan-chu-l'i'n : Grwe oJ
Pearls of the Secret Pulace, fasc. IX)
;
Li I(r:ng-lin
(see the Pi-chuan-chu-lin : Qroae oJ Pearls'of the
Secret Pal,ane, fasc. III : Sh€n4-ching-ku-lcun4'shu'
hua-la : A Catalogue oJ Cal,l'igraphies ond Poinrdrrys
Collecteil
'i,n
the lrnperial PaJace at Sh6ng-ching,
fasc. II i Ku-wu,-ch'AmJieh-so-ahu-h1n'm-1" frUJW
flFF*HHffi:
A Catolosue oJ Caltigraphdea
and Poi,ntings of the Antiquitg Mtneum' fasc' V);
Chu Ju-w6n (seo Sh'i,h-ku't'ong'shu'htn-h'ao : A
Research on Call,'i'graphhal and Pictori'al Collectians
oJ Shi,h-ku-t'ong, fasc. II)
;
Chia Shih-ku (see Yiieh-
hsiieh-shu-hw-tu ffi&*!ffi,
Yo-hsiieh's Catalogue
of Calligraphies and Paintings, fasc. If) and the
monk llai-lun
(soe tho Pi-chuan'chu"Ii'm : Groue of
Pearls of the Secret Polace) of ths Sung dynasty
;
Chao M6ng-fu (see the contimrod efition of the
Pi-chuan-chu-lin : G'roae of Pearlt ol the Secret
Pal,ace\, Ch'ien llsiian (see Ku'uru-ch'6n-lieh-so'
ehu-hun-m,u-lu : A Catologue qf Col,ldgrophdes arud
Pa,intings of the Anti'qui,ty Museum, fasc. V), Chang
Wo (see Shdng-ching-ku-lcurq-shu-hua-lu
: A Cato-
logue of Calligraphi,es and Pointirrys Collected i'n the
Imperial, Po,lace at Sh4ng-ch'in4, fasc.III) and Fang
Fang-hu (see Ku-J6n-lco-shu-hrtrt-chi, tfffi*ilfle
A Record of Calldgraphies and' Pabxirqa Collected im
the Ku-J6n-ko) of the Ytian dynasty ; Ch'ou Ying
(see the Pi-chrnn-chu-l'i'n : Grwe of Pearls of the
Secret Palace, fasc. XX),
'Wu
Pin (see Shi,h-ch'ti-
pao
-chi
: The Preci,ous Collection o.f Shih-chii Librory,
fac s. If I
),
Ting Yun
-p'6ng (see ll4 Ang'y {tan' ahu'htt o
-l'u
FH€effi
A Catalogue of Coll'igraphies an'd,
Paintings of MAng-giln'n: lbe Pi'-chtnn-chu-li'n :
&roae oJ Pearls oJ the Secret Palnea, fasc. XII:
Sh6,ng-chi,ng-lcu-kung-.cfuu-hu'a-Iu
: A Catalogue of
Call,igraphies and Paintings Collected in the Imperial
Polace at Sh6,rq-ching, faae. TII; Ku-tou'ch'6n-li'eh-
so-.ghu-hua-mu-lu : A Catalogue oJ Calli'graphies arul
Padrrtdngs of the Anti'quitg Museum, fasc- V), Ch'ien
Kung (soe Tu Mu's Shih-pai-chai'shu'hua-Iu
+Effigtffi
C atalogue of C alligraphies arul P aint'ing s
CoUected in the Shih-pai'-chaf,
fasc. XXIf)' Li Lin
(see the Pi-chua,n-chu-Iin
: Groue af Pearls of the
Secret Palace, Part II) and Ch'en Fan (soo the
Pi'chuan-chtt,-l'in: Groae of Pearls of the Secret
Pal.ace, fasc. VIII) of the Ming d:nrasty.
ARAHANT
53 ARAEANT
The tradition tlrat the sixt,et_.rr ar.hats woro bidden
t,tl sla,y in this rr-orld as defenders of tho Dharma
insr-rirecl Chinese lluddhisis with deep vonerotion
lbr tlro arhats, and henco brought about another
tracl i ti on, tl re tradi ti on of the i i ve hund.red arhats.
The Fi ve Hundred Arhats. fi re tru,di ti on of the
fivc hundred arhats is frequently met with in
Ruddhi st scri ptur.c.s. For i nstarroe .Fw-u;u-pai -
t'i
-tzti -tz{t -
s ltt to
-
p An<: h i " c h in g (
#FfL fi' 4+ H ffi 6€ffi
Stitra on tlte Fiue If un"drecl, 1)'i.sr:iptles tell.ing' th,eir
o'.DrL Nid,una : Taishrj, No. 199) translated by
Dharmaraksa of thc Western Tsin dyrrasty,
contai ns the statement that after the pari ni rvE,na
of
the Buddha, IIahal<i,Syapa and five hundred arhats
held t,he first Couneil to rehearse the Tripitaka.
fn the Sh6.-li-f u-u;6n-thing (Sutra on the
Questions
of
Sari,putra) it is said that after tha rlestruction
of
Buddhism by King Pusvamitra, five hr.rnctrecl
arhats revived the toaching. There &re rn&ny
other such traditions concerning tho five hundred
arhats. In the interior of China during the Eastern
Tsin d,"nasty when Chu T'an-yu w&s dwelling
on the T' i en-t' ai nrountai l r, there was al ready &n &ge-
long tradition about a file vihdra on a precipitous
rock where dwelt the saints who had realised the
truth. There was a stone bridge stretching over
the chasm, but a protruding rock barred the
pessage. After an ablution and fasting for several
days, Chu T'an-yu sut:ceedod in crossing the bridge
and saw a divine monk in tho vihfi,ra, where they
burrr.ed incense and had the mid-day meal togerher.
The divine monk saicl to Chu T'an-yrr, " Ten yea,rs
after, you shall come here again." Thus he returnecl.
(see Kao-s€n4-chuan,
H{g€
The BiograTthies oJ
Entinent Monks : Tai.sh6, No. 20bg, fasc. XI.)
I{enco the later trad.ition about the five hundrecl
arhats at the Stone }3riclge monastery. It, is
esid in tho " Inscripti,ort. on the JJablet of th,e tr,iue
Hurul,raL Arhats " at the llrra-lin rnonaster5r i-n
Kunngtrrng province that Nakula, who was the
fifth one &mong the sixteen arhats, had a retinuo
of eight hrrndred monks, of whom five hundrecl
l i verl on t,he T' i en-t' ai mountai n and three
hunclrer:l
erl tlte Yen.tang mowrta'in. fn the
' J"i en,t'
ai -aha,n-ch,i eh (Topograpthy of the,I,' i en-t' ai
frIountain)
there is a quotal,ion from tlro " Record of
the
Lrnusuoi Manifcstations
of the Five llundred
Arhats in t,hc I'a,ng-kuang trfonastery ", saying that
" Chiian, a local official of \-ung-chia, had paintecl
the figrrres of thc five hrrrrtired b,rhats." During
the Five Dvnasties, the r.r'orship of the fivo hundred
arhats became parti cul arl .v- popul ar. The Ch' i en
regime of the Wu-yiieh state rnacie bronze images
6. s. P. C. 9E420
of tire five hundred arhats in the Fang-kuang
rnonastery on the T'ien-t'ai mountain. In the
Ii rst vear of Hsi en-td (954 A.C.), Tao-ch' i on, wi th
tho perrnission of prince Chung-i of ths Ch'ien
family, then the nrler of the Wu-ytieh state, removod
the images of the sixteen arhats at the Lei-f6ng
Pagoda tcr the Ching-t'zi-r monastery and eonsrrlrcted
a hell of five hundred arhats. Emperor T'ai-
tsung of the Sung dynasty made five hundred and
sixteron images of arhate (i.e., the five hundred
arhats plus the sixtoen arhats), which were placed
in tlrs Shou-ch'ang monastery on the T'ion-t'ai
mountain in the 2nd year of Yung-hsi (984 A.C.).
The edict issued by emperor Jen-tsung of the Sung
dynast,v about rnaking off'erings to the ffve hundred
arhats at the Stone Biidge is still recorded in the
T"ien-t'ai-sha,n-chieh (Topography of the T'ien,-tai
Mountuin). In the mona,steries at various plaees,
a hall for the five hundred arhats was usually
constructed. Su Shih has an article on " the Pavi-
lion for tho Five Hundred Arhats at t,he Tzrl-fu
rnonastery in Tungkuan County, KuangJtung
Province ", written in the 3rd year of Yiian-fu,
(1100 A.C.) of the Sung dynasty at the request of
the monk Tsu-t'ang (see Tung-p'o-ch',i-chi : The
Seuen Collections of Su T'unq-pto's Writings, Part II,
fasc. XX).
There are also traditions at different famous
mountains about the arhat c&ve or the monastory
of the hol y rrronks of the Bamboo Grove. Thero
is a Five Hundred Arhat Cavo, for iristance, at the
Sung-shan mountsin in flonan province. Accor-
dine to " Rocord of the Cave of Five Hundred
Great Arhats in the Chung-yo l{onastory " (also
known as " The Inseription on Constructing the
Holy Bamboo Grove Monastery ", &B seen in tho
Supplernentaru .Recmd, of Stone In,scriptdons ot
Pa-ch'uns-sh'ih Ailg#EffiE fasc. CVIII) com-
posed by the monk Yu-t'ing in tho f.rst year of
Ch' ung-ni ng (1102 A.O.) duri ng the Sung dynesty,
it is said that at the boginning of the T'ang dynasty
Fa-tsang, a monk of Sze-ch'uan, by virtue of some
spiritual response first realised that the Bamboo
Grove monasterlr in the mountain was the dwelling
placo of the holy monks. Thereupon, Ch'ung-
ching, the abbot of the monastery during the Sung
dynasty, selocted that cave for the site to make the
images of the {ive hr:ldred arhats. The halls for
the ffve hundred arhats that survive today aro
thoso of the Pi-yiiLn monastery in. Peking, tho
Lung-hua nronastery in Shanghai, the Kuei-
y-iian monastery at lfanyang, tho Hua-yen non&s-
terv at Chungking, the Ch'iung-chu monaetery a!
Kunming, and some other tomples.
ARAHANTA SECT 54 ARAEAI{TA SECT
fhe painters of successivo dr-nasties,
.'rhose
chief works on the five hundred arhats bave been
montioned in literary records and catalogues, wero
Chu Yu of the Liang dynasty, whose works wore
proserved in the
'Chung-hsilg-kuan-kuo'
of the
Sung dynasty; Li Kung-iin of the Sung dynasty
(a* C'dng-ha"slru-hua-Jang : A Baat of Call'igra-
phies and Padntings of Ch'ing-ho, fasc. YIII; -Fa-
ahw-mdn4
-hua -ch'i
en
-ut
dn
-lu
EE &f,.E Hffi R ecor d of
Stand,ard' Calli'graphi'ea and Fannous Paintirt'gs
;
Shoh-
ku-t' a,n g
-
shu
-htn-k'
ao : A Reaearch on C all'i gra'phi'cal
and Pintmial Collectiow of Shih-ku-t'anq, fasc. fII)
;
and Liu Sung-t'ing (see the Pi'-chuan-ch,u-li'n:
Groae oJ Pearl,a af the Senret Pol,ace, fasc. X) and
Wu Pin (see Shi,h-ch'ii-pa'o-ch,i': The Precious
CoUecti,on oJ Shih-ch& Li,Arary, fasc. III) of the
Southern Sung dynasty.
Ae regards tho names of the five huldred arhats
in the Stone Bridge monastery on the T'ien-t'ai
mountain, it is said in a note in " Tho Inscription
on tho Tablet of the Five Ilundred Arhats in the
Ch'ung-fu court of the Lung-hsing monastery ab
'Wu
(Hsuanchow) ", written,by Ch'ung-i in 933A.C.,
as rocorded in the Pao-'lc'o-ts'urg-ptem
(frfl#ffi
Col.Iecti,on of Preci,ous Insoriptiona, fegc. XV) that
tboy wero derivod from the Fu-chai,-peiJu (fr:ffiffi&
.Ca.talogue
of Inscriptions Cotlected,
'in
Fu-chai.).
In the Chdn-shi,h-hs&,-pien (#E'ffiffi Continu,ed.
Recoril af Inscriptiona on Meta,Is and, Stones: fasc.
X\rII), thero was also an inscription of the n&mos
of the arhats i-n the Ch'ien-ming monastery at'
K.iang.yin, ongraved in the 4th year of Shao-
hsi ng (1134 A.C.). I3ut nei ther of theso i nscri p-
tions is any longer in existence. Nevertheiless,
tho
' Inscri pti on
of the Ch' i en-mi ng mcnastery'
had been ro-enpp&r'od by Iiao Ch'eng-yen in the
l 6tb yea,r of Ch' ung-cl i 6n (1643 A.C.) of the
Ming dynasty in the magistr&te's nransion of Ohirrs
county, and his son l{ao Ylu-szi. again re-engraved
it and the document was collecied in the Ohi.ct-
hcirW-hsu-tsa??g"(HRmffi Continue.d Ed,ition of the
Trifila,ka of Chia,-h.ting t Case No. XLIII). The
origin of the nu,mes of the fivo hundred arhats
mentioned in this book is unknown, but in all
probability they seem to be only a fabrication of
the poople of the Sung d;,rrasty.
C. Ss .
ARAEANTA SECT, known also by several other
rramos, wee thg fraternity of Burmese monks who
claimed to be in the direct line of descent from
$o?a and lfttare, the two arahants sent to Suva++a.
ffirirni (Lowor Burma) by ]Ioggatiputta"Tissa. As
they clairned descent from theeo two arahants,
they were known in Lower Burma, accorrling to
the Kalyali inscriptions (IA. XXIf, 154), as
Ariyd,rahanta-pakkha-sangha. But later they camo
to be called Kamb<ija-sangh,o-pakkha after their
chief thera in the T'Ialanagar&, whose monastery
w&s situated near & settlement of Cambodian
prisoners of war (loc. cit.). Tlte Sdsannuaqnsa does
not ment,ion any of these n&mes but cails this
frtr,tenrity Sorluttaravarnsa (Saou. 47).
Theravd,da Buddhism was established in Upper
Burma by the great thera named Arahan (q.v.), a
scion of the Ariyarairanta-pakkha of Sudharnrna-
pura (Thaton) in Lower Burma. Slace it was estab-
]ished earlier than tho Sinhalese fraternitios (there
wero three in {Ipper Burma and fivo in Lower
Burma), this fraternity was calied Purima-ga{re or
Former Order (Sesu. 67
;
IA. XXII, 154). Tho
Sd,sanauarp,so also refers to it indiscrirnina,t'6ly 6t
-{rahantag&n&-va!$& (,Sri-su. 71, 82, 94), Arahanta-
thera-gar1a (ibid. 67) or Arahanta-thera-var.ns*
(ibid 83). It is not clear whether these aro variant
forms of .\riydrahanta-pakkha as found in the
Kalyd,ni inscriptions or are derived from the namo
of bhei thera Arahanta. Ifowover, there is no doubt
about the fact that the Burmeso monks, whether
they were known as Ariyd,rahante-paLk[6, or
Arahanta-gar1a, all claimed to be of the samo direct
line of descent, from Sona and Uttare. And,
unlike the Sinhalese Sangha, they remained united
as one fraterlity.
Neii,her the Sd,sanaaamsa nor the Kalydli
inscriptions make any valuable contribution to
the reconstruction r:f the history of this seet. Tho
SaturwuatyLso has fr-rund oniy a handful of theres
of this fraternit'y whom its author thought fi.t
to mention by name. Bui; it is clear that the
Araiiautagana existed sido by side with the Sinhalese
Sti,ngha and continued to do its service for the
lr-elfare of the religion and receive the patronago
of vilrious Bulfirese kings.
Thr,. Kal 5' El i i nscri pti ons (/d. XXII, 942) cl ai m
ttrat all the monks of ld6maflnamandala (Lower
Bunna) rerceived the pure Sinhareso ordination,
re-iltrodut'ed to Burma at, the requost of king
Dharmnace'-iya. If this claim be correet, then
any differencos that existed between tbe Ariydre-
hanta-pakkha and the Sinhalese fratendtioe must
have been obliterated with the final triumph of the
latter. The Srlsana,uamsa (47) says that tho
Sinhalese ordination introduced in the time of
Dhammacetiya was spread throughout Upper
Burma (Maramma-ra11ha) as well. But whether
ARAHANTA
SUTTA ac ARAI, SEKIZEN
this ie to be taken a,s a complete triurnph of the
$inhs,lese fr*temity over the Arahanta-gana in
Uppe" Burma as well is doubtful.
c. w.
ARAEAHTA SUTTA, two euttas (by the same
name) of the Khajjani,ya Vagga in the Samyu,tta
Nikd,ya (III, 82-4). To regard tho five aggregates
(khandha) as impermanent (anicca), suffering
(dukkha\ and subgtanceloss (arwtta) is the way to
aee things as they roally aro, by right insight. This,
ln order, leads one to disgust (nibbid,a),
detachment
(uirdga)
and deliveranee (aimutti). Then the
lrrowledge of release arises in him. The one thus
reloaeed, the arahant, is tho highest being in the
whole world. Eight vorses describing the noble
qualities of an arahant aro apperrded to tho first
sutta.
c. w.
ARAEA SUTTA, na,me of four suttas in the rSarr,-
gdta N,ikdya. (l) The Buddha, sa,ys to Rad.ha
that a monk who sees, ia their true nature, the
origin, the coesation and the satisfaction of, misery
in, and ese&ps from the five groups of grasping
(pafr,ca upddnnakkhand,ha) is called an arahant
(s. nr, r93).
(2) The Buddha says that a monk who sees, in
tbeir true natu.re, the origin, etc., and cessation of
tho eix seDso-faculties (cfta ajjlw,ttdlcani, ayatanani\ is
celled an arahant (ibid. V, 205).
(3) also called ths Bwddha Sutta
'(loc.
cit.),
whero the Buddhe s&ys that he fully comprehended
ths rnsa,ning of boi'g enlightened when he catoo to
know, in their tnre nature, the origin, otc., and
cessation of the eix sense-faculties.
(a) Tho Buddha says that a monk who soes, in
their true n&ture, the origin, etc., and escape from
the oontrolling faculLy ('ind.ri.ya.) of ea,se, that of
discomfort, that of hoppinegs and that of indifferenco
is celled s,n arahan.t (ibid. 208).
U. K.
ARAEATTA SUTTA (l), a conversation betweea
tbe paribb6jaka Jambukhddake snd Sariputta,
where the le,tter explains tho nature of arahagtship
end the way leading to arahantship. TtG des-
tructiou of lust, hatred and iliusion ie arahant-
ship, and tbe lfoble Eightfold Path is the way
loading thereto (S. IV, 262).
ARAHATTA SUTTA (2), a sutta where the Budd.ha
says to his monks that six evil qualities-conceit,
underrating, overrating, complacency, stubbornness
and instability-have
to be givon up before
arahantship is attained (.4.. III, 480).
U. K.
ARAHATTA
VAGCA (I), the seventh vagga of the
Khardha
Sary,yutta of the Sar.ngutta Ndkd,ya (fII.,
73-81). It consists of ten suttas, namoly, tlpdd,i,ga-
md,rw, Mafr,fi,amfr,na, Abhinand,amd,na, Anicc,a,
Dukkho, Anatta, Anattaniya, RajaniyasaTt{hi,to,
Radha and Surdd,ha. Tbey discuss, from verious
angles, the nature and tho evil consequonces of the
five aggregates of exist,ence (paficaklahandha).
u. K.
ARAHATTA VAGGA (2), the ei ghth vagg& of the
Chakka N,ipd,ta of tbro Ahguttara Ni,lcd,ya(Ill, 429-14).
ft consists of ten suttas. They each prescribe six
qualities that havo to be given up and also thoir
opposito qualitios that have to be cultivated, if
one wore to attain arahantshin.
U. K.
ARAI, SEKIZEN (ffi#Etpt, a Japanese priest of
the Soto sect.
IIo was born in December of the first year of tho
Genji er& (f864 A.C.) at, Yanagawa-machi of
Iwashiro (prosent Fu-kushima prefocture).'Whon
ho was twelve yea,rs old, he became a dieciple of
Nyozen Arai of tho l{6koku-ji in his native town.
In the twelfth year of tho Meiji era (1879 A.C.)
he enterod the S6t0sh[-honkO, tho central school
of the Soto sect. During the fourtoenth ye&r
of the s&me era, ho lived at the Zentoku-ji in the
Sugito-machi of the Saitama prefocture, aftor
whicb ho changod over to the Jdshun-in in the
sa,me prefecture. In the following year he gra.
duated from tho school and travelled through the
Tohoku and Hokuriku areas following Baie€n
Kurog&mi.
In f 88g' A.C. he l ectured on Buddhi sm at the
J0shun-in and taught Buddtrism at the first branch-
school of the Soto sect in the Saitama prefecturo
for eeveral years. Six years later, he becamo ths
dean of th€ Sotoshrl-Daigakurin or the Univorsity
ofthe S6td sect and held the post ofprofessor ofthe
university, concunently. In 1892 A.C. he stayed
at the Daikei-ji in the l.Tiigata prefecture; thsn, u. r(.
ARAJA
o0 ARAKAI{
after three vears, he was appointed to the supervi-
sion of the S6t6 sect in the Akita prefecture, where
he founded a middle school of the S6td sect'
After filling the post of abbot of the Sett6'an
at, IIeda, of the Gokoku-in at Nagoya, and of
Saijo-ji at Kanagaw& successively, ho became tho
chief priest, of the Soji-ji, one of the most irnportant
temples of the Sdtd sect, in the ninth year of the
Tai shb era
(1920 A.C.). In the fol l owi ng year,
ho
'w&s
given the special title
'Taiy0-shinkan-
Zenli' (
lsBtrffiffiFfi,
the Zen prieet of
true paragon like the su:r). Then, he went' to
Ilawaii to attend the ceromony of plecing a Buddha
image in the llawaii brancb temple of the Soto
sect and made a
journey preaching Buddhism in
North A-merica.
IIo died in the soeond year of the Sh6wa ora
(1927 A.C.) at the age of si xty-four.
Ilo wrote mB,ny works and aftor his death,
tho Ara'i-sekizen-Zerwhd.
(
#ftFAfrFeH,
the
complete works of Arai Sekizen) in twelvo
volumes and the Arai-Selcizen'BukkyS-kden'zerwhil
6#Affiffittffitrefi,
the complote collection
of the lecturog on Buddhism by Arai Sekizen)
woro published.
K. Tun.
ARAJA, one of the three palaces occupied by
Dharnrnadassi, before his attainment' of Buddha-
hood. The other two were known as Viraja and
Sudassarra
(Bua. xvi, L4)'
ARAJOTTARIYA,
a former Buddha, mentroned in
a llst of former Buddhas under whom S5,lcyamuni
while in the ninth bhirmi acquired meric (Mh,uu.
I , I 40) .
ARAJOVI RAJONAYAYUKTA'
& samt cl hi or a
concentration of both mind and body mentioned
i n the Mahduyutpatti (BB. XIII, p. f0). Its
literal meaning is : " endowed with the method,
devoid of defilements. " It is mispritLed arajouir..t'
jonoyukta in the Satusdlw.sri,kaprajfi,apd,ramitd,
(p. Ial a) ;
and omi tted i n the ei ghth chapter of the
samo work whero sarnddhis are explainecl.
U. K.
ARAKA, the bodhisat.ta born in & former age
as a br6,hman religious teacher' His story is given
i n the Araka Jd,taka (q.t.). He practi sed the four
sublime abodes (brahmau'ihd,ra\. Afterdeath he
was reborn in Bratrmaioka and remained thero
for seven ages.
A referenoo is nade to Araka in the Dlnmmd-
dhajo Jdrakn (J. If, I95) whero the bodhisstt's
roaalls how as Araka ho had cultivated loving
kindness (n ettal for seven ye&rs, and enjoyed
rebirth in Brahmaloka for seven &ges.
Araka is also mentioned in the Sunetto Sutta of
fbe Anryaara Ndl cd,yo (IV, 35-6). I{e i g ono of
Bevon teachers of old, freed from passion, who
taught the way to attain birth in the Brahma
world. I[e had hundreds of pupils and those of
thom who followed his teaching were born in heaven
after doath. while the others were reborn in states
of woe.
Arake is referrod to again in the immediately
succeeding sutta, viz., Araka Sutto (q.n.), whero
his advice to his pupils is that this life is very
short and full of
rnisory,
and therefore, thev should
engage in good deeds and pursue the holy life
(brahmacariya). In the Angu.fra,ra no mention is
made of bis practice of the four sublime abodes
(bra}urw'vihdra,\.
L. R. G.
ARAKA JATAKA
(No. 169). In e former Bgo
the bodhieatts was born il a brd,hman family and
was n&med Araka. \4'hen he grew up he took to
the religious life and lived in the l{imdlayas as a
teacher with a great folior*'ing of seges. IIe prac-
tised the four
'sublimo
abodes' (brohrrw,uihnro)
and pointed out their blessings to his ptrpils.
After doath he was born in the Brahma world
where he remained for seven ages.
This j6,taka is said to havo beeu related by tho
Buddha at Jetavana in connectiorr with t]lre Mettd'
Sutto ttt order to
ghow
the beneflts of practising
loving kindness (mettd,j, v'hich is the first of tho
f our ' subl i me abodes'
( J. I I , 60- 2) .
L. R. G.
ARAKAN, a stri p of l and ri l ong the Bay of Bengal
from the Naaf estuary to Cape Negrais with Arakan
Yoma as the eastern bouradary. The country is
co.' ' ' ected wi th the fortunes of Burma of whi ch
it ruay be considered a part because of the commu-
nity of race and language. The story of Arakan
opened in very remote tirnes, aecordingto indigenous
traditions which trace the event as for beck as
2666 ts. C. claiming a iine of two hundred and
tu'enty-seven kings. Legends state that the first
cani tal , whi ch i s untraceabl e, was Ramawadi and
th.rt it lr'as founded by the Upper Burrnese tribe of
lianran. A kurg who was miracufously born of a
ARAXAf, 67 ARAKAI{ PAOODA
doe fouaded Dinnyewadi (Dhafifiavati) lator oa;
f,[6 nnrn6
duly cane to be applied to tho whole
kingdom. Ptolemy (lat century A. C.) called it
Argyre which meanl Silver
T+rrd.
Conturies letor,
from Upper Burrna again, came Kanrezagyi who
with hie followors establishod a kingdom with tho
oapital nesr Kyoukpadaung. A tJrousend years
leter Cbandra Bfrrye (eecond century A.C.) beccrno
king,
It iE during his rnign that the farnou.B image
of thg Buddhr,, Lnown as tho Mahimuni, wa,s
c.st, King Minyezagi (1593-f612 A. C.) dedicared
to it Ugga By"o, lord of Sindin in Akyab district
rith some Talainge 6qd fadinnr as slaves. The
llahf,muni pagoda ig aleo known as the Arakan
pagode.
IB it€ fwtunats days Arakan iteelf carriod its
a,nnr into fiorcign territory and beld parts of Bongal
in eubjotioo- Ihe psople etill rocount the oxploits
of the tsvatmnth oentury king Min Kbamauns
vbo invadod that Indirn provinoe and oxtonded
hie conquosts as far ae Dacga, which is now tho
oopital of Eost Pakistan.
Arakan's bistory was chequerod by invasions and
oonqu€at't by tho Bur:mese,Telaings,
Shans, Siamoso,
rulers of Pegu, Moghule, Portuguose adventurera
cnd tbo Britirh, to tho leet of whom it fins.lly fcll
in tbeir war ogainst Bunrra in l8Z4-gO. Thereafter
it was cornpletely integrated with Burma until
that cotrntry, in recent ye&rs, bocame indepondont
of outaide eutbority end reconetituted itself ae
the Union of Burmo. The presont capital iB
A-kyab sud tb€ population of the corrntry at tho
lrot
oongus ses about one million.
It ir probeblc that Buddhirrn rcached the country
esrlict than it did Burrna. After the tenth contur5r
tho croun0ry wor profeaeodly Budclhiat. Near
Mindon in Thayetmyo dirtrict lhey built a Maho'.r-
yrtmrrnl pagode
about lIO0.
Under Narameikhla
(140f34) Inlam aame to have e merked influonco,
for the
ting
rrerl helped by the king of Gatu to
tido ovm int,orusl troubles
and regain tho throne
in 1130. As a rffiult, tho kinge, though Buddhist,
adop+ed the practioe
of addiry Isl&mio.desiguations
in additiOA tO their own nllrnea end
even of issuing
medallions boaring the deola,ration of tho Islnrnis
fuith intrribed in the Porsian rcript. Mrohaung
ras fouodod
as cepitel by Narnmeikhla and in it
rn built the Srnrriknon mosque- I|l1 ths eame city
lrug rf,irbi$
{lggl-Eg A,C,) built tho pagoda of
Shrodounf nnd tha temFlu Shittheung, Dukkan-
thoin nnd I-romyethne, ss ursll as Andsw rrhich
Elhrin€d a Tooth Bolic from Ceylon. I'he
parebew
pegodl wer built in the oity by Minyazagi. Thir
Eiry hsd sD ouligbt€ne{ rninirtor
by the nano of
Mahapinnyakaw who was lord of Chittagong,
nvnorrg
whose contributiorls wE€ the compiling of
legal precedenta, gryottdn, which placod the inter-
pretation of tho dharnynosattha^s of Manu' on a,
Buddhist baeis and camo to occupy a valuoblo
position ernong tho works of its kind
in tbe country.
The guoen of the next kiog (Ifusein Shah)
Minlrkamaung (1612-22) built the Ratanabon
pagoda in Mrohaung, arrd Narapaiigly'i (1638-45)
the trfingalamanaung pagoda as woll as Pitakataik,
tho library which housed scripturos from Coylon.
Sandathrrdarnm& (1652-84), who ie revored as ono
of the noblest kittg., built in his last year the pagodas
of Z inamanaung, Th ekyatnanaung, Ratnaman&ung,
Shwekyathein Bnd Lokamu, all in Mrohaung.
Forty Arakanese monks woro sent to Coylon to
ostablish the higher ordination of mo''Lg (trpa-
sampadd,). This was in reply to a requeet from
tbat country in which the Dutch actively co-opora-
ted as a mearxl of their dostroying Roman Catholi-
cinrn 6n4 the influence
of ths Portugueao with
whom it wpe thon s5monJrmous.
Tho last king of Arakan was Thamado (1781-5)
after whom tho cotrntry went under Bodawpavo
(1782-1819).
In the firet instanco be wae invited
by certain aobles led by llari, and Ieter he oceupiod
the country by forco, aftor sevoroly using the
peoplo. Tho Burmeso thereaftor mado Arakan
into a province under I governor at Mrohaung
and having Sandoway, Ramree and Cheduba as
sub-provinces.
Tho most treasured capturc wag
tho Mah6m
'ni
image which was ensh_rinod in l?g4
in Arakan pagoda, along with sir out of tho thirty
bronze images of Ayuthia which had beon taken as
spoils from Siamoso irxvadere in f Egd.
D. T. D.
ARAKAN PAGODA, in tho suburbs of Mandalay,
Burma, eo called aftor tho oelebrated Mah6muni
image it containe, which wes originally installgd
in Arakan ond aftonnards transforrod to the
presont place.
Arakan is the aree along the weet coaet of Burrna,
shut off frorn other parts of Burmo by a hill rongo.
Therefore, it has a separato history. Easy com.
municatioa by oeo rendorE it likely that Buddhiem
reached Arakan before it roachod the interior of
Burta. The shriae where the Mahdmuni image
w&s er.ectod,
at Dinn.r,awadi twenty_two milee
north of Mrobaung, in the Akyab district, wae
poesibly tho oldost in Burma. Arakanoso aasigu
it to thg reign of
lri-g
Cbaadra Srir5re, who aroended
ARAKAN PAGODA 68 ARAKKHA STTTTA
the throne of Arakan. in 146 A.C. Tho image
became eo famous tbat miraculous powers wero
attributed to it.
Wben the Burmeso king Bodawpaya conquerod
Arakan in 1784, he feared tho l\lahdmuni imago
whioh overshadowod Arakan with ite protecting
power. Thereforo, it ie believod, ho sent wizarde
who, disguisod as mo.ks, went to Arakan to
perform magical rites at the shrino in order to
doprive the image of its power. Then in 1784-6,
30,000 rnen under tho Crown Princo swarmod ovor
the passes or wont rotrnd the coast in boats
;
they
met, wir,h iittle rosistaneo, capturod Mrohaung
and returned with tho royal family and 20,000
poople as prisoners. Among the spoils wore the
six images which &re now found at the Arakan
Pagoda, at Mandalay. This pagoda was built
to enehrino the LahErnuni irnago, boing the
greatost of all tho troasures brought from
Dinnyawadi (seo Vol. II, Pl. VII).
Maurico Collis who visibed. this pagoda in 1920
describos it as follows: " This building, rathor a
shrino than a pagoda, houses tho oolossal imago
of Buddha. . . . It was for conturies the palladium
of Arakan and, when installod in Mandalay, becamo
Burma'e most sacrod image. Tho shrino lies on
tho eouthern outskirts of l\Iandalay and is entored
through a long colonnade, on oach side of which
are bazaar stalls, where you m&y buy, &mong
other things, food, gold leaf, candles and incens€. "
"'We wont on and woro soon in front of the
great imago, whero it sat boneath tho supporting
pillars of the central pyath,at of soven roofs. It
had beon so plastorod with gold leaf by worshippere
that its antique beauty w&8 covered op. Il,owg
of candlos burnt at the base and incenss rose from
burning sticks into a ceiling of mosaic. The half
light, the strong scont of the incense, monks passing,
tho sound of gongs, distilled & BonBo of devotion
moro intonss than I had ever noticed at, a Buddhist
shrine before, whero in general all is gently dovout.
Eaving made their bow to the Buddha, they took
mo on a tour of tho precincts, showed mo tho tank
full of huge aneiont turtlos, a courtyard
jrrm[le6
with stone
inccriptions which Bodawpaya had
oollected from moriastic sites, noi for historical
but for revonue reasons, and in anothor courtyard
six large bronzos of mon and elephants, part' of
the loot captured by the Burmeserfrom tho Siarireso
in 1664, which in 1699 had beon carried away by
the Arakanese'and
in l?84 recaptured by the
Burmese. Theso bronzos, which aro among tho
moet curious antiques in Brrrma,
go
absorbed mo
thst I forgot my oarlier disoonfituro-"
I(.Iu"u
Brnr.roonepuy : G. E. Ilarvey, EwtorV ot
Burma, p. 313; C. M. Enri quez, A Burmese En'
chantmarrt, p. 288; b. E. Ilervey, Outline of
Bu,rmese Eistult pp. 165 f.; Maurios Collis, fn o
Hid^den Bu,rm,a, pp. 64, 67.
ARAKA SUTTA, the tenth sutta of t}l'e Mahd
Vagga of tho Satnho Nipdta of ths Ahguttaro
Nilcdya (IV, 136-9). The Buddha advisoe tho
bhikkhus that life is short and they should not
loso ti'no being indolent. Ile relates tho story of
Araka. In a provious age when tho span of life
of a human being is seid to havo been sixty thousand
yoars, thore was a roligious tsacher namod Araka
who was freed of lustful passions. I{o had a follow-
ing of m&ny hundreds of pupils. He proachsd to
thom that life is like but a dewdrop or a water.
brrbble, trifling. insignificant and shortlivod. It
is fuU of sorrow and tribulation. Thoroforo, should
ono do good doeds and load tho holy lufo (brohm*
cariyo).
Thoro is a referenco to this sutta in fbsViauddhi-
moggo at p. I9B.
L. R,. G.
AnnKr<naDAYAKA, tho dosignation of two
arahant theras in the Apadd'na. Ono of thom is
said to havo had a railing mado for the (thfipa of)
Buddha Siddhattha and providod protoetion for
it ninety-four kappas ago. Ag a result of thess
good doeds he had no occasion for foar in any of
his lator births and he escaped birth in all woeful
statos. Six kappas ago ho wag born as a world-ruler
(coklcouattin) by the namo of Apassona (Ap. f,
2r4-r6).
Iho other thera has oarned his designetion for a
similar meritorious deod, but to a different Buddhe.
Eighteen kappas ago'he had a fonce mado for (the
thdpa of) Buddha Dhammadaesi and made provi-
sion for its protection. This act rosrrlted in his
lssqrning a', arah&nt in tho prosont age (Ap. l,
263) .
L. R. G.
AnlKxxA suTTA, the sovonth
gutta
of thc
Kesi Vaggo of tho Ahguttaro Nikdyo
(TT, 120)'
proached by tho Buddha to Kesi, the horso'trainor.
In this sutta tho Buddha saye that earnost care
should be exorted to grrard ono'e thoughte from
running riot among passionate t,hinge, from being
malicious and deluded and from following tho patb
laid down by variou roohuer.
r. x.
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ARAKTAPRAVADA
ARAK' fAPRAVADA, a former Buddha, menti oned
in a list of former Buddhas under whom Sekyamuni
while in the ninth bhrlmi acquired merit (futhuu.
I , t 40) .
AnAUA, abodes of monks. See ABODES (2).
AnAUADANDA, a lay disciple of rhe Buddha who
w&E convorted by Mahd-Kecc6-na. IIe was a brih-
man and had met Maha-Kaccina when the latter
was staying at Vara{rE on the bank of the I{adda_
madaha (muddy lako). IIe aaks Mah6-KaccEna
about ihe cause of nobles quarrelling with nobles,
brdhmane with br6hmans and hougeholders with
hous€holders. Mah6,-Kacc6na explaim that it is
because of bherr attachrnont and bondage to
sonsual passion. Further, rocluses quarrrel with
rocluses becauee of their attachment nnd bondage
t'o the lust, of opinion. Ard.r"a6rO{a tbon onguires
whother thore is no one in thig world who is frue
from thoeo two
hinds
of bondage. Mahd,-I(aco6,na
ropliea tJrat anoh a person was the Buddha who
at that tirno
q'rr
living at Sdvatthi.
At, this Arartrada+da risos flsp hin
eeot and.
fa"iog the direction of Sbvatthi p&ys homago
to the Buddha. And he aeks Mah6-Kacc6,na to
accopt hirn ag a lay disciple (.4. f, O5-?).
L. R. G.
ARAMADAYAKA, aD araho.nt tbera, who, irr
one of his former births, planted a garden with
troes whioh gavo dense shado and offered it to the
Buddha $iddhattha. Ilence his name. I[o also
with a h*ppy rnind
offered him tbs fruits and the
flowers which grew there. As a result of this
offering made ninety-four
kappas ago, he did not
experienco ary miserable existence (d,uggati).
But, thirty.sever kuppas ago, he was born seven
times as s world-ruler, endowed with tho seven
royal treasures (saito ratanw: Ap. I, 251).
I . K.
ARIUADUSAKA JATAKA (t), retated. ro tbe
bhikkhus concerning a lad who spoiled a pleasnre-
garden (J. I, No. 46, pp. 249-51).
Onco, o,landlord of a village invitod tHe Buddba,
and his monks to a meal and at the end of the
meal gave them leavo to wander about in the
grrdon.
While they were walking about they ca,mo
across a bare patch of land and lear:nt from the
gardener that it wss ca,rrsed by a lad who hacl been
esked to water the plunts, ond who before watering
59
AnaMSeNAcoHEDANA
them, pulled tbem up to see how they grew.
The ]Juddha then related the story of the past,
to show that the lad had done the same thins in the
past , t oo.
Once when Brahmadatta was the king ot
Bd,r64asi, thero was a i'estival and all the townfolk
assombled to keop holiday. The king's gardoner,
wb,o also wished to join in the festivities, asked tho
king of the monkeys who lived in the royal park
if he would get the monkeys to water the trees
in his alrsence, to which ths menkey king agreed.
lVhcn the gardener had gone, he distributed
the water-skins (camrrutn(o,l and the wooden
watering pots (dirukuta) among the monkeys,
asking them to weter the trees. The monkey
king instructed them to pull out the plants and
water them so that the plants with deop roois
would get moro water and the plonts with small
roots less, for the water should not be wastod in
time of scarcity. Thereupon, a wiso man, who
happened to witness this foolish act, rebukod the
tnonkey king who was the lad in the story of the
ptEsont.
I . K.
ARAIUAD0SAKA
rArnr<e (z). Tho story
(No. 268) is the s&rne &s Ardmad,irsalco J1tako (ll
(q.v.) but more concise. Tho verses in the two
jdtakas
are nrot identical. fn tho former story
the wise man reoites only one vere€, wheroas irr tho
latter he recitee two to the monltoy who also
answers him in verse. On the whole, the converss-
tion is di-fferent. Aocording to the latter story
the wise mnn ig supposed to heve come from a
good family in B6rdnasi. The festival had takerr
place in Bdr6,nasi during the reign of kurg Vissasena
and
qot
during the reign of king Brahmadatta,
ns mentioned in the former story.
This birth story ("/. III, 345 f.) is related with
reference to a lad in Dakkhir.ragiri, and not to a
lad in Kosala.
I . K.
ARAMASSA, a village in Ceylon granted for tho
maintenance of a bronze image of the Buddha
by ki ng frdaya, 797-801 A.C. (Mhu. rl i x, l 8).
ARAMA SUTTA. S€€ SARIPUTTA.I(oTTIIITA
SUTTA.
AnnUgni l ACCHEDANA, a samddhi or & concou-
tration of both mind and body, mentioned in tho
Mahdtrydpatti, (BB. XIII, 9) and explained
in the
ARAMMANA
60 ARAMMAIA
Satasatwsrtkdproi
finpdram'itd
ae a s&m6dhi wherein
one cuts oneself off from the. objecta
(drornbanal
of al l samddhi s (SsP.
P.
l a2l ).
U. K.
ARAilUAIIA.
While analysing the mental pheno-
mona, in his attempt to traco the causo of suffering
and unhappiness
in the world, the Buddha dis-
covered that consciousnese
(ti'frfuAq1n'l is due to tho
intoraction of tho subjective
(aiilwtti'ko\ and ob-
jective (Mhirakal processos
(M' I, lll-12)' Ilo
recognised the interdopendence
of the subject and
tho object. According
to him theso two processos
were relative, one implying the other, that is to
say, tho subjoct cannot exiet without the objoct
eind. tti,ce aeraa. They wero not solf-existont
but
relative or dependont
(pat&:wornupponna)
pro-
coaSoa.
Consciouenoss
may be tontativoly defined as the
rslation botwoen tho subject
(dramtnaqtd&a) and the
objoct
ldratwrwnal.
According to the Abhidharnma
philoeophy thero is nothing in this world which
would not sorvo as tho object of consciousnesg
(Vian, p. 454). This statomont of Buddhaghosa
is very significant, for if it is true, then tho wholo of
actuality a,nd roality should bo comprehonded
under tho obioct
(d'rornrna'nol.
Aceording to the Abhi'd'lwrnmatthuafqolw
(p' 13)
the object of consciousneas
is oither object of
sonao or objoct of thought-
Otlsct ol Sense. The object of sorrse' celled
Tnfi,cd,rarnrnaqto
{ibid.
p. 38), subdivides itself into
five classes: forrns (rtopal, sounds (saffia'1, odours
(gandha), Bavours
(rasa\ and tangibles
(potlh'obbal'
Out of theeo five sonsibles, sight, or rather light,
and sound ere classed together by Buddhaghosa
(Vdsfii.p. 376) w oprptotta'viaaya,bocauso
they do not'
como into physicel contact' with tho respectivo
sons€-organs but stimulate the aenses from a
dista,nco. But tho objoct of touch comes into
immedioto contact, with t'he body (Icdya) and is,
thorefore, called aarnpatta'uisaga.
Smell and taste,
on tho other hand, being but modifieations of
touch, are classed with the solfsame under sazr-
ptlanirpo. Alt
theso sensiblos aro considercd
to bo constittit€d of derived matter
(updffirfipa),
dorived from the primary matter (bhfinnt'pol
(ibid. 3?5). Ttre quoetion was rais€d as to why
the different
s€nse-organs
were sonsitive only to
perticular
gtimuli
or sensibles, e'g', tho oye to
tight and the oer to sound. To explain this the
Auf.ial"**ikas
postulated tho gonoral principle
tbct rssitivity wes of like to like' Elements
that wero of a similar naturo rosponded to ono
another, a vie\p attributed to the Por64as (ibid. 376).
It is interesting to note that only the proseut
(po,ccuppanno) sensibles &ro said to servo &s objocts
of the sonsos (Abhs.
P.
l3).
Objeet ol Thought. According to ttre Abhidham-
rnatthasangatw
(P. l3) the objoct of thought (ilhatn-
rndrammaqta\ consiste of six sub'classes : mind
(citto), mental concomitants
(cetasika\, sensitivo
qualitios of the body (patilatfrpa\, subtlo qualities
of tho body (sulchumorfrTn), concopts (pafrfiann)
and Nibbdna.
The inclusion of the mind among tho objocts of
thought is vory significant. llre opponents of tho
idealietic school of Buddhist philosophy, by making
use of tho similo of tho sword which, thoy said,
eould not cut itsolf (Bc. pp' 391-3), triod to rofuto
the thoory of the idealists that tbo mind can be
awaro of itself, a thoory which the latter mado
uso of in thoir ottempt to provo that the oxternal
world is only a product of conseiousnoss (tti'iffirw).
Although the Abhidhammikas hold that mind can
become an object of consciousnoss' yet they do not
fall in lino with tbe ideelists becauso they reeogniso
the oxietence of an external roality which is non-
mental (a.cetwi'ka) and devoid of the naturo of
congciousn oas (cdtta vi' p poy uttnl .
Ths mental concomitants
(cetodka), such as
contact (ph.asao), feeling (aeilarfi), etc., also &ro
included in the category of ths objectsof conscious-
nesa (dlwrnmd'rarnmorta).
Tho sonsitivo parts of tho fivo sense'orgeffl aFo
included in eonsitivo metter (pasilarepa), being
the conditions for the apprehension of the sensibles
boeauee they ere, as it w.er.'e, bright liko the surfacs
of a mirror (Vi,snx. p. 381)-
Subtlo qualitios of body (sukhuma.tfipa) includo
tho principles oi status of the two sex€s (i'tth'indrtga,
Trurisind,riya),
the vitol principle,(ji'virindrtyal,
the two media of communication, sign and word
(lcd,yati,frfrotti, aaciuifi,fratti), spsce (dkdsadMtul,
the properties of matter such as lightness (lahdii),
pliancy (mudukil, adaptability
ilcammafifrato),
e!'c.
and the nutritive principle in foods (kabalihkd,ra-
ahnra).
The objects (d,ramrrwpa) rnentionod above serve
as objecte of consciousness in the sensuous sphoro
(lcdrnal,olco). But concepts (pafi'fiattd) can bo the
object of consciousness not only of the Bonsuous
sphero but also of the spheres of form (n7pa\
and the formless (arilpa|. The objects of the first
five
jMna consciousnoss are inducod by tho trang-
forrned aftor-imago (polibhdgandrndtta) which is
AnnuuRNA.PAccAYA
AnRuunNA-PACCAYA 6l
only an imago of one or the ol,her of tbe lcasinns
coneeptualised. Again, tho first four stages of
jhana'induced
by the exercise of amity (mettdl,
pity (karurfi.) and appreciation (mu.diaQ are worked
on the concept
'mankind'
;
but the fifth stage
induced by the exerciso of equanirnity (upekkhn)
is also concerned with that concept, not a,s &n
object of love, pity or appreciation, but as an objoct
of relative indifference.
-Agairr, the first exercise of consciousness in the
higher or irnrriat,erial (arilpa) jhina
is on tho
concept of space (akasa); the thi rd i S exerci sed on
the conce pt of nothi ngness (aA.i r-rca).
Thus, al l
these forms of consciousness have concepbs (pafr,-
fiatti\ only as their objects (Abhidhammq,ttha-
,"*i.bhd,aini,--ed.
D. Pafl fl 6sdra and P. Wimaladhamma.
1933, p. 75) .
Ni bbana al one i s sai d to be the obj ect of trans-
cendental consciousn clss (Iolcuttaru, -
citto : Abln. p. I 4).
The i ncl usi on of Ni bb[na arnong the obj ects of
thought, to tr, certtrin extent, points to the fact
t hat i t i s a r . nent al st t l c.
According t.o ,,1blt idltunt,m,o, philosophv, concepts
(pofi,fi,atti) {ir,ll into t}re category of conventional
truth (santr,rnuti-saaca), while rnnd (citta). mental
concomitants (cetasika) and matter (rt7pa), con-
stituting the empirical world of relativit v (patzcca-
sanxuppantrLa), and Nibb6na, which is the transcen-
dental reality, are a,ll included under ultimate
trutb (par amattha,
-
s acca).
What is evident from the foregoing examination
of the object (d,rarnma,na)
is that it comprehends all
these forms of'actualit;' and reality. This further
proves the statement of Buddhaghosa that there is-
nothing in this world that cannot become the object
of consci ousness.
D. J. K.
ARAMMANA-PACCAYA or rhe rel ati on of obj ecr
or presentation is one of the twenty-four forms
of relations (,paccaya) enumeratecl in the Pa,tthd,na,
tlr.e soventh book of the Ablti.dlnmma Pitalca of
the Theravndins.
A phenomenon (dh,amnr.a) which assists or renders
help (upakd.ra) to some other phenomenon by
way of an object or presentation to which
tlro latter coulcl cling or holcl {'ast (d,Iambigqri\
rs sartl to be related in this ma,nner. Just as a weak
person (dubbala purisa) mnkes an attempt, to stand
up leaning on au stick (d,arula) or holding fast, to
a ropc (rajju\, cven so mind and its co-elliciente
(citta-cetasiJca-d]t amm,o,) arise only with an object ive
support (l'istn, 4o4).
In the world of empirical events Buddlusm
holds that everything is rolativo aad iaterdepend-
ent. Mental phenomena (rfrrna-l and matter
(rttpa) are interdopendont
;
the ono cennot' sta.nd
without the other, Thus for the manifestation
of the mental phenomena somo kind of oblective
support is a sine qua non. This objective basis
is worthy of being examined, Tor it is said that
there is nothing in this world.that would not become
the obj ect of consci ousness (Vi sm,. p. 454; Abhi ,-
dhnmmatthaui,bhivint,, ed. by D. Paf,frEsdra and
P. Wi mal adhamma, 1933, p.f 38).
The object of consciouanoas is said to be either
object of senso or object of thought. Tho former
is
'subdivided'into
five classes, viz., visible form
(oakkhuudfiit eyy a-ritpa), audibie sound (sotovifif,eyya-
soddn), odorous smell (gh&nauifi,fr.egya gandhn),
sapid taste (jialuiviirfreyya-rasa) and tangiblo
matter (kayat:,ififi,eyya-pollh.abba) These serve &s
ths basis or support (paccaya-upalcdraka dharnmal
for the arising of the cons(liousness
(.udfi,frarnl
of sight, sound, 8mell, taste and touch, respec-
tively. I{ence, thmo fivo classos of seusibleg
ar:e related to tho fivo darree of ooDsoioumegs
byway of the relation of objoOptuttlrrl4a.pcrrroya :
Ti,kap.I, L-2).
The object of thought eonsists of eix olasser.
Tleey a,re (l) all classes of corrciourness (orbr,
(2) all states of mental concomitAntz (ffi1.
(3) all kinds of material qua,lities (r&pa) wbethsr
they are sensitive (pasa,cla) or (4) subtlo (eubhumol,
(5) all terms expressive of concepts (pafrfi,aAil
and (6)
Nibbana. These can be termed ideas of
reflection and are collectively called d,Iwmmd-
ra,nurrnlne (Abhs. p. f 3).
All these sensibles or objects of eense, pfft,
present or future, and all objects of thought,
past, present, future or outside time, comprising
tho convent,ional (sammut'i), the relabive (paticca-
sanxuppanno) and the transcerrdenlal (Iokuttara),
are d,rammanq,-paccayo and a,re causally reiated,
several l y, to tho soventy-si x cl asses of conci ous-
noss knowrt a,s rnind cognitions, which are t,he
pocc&y u pponnd, dhommd,.
In the s&me way, the actions (kornma), tbo sign
of oction (komm,anim,ittal an.d the sign of destiny
(gatinim,itkr), presonted to a m&n at, the momont
of death, serve &s Llrc rirarnnulrul-paccaAo and aro
causally related to the consc'iotrsness known aa
the life-continuwn (blw"*attga\. It is clear from
tbi e that the dyi ng-consci ousness (cuti ,ci ttal of
an individual cannot generate rebilth-conscious-
ness (pofisarullicitta) without, the support of theso
aRAUUATIA SUTTA 62 ARAITAVTBEAI{GA SUTTA
objects whieh arno preeented to him st ihe momont
of death. Only to tbe dying
"oos"fousoess
of a
trrerson
rho hss attained 6nal emancipation
(pri,nihbdna) aro these objects not presonted; for in
tho opisode of Godhika (,S. f, 120 ff.) it is eaid tbai
he possod eway with consciousness fi1ding no basis
(opptifihi,terw ni fi,ffi,T ena),
A caroful arnrnination of the doctrino of depon-
dent arising (pali,cwarnuppddal with its twelve
fectore would reveal the fact that this seme rola-
tion is obtainod betwoon the fifth and tho sixth
factors. ff name and forn (rfimorfipa) is taken
to b€ the subjectivo procoss, then tho six spheros
(ealdyara,rw) senre &a an objectivo basis or support
for tho arising of contact (phnsaol rosulting in
f66ling (aedandl. Thus, the objoctivo procesg
eomprehonding tho eix spheres (salnyatann
)
is tho
rytnyo-dhomma
and contact (phnasa) the pancoya-
uprynww-dlwrnnta, the rolation oxisting between
these two boing ono of objectivity (6rommannl.
It mey bo pointed out that this r€lation (object)
itvolvoe a subject, thus indicating a standpoint
thet ie opposod to orthodox Buddhist philosophy,
viz., the posi0ing of a subst&nco or agont. But
it
.should
bo noted that tho objoct (dromrnaqtal
involves .no correlate of metaphysical import;
snd thie opplies also to the subjoct. The ever-
cbangi:rg object or tho objectivo processr is regarded
es tho thing-which-relates (poccaya) and tho ovor-
changing mental aggregates are the thing-related
(ponaoyupponrw: Cornpendium of Philosophy, a
translation of t}:re Abhi.ilhammattha- sahgoha, London,
1910, p. 2), the only constant factorbeingtho concept
of tho spocific relotion (JPTS. 1915-16, p. 25).
D. J. K.
ARAtUAryA SUTTA deals with four persons
who practiso concentration (S. III, 266). One
is skilled in concentration but not in the object
of it
;
ono is ekilled in the object of concontration
but not in coneentration
;
one is skilled in neither
;
and tho fourth ono is skilled in both: ho is the
greatest of the four.
Another eutta of tho samo name (ibid.
275')
gives also four persons who practise concentration :
ono is skilled in the object of coneentration but
not in the range of it
;
one is skiiled in the rsnge
of concentration but not in the objoct of it
;
the third
ie skilled in noithor and the fourth is skilled in both
;
ho is tho greatoet.
U. K.
ARATJADIPIYA (var. Apannadipiya, Arannodr^
piya), an arahant thera. Ninety-four kappae
ago when ho was born
qs
& dov&, ho cams dovm to
oarth and made an offeriag of five lamps. Owing to
this good deed he oseepod.all evil births thereafter,.
Fifty-five kappae ago he was born as a world-ruler
(cakkaaottin), named Sqrnantacakkhu (.4p. f, 231).
L. R. G.
ARAI{AfrJAEA, namo for Asokaprijaka
.(q.
v.)
thera in e previous birth as a king.
ARANASAUAVASARAIIA. a eamedhi or a GoD-
centration of both mind and body urentionod
in the Mohdnytupofri, (BB. XIIf, p. l0). It is
callod Arannsoranuamansuarann in the Sotasd-
hurikdprajfrd,pdramitd (p. l4l4), aud explainod
as a sam6dhi, whoroin sdmedhis do not becomo
defi.led (,SsP. f425).
u. K.
ARA{ ASARAI AS A RVASA} I AVASARAUA, &
sem6dhi or a coacentretion of both mind and body,
the attainrnent of which is chBrBcterised by froedom
from all defilements and passions (BB. Xfff, p. l0
;
,SeP. pp. 1414,1425).
ARAry.I SUTTA. The Buddhe, in enswer to tho
questions by a deity, ssys that the roclusos in
this world are undefiled, their way of life is nover
wreckod, they r:nderstand earthly desire,s, and
theirs is oternal freodom. In virtue eetablished,
they receivo homage from mothor, fathor and
brother. Noble warriors reverently salute them,
though they be of low birth (lS. I, 4+-5).
U. K.
ARAIAVIBHANGA SUTTA contai ns an anal ysi s
of the peaceful state away from strife (ra7ral. Ths
kernel of the sutta appears to bo a brief statement
made by the Buddha which rvas exp*ndod later
as often happens inlboSutta Pita'ka (M.m,230 ff.).
The sutta is marked by a gradual approach to tho
goal and a gradual devolopment in self-tarning so
characteristic of Pali Buddhism (I. B. Ifotter,
MiHle Lerqth SaEings, fff, p. xxvi). lt describes
the life of an ideal Buddhist monk, not that of a
hermit or anchorite, but that of the teaeher who,
after working out his own salvation, makes $''
eamest effort to lead his fellow beings on to the
sarno goal. The path trodden by him in order to
ARA$AVTBEAfrGA SUTTA 63 ARA$I SUTTA
reeeh self-perfect,ion as well ae the method adopted
by him in leading others to the solfsame goal, are
free from strife (rana),
Tho training of oneself consists in following the
Middle Peth (majjhimi, patipadd), avoiding the two
extremes of indulgenco in sensual pleasr:res and
s€lf-mortification. Happiness associated with
senso pleasures leads one to anguish, annoyBnce,
trouble, fret and hence to strife (ranal. Ifan, by
nature, yearns for happiness anci rocoils from pain
(M. T, 34L). Therefore, any form of mortification
of the self is practised with great aversion. A
psychological warfare, a strife, has to bo n.aged
by tho persorr who indulges in sur:h practices. But,
t'he Middle Path (majjhima pali.pada), which is
adoptod by the Buddha, in order to attain porfoc-
tion, avoids these two extremes and is characterised
by absence of strife (arana\. It, is tho Noble
Eightfold Path.
Again, the inability to judge
what happiness is
also Ieads to strife. I{appinees based on the senses
is not stable. Aloof from the pleasures of sense
a diaciple should be intent on inward happiness.
AJter tho attainrrent of self-perfection it is the
duty of the disciple of the Buddha to lead suffering
hurnnnity to tho selfsame goal.. The method adop-
tod for this purpose, as is givon in the sutta, too, is
characterisod by the abs€nco or avoidanco of strife.
In inparting the teaching to others, the <lisoiple
rbould not try to approve or disapprove of the
doctrines to which they have held fast, but should
simply teach the
Dhamma. In the Kalalmyiafu
Sutlc (Sn. pp. 204 fr.), thb attempt to approvo or
disapprove the doctrines held b5r others is seid.
to lead to strife. Ilence the avoidance of it,.
A secret ehould not be spoken unless it is condu-
nivo
to tho attainment of the goal on the part of tho
person
to whom it is spoken and also if it is the ripe
:ime, for otherwise it would lead to endless strifs.
-{gain, the disciple is asked to speak slowly and not
:rurriedlv for if he does so, not only would ho suffer
:h1-srcalll' but he rvould also not be comprehensible
' : r
t he ot her s.
In thi s attempt to teach. the di sci pl e shoul d. not
af;ect the di al ect of the respecti ve country (j anapa-
t;ni nttti ), for sr-rch an attempt woul d not yi el d the
i erred frui t, but s' oul d l ead to stri fe. On the other
,ran,l . i re shoul d not devi ato from the recogni sed
-r ant'.r.
1
stitrt aiiriam nuti.dlw,ueyyu),
-tr. t lre end of the discourse B, young man, Subhiti,
.-. r:'oised, bt-'corrsr: hc walked where calm
(oruna\
- : .
AnAi l EMI (l ), a rel i gi ous teaoher of a past age who
taught his many pupils the way to ettsin birth in
BrahrnB,lsfts. Ile was freed of all lustful passious
and practised non.violence and compassion. After
death hs was born in Brahmaloka and eo did his
disciples who followed his <ioctrine (.4. III, 371
;
IV, 135). Il i s name occurs among si x teachers,
the others being Sunetta, Mrlgapakkha, I(udddlaka,
Il atthi pdl a and Joti pdl a (,4. III, 371); el sewhoro
(/4.. IV, 135 f.) a seventh n&me, Araka, is added.
T};.e Divyd,uaddrw (pp. 632, 65 l, 653
)
also mentions
a brahmanical sage named Aranemi and so does
the Ma,hd,u'gutpatti (3472) where the name is spelt
-A,ranemi.
L.R,.G.
ARANEMI (2). Accordi ng to the Ti betan DuJua,
king Aranemi Brahmadatta of SrBvasti was the
father of Prasonajit. He elso had an illogitimate
son named Balamitra. Once Aranemi Brahmadatta
is seid to have lived at Campd where he had been
exilod (Rockhill, The Life of the Buddha and, tlue
Earlry History of frie Order, pp. 16, ?0). Ilowever,
dccording to Poli sources, the father of Presenajit
(Pasenadi) is Mahdkossla. This could, of courso,
be a title and not a name.
L. R. G.
ARAIJEUI, a variant reading for Anoma, king of
Jambudipa fifty-five kappas aBo, a previous
birtb of Bakkula thera (Ap. T, 329).
ARA{EMIKA, a school of brihmans, a subdivision
of the Chandogas (Di rV. 632.23). See,\RA{EMI
( l ) .
ARA{I SUTTA, the ninth sutta of tt.le Sukhendriga
Vagga of the fvfl ri ya Samyutta (,S.V,211-tB). TbD
Buddlra declares that there are fivo iruJriyas (eow-
trolling faculties)-those of ease, diseomfort,
happiness, unhappiness and indifference. Just
as from the striking together of two sticks (kallho,
e swlonJrrrr for which k ara1,i from which the sutta
takes its name) heat and fi,re are produced and
from tho separation of the two sticks the heat and
fi.ro thus produced are extinguished (cp. ,S. fI,
g7
;
fV, 215), in the s&me way, each of the fivo ind,riyas
(eontrolling faculties) arises as a result of tho ap-
propriato contact and passes with the coasiag o{
that contact. Thus, from the contact that is to be
experienceci &s agreeable (sukhauedanEya-phassol
ari'ses the controlling faculty of ease (sukhindriyal
and dis&ppearf on tho ceasing of thnt contact,:
D. J. K.
ARAfrJARAGIRI
64 ARAfrfrAKA
sirnilarly with the other four eontrolling faculties-
According to the udldna' of some MSS. this sutta
should have tho t'itle aralnTn or arahd (from aroha'to
in tho ud'M,rw\ but there appeers to be no
iustifi-
cation for such a titlo.
L. R. G.
ARAffJARAGIRI, a mountain renge in Madhya-
de6a, in India. In its neighbourhood was a pdpulous
town on a river, probably the river l(ontimd,rd
(J. VI, 492). Many men bathed in this river and
along its banks sat beautiful courtesans, tempting
the men. It was one of theso courtesans lrho
tempted Ndrada, a hermit, who dwelt alone in a
cave-cell amidst the Araf,jaragiri mountain range
(J. rrr, 463).
Vessentara (q.v.) and his f5Ynily had to pass
Arafljaragiri on their wey to Vaikagiri. It was
along the road followed by men banished from
tbe kingdom (J. \|I, 493). Other places also men-
tioned are the city of Jotuttara fifteen leagues
aw&y from Arafilaragiri, the Suva44agiritdla
mountain ten Ieaguos away,andthe river Kontimdrd
five leagues aw&y. (But according to J. VI, 493,
the river Kontimd,rd flowed by the mountain range.)
Tlrere was also s brBhrnan village, Dunniviffha, on
the other sido of Arafijaragiri fivo leagues eway
f r om i t ' ( / . VI , 514) .
I I . R. P.
ARAfrtA JATAKA, related by tho Buddha
(J. III, 147-9) concerning the eeduction of a youth
by e coarse grl. Tho ineident is. identical with
that of tbe CuLlanrtradakaseopa, Jdtako (No. 477).
In S6vatthi, there was a young girl who wae not
married. The mother thought of inducing a bhik-
khu to marrJr her. She propared various kinds of
food, and lookod out for a bhikkhu to offer it. Then
she Bsw a certain bhikkhu walking along the streets
for alns, and invited him. After the meal, she
oskod him to come thero again. On tho nert day,
the girl following tho
inctructions
of hor mother
tempted the bhikkhu and s€duced him. On his
return to the monastery, he gave up hie robes.
Wben this was reportod to tbo Buddha he related
this story to show thet the sano girl had beon a
hindrance to tho monk's holiness evon in the past.
Once, the bodhieetta was born in a brdhman
family and was sent to TaLkasil6, where he learnt
all the arts. On tho doath of his wife, he wont with
his son to the Ilimdlayae to lead an ascetic life.
Ona day, he went out to gather fruits, leaving his
eon behind at the hernitage. A young girl who
had fled from brigands came to tho hermitago
and seduced the youth. When sho asked him to
go s,w&y with her to live in a village, the youth
wanted to consult his father. Thereupon she
asked him to meet her on tho way and left the
herrnitage. When the youth told him about hie
anxiety to livo in a village, the father warned hirn
against leaving the herrrrrtage and taught him the
way to mystic meditation (lca$naparikamma). Both
son and father praetised mental absorption (jharni
and were reborn in the Brahma world.
I . K.
AnnfifieXA
(var. d,rafi,fi,i*a and wafrfiaka;
Buddhist Sanskrit d,ra,Ttyaka\, a forest-dweller; tho
word is also usod in its techuical sense, i.e., one
who undertakes the ascetic practice of dwolling in
tho forest. In this sense it is a d,huta,nga called the
d,rafi,inkahgo, ono of tho thirteen d'hutangos (,4. If[,
2lg, 220; Pug. 69; Mi,l'n. 3-o9
;
Visnn 48). There
are only twelvo dhutangas in the Buddhist Sanskrii
l i terature (GM. fII, i i i , 122; Dl umg. 13; AgP.
38?). See DIIUTANGA.
The foremost among the monks who practisod
d,rafrfia,kohga, during tho life-run" of the Buddbo,
was Revata Khadiravaniya (A. I, 24).
It is one of tho seven thinge tb,at prevont ths
deciine of monks (satto aparihiniya-dhanvna) :
" So long as monks dwell in forests. growth nay
be expected, not decline " (A.IY,2L). The Buddhs
is stated &s expressing regret that monks do not
livd in the forest unlike in tho past (S. II, 208, 209).
This shows that there was neglect on tho part of tho
monks with regard to ascetic practices during the
Lfo-time of the Buddha hirnself.
There aro five kinds of drafi,(,akas, i.e., one who
has gone to the forest out of folly and blind"ess,
one out of evil desires and longings, one foolish end
mind-tossed, one at the thought that it is praised
by Buddhas and their disciples, and the ono whosc
wants &re few, and who wants only soclusion,
The last is the highest (L. III, 219
;
Vi,n. V, l3I
;
Pca. 69l .
Tho Mi,Iinfur,pafi,lp devotes a whole chapter
(chapter vi) to the glorification of tho thirteon
dhutangas.
Ttre Visudlhino4ga gives a detailed account of
llne d,rafi,fi,okanga in the Dhutanga' N'idd'esa.
The forest-dweller's
practice is undertakon with
orre of the following statements : " I refuse an ebode
in a viliage " ;
or "
I undertake the forest-dweller's
practice ".
ANEfrNAKA MAHA.ABHAYA 65
AnAilfrA sUTTA
Ilaving done so. the forest.dweller rmrst leave
the village in order to meet, the dawn in tho forest.
If his preceptor or tcacher is ill and does not obtain
what he nceds in the forest, ho should take him
to a village abode and attend to him there, but he
should leave in t,ime to meet the dawn in a place
proper for the practice. If the affiiction increases
towards the time of dawn, he must attend to him
there and not bother about the purity ofhis practice.
T};.e d,rafifi,akahga has three grados : one who is
strict in his practice must always meet the dawn in
the forest
;
the medium one is allowed to live in a
village for the four months of the rains
;
and the
'nild
one, for the winter months too (Vism. Sg).
ff, during the defined period, tho forest-dweller
goes from the forcsr and listens to the dhamma in a
village abocle, his ascetic practice is not broken even
if he meets the dawn there, nor is it broken if he
meets it whilo he is on his way back after hearing
the dhamrna. But if, when tho preacher
has got
up, he thinl<s, " I shall go after lying down a while,"
and ho meets the dawn while asleep, or if. of his own
choiee, ho meets the dawn while in a village abode,
then his ascotic practice is brokgn.
The spiritual bene$ts of this practice &re many.
I'he forest-dwelling monh develops his concentra-
tion. His toacher is pleased with him. IIis ruind
is not distracted. IIe is froo from anxiety, aband-
ons attachment, to a worldly life and enjoys the bliss
of seclusiot (Vism. 57-g). Such special qualitim
&g fewness of wishos, contentment, effacement,
eeclusion, dispersal, energy and modest needs will
bo perfoctod in him, Thereaftcr, when he has be-
come established in the first tlrree of the heritages
of the Noble Ones, viz., contentment with any
sort of robes, with any sort of alms-food and with
any sort of lodging and thus finds delight in aband-
oning (pahdna), he mery become worthy to attain to
tho fourbh heritage, called delight in development
(bhiaana: A. II, 27
; Visn, 48).
U.K.
AnefrfrefA MAIIA-ABHAyA, a learned monk
of Ceylon, formerly known as Abhaya thera when he
was & resident of tho MahdtalEkavihara (var. Maha-
v6.likavihira). Later he left tho monastery and lived
in a hut in a noighbouring
forest, and thenee camo
to be known as Arai.flaka.
A lar,,man who onco
hesrd him prcach w&s so pleased that for twelve
yo6rs ho provided the monk with his needs.
After some time the lalrnan found that the monk
did not make u.se of the robes given to him and al-
weys woro a rag robe. Wishing to find out the
e&uso he gave robes to the monk again ond waited
hiding near the hut. A thiof, Ilarantika
(var.
Arati), was in the habit of stealing tho robos given
to the monk. This time, too, he saw the layma,n
bringing robes to the monk and in the night c&mo to
the hut and took them away. The layman caught
the thief with the robes in his possession and, having
thrashed him, took him to a cemetery, tied e
corpso ou to his b&ck and loft him thore. Tben
he went to the village and warned tho people that a
devll (amantrs.ro)would
come to the village that night
and they should not open the doors, howover much
the devil might plead. In the night, Ilarantike
went to his own hous€ and sskod his wife to open
the door, but being frightened, sho would not do so.
Ilarantika went round the villego and pleaded in
overy possible way, but was unablo to gef, any help.
Ultimately ho went to the mon\, who untied tho
co{pso, bathed the thief and applied oil on his body.
The layman, wbo was going round in the morning
looking for the thief, came to the hut and sew what
was happening. Whon tho layman exprossed his
.lioeppror.al
of the moqk'g action,the monk edmoai.
shed hirn saying that he
ghould
bo compassionato
towards the thief. Subsoquently, Earantika ob-
tainod ordination from the motrk and later beoo"'e
an arahnt (Rasat:dh'ini, ed. Sarepatisea, Part If,
pp. 5 ff.; ,S.ruu. f4 f.).
II.R.P.
AneilillxAxAcera-BEAyA surrA, Dargo
given in the Suttasorigaho (pp. 326 ff.) to the
Antfrg ot a,Szlf.o of the Ai4uttora N i,kiiy a (IfI, I 00 fi.
).
ARAfffrASATTA, name for Nirnitt'as*fifiq.fts (q.v.)
thera in a previous birth a.s king.
Anefrfre SUTTA. There ana four suttes by
this name, three of which occur in the Arigtilara
liikaya and one in the Saqnyuffa Nikoya.
The first sutte is in the Abhifrfrfr Voggo (A.TI,2521.
The Buddha, while residi-g neBr Kosambi in
Ghosita Park, tolls tho monLs that a bhikkhu who
harbours four qualities, namely, sensual thoughts
(kumn -uiaklco),
malicious thougbts (vya@-vitahlca),
harmful thoughts (ui,hi,7nsd-udtakkal,has woqk wisdom
(d,uppafi,fr.a), dull-wittednea.s (jalal and imbocility
(ektmtrgal, is not fit to live alone in the foreet.
On tho othor hand, one who has thoughts of renun-
ciation (nnlckhomnw-dbkka), harmless thoughts
(aaihimsd-uitokkal and who is not dull-witted
(ajalal nor imbocile (anel,ornilgo), is fit to do so.
ARAfrfrA SUTTA
66 ARAfrffAVASI IIIKAYA
The second sutta which ocours in the Koldh'a
Vagga (A. trI.I, l2l) is addressed to the bhikkhus
dwelling near Vesdli st the I{ifagarasdle i:r MahA
v8ua.
The Buddha speaks of the ud.vantages of deve-
loping d,rwpd,nasot'i (mindfulness on breathing
in and broathing out). Ile says that if a monk
ia possessed of five qualities, nemely, that he is
set on little (appa!!ha), engaged in litble (appalcicca),
frugel (subharal, well eontent with life's necessities
(ausartaso ji.vitapariklchd'resu), that he takes &
small quantity of food (appdhnral and does not
Barvo only his stomach (arwd'arikamanuyutta),
that he is lazy only to a small extent (apparnid'illw)
and is hoedful and vigilanr
$a4ariyamanuyutt'a),
that he livos in tho forost (drafiitaka) with a solitary
bed and a seat (ponlaaennsana) and that he reflocts
on tho mind as froed, such s monk bocomes very
conscious of his breathing in and out and penotrates
the
ivnrnovablo (okuppo) before long.
llhs next sutta, which occur€ in the Pfuuwhd,ro
Vqggo (.,{.. IrI, 135), is sddross€d to the bhikkhus
dwelling uoar Koeembi in the Ghosite park.
Tbo Buddhe says that a monk who has five
qualities, namely, tbat he is virtuous, restrained
in the obligatione (Nri,nfrkkha), porfectod in eonduct
and habit (fud,ragocaruarntpannal, Bees danger
in the
st'tallest
fault and traine hims€lf according
to the procopts, rtho is learnod, of retentive
memory Brrd possessed of a well-r€ad mind (tuta.to,nni-
ccara) with nogard to things good in the boginning,
good in tho middle and good in the end, and lea,de a
life of celibacy, perfect ln all its espects, \pho
atides in aotivs enorgy, puts eway all wrong things,
takes to right things, is et€adf&st and strenuous
(da$wporaklmmoi, and shirks not the burden of
right things,-$1sl e monk obtainn at will the abodes
of eaee (mklwtitdra), tho four statee of mental
abeorption (jlfirw\, he entere aaed ebides in the
emaneipetion of the mind (cebti,mutti) and in the
emanoipetion through insight (pafrfttuimutti). and
attains to intuitive wisdom (abhi,ilm,Q having
reslisod it by himnelf.
fro last sutta which occure in the Nal,a Vagga
of the Soqnyutttt Ndlcdya (,S. f, 5) is a dialogue
botweon the Buddha and a deity, at the Jeta grove
in Andthaprtrdika's park-
Ibo doity asks how the bhikkhus in the forest,
being cal'n, leading a lifo of coUbacy and partaking
of oae meal a day, possees a beautiful complerion.
The Buddha replies that they do not larnent over
the past, do not yeant for that which is not come,
and maintain themaolvos with what, they have got.
Fooiish people who lament over the past and yoarr
for that which is rrot come, get withered up like
a reed (nala) which is cut off
I. IL
ARAfrffA VACCA, the nineteenth section of the
Pafi,caka Nipata of tho Ai,;utta,rv Ni'kaya (III, 219-
9l). It consists of teq suttas, each sutta dealing
with a group of five.
In the ten suttas, ten clasges of men aro described,
such as, those who have taken to the practico of
living in the forest, wearing rag.robes, sitting
at the foot, of trees, haunting the gravoyards,
living in the open air, sitting in one place, accepting
whatever seat is offered, sitting alono, living
alone, not eating aft'er a fixed time, and eating
from one bowl.
The Buddhe s&ys that,
just
as the esgenco of
ghee(sappima4f,nl is the best of the fivefold products
of milk, viz., milk, cre&m, butter, gheo end oesenco
of ghee, likewiee of the five persons in each of tho
gtoups mentioned, the one who is content with
little is tho foremoet.
I. K.
ARATfrAVASI NIKAYA, also called Vanavdsi
Nik6ya, was & section of monks in Ceylon dwelling
in quiet forest regions, dovoted chiefly to modits-
tion, &s opposed to G&mav6si Nik6,ya rcsiding
in towne and villages en.gaged in activities dirocted
towards cultural and educational dovelopment.
In matters of doctrine, thero was no difrsrenco
between the two sections
;
they diffsred only in
the rigour of the roligious life they led. The
arafiita,udsiru led & moro ascetic and socluded iife
thnn the gdmoadsins drd.
tr'rom about the sixth centurSr A. C., they are
referred to as a distinct
Broup,
though not as o
separate sect, (Mhu. xli, 99
;
lii, 22
;
liii, 14
;
liv, 20).
As in tho caso of pomsukil'Ii,kas, t'he arq.fi,fioudsins
wore found in all the sects in Ceylon. There is parti-
cular mention of araFtfi'audsi bhikkhus belonging
to the Mahdvihdra in Anurddhapura (Mha,lii, 2l).
The forest-dwelling monks were sometirnes
referred to as tapassi, " hermit " or " ascotio "
(Mhu. xli, 99 ;
liv, 20), which is not a tonn usually
applied to bhikkhus. In the tenth centtrry, reference
is made to a monastery called Tapovana, " Ascetica'
Grovc " nea,r Anurddhapura, which w&s the
residence for forest-dwelling monks. Thers were
also pamsuktThlc*s living in this monastery (Mhu.
liii, f4). This may be tho group of so-cslled
ARAfifrAVASI NIKAYA
\,vestern mon&sterios iving in 1,he forost aro&
to the west of Amrrd,dhapura (Memoirs o-f the
Arahaeologi,cal, Suruey c,f Ceyknt, Vol. f, p, l8),
The drekr\a/trr&s arid Lbe paryt,suktilikae
artr onl5r
two ot'the thrtelen groups follo'rnng ascetie practicos
(dhukntgal.
lllhere were moiiks who obs€rved
ofher dhutarigsas l*e p,iqtd",a,pcit'ilea.
But they are
not regarded e,s separate groupo.
fn lat,er tirnes, {,}re arafifr.ako.*, too, iike l,he
gdn*attr.iein.s, tock greator in+,erest in intellectua!
pursrits, and wero engaged in writinq not, only
roligious but also non.religior:s wcrks. The
Bdld,vabodharw, s, SenFrkrit grern:et&r, writtc..nr
in tho 12th contury by Arafliiavdsi Diiirb.rjdgala
Mahdkassapa, is a good example. Among fnrnarrs
scholars belongiriq to tbis sect, wero Ananda \rana,
ratsnaiissa, Vodehe, Coliya Buddhappiya,
Culls,
Dhamrnapdla, Medharikara, Ananrda and Sidcihnttha.
It lsa€ rl-r'r+r-rfievfrsi llirirbulEgala
Mah6kassapa
lirnself who prosided over the eor:ncii r:f the mern-
bere of the throe fraternitiee*-1[ahadhd,ru.
Abha,ya.
qiri,
end Jetauarw,-held under the patronege of
Parikramab&hu I, s kurg of Oeylon (fl53-g6
-{- C.}, where ihe throe frnteruities were r.reoncilo<1,
arrcl the rurdesir*ble elenrents within the Onior
rrf the rn.enks erpelled, tfrue
;rurifying
ttre
S6sans.
The Araririavisi selet, contigued io flourish
ovan duri ng thc r2th una the l 3rh centuri eg.
anrl when Vijayabilru III
rtr&B
rergning et,
Il ari rhadepi ya (1239-6 A. C.i , the ht.rad of the
seot was an eirisr nu,moci Ananela (colnphon to l,he
Pcda**ddhnrur Sannp.)" fhring the tirno of Kalikdle
ijlrhitva Sarvajfra Par:ldiia P*rrdkramabihu
,
rl .tr i;rrirlrar{or.riya ( i 236- 7 i .r}. C.
),
Araflriakg
]Iedhankarn of Diftbuld,gala, tha ehief of the sect,
l.,iesided
ovet t,ho sy..norl of monlre and expolted
ihoso rnonks who were limncl g-trilty of nrisconduct
t,lj$,nultul(ni
Katilcaauta). Tihe king built, for ther
ir.ie of iiraflrir"k* tnrul[s q11i.
la mountoin in the
iorest, thc Pu!,abhai,tasela (PalEiratgalrr)
rnonastery
tll'hu.
lxr.xiv, 24
),
which iater becamo f,amous
rrJ thei abocle of ruitn3' urunks crf, great learning
:rrrJ isggefe airg.{,eritiss.
'!-hr:
Arn,fifiln'fi^si soct str:1ems to ha,vo lieerr closell
.rr:.i rrc.i aterl wi th the Ii ' r,{d}rrsrts of K{rl i ri g*. fbi
,i ul i ng t,he l .i rne r_rl Aggatrodhi l l --ki ng
orl
(;e,vi on
l 1)l ,,.l l ,r1. C.)--the ki ng oi }i +rl i ri ga cl l i l rro to
i
r..vion and heoa;ne l, rfir-rnk nttachr:cl to tho Ararifra-
' .
i Ls; ,i (l ct (hi l w, xi ri " 4{ ri (}}. l .l ' ,-cn *t .+.ho enrl 6f
l rr l i Jl i r c,-ul ury. r' c {i nct Vodrrhi t .monti nni ri g t,l i e
.:;,li,r:, r,ri u l{.6liriga }Iahathera (cok:phon
t* i,he
i i .t' ;r,tri fi ,t:,i ] who neted as $patl sor e! Vorl eha' s
-,rci i ni r,t.r,rg hr Anri ,ntl a..
( 7
AR APA CAI.TA.P
{TJ.A VI DHI-I{AMA
By about the lSth coatury,
however, the difie-
renco between the t,wo socts*-Lhe GFrns\rasi *^4
Arafl-d&vrisi--sseura
to have been only in nanne,
anr.d 1o6 in practice.
Tlress trpo
eoctions" in leter
timoe, wero known as lfbhnyavEsa,
.
Ths Twcl
Jtresirlences' (N ikd.y a Sa:4grafia ^ pp" ll0_24)
"
The modern oetabiishnrents
cf Malwatta and
Asgiriya, the two chief terrpios in Kandy, Coylon,
seorn to be the docon.ients of ths old Lrbhayav6sa,
I ho forrnor
berng the G6,mr-rdsa and the latter the
Argfrliav&cs.
II. K.
A n n
{
y
n K A, ii-;in g m t}re foreer. $ee AITASNAKA.
A"RAPACA}IA, nlao ualled Sadl.onubhava-Arapa_
c&rr& or Saciyonubhava-Mari;utri,
a form of
the bodhisottva }Ianju6ri.
Hs orig.inates from
the soed-sylleblo (bija-ahaaro)
,
A', wherea.s
his
lbur eompnn-rons,
namsly, JdlinikurnEira (or Surye-
prabira),
Uandraprabha, Keiini and Ir'pake6iru-,
originato lrom the aeert syilabter,, ra,
IxL,
a, and no;
and henr:e hie namo .{raprnceu*.
He is bright like ths moon, hes * smili.g
feco and is either red or whit€ in colour. I[e
we&rs becutiful orrr^ammte a,nd r€d gern€nts,
He ig ncrmnally ropreaonted as being seetod on a
lotus in t}oio
wjrapryoftlca postura,
ovor engeged
in meditation. Somstfuares, it is seid, hin
forut
dxplays a vory passiorrate spl)€areuce (.iTngoraoa{a).
Witti his right hand he wields e BworC which
symboiisos tho deetruction of ail ignor*nce Anai
witb the left hand held agaurat the chosb ho carries
a book, thre Prajffi,firuntitd,,
which ie regarded
as tbo orrbodimsnt of all knowledge.
In fom" the
four corup*njone are very
girrrilar
to Arepacana.
Of tbem. Kefini and Upake6inl aro on his right
aad loft, reepectively
l
JdlinikrrrnF,ru is in frant ap1l
Candrapr*bha behind" (S€o ,Sddfs. f, pp. ll2_Ig,
l?2 and 130 ff.; B. fthotr,whnryya, Tlw Ind,i,art,
Eud.dhiat lcorcgr*phy, pp. 320 fi.I
A.r*pacsne, sa s forrn of Mhfiju.6ri, is quite
Ixitruiilr
in Tibst snd Cbin$ (A.
K" Gordon"
Ic*nngrr.t7th,'g a! Tobef.an lTanwfiant, p. d8)" Some-
tirneis his hand is ehown as irclding a b€ll, which
alsc
"nay Lr*vo treori of the sevre s.trmtx-riic, value
as ther awqrd
{Alice Gett;i, GrxJ;l' of Northern Butd-
h,isrn,. i-ei Tutt,ls odition, lgffZo Pl*i;e XXXIT a).
S. X" l.r
ARAPACAHA-pSJAVIpHI"l i IHA
{Arsa"waol , &
Sanei{rit, text ths Tibetan tr*nslation of whieh
grista
irl t-h*l Rgyud-lgrel
{tantra
offiolnefixtary)
t i 84: l ()
ARAPACANA.P UJAVIDHI-NAMA ARAPACAI{A SADHANA
68
Bection of tho Teng'yur under tho title (Hplngs-pal
o-t'o-pa-ba-rwl.ti-mchod-.pafui clw-ga shes-bya.-bo
(Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 79,
No. 3540). This tran"slation is attributed to Ni-ma
rgyal-mtshan dpal bzan-po (Sr3ryadhvajairibhadra
accordi ng to Cor&i er,II, p. 302, No. 24).
Tlce work which begine with s salutation tp
Arya Arapa,cana deals with tho procedur.e of making
offerings to Arapacana. Asselding to tho injunc-
tions Bet out in this work, the offerings should
be arrangod in front of the magic circle (rnondnl,o)
and the formula Or.n ah h&rn, wbictr ensurea protec-
tion tb tho place, the names of oneself (the donor)
and of the priost should bo pronouncod, Then
the following mantra, supplicating Arapacana
to accopt tho offerings of flowers, tho wator for
washing the feet (pd,ga), tho water for consecra-
tion (prokgo4c) end the like, is to be chsnted. Oqn
torm taildgfut.n ..nnmd,m,i blngacanta,r.n
Aropwna ndtlw dnlp hth,n fu,m lnh prarinchernarp
buumdfr,jaldm n&tn lwh
W
Ab hA\tu
lttauoro
eatlfitd,yo Aropunndyo, padyor;n patic*lw hilfn
amhd. OrlL
4
M,l.r
Tnowro
aatlciriiyo Aropco-
niiyo prolagonam prall,uha h&ry &m:hn. Ory dh
hri{t
Tnaooro
auilcdrdyo Aropornndgo fumanar.n
prannAw hery srfrld. Ory
4
fu6h proooro aa,t-
kfrrfryo Ararynrfrya arglvm prafbnlw
lnim afi\fi.
lbi! is to b€ followod by a rcoitation of the ssluta-
tory formulas, quoted below, addreseed to Mafr-
jughoge (a va,rirety of Maflju6ri of whom Arepacana
is s form) and his sttendants, the five Dhy6ni
Buddhas and thoir spiritual consorts except
Vajradhitvi&va,ri : Otm namo Mafi,juglwgdya d,hnh om
Vajrcpuppe h{try ewhn. Orn nenw JdJin|,prabhiyo
,v\n. Ory aajra'. Om namo{ Candropnoblfiya
pary. Om uajra". Om nnm,al.t Kei,i,nge caqn. Am
oajro". Ory, nama Upakeli,nye rwrn,. Or7, uajroo.
O\n ,aonw Aktobhgdgo h{rr.n. Om, aajra". Orn
ryorno Vairom,ni,yo . . . . . .. Or.n aajra". Or.n rwmn
Ralnaaomblwadya hhfn. Orn uajra". Orn rua,rno
Amifdhhdya hnlr. Orp, tnjroo. Orp nama, Amngha-
tiddhe klnry. Orp aajra". Orn rurrw) Locanfiye
bry. Om aajro,". Om nanw Mdmaki, mdry,. Om
oajra". Om rwmah Pd,nd.ard,ye pdm. Om tajroo.
Oqn rnmas Tard,ye tdry,. Oqn aajra". Om ah hum.
Among other mg.ntrag quoted in tho text tho
following may be cited: Or.n aa.jro tothd,gatu plja
mcglnptrusara samfr te ? Spharolw
himor.n gage-
nakam h"ry pha,{; O?.n d.h aaraata,thigatdbhiseko-
samagairiye hury ; Orytt, Arapaca,niya arghuln
Ttttstokolrustdyo
imar.n bal,i,ry kha kha kluilhi ktuahi ttana
lnrn doha da,hu poca pano numur saruaaatad,nd,ii
co bandlwr.n bard,Inni, d,hnry, hri klmm;
and the mantra ealled Satd,ksaragdrhd which also
occurs in the Arapw,rwaddlnrw (q.v. Sad,h.I. J6).
Tlris mantra is as follows : Om tsa,jrasalua sanwyorn
anupalayo.
Vajrasataotuernpatiptlw. Dfdlw me
blnuq,. Su,tosuo rfte blw,aa. Supogyo rne blwoa.
Anurq,kto m,e blnaa. Sarua.siddhi,rn me prayaccha,
Saraa,karmasu ca nae c,ittann ilreyah kuru hfr,rm ha ha
ha hn hob blwgaaan saraatathdgalao*ajra ntd ma
mufr,ca u aj ri,bh,aua mahds amag w ota a d,lt,.
R.II.
ARAPACANA SADEAHA,the ritle of three different
s6dhana texts
occurring in the Bdd,harwmdld.
These terts which deai with the procedure of wor-
ship for tho invocation of the divinity Arapacano
are BB follows :
I. Sddh. f, No. 55. The formula Namo
'rop-
caniya occurs at the boginning of the text. The
author of tire sddhana, Ajitamitra, who begins his
work, a metrical composition, with a salutation to
Marijughosa, stetes that he would givo instmctions
in brief for the worehip of Arapacana. The
priost, who krrows
the magic formulas, is instructod
to eit, on a soft and comfortable seat a." a ploasant
spot rtrewa with fragrant flowers and sprinkled
with scented water,
pnd
refloct onbodh,i,citta, (thought
of enligbtenment). IIe should then recite the
Sadhfruuiudd,hanrwntro and contemplato on the
illueory nature
Qifunyotd)
of all plronomena and on
Mafijughoga, a variety of Ma.fijusri (Inildan B.u.ddhist
Ioonography by B. Bhattacharyya, Calcutta, lgb8,
p. lOa) of whom Arapacana is also a form. M&fl-
jughosa,
as describod in this text, sits on a lotus,
absorbod ia meditation, wears the five rags (part-
catiraml, carnieg a sword and a book, is rosplendent,
with all ornarnents and bears a complexion, white
like tho rays of the moon. Ke6ini is seen on his
right, Upake6ini on the left, Jd,liniprabha in front
and Candraprabha behind. (For a note on Ajita-
rnitra,
tho author, so Sdd,h. If, p. xciii.)
Five Tibetan versions of this sddhana occur in
the Rgyud-trgrel (tantra cornrnentery) section of the
Teng;rur. Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki,
Vol. 80, No. 4132 contains a version, the Tibetan
title of which is Ara-pa-tsa-rwl.ti-sgrub-thnbs.
The
author's n&me has beeu renderod &s }Ii-pham
b6es-giien. Kamalagupta and Rin-chen bzan-po
(Ratnabhadra
according to Cordier, Iff, p. 4,
No. 6) are said to have translated the work. The
title and the Tibetan rendering of the author's n&me
aro the same in Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 79, No. 3538, the col ophon of whi ch
attributes the translation to Vibhuticandra and
Chos-rje dpal (DharrnasvEmi6ri
according Lo Cor-
di er,II, p. 309). Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki. Vol. 80. lrio. 3gg3 contaias a version of the
ARAPACANA
$ADEAHA
69
A RAPA CAilA.SADEANA-VIDHI
Arapocaruu Sdd,hana under the titlo Spros,pa med,-
pahd qrub-thabs attributed. to Abhaya and
.Ishul"
khrims rgyal-mtshan (Siladhveje
according to
Cwd,' i er,If, p. 377^ Nos. 33 and 34). Ttte Ara-pa-
taa-rwhi, sgru.b-thabs of Mi-pham b6es"gfren (Ajita-
mitra), translated by Sri Vanaratns .and. Iigya-
mtshohi sde (Nags-kyi Inin-ch€n nnfl
S6garaseua
accordurg to Cordier, IIf, p, lTZ, No. ?), is also a
translationof this sddhana. Clordier (loc. cit.)statos
that the monastery of Dpai Gnotl-gnas (Sri Jam-
bhala) was tbe venue of the translation and he also
quotes two other titles by vhich tho work was
knownr
viz,, Arapacarw h$-hwhi agm*ba
{Aropa-
cannpafi,c ad ec* o
-
s dd,ln na) errd I.I
j
ant
-
dbg ahs ar oTta,ca
-
nahd qrub
\Mafi,jughogdrupatana,-addlarw\. T1xis
translation forms
No. 4837 of tho Peking Ed. Tib.
Tlip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 86. The fifth Tibetan
version of the toxt, Vol. 80, No. 4270, rB by Grags-
pa rgyal-mtshan and it bears the title A-ra-pa-tea-
nehi sgrub-thabs.
2, Sddh, I, No. 56. Thie sddhana is a compo-
eition in prose with four verses forming part of the
text,
&n<l the concluding stanzs giving tho name of
the euthor Muktako (circa
Il00 A.C,) and also his
oi,her n&me Padrndkara (l-or
moro inibnnation on
Vrrktaka, seo Sqdh.II, p. cv). The col ophon cal l s
t he text M ulcta,k eruiropa,can&, E ailharw.
I'he salutatory fbrrnrrla N ama' raTntondy * oec urs
at the begi-ruring of ths text. fhs work contaius
rrrst,ructions nn moditation and theoffering.g
to be
rrru.de lbr tho worship of .Arapecana, Thus, the
x'orshipping priest is onjoined to meditate. on the
.lcrur divirrc sti-r,tos
\catur
brahmntrihdra\,
neruely,
rri<t,itrE (lovo), karu,nd, (eompassion),
ntud,ito (joy)
ar^d upekpa (equanimity), each of which is defined :
iLe sb,tuld make offerings of flowers, incense, lampe,
robes. parasols and the like. recite the stanzas
.tuoted for the confession of sin (,pupad,eiand),
i rrr risfererrcet oll rner,i b (.puny dnr tnndani), soeking tho
; lrreo reftrges
{tri.4antndgantan"a\ and production
r'f' tlrr: thouglrt of enlighl,enment,
(bctdh.'ici,ttotptfula),
ntl e<rl , on fhe i l i uson' naturc of al l thi ngs,
chant
i l',e iorrnu la O rn, .: uablwua{u ddh,i h saruarlharntdlt,
s,*a
-
i,iLut:a,4trcld,ho
'harn,
and thinli of liirnself as lfaii-
,rtst' I
tvl ru i s ci esr-ri ' i bed. l l ]he ci escri pti on of l ,Ian-
,L;sl .i
i rere i s suui l "rr ro l l rai of }frri rj ugl i osa of the
l rrcr.i rrrrs
si trl i r.a,rur, (Ed,<l ,h.
I, 55). Ti re work :-r,i so
-,i nl aurr* descri pl i ons ot' Arrr,1;auu,na a,i i tl hi s four
r..i tcndants, .Ji rl i rri prl l bhrr, On,ndrnprai .l l ra.
Ii c$i nr
ri i ,l l -i p;r,l i t:i i i ni .
.l reci tat,i ou oi the xi atul ;saru-
,; ti l t,ri rl rrot,l ri i rr i ,i re text, Conci ndeS the ceremony at
ti rr outi ui r+fi i cj r the worsi rtpper rs s:.r,i tl to attai n
. i i prututi lI L:dOiL
\t
il t u,ii)qr$I
)t,
brfihinl
l.
There are two Tibetan versions of this sddhons
in the Rgyud-irg"el (tantra
comrnentary)
section
of the Tibetan Tripifaka.
The first of these is the
S pr o s
-
p a nt ed,
-.p
a hi s grub -th.a,bs
translated.
b;, Abh aya
and Tshul khrims rgyal.mtshan (peking
lJd. fiU.
' Iri p.,
ed" D. T. Suzuki , Vol .
g0,
No. Bgg4). The
coloptr.on gives tho tiilo
of tho work ae Tshi,g thug_
pahi, A-ra-pa-tsa-nalr,i,
agrub_thnbs.
The second
Tibetan version
of the text is the translation
dono
by Grags-pa rgyal-mtshan .(Kirtidhvaja
according
to Cord,ier, JfI, p. 30, No. 145), undgr the titlo
Tthi g-l hug-pa,l .ti
a.-ra-pa-taa-nahi
sgrub_tha,bs.' Ihs
$anskrit title quoted in the text is fuIulctaketn-
o,r&pctc.rrw-.cdd,itano,.
The a,uthor's name is given
as Padrnahi
trbyut'r gn?s (Padm6,kara).
3. Sad,h. I, 65. This Arapeca,ncl
Sd,rlhalw is
in prose, with a stanza at the end. in which the
author, whose rame is not mentioned,
wishes that
the merit gained by composing the work would,
cause al l peopl e to attai n the abode of the Vi cto-
rious One (Jina).
As in the previous two s6d.hanas
(Sad,h. f, 55, 56), here too, the worshi pper i s i ns-
tructed t,o meditate on lopics like {d,nyaia (illusory
nature of things), recite incantations such as the
8 u abh,auaiud,d,lt q, -
mantra and S il,ny atd,ud,caka-ntantra,
and to
.r'isualise
hirnself as Mafljughosa, who is
descriherl in the text. IIis companions, one of
whose n&mes is given as Srlryaprabha in place of
Jd,li-rriprablia of t,irc
other two sacihanas. are also
descri bed.
A Ti betan transi ati on
of tho toxt exi sts i n ths
Rgyud.hgrel (tanrra,
comrnent,&ry) secti on of the
Tenglrur under the title A-ra-.pa-tsa-ruahi
sgru,b-
thobs- The translator's
n&me is given as Grags-pa
rgyal -mtshan (Peki ng
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 80, No. 4280) .
R. I { .
ARAPACAi l A-SADHANA-VIDIII,
thE ti tl E Of A
Sanskrib text, tho Tibetan translation of which
oscurs in the Rgyud-bgrei (tantra
cornmentary)
sccl,ion of tirs 1leng5.-rrr urder the titie A-ra-pa-tsa-
rwl ti -sgrub,thobs-l cyi cho-ga (Peki ng
Ecl . Ti b. Tri p.,
ed. D, T. Suzul i i . \i ol . 79, No- Bb37). In the work,
ther authorship of which is attributed. to Sraddhn-
karavarman, t,he worshi ppcr i s i nstnrcteci . to refl ect
on the thouglrt
of enlightenrnent (bodhicitta)
;
rec ite Lhe S u abhau a,i udd ha
-
ntanrt r a, v i 2., O m s u ab hd,u o
-
;iud.Llhah sartwlharrttti st,ablttl uaiutidho' ham : .lon
-
tenei -rl ate on the i l i usor;.' nature (i unyai C)
of al l
thrngs and chant, tlte f,trmula Ont, sunyatd,j.iaunctt;ajra,-
suabltdritrnako'ltartt and n_reditp.te on Maijuvajra
(fuam.pa|ri
rJrt-rje) w.iro is describetl" Ile is one-
faced. bwo-armed aud carries the sworcl oi' rvir.lorn
A.RA-PA.TSA-NAEI MCHOD-PAEI
70 ARAVAI,A
reised in his right hand aud the Prajiiapdramitd'
book in his left, placed against the chest. Ile is as
resplendent, as ten million auturnnal moons, sits
papt in meditation and bears a smile on his face.
The worshipper should also meditate on MafrjuSri,
who originates from the sytrlable a and whose form
is the s&me as thot of lVlafljuvajra described earlier.
snd on Jdliniprabha, Can&aprabha,
Ke6ini :r,nd
Upako6ini who originate from the syllables ra, pd.
ca and zzo, respectivoly. Al1 these meditations will
result in the attainment' of supteme wisdom.
R" } I .
A-RA-PA-TSA-NAHI IICEOD-PABI CHO-GA
SEES-BYA-BA, a translation in Tibetan from a
$s.nskrit text. See ARAPACANA-PU'.IA-f'IDUI-
NAl!LA..
A-RA-PA-TSA-NAHI SGRIIB-THABS, the Ti betan
rendering of the titlo^of a sddhana in the Sddhann-
ft61.a. See ARAPACANA.SADHANA.
A-RA-PA-TSA-NAEI SGRUB-THABS-KYI CHO-
GA, a translation in Tibetan from a Sanskrit t,ext.
SEE A-R,APACANA. SADI{ANA.VIDHI.
A-RA-PA-TSA-NA
FPHRAT-DU
i l AMS-SU My-
ON-BAgI SGRUB-THABS, a transl ati on i n
Tibetan from a Sanskrit text. See SADYONUBHA-
VARAP ACANA-SAD}IAI{A.
ARATI, a deughtor of M6,ra, tho second named of
t'he threo sisters who tried to tempt the Buddha
when he was sitting at the foot of t,he Ajapala
banyan-tree, in the fifth week after the attainment
of bodh.i . Inthei rendeavours to temptthe Buddha
Bw&y from the futuro which he had chosen and to
brrng success and joy to their father where he him-
self had failed, the daughters usod wily devices,
but were themselves discomfited. The t,hree aro
sometiynes regarded as the personifications of Cra-
ving, Discontent aud Passion; Arati is reqarded as
Discontent (,S. f, I24f .; ?he Boolc of the Ki,ndred
Sayinga, I, 156 f.). They posed the Buddha with
different questions. Arati asked :
" IIow must a brother mainiy slape his life,
W}ro having crossed fivo floods would cross tho
eixth ?
Ilow many impressions of the world of sense
Ile kept, outside of him and catch him not,
Who mainly in rapt meditation bides ?"
Arati"s name oc{iurs as Priti il t,he Bu.dtlltacarita.
ILl,ra's ilrmv is also sometimes crrlled Arati.
D. ' 1' . I J.
ARATI SUTTA. Once' wherr Vangi sa was i n Al avi
he noticcd that iris t,utor, Nigrodha Kappa, never
left his cell aftep his return from the alms-rou-nd.
Dissa,tisfaction arose in Vangrsa's heart and he was
troubled by tlioughts of lust. IIe composed five
verses by way of self-admorrititln ancl uttered them
to hi-mself (,S. I, f 86) i " f, who had given up likes
and dislikes in all that stirs imagination, m&y not
make anywhere a haunt for lustirrg. He w'ho is
free from lust is truly a bhikkhu. All rnaterial
things &re impermanent. People cling to all
that makes for l i fe, to thi ngs they touc:h, pereei vc.
see and lrear. He who is unaffected bv tliese is
cal l ed a seer."
Another sutta of the same na,rn€ (' 4. III, 448)
savs that in ord,er to get rid of t,he evil qualities
<lf discontent. harrning others, .r,nd acting in
ignorance of the Dhamma-one shoulcl cultivot'e
glaclness and non-vioieneo and act according to
the Dhamma, respectivelv.
U. K.
ARAVACCHA, a river which king l(appina crossed
when he was hastening to visit the Ruddhs in
S6.vatthi. When he came to its bank, he found
on inquiry thu,t the river was a leaguo cleep and
twn league-s wide. There was no mode of trnnsport
across it, but the king, detennined not to delay,
described his eagernoss thus : " Whilo we &re
looking for troats and raft's, birth is bringing us
to old age and old age is bringing us to desth.
Free from doubt, I have renounced the world for
tho sako of the Three Jewels
;
by their supernatural
power may this water be to rne unlike w&ter "
(.HO,S. XXIX, 172. etc.). Il edi tati ng on the
Buddha's virtues hc and his retinue dashed a,cross
without even rsotting ihe horses' hoofs. The river
w&s crossed as extraordinarily by the queen when
she herst:lf went on the same road with her retinue
of char i ot s ( DhpA. I f , 119
- 20,
124) .
D. ' I . L r .
ARAVAI,A (var. Araval a, Arav[da), a nAga ki ng of
Kashmir who opposed the introduct,ion of Buddhism
in his region of Aravdladaha, by Majjhantika thera
who had been deputed for t'he purpose by Moggali-
putta tbpra at, the end of the Third Cc'uncil.
Majjhantika is crsdited with having hovered in the ( i bi d. I 58, n. 3) .
ARAVAI.,ADAEA
7l
ARCITANAIUA
air in order to ehow himself to the n6,gas. On
triog informed of this, their king came out and
evokod terror-striking agencies (eerthquakes,
hail,
thunder, lightning, eto.) to sta,nd in the thera,s
w&y. But tho latter wan not disturbed by tbem.
On the contrary, ho mcceedsd in winning over the
king to whom ho preached the word of the Buddho,
With 84,000 of hie followers the ruler accoptod
Buddhism in the end. The thera exhorted. the
Ling
in this wis€ : " Elencoforth let no anger arieo
as of old; work no more harm to the hanrest, for
living beings lovo thoir happinoss; chorieh lovo for
boings, let men live in happiness
"
(Mha. trsl. xii,
22). Those worde were
trreculiariy
apposite, as the
king
had had a hatrit of destroying
harvosts by
mearxs of hail-stoms. The Mrlla-Sarvadivedin
vorsion of tho atory is presonzod in the Chineee
Vinaya. It wee translatod into Fronch by Jean
Przyluslti; au English r€ndering
has boon given
by J. Ph. Vogel. (Cp. VdnA. I, 64 ff.; Mho. xii
7
J. N. and P. N. Ganhar, Eud.d,hi,srh in Koahmir atd
Lildekh, 24, etc.; J. Ph. Yogei, Itdian Berpz.rltt.
Lor e, 232 t r .
;
JAt . l 9l 4, pp. O+- 7, 7+- 7, 596 f f . ) .
D. T. D.
ARAVAI.ADAHA, the lake in whioh Arav6fa, tho
nfrga-king, lived. S€o ARAVALA.
ARBITRATIOI{, eetding o disputo in the Sarigha.
SEE SANGE.AKAMMA.
ARBUIIA NIRAYA, one of the subdivisione in a
eystcm of nireyas (holls) found in Buddhist coBmo.
logy, ea,me n Abbtd,o in the Peli. As in t}rs UMna
oomrnontary (140), it is rcferrsd to in the lWolfit:ywt-
p&i (entry 4929) snd the Dlnrnuanpgralw (tZZl
as a oold holl. Tbe Dlwrmaoaqngraha (loc. ;it.)
grves also a different rendoring of the.nsrno ag
Aecada- The Aaad.drniu,nka (f,
4 f.) and tho
Ddagdaadd,nn (67 f.) say thot when the Buddlrae
emile, tho four-colourod raye which emanare from
their lips roech Arbuda and ths rost of these eight
helle, cooling them or warming thsm accoiding to
their neod. The Udona Varga (viii, vorse E) also
ment,rons this hell. Seo aleo ABBUDA NIIiAYA.
B. J.
ARCHAEOLOCY, being closely linked with the
hisgqry
of Buddhism in various countries ae iell
as with tho deveiopmont of art seon in diffsrent
forms of srchitecturo and sculpture, recoverod
by oxcavation and othor rnerrrg, will be dealt
witb usdsr tbe uernos of the countrim whors such
rsmains havo been discovered"
ARCIHSAMUDnAilUKEAVECAPRATIIPA,
a Te.
th6,gata, whoee nemo occura between Samanta-
jff
dnacarydvilnrnba and Dharmavimdaanirghoserija
in & list of Tathdgatas who. were propitioted
@tAgia)
by tho Sdkya-girl, Gopd,, in her previoue
birbhs (GWu.422.201.
ARCIKETU, nannedf a forrnsr Buddha (Lal. t7l.l0l.
ARCIUAEEI{DRA, a bodhissttvs vhoe€ name
ooours in s list of future TathEgatas (W5.449.f
6).
For dsteils me MAYADEYI
ARCIUAI{T (f), narne of a legondsry oakravbrtin
who becnnro tbe father of Dipeikrra (M.hor. l,
r 93. r 4) .
AROIf,AIIT (2), name of a prcviorrs inoa,l!&tior
of $akyamuni (Iat.f f
g.I6).
ABCIllETRInEtpefI,aame of a ydrpa (M.httynl.
s37l ) .
ARCIRUAIpAIAOITRA, a Tarhigeta whoae
n&rrro occurs betwoon Retnacendradhvaje
and
R^etnigraprabhateje, in e list of Tethdgrtas vho
were propiti*tad. (dragita,) by tne Sekya-girl, Gop6,
in hor previous births (GWe.422.t8).
ABCI8OAXDRA, a bodhiesttva whoee nlrns oqorrre
in a list of future Tathdgatas
@We.
44$.1; the
fret edition resdE thir name *long with tho proooding
ooe a,nd thus givee ths name as Kundr6riyirci6,
oendro,-8tr[8. a. v. Kun{e6riyErci&nadra);
For
detsils eoe MAVADEVI.
ARCIiIRI, nerno of e forner Buddhe
@ofr.25g.8).
ARCIiJilAI{T, na,me of o Buddha (Sd&p. O.g};
and also of ao encientr kingr
a pnovious inoarnetion
of Amiti.yus, and fatherof Pu4yerar{m'i (RW.36.18),
ARCI$UANT, a bodhisattva whos6 na,rno occure in
a list of futuro Tathdgathel
l@ry&.
Uz,lll. For
details soe MAyADEVI-
ARCI$HATI, n&rro of the fourth bodhisattva
bhflmi (DbLg. 6.8
;
Mhvgur. 889
;
Dlwytg. M;
Bbh. 34r. 2).
ARCITAT{AIA, e bodhissttva whoee naul6 ocsurs
in a list of futuro Tathfuatae (Gry&, 4J'1.6. EdgsrtoD
suggoeta the reading Arcitamanr, BIfg. s.e.
Arcitan^eme). For details s€s MAyADnvI.
ARDIIAsATIKA.PRAJ fi A-P A RAIWIT A 72 ARGUMENTATION
A RDH ASATIKA-P RAJfi ' A-P ARA IVIITA, the
Prajfr5,pd,ramitf in fift5z stanzas,
'
an abrirlged
version of the teachings of Pra,1fi,a'pdrarnitcl, Sil'tras.
SCE PRAJNAPARAMITA SI-I' IRA.
ARDRAVALIKA, n&me of i I ni ga ki ttg gi vcn
i n t he l l uhdr ndui l r t
( RHS. \ .
AnnneveL[IPRATIR[IPA, a former Br]ddha,
mentioned in & iist of former Bucidhas under
rrhom Sakyr,m,*i whi l e i n the' ni nth bhumi acqui red
mer i t
( Mhuu. f , 14I 1.
ARGHA{I CEO-GA, a transl ati on i n Ti betan
from a Sanskrit text. See ARGILA,VIDI{I.
ARGHAVIDEI, the ti tl e of a Sanskri t text, the
Tibetan translation of which occru-s in the ligyud-
hgrel (tantr& cornmentary) section of the
'feng;'111
rrnder the title Argha,lr,i cho-ga (Peki;rg Ed. Tib.
Tri p., eci . D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 66, No. 2767). The
eol ophon has the ti tl e Arghahi . cho-ga afi dn-pa
bsd,us-pa (Arghaa'idhis6,ra"sanzlc.sepa according to
Cord,i er,II, p. 156. No. l ). T.he authorshi p of the
work is credited to Snari-byed zla-ba (Bhdnucandra)
and'the translation rs attribrrted to Varendra-pa
and Prajfldkirti.
The text, which begins with a sair"rtation to
Sri Vajrasattva, conta,ins & detailed clescription
of the method of rnaking respect,ful offeringb
(argha), The kinds of offerings enumerated at the
outset are &s follows : monasteries, stdpas, pain-
ti ngs on cl oth, hol 5,- scri ptures, i rnages, hal l s ,Jf
worship, ponds, water-channels, springs, forrntains,
pleasant vaileys, thickets and pleasure grov€s.
The ritual connected with the offering of an
d,rd,ma
(monastery) is fi.rst set out"
'Ihis
includeg
sever&l offerings to tre made by the worshipping
priests in front of a mandala, practice of medita-
ti ons nncl the reci tati onof magi c formul as (mantra).
I'lre first mantra citeci is as follows : Om mtttstile
sad,hi. Om mohani sud,hd. Om dattq,tni s,;d.ltd. After
reciting this twenty-one times, the worshipper,
attired in clean clothes and decked with ornaments,
i s enj oi neci to sl eep i n the l i on' s posture wi th
face turned eastwards, on & mat rvilh tho pillow
placed to the south. Then at dasrr he is said to see
in iris dreams the fiice of the Buddlia, r;tiipas,
offerings, monks, nuns etc. Ttie mantra,
also said to have the power of averting e','il dreams
is called tlna rmi-lam ston-pali snag.s (lit. the mantrir
that shotps dleams, ? Skt. suap.,t,tstJcakamantra).
Other magical formulas to be prouor:lced in the
cortrrse of making this offering are: Om bhu
khatrt : lt'ftrn lant, ht1m.; Om ntedini rajr't. bli,at;a
ua.i rohancl l ti t l tt1m, at, t,ho rcri tu,t,i on of n-hi ch tl re
gol den-compl eri onetl goddess of the earth i s sai d to
a,ppear. revt-' al i ng one l -ral f of i rer body. dcckcd i n
ornaments a,nrl hol ,l i ng n, bej ev' ei l ed rva,ter-fl ask
in hcr harrcl;
(,tm.
saruatatlt&qa,ta sttlelita
na'mdmi bho,gatantem d,=eh ltitm bunr, hoh pratlcclta
kunmtlTfi,jalim nd,th,a ho a formula to be c,hani,ed
while rnaking .rn offcring of flowers, and Ona gha gha
ghataya ghrltaya sarxa !2
t duhkham pltc{. Icilaya
ktlaya sarxapd,pcm hfi,m, Iru1n ht1rn aa,jralci.Iaya
aaj r arlhar o aj fi,d pay ati kdy au d,kci,tta,"* aj r u,ki,Iay a hfi,m
phat, a charrn for averting all obstacles. At the
end of the deiscription of the rites for offering a
monastery, i t i s staterl that the proceduro for the
offering of strlpas and of halls of worship is the
same. Yariation-. in detail regarding the other
offerings are set out in the rest of the text. The
fbllowing mantra to be chanted while making an
offering of holy scriptures ma_v be noted. {)ry
dhi. . . . . mati bi,jaye saraa ajfi,dnapataldpaim-
raTro haqt, aud,hti.
R. II.
ARGUMENTATION (takl ca), the sci ence of l ogi e.
is not highly esteerned in the sayings attributed
to the I]uddha, wirich is no dorrbt clur: to tho
fact that reasoning often leads to hair-splitting
sophistry. The Buddha speaks of his teaching as
bei ng' boyond argumentnti on' (a.takkd,uacara :
-D. I, l 2
;
,9. f, 136
;
M. I. 487), i .e., unattai nabl e
by mero reasoning" Realisation of the truth ie
a,ttainable only through insight (zipassanal inta
t,he nature of all components as being impermanent,
unsatisfactory and without substanee-
On sevpral occasions the Ruddha refused to tre
'dlawn
into an arglrmen.b and preferred a <luestion
to rema,in
'rndecided
(auyakotul. Sometirnes lre
explained his silence as a refu*qal to take sides
with eit,her onponent. his being the middle path
between eternalism a,nd annihilationism.
Argumeutation, ho.wever, is far from absent
i n the Buddhi st tt:xts, and espeei al l s the l atcr
r.vorks lilie Kathduatthu and Milindo,pafi,ha, are
ful l of stri ki ng, though rrot al ways convi nei ng,
exampl es.
Logic without argtrmentation, howel'er, is one
of the strong poi nts of Buddhi sm whi eh does not
rely on faith in rcvealed. dop;mas. For example,
the Four Noble
'Iruths
contain a mastorpiece of
deduction from the unir-ersal problem of conflict
(dukkha) to i ts causal condi ti ons (sartud,atl a)
AREANT l n AREAT.SANGHAVARDHANA-
and their solution (nirod,hn). But when argumen-
tation bocomes & means for furthering wrong
ideas (takkaaadShana)
it is also rightl5r callcd a
jungle
of sophistry (taklca-gahanq, : J. I, 97).
II. G. A. v. Z.
ARHANT, the person who, a,ccording to various
schools of Ilinaydna Buddhism, has attained the
fourth and final stage ofspiritual progress under the
guidanco of a, Buddha or his Teachins. See
ARAHANT.
ARHAT. See ARAHANT.
ARHAT-SAi tCnevnnDHANA. n&me of a monk
who lived in the monastery of Bru-fla in Tibet.
Seo ARHAT.SANGHAVARDHANA.VYAKA-
RANA.
ARHAT-SAi cXevenDHANA-VYAKARAI.{A,
tho
reeonstructed Sanskrit title of a Tibetan text,
the Dgra-bcont-pa-dge-hd,z,,n hphel-gyi lun.bstan-pa
included in the Gtam-yig (Parikathd, and Lekha)
eection of the Tengyur (Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed.
D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 129, )So. SOSS;. The author,
Dge-hdun
hphel,
begins the text with a salutatory
formula addressed to Maiju3rik'rvn5rs6h;trr.
Arhatsa,nghavardhana'B an,swer to a pupil who
asked why the Buddha's teaching declined in
KauSambi iu Indio forms the' content of the work.
The site of this discourso is given as tho mountain
Hj i g
tshogs.kyi ri (? Bhi sa4ap' arvata), whoroArhat-
sarighavardha,na of tho monrastery of Bru-fia ix
Tib€t spent the rainy season with one of his pupils.
The pupil mosk, hearing that tho teachirrg. of the
Buddha, had declined in l{au6ambi but had
oontinuod to exist in I(em6ado6a (Li-yrl) and othor
places, asked the teacbor for dotails. Tho toacher
proceede,d to expl ai n-
One thousand and 6ve hundred years after bho
parinirvrina of the Buddha, faithless peoplo in many
regions dest'royed the doctrine. .dt the tine, a
faithless king ruled over Karn"6ade6a, and tho country
rsas robbed aad damaged. The temples were
moetly empty and the people bad lost faith in tho
Three Jewels. Uuable to find tho necessaries of life,
the monks and mrns viqlatod the rules of.discipline,
and followed conduct unworthy of their calling. This
being so, the people paid no homage to thon and
they evon robbed tho clergy of their woalth. Evit
thus arose in the kingdom of Karp6ade6a, and the
country suffered geetly. The kirrg's ninistors
robbed 65. a66-Lq so.d nrrns of the moreaste:ries
erect,od for them by devout kings of the past, and
mado themtheir own abodes. Tho monks wanderecl
to and fro and hardly managed to remain alive.
They had rro robes to we&r or places to live in.
They, therefore, decided to go to the monasl,erv
calied Tshar-mtr, because tlrey had hoard that the
Three Jewels were respected in Tibet. After their
arrival there, a pious lady invited them for alms.
The gong being sounded, all the monks assombled.
She paid them her respects.
'Ihen
from an opening
in a couch near the image of the Buddha, thero
appeared a chest, which, when openod, revealed a
golden dish of victuals. Partaking of i;hese, tho
monks speni tho rainy se&son in the Tshar-ma
monastery, practising the monastic vows. At the
end of the rainy se&son, they set out and arrived
at the monastery of Ye-Sss-ri (Jflanaglri) in the
locality of Sahi sflin-po (? Bhrimi-garbha). Thore,
from inside tho earth near an ancient and dilapi-
dated cetiya, appeared a golden bowl full of pearls.
The monks took the pearls and maintained thom-
selves there during the three winter months, and
wlren spring came they climbed over Candrak6nta
(Sel cu) mountain and proceeded. The inhobitants
of the lower country (Tlb. smad,) heard of their
arrival, invited thom to the monastery of Cofr
(? YhalferEma) end offerod alms for sovon days.
In the moantimo, the ndgas in Kar.nsade6a, sad at
fbe thought of the docline of Buddha'e teaching,
ra,ined e heavy showor, with the intention of on.
suring ite continuance. Thie rain brought to visw
a gold.waeher full of gold dust on the grounds of a
ceitya near tbe Con monastery. Tho monks sold it
and acquirod provisions for tho spring months. Ths
people of the lower rrogion (Tib. emad,) invited them
to s monastery cslled Lrhi tshel (the Grove of tho
Mor:-atain Pass) and gavo alms for sovon days. On
tho seveuth day, tho monks eet forth from the
mon.astery and procooded along the bordors of Tibot.
In a monastery called Kasara io Ker.nSado€a, a
douor of royal desoent enterbained ths monke for
seven days. From there the monks sot out for
Me-skar. Vaiiravapa and Sri-devi (Tib. Dpat ttn-
mo) assumed the guise of nomedic Tibetans and
attended on them. Passing mountain and valley,
they reached sn isolatod wilderness. Thero thoy
lost their way and Vaidravar.ra appoarod beforo them
iu the form of a white yak. They followed the yak
to Tshal-byi. Meenwhile, m&ny old monks a.rrd nuns
hed died on the way. Seeiag tho monks srrive, the
Tibetan monks of Tshal-byi went to meet them,
atteuded to their irnrnediato
needs aad s€nt meas@-
gers to announce tbe a,rrival of DooLs from
I(evn,{s4s6s.
A NHAT-qAT 6H &IIAR IIff Aff A- t +
ARfr AT-SAf ASAVA,RD EAT{A.
A.t thia ti6o, o m*idon poeaeesing the quo,liti,es of
a bodhiesttva w&s mad,s qu€sru Bupratna in the
pelace of ths Tibetan king. She requet.,4 11.5 kirrs
to invite the monke and ofrer them thoir requisitcc.
Full of davotion on scqing tJre monko" tho king ard
minintorn oreoted monasteriw for thorc.
Iho monks Ancepa, Gue-tig-pn, Por mkhan.pa
and Su-Hg-pa wont to the
"o.*iry
of Bru-,qha en-
during mueh difficulty on the wa,)r" Tllro rnonks of
tho countrios of Tho-dkar *nd Kh*-che (Kash*rir)
also oftme to Bru-eha, but were uppressad, and un-
loved by the faithless people of their r.egions.
Eearing that m*ny monasterios h{rd been put up in
Tibot and that the king paid respect and horrrago to
the Three Jewele, the monks went, thero and lived
happily for three yoer,s.
'jhen
a disoe*€ npread in
the country. Meay pe<lple died of tumours and.
ulenn. The queen, too, d.ied of a t,r;mou-r in her
bretet a'td
qas
r:sL,orn irr th,;
world. cf, the gods. Tho
rniaisters in Tibet l;aeame sngry and blamed tho
monl<s for the calamity, firey issued an or4oy with
irnmodiate e&'r:ct, forbidding t,ho prerenee of mencli-
eants in Tibet. !)uring her illness the qriesn had
informed the king of hen iast will, "'?Vhcrr f dia,
let all rny wealth he givon to the rnonks." Tho king
did accordingly and the mc,nks made preparation-s tr;.r
go to Gandhdra. The Tibetan monks aiso left thcir
homeland in desp*ir" Souro rnonks frorn Indiao tco,
who had disagreernonts with tho pegple in their
l&nds, set out for GanrUrd,ra. They all mot together
on the wsy.
'Iibetan
aoldiors accosted them,
robbed them of tlieir servants errd poai*ossiour
and
killod many of thern" Driven by the Tibetan erm)",
the meinke wont to tho abode of tho niga-king
Elapetra (Trb. Elnhi
Wb).
Tho ndga-king in tho
guieo of an old man sslubod them anrf esksd them
whsre they wore going. Ttioy saitl tlrab tlrey were
on their way to Gandhdra bui, had aesombled thero
t'o got somo provisioqe for tha journey.
Tha n6ga-
king, seeing signs of the impenciing
deciine of the
Buddha's tea.ching, wopf, profusoly.
Fto askod the
rnonks what provisions they neoded. They mario
a precise calculation a,nd asked fbr provisions to last
{iftoon daye. The ndga-krrig thon creatod r}n oce&n
surrounding Garrdhdra and denae foroats infostecl
with dengorous boasrs. scorpions, eerpents ancl ths
liko, Seeing theso, the rnonks were sad aud they
wept. Elapatra asked tirenr not to l*ment as he
would make a bridge of'his body for thom to srnss
over the oo€an, i{o changod himgelf into a huge
eorpent, placed his hood on tho. peak of a rnountain
on tho slopes of Tibet and his tail on anoiher in
Gandh6,ra, Tho bridge so built had tho girth of:
lbout five tr.eos, l'r.ightenod
of tlro sight, the
mo!-ki! dtrporsed in flight. The naga-king, epoaking
in e human \roico,
qdred
therm to croes over. Thsn
tho skin on the back of the ndga-king was sir|ppcd
ofr by tlxr hooveg of the cettle and the feet of the
people as they urossod ovs?. A large wnund
eppeared. Blood, black in colour, poured forth
fronit ini,o tho ocean. After the monks had pasmd
over, l,he nBga-king tiied and ths ocea,n driod up.
The bones of ths <le*d sorpent formsd a mountain
in ths dried-up ocoan. In the future, the Eudriha
Maitnoya will arrive thore with a following of flrra
huudr.e.d and narrato ther life,story of the n6ga-lring
Elapatra. ltrese fivo hundrsd monrks will thern
receivo the fruit of *rhatship.
The monke who wsnt to Gandhflrs lived tbca
happily for two ye*rs. Dnring tho oirird yoar, the
pioue kinq of Gandir6ra died and his
gon
booame
king. lle nrled for ff.ve rcon.ths, when e thoueand
monks killud him and inetalted a monk els
tring.
'fheroupon
ths miriietors ef Gandhdre ied en a,nny
t<l the countr;r. eot up thoir orrn king
ancl began to
kill all the monkg in Gantthira. Some of the monks
flsd to tbo e,entral provinco
of lhdia (T-ib.
yul
dbus
;
$kt. .rlfagxihadesa).
At th.ia timo, tlroe faithless kirrp hold sw.ay over
tho whole of hrdia except, tho Magadhe regiou.
T'Iiey camo to an agroouoent, conquerod all othor
regions with thsir &nray and rJ.omolisherl
many e
town. They then mot arid held counsol aboub
invading Magadhacle6a.
At ths timo, in Kau6ombi
in Magadha, thoro ruled a king, Dusprasaha (Tib"
Bzod-dk*h) byname. Hie time ofbirthwasm&rked
lry , shower of blood. I[is two arnm, elbowe
downruards, wore rsd ae though smenred. witb blood.
Fivo hundred ministers cf exeellont lirnb and a
valiant $nny of iwo tnrndred thougand. were born
at tho seme tinrs. The threo king" marched towards
I(au6ambi. Druprasaha
heerd rc,f this ancl mt
ftrrth with his own army. The two arrniog mst and.
in a battle that lasted t,irreo months, Dugprasaha
overthrew the ri.,ral kings and retarned to his
kingdona victcrious. -FIe was, how.ovor, repenrent
of the eyil incunod. The ministers boeeeched the
king to invito tho leamod monk S-rrsaka, who was
well-versed in the Tripifiaka, from tho country of
I)mar and eonfoss his *cin- Tho lring
did so. Tlre
monk said that the king ehould invite all the monkg
i^'r Inrlia, offor them their rerluisites. take refugo in
ttrtrrn, confoss hi.s sin. irr their pres€nce oach dey and
Bo rrtone ior the sin incurrod. The king diC so.
A hundred ttrousa,ud monlis assombled. Thetr in tho
evenrng of tho fifteenth day, the rnonks assernbled
fnr the posadho (confee-eion) ceremony. Tho monk
Sirqake ssked them to reeite line Prdti,mokso-sgrra
(the.efitra on deliveraaceL the codo of morai and
ARI
Inol ]$st,i c rl i sci pl i ne). He al so rnrrrl o a remtrrk thrrt
i nsi nuatecl l ,]rei r i gnoranco of i t,. Arr ari i at cal l er-[
$urata rose i rr ti rat a"ssembl y, obj er;tecL to t,ho
remark. snid t'hat he knew ihe srffra us t,tre Brrrldlrn
i,aught it ancl recited it,. Sircaka feit asharne,rl,
rurd his pu;ril i\gnavi, angry a', t,ho tliscomfitrrr,e
of his teacher, seized a cloor-bar ancl kiliecl the
l ,rbu,t. Karba, a pupi l of Si l ruta, ki l l eti Srrsuka
with a ciuh. All rhe rnonks becarne angrv, foll
r.nto two ranks and kiilecl ono another'.
' Ihen
l ,tra gori i nf tho
' -,vorl d
of i ,hi rtv-three
'
,' i sscrnbl cd i i nd, sew tl ro tl etrcl bodi trs of the tnonk,.l .
' i l rer'
l rl erv t' ]rei r l .rrurri ret,s and pai cl respecl ".
' I' ]rorr:l
tl ' ero vi rri cnt st,or:rrs i n the ki rrgdi ,rr:r arrtl rgi l i s of fi rrr,
'T'he
eart]r trenrblecl tr.rrJ t,he;:e \x/&s r] iorrd tlin tntl
lrFrroa,r.
'l'hrr
king, rnost, riistrr'ssed, went, bo the
nrorlirst+,ry, eirni;rrrcod tiro corpsLrrl of tlie monk
l i rrsaka und thc arhat,, anri l rrmonted, cai i i ng
,-rut,
l troir na,mes.
I)uring that evening of the oxtinerion of ths
doctlirr.e, tlro gods 1led beaten by tho asures. Than
there occurred a sc*rcity of fooci eud poopie ate
l'Rric-rri$ kirrds of wild root,g anrf frtiits" $ilk and
cotton ga,rments treing scarce, p€oplB wore tattered
clc,t,hes. As tharo were Do ornamonta of gold or
jer,l'els,
t,lroy docked themeelves with crntimerits
nrarls of stalks. Even the iruages of the Budclhe
rvr:re takon t,o i,he nd,sa world.
I T. H.
ARl. 1.'ht; namo, <lerived frorn tho Pali Ari,ua,
was thai; of a Bru"mene soct, who eame to Pag6n
lrorn +iither' Flr:rngl,i or narthern Xnrlia about
tbc' si -xth contti ry A, C. Opi ni on w&8 &r, fi rsr di vi dod
ii$ tr.r whe,ther tirey had &ny eomoction with
Budrlhisrrr and, in firct. the larger portion bgiioved
they had not. Ifr)wever, since the ci.iscovery of aii
inscriptiorl nrrrl l,he sl,rrrly of fr.lgcioes at two templsg
irr 1915 iL hrrs l.reen est,al:liehed that ths Ari werei
rl. IJudrlhist, sect, &t a,ny rfl,te tluring one stngo of their
history. ft was, Cha,s. Duroiselle who elahorabed
rhe therne in a contribtrt,ion to l,ho .Archaeologfual
'\u.ruey of IruLta, tLnruu.at ReTtort( i9l5-16), frorn whiclr
the foi l owi ng a{:counl , has been cornpi l ed.
,f,h.e
(]tu;ts
Pul,ace CJ'van,icle aJ the K'ings o! Burmo,
(p. 71) riujllxrltrj tiro
basic ilrformat,iorr.
'.fhe
Ari were of ttre Nlah[y6,na sehool whcn they
cnme t'o .Pagfirr. T'his is elea,r from "fibetrhr
sourcos
(e.g.,
'I'irdnd,t,ha)
antl from the freseoes fourrcl in 1,he
templ es of i ,hs sect, at Paya-thon-zrr and Nanda-
rnaffiii in Min-ron-thu near Pagdn. Thamati, one
mile away, ie bslisveil to havo boen their homo ancl
stronghold. l'lrreir gross pruotices becamo so
ARI
intolerable in t,he encl that king Anawrahta ousted
i hem (i n f 057 A.C.) by the devi ce of i ntroduci ng
'Ihertrv6,da
Buddhism and persocuted therrr severely.
'Ihey
rrero not conrpleteiy cmshod, for traces of thoir
betiefs and practices lingered. on, more especially
inJand. (*s witir the Shans), with some degr.ee of
inf,uence tili the fifteenth century. At this time
t.lrt: great restoratiol of llud<ihism by king Dhamnra.
zedi al rnost erodi ,:ated them. Il owover, they
eonti nued i ,o sun' i vr. i f weakl y, ti l l the end of tho
eright,eenbh century. Therr the n&me dropped out of
rrse io be roplaced b3' tho expression Artr-ggi,_d,o_
a,nhusoy
i"
boxing-monks ") or Doscendants of tbe
Gteat Ari.
'Ihe
immoralitv q.hich
is directly
tr raceablo L{r the Ari had rto.u altogether boen
dgstroyed up to rscont yoars.
Tbe Cuit. Though the documents givq little
information on the beUefs and practices
of the sect,,
a fair picturo
of these is obtained from tbe i"rescoes
of, tho Paya-thon-zu and Nand*mafrfld tem.ples, At
the time of A:rawrahta the ArI priests wore robog
dyed in i:adigo, kept their hair four finger-breadths
lsng, lived in largo monasteries, freely drank spirits,
and woro not eolibato. The use of moat end drink
for themselves and their eeremonies and. their in-
continency poirro to Tantrism
;
the colour of the
robe, whicti is that of the Tibetan Tantric Orcler
who " preachod i mmoral i ty and crbscene docbri ne
,,,
f'urther confirrns tlris connection
of. theirs.
They becarnt: priests of tiltt n1ga and, nol worship
then prervailing among rbe pc,ople and officiated at,
bloody sacrifices cunnected s.ith these cults.
'Iheso
sacrifices took piace yearly at
pagi.n
ancl the sacred
Poppa. Aborrt the eighth contury they came to be
profoundly irlflueaced by Trurtrism. As a result
thoy woro addicted to gross irnmorality as part of
their sacerdotal functions
: the traditions &ro con-
flnned by tho frescoes which depict this aspect of
their prar:tice. In addiiion to sexual aberrations
they had a kind of
jus prima,e noctis irrospective of
the soei al posi i i on of the mai den.
They preached that the rocitation of certain
sut'tas would remit sins and hinted that a grs,ded
sca,le of paymont to them would further help in this
matter. Tho suttas are not named but, aecord.ing
to tradi ti on, one i s exl ant i n Burmese under the
titlc Adikappo (a.dikatpa), whose lonser tirle is
Ad,ikappitttambhi-utcgam.
SaiC to have been trans-
l ai ed trnd compi i ecl from thei r works, i t i s &
col l ecti on of short chapters on quasi -Bucl cl hi st
cosmogony. Less authorrtati vo i .s the suggest,i on
that ther. rrsed the (now rare)r Nepalese Buddha
Purdna. It is elso believed tha.t Ari taachfurgs.were
l o
ARI 76 ARINDAMA
tbe base of the sevoral books widely read in Burua
uader the generic naulo LokE-zd', whieh contai-n a
wealth of recipes for alchemy, ettoinment of etil'hd
and such mattere of a professedly tantrio
oharactor. Tho name of only ono membor of the
gect
has remainod for postority. It is tbat of
Ajjegona, popularly oalled the Great Ari, who is
believed to have produced a vast quantity of gold,
and enriched his country. Ilo is, more or less, the
gerrius of the local elchomists.
l}e a,neient tomple of unspecified date which is
now ealled Paya-thon-zu
( " Threo-Temples ")
rpoesesses
the rrnique architectural feature of three
distinct small squero buildings with vaulted corri-
dors and porticoos joined together by two vaultod
na,rrors passages loading from the ono to the otber.
The subjects of the freseoos on the interior are
totally unlike any others so far known and represent
a phaso of tbe religion of the Ari whieh came to bo
abhorred by Theravdda established in Pagdn by
Anawrahta. Cloeo by is Nandamaflfid temple
whose freecoes are bighly erotic and the sentiments
here exprossod tally with the Ari practices already
mentioned. An inscription datod 610 of tho
Burmeeo era
(1248 A.C.) end found near it recorda
Fme incidents which bad taken place earlier.
Among them it, is mentioned
+"hat,
king Narapathi-
eithu (Alaungsithu), who came to the throne in
lll2 A. C., urged ono of his ministers to build the
temple and tho ueighbouring monastory, into which
it wae incorpo:ated, and that Shin Arahan went to
Tenaeserim for a Buddha relic to be enshrined in an
avowedly Ari temple which, as also recorded, was
duly endowed for the purpose of pror-iding the
inrn6f,s3 wit[ rice, meat, and fermented spirits,
moraing and evening. That the foundatioa was
for the Ari there is thus no furtber doubt. It also
remarkably demonstratos
that tbe relations between
the Ari and Theravdda monl-s must have been quito
oordial at the time.
The cbaractor of tire two tomplos settles the
quoetion of the reiligion of tho Ari. It wasl
Buddhism, whatever the echool. For the tomples
are Buddhist placos of worship. Tho coll of each
sofisins a Buddha figuro in the earth'touching
ettitudo (bhd+nnaparia'muilrd'). There are nume'
rous Buddha figures painted on the walls and
coilings, whilst e wholo seriee moro oro dopictod
with sainte. In tho Nandomafli6 thero is &
stnnding Buddha in tbe gesturo of charity (aatado-
mudral accompaniod by T6,16, a*c Sakti-* combina'
tion which sufficiently provos that Ari wero Mah6-
yiniste, at, loaet up to tho twelfth century to whieh
period tho two temples bave bsen dated. The Glass
Pqlsn Chronhle
(pp. 39, 71, 74 f .) adds that
thie goup of heretics had thirty lords (leadere)
with sirty thousand dieciplos. The people of
Burma had clung to their doctrines for a poriod of
thirty generations of kings beforo Anawrahta. They
preached that a man might take the life of another
even that of the mother or the father and ovade the
courso of karma.. ft was with tho help of Shi-
Arahan, also known as Dhammadassi, that king
Anawrahta ousted the Ari monks and estebished
Theravdda Buddhiem in Burna. The thirty Ari
lords and their sixty thousa,trd disciples are said to
have been disle!6d and enrollod among the spear-
men, laneers and elephant dung-sweepers of the
king.
D. T. D.
Brsr,toonepay : Nihar-Ranjan Ray, Sarrskrii
Budfl\r4"^'in Burmt.
ARIGUPTA, a bodhisattva whose n&me ocours in a
liet of futuro Tathd,gatas (GWil. 142, ll). For
details see MAYADEVI.
ARIKARI, a monastery in Ceylon, See ARIYA-
KAR,I.
ARIMADDAI{A, one of tho several classical ruunos
of Pagdn (q.v.).
ARIIIANDA, & city in Jambudipa. lilore the
Sakyamuni in one of his previous lives, was borr
in the time of Phussa Buddha. ILe was then
known &s Vijatavi and was of royal caste
(BuaA. xrx).
ARIMABDANA
(l), a former Buddhar mentionod
in a list of former Bud.dhas under whom Sakyamuni
acquired merit while in the eightb bhtirmi (Mhau.
r , 137) .
ARIMARDANA
(2), a forrner Buddha, me:ntioned in
a list of forner Buddhas und.er whom $akyamuni
while in the ninth bhnmi acquired merit (Mhuu.
r , I 39) .
ARINDAUA
(f), the bodhi satta, born as a ki ng
i n the ti me of Buddha Si khi (Mhhr.
P.
l l ;
see elso p. 72). For the Buddha and his disciples
he hold a great almsgiving lasting a woek wbich
inciuded many robes, and a fully caparisonod
olephant which he rodeemed by offering requisitee
to the height of tho elephant. Iluddha, Sikh;
prodicted that thirty-one kappas later king Arindq.r"a
woul d becomeaBuddha
( Buu. xxi , I t r . ; J. I , 4l ) .
Arisdamo's
cePital wes Paribhut't'a
(BurtA.
p. 2451-
ARINDAMA
4 -
I t
ARTSTAKAXSa
More details ribout Arindami. aro lbund in the
Sotwka ,Iu,tal:a, He s'as the son of the king of
Il agncl hn anci hi s cl ri ef cl ueen. He gpew up toge.
ther wi t,h Sonaka, the son of the chapl ai n. After
finishing their training at I'akk:rsil6, where they
studied together, the two friends set out to gain
practical experience. At, the tirno they reached
Barlr.rusi the king there had died childless ancl tho
city was without a king. The ministers going
in soarch o{' l, suitable successor to t}re throno
annointed Arintlarna trs king of fJdranasi. Sqnaka.
leading a religious life, became u paccekabuddhe.
Aft,er forty years Arindama thought, of his
chilclhood irierxl Sr:naka and ofl'ered a handsome
row{}rd to any.orrc who conl d gi ve news of' Sonaka.
A song which the king rrsed. to sing expressing hrs
desire to seo Sonaka becarno a householci rh;rnq
in his kingrlom. Ien years la'uer he was informed
tlrat Sonoka had como to his park. The king went
there and saw tho paecekabuddha but did not
recognise him &s Sonaka. Without revoaling
his identity Sonaka convinced Arindama of tho
dangers of leading a, worldly life and of the
joys
of the lifo of a recluse, nnd disappeared into the
ai r.
Tho king, irnpressed by the ascetic's rvords and
also w'ith his psychic powers, renounced the world
{brthwith, appointing his. eldest son Dighi!'n as
his successor. I{e developed supernatu.rtil l'aculties
and was reborn in Brahmaioka (./. V, 24i-6I).
This story is repeated in lhe Ilahit:astu with
a:&ri&tion, the most important, di-fference being
ttrab Arindama i-q identifiecl as a previous incarna-
tion of king llirribis6,ra, and the bodhisatta is
Sonaka who is not, rr paccekabudciha but a, sage.
Another difference is that king r\rindama is said
to havo ruled in Mithild,, capital of Videha
{lllhuu.
III, 449 ff.t.
Elsewhere in the Jd,talcatthahathd Arindama is
mcntioned along with Mahajanaka &s an examplo
of n king who renounced his kingdom and took
to a l i fo of sol i tude (J. TII, 489).
L. R,. G.
ARI$TA, one of the eight young deva maidons of
the wostern quarter. She comos third in tho iist,
whore only six others &ro
piven,
Alambus6,
ARINDAMA (2)' a ki ug fur the t,i me of Budrl ha Mi 6rakeSi , Suprabh6yaka, KIq+6, Sukrd and
Suma,na,. A great dispute
had arisen regarding Draupadi (Mhvu.III, 308).
tho naturo of the attainment of nirodhu (extinetion)"
Bralr-rnas, dewas belonging to rnany th,ousand ARI$TAKAK$A (.I{oelreu'teria panieauiata), a plant,
worlcl-systorns, ancl hurna,n heings could not agree the seeds of which are used for Buddhist meditation
and wero divided into tu'o cemps. To clear their beads. The .fuIu-lr,uan-tztr,-chdng
{ ^ffi,Tffi
doubts, they,headed byking Arindama, approached Artstalcd,ksa S{t'tra) says, "If you want to cut off
Buddlru, Snmana. It is said that whcn the Buddha the barriers of delusion (kleid,uaraTta)
and of the
prooched tho doclrime, seatt:d on the Yugandhara effect of karma (r:ipakdaarano), thread one hundrod
mountain, Arindama and ninety crores of peoplo
who came with him, sought ordination and reached
s,rahantship on that very day (BuuA, pp. f5&-7).
L. R. G.
ARIXDAITIA (3), king of Uttara in the time of
Buddha Revata. W}len the Buddha visitod his
city, Arurdama went to receive him with three
crores of his people. IIe held a groatl almsgiving,
for seven days, for the Buddha and his disciplos,
and also made an offering of lamps covoring a
spaco of three leagues. Tho Buddha proachod
to th,-. people, and a thousand crores of dovas and
men rsslised the doctrine (Buu. vi, 4
;
BuaA,162),
L. Ii. G.
ARINDAIIIA (4), king of lfa,mssvati in the time of
Buddha Padumuttara. When ho lost his weolth
through nogligonce, ltts seghi (Jetuke++ika ia a
provious birth) made good the loss by prcvi.ling
hirn with the soven kinds of
jewele (Ap. ii, 300).
According to a Sinhalee€ MS. 1,hie king'a
nalno iE
Auanda.
.L. R, G.
ARINITAilA (5), e cakkavattin (world-mlor)
of
forty.ono kappas ago s,nd a provious birth of
$anniflfidpeka thera (Ap.I, 97).
ARINIHANTAR, & formor Buddha, montionod
jn
a list of foraerBuddhas undorwhom Sekyamuni,
while ru the nintb bhfrni, acquired merit (Mhuw.
I , l 4o) .
ARI$TA (l),
namo of a former Buddha (Mhw.
I I I , 2 5 1 . l ) .
ARI$TA (2), a monk. See AIT,ITTHA (2).
ARI$TAI{EMI 78 ARITTHA
and eight ori,sla,kd,kaa and carry it with you always "
(Tai,sh5, Vol. 17, p. 786). According to the Iy'.ni.
kao
-
s €n4
-
chuan (' the Biographies of E minent Monks'
)
by Tao-hsi i an, Tao-ch' o (562-645 A. C.) made
many stringg of these bsads and gave them to many
monks and la5rmon.
K. Tun.
ARI$TANEilI, a fonner Buddha, ment'ioned in a
liet of former Buddhae und.er whom Sakyamuni
whi l o i n the ni athbhnmi acqui redmeri i
{Ml rau.I,
140) "
ARI$TIKA, a goddess montioned in the Mahi,-
mmi,ja Siitra (186 as in B.HS.). The corresponding
Pali term givonin th.e Makfrsam,agaSutta (D" II,260)
donobes a clees of gods, Arilfhaka (q.v.). Accor-
ding to Edgor-ton (BHS. II, 65), Waldschmidt
identifies Ariqfske of the Mahfrsarnaja Sutkt witb
AriA$6, one of oight dova maidons, in the Malui"
outu (308).
B. J .
ARISIIDAX& ns"'o of a forrror Buddha (CW{t
267.20).
ARITTHA (l), one of tho five hrrndred paccekabud-
dhos who wero in encient timoe living on the Isigili
mountain in soclusion. Ile was seen by the peoplo
of that timo entering the mountain range, but'
waa nover Baen tbereefter. Ilenco the people
ul€d to say that the mountain had swallowed up
the eage (isi gilarz li) end named it Isigili. The
n&mos of these paccekabuddhas are given by the
Buddha in the ldgili' Sur'tu (M. IItr, 09 f.).
Buddhaghoss in hie co"""entary (MA.IV,l27l
helates how these sagee had made their dwellings
ineide the mountain behind s rock which would
open and cloee like a folding door.
I { . G. A. v. Z.
ABITTEA (2), a monk" He trrad been subjected by
tho Sangha to the uklch,ep,ncyukamma for refus&l t'o
renounce a sinful doctrino, namely, that the states
of mind doclared by the Buddha to be sturnbling-
blocks are not eucb st all for him who indulges in
them. Atifiha left the Order and would not come
back urrtil tho ulckhepani'yakanrma wa,s revokad
(Vi ,n. II. 25-8).
IIis caso is cited aB that of a ponittiya-offeuce,
because ho refueed to give uP e wrong doctrine
even aftor tbe monks had thres tirnee requosted hirn
t o do eo
{ Vi n. I V,
135) .
In spite of the akkhepannyalcamma
the Chabba-
ggrye mo''ks kept company with Arifgha, thereby
committing a pd,cifti'go-offenee (ibid. f3?). We
find the Buddha rebuking the nun Thullanandi, for
associating with Arilfha after tha ukklwpamtgo.
Icarnma (ibid. 2i8).
It was Ariffha's horosv that lod to the preaching
of ths Al agadduFnma Strtb (M.T,l 30ff.). In the
Sar.nEfita Ni,kaya (V, 314-15), Ari{,!ha is msntioned
as having said to ths Buddha that ho practised
concontration in breething a,rrd as having deseribod
how he did it. Ths Buddha, thercupon, instructs
him as to how
guch
concentration can be done
perfoctly and in svory detail. In tire Samantapa-
sdd,ilca Alittha ie mentioned in a list of enomies of
the Sdsana (Vi nA.IV, 8?4).
G. P. M.
ARITTEA (3), a minietor of king Devanampiya
Tissa, his uncle. On tho sovonth day after Mahinda
a,rrivod in Ceylon, Arittha became a bhikkhu and
\rith him fifty-five bmtherg ontered tho Order.
lbey attained to ars,hantship immsdiately. Anothor
by tho s&me n&me is discussod below, and
E. W. Adikar:av.' hae suggosted that the two were
probabfy brothers (Earl,y Hi,atory of Bu.'il,hiarn in
Cqqlon, pp. 53 tr
).
D. T. D.
ARITTEA (4), usually refoned to as Mahd Ari!!ha,
ths chief
rninister
of king Devdnampiyo Tissa of
Ceylon and also tho king's nephew. The Indien
emp€ror Asoka, to whom the Ceylon king sent an
embassy led by MahB Ariffha, conferrred upon
him
the titlo of Sondpati (General: Mhu. xi, 20; xvi,
1O). Ile wont on s second embassy, entrustod with
tho responsibility of bringing Sanghamittd and tho
branch of the Bodhi Tree. On his retunr from
Asoka's court at P6f,aliputta, he becnme a bhikkhrr
with five hundred others and attained arahantBhip"
I[e is reportod to have gone on the
gocond
mission
on the condition that he would be perrnitted to
reuounce the worldly life on his roturn
lMlw.
xix, 5, 12. 66). Undor the leadorship of Mahi
Ariffha on behalf of Sinhales€ bhikkhus, a saightd
(recital) was held in the parivena of the minieter
Meghavannd,bhaya in the precincts of the Th[p6-
r6,rna, Anuridhapura. It was on the first day of tho
paud,rayw ceremony irr the month of Kattika. In
this incident, tho part Mahd, Ariltha playod has
been likened tc that og lrpali in the First Council
which was held in Rdjagaha. Mahinda himself
E'a,s present, on the occasion of this Vinaya rocital
which was associated with miraculous happonings,
according to tho author of the VinA. (I, 102 ff.).
Itah6 Arifpha died in the reign of king Uttiy'a (26?
B.C.-257 B.C.). His
chief rlissiplss
wer€
Tissedatte, K5lasumana and Dighasumana.
D. T. D.
ARITTEAJANAKA
ARITTIIAJANAKA. ki ng of }l i thi l a and fathcr of
the bodlrisntta irr the Jlaluljarutku
Jd,ta/;a, (,/.VI,
30 f.)" TIe rr-:r.rr r,ho eltler son of king }fairrijana,ka
B,nd wfi,s nurr{e the viceroy whilo his yourger
t:rother, I'ohljrlnaka.
u'as tlre Commander-in-Ohief.
On hi s -fafher' s dcath Ari tl hoj anoka bccarne ki ng
and Pola;anaka viceroy.
Later,
polajanaka
killed
:\ri!,f,hajanaka and capt,ured his kingdom.
Ihs
llurlhir*r.r.Lu,
w&s born posfhumousiy to Ariglha_
janaka's
chref queen and was narned. Mahajanaka
after his grandfather.
L. R. G.
ARITTHAXA, u class of deiiies. nrentioned. in the
Mahiaa,maya Sutto (D. TI, 260) as having beon
present at the great concourso of gods, demons,
nigars and others relbrred to there. Tho Pali
plrra,ee : u,ntrrtfr,Ttttp.ph,anCbhitino,
which follows
thoir narne, is taken by llalalasekera (DppN. I, t?6)
to tre an epithet descriptive
of tlreir hue, whjch
then becornes that of azure flowere. .Buddhaghosa
rn tlre Sumn"iryala VilrtsinE (DA. II,6g0),
however,
tskos this pluase to stand for tho proper name of
another clsss of devas,
B. J .
ARITTEANEilI, e former Buddha. Se€ ARISTA_
NEMI.
ARITTEA-PABBATA,
a foresrod triple peek (alti-
tude 2,513 ft.) on an isolsted massif twonty_live
ilessouth
east of A_nur6dhapura,
Ceylon. Known
as Riligala by tbe Si:ohalese, it may also be con-
nocted with the Pali nemo Ari!trha (MahB Ariffha.
nephew of king Devi.yrernpiyatiss*)
of tho chroni-
cles. It occum, too, in the place-name
Arifa-garna
in rome of tho pre-Christian
inrcriptions at the
vpot. Rifigaia rnay bo derived aIBo from tho
Sanskrit aris(i, and thers have the meaning of
' safety-roek' .
As a rnattor of fact, i t came to be
so in the, Mah.d,aar,nac accounts of warf-are between
rulers. Tho peak was ,issociated with yakkhas
( seo SLTMANAI(UTa
)
and continues to be so
amongst, the neighbouring population even to
tliis day. Ons of tho pre-Ruddhist, kings showed
rnuch l'avour to the yakkhas who had helped him
irr a r:ampaign.
The yakkh*s were, therefore,
probably a loeal forest,-tribe, rat[6y than legenciary
tblk.
'fire
estnblishment of Ruddhism put tirem
into the baekgrouncl and R,itigala gradually
camo
to tre invested with Budtlhist a.ssociat,ions. A
nrrmtrelr of caves here, some of them inscriberi on,
had been used by trhikkhus in pre-Christian
ti mes. I{i ng Srrrati ss* ( 217 B.C.-?97 B.C.),
built Makulaka
Vihdra at the fuor of the mountoin
ARITTHA VIHARA
and Lai r j at i ssa ( i l g B. Ct . - t l 0 R. C. ) t i r e Ar i l r ha
\ri h6.rcu. Kr:eg Sena I (88B--53
A.C.
)
bui i t an
i mpr essi ve r Don&s^r ci "\ f or , , r 1777i , q21
Lhl i ka bhi kkhus
which he endttwcd hariclsc'mt:ir." _\t lcast fifty
stn ctures wore irrcludcd in i.t. ils mdy ber reckonecl
froan bhe remeilrd. I'he a,ncient, romails at Aripgha_
palibata are spread over &u extensive area anri,
rn exbent of tirne, coi'er a ttrousanci years with the
ninth
century A.C. as the latest limit. From the
archaeological point of view, the most i_mportanb
feature ie that here we find untouched.
sorne padharra-
gharae (q.v.). Among ancient statuary foul,l in the
c&ves the moet interesting
'was
& worrr wood.on irnage
with hedrds across the chest,, in the position of the
well-i<nown colossal st,one sculpture at Gal Vihara,
psl6n'51uya,
and popularly identified with Ananda.
D. T. D.
Btnr.rocnepgl r:
EZ. I ; ASCAR, f or 1893
;
ASC Mer yt , I .
ARITT8A S{ITTA (,S. V, 314) record.e & conver-
sation between Aritgha and the Buddha rogard.ing
consentrat,ion ou hs6fhing. The Buddha askB
tho monkn whether they praci,ise such concontra-
tion. Arilfha eays that he himself doos and pro.
ceeds to erplain his method. The Buddba, whilo
not coudernning it, exploins to him how it coulrl
he mado perfecb in every detail. See ANApAff_
sAl':t.
U. K.
AilTTEA-TEAPITA-GHARA, one of the nulr-
ueries that Saughnrnittd caused to be built in
Anuradhapura in Ceylon near the Updsikdvihdra,
ttre nunnery where ehe herseif dwelt rrith hor
eompanious
{fulh.*.
xix, 69-71). The nunnery
'w&s
prob*bly built by king Devanampiyatissa,
fbr he was the rtlc.r at the time. It wa,s so nemed.
bocaueo the helm (ar'igphai of tho ship thot brought
tho branch of the bodhi tree was kept hore. Siri-
vaddhagara w&s anotlrer
n&me for this nunnery
{MhaA.
p. a09). From the ti me of i te constructi on
f,fus alrnnery seons to hevo been clccupiod by the
nuns of the Upasikdvihdra who later came to be
knowrr rrs i{etthafhaka bhikkhunis, and it eontinuecl
to be so even s'hen other s€cts arose sucir as the
Dhammar uci ka ( Mhu.
xi x. ?i ) .
H. l t . P.
ARITTEA VIHARA, err ancient Ceyl.:n monastery
cf tLro 2nd cent. 8.C., constructed by Laffjatissa
on tho Ari ttha-pabbata (q.v.), now knowa aB
Ri l i gal a (Mhu. rui i i , 27
;
EZ. I, l B8). Tho ki ng
7!)
ARIYA 80 ARI YAGALA. TI SSA
also qranied the Atradalaka tank to this monastery
( EZ. I , i 43; JCBRAS. New Ser i es, ! - I , 170:
ASUAl t . 1893, pp. 8- 10) .
H, Ii . P.
ARIYA t I ).
' nobl e' ,
i s froquentl y used i l ?al i 88 an
honorific prefix, without forming
nn actual part of
the trtl e of the text or secb, etc' In such eas€s tbo
sr-rbject has been entered without the prefir. Thue
ttre Ariya-a1fharigika-magga,
the Noblo Eightfold
Path, v.ill be discussed under ATTEAIVGII(A-
IIAGGA. the Eightfold Path. But if the word
lbrms part of tho namo, it will be found together
with its pre^r. Thus ARfYAKOTI' ARIYA
SUTTA, etc. Sos also ARYA.
ARIYA
(2), one of the five hundrcd paocekobuddhas
rvho were in ancieat times living on tho Isigili
mountain in seclusion. Ile \ras soon by tho peoplo
of that, time entering tho mountain raoger but was
never seen thereafter. Ilenco, the peoplo us€d
to say that the mouatain bad
gwellowod
up tho
sage (asi gilati t;,) and namod it &dgiU. lbe
..qmea
of these paccekabuddhas are given by the Buddhe
i n the Isi gi ,l i Surb (M.III,69 f.).
Buddhaghosa in his eornrnentuqf (ML fV, l?f)
relates how these sages had ma& |* AtEhgl
inside the mountain behind e r.otl tthh $qfd
opon and closo like a folding door.
H" G. A. v, Z.
ARIYA
(3), a fi.sherma.n who lived near tho nprth
gate of Savatthi. Ono dey when he was catching
fish, the Buddha, reiurning with the monks from an
uirns-round, stopped not far from him. \[']re-n the
li,<irerman saw the Buddha, ho threw away his
ti shi ng gear and stood sl i l l . The Buddha proceeded
to asl i thc monks thei r names, al rd they ansr,' ered.
Seeing ttrat, tho fisherrnan hirnself expected to be
quest.ioned, tirc Buddha asked hirn his name, too.
\\-he:n he said that his name was Ariya (noblo),
tho l l uddha sai d that he was nob worthy of i t,
surce he was trr,king the lives of living beinga end
that noble ones ncvcr i-njuretl any iiving thing. At
r.hc errrl of thc <liscourse, t'he fisherman became a
, t ot t j l t anna ( Dh pA. I I I , 396- 8) .
I. K.
ARI YA- ATTHANCI KA- MAGGA,
t he . Nobl e ! , i ght '
l i ,,l <l Prrth. See Al fl IAl i GIILA' -IIAGGA"
ARI YAGALA- TI SSA,
son of t l r e chi ef \ I ahaChans of
-\l ri i ri gJrma i rr
(l cyl on.
In hi s chi l dhoorl , he was
ci l i l ecl Kel i y' tr,-Ti ssa, l rtxrausc hc l i kcd to pl ay.
Later, lre cntcrcd thc Ordcr. bui; rr,ft'cr fir'c
-vcars
gavo i rp hi s rci bes, and swam dol r-n ti re ri ver
carryi ug on hi s ci rest a pi l e of' wood. Trvo rvomen
bathing in tlre river, sa,w the pile of wood floating
and both claim,ed it. Wften ib came near them,
they both went ashore, alorig with Tissa. \lrhen
they realised that T'issa was naked, ono wom&n
rn'' home to bring hirn a garrnent. lleanwhile'
the other gavo half of her eloth fot hirn to wear
and took him home whero sho bocamo his wife.
Iler name wes Sumani. Since he was found in the
rivor, tho villagers named hirn Ganga-Tissa. Later,
bocauso he rsfueed to work in the fioid, SumanS,'s
parents nad, hittt $;ltkamma-Tissa e,nd told
hi'n
qnd
hir wife to quit their house. Then Tissa
sougbt \trosL tlrdtr a hoadman called Canda-Suriya
a fiend of Mabildbana,
Fnd reaped and threshed
a 6old of flvc husdrcd
"karisse
in one day. Carrda-
Suriya waa Bo plarnd that he gave him ali the
!p'&in.
Tis8o snd hir wife govo alms daily to eight,
bhilrkhus. Boooule his meals were not tastv
the bhikkbuc osli€d hira Uclakalona-Tissa. Dis-
covering thie, Tilsa gavo them milk-rice a.nd lte was
called Khirabhatta-Tissa. Later, when ]rc strlrted
to give them rice mixed with giree they cailed him
KalyE?nfl66te-Tigsa. One day, rvhile iookinq fol
yemq ia tbe l(umbulapabbata, he discr:vercd u
hidden trossuro which he took horne. l'rorn
thet time, he gavo a,lrne to thousanrl* ,-'f bhiklihus
in Cetiyamba-vihira, A-nurddhapura, and N' agadi pa,
end lived in Ariyagilatittha
(wirence his nirme)
as a forr5r-tttonr taking poopio Bcross, frec oi. cha,rge.
Snkra, irr ordor to test his faith c&me as an old
br6hnarr and baving trieci his paiience fiileci his
house ritJn mvon kinds of veluables and
ga,ve
him
a rice-field.
At thb iino, a discussic n aroso a.mong ihe
bhikkhus in Piyangudipa,
us io whore the most'
devout peoph were to be found. Satisambodhi
thera said they rrero in Ceylon, whilo Yopakar6,ja-
putta r\lah6-Bodhirakkhita eaid they wero ur
Yonakaralthe.
'Io
test thrs, Satisrurrbodhi arrivecl.
in Tiesa'e houee at a timo when his wife was resting
after ofrering elrns to twelve thoueend bhikkhus.
She sew tho thera and propared a bowl of calu-
ndhura rind offered it to hirrr. I{e asked her to
t,hrow bho bowl u.p into the arr. lt wen& as f'&r
os Piyr'ngrtlipa antL ar:cordirrg to ths thors's wigh
Sumon6 saq' tire ot,her blrikkhos also parbaking of
tlrar meal and
i.recarno vory happX" Wlren her
husi.iand cd,rne i-iome, she relsted to irirn thq
rvhol e i nci dent.
As Ariyagala-fissa la1 dving, devas from each
of t,he six deva worlds brougtrt chariots and invited
irim to their respeulive cleva-worlds. H.e shoso to bo
ARIYAKARA VIHARA
8t ARIYAKARI
born in Tusita. Sumana. knowing her husbarrd.'s
intention, retired into her room and died before
him. They were both reborrr in Tusita. In his
previous trirttr -4riyasa,lo,-Tissa, there is soid to havo
honoured a boclhi.tree ancls,ttended on the bhikkhus
at Chag6ma (Rasaudhi nl ,i i ,32-7).
In the Sohnssa-
uotthuppalcoraTla some of tho names given to him
at various stages in his iife show slieht, variations
(S.soz. 53-8).
I . K.
ARIYAKARA VIEARA (var. Ariyak6ra), & mon&s-
tery on the Kumbhilatissa (Kr:rnf6ls1issa)-pabbata.
Five hundred bats that wero in one of its caves
died while listening to the Maha^tati,pa!{hnrw
Sutta rccited by a monk who dwelt there. They
were later born in families in the neighbourhood,
entered the Order ancl becamo residents of the
verv same monast,ery, where they beeamo arahants
(Esuu. 187
;
Rasoudhinl, ecl. Saranatissa, p. lg3).
l'he monastery is perhaps identical
with the
Ariyakari vih6,ra.
II. R. P.
ARIYAKARI, a monastery in Ceylon, one of tho
chief residences of the monks of Ruhuna, the
southern part of tho ieland,
No referenco to tho original construction
of the
monastcry is available, but Ceylon chronicles,
inscriptions and other later literary works, both
Pali and Sinhalese, refer to the renovations
of the
monastery, endowments
made to it, and its
ocoupants.
A direct reforonce to the vihdra is made in the
Mahfrua,mso (xlv, uu. 60-B) whero it is stated that
king Dappula I (6bg A.C.) of Ruhuna granterl
to it tho village of }I6,lava,tthu
and built there
a superb image-housc. Decayed
cetiyas he adomecl
with e new eoating of stucco ancl further he had a
statrre l5 crubits high (abouf
22|. feet) mado of
Motteyya.
Tho Arikari vih6ra referred to in the Mehduam^sa
(xlix, u. 32) seems to bo ident,ica,l with this vihrira.
Il ere, tho chroni cl o says that Uda,ya I (?g7_g0l
A.C.)
renewed what was broken down and built a house
for the distribut,ion
of food by allotment
antl er,
pa+ad,o (pavilion)
which w&s formerly missing.
It has been suggested
that the Aritt6,r6, monasterSr
referred to in the three Rdssahela
rock inscriptions
\EZ.IV,
175) of the
8th century i s i donti cal
wi th
Ariyikari. Aecording to theso inscriptions
vast
stretches of Iand such as tho Soruyurin Dige(pidu)lle
on tho right bank of the Galhoy, Kalatvali
in
the (district of) Lamjaaar-u,
Ilahdvflgarn
in
Saratvd,ga, .
\I6,!atta, Gulavd,lia and ]Iivanga,mu
'were
granted to this monastery. The ruins of
the monastery and the lands granted to it aro in
the Gal-Oya Valley and Mdlatta in the third
inscription seerns to be identicai with Mdlavatthu
in the Mahd,uamsa.
There is also a view that Ariyakoli referred
to in the Papafi,casftd,ani (MA.I, 60) is a sSmon5mr
for Ariydkari. This reference which speaks of a
virtuous monk, namod tr{ahd"datta,
who lived here
is as old as the fifth contu.rv, &nd, according to
that view, the monastery existed already during
that tirne.
The Ariyd,kari vihdra which th,us seems to hevo
survived during the fifth, seventh and eighth
conturies is perhaps identicbl with the Ariydkara-
vilrira of thcr Sahassaua,tthuppakaro,qta,
(p. fgZ)
and Ariyak6,ra vihd,ra and Ariyaka vihdra of the
Rasaud,hini, (pp. 167, f 8g). The former work
belongs to the
gth
century, where&s the latter
belongs to the lOth, and if ths identity is eetablished
it is likely that the monastery survjved even during
these centuries. The Si.lwlaaatthup4nkaranw,
for
which has been suggested a dato prior to Buddha-
ghosa, makes mention 6f l)ftnynrnagutta thera
of the Dariya vihdra (p. 160, n. Z) which the
editor has translated in the Sinhalese version as
Ariya vihdra(Itd Pcira4,i Si,mtwla Boqwkathii,Ig5g
od,
p. f45). It is possible that this Ariya vih.6re
(or Dariya vihdra) ie identical with tho Ariy6kari
vihd,ra of ttre chronicle. Thus, tho eix namoe,
A-rikeri, Ariyakofi, Ariyikare (Ariy6k6ra),
Ariyaka,
Ariya (Dariya)
and Aritt6,r6 may ell refor to the
s&mo mon&story.
These references evidontly show that the monas_
tery was in Ruhuna. S. Paranavitana (ASCAR.
1951, pp. 37-8
;
JCBRAS,
New Series, \II, Zg, 571
identifies it with the ruins at M6ligawila and Darib6-
goda (S. E. of Buttala) which once formed a single
monastery. Among the ruins aro an image of the
Buddtra, remains of an image-house and another
damaged imagewhic;r is believedto be of Motteyya
(Skt. Ifaitreya). The dagiiba mentioned in tho
chronicle has not yet been found. In ths ,samo
way, the modem lfdlavatthai between Arnparai
ant Sammanturai
has been identified with the
ancient }lalavatthu, a, village granted to thie
monastery in the seventh centur1,.
Paranavitana's identificatiorr
has been ques_
tioned on the ground that }I6lava,-,thai is about
60 miles awav from the }laligavila-Dambegocla
ruins, and Ariyakari
q'as
not en institution
of euch
magnitudo as to have been assigned a village so
far away. f}r6 lsins at modern Rdjagale in the
Gal.Oya Valley, identified with Aritt6ra-vohera
ARIYAKA \TIEARA 82 AruY,nuunt
of the throe Rfissahela rook-irrscript'ions, halre
aleo beon suggestecl ag ttre ruins of tho ancient
Ariyikari monastorY.
H" IT,. P.
ARIYAKA
VIHARA,
a monastery irl Ceyicn pro-
bably between
Rohapa and Am:.r6,<ihapura" A
wom&n
going from Rohaua to Aluridhapura
once obtained
divine clothes on ttre wey as a result
of giving her own cloth to an arairant. Desirous
of giving that too, she shoutod so us to be heerd
by monks in tiie vicinity' In a moment 19'000
monks from the Ariyaka vihflra c&llle' zurd she
gave them the cloth making o set of throe robes
(ticl,uaro\ oui of it
lRugaaah'in[,
ed' Saranatissa,
p. r 67) .
The monastery is probably identical with tho
Ariyikari
vihdra.
H. R. P.
ARIYAKOTI,
an ancient monastery, ihe residence
of a thera, named Mahadatta (MA.i ' 160). Its
location hae not beon tracod, but seetns to have
troen in Roha4a
(8. W. Adikararn, Ear\1 Ei*tory
of Bu,i l hi "rm' i n Cegl on,
l et ed., p. f Zl ).
ARIYALAi|KARA.
fhore wers in Burma at loast
four theras by this nalrre' ali notod for their scholar-
ship. One, who was more or less rre'eminont
arnong thern, and who may bo callod t'ho finst
of the name, Iived in Ratnapura about tho seven'
teoath centurlr, if not s decede or two esrlit'r.
IIo excolled in dhnrupancoyauibhi,ga,
tltat ie to say,
he was a noted grammarian. The next is mentionod
in the S,Ssonantarnaa
and tho ioliowing Fah works
afe ascribed to him : Intorprotaiione of Attfubed,IinE,
Sad.dhammaj otip6la'e
(Chapafa) S anlchepa,uar.tnanrt,
Sumangala's
(Sumaigalasirui) Abh'i'dluantrn'attha'
dbhdaani, and the Vibhongo of the Abh'itih'amma'
p
.itaka,
and a
tik& {commentery}
in Pali entitled
Sfurault&likAirn.
To the last ho added what may
be called a rovieed edition of the work on which
hs
yrote
trhg ss
nrn€ntar5r. It is not clo*r, however,
wheither all these worke coui<i be ascrihod to the
Barne AriyElankira.
More probably thoy liavo
to bo distribrrted between ttre first snd tllo Becoud
Ariy6"tarikira, the ftrrmer being crodrttid with the
purel.r' grammai,ical works as ho sait &tl authorit.lr
on the sub;ect (Elorle, TIw PaLi l)iteratwre of Bwww,
: ] 7, 53, 54) .
D. T. D.
ARIYAMAGGA
STJTTA occurg in the At"iyatna4gcr
Yogga of the l)oaalc,a lli$to at tke Anqdar'rn
I,i i k,i ya i .Y. !{4). It, sf' eaks of a
;"rvofol d
way'
the ncble way and the ignoble rralr. Tlrr noltle
wa;l consi si s rrf ri qht untl erstari durq, ri gl i t vi owa,
righb speech, right actioirs, r'rEh*' llv"elihr-'o'J. nght,
endeavour, ri.girt a'iientir:n, rieht conr:ent;r:afi.rn
and riqhc er:rancipation. Tl:leir onpc'sil.cs consti'
ttrt,o the wrcng or the ignobie
path.
w. G. w.
ARIYAIIAGGA VACfi A, thq ni nsteent,h v&ssa
<rf the Dq,saka Ni,ittit+ of tho Angu,ttara Nikaya
(V, 278-81). It i ncl udes ton suttas the subj ect
mattor in all being identieal, antl llre sutt,as diffor
only in their introdrieti,ru. Tlre t.itle of the vegg&
in derivod from the titie of the sutta which start,s
by saying, " f shall preaeli to you the noble way
a"'r well ae the ignoblo way
(rtriyam<z.ggafi, ca unoriya-
ryu1gafi
cu\. " Non-injury to life, nob taking what
is not given, non-indulgonco i.re sense pleasures,
abetinence from falsehood and liquor-those &re
oxplained ae the nobls way, whiie their oppositos
aro explained es the iga<lble way.
w. G. w.
Anfy*iUUNI, e Siarc'sso thera of the Sangh*
del egati on to Co-vl on about' the mi ddl e of ths 18th
cont'ury. It is i,hese roval ernissarios who, at tho
request of king Iiirti. Sri .Rd,jasirpha of tho island,
held tho ceremoaial upasampadi (higher ordinn-
tion) in ihe clraptor-hous€ of Puppirarri,ma (lfalwattS
Vihara), I(andy" Upeli Mahd, Thera headed the
Sian:ase p&rty. Ariyamruri is reckoned as having
beorr nexb to him in rank. He is describ€d ag
" wq1]'-l{no'w:n for qualities such as the obeerr,&nr:o
cf procepts ". Ile figrrred irr en incicLenb i-u whieh
he was lru-rriiiated whilst still in his own oountry
and on the way to Ce;'lon. A tn.cuignt member:
of ths Sinhaiesci Saggha, Nattarirburo G*{'inn6^n$
by name, who had remainscl in Siam from a vielt,
bcarded the vessel is whrch Ariyamuni and ihe
Sinholeee errrissaries wore irs.vellirig, anri riemanded
for hirnsel{ the effects of er deceased Sirrholeee
thsra. Upon being reiusod., lio st'rrrok Ariynnru:ri
and enother wi"th s
gtick.
Ariy*nuri r.herr
der'Ji:led
ro |orno to Ceylon b*,:auss tre feared. that lyor*s$
might, t'efall }:j.m rn a coi.rnt,ry
"ri.rich
prodr;ced
suoh .rnprettictabio peopLn as N*ttaiirbur6. Tho
rnatter we^* brougliii to the rofiicqr *f tho district
gcvern{}r. Jtre took suit&hie ac'tir:n *nd, with
ecme others, peruuadad Ariyamr:ni not to abnntton
hie ietention. Tlre p*rty e"o$"fually a:'riv'orl :il
Coylon f'o ful6l thair miscic,n
iMhv"
c, !);i;
JCBRAS" X!1tIf" No. Edo pp" 12:3; t7"ryd.g$.
II, 40, tt7, TO-t).
D. f " D"
ARIYA-I{AYA
83 ARIYA PUGGATA
ARIYA-NAYA, the Noble Law. See
pAf,ICCA-
SAMIIRPADA.
ARIYAPARIYESANA
SUTTA, preachod in Sdvetthi
in tho hormitage of tho brdhman Rammaka (M. T,
160-76). Some monLs exprossod to Ananda their
degire to hear a discourse from the Buddha, as it
w&B so long since they had heard one. I[e advieod
them to go to the hermitage of Ramneka. In
the evening Ananda went thero with the Buddba
and spoke to them of the two quests in the world-
the noble quest (artya-pari,yuanal
and the ignoble
queat (anari,go-paol.
This sutta ii important bocaueo it doscribes the
origin of religious consciousness. Various theories
havo been edvanced by scholars rogarding this
topic, one of the moet favoured being that put
forward by Mar Miiller according to whom religious
consciousness is baeed on the tendency of savagos
to foar nnd
revere objects of naturo that eo€m to
them poworful,
such ag e wat€rfall, a thunderstor@
or a mejoetic tree, to all of which thoy attribute
Iifs and anthropopathic aaturo (Hopking,
Origin
and Eaoldion ol Rcligiorw, p. 4). The foar of
the unknown, the unsoen or tho &wesomo is thus
aaid to be tho origin of religidus coneciousnees.
Thie may be true eo far as the oarliest fomu of
roligion in Indis as well as othor countries aro
concerned. According to Buddfism, religious
congciousneee is due to the foar of thO
Lnown,
not
the unhown, of the seon, not tho.ruueen. It ie
tho awanenesa of imperfections that propels a
p€r.son to embrace the holy life (brahmamriyo).
Iluman life is eaid to bo imperfect, subject to birth
(jati),
assailed by ageing (jaro), disease (ryddhd),
death (m,aroryal,
sorrow (soka), stain (sori.kileso).
A knowledge of the perils in what is liablo to birth,
agoing, diseese, otc., generates in ma! & sonsg of
insecurity which is the snurco of religious conscious-
ness. Ilence religious endeavour in Buddhism
is directed to ths attainment of perfoction, the
utmost, security (khem,a),
Nibb6na. Noble (a.ri,ya)
indeod, is this quest (pariyesano) aftor perfection.
In his attempt to reach the state of perfection
the bodhisatta is said to havo obtained instructions
fron two of
hie farrrsus
contemporaries, Afd.ra K6-
ld,ma and Uddaka Ra,rnaputta. To what extent
tho teachings of theso teaahers served as a back-
giound to tho discoveriee of the Buddha could be
inferred from the sutta.
The course of montal development up to the
stago of
'neither
perception
nor non-perception'
(neaamfr,frfr-nrtsafr,fi,a) seems to have been learnt
by the bodhisatta under Uddaka Ramaputta. Not
s&tisfied with thie (to.rp dhammar.n analahkarttud),
8. S. P. ( ' e8420
for it is only a balt midway (antarduoadnam:
A.
V, 167), the bodhisotte left hirg and made an attempt
to go beyond. He is repleeontod as euporsoding
tho contempora,ry
teachera wben he found out
for himself that the ultinste gosl is the cessation
of perception
aad I'oeling (aattffi-afuydtonirodlwl.
It is this discovery of tho Buddhr thst induoed
hirn
{,q deny the slsistqnns of e tamher (aoyor.n
obhiltffiyo
lcary uilhegVc), when questioned by the
eocetia Upake ae to who his tedohor recs.
An authoritative
aocount of tho biogrrphy of
the Buddho ig found in tho sutta.
IIo wag at flrgt roluotant to preach the dootrine
be had disoovorod to the peoplo at largo. But being
persueded by Brahrir6 Sahampeti, !6 decidod to
preach it, tbue inaugurating a v€ry imporCant
stege in the
history
of the S6ssae.
The sutts proceeds to relate the oonversion of
tho Pa,ficavaggiya monks who had earlier left tbe
bodhieetta when he gave up the pnactioe of
augtoritios.
tr'inally, the sutta expounds tho pleasures of the
s€nsos, tho dangere thersfrom a,nd tho freedom
a,nd confidonce whioh ensue whoro ono has overcomo
dosiro.
In the commontary (MA.I, 369 ff.) tho sutte i8
called Pdaard*i,, evidently, bocaueo of tho
gi"nils
found et the end of the disooirse where tho pleasuree
of the sonsss aro compered to bsited trape,
D. J. K.
ARIIA PUGGALA, also callsd ari.yaaaiglw anLd
oriya-adaaka, is a noblo individual wbo hag trans.
cended tho stato of a worldlins (Wthujjana
or
onartyal, and has roalisod ono of the eight states
of perfoction, namely, the four superznundane
paths (lokuttara-mqgo) and the four superm'ndano
fruitions (lakuWra-phnla : Pu4. I4).
In some parts of the Pali c&non, tho rnnbured
ono (gotrablnT) is listed as the ninth noble ono;
tho matured one is ho who has entored tho lineage
of nobl o ones (.2{. IV, 373
;
Y, 25
i
Pug. Il , 12)
and who is endowed with those qualities upon
which follows immodiately his ontraatco into tho
noble path (Pug. f0).
Tho process by which one entors theso eight
stages is described in various placos in the Peli
canon. One becomes free frorn tho first three
fetters (saqnyojana,), namely, personality-belief,
sceptical doubte and clinging to more rule and
ritual, through the path cf stream-winning (nfii-
patti-rna,ggo)
;
the stream-winner (eo6ip,nna) is
already free from them. Through tho path of
once-returning
(sakadngom,i)
one bocomes n.oarly
ARIYA PUGGALA 84 ARIYA.SACCA
free from tho fourth and fifth fetter, nemoly'
sensuous craving and malice. Through the path
of nevor-returning
@nngdmnl
one becorpes fully
froo from the above mentionod five fotters.
Through tho path of arahantship one bocomes frso
from the five higher fetters, namely, craving for
material existonce, craving for imrnaterial existonce,
conceit, restlessness and ignorance (D. I, 156;
Dhs. 74,75r.
These eight nobio individuals are grouped in
four pairs, i.e.. the stream-winner
\sotdpann'al
and the one in tho process of stream-winning and
so on with tho other stages also, rospectivoly
( Sn. a. 227
;
S. I , 220
;
A. I I , 56; I V, 373) .
Srunming up, there &re actually four noblo
individuals, namely, the stream-winner, the once-
returner, the never-returner and the arahant;
for, the supermund'rne path is a designation of the
moment of entering into each of tho four stages
of perfection-Nibbana being the object-produced
by in-sight (ti,passani) into the impermanency,
mis"ry and irnpersonality of
'oxistonce,
flashing
forth,
gnd
for ever transforming one's lifo and
nature. By fruition is meant thoso momonts
of consciousnoss which follow imrnediately after,
as tho result of following the path, and which under
certain circurnstances may ropoat innumerable
times during a life-time (Sro. u. 226; A. II, 149
;
Vism. 580). It, is clear from this that
'path'
(ma,gga) is only a moment and, as such, individuals
mtablished in one of the four paths (rnqga+tlnl
do not really exist; for no aooner does ono ontor
the path than one enjoys its fruition. So there
are only the individuals who aro ostablished in
one of tho four fruitione (pln1,a!{Iw).
Theso oight noblo individuals.are again groupod
in two, namely, the traineea (aeklnl and the trained
(asekha : Pu4. l4\. The first
-seven
aro trainees,
as thoy are still undergoing tho course of training
;
tho eighth one, the arahant, is called trained,
beceuso he has already completed his training.
Ho has done ever5rthing thet hes to be dono.
They are again grouped in eoven catogorios,
nnrn€ly, the faith-devotee (sadtlhdntrcari), tho
faith-libereted one (sddhi,-tirnu.tta,), the body-
witness (ka,yaaalckhi), the twico liberated one
(ubha,tobhnga-vimutto), tho law-devoteo (dham,md-
mrsd.ti), tho vision-possossod one (ili,tllui,ppotta)
and the wisdom.Iiberated one (pafififruimutto :
Ps. If, 52, 53; Vi,sm. 566). For details seo s.v.
These noble individuals aro not necessarily
monks; they may bo monks or lay-disciples. In
lhe Sutta Pitaka wo come aeross a great number
of lay-disciples arnong the noble individuals.
N6gasona says to Milinda that thero were about
five crores of noble individuals in the oity of S6vat-
thi, both male and ferqplo, all lay-disciples of the
Buddha
;
that a good number of them had realised
the fruition of never-returning, sixth stage of
porfoction, and that others had realised the ,fivs
lower stages of perfection (Mi'ln. 3491,
On entering tho fruition of arahantship, however,
a lay-disciplo has two alternatives open for him,
eithsr ho enters tho order of .monks or olso his
process of existence will coase (Thi,gA. lal).
U. K.
ARIYARAHANTA.PAKKHA.BHIKKEU.SAXCEN,
& fraternity of mo''ks in the Dala rogion of
the Talaing country in lower Burma and known
to exist when Narapatisithu
(12-13th cent. A.C.)
was ruler of Pag6n in upper Burma. Ttrey claimed
pupillary succeseion from So4a and Uttara, tbo
traditional foundors of the religion in Burma,
235 yoars after the Parinibbd,ne (SaroTtnualnsa,
trsl. p. 35). Thoy wero also styled the Mahdthora
Fraternity of tho Krom (Kamboje) Market, the
Krom Markot Fraternity or simply as tho l{rom
Fratornity. Unlike the members conforming to
the Sinhalvso ordination which w&s introduced
by SBriputta (Dhan'mavililsa), the Krom Frater-
nity romeined without internal divisions. It iB
not
known how they wero rolatod to the
'
Ftw'imo'
(older) Safrghe of Burma, though thoy must have
b.,en classified undor it rathor than under the
Sinhaloso (paeao) Saigha.
D. T. D.
ARIYA-SACCA, tho noble truth, rofore to the X'our
Noble Tmths
lcattdri
ori,ya-sacc&ti) which form the
basis of the Buddha's toaching. Truth horo is not'
to bo understood in its philosophically defined
moaning of tho correspondenco betwesn tho intellect
and the known object, for the distinction betweon
the knowing subject and the known object is not
actual. The passive object is the ond and tho airn
of mental action and is, l,herefore, an active prin-
ciple, inducing the subject to action. fn the actual
process of knowledgo thero car\not bo a correspon-
dence between the knowing subject and the known
object, while outside that procoss thoro is neither
knowing nor known. To overcome this difficulty a
distinction has boen mado between relativo truth
and absolute truth. Relative or subjective truth
is thought to bo the truth in so far as it is known
to a subject. It is, therefore" an act of the intel-
lect, and thereby also a process of evolution, depon-
dent on relative conditions, such as the correspon-
dence botwoen subject and objoct. Objective or
ARIYA*SACCA
85
ARIYA-SACCA
absolute truth is thought to be true without, relation
to anything, i.e., absolutely true. But as any
knowledgo
thereof would mako it subjective,
nothing can be known about it-
Ttre fallacy in this speculative theorisation is that
truth is taken as something fi4a1, either as &n
entity or as & point further than which knowledgo
could never reach. Frequently
in philosophy and.
always in revealed religions, a search for truth is an
essential featuro
and the attainment or realisation
of such truth constitutes its goal. But the term
sacca in PaJi (satya in Sanskrit, derived from sal,
being), is not an ultimate truth, but tho factual
truth or actuality, experienced
without delusion.
According to Buctdtriem,
therefore, the truth is to be
found in the relative conditions of things and evente.
To know tho truth is to know and see rfrilr* as thoy
a,rs (yathd,-bhfr,a-fiina-dttsaarw),
which is not a
eomprehonsion of the ultimate subetance of matter,
but a,n underetanding
of tho phenomonal
nature of
material qualities.
Ttrat this truth ie a relativs
knowledge arrd, therefore, subject to change does
not make it less trro. Atnd it can bs universel in
application without being absolute.
Factual truth is not dependent on tho knowledgo
thoreof or on its promulgation
: whethor a Tath6gata
ariees in this world, or whethor no TathEgata ha,s
arisen, still it 166s,ins a fact that all component
things aro transienh (a,nicno),
end that they produce
conflict (d,ukklnl through being misund.erstood,
which conflict is as baselese (arwttE)
as tho pho-
nomena themeolvos.
Tho factual truth is presented by the Buddha in a
fourfold wey: tho statement of tho fact (aacw),
the source (eamu.dnya),
its end (ni,rodlw)
and the
method (rnagga),
And each of theso four ehould be
contemplatod in threo aspecba (ti-pari,aoll$ for tho
factual tnrth must become known (sacca-fid7ta),
ita
firnction must be urderstood (kdcca-fi.dry,o) and its
accomplishment must bo realised (kata-frd,pa), for
ths
Lnowledge
of rhe trlth must bo translated into
function, if ever the task will be semFloted.
Tho first truth is tho Noble Truth of sufforing
(iluklchassa oriya-wcca). It is a simplo statement
of a universal fact : All component things are
digharmonious
r
(aabbe sankfujrd d,ulckha\ and, there.
fore, involved in suffering. This universal stato-
rnent, however, is not
7'ai1
ubsolupe truth, as it
might appear to those
fuiro tu
usS. to soe meroly
the opposing views :
iThe
WrId, I(s,ccin&, is
accustomed to rely on h duality, on the
.,
it is " &nd
on the " it is not.t' I:[owever, I(ac,cana. he who
-
f
the
use of
' disharmonious'
qs eqrrivalent to
-Cu*ha'
lbould be regardod only as a tentativdG.p.ld.
perceives in accordance with truth and wisdom
how the things in this world arise, for him there is
no " it is not " in this world. And he, Kacc6,na,
who perceives in accordance with truth and wisd.om
how the things in this worid perish, for hirn thore
is no " it is " in this world (,S. II, lT). Here the
Buddha clearly holds the relative standpoint:
things neither are, nor are not. They merely arieo
and cease as I process dopendent on conditions.
Tb,is must be applied to all his teachings, especially
to the Four Noble Truths. Ilere wo do not havo an
absolute trtth that every-thing is sorrowful, but s
conditional truth : If things are component, they
cannot form a harmonious wholo. This is not
an empirical truth, for no ono will ever bo ablo to
observe all or to experiment with overy individual
component. This truth is not based on induction
either, for it is not a generalisa,ion frorn somo
particular instances, becauso ib does not follow
tbat everything is unsatisfactory, when this a,nd
that are r:nsatisfactory. But this universal proposi-
tion is a pure analysis of the nature of composed
things; for the nature of composition includes o
tendency towards decomposition. About this more
presently.
Tho statement of tho first Noblo Truth is thus
entirely conditional and rdlative : if thore is anything
of a composed nature, then by its own nature it,
will tend towards dissolution, which tendenoy ie o
sign of inherent disharmony. Now, whether theru
are a,rly composed and decomposablo things or not,
is not expressed in this statement
;
and henco, thil
truth is not dependent on actual facts for ite
veracity, though, of course, all actual facts will bs
in accord with this truth, which is a statomont
about their essential naturo. And thus far it i8
a universal truth. At the same timo it is also
a relative and a conditional truth in so far as it
depends on actuality
;
for if thero would bo uo
component things whatsoever, this truth would
become meaningless, but not untrus. The truth
&s such would not bo affoeted, oven though it
would not have any practical application.
As regards the contents of the first Noblo Truth
it comprises two terms : thing composed (sanlchara)
and suffering (d,uhkha,). A composition always
refers to an a,rra.ngement of parts fitted together,
a bringing together of two or more things, ovents
or states, which would not havo come together
naturally, due to &n intrineic divergency. A
composition, thorofore, is nover an evolution, but
rather an involutioD., B,n entanglement, a compii-
cation, a conplex. As a composition, thor.ofore,
ARTYA-SACCA
86 ARIYA-SACCA
aXways requires an external condition, acting as the
factor which brings about the union, the act of
composition is not according to the intrinsic naturo
of tho two compounding elements. Thus, & com'
position being an unnatural complication will have
the innor tendency to solvo this complex, i.e., to
ovolve
;
just as plant-hybrids show an inclination
to roturn to neture. AII component things, there-
fore, aro by nature
'
disharmonious'. It is this
lack of harmony which is the essence of dukkh'a,
conflict. And tho first Noble Truth can bo simpli-
fied in more familiar words: Every complex includes
.
rc
sen ict" (sabbe soriklfird, dukkhal.
Conflict uray essumo different fonns. It may bo
sorrow (eolca) which is sufrering resulting from
loss (ugaso'no\ of rolationa (fiiti), wealth (bhoga\,
health (droga), virtuo (ai'la) ot opinions
{ddfihi'
: D.
IL[, 235
;
A. ITI, 147
;
Vin. W, 277). Hore the
co''flict arisos from the untoward circumgtances
arising in lifo's associations. Pain (iluklah,a) is a
phyaical discomfort (ka'yi'ko ud,tn) in which the
conflict is due to feelings repugnant to the senses.
Gnef (btnanusa'1ig mental sufforing (cetn'silca asd,tol,
a conflict arising from regret at having failed; or it
may be due t'o misfortunes befallen to others, in
which c&se our sympathy is frequontly projected
self-pity, having placed ourselves mentally in the
other's condition of life. Despair (upayaso) is a
mental reflection on external circumstances which
have gone beyond control. It is the absence of
hop", and, thorefore, tho conflict lies in the impos-
sibility to bring external conditions in alignment
with internal expectations, wheroby all furthor
exertion ie brought to &n end. Disharrnony
iE a confict, whether it is the dwindling of vitality
(ayuno sonhdni) which is involution conflicting with
ovolutionary tendencios and which is callod old age
and decay (jard'), or the complete dissolution of the
agg:regates of the composition (lchandharwr.n bhed'al
which is called death (maranal. " To be associated
with things one dislikes, to bo separated from things
one likes, not to get what one wishes that also is
confl i ct " (D. II, 305).
All this, however, is suffering and disharmony
in lifo; and that this is a conflict is so evident
tlrat it is said to be " gross and easily felt and
understood by both princo and pauper. " But the
first Noble Truth g-o_es much further: Any complex
is a confliet. Ar/d t\us the, Buddha's first Noble
Trr.th is not a rhero dg,atggr6nt about disharmony
'in
life, it culmi/ates in his statement Lhat li,te itself
is disharmoni5us: " the five aggregates of clinging,
i.e., the entiro psycho-physical combination of an
individual life, are suffering " (pa fr,c' {r,Ttadanalckhan
-
d,hd d,ukkha). And whether it is called pieasure
(somnna,ssa) or pain (ilmwrnsso), well (sukhal or ill
(itrukkh,a),life is a confl.ict because life is a complox.
All the different tendoncies which go into the
making of a character are inclinations which show
the prosonce of a discord and a void. Naturo
abhors a vscuum; and hence the very presonco of
a tondency, the vory fact of striving, proves tho
existenco of a conflict even in happiness. That is
why happiness never satisfies. Ono always wants
more, both in depth and in duration, in spaco and
in time. But, in the midst of enjoyment and
bliss thero croeps in the foar of final fmstration
and imperm,anenco. Tbat is lifo, the complex life,
which bears in itself tho seed of conflict. The
struggle for life is also the essence of life. " And
that indeed is called senflict "
(,ilanp uunwtli
dukkha'r.nl.
Tluth itself is not objective and, therefore, not
absolute, but relativo. Arrd so the truth of conflict
(dukkha-socca) does not lie in the objective world
of events, and not' in the nature of the subject
either, but in tho complex, i.e., in the mutual
reaction ofboth, of one upon tho other. Thus, tho
origin of such conflict (dukklw-sornudaya) is to bo
found in the m&ruror of apprehension of the world
of events, in the act of approhending, seizing or
grasping: " This, O monks, is the noblo truth
ooncerning the origin of conflict. Verily, it is
desire causing the renowal of oxistence accompanied
by sensual delights, seeking sat,isfaction now horo
then there
;
that is to say, the craving for the
$ati-
fication of the passions (kdma-tanhd), the craving for
an everlasting futuro life (bhaaa-taTthd'), or craving for
the ending of existenco "
(aibhnua-taTthd : Dhamma-
caklcoppauattana, SMta : Vin. f, l0). It ie the \pill
to enjoy life here
;
the will to livo olsewhere; or
the will to end life's consequenses, which gives
rise to conflict. T'IIiB will, dosire, craving, clinging,
or whatever name it may bear as a volitionai acti-
vity of a purposeful striving, is a projection into
the future, whether it is a positive striving to
achieve or a negative striving to escape. As such
it is a lack of actual living in the present, a lack of
understanding life as actuality, by attributing to it
wrong values, by creating an irnaginary and ideal
future, and thereby initiating a conflict. For any
desire holds within its grip a dissatisfaction, without
which it simply could not have arisen. The act
of grasping soems actual and in the present
;
but the
good perceived in the presenl, is sougbt for the sake of
security in time to come, to serve a purpose in
the future. Grasping in the present has its motive
in the future
; and as such it is not actual, but
projoctive.
ARIYA.SACCA
87
ANIYA-{IAOCA
Craving for the gratificqtiou
of the passions
(kfrma-to,nlfr)
arisos ard becomes rooted. i.rt tho
sens€s. Enticing forrns, melodious sorurde, dolight-
ful taetee, olluring feelingu in the senaos of the body,
are ell pereeived rn the mind which through
appli-
cation and reflection coneeives &n attachmont to
them. On the other hand, ugly forrns, discording
sounds, nasty tastes, repugnant feelings c&use a
perception of displeasure in the mind which regu.lte
in ayersion.
But whethor it is an attachment to
tho ploasing sensations, or an aversion from tho
unploasant onee, it nerrows the rnind
(paritta,ceta.ro
vdlnratil which thereby boeomoe subjeet-eoneoioue,
whils attention to actuality is relaxsd (anupallhdta_
kdgla-ea'il. Those sensations, approved of and
walcomod, intonsify the will to enjoy
Qerna-tanhn)
which develops rnto a clingirg to them (u,pddfinn).
But in this vory clinging lios tho fulness of the
m.isery of bondage- tr'or the pleasureg of ths Bonges
are not tasting
;
they, too, are complex, leading to
entanglemont and disharrnony, because they consist
of wrong values. fhey are, therefore, a eomposition
of disoords, natrrrally tending. towards dissolution.
The di*colut,ion of eueh
o discord would be good
in itself, but rls the rnind is clilging to that,wrong
vdus it, becomee s sourco of conflict (iluklchal.
Y[hen oraving for serrse-pleasuros (lcdnw-bqthd)
cennot sling (ufiddruz)
"ny
mor€,_ owing to dissolu-
tion of the eensee or the feding away of the sonso
objoots, it will riorleqt itsalf in conetarrt ,e-boco-,'ng
(bturlnl,
thug not quenol'ing but produci-g a,o
ovar-in6taasitrg thiret
for life osd all it stand.s for
(bhnua tanhdl, Thon tho vory impermenoucy
of alt
thinso micht bocomo a naw rource of fresh dolight
emh tim6, which heeps away the boredom end tho
tedium
of oonstant and unchanging boauty and joy.
Is not the saa
lnado beautiful
by tho risCI and fall of
hg! wov6g ? Da not the di$erent eeasong odd to ths
fft'tfD0tion of nEt/urs ? Thoge ohenges, however,
are not a,ttrg,etive in thernselvos
;
they are only
eppreai*ted
bEqaups thoir troauty is so baseless and
beosus€ they oennot be r:steerned for long. It ie
only their frequont chenge which makes theno
tolornblo.
rn thiE mAnnAr thon arises the crarzing for per_
mansnoy in ths impermonent, e. form of ideslisne
wtrish in olden ci.utes w&s called oternalism
(mssatn.ditthi).
It is crsving iit permfnenr exis-
teltas (bhmta_tanhd)
whioh, qlthou\h
9*t'reesing
it_
solf in mony faTlns, is alnrayp ba,red orl * *or.g .iow
of indivirluztity (saklcavw;ilthi),
ft is oithor mafi,er
itsolf which ie thought of ee indestructible,
or somo
psyoh.ioa,l functions rls sensationn,
per<:options or
ldeetions, or even knowlodge itself, which come to
be rega,rded as qualities of some permansnt en:tity,
or as idemtical with au indestnrctible life.principle,
or as resirling in an eternal soul, oi viae aersr;- w s
spiritual substrtnce e6siding ia thos€ phenomone.
Such otsrnalietic viows of individuelity,
origtnoting
in a desire for perrnanent e.risf,once, have tred i:o the
history of philosophy to Pantheistic Monisn whiah
holds that everything is a dgvelopment of en im"na-
terial and supersonsual substance; to Flato,s Ani-
mism believing ths hrrmen soul to be bo{rh
,irr,raortal
and oternal, i.e., pre- and post-edet€trt; to Realism,
giving in i*"s oxaggeratod form roal exintence ovon
to universal concopts, or in its modoroto vorsion
believing in s motapbysical ess€nce, epar0 from
individu.al characteristics; t,o T-J1tre-Dogm^etism,
accepting the reliability of first principlee
cl
errord.
Ther"o is etili another way ln whioh the mind
might try f,o solve tho conflict, of lifs, nemeiy, try
refusing to see its cornplexity and conditionelity.
tr'or, thon, life becomes a succesaion of,events wi$hout
say conselluance. It ie the extreme viow of Ma-
torialisun, oalled A:nnihiletionism (uncfufuAifrhil.
1lhig craving for annihilation
@iblwta-taf,tdl w not
so much a cissir€ for the ond of life, es a bolief
that actione irx this life will havo no further conso-
qusnces. ft ie a viewo thorofbrre, which eneourogoc
joyful
living'co the utmost, as srith dseth ovor5rthing
is finished. Naturally, such a view of lifo leade to
extrome solfiehness, for it stimrrlatos tho chaso aftor
individual ploasuree even at the cost ofloss to othors"
tsut it ia inrpoasiblo for aa individuel to breek
eway from a life in which his procesa of action
is so entangled with that of others, that any attompt
of ieolation can only complicato tho complex moro.
Thus, even this eraviug for the
qnnihilatiou
of tho
oonsequences of ection does not solve ths problem,
but is tho sourco of a more intonse oonflict.
Thus, desire for the pleasures of the sonaes (la6trc.
tanhd) leads to conflict (iluhklw), bscause it is au
attachmont to a wrong valuo which can novor givo
the satisfaction hoped for. Deeiro for continusd
existence (bhaua-ta,q,hd) ie a souroe of conflict be-
c&use it, is a soarch for thepem.anont in the imperma-
nent. Desire for tho
qnnihilation
of the consoqueq-
ces of lifo (uibhaoo-tofrlfrl produces more eonfiaq
beeeuse of its tondency towards isolation, which
produces a sharper contraet botweon tho delusivo
opposites of self and othsre. Such ie the s€cond
Noblo Truth (ari.ya-saaco), the truth about the origin
of confl.ict (iluhkha-eomu
l,oyol.
Knowledge of tho proeenco of conflict (dulckho-
aancol ond understancting of the source of its origin
(dwhliw-eamudayo) still leave unattained the realisa-
tion of tho cessation of the conflict (tukkha-ni,rcdiha,\
:
end this foms the third Noble Tfuth, which ie the
ARTYA.SACCA 88 ARIYA SUTTA
only logioal oonclusion to be drawn from a faet,
arierng in depondence on a eondition, namoly, that
witb tbe aeseation of that, originat'ng oondition the
deot' rill slso oeas€.
lbe procees of solvirog the complex and thereby
ending the conflict will be, therefore, a procose of
cadicetion of the root-condition, whioh wae etat€d
in the eecond Noble Tilrth to be oraving in ite
va,rious exproseions. Ilence " it is the entiro
wa,ning, ceesation, abandoningr rejootion, libere-
tion and detach"'snt from tbat craving, tbat is
oalled the (third)
Noble Truth of the cessstion of
oouflict
"
(D. II, pp. 3I0-f l). And where tbat
oraving has arisen, there also it must b€ abandoned
a'nd dissolved, viz., in the sonsffr and in the will.
For,
"
whorever there is in the world aomething
eutioing a,nd, dolightfirl, thoro this craving will
va,aisb if abandoned; if dissolved, it will ceaso
"
(loc. cit.). Then, " through the entirs waning and
ocation of oraving comes the oeesstion of clinging
lrfiihw\;
through tho cessation of olinging coasoe
tbo becoming of volitional,teadoncies a,nd ectivitios
(Ii[uw); with the cessation of thie karmic action
rcbirth (X'dld) will come to an ea.d, and thon will
olso c€o€s docay, doaih, sufrering, sonow, pain
grief and dospair
"
(S. II, p. ?0). And tbus is
brrought ebout tho ceasotion of this entire complex
of conffiot (ilukklwhblwdlnen
nJrodlul.
Ibie procoas of cossstion, removing the source of
oonflict,
gbould
not beoomo e quesi for happiness,
whicb would bo only a subtle substituto ror the
morc gr,oss kind of craving just
abaadoned. Any
kind of happiness whiob poasibly oan bo thought of,
will have the hall-ma,rk of impemanetco (omiaa\,
and henee the e€aroh for it oontains tho eeed of con.
fliat (dukklnl.
And eo tho quost cannot bo for a
positive goal, but a nogetive ono: the coesation of
oonflict (ilukbhaniroillwl.
Only he who has no
dffire to oontrol ao5rthing, but rrho is inqpired by
tho irrepreesible need to bocome free fiom all
delueion, he hm truly entored the path to perfeot
blisB in tbe oeesstion of the oonfl.iot through the
aolution of the pmblom. In reoognising the eouroe
of the oonflict in hinEelf, man is able to eolve thgt
oonfliet in
hirnnolf
by r.emoving that souree. Tbe
oonfl.iot bogen by ottaohing \rong valuee to pbysical
and psychicel phenomena. Ilonco, by rrroBns
of a re-veluation, that attachmont will naturelly
ooase. ft ie e procep-o{ ceeeafion through r:n-
derstanding. Cesssti{n ie\9--df 66ing, for thorp
is no pemanont eoulf subetance or ontity to ooaso,
but oeseation ie of.6eaoming, i.e., of the arising
(btirnn-nilrdtu) of'the volitional rctivities (bnmol
which lead to tho repetition or rebirth of the com-
plox, Thus, cessation ie not a doctrino of ratione-
lised suicido, uot
gf annihilation, and hence it doee
not lead to aseoticisb. Only in one senso does tho
Buddha admit to bg alr annihilationist, namoly,
in so fsr ae ho toachos tho annihilation of the pes-
sioDs and defilomonta (lotl,aaa-ndrodlwl.
Tbo method of rchieying such cessation is tbe
Iast of tho four Noble Ttlrths, tho means towards
tho end, the path thet loads to the cossetion of
conflict (dukhln-ndroillw-gAmini.pa4ipaffi). This will
be dealt with in dst&il undor ATTHANGIKA
MAGGA. ft sufrcos to say here thet this fourth
Noblo Tl'uth whioh is the Noble Eightfold Path
(oriyo
olllwrtgiko mqgol covors
vnnn's
moral life
ls[In),
bis power of eonoentration (eomdd,hil and bis
undoreta,nding of the truth (pfrfral. It is a patb of
underetanding and practice, whereby the truth can
beeome
Lnown (suu-ffiqta), its firnction undorstood
(kilno-ftdltf,) so that its aocomplishmont may bo
realieed (lsta.Mqw).
g.
G. A. v Z.
ARIYASf,VAKA 3UrTA, the
ninth
and the tenth
suttss of tboCldwpttVaqga of the Nd'ddrw Saqnyutla
of the Samyutta, Ni,lcdyo (II, 77-g), preachod at
S6vatthi. A well-taughf
@uraoan)
ariyan disciple
(60yasd,ttoka) doos not wonder as to tho ceueo a,nd
effeot (pali,ccosornuppodal of things, but ho ie awaro
that it roally is the ariding (somufuyo) aad tho pao
sing away (afflwn4ama) of the world.
lbe first sutta says that tho ardyudoalm who is
endowed with right view stands knocking at the
door of the Deathloss.
The eecond
gutta
is the sane ae the firet witb a
very slight varietion in tho last paragreph in its
wording, but not in its moaning.
I. K.
AruYA SIITTA
(l) appoart in the Bojjha,iga
Sotytgulta of ths Saryryutta Ni,lfrya (V, 82). Tho
oultivation of the Eeven factore of enlightenment
(bjjWgol leads to the complote destruction of
sufroring.
ARIYA SUTTA (2) spposrs in the Sotipollhdno
Boqryufia of the Sar7ryuttu Ndlfrya (V, f66). lbo
oultivation of tbe four besos of mindfulness (sati,po-
W.rtnal
leads to tbo oomplete destruction of suffering.
ARIYASUTTA (3), the third sutta of the Cdpdla
Vaggo of tbe lililhi.Nde Soryyutta (S. V, 255). Tbe
TNIYAYAITSA 89
ABITAVAUSA
Stlddha;ssyr
-that
the four besos of prychio power
(idili,Ndal
when oultivated would lead ono to the
goal, to thc utter dostruction of eotrow.
ARIYAVAII0A (f), noble lineage or heritage.
Four imporf ant qualities expected of every Buddhirt
monk. deseribed x ardyaaar.naa, aru givon in the
peli
canon. In brief they ere: (i) A monk is sstisfiod
vith whatever robos he gets, praisos the velrre of
cont€ntment in whatever robes he obtains, doee not
commit any impropriety in ordor to s€curo robes,
nor doeg he exalt himself or look dovm upon others
on ecooutrt of his possession of this quality of
oontentment. Bo ie ho with regard to (ii) whatever
food he obtainsr and (iii) whatever lodgiryE he ie
?rcvided
with. (iv)
A monk takes delight in medita-
tion and renunoistion. But on account, of this he
doee not eralt, himself nor doer he look down upon
ot'hsrs.r
A\e Vatrca8?rrtaof the Aitguvw, Nihdya (fI,Z7),
oontaining theeo four noblo linoegoet, ie eomotines
oelled lhe Arigovar.ngo Suno (DA.T.,5O
3
MA. f, 14)
or Mahd-Arigatsamaa
Sunt
UUIA.
II, 240). A much
longer r!&mo, deseriptivo and analytical, is Catu-
Ixwgo
-
sanloaa -
bMnmnirdma rrwhd
-
ariya
-
aamEo
Snfra (ltre Great Ariyavamsa Sutta expounding
eontontmeat in tho four requisites and dolight in
Eeditation z AA. TI, 2491. Another version of this
aame adds ptdnwnditatn
aftot bhivanfitdmtt, (AA.I,
192), while in the Vdi,tffihirnqgais found tho n*'ne
Q atvptucag o
-aantnao-blfi,uand,riinntii
-ilipakor.n
moh.d-
ariyornqua
-
palipe4n
V
datn. 7 5).
The sutte is cited as &n oremple of e dieaourso
delivsrod by tha Buddba on his owa initiative (DA-
I, 6O
;
MA.I, l4). According to the Dlwmma@
oomment'arJr (II, 169 f.) he had Mah6-Kassepe in
view when the ariyavamea-pli,pffi
was preached.
lUa,h6-Kaeeop& was regarded in many ways to be the
idool Buddhigt monk atteched to a simple way of
life end euster€ prectices.
Thor.efore, it is not
eurprising that a sutta oxpounding the ideal life of a
Sudrlhist nonk should be thus describod. Tbe
Buddha ie said to hrve praieod the sutta with nine
epithets (nauahi,Wlohi,|
while ltre Clncak&a and tho
Salipag[hana Swttaa woro praised with eight and
n€votr epithets rar.pectivoly (MA. I, 286). Ttre
opithots of the noble linoages as givon in the Vaqnaa
Sutta arre that they ere pristino (aggafrfu), of long
standing (rfu,ilf&rl,
traditionol (winulailfu),
aucicut
(prfupo), pure (aoc?r&dpqu),, not oorctsninltod in the
ryb
(uor;nhiprrr-pubbal
or at present, which ahrll
uot be conterninatod in tho future and not despieed
by tho disoerrning recluses and brE,hmans (oppti.
lru.Ilho eamo4,ehd brthmatv,hi vifrfrShd).
Wherpver hs
livea, a monk oudowed Tith tbeec qualitiu
mastors both dieoontent and oontent (atfiE-rufi-rrlhol,
Frlle as the purert of gol4 he indeed is the true s*ge
praisod oven by gode and by BrahmE (A.fr,27 tr.|.
Commentingi on the sutts Buddhaghoea se3n
thot the Buddhe preaohed thie nrtts at Jetavane to
en aes€mbly of forty thousand 66nlre. Ariyaoonao,
acoording to hirn, ie the noble heritago or lineage of
the Buddhss, paccekabuddhas
snd dieoiplee of tbo
Buddbas of the pest, prosent and future. It it
the noblesr,,of all the eight lineages, the othorsbeing
klnttigo, brd,hnnn, o?ato,, *ufu,
W,
taia and.
rdja. Another Damo for it b uriyn-tantd or orfu
parcni (noblo cu.stom or traditioa). Ee goee on to
give a detailed oxposition on oaoh of the four
lineag'os.
The first thrceof these, according to hin,
covor tL.a Vinagn Pi,laka, while by the last ono both
the other pi.fakas am covered (lsf;tA. )(XXII[,
487 ff.).
Nnmorous otber refereneee to ari,gooar.noc
hs-vl
boen found in the Pali commentarioe and ofher
peli
works. They ell lead to tho seme conclueion that
ariyouomao. whatever it may havo been,
.waa
verJr
popular smong tho Buddhists,
both tho Seigha and
the laity, of ancient Ceylon. ttroro were monkg
known
u oriyooo7nao-bhinako
who spocialieod in
the pmaching of the ari,gaaamaa. Sometimee thoy
have been quoted as authorities in the Dbammo
(,S/.,. III, l5l). Instencee are for-ud. whene kings
and nobleg took a keen intorest in the preachiqg of
the sutta. Somo of them contributsd handsomely
towards the expeneos incured. Large nr:rrrberg of
poople, even from distant places, came to heor the
ariyauarp*o preachod,
end sometimes it was mad,6
an occasion for a feetival. Whet wag this arhyo-
aomao so popular'in
aneieut Ceylon ? Wae it the
same es l}n;o Arigaaar.neo Sutta or something elso ag
suggestod by some echolars ?
Thre€ differont uEag€s ofthe torm can be gathered
from tho Peli co"''nentaries: (i) The narns of a
sutta---o.g.
rari,g
mtalnaom kattaayamdzro, proachi4g the
eriyavar.nsa (i.o., the sutta; DA. TI, 596). (ii)
A
-l
lficdlelge (gildnagueaya),
th6 fourth requleite (.pw.aua)
ol & moat, ig also lncluded under this (SEB. -X-\XIII; 49j):
9 Both tne Uam-li*tatc (lI, 49?) and the Cttllo-Ntddaea )
(p.
!09)
ef olude bMrnnrtrd,mafrom the four llneeges suO tlrsrcsd
lnclqdo- the cqqtentment in whatsoever medlclne
\ one obtgfflns
es the fourth llneage-
0 1l- lhe Sa{lei Suaqnu
<;f ltte Digho Nikhlo,
ARIYAVAnTSA
90 ARTYAVAUSA
B€:rmon---o.g., ekasmiln kira gdtne ariyoaamad hati. .
..ukkappho
'ita,re
iilw, dydnrtouso dhamma-
eaaand,ya. In a cortain village thore is t};.e ariya-
oa\nsa (i.e., preaching, deaarfi,), tho strict one said to
tho others,
'come
friends, lot us go to hoar tho
preaching of'the Dhamma' (Viam. 54). (iii) A
course of training (pali,pad'd,) to be practised-e.g.,
naltfi-ariyaaa,Insarll pfr,rayarnfino bhikkhu : s monli
fulfilling the great ariyatamto (AA.III, 5L').
All these t'hreo usagos can be applied to the Anya-
aamsla Sdta,. ft is a sutta that ean be preaclred and
it contains & courso of training for monks. An
interesting story found in the Aiguttara Nikd,ya
cornrnentary proves that tho Arigauaqnsa Sutto was
the subject of popul&r sormorur in anciont Ceylon.
It shows how a woman, with her child in her arms,
walked fivo yojarws to bear the DighabhdTaka
MahS-Abhaya thora proach the .Ariyaaar.nso-
Ftdpqdd.
The there explainod the first threo line-
ages and wes about to ris€ from the soat whon this
womain spoke out." The Worthy One, saying that
he would preach tble ariyaaanlsct, takes all sorts of
&lieacies,
gwoot
drinke and modicannonts such as
llporico and ghoe. But he gete up at tho very
Firil
thet ehould bo oxplainod." " Very well,
dttor," said the thera aad went oa to explain
Utdwndrdtno, the fourth linooge. The sutta \F&s so
polular that even an averago woman knew its
ofrt€nts well and what tho most important part of
i t *r r t t A. E, 2191.
A firrthel*r*lm
of the poputarity of the sutta
ie the rnnnnor
if a[igh tho oornrnents,tor has dealt
with it, Ee givr &tsiled instructions to the
Preaoher
of the rutte, c.rg., on the forlrth lineago he
BayB, " A monk who apeeka on this noble linoage of
the delight in meditetion slxould do it in accordenee
witb the Nekkhamma Pdld of tbe Paldearnbhidd-
?tqga, t)ae Dasuttaro Sutta of the Digln Ni,kd,ya, tho
Satipalthnrw Sutta of tho Mojjhi,ma Ndkd,ya and the
N'idl,esa-pariydyo
in the Abhid,harnmn (,SI{B.
X)(XfII, 494). In the Vi,il,ililhi.m,aggo (p. 54)
Buddbeghosa cites arigaoaqnsa as a convoniont,
saarnplo of a Borulon. Without &ny previous
referencs ho says, "
T"
I eertain villago there is
ariyooomsa " (VLsrft. 66). Ile makes no attempt
to give any furthor oxtrrlanation whish ehows the
popularity of tho e6rmon.
Asgqlding to the Mohdaomao (rxrvi, 38) king
VohErike Tissa (209-31 A. C.) qtablishe$ a regular
1
",-,./
giving of alms at every place (or occasion) where the
ariyaaamsa was proached in the whole island of
Coylon. Goiger commenting upon the term in a
footnot'e to his translation of the fuIahd'uaqn"sa'
(p. 258, n. 6) says " Lit.
'book
of the holy ones'
probably lifo histories of men eminent in tho
Buddhist Church which were read aloud publicly
for the edification of tho
Feople."'
Other scholars
also seem to havo followed this intorpretation.
I{owever, thoro is no evidence for t'he existence in
the past of such a book or eustom. On tho othor
hand,
+,hore
is amplo ovidence in the Pali common-
taries for the preat popularity of the Ariyauanwa
Su.tto, in ancient Ceylon. It would, therefqre, not
be wrong to conclude that ttre ariyauanrsa referrod
to in the Ma,h.dua\nso wa,s the same as bhis.
There aro three stories in the Rasq,urihind (q. v.)
which refer to ari,yauamsa. The first (1?asnud,hini,,
od. Saranatissa, Jind,lank6,ra Press, Ceylon, 1922,
pt. II, pp. 4 f.) is the story of a Mahd thora of
Khudc.iarajja in Ceylon. I{e went to the MaLS,vdpi
monastery in Mahdgama to hear the preaching of tho
a,riyaaamsa. A great multitude had gathered from
distant places to hear the sermon. The second
story (ibid. 183 f.) refors to the ori'gauaTnsa boing
preached onco in evory six months at the Udumbara
Mah6-vih6ra,6 in the roign of Dubbilthi Malfdraja.c
People from within four goja'nas assembld and
elaborate preparations wero mads for the corcnony
(ma,hantarn piljd,nidhirwr.n kororrti). The third
story (ibid. 190) refers to a festival held on the
occa,.-'icn of the prosching of the ariyoaomao
(oriya,t arysa
-
d,esanimahe aatta,mfine) at the Ariydk6ra
monastery near the I(umbalatissa Mountain. Wbot
can be l};ie a,riyaaorneo roferrod to in theso storiea ?
Goi.rg on the evidence of tho Pali commontariee
again it would bo safe to assume that it is tho sano
as tho Ar'iyauaTnso Sutta'.
In a number of rock inscriptions of anciont Ceylon
appebrs the term arigo-uaaa. One such instanco ig
the T6nigala rock-inscription (EZ.III, 177 f .) of the
reign of king Megha,vaTf'a Abhaya (302-30 A. C.).
It records that one Devaya, son of Sivaya, a membor
of the Council of ministers, deposited a certain
amount of unhusked rice, undu (a species of
flemingia), and beans with a merchants' guild for
tbe purpose of oriyauosa (w'iEa-aosa aolani'). It
frrrther expla,ins that tho interest thorefrom should
be spent in supplying certain foodstuffs to tho great
4 Paranavitara, EZ., III, 282; Malalasekera, IDPP.M. I,
181. But cp. Matu1-Ariyaoazrsc (ibid. II,462 f.).
5 Dirirbulagala
(UCR. I, l, 62). But P. Buddhadatta therq
Bays " This is not Diftbuligala but some other monastery "
(Se?r?r. 183, n. 4).
6 King llah6dnfNka Uahin[ga
(6?-79 r. C.. UCR.
I , i i , 32) .
ARIYAVAI{SA 9l ARIYAVAMSA
eongrega,tion of monks praetising ariya-uaoa (ari,ya-
iloaa kerana maha-b'iku-sagaltala) in the new
monastery of Yahisapavata. Paranavitana ss,ys
(i bi d. IS,j f.) that the terrn ari ya-aasa rnay be
derivod from Pali ariya-uasa, ariya-uaqnsa ot ariya-
D(l,lesa,. Thc first (holy dwell.ing) he re3ects .rs
scareely suitable for the context. The second
(nobl e l i neago),too,ho rej ects on two grounds : (i ) The
vorh lca,rania would be inappropriate for such an
interprotation. (ii) The recital of a sacred text-
herro he undoubtedly adopts
(ieiger's
interpretation
referred, to above-could not have been performed
hy a congregation of montcs
\biku.
,"aga) as refbrrecl
to i n the i nsnri pti on.
Regarding tlre third caso (holy aassd, ot retreet)'
which ho adopts, he says, " If actsa n o,riya,-uasa is
considered a derivritive of Per,li ariya-aassa used in
Lhis sense, then the
'word
would mean
'holy-vassa
(rotreat)'. It is probably in this senso lhat qriyu-
uaoa is rrsod lrele though the word karana Lhat
frrllows it, dues noL seem to be appropri&te."
W. -Lir.rhula, on the ol,her hand, has pointed out
that tlro wcttrl ari'ya has never been used a,s &n
epit[et
of adssct, oitlrer iu t].re Pali Vinaya or the
cornrnent,aries.
'I'hore
is also clear evidence,
according to hiin, for the worcl uasa being uscd in
Sinhaleso inscriptions in tlre rrreanirrg of retreat, but
without tho opithet ardya,. The word ariyaaarnsa
has besn .rsod in tho Pali corhrnent,aries to mean €I
corrrse of trnining (Jtatipad,a). Therefore, it is not
dillicult to t'ranslate the phrase arigauasa karano
tttnlut,-lt'iku,-suguhu{a $s " t,o tho great congregation
of monks practising the ariyaue,ms&," i.e., the
pal i ' padd, (UCR. Vol . [, No. i , p. 59 f.).
Two inscriptions (cir. 4tlr contury A. C.) from
Labuiilabiiddigala also contain the tenn arigu-ucLscl.
Tl re frrst, of l ,hoso (Il Z. III, 250) rocords the de-
positirrg of one hundred ltah,aaanws by ono Sirinaka
fi rr' l ,l rrr
I)rrrPosc)
of ari ya-aasa (ari yo-aosa aat.a{aya) i n
the Devagirr rnona,stery. Tho sccond one (ibid. 251)
says that one Na{,alavifiya Siva deposited twenty
lcaltauana,s lbr c<-rnducting the ariyavasa cerernoriy
annuall)' (aruaha-uajd,rana1 ariya
)
in the same
place.
'lwo
other inscriptions from the Southern
Province of Ceylon, one at Badagiriya and the other
at lJurutankancla, a,lso conta,in the phr:rses ariga-
aq,sq, uu,ta-kotu and a,riya,uaso karn.naka-liotrr, res-
pecti vel y (i tri d. 182). fn al l these rnstances Parana-
vitarra
irrterprefs
tlre term ariya-r;asa aa holy uooscr,
(retreet). IJut they raay
yary
well bo referonces to
Llrr: A,r'ir1u'uuynsu Sutta so often mentioned in the
gsmmentaries,
T cp. A nusarpx uee ner arp a,riu a,aa\n s 0,- d.humm&d,e Mnq,
ili { A*ru,ihi,,i. lI, 4t -
That tho Ariyaaamscr w&a a popular sermon in
ancient Ceylon is quite clear. But it is not clear
whether there was any part,icular period in tho year
when the preaching was done. At the Mahdvdpi
monastery in Mahdgdma tho ceremony was held
onco every year (Rasaudhini,, If, q.
At the
Devagiri monastery, too, it was an arurual affair
(EZ.IIT, 250). But at the LTdumbara Mahd-vihd,ra it,
was done once in every six months (Rasaud,hi,nd, II,
183). At the Yahisapavata now monastery tho
monks practisod ttre ariyauamsa dvring the rainy
seeson (atouasahi : EZ.III, I78). So it.was at the
Clavaravd,la angana where the monks on retroat
during the rain-period preached ariyauerrwe orrco
every fortnight on the uposatha day (AA.II, 248).
ft i s comrnon knowl edge that' even now both the
Sarigha and the lait5z pay more attention to tho
fulfihnent of their religious duties during the rainy
se&son when the former go in retrsat. This cer.
tainly is the continuation of an anciont tradition.
Thereforo, it is not surprising to soe the monks and
tho laity of ancient Ceylon practising, preaching and
listening to the a,riyauam,sa which oxpounds the
essence of a mon-k's life. Licidentally, there are two
jataka talos the present stories of which refer f,o the
preaching of ariyuuoqnso during the rainy soason by
tho Sakyan monk named Upananda (J. II, 44L f .;
III, 332 ff.). W. Rahula has pointed out that the
Ariyauam^sa Sutta was preached for several days
dwing bho aassq festival in a newly discovered cave
temple at Gurulubiidda in Pasdur K6rale in Coylon.
(aCR. T, i , 68). It i s al so the cfstom at the
Diftbulagala monastery during the aassa (Rahula,
H'istory oJ Buddhism, in Ceylon, p. 270, n. 2). These
rnay be the persistence of a very old tradition.
In this connection there is another statement of
Buddha,ghosa that should bo considered. In the
Sumangala-uilasim, he says that preachers of tho
Arcyuuaqnsa (ariyaaam,sika) should bo sent to places
where monks living an evil life aro in power and
make them preach the ariyauamsa, (DA. II, 524).
Probtrbly, this statement has induced W. Rahula to
say regarditrg a ccrtain period in Ceylon historv:
"
Now the preaching of the ariyavamsa is a sign
that IJuddhism was in an unsatisfactory stato "
(Rahul a, op. ci t. p. 9t). Ihe peri od referred to was
the reign of Vohd,rika lissa mentioned above who is.
famofS-{or sup[rressing the Vaitulya heresy and
puri{ying\t&9-Aangha. In this connection it is
worUh considering, too, the fact that Asoka v-ho
re/,'6rnrnended the studying and hearing of a text
riamed Ali,yauasd,na (see below) is also famous for
suppressing heretical teachings and purifyirrg tho
ARIYAVAIIIfIA
92 ARIYAVAMSATANKARA
Seigba. But, merely, on theso facts we cannot say
that, evory timo a referonco is mado to tho preaching
of tho Ar'i,gaaam,so it also indicatos e deoadent
period of Buddhism i:r Ceylon.
Was this popular ceromony in Ceylon I oon-
tinuation of a tradition brought to Ceylon by
arahant Mahinda himself ? A-mong the sevon
eeloctod texts recoynmendod by Asoka to tho Sat'rgha
and ths laity to hear frequently and to meditato
upon, ono is Aliyar:asd,ni,. Several scholars havo
identifiod this oither with the Va\nsa Sutta of t}l.e
Aitgftr'ara Ndkd,yas or I part of t};.e Safi,giti Sutta of
l}no Di'gha N,i,lad,ya which contains the same subject
mattor (ACR.I, i, 68). Paranavita,ne thinks thet
lbe Aldyaoasdn'd of tho Bhdbru Edict is not the samo
as the Ari.gansaqnso montionod in Ceylon writings.g
For be says that tbe lattor, as it is ovidont from the
Rwaodhi,nt (II,4) story, containod en introduction
(niddnakatDd) not found in either of the Pali texts
identified with tho Aldyoaudni, (EZ.III, 183, n. l).
Niffinalnrlfr, a foatu.no of evory sutta, is the portion
thot usu&lly starts with the phrase euar.n rne eura4n
and erpl,ains wben, whero, to whom end by whom
tbe
gutta
was preached. W. Rahula points out
thot somo printod editions of the Angunaro Ndkdyo
do not contain this portion in sll the sutt&s ae the
introduction of tbe ffrEt in a eorios sorvoB tho sub-
aequont sutta,i preaohed at the samo place. I[s
further says that there is sn edition of lbre Ari,ga-
ou.n8o Butla, printod in 1898, which contains tho
introduation (UCR.I, i, p. 68, n. 63). Moreovor, the
coynrnent&ry has euppliod the suttas with the
necoaBary introductory etory and uaually tbo
proacher of a.eutta olaborates his Bemon with tho
dotails from tho cornvnentan'iers. It may not be
incorrect, to assumo with Rabula that the Aliya-
oosd.ni of the Bhdbru Edict ie tho sayno as that
fopnd in Coylon writings and tbo practico iia Coylon
wag a continuation of an Indian tradition.
Thero is very little eviderreo to provo lbat Ariya-
l)ar1^sa w&s & popular coremony after the 5th
century A. C., when the Sinhalese commontarios
'were
translated into Pali. In tho Saighardja
Sddhucariyd,tsa wtitben by Ayittiliyadd6 Muhan-
dirama in 1779 A. C. it is said that a prrpil of tho
Sanghard,ja, named Biiminivatt6 Unndns6, mado an
ArAatamsa Siltra Sannaya, a Sinhalese paraphrase
of the Ariyauamsa Sutta (ed. N. Pai,flisena and P.
Sannasgala, Arirb6vala, Ceylon, 1947, p. 33). An
edition of the Ari,yauar,naa Sutta, along witb &
Sinhalese paraphrase, probablv the atrovo men-
tioned, w&s published in Colombo in 1898. A
8 Ariyar:aqtso, usually found in the masculine
gender
,as
Ca.d,dro ariuu.uutlid, is sometimes
given in the neuter as Catti,ri
ari Uauarl s, i rt i (Ps. I , E4).
i l Sed , rri )' i I vr1sa sut t a.
notice on the back of it says that Payiyd,gala
Sumanatissa thera, principal of Vidy6nanda Piri-
ven&, Galle, taught
lhis
sutta to bis pupils end
-ado
them proach it daily.
c. w.
.ARIYAVAMSA
(2), a monk of Burma who lived
towards tho later part of tho lZth eontury. He
was the pupil of a thera named Mahdkdla and was
the toachor of thera Uttarajiva who camo to Ceylon
with Clrapatya (The Glass Palane Chronicle of the
K'irugs ol Burrna, 143).
ARIYAVAMSA
(3), an eminent monk, a scholar of
tho fifteenth century A. C. in Burma. Ilo was born
in Pagdn and studiod grammar in Sagaing under a
learnod monk, known as Ye-din (the Water-Carrior)
from his habit of koeping water in his mouth in the
presence of othors to restrain his .speech. Only
aftor many days of porforming all tho eorvices of a
disciplo was the young monk Ariyavamsa admitted
as a pupil by Yo-din who oxplained to him the
commontary of lhLe Abhidham,rnatthasafigaha called
tho Abhid,lwrnnwrilwu'ibheaa'n6. Lator, Ariya-
vaqpsa composod I coulmentary on this vory book,
calling it Maniadramafi'jil'sd. Afterwards ho taught
at Ava whoro tho king himsolf would somet''nes bo
found among ttro audience. The most important of
his subsoquent works w&s I commentary on tho
Atthmdlinz by Buddhaghosa, which itself ie a
commentary,on th.e Dhamrnosahgani, the first book
of tbe Abhi'dhammo Pilako. IIis work is ontitled
Maqtidi'po.
A grammar which was re-edited recontly, the
Gandhd,bh,arana, &ttd a book called Jd'talca-adsodhano
wore also composod by him. Thus ho stands out
in the ecclosieetical litorary world of Burrna as tho
first composer of motaphysical works in the
vernacular.
In various anecdotes ho is shown always as
dignified echolar and a magnanimous toacher with a
strong influenco over the king of Ratnapura.
II. G. A. v. Z.
ARIYAVAMSATANKARA, air eight'oenth eentury
work written in Burma by Nala Thera (N6r.rabhi-
sdsanaChaja Mahadhammard,jaguru) of the villago
of Sahassorodha, after the ki ng had rai sed hi m, i n
the eiglrth'year of
this
ortlination, to tho position of
' the
l 6rd of\traQ4der
'
(Sd,sanauamsa p. 134).
ARIYAVAITISA SUTTA 93 ARJUilA
ARIYAVAMSA SUTTA, menti oned i u the commen-
tari es (DA. I, 50
;
MA. I, 14) as &n exampl e of a
sutta preached by the Buddhaon his orn initiative.
The namo porhaps rofere to the l/a1nsa Sutta of lhe
Aiquttara Nckdya (II, 27), doaling with the four
a,riyaaannsa, (noblo lineages), and named in the
commer^tary (SHB. XXXIII, 487) &s Mahd,
Ari yaaamtq, Sutta. See ARIYAVAMSA (l ).
c. w.
ARIYAVASA SUTTA. The ten ways of nobl o
living of the Ariyans &rs surnmarised in ths
Book of Tens (Dasako Nnpan) of the Anguttara
Nokdya| and dotailed in the following sutta. Their
occurrenco in tho Bcok of Tens is, of course, very
appropiiate, and tho style and composition of
theso two suttas agreo ontiroly with ths plan
genorally observed in'the
'Collection
of Numorical
Suttas'. Yet, the fact that the detailed eutts
occurs olso as part , of t};re Sahgiti Suttarta of the
Digha Nikdyaz, whero it constitutoa a decidsd
departuro from the usual style adopted in thoso
discourses, should not be taken as proof of seniority
of tho Aitguttara over the Dtgha Nikd,ya, or of
bonowing one wB,y or tho other. " Each may
have incorporated the pessege . . from tbe
courmon stock handed down in bhs com-
munity."
e
That the text was well-known is clear
from tlre fact, tlrat Llne Ariya-uosdni ( lliyaaasd,ni)
wero recourmended by the emperor Asoka for study
and rocital by iho monkg in his Bhabru edict.
{fhe ten methods of noble living &re &s follows :-
(I) abandonrnent of tho 6ve factors of ssnsual
deerres (kam,accha,nda), ill foeling (uy dpddo),
sloth s,nd Corpor (thLrn-rnid"d,ho), excitoment
and worry
@ddlwcca-laulakucca)
and per-
plerity (aicikr,cchn). This group of five
factors are olsewhero usually reforred
to aB tho fivo hindrancee (pafi,co-ndaa-
raqta)
;
(2) endowrnent with six factors, regardi:rg the
six senses of sight, hearing, smolling,
tasto, bodily contact and mental cogni-
tion, in respect of which a monk is neither
delighted nor deprossod, but 16ps,ins
indifferent, mindful and composed{;
(3) guarding with mindfulness tho ectivity
of the mind
;
I . 4. V, x, sut t a 19.
Z D. l l ' l , Frrt t a 33, p. 269.
3 T. W. Rhys Dnvidt, Inlrod- to Di.a.loonzt of thc Buddho,
I I I ,
F.
vt i l .
t lED.QnaWiga)
quotes
D. IlI. 269 erroneouely ag
rcforilng tn the set of Veriinges. OgcipUneg of VeOic scieiie.
--
(4) observing the four supporbs of fisslirnina,f,ing-
ly pursuing,
"Ir4ry'ingr
avoiding and
suppressing;
(5) rejecting each of the fals€ views6 such as tho
world boing eternal or not,
finito
or not,
which are elsewhere called the undecided
or unoxplainod questiana (avydkata)o
;
(6) renounsing completoly all desiros for sensuous
ploasuros, for rebirth, evon for tho reli-
gious life (as a quest for higher virtuo or
knowl edge);
(7) presorving the rnind unsloudod by tho elimi-
nation of sonauous, malicious end harrnful
thoughte;
(8) tranquillising tho activity of tho body in
rofusing to be affoctod by either pleasure
or pah, e&se or discomfort, and
.
by
maintaining that montal equilibrium of
utter purity of mind in tho fourth state of
mental absorption (jludroa)
;
(9) frooing his thought from lust, hato and dolu.
si on;
(10) being roleased through insight that the
roots of ovil have boon cut off completely,
not to riso agein in future.
E. G. A. v. Z.
AnJAVA, n&me of e cakravartin (Mhw.I, 1b4.I).
ARJUNA (l), a king of HastinEpura.
'Whonever
he met good men ho was in the habit of putting
questions to them and killing thoee who could not
anawor him' satisfactorily. Once & so€r namod
Geutam,a who posseseed great psychic powor,
cAyne to the city from tho Ilimd,layes. Arjune
put hirn a question and was answored correctly.
But as ho could not understa,nd the reply he killod
ths seer with his own hands. As a cons€quonco
he w&s burnt with fire and was reborn in tbe
great hell Sakti6ula (Mhvu. 36l.4 tr
).
The ssor ig
also callod Angirasa Gautama
(ibid.
368 I5).
Soe al so AJJUNA (3).
c. w.
ARJIINA (2), a yaksa mentioned in the Mahd,-
ma,yuri (23).
i
.\
ARIUNA (3), the ministor of
fr.nandp
of
-bhe
S6kyans
and en
export in figures. - I{e wa,s appointod to
6 literally : truths
(pa,nur.1la-pocceka-aarto).
Srho.D.I,
187 : Pol,$npdda Sufro : M.I, 43t : Culo N&ltttllya
ARJUIIAVANA 94 ARNOLD, EDWII{
test the bodhisattva's knowledge in figuros, beforo
Gop6,, the daughtcr of the Sakyan DandapS,ni,
w&s given in rnarriago to him. Arjuna found
that the bodhisattva's lorowledgo in figuros was
ovon greater than his own (Lal. I02 tr.\.
c. w.
ARJUNAVANA. a, locality mentioned in the
M ahfr,maytirZ (BII,S. s.v.
).
ARKA, a king, the bodhisattva in a previous life.
IIo fulfilled the fourth of his vows by giving 80,000
grottoes adorned with the seven precious
substances to the Buddha Parvata. Arka has
been equated with Araka, which latter is the name
of the bodhisattva &s a br6,hman teacher in the
jd,taka
story so entitled (J. J. Jonos, Mahd,uastu,
t r sl . I , pp. 45, 46) .
D. T. D.
ARNOLD, EDWI N ( 1832- f 904) , or i ent al i st ,
poet, journalist. I{e was ono of tho many European
scholars who in the ninetoenth century engaged
themselves in interpreting to tho West the vast
world of Oriental thought, and emotion. In cany-
urg out, this task, Arnold camo to bs known as ono
who moro than any other, succeeded in popularising
a knowledge of ,Buddhism in tho early days of its
cont'act' with the West. This was mainly through
his epic poem, The Light oJ Asi,a, which was pub-
lished in 1879 and purported " to depict the life
end charaeter a,nd indicato tho philosophy of
that noble hero and reforrner, Prince Gautama of
India, the Founder of Buddhism. "
I
Olcott speaks
of Arnold as " one who had laid tho whole Buddhist
world nndsr doep obligations
''s
by writing The
Itight of Asda, which ho describes as a book " which
has dono more for Buddhism than a,rry other
agency. "
s
Arnold was born on tho lOth June, 1832, son ofa
Suesex magistrate, Robert Coles Arnold of Whartons
Framfiold- IIo was educated at I(ing's School,
Rochester, I(ing's College, London, and at lfniver-
sity Colloge, Oxford, where, in 1852 he obtained
tho Newdigate Prizo with a poem called BeI-
shazzctr's Feast which he later included in his volume
Poems, Narratiae and, Lyri,cal, & work published in
1853. IIo graduated at Oxford, gaining
only a third. class in the fi.nal classical school. This
initial set-back, however, did not abate his great
zeal for classical studies, nor seriously damp
his
love of learning, In 1854 he obtained his Master of
1 Lighf of Afia, Preface, 1885.
2 Old Diary Leaoet, Olcott, (1929), p.
342.
3
'f'ltzosophist
(Supplemeut lbr April, 1EE9).
Arts degree. For a brief period he servod as assia-
tant mastor at I{ing Edward's School, Birmingham.
In 1856 he published a collection of poems under
the title Griseld,a. In the same year he came out
to the East as Principal of the Government Deccan
Sanskrit College, Poona. It was hero that he
imbibed his interest in the oriental classics and
gathered tho material for his futuro works.
Arnold became a Fellow of the University of
Bombay and studiod meny oriental languages,
Persian and Turkish among them. Deeply im-
pressod with the treasures of Sanskrit loro and
literature, and convinced in the belief that the
hope of Hindustan lay in the intelligent interest
of Englanda and that " whatever avails to dissipate
the misconceptions betv'een them, and to enlargo
thei r i nti macy i s a gai n to both peopl es,"s he devot-
ed himself to the conversion of many Indian classics
into English verso. His translation of the Sanskrit
Hitopad,eia was published in 186I as t}l.o Book of
Good Counsels. The samo desire for a sympathotic
understanding between England and India undor-
lies his work on the history of Lord Dalhousio's
administration of British India, the first volume of
which he dedicated to Sir John Lawrence who
bore a chief part in the administration of the
Punjab, and the second to his wife, Katherino,
by whose sick-bed it was painfully composed and
by whoso death-bed it was mournfully finished.
During the Indian mutiny of 1857, he was able
to convert into action his kindness and sympathy
with the Indian people, an attitude which won
for him the nation's war"r affection as well as the
admiration of the Government of India. In 1860,
he wrote a pamphlet on the subject of Indian
oducation where again his desiro for East-Wost
rapproahenwnt is ovident in the plea he there
makes for a moro sciontific q;mthesis
of Eastorn
learning and Western
lrnowlodge.
In his book
Seas and Lan:ds, he says, addressing tho Japaneso :
" You cannot, gentlemen, import our civilization.
You must mako science Japanese by time and
patienco . .
;
.
-1
But I cherish the hope that
your path t{ pro\ress
/ilt
never lead you entirely
out of siglt of yod own peculiar refinements
and that..t{e primary duty of national self-assertion
will nover finally effaco that which is so spocial
and precious in your own charming civilization. "
In 1862, an attractivo Eastern note began to bo
felt in the leaders of tho Dai,Iy Telegraph, tbie
fust po'''''y nevrspaper in those early days of English
journalism,
boasting of
'the
widest circulation
4 Book of Good, Couwels
(1924), Preface.
5 l oc. ci t .
ARNOLD, EDWIN 95 ARNOLD, EDWII{
in the world'. Tho voice that was thus heard
was that of Arnold, who had returned to England
in 186l and joined
ths editorial staff of this popular
journal.
In 1873, he becamo its chief editor,
sorving in this capacity for almost eighteen years
during which period his staff ineluded Edward
Dicey, Jameg Macdonell and II. D. Traill. His
sorvices in the Pross are described by a colleague
of
his,
J. M. Le Sago :
" W}other the Chief-whom we loved-asked
him to write the first leading article, the description
of some great historicai event or a,n ordinary
news paragraph, ho would do it to the utmost
of his ability
;
that the test of ioyalty wag not
to do some big thing, but some small thing-and
to do i t wel l ."o
In 1877 he was mnCc u Companion of the Star of
India tsy this time he was tho author of a number
of works pertaining to the Greek classics, including
The Poats of Greece, Euterpe oJ Herodotus, The
Wreck oJ the Northern BeIIe, and Hero and, Leander.
Tho years after the Indian mutiny saw &n outflow
of Alglo-Indian literature. In 1875, Arnold
joined
his namo to ths list of poets who contributed
to this intense literary activity with his poem,
The Indian Song of Songs, a rendering of Jayadeva's
Gnn.gw,ind,a, later re-edited and published along
with many other translations (including parts of
tho Mqha,bhoratu,\ and adaptations from Sanslcr.it
literature, in his volrrme, Ind,,ian Poetry. With
theso works Amold entered the circle of Anglo-
Tndian literary men of tho period, a circle which
i-rrcluded George Mallescln, James Wheeler, lVilliam
Ilunter, J<;ln Lang, Tltudrrs Prichar,
George
Aberigh,Mackay, TIenry Stuart Ounningham,
Georgo Trevelyan, William Bain and the poets
lYilliasr Waterfield, Mary Leslie, George Keerre and
Al fred Lyal l .
But it waa Tlte L'igltt oJ Asia whidn helped to
establish his fame and entitlod hirn to bo classed
with the lesser English poets of tho late nineteenth
century.
In
'l'he
L'ight of Asia, Arnold attempted to tell
the story of the Buddha in the w-ords of a Buddhist
votary, with episodes of his boyhood and renuncia-
tion of ttre householtl lifo as fbund in Buddhist
legend, mainly, perhaps, in the Buddha-carita,.
The work was well and widely received
and
by tho ond of the corLury, ran through sixty
English and eighty Ameriean editions. Oliver
Wsndell Holmes hailed it in the Internotional,
Reuiew &B
t
a work of great beauty
'.
There were, however, critics who doubted ite
permanent placo in English poetry, as well aB
oriental scholars who pointed out that it presented
an inaccurato picture of Buddhism to a public
which was not familiar with its doctrine and beliefs.
Also the suggosted analogy botween the Buddha
qnd tho Christ offonded ma,ny devout Christjans
and the work was anathematised. on tho pulpits.
This gavo Amold tho idea of another nanative
poem of which the hero should be Jesus Christ.
It resulted in his poem, The Light of the World,
(pubd. 1891), which, however, did not meet with
sirnilar success, though it followed rhr,r same pattern,
now telling the story of Jesus in the form of a
dialoguo between llary Magdalene and one of the
throe Wise Men.
Edwia Arnold
Arnold appears to have done much writing
during thc period follorving the publication
of
The Ldght of Asia. Apart from re-editing
The Indian Song of Songs, he publishod two more
religious poems ; Peails oJ the Faith, based on the
religion of Islam, and The Song Cetest,ial, a transla-
tioq of ftre Bhagauad,-gntd,.
In his lrrdi,an ldglb
6 Canbrid0a Etutory of Etrglbh ltileralure,1916, Vol. XIY
D. 191.
Anoslxta 96 ARSA-PRASAMAII ST}TRA
he brought out further translations from the
Mohdbhd,rata. Ho also triod his hand at drama in
Adzwna or the Japanese WiJe and made eome
efforts to write short stories, novels, e.g,, In Tent a,nd
Burvgalout and The
Queen's
Jwtice. He wroto
prolifically in prose, mainly on his travels.
In f 888 he was made s Knight Comrnander
of the Indian Empire. Accompanied by his
daughter he visited Japan in 1889, and was so
taken up with the cultural life of Japan that he
paid a second visit to the country. Most of his
booke on travel deal with Japan. Ilis third wife.
Jama Kurokg-ra, Lady Arnold, ryas rr Japaneso
l,idy.
Olcott records a visit to Ceylon and a rocoption to
Amold in January 1886.? Tours of Arnerica and
the Pacific Coaste aro also recorded.
Ile aleo reoeived a numbor of foroign honours,
tho ordor of tho White Elephant of Siam and the
Imperial Ordor of tho Medjidie among them.
Ile was e Follow of the Royal Asiatic and Royal
Geographical Society and an Ilonorary Member
of the Soci6t6 do G6ographie, Marsoilles.
IIe\ lost his sight a few years before his death
on 24th March 1904. I{e died at his houso in
Bolton Gardens, London, snd was cremated at
Brookwood, his ashos laid in the chapel of his
old College at Oxford.
B. J.
lROEnNTe, a chief minister of Sdvatthi. IIo
and hie wife had both entered tho Sangha. Ono
day, whilst' at his meals, he found his erstwhilo
wifs etanditrg by him with drinking water, and also
fanning him during the meal. .IIe pointed out
to her that they had given up their lay positions
and that, in their new situations, such bohaviour
was improper. She was so angored by what sho
understood \p&s & rebuke that she threw the drin-
king cup on his head and struck him with the fan.
Ilor conduct reachod the ears of the Buddha, who
thereupon declared that it would be an offenco of
confession (dukka{a) for a bhikkhur.td to stand by a
bhikkhu with drirrking water or with o fan close
to hirn whilst, at meals. Arohanta, is apparontly
mentioned nowhere else in Buddhist works (SBB.
XIII, Pt. 3, pp. 252-8).
D. T. D.
ARROCANCE, tho act of unduo assumption based
on concoit (rnd,na) which is self-pride, or haughtinoss
of mind (cittassa unnat'il, It is always considered
a vice by any moral standard, but particularly so in
Buddhisrn, whoro ethics as well as psychology is
based on the doctrine of no-self (arnttd). As such
it forms one of the main obstacles to the attainmont
of arahantship and ono of the final fetters (aamuo-
jana) which bind to existenco in sarytsd,ro. Soo
MANA.
ARSA-PRASAMANI SUTRA
(Arya-ari a' ), the ti tl e
of a Sanskrit text, the Tibetan translation of which
occurs twice in the Rgyud (tantra) section of the
Kangyur under the titlo (flphags-pa) gshah-hbrurn
rab-tu shi-bor-byed pahi rnd,o (Peking Ed. Tib.
Tr i p. , od. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 7, No. 213; Yol .
11, No. 645). Ths work is said to have been trans-
lateo and revieed by Jinamitra, Dana6ila and
Ye-6os-sde.
According to the proamble, the sirtra wes preached
at tho Squirrels' Feeding-ground ( Kolo ndakoniudpol
in Voluvana in Rdjagrha. The Buddha was
eeatod amidst a large assombly of monks. Ananda,
who was seated on a side waving a yak-tail fan wont,
down on his right knee, worshipped the Buddha,
and informod him that, a large number of monks
were subject to hemorrhoids and wero exporiencing
great pain. IIe asked tho Buddha as to what
should be dono. The Buddha aekod Ananda to'
learn the tnantra for tho curo of hemorrhoids, viz.,
alonte ala me 6ua Id tsini kule aa.rmbhaue sadhd,, bbe
knowledge of tho n&rno, worde or lettors of which
would prevent a, porson from being subject to this
disoase and also maks him recollect
geven
periode
of oxietence.
Ilo further said that at a mountain-pass in the
Eimdlaya in the north, a troo called rnan't,-par
rgyal-byeil (? aaijayanla) had threo flowers callod
fuphel-ba
(? aardhana),hjam-pa (? Icomala) andskorn-pa
(? dupka), and wished that all pustules caused by the
derangement of the humour of wind (ad,yul, blle
or phlegm, or I combination of causes would dry
up evon like the last flower.t Tho following quo-
tations also occur in the,t?rt : Tad, yathd iome do-
mane larne 6a,mane wal/d'; kqmo b/,agauate buddha
sotyaudd,i,nan sidd,hyant'b manV . . . . .sudhd. At
the ond of tho discour;,6, Ananda laudsd tho spoeoh
of the Buddha.
Tho toxt ends \il/ith tho statement that soven
L.ots
should be made in a red throad to the accom-
pqnirnsat of the recital of the sfitra seven times and
that tiris thread should be fastenod to the pationt'e
neck.
A Chinese translation of the stltra, ttre Liao-chih-
pi,n4-ching
tfrFffiffil
by I-tsing of tho 1'tsng
dynasty (618-907 A.C.) exi sts (Tai sh6, No. 1325
;
Nanj i ,o, No, 738).
R.H.
7 OU D*ay Lcawt, Olcott
(1929), p.342.
AR$TrftENA 97 ARTEAPADA SUTRA
An$Tnnff A, a gotra (clan). The earlisst referense
to it is traceable in the
figuedo,
X, 98.5 (6,8), where
it occurs in connection with DevEpi, a sage, descen-
dant of
'$s!iseua,
" Arsliseno hotramrgirnisidan
D ead,pirdeua surrwt irn cikitu dn
S a uttarasndd,a,ilh.arair S arnudro-
nwpo ddayd ogrjadua.rgyd abh,i "
"
Knowing the gods' good-will, Devdpi, priest, tho
son of
$sfisena,
sat as hotar (sacri-ficial priest).
He has brought down from heaven's most lofty
summit, the ocean of the rain, celestiral wators."
In tlre '4atupatha Brd,hmaTtn, 1.72.1 (,SB.E'. XII,
192, n.), Arql,isena is roferred to as making fi.vo
auad,ctna, utterancos. This original sonso attributed
to the term, in the early works of llindu literature,
seems to have been preserved even in later Buddhist
Sanskrit litorary works. Thus, in the Di,uyd,aadi,na,,
637.27, the term Arpgisena, of wbich Arqnisena and,
Arthi sena are the vari aut forns (cp. Di ,u' y.637, n.),
occurs as a n&me of one of the six divisions of the
Chdndoga Br6hmaga Gotra. This iE montioned in
conleation with the story of Tri6anku and Pugkara-
sArirIl.
IV-S.Kr.
ART. See BUDDHIST ART.
AnlRVAxe, s name for Alavake yakqa. See
Arrnvara
121.
ARTHA, ten attributes of the Adi Buddha as
belioved by tho Buddhists of Nepal. Theso ten
tto prd,4,o,
qI)qn,
sam,u,'no, udorw, uyona, kurrna,,
krihrira, nd,go, d,euadatta and dhannafr,joya. As
tauglrt in Yoga, these terr aro the no,mos of various
vitol airs suirl to bo found in tho
human body.
They are given as the Aai
guaatra's
attributes in
t,ho Ndma.sangi,ti, quoied by B. H. Ilodgson as the
' ton
ei grrrfi cati ons' (Essays on the f,ang,uages,
L,iterature ard lleligi,on oJ Nepol and Tibet,
pp. 84, 92) .
A. G. S, K.
ARTHACARYA, conduct for the benefft of others,
one pf' t,he
four rSangraha-vastu. See SANGRAHA-
VASTU.
ARTHADARSI, ntmo of two f<rrmer Il uddhas. In
u lrsL ur Llrc Muluuu,sttl tho f.rst of the name was
proclaimed Tathdgata by the Tathdgata Sudar6ana
;
in turn he proclaimed Mrjla. Jinendra was the
last of this particular succession of Buddhas. The
next Buddha of the namo eppe&rs in anothor list
whieh ends with the historical (Gotama) Buddha.
The Buddha (Gotamb) announcos to Ananda that
he had rendorod the other Buddhas great service,
with enrapturod heart, and honoured tho sublime
ones
;
that he had showsred gold, silvor and boryl
on Arthadar6i Buddha, Bnd, in such manner, had
gathered the rewards of many virtues by the time
ho came to be born in his last birth. Arthadar6i
is listed irnmediately after Sakyrm,rtri Buddhe
(an earlier one) and previous to Tisya Buddha.
I{e appeared 99 aeons (kal posl after the' former.
Ho instructed hi$ pupils in virtues and in arahant-
shi p and was, therefore, descri bed as
' ha
whose
gaze i s on what i s good' . By bi rth he and two othor
Buddhas were brdhm&ns, " great seers who mado
their selves grow" (J. J. Jones, Mohduastu, trsl.
IIf, pp. 228-36).
ARTEAKATEA, cornmentaries.
KATHA.
D. T. D.
Soo ATTI{A-
ARTHAKBTYA, conduct for the bsnefit of othors,
one of tho four Sangraha-vastu. Soo SANGRA-
IIA-VASTU.
ARTEAPADA SUTRA, a ti tl o restored from
the Chinese ti|le I
-tsu-cni"g
(#tr& N anjio, No. 674;
Tai sh6, vol . IV, No. 198) of a col l ecti on of si xtoon
efitras whicb correspond to the Pali Atthakauoggo,
now included in the oldest Pali anthology, tho
Suttanipd,to. This colloction
,of.
sixtee4 sfitras
was translated. into Chiner"
rtoto\tt
Iryd.ian text
written apparently in some [ndiant-Ffakrit lan-
guage.r Tho caso of the prakrit Dharnrnapada
may be cited in point. Ffagments of a Sanskrit
version of the same, which went under tho n&rno
Arthauargiqa, have also been discovered smong
tho Khadlik fi,nds in central Asia purchasod by
Sir Aurel Stein. Prof. A. tr'. R,. Hoernlo has worked
upon theso fragrnents and has shown that thoy
correspond to sorne of the si tras of the Pal i Attho-
kauaega.z Thi s sutra was consi dered to be a very
i mportant toxt menti oned by name i n tho Vi naya
books of the vari ous school s of the Buddhi sts.
1 P. V. Bapat, Arthapada Sr?lra, (Vishvabhrratt trtemei1s,
Shant i ni ket an) I nt roduct i on, p. f 3, I 9 (para. l 2).
2 i bi d. pp. 6-t i ; Si r -. l , urel
qt ei n,
Rurns oJ Desert Cat hay
v<rl . 1, pp 2J6-7; A. ! ' . R. I I oernl e, JRAS. 1916. pp
. 709 f f : ,
1917, p. 134-
ARTEAPADA SUTRA 98 ABTEAPRATISAMVIT
Fnd versos from the original of this sfrtra heve been
qpoted in works of the Sfrtra and Abhidharmr.l
A comparison of tho Chinese text with fAlil
AfrtnbatWga
ghows
that tho flrst
qine
eltra *-
foraer coneq>ond to ihose of tbe latter, bu| *
ordor of the sfrtras tbereaftor is differsnt es inffid
bel,orr:-
Cbinese Pali
l0-13 oorrerpond to ll-14
ll corresponde to 16
16 ooncepondr to l0
f0 oorlosptds to 16
Another important difierence is thot thp Ctinn
ver€ion has e pros6 introduotory rtory, whilc thc
Pali text doee not contain any sucb sbry, though
the cornrnontary on the samo does give some intro-
ductory story. The Senskrit fragments also reveel
the exietence of some prose introductory story. ft
ie, howovor, interesting to noto that no less tha,tr
s€ven of the prose stories iri the Chinese tert ero
quito different from those in the Pali commentary.
Tbis proso portion, however, does not appear to
have been written at tho same time as the verses.
It rerveals a later origin. The life depicted in
pros€ stories is richer and more varied than the
sirnple life of a wandering anchorite found in the
vere€s. It also reveals a later development in
Buddhology, Bs, for instance, the concept of a
ninn'i,ta (create.d) Buddha.
Cases have been discovored, whero the Chineso
taanslator has apparently misunderstood his ori-
ginel and hae given & wrong translation. One
eingle instance, we ma,y point out, where a sorious
emor hae been made by the Chinese translator. In
sfitra No. VII, at the very beginning of the proso
story, there is a mention of Citra, the son of aa
elephant-driver. The Chinese translator not kno-
wing that Citra was a proper n&me and that hatthi,-
edri was a descriptive qualifi,cation of Citra in the
eonse of an elephant-dliver, translates the expres-
eion as
'Sdriputra,
the son of (a trainer of) a
variogated (citra) elephant.
2
lbe Cbinese
text, however, is often helpful in
detemining tbe roadings of the Pali text arrd in
fl)Ere cases supplies very happy readings. This
C'lrinese text as woll as tho Sanskrit title Arthauar-
gEga raise an important issue about the meaning of
the Peli title Agghaka, whether it stands for
the Sanekrit word Aglaka (octad) orwhether
it etsnds for Arthako (rneaningful). Scholars are
divided on this point and we need not, enter into
18 $vlvatu L6vi, Jowrwl Asial' ique, 1915 (Mai Juin),
'n
,no'iif*oado s&u;, pp.
b4-0, note 2.
the controversy. It may, however, be pointed out
that there aro ovtin. soms Chinese authoritios
pointing to tho interprotation A1talca.s
Like the Pali collection, the Chinese toxt also
opbasises upon the simple life of a wandoring
tchorite, when he tries to understand the realities
of life, old age and death and keeps hims'elf free
&om desir'e for worldly ob;octs or the desire for the
drsures
of sex. IIe does not care for any of
tho eight loka-dharmas: profit or loss, fame or
igmrniny, praise or censure,'and pleasure or pain.
IIc
Leepa
himself away from all kinds of disputog
c Crpley of one's viows or practices. IIe nevot
ogTinlu bimeelf witb others to 6nd out his superio-
ri{y oru inforiority to or equality with them.
Eo ntx thinks that purity dopends upon what
oDe baa teo, heard, felt or undorstood
1cp.
Pali
Wtta' e,. M, oifr,frnrot), It has been also
not€d thtt in tbis collection, in the last stanza of
almosi oruJr s6tra, we find the ideal rnuni, biefly
desodbcd.
Tbrn, thir colleoiion has been considerod to be
s.
rnnnurl
of
ffri<taoa
fot a young Buddhrst mendi-
cant of ea,rly timeo. Ilenoe, the importance that
has b6q rttaohed to it by the difforent schools of
the Buddhigt's.
P. V. B.
Brsr,rocnapsv : In eddition to the
.sourcos
montioned in the foot-notos, M. Anesaki, Le
Musion, N. S. VII ( 1906) 33 ff., roprinted in Kotatn
Karaq,Egam, pp. 284-304; al so JPTS. l g06-07, p.
60 ff; Traneaetions of the Asiatic Society of Japan,
XXXV (1908),part 3, pp. I tr; N. A. Jayawi ckrema,
ucR. 1948- 50.
ARTEAPRATISATTVID, discriminating know-
ledge of artha, is one oflt\four pfiati,saqnuid,s. Soe
ATTEAPATTSAMBTTTpA.
\_-/
ARTEAPRATISAUVF, n&me of the second of the
four Pratisan'vit goddesses. The four Pratisamvits,
i.e., the four branches of logical analysis, were deified
by the Vajraydnists and wero regerded with vene-
ration. This particular Pratisamvit goddess is of
emerald colour and is said to cerry I noose and a
jewel in her two hands (B. Bhattacharyya, Ind,ian
Budd,hist lconography, p. 343). I{owever, a sbatue
of tlris goddess (see E. W. 01ark, Tuo Lamaist'ic
Pantheons, If, p. 134) represents hcr s^s carryi ng a
noose only. I'he left hand, which is placed agains6
the bent lefb knee, is in the bestowing attitude
i hi t l . I nt rod.
pp.
10-21
i bi d. I nt rod.
' -pp.
5-t j .
ARTEATIIDDEI
99 ARTHAVTGEUgTA-ilAMA-
(uorado-rnudrd).
In this statue she appoars as
wearing beautiful omaments and a hoad-dress and
also &s sitting on a lotus seat.
S.K.N.
ARTEASIDDEI, a king who became the Budd.ha in
a subsequent birth (B.AS. II, OZ).
ARTEAVACANAdRT,
n&mo of a Buddha occur:ring
in the GanQattyilha Sfrtra (A"AS. II, 66).
ARTEAVARGIYA
SUfnA, one of tho fragments
(fragment
I) of Buddhist Sanskxit manuscripts
discovered at Khadlik (central Asia) and purchased
by Sir Aurel Stein from ono Khotanese trader,
Badrudrl in
by name. T\e Ditry aaa.ddna,( p. B b
)
and the
Abhidlnrmalcoia-uydlchyd, whilo cornmenting upon
the Abhid,ha,rntakoia-kd,ri,ka (I,13) also, refer to this
name. The latter quotes one stanza from'the s&me,
which corresponds to P ali S uttaniTtdta v erse 7 67 . The
fragments discovered in central ^A.sia have been
worked upon by Prof. A. F. If. Iloernlo and his
conclusion
r
is that ;--
Fragment f corrosponds to a portion of
pali
Tissa,metteyya, Sutta (No. ?).
Fragment If comesponds to a portion of
pali
Posd,ra Szlla (No. 8).
Fragment lll corresponde to a portioa of
pali
Mdgandiya Sz6rc (No. 9).
Fragment IV is a continuation of tbe proso
portion in fragment III and further corresponds
to G6thds (836-46) of the Mogandi,ya S*ta.
Fragment V corresponds, according to lfoernle,
to the proso introduction
of Purabheda Sutta, (No.
l0), but this see,ms to be doubtful. It rather
corresponds to the prose portion of Kala,h,a,uiud,ila
,SulJa (No. ll), which immediately follows the
Md,gandiya Butta in the Chinese version, the
Arthapada Sritra.,
These fragments, six by three inches, aro the
middle portion of the leaves, the right and left
ends of which aro brokon off. They are not of
much uee for comparison with either the Pali or
the Chinese vorsion. They oaly indicete thet
1 A" F. R. Hoernle, JPTg. t914 p. 709 ff. ; tSU, p. 184.
2 P. Y. Baoet. Arlluodo-eulro. Introd. p.8.
9. S. l ' . ( ' . 98420
there was s Sanskrit version named Artlnuargiyo
Scitracorresponding to Pali Aghakaaaggoand to the
Chinese l-bu-ching (AEffi
Artlwpad,o Sutra\.
P. V. B.
Brsr,roanepsy : See articles on Allhalcaaagga a;nd
Arthapada Sdtra and the literature mentioned in
those articles and tho sources dentionod in notes
on thi s arti cl o.
ARTffAVTCEU$TA -
NAMA
-
DHAnMApARyAyA
(Arya-Artho),
the ti tl e i n' sanskri t of a work tho
Tibetan version of which occurs in the }fdo (srltra)
seetion of tire Kang"vrrr under the title (Hphags-pa)
Don rg4as-pa sheq-bya-bahi chos-kyi rnam-grai ts
( Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tr i p. , ed D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 39,
Ii o. 984.). Tho Sdo-dge edi ti on gi ves Arya-
arthauistaraftd,ma" as the titlo of the work (?.?/.
No . 3 l 8 ) .
The Buddh& was residing at Srd,vasti, in tho
monastery of A:rathapiTdada in the Jeta Grove
states the preamble to the sitra, when, addressing
the monks, he announcod bjs intention of expound-
ing the doctrine, propitious at the beginning, in
the middle and at the end, etc. (The
Tibetaa
phrase here corresponds to the Pali
qdikalgd,narn
maX j
hek aJ y dnam p ariy o s dnak al y d,nam etc. M .I, I 7
g
f .
)
.
Speeifying the subject of the intended discourse as
the onumeration of tho doctrines (Tib. chos-kyd
rnam-grahs, Skt. dhormaparydya), set out in the
work called Artloa-vighusto (Tib. don. rqyas-pa), tbo
Buddha admonished the monks to listen carefully
and boar the teoching in mind. The text cont4ins
the substance of the sermon preache{ su\queSrtly.
tr'irstly, the conditions of rest I (fiU. d,al-ba),
tho statos in which living beingsr^dre at ease and
hrppy, are enumerated. Twelvd in number, they
aro as follows : one's own prosperity and that of
others, birth as a human bei:rg, bhth in the
MadhyadeSa, the central country, i.e., Magadha,
absonco of sensual defilements, not giving up the
completion or not ignoring ths efficiency of an
undertaking, having faith in holy places, the
&ppearance of Buddhas, the preachiag of the
Eoly Law, tho presence of worthy exponents
of the doctrine, visiting holy placos, and having
pity for othors.
Twenty conditions that a monk shouid observe
with regard to his discourses are then set out.
Ilo should speak at e suitable timo, with reverenco
,
ARTHAVII{IS
CAYA.I{AUA.
100 ARTHAVINISCAYA
SI'TRA
end conforrning
to a plan; he should not praiso
himself or slander othors in the courso of his
speech
-
those are some of tho points spocified'
di*tuu.t similar condilions t'o be observed by thoso
who listen to the doctrine are also given' Eluci'
dating the bonoficial effect of so listoning to the
doctrine, the process of purifieation of the mind
leading to the realisation of tho Four Noble Truths
and the attainment
of NirvEna is detailed' Tho
conditions
leading to the mat'uring of one's wisdom
are mentioned.
Ten kinds of consciousness a
disciple is said to acquiro in the eourso of his
contemplation
sro cited, as also tho impedimonts
that stand. in his way in the acquisition of oach
and tho mearls of overcoming thom.
There are two Chinese versions of tho efitra :
tho P'u'fa'i'ching t*i*#ffi1
translated by
Aa Shih-kao of the Eaetern Ifan d;'nasty (25-22L
A. C. ) i n 152 A. C. ( Nanj i o, No. 586- Tai sh6, No. 98)
and the Kuans-i''fa-mdn'ehing
(ffi#,ilflffi Nanjio,
No. 6 8 ?
;
T aish6,l{o. 97
)
translated by Paramdrtha of
the Ch' 6n d' "nasty (557-89 A.C.). Nanj i o obsorvos
that these two works aro sirrilar translations of a
ehapter in the MadhYamdgd,ma.
R,. H.
I
ARTEAVII{ISCAYA.
NAUA
.
DEA RMAPARYAYA,
a Sanskrit text preserved in its Tibetan, Chineso
and Mongolian translations. The Tibetan title
roads Don-rnam' par-nes-pta-ohes' bya-bahi ' chos' kyi
rnam-grans and the namr)s of the translat'ors
ato recorded as Jinamitra, Prajfldv&rrna, and Ye-Ses
sde
gM.
317, l ?Ob{ t o 1884?
;
OM. 983) . I t
deals with tho fivo aggregates, eighteen sphoros of
Eense, etc. (AMG. II,
P.
503)'
Of the two Chinese translations of this work, the
( T w
-
s hu o) F a
-
ch' eng
-
i
-
ch& eh
-
t ing' chinq
ff**#R E ffi t
(Japar,ose t H6i6gi,ketsu.iokyo),
which Nanjio
rendors into Sanslcit also a,s
'Bud'dha'bhnpitu'
dharrna-
(mahd-lyd'nartha'vinitcaya'sfitra', is in
three fascielos and s,grees with the Tibotan. It
wss translated, about lf fS A. C., hy Chin Tzung
Ch'ih
(Japaneso: Kons6ji; Nanjio suggests the
Sanekrit equivaient Suvarna-dhd,ra{ri ?), of the later
Sung dynast y, 960- 1127 A. C, ( Nani i o, No. 1015;
Taish6, No. 763). The second Cliinese version
boars the title I o
-
shwo
-chueh'ting -i'
ching, (Japanese:
KetsuXogi.kyd),
'srftra
spoken by the Buddha
on the det'ermination of the meaning (of the law)
'.
Nanjio, howovor, remarke that this work is not
found in Tibetan.
'Ihis
translation was mado by
Fa ll.eien,
(Japanese : IIOkon), also of tho leter
Sung dlmasty (NonXio, lrTo. 928
;
ToishS, No. 762)'
In Mongolian this work is called ;
'
U nemlelcili,
teyin biiged, mtyad4u'i, neretii nmn-un
jiiil' (Ltgeti :
1077- 231r t o 252v) .
There exists, in Tibetanr I co mentary upon
this work and it is called the Arthaaini$atllali'bd,
(q. v.). Seo al so ARTIIAWMSCAYA
SUTRA.
T. R.
ARTEAVIXrlceye SUTRA.
Bn important
Buddhist Sanskrit, tsxt dealing with tho essential
categories of Dharmas as irr t'},le Abhi'rlharma'pdloko.
It has been referred to in othor Sanskrit toxte
Irko Abhi,cllmrma'ko6a-uyakhyd',
Abhisarn'a'ydlohkdra'
d,Ioka, Sd.tra-samuccayo, Mahiuyutpatti (1405'
Sakaki's edition) etc. According to tho Abhidharnn'
koia-vydkhyo, srltras of this type are substituted
in tho placo of the Abhidharma by sects like tho
Sautrd,ntikas, who do not recogniso tho Abhi'
dharma but rely only upon the srltras. dgs6lding
to the Abhi,sam,aydlankd,ra,this sfitra was coneidered
to be en authority for reforence.
This sfitra cont&ins 27 sections on tho following.
essential categories of Dharrnas :-
(l) five skandhas, (2) fivo upaddna-skandhas,
(3) eightoon dh6,tus, (4) t*-elve Eyatanas, (5) prati-
tya.samutpdda with its twolve factors, (6) four
iryasatyas, (7) twenty-two indriyas, (8)four dhye-
nas, (9) four arfrpya-samd,pattis,
(10) four brahma'
vihd,ras, (lI) four pratipads, (12) four sam6dhi-
bh6van6,s, (13) four smrtl'upasthinas. (I4) four
samyak-pradhdnas, (15) four
6t\ipadasj
(fO) five
indriyas, (l?) five balas, (t{) sev\g-}ddhyangas,
(19) arya-st6nga-miirga, (20) sixteenfold 6n6pana'
sm1ti, (2I) four srotd,pattyang'as, (22)ten tathagata-
balas,
(23) four vai3d,radya$i (24) four pratisar.nvids,
(25) eighteon d,venika-buddhadh&rmas.
(26) thirty-
two mahdpuru,salaksa4as, and (27) eighty anu'
qyafrjanas.
It will thus bo seen that all these categorios
are considered' to be essential Dharmas, tlpugh
some of the schools ma,y not recogniso ono or tho
other of t'hem. This sitra was considered important
and so it appears it, was revised from tirne to time.
The srltra as it is handed do.wn to the presont
times does contain obvious interpolations. In
section 26 on the marks of a
'
Great M&n
',
thero is
mention, at tho beginning, of thirty-two marks of e
'Great
1\1[an
',
but in the explanation that follows
there are thirby-three marks mentionod. The
aclditional tbirty-third mark is z Mahd-Ndrd'yaryo-
s ari,r a
-
s aman'ta
-'pr
as dd,ikaki- an addition obviousty
rnede under tbo
influonco of N6r6ya4ra cult.
ARTHAVINISCAYA
SI}TRA l 0t
ARUI.{A
Thero are two Chi nc' se versi ons (Nunj i o, Nos.
g2g
& l 0l 5
i
Tai shi , vol . XVI I ,
Nos, 762, ?68) anr l ouo
Ti bst *n
ver si on ( 0- M.
Nr . r .
gB3;
?' , t 1. No. 3171.
Tho two
Chineee versiong do not contain tho thrrfy-
thi rd mark srenti oned
above, whi l o t,ho Ti botan
versi on does. There i s ono Sarrskri t commentarv
(n.i hand.l wna)
wri r,t,en by *) bhi ksu named
yi rva_
dridatta, living &t Ndlaudu, vihars in ifru
ki ngdom of Dtrarmapi l a.
Dated copi es of tho text
a,nd commorrtary
havo been discoverod-that
of
the forn-rer bears the date samvat 3lg, Caitra
6ukla (bright
half) nir,th,
a,nd that of tho letter
bears samvat 319, Srdval a Sukl a fi rst. The
n&mo of the copyist
of the eommontary
is givon
aB Virya$rimitravira.
Tlro sa,mv&t, eplrears t,o
bo a Nepaleso one and tho date would oorrosrpond
to l l 99 A. C. approxi rnatel y.
These manuscri pts
are presorvod
i n the Ti betsn regi ori of Chi na and
their photographic
copies obrained by Rahula
Sankrtyayan&
&re preserved
in the I(.
p.
Jayswo.i
Rosearch Instituto, Patna. Copies of thig text are
also svail&ble in the State Library of Kathmandu,
Nepal, and one eopy (also from a Nepalose source)
in the Oriental Instituto, Ijarode.
Thero is also one enlarged version of the common.
tery i n Ti betan (?M.
No. 4B0b).
The nrltra ie dividod into two parts : urlie*o arrcl
nird,e;J(.,.
TIro former enlists thcr difforont categories
montiolod
above and tho lattrtr givos tlie dotailed
cxplanation
of thoss categories. lt is iD fhis
lot.tor pr.r,rt, that we find Bome origintrlity of the
author, thorrgh
ho rnosbly draws upon well-known
ps,sseges thab occrrr in earlior literature.
hr shorl , l ,hi s nrrtra eppears to be l i ke a referenco
irook ftrr l,he difforont catogories of the Dharmas,
iike the Dlw.ruwsqhgraho
or Mahdtn7il7trt,tti,, with
rhi s di fferenre tl i at thi s t,ext al so gi ves a bri ef
erprl nnoti on of the di fferent categori es of the
Dharrnas that are sousidorod ogsontirr.l in Buddhism.
P. V. B.
Brnr,rocR.Lpgv : Alfonee Ferrari, Arthutini!-
cayo Stltra, a fragrnentary prilted text, Roale
-{urdomi n d' Itol i s, Romo (1944)
;
N. II. Samtani ,
fhe Arth,avini,|caya St1tra and, its Com,mentary,
a thoeie eubmitted for the I)t-rgroo of I)oetor of
Phi l osophy of Del hi Uni ver si t v, I 96l
;
p. V. Bapat ,
A brief notiee of the eamo text r.und it-o Commenrary
r S' , m nuri es oJ PrtTters, XIXth Sessi on of ti ro
. - i l l - I nr l i a Or i enl al Conf er ence, Del hi . 1957;
1' . L, Voi dv*, .Art,l nudni i cayu St"tnt. terxt i n IJrrdcl hi st,
- i ansl <r i t
' I ' cst s
Ser i es
( No. I ?) f r om t he Nopal cse
copy' !n Barode.
ARTHAVI T{ I SCAYA- TI KA,
t ] r e Su, nst <r , i r r i i l e
of
& cor nr nent ar 5l
on t he Ar t l t ot ; i , r r i i t r t . t l t t . t t t i me, -
d. l t u. r' r71<t , prr11t l , yu, (q. v. ).
I t i s preserr-t rrl i n i t s
Ti bot nn t ransl a, t , i on,
t ho Don-rnavr, _pur. 17rl , t 111
777[ _
zq, -l t uhi hqrel -pa.
' -f ho
narnes cf t he nrrri ron
ancl
t he t r ansl at or
havo not beon r €col r l r , r l .
Nr l r
has t he work boen nurnbored. .
t l t orrgh i l i s
di vi ded i nt o ver y numor ous sei ct i ons ( ?' . ' 11.
436j .
I t rr t o l 9! ar
;
Cordrer, cxxvi i , I ).
T' . ti .
ARTI FI CE or d, ' vi eo i n t he pract i ee of merj i rat i on
t o assi st t i r e mi nd i n r et r , chi ng ono p( ) i nr er l r r t , ss
t ekaggat d' 1 o, nd t he st , at es of ment t r. l &b: ro r. , 11 i erl
(jluttut).
See IiASIliA.
An0pUt r , nar qo of ono of t he numer ous sr r r nr , i t l i i i s
accompl i shed by Aval oki bosvara"
I i i s rr r t l i e
request of t he borl hi sat t va
Sarvani r. . rr, rr. rr,
r, i rs-
kambLi n (t ext reads ni varana) t hat i l re l 3, rdr_l ha
ci t es t he hst of samddhi s acqui recl
l -ry
At . . , l ol i i t eS-
vara i n whi ch t hi o i s, al so, ref orred t o (1(u, 7rr. p.
g! ).
ARUKA SUTTA, t hs f i f t h sut t a of t ho
prrqrl ri a
Va, qga of t he Anqut t ara Ni l caya (I , 123 f . ) prea, r, hr: d.
t o t he bhi kkl r us on t he man whoso r ni nr l i s i i l <e an
open sor6 (aru, ka)
es opposod t o ono wb, rro rrri f i C. r.
i s l i ke l i ght ni ng ( ui j j u)
and e di amont l
1, . , r ) i \ , t 1.
\ _
Tt re Buddha deci areg t hat t he mi nd t , l i t rt bt : r. orp1, s
angry f or t ri f l i ng ma, t t srs and resent s srrt , l r a/ qer
and d. i spl ays &nger, hat rerd and sul ki nc ss(a
; t 1t , t . r: rt 11rt
l .
i s l i ke a f esberi ng sore (dul t hurul cu),
n. hi l i r rvhen
et ruck by a st i ck di scharges mat l er al l t i re rnore.
A per son who under st ands t he me. i r r , , r r oI
t he Four Nobl e Tmt hs i s l i ke & r nan t vi t . i r g, r or {
oyesi ghL who -qees obj oct s i n t hi ck darkncss l ry e
flash of lightrring.
A man who having put an end to all tho rT.oaurl.y
hi msel f rn t hi s l i f o, comcs t o know t , ho hearr
' , i
rl l ei l so
(cet orri mu. t i i ), and t he rol ease by i nsi gt i i , (p, t i -t i i , I u, i -
nr. ut t i \ arrd abi dos t herei n, i s l i ke a cl i arl on, l
whi ch
i e abl e t o cut any. t hi ng, whot , her: gem or rock.
I . i (.
ARUryA (l
),
a khat t i va ki ng. f at her of S; khi
l i i rl cl ha
and br r sl t and of Pr ui r i r avat i , mot t t er oI t t , at Br r cl cl ha
( Bi z . u. x- r . 28; . / . I , 4l ; , 1 r t r . I , 43{ l ) . ^ \ r , r r r . r i r y or , i
w; r s h i s cr i , 1, i t i r l . i I e l r l so l , acl t r vo ot l r t . r r ql oe1s
who i n r . i i : . r i r . r i i i e cLr r i l g t h. . . t i r nt t of
Gol t r , ma
Buddl a onLert d t ho Order of nuns anc_l woro
kuown
/
ARIII{A
L02
ARUNAVATI
In the Samyutta .N-ikr7.ya he is
( s. I , 155) .
ae Abha;rd L}oefi
(ThigA.
4l) and Somd rheri (ThLgA.
66). The latter is probabl-v* iderrtical with Uppala-
dayi k6 ttreri i n the Apaddna (1i , 601 f.). The
l ri ng i s sai cl to have gi ver' red i otuses to both these
queens to be offered to Si khi Buddho.
Later, at the suggestion of Nandisena, Aruns
demarrded from then Kalinga king a dorvry fbr the
four daughters. Kaliriga acceded to the demand
and thereafter the two. ki ngs.l i ved ami cabl y.
H. R. T' .
ARUNA (5),
a pl easanco nea,r Al rl pama (Anoma),
where the Buddha Vessabhfl preached his first
sermon to his cliief disciples So4a and Uttara
one week after his enlightenrnent (Bua. xxii;
BuaA. 248) .
ARUNA, name of & guardian goddeds. Wlren
Trapusa and Bhallika met the Buddha, he invoked
the blessings of a large number of gods, goddesses,
planets, etc., for the protection of tbe two devotoos.
Arun5, is one on the eight goddesses referred to ss
resi derrt i n the western quarter (Lal . 283,30-33).
ARUI.j AKA, name for Vatthaddyaka (q. v.) thera
in a previous birth as a king.
ARUI{Ai l ' JAHA, name for Asokapuj aka (q. v.)
thera in a previous birth as a king.
ARUNAPALA, a world ruler (coft&
auattin) of thirty-
1
five kappas ago and a previous birth of
[;]qare-/
pupphi ya thera (Ap.I,203) who i s to bd i denti fi sd
with Ujjaya thera (ThagA. I, 127). Hp is called
Arrrnabala in the Sinhalese edition ofr.4he Thero-
gd,thd commentarw (ThagA. SIiB. I, llg).
L. R. G.
ARUTAVA. Seo ARUITA (l ).
ARUNAVATI (l ), the ci ty aud the ki ngdom of
king Arunavd, or Aruna, and the birthplace of hie
son Sikhi Buddha (Buu. xxi, lS; BuuA. Z4l).
The city was very prosperous. Close to the king-
dom was a deer park where that, Buddha preached
his first sermon. ft was also near tbis kingdom
that Sikhi Buddha preached to his two chief
disciples Abhibhrl and Sambhava for the first time.
The Pd,timokkha was preached for the second time
to his relations in this kingdom (BuaA. 248 f.).
On ono occasion the Buddha left Arunavati with
Abiribhu to preach to the Brahm6, in the Brahma-
world and returned to the city after the sermon
(S. I, 155 f.). Salalapupphiya thera w&s a con^
fectioner (pil,jaka) in Arunavati at the time (z{p.
I,
2I8). It has been observed by Malalasekera (DppN .
f, 184), that Aru4apura, where Arnbapdli was born
cai l ed Arunavi
H. R. P.
ARU{ A
( 2) ,
name of a cl ass of dei t i es ment i oned i n
tbe Mahdsama!.la Sutta (D. II, 26,0) as having been
presont at the great' concourse ofgods who attended
the preachi ng of that sutta. Edgerton (BIIS.
Yol. II) does not mention a, parallel n&me in the
Mo&conwja Sfi.tro (Waldschmidt, KlTurJ. 4).
B. J .
ARUNA (3), name of a n6,ga ki ng, menti onecl i n
Lbo Mahaniyftri (BIiS. s. v.).
ARUNA
(4), al so known as Assaka, but the com-
nentator maintains that, his real name was Aruna.
Ile was the Assaka king of Potali in the Assaka
eountry. With his minister }{andisena's help }re
won a figbt with the Kdlinga kit"g, thereby
wi nni ng bi s four daughters (J. III,3 ff.:
Cullakdlingo Jdtaka).
The KEIinga king, ionging for a f,ght, but finding
none willing to acccpt his challenge, sent hi.q four
daughters in & covered carriage with an arrnod
escort to the neighbouring eountries with the
mess&ge that anv king who wished to marry the
pri-u.cesses would have to fight with their father.
r\mpa alono accepted the challengo, but half-
heartedly. Later, on Nandisena's inst'igation, he
decided to many the princesses and face tbe
consequences.
The Kalinga king set out with his army to fight
Aruna.
(Jn
his way to Potali he met the boclhisatta
who was l eadi ng an asceti c l i fe, Bei ng consul i ed,
the bodhisatta prophesied that he would be
vi ctori ous.
Nandisena heard of this prophccy, but, with
greo,t courage gathered together the Assaka forces
and their allies. At the battle which was fought
on the fronti ers of the two countri es he succeeded
in killing the tutelary deity of Kalinga who s'as
fir{liting for the I(dlinga kir,g. Thereupon, tte
Kdliriga krng was defeated and fled.
ARU{AVATI
r03
ARUPA.TOKA
in a brdhman familv in the time of Sikhi Budclha,
i s probabl y i denti cal
wi th Arunavati (Ap- II, 613
;
Thi gA. f , 213) .
H. R, . P.
ARUTAVATI
1Z;,
a monastery i n the vi l l age of
Ittha,kAv&ti
in Magadha"
Sariputta once lived.
t'here with other monks (puuA. 67).
ARUI.TAVATI
SUTTA (,S. r, 155). The Buddha
relates to bhikkhus the story of the vi_qit of Sikhi
Buddha and his chief disciple, Abhibhii, to a
Brahma-world.
At the reqr_rest of Sikhi, Abhibhu
instructed the Brahm6,, his company and attendants
with a leligious discourse. Standing in ilre same
Brahma-world,
Abhibhn uttered two verses on
action and errergy, &nc{ made the thousand world.
systerns hear his voice. This sutta is also known
a,s Arunaaati, Paritta, (D.PpN.
II p, IBBS).
u. K.
ARUNDHAVATI,
a city in the tirne of Kondafria
Buddha.
See AMARAVATI (2).
ARUNPURI, a legendary eity from which, accor-
ding to a tradition of the Nepaleso Buddhists, the
Buddha Sikhin arrived in what is now Nepal.
I{e is then said to have merged. into the celestial
light irnrnanent in the
Svayambhungth Caitya
in Kathrnondu.
ARIIPA, formless, incorporeal. The term ig
variously appliod in roforenco to the spfiere of
forrnleserress (arwpduacara),
Lho formless element
(arupa-d,lfi,la),
the world of tho formless (antpa-
Ioka,l, tho
mental state of formleso concentration
(ant'pa-jhino) and in many combinations and eom-
pounds relating to the above, such es desire for
rebirth in the formless world (arupa-tanhd,).
The
besio idea uuderlying all these concepts . is the ab-
soneo of form, figure, a,ppearance, all of which aro
attributes of matter bil,pa). I1r arfi,pa. therefore,
the coneepts of beauty and its aesthetic opposite,
the agreeable and disagreeablo scnsa,tions pesulting
therofrom, and even tlre perceptive constructions
suah os the relations of order, purposo and logic,
are trilIEcended, as bcing attributes not of things,
but of roprosentative
mental states. In other
words the suljectivo finality of the
.
I' is discarded.,
and the mind Es thought is lost in the planes of
inffnite
consciouaness (aifrfipiTlaiica),
of unbounded
space (d,kdsd,nafi,ca),
of the experience of not being
anyone (aki frcafi ,fi ,a),
of i mpercepti bl e percepti on
(neaa,-safi,fi,4-nd,saiirl,ri,).
Aesthetic activity .ce&ses
to be the fundamental fulction of the mind, and
the real sueceeds both the actual and the ideal in
psychi c acti vi ty. But even thi s acti vi ty i s sti l l ed
in the cessation of perception and sensation (safr,itd,-
aed,ayita-nirod,ha), when things aro known and seen
just
as they are (yathabhuta-fr,a7ta-{assanal
wiilnout
the colouring of previous experiences and classi-
fi.cations, v'ithout concepts and ideations, in puro
awareness and realisation.
It is in realising that. beauty and forrn (r&pal
have no exi stence ei ther as a phvsi cal fact or &s I
psychi c fact, but appear as the resul t of a cl oso
relationship between object and subject, that the
formless spheres are attained as mental states,
as spheres of rebirth, as states of absorption, aB
abodes beyond tho concepts of form, whore con-
templation has taken the place of perception.
H. G. A. v.
Z.
ARUPA-DHATU, sphere of the formless.
Seo
ARU'PA.LOKA.
ARUPAKKHANDA, the four
'fmmaterial
Groups
of existenee, namely, fceling, perception, mental
format,ions and consciousness. See I{HANDHA.
ARUPA-LOKA, the i mmateri al worl d, the form-
less sphere of existence, the highest of the threo
spheres in which rebirth takes plaea. the two lower
spheres being the world of sense
llcd.ma-Ioka) and
the world of form (rilpa-loka).
In rlrripa-loka there is no eorporeality (rfi,pa)
whatsoever, and existence is entirely based on tho
corresponding attainments (sc,mi,patti)
or stages
.of
concentration (.samadhi). Tt us, the four grades
in this immaterial world bear the sa,me nomes as
the four attainments of concentration on tho form-
less, viz., tho sphere of unbounded space (dfta--
sd,nafi,cd,yatana), where meditativo thought has
transcended all limitations even of space
;
the sphere
of infinite consciousn ess (ui fr fiirwfi,cd,y atana), whero
this unbounded space itself is seen only as the pro-
duct of thought which is therefore infinite itself
:
the sphere of nothingness or perhaps of not being
anyone individually (akifr,cafifr,Cyatana),
whero
unbounded spa,ce and infinite conseiousness are
eq€en &s truly empty
;
and finally tho splrero of
neither-percept,ion-nor-non-perception,
i.o., of
( \ ,
ARUPAVACARA
104 Anuppa
impotceptible percoption (netsa -
sair'it a
-ndsafifi'dy
a
-
ta'rutl where in perf'ect ease antl calm, the thought-
process becomes so sublime and refined, that in
deopost concentration the very object of thought
i s l ost si ght of (Dhs.
$$
265-8).
Beings aro reborn in those spheres as a result
ol having practised these forms of concentration.
Still, theso spheres belong to the worlds of
heavenly beings, and although superior to the
spheres of the brahmas, they, too, are subiect to the
universal lawg of impormanonce, unsatisfactori-
noss and unsubstantiality (anica, dulckha, anatta\,
i.e., existence ie temporary and, theretbre, subject
to cessation and robirth in sarne6ra
;
hence it is
bound up with eonllict, tho solution of which can'
not bs found in any state of mental absorption
but only in the roalisation through insight (vtpa*
aond,) of the unreality of the conflict caused by tho
non-acceptanco of irnpormarrertco, which is true
actuality.
I I . G. A. v . Z.
ARUPAVACARA,
tho sphero of the fonnl oss, of
the
i'.'material. Wrereae loka refers to the piaco
or locality, a,uacara indicates the sphere of aetivity
(ca,ra\i, to move). Thus, the sphere of forroless
actir.ity is thtr,t group of concentration whieh hae
the
i mrnateri al a,s ob;ect, o.9., Bpace, thought,
emptrness. Such practices will reeult in rebirth in
a corresponding realm, bearing the samo n&ms.
As flrch mental concsntration. has no olemer,t of
the senses (lcanw), nor even of form or beauty
(rupa), no action of the mind can be unskilful
(akusala), but will be either karmically wholegome
(lcuaala) as action, or a noutral indopendent, func-
lion (avy dlc at a
-
kr i y a) .
Mentol action in tho sphero of the formlees ig
fourfold according to tho object of such concentr&-
tion. Ald the mental ahsorption
Uludna)
which
reeulte from such concontration is also called
formlees or imrnaterial
1arfipa),
although in the
older texts these montal states are rather referred
to ae attainment,s
(sama'patti), I:l a way. these
for:r attainments in tlro irnrnaterial sphere still
belong to the fourth siage of' menta,l nbsorption
(;jhdrta\,
as thoy possoss tlre same two coustituents
of oquanimity and mindfuLroess"
fhe four spheres of irnrnateriu,l meniai action
are tlro concentration on unbounded sll{rco (okasd-
naflcd,yotona), on infinite consciounsess (aifi'fra7tafi'-
cdyatana), on nothinp;ness
ldlufi'cafifr'dyatano),
and
sn
irnpercoptiblo perc€ption (nana-safr'fia-naaafr'frd-
yotana).
I[. G. A. v. Z.
ARUPPA, the four immaterial mental states of
absorption (ihana). namely, akasrtn<t'frcdy atana,, uifr
-
fr a7t a fi,cdy at ana. dh i iic a fr, fi'ay at ana an d n eu a s a fi' fi,uni'
safi ,fi d,yatana (Dhs. 55 ff.). The four i mmateri al
Brahma worlds where tho possessors of theso four
jhdnas
would be born are also known by t'he sarno
terms (arup'poti artrpabha'"*d, aripasamdpatti'youd :
SnA. 508), Tt e Abhi dhammattha-sahgaha
(pp.
3-4) gives tluee groups of the fourfold arttpa'
jh'7na, moral (kusala), resrrltant (vipalca\ end
inoperative
(krirla),
thus, making them twelvefold.
Tho term druppa means incorporeal or formless
as opposed to ruppa or rrTpa which me&ns corporoal
or having form. Tho term is applied to theso
four mental etates because their objeets of con-
centration aro irnmaterial
,
viz,., spaco (alcdaa),
consciousrless (aifi,frirw), nothingnes"
(akifraafi'frdl
and neither perceptiorr rror non-porcepLion (neuo-
eaiofrd,ndto,frfrd), whereas the ripajjhona,s have
material objects as their objects of concontration.
In addition, t,ho morttal statos of the druppas ato
simrlar bo those experienced in tho formless Brahma
worlds (aripa-Ioka) where no traee of matter is
helct to bo found. If n person having attained to
&ny one of the d,ruppas woulcl die in that same mental
stai,e he yould bo born in the aril,pa world.namod
aftorthataruppa,
/ \ i
Arwytpa presents a higher stage of,/oncentrhtirrd
than represonted in the rfipd,ud,cara-jhdna. In
tho various roferences to them in the canonical
texts such as ths Pol{hapdd,a Sutta (I\. I, 178 ff.),
Brahmajalo Sutta (D. f, 34--5), Sallekha Sutt'a
(M. T, 4l---Z) and the Cttlasdropama Sutta (M. I,
203-5) thoy appeer consequent to tho four
ril,pd,uacara
jhd,ruas. The consciousnoss experierrced
in the d,ruppa is rnueh more subtle and delicato
than that of the rupd,aacara
,.ihdruas.
Further,
the fou.r aruppas thornselves show a gradual rise
il degrees of concentr&tton, crrre after t,ho other,
whoreby tho iast druppa, nemely, neuasafifrd,nd,-
safi,fr.d,yatana,, is the closest to th+: eessation of
pereeptiorr. and feeling (safr,fri,-ued,ayito-ndrodha:
D, I , I 84) .
The terms by which the four d,ruppas aro known
aro expressive of the consciousness experiencod
theroin.
'tr'5s
object of thought (dyotanu) in the
frrst d,ruppa is infinity of space
;
unboundod con-
sciousness in the soeond
;
nothingness in the third
and neithor porcepi;ion nor noD-perception in the
last,.
The Aru'ppaniddeso of tho Visuildhi,m,ogga glves
in detail the method of developing tho four d,ruppaa.
in short,
the
person who has devoloped the
fourth materiel (r&po) jfuLno
will surmornt it
ARUPPATA
105 Anye
by bccoming disgusted with its materiality and
wi l l gi ve
hi s uttenti on to the base, consi sti ng
of
boundless sp&ce. As he advcrts to it again and again
and strikes at it witb thought and appliecl thought,
the hindrances (ni,aarana)
are suppressed, mind-
fulness is established and his mind attains access-
concentration (u,pacd,ra-sa,madhi).
He cultivates
that object of concontration
again and again,
dovelops and repeatedly practises it. As he agah
and again adverts to it ancl gives attention to it
in this wity, consciousness belonging to the base
consisting of boundless spaco arises in absorption
witlr space (Vism. 272). In tlo same way the
othcr threo j hd.nas,
too, are obtai ned by renourrci l g
the forrner and giving a,ttontion to the object of
thought (ayatana) of ttre subscquont one.
Tho idea of the developrr:en| of druTtpa is earlier
than Ruddhism.
Alart Kdldma and Uddakardma
were ty'o religious tearchers who had developed
Llvt d,kifr.e,zft f!'iya,to,na.-jhanct
aud ilne neuasafrfidnd-
so,fr,iid,yatana-jhd,na,
respectively
(M. I, lti4, f.).
TI)e Jd,tttka conmentarl' often refers to theso four
d.ruppas as four of the eight'attainments (samd,-
patti) practised
by pre-Buddhist,ic
recluses. But,
unlike the Buddha, the other religioirs toachers
mado tho attainment
of these jhanas
their aim.
According to the Buddha the aruppas wero not
an end in themselves,
but only a'rnc&ns to obtain
eoncentration
and one-pointedness
of mind (ehag-
gata) wbich would be helpful for tho realisation of
the path. To imagine that experiencing them was
equivalont to arahantship is cond.emned as a doadly
her esy ( D. T, 37
t f . ) . f n t he Sal l ekha Sut t a ( M. T,
4l f.) the Buddha says that they are not the ul ti _
mate goal (na klrc gsana ete ariyassa u,inaye sallekhd
auccanti ).
fn the early Buddhist texts the four druppas
are knowrr as lhe last four oi'the eight attairunents
(aintoklclfi,
or santd,patti).
It, is only in ilro later
Abhi,lhamma classification that the term arupajjltarw
has been used.
For details on the forrr druppa.*, seo AfcA_
SANANCAYATANA,
arirNcaxNAy,rraxe,
NEVASAN*AivAsaNNAyer.uuA
antl VINNA.
NANCAYATANA.
H. I ' " . P.
ARUPPALA, orro of the r)ri ny vi l l ages rl onated
by
king Kittisirirajasirn}.a of Ceylon for ilre mainte-
n&nco of tho Caigaritrntr,
vihira. This villago
was eituatod close
to the vifuira (Mhu. c, ZlZ).
AnYA, noble, is frequently used in Sanskrit BS &n
honorific prefix without forming an aotual part of
the title of the text, or sect, etc. In such cases the
subject has be€n ontered without tho profix. Thus,
the Arya-sarvg^stivada will bo dealt with undor
SARVASTWADA. But, if the word forms part
of the na,me it will bo found together with its
prefi x. Thus, e.g., ARYebgVA, ARYASIMHA.
Tl re Sanskri t, word d,rL1o (Pal i ari ya, Jap. sho;
Chin. sh6,ng) m&y havo derived itself from
an ol d Indo-European root but i ts exacb
etymology has not so far been mado clear. Tho
first appoar&nce of-this word was in Sanskrit in ths
sense of & race. A raco that had conquered India
and dissepinatecl their languages and culture
through an invasion from the north-west, frontiers
assumed the term drya to designatb themselves.
The name of the present fran is linguistically
cognate with this word and this fact furnishes
strong evidence that bhe races of India and Iran
had sprung from the cornmon stock. For this
reason, the raco that had conquered India is also
known as Indo-Aryans.
Development ol the idea ol Arya in Inilia;.,
The word E,rya is fi.rst noticed in the
ffg- Ved" \
where the aborigines aro referred to as d/a or
\
d,asyu to distinguish them from tho Aryqo{ them-
sel ves.
lYith tlie subsequent growbh of the casto system,
however, the three classes of Brdhmanas, Ksat-
riyas and VaiSyas came to bo desiggrated as 6,rya
to distinguish them from the Srid.or who wero of
the lowest class. The land w.hero the Aryans iived
was calied Aryd,varta or Arya-de6a. It is also
sometimes referred to as the place whero the black
antelopes waader, tho reason for this being that
the bla,ck antelopes were the symbol of Vedic
festivities. Therefore, the land ruled by tho
civilisation founded on the Vedic religion has been
cal l ed
' tho
sacred l and
' ,
and i t i ncl udes the
wholo of northern India with tho Hirnalayas and
Yindhya mountains on tho north and south, res-
pectively, wit'h seas on the west and the east.
Bcing an Aryan was a great honour and irr courso
of t,i me, the word 6rya came to denote
' one
who i s
of noble birth
'
and again by further extension ono
wh<-r wa,s faithful to the Aryan religion, customs
and orders, and l ater these thi ri gs themsel ves c&mo
to ber qualified as being arya or noble. The
accepted standard was called dharma, Ite the
mociern interpretation, dharma is a codo which
covors the religion, ethics, philosophy, Iaws anrl
Anve
106 Anva
Eanhers of the Aryans and it has its origiu in the
Vedas, the sacred books ol revelation. The Vedic
rcligion and sacerdotal ways as woll as the 6,6rama
which a,re founded upon it, and the metaphysics
of brahman and dtman governed the spiritual
life of the primitivo Indians. Anyono or anything
that complied with the dharma and conforrued to
it was 6rya. As a eonsequence of this thinking'
that which was elegant and noble came also to
me&n what was right and true.
The idea ol Erya in Butldhism anal its bearlng
upon other values. Buddhism had been born from
tho background of old Indian thought as already
described and it
.developed
into a further stage
of humanitarian character.
On the one hand, Buddhism took up the doctrine
of the negation of self as against tho doctrine of
d,tmon. It also disregarded the prejudices of the
caste system and the ritual observances of the
Vedas. On the other hand, it maintained a
t<.rlerat,ion of the crtstoms
gnd thinking that had
been til] then in general practice and, by idealising
them cleverly, made them the way to the goal of
the right human tmth.
Tbe significance of the term 6rya (Pali : ariya,
ayira, ayy&), as it, often appears in the Buddhist
saered books, reflects this attitude, having no
particular sense asido from any of the various
valuet, though it is somotimes aceompaniod with
a new and spocial shade of mear^ing.
Buddhism rccognisod the equalitv of tribes and
racea end this idea gradually spread all over fndia.
ft was natrrral that this attitude of equality should
havo eaused the terrn arya to loso its original sense,
in reference to a grouP of people. But the meaning
of noblerress and trutlr in the term was retainod
and adopted into Buddhisrn a,nd these meanings
wero further enrichod by grving them Buddhist
intorpretations.
One of t,he rnosl rroteworthy usos of the term
irrya &ppears in corrnection with the Buddhist
dootrino
known as the cutur-aryu-satya. It' deals
with tho }-our Noblo Tmths regarding this world, its
sorrows, the causes of thoso sorro\tr's, their eessation
and tho way of arriving at, such cessation, The
re&Bon. why theso truths aro called E,rya is that
they are congidered the noblest and most righteous
of all truilr.s.
Tho way of achieving cessation of srrfforing is
knowa as the dryaplingika-md'rga (Pali: a,riya''
a4thaisika-rnagga).
It is the Noble Eightfold Path of right undor-
standing, right thin-king, right speech, right activity'
rigbt lifo. right effort, right mindfulness and right
mental concentratioa. And in this connection
the word arya is replaced by the word. sornmi ot
samyak which me&ns iigUt.
Thus, the idea of 6rya in Buddhism indicates
the right and it is not mere righlness, but rightness
demonstrated in actrral discipline. To demons'
trate rightness it is necess&ry to be free from
illusions. Tberefore, the study and classification of
various buman illusions form one of the maior
departments of Buddhist doctrine. Also, tbore
exists the detailed path bv which one gradually
loses ons's illusions and goes in tho direction of a
higher stage oi mind. This path sen'es to keop
one from feeling self-contonted or diffident during
tho practice of tho disciplines.
The most important division in this path is that
of the cornrnou man (pTthagiaraa
)
and that of the
saint' (i,ry a
-
pudg ala).
Ono who intends to be a saint starts with the
prelirninary discipline and by depreos ho amives
at a stage called darfuna-mdrga (path of insigbt).
At this stago he will study and experience tho
kd,m,a-d,ltd,tu, rtr,pa-ilhi,tu and ar"&pa-dhd'tu in sixteon
different courses. After he has boen tbrough
this stage, he will bo free from illusions of any sort
and will not bo tempted into any thoories or
doctrinos othor than those of Buddhism--It is \
only at this stago of disciplino that ho
/will\
/
rogarded as ono who has come into the l{neago of
saints (lrotipanna.). But, thore yot remain things
to bo dono and truths to bo learnt befoy'e he se€s
ultimato reality. Therefore, bo discipliaes himoelf
all the harder e-''d when he is absolutely free from
any illusious whatsoovor, ho becomee an arhat,
whieh is the highest rank in the Buddhist wey of
life.
When he roaches this stago, thore will bs no more
for him to study and for this re&son, he is knowa
as ono having no learning (oiaiksa). In tho early
stago of Buddhism the Buddhs himself was also
called an arhat,. The way of the saint is called
the lokottara-mrtrga, the world-transcending rp&5rr
as oppoeed to tho vyaaahfrra-mdrga or nomal way.
The stato of a saint, is kno\pn as the holy stato
and its attainment is callod tho holy fuiir (plnlo\,
since it is acquired as a resultant reward of the nohlo
discipline, Tho qualities of e seint &ro called
the holy qualities and a group of saints is the holy
assembly. Sitting at the head of the sainte is
the Buddha and, therefore, he is the holy toacher
and hie toaehings are known as the holy teechings.
ARYA r07 ARYA
In tho initial stage of Buddhism the Buddha
wa,s no suporhuman being s,s he cam6 to be regarded
later and,though he woe tho suprome of'the eaints
he wog not eesontially diEorent from them.
Erpanslon ol the ldea ol flryr ln the Buildhlstie
doetrlne anal oth6r developmonts in relailon thoroto.
Iilith the seming into boing of many sehoole of
thought in the history of Buddhist doctrinos, tho
idea of Erye gave rise to va,rious ramiffcations of
ite significanco and this process was all tbe more
complicatod by having beon brought into China
and Japan.
Chi-i accomplished the doctrinal formation of tho
T'ien-t'ai sect, systematising both Hinayd.ne and
Mahd,yana Buddhism from the T'ien-t'ai point of
visw. Ilere, we consider the concopt of Erya in
Chi-i'e f,6a,shing.
The llinaydna doctriuo teaches ono to attain
onlightenment foreaking one's own sufiering. But
tbis teaching is merely t}ae upayalcot*ial,ya (mothod)
devisod by ths Buddha to bring tho less able
people to maturity of boing able to understand
the euporior doctrines of the Mah6,yina.
In the so-callod
'
Round Teaching
'
(-HAt
Yiian-chiao), which is the ultimate teaching
according to Chi-i, all the phonomena ars to be
eonqidored as ornpty (&&nya), and the omptiness
(*il,nyaad,) is not outside the plrenomenu themsel.vee.
Thug, el,sry phenomenon hae two chsractoristics,
viz., tomporary exigtence and emptiness. Tho
neture of phenomena that possees thego two eon-
trary characterietice simultaneously is designated
as the middle. TLrese three trutbs (traya-satya),
namely, emptiness, tomporal existeneo and the
middle, are identical with oach other and form
themsolves into one trrth. Tho three truths aro
ono in threo and three in oae. Tbis ig the ulbirnate
tnrth common to all phonomena. Therofore, tho
drya-eoftto of Buddhism liee in tho harmonis,ed
three truthe which can be attained through tho
grasp of tho tetlwtd,, tho middle.
Chi-i found that tho catur-drya-sotga, corr.espond
to hie fourfold classifieation of Buddhism. The
fougth and highest catur-d,rya-satya is that of
inactiveness (
ffi{G
wu-tso); and it corresponds
to bi e
'
Round Teachi ng' .
The illueiong are classified into threo. The
first elass eomprises illusory views and thoughts.
Illusory views mesn heretical views and illusory
thoughts me&n tho natural tendoncy of beings to
sling to phenomeua, misunderstanding them to
etifr roally, in spito of tho truths thet all
phonomono &ro empty.
'The
second elass oongiets of the numborleeg
illusions, by which ie meant the lack of the vset
a,mount of detail in hrowle<lge and dperation
required for e bodbisattva's t&sk of aaving all
beings. The last is Che arfuIyd, i.s., the lack of tbs
right understending of turhard
Regerding the stagos sf a,t,ta,ining enlightenmont,
tho T'ien-t'ai doctriue tencbes two cories of steges.
Tbe first i8 the series of stages followed by othor
eoctg Es well, while the other is poculiar to the
T'ien-t'ai doctri:le. In the firet sories of etagoo,
aceordiug to the Round Teaching, the steges of
the ten dwellings (
+&
thih-chu
)
and tbe
stagos higher tban thih-chu aro thoss of
gaints.
According to the serioe of stages peculiar'to the
T'ien-t'ai doctrinb, thero aro six etagos, tho fifrb
of which is
tiln-cl$rq-ehi
(
amg
),
wbich
corresponds to ahih-chu, thdh-Iwing (
+fi),
shih-hui-twians (
+trFl
),
shih-ti (
+!!
)
and t6n4-ch{.oeh (
+*
)
of the fi,rst type
of eories. At this flftb stage, a dovotee
gots rid of his avidgd little by little end
roaliaoe gradually the truth of the middle of
tuihard. Tben, on the sixth and last stago eellod
ehi,n-chinq-chd (
nffru ),
& dovotee realis€g
the ultimete truth. So, tbese two stages cen be
called sacrod stagee.
Tho philosophical organisation of Chi-i's thooty
was formulated on en extensive end logicel scele.
T
ltro doctrines of important schools of Buddhism/
were given thsir due poeitions in his teaching *odF
comparison with these doctrines Chi-i ehowod
that tho doctrine of the Sdnlnnrra,pundarLka *1fi,tra
was ultimato. R garding tho prectico 6f a,t!6lning
enlightenmont, Chi.i taught tbre Mo-lw-ch,ih-lruan
( IFFIJLH
),
which means perfect sa,lynnoss
(6amath,a) and insight (uipaeyaruQ.
Tris philosophical systom and ths diqsiplins,
subsequently introduced into Japan, becamo one
of the most important philosophical sources from
which various sobools of Japanose Buddhism drow
freely.
Tleoro aro Bome foaturee in the concopt of 6rya
in Buddhist thought which aro noteworthy. Firet,
the idea of 6rya in Buddhism is peculiar in that
it must be cultivated and acquired througb ono's
own efforts from beginning to end. This is not
only so in tho theory oxpounded by Chi.i, but also
in most of the other schools of Buddlist thought.
Ilorrever, in the course of ti'ne, a school of thinkers
appeared who, though in a somewhat hegitant
msnrrer, asflrmed a dubioue at:itudo towards thir
traditional way of f,hinlring. This echool is notably
represented by a Chinese master, Tao-ch'o (-62-6,Lt
Anve I08 ARYAoALA.ITIAHAxnOpnARAJA.
A.C.), and much later it came to tro followed by
Il onon (1133-1212 A.C.) and hi s ardent di sci pl e,
Shi nran (1173-1262 A.C.), i n Japan where thi s
school of thought culrninated in the sect of Jddo.
According to the stand assumod by this school of
thought, it is almost impossiblo for any one to
onter into tho stato of a saint, for, all tho efforts
on his part by way of discipline are ineffective,
when he is in a world whero tho spirit of righteous-
nees is in decline and the Buddhistio qualities
(chi-ken
frR, )
aro in & low stato. Arrd,
thereftrre, ao they further agsert, the ways of tho
anciont saints will not sera'e as examples for the
common pcoplo" Tho only way left open to our
e&lvation is through our complote faith and we
must place our whole and absoluto dovotion in the
pfirua-pranid,hana (formor vow) of Amita Buddha
whose benevolent intention is the salvation of all
boings and creatures. Thus, by uttering tho holy
name of A:rnita Buddha, constantly and earnestly,
we &re enabled to die and go to tho Puro Land of the
lVest which is the region where the Buddha resides
and therein we ca,n be made saints at the hand of
the Buddha. Thinking of this nature, it must be
a.lr.'itted, eppears simple and oasy on the surface,
but also eontains rnuch danger in actual practice.
The real obj ect of ti i i s school of thought l i es i n
t he total oblivion of the self by placing one's absolute
devotiou in the Buddha.
On the other hand, the traditional way of
Buddhist disciplino is accompanied by a feeling
that one depends on one's own efforts in seeking
zulvution nrrd this dm,ws a sharp eriLicisrn from the
above school of thought headed by Honen.
This difference in attitudes clearly indicates tho
pecuiiarity of the idea of 6,rya in Buddliism and,
et the sarne time, it points out the fact that the
r-nost intricate problem encountered in tho history
of Buddhist thought in India, China and Japan
lies in the methods that were adoptod in this
roga,rd.
Tho i dea ol Arya anal i ts anal ogi os i n Chrl sti ani ty,
Westorn and Chinese philosophies. The thought
of the Jodo
gchool
is often comparod with that
of Christianity in recent yesrs. In Christianity,
it is tho iclea of God that corresponds to nrycl arrd
this is wlrat distinguishes Goct himself frorn the
eroaturcs of his will. fn the Christian doctrine,
only what has the sa,rne wortlr or quality as God
can participate in tho Godhead (dryaJ.
Arya is ethicai and free from sin of any sort, and
ia worthy of boing worshipped by mon. In Europe
6,rya is gonotally hold to tn s fhing that has to bo
revered. This kind of attitude towards the irya
is soon frorl the taboo of prirnitive nature right up
to the
' Categori cel
Imperati vi sm' of Kant,
expounded in his ethicdi theories,
Whofoas the idea of 6,rya in Buddhism is consi-
derod eomething human and to be acquired through
personal experienee, tho 5,rya in Western thou3ht
is held to be somewhat of a suporhlunan character
even if it does exist within men.
At this point a brief referenco may be mede
to tho idea of 6rya in Chinese philosop ,y. The
Chinese equivalent of the word d,rya means clover-
ness or sagacity and in Chinese thought ono who
is possessod of the greatest degree of wi dom
and virtue among mon is known as a saint. Upon
the appear&nco of a saint ovorything that is on
oarth and in heaven becomes distinct and, thereforo,
a saint must be possessed of infalliblo judgement
and knowledge. And this infallible judgement
presupposes absolute oxemption on the part of the
saint from human illusions of any kind. Yet in
China a saint still remains a, man and he is not
the god that is the producer of all things but a man
who is vorsed in the will and ways of heaven.
The major works of Buddhism had been trSrs-
lated into Chinese and it was mpin\thrgdgh
these Chineso versions that Japan
{ame
do Lnow
and study Buddhism. Such being,ttho case, it is
quite natural that tho idea of 6,ry/ in Buddhism
and that of original Chineso philosophy should
havo certain points in common when theso Chineso
translations were brought over to Japan. In
fndian or Buddhist thought the truth of human
beings is held to be the truth of the universe, and
originally there were no gods in Buddhism as
objects of worship. Lator, when the gods of the
Brahmanic mythology were introduced and
incorporated into.Buddhism, they were made to
occupy positions subordinate to that of the
Buddha who. is the highest of all the saints.
Again, Buddhism sharply differs from Chinese
philosophy in that it does not recognise anything
beyond the noble truth.
T. Ka. and I{. Tnn.
AnyAcNT,A
-
MAHAKRODEARA.Ia
.
GUEYA.
DHARA{I-S0TnI, nams of a protecti ve spel l
belonging to the Tantraydna. The oxistence of
such a srltra in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese is
discussed by C. Puini in Gi,orna,Ie d,ella Socdetd
Asi,atico ltalia,na,, ffl, 1889, p. 38 (lVinternitz,
Hi st. of Ind. L,i t.II, p. 383, n. f
).
ARYACAI{DB.d 109 ARYADEVA
AnylC n XD R A, also palled
V oibhaeiks,4.rJracandra,
euthor of the Rrrddhist Sanskrit text Me,itreya-
nydkara,na, tho propheey about Maitreya, or
M ailreu aa arniti, lt,e moeting with Maitreya
"
Tfrough
tho extant Sangkrit mamrseript is incompleto, it
ie founcl in its Clrinese end Tibebau translationg
(Nonjio, Nos. 205F-ZrJ7)
;
nnd also E. LeumAnrr,
JV.aitrega.aarni.ti, daa ZukunJts'ideal der Buddhlaten
(Stressburg, l 9l 9).
Tho work ie in the form oi a dialoguea irotwasn
ths Buddha snd Seriputr* (or Anandet) and deale
with the futuro lJuddha Maitreya.
Tho dato of tho work is noi; eertain.
S. 5'. rY.
AnylpnVA
{l),
t}ro moet erainent disciple and a
younger contempor*ry of Niigarjune, tiro founder of
the Madhyarnift6 echooi of Budtlhisrn. Cften hs is
eimply roferrod to ee Dev* or Bodhissttva lleva.
I{e was o.lso known as K6qadovo, Nilanetrao Pin"
galanetra,
Fingala'.taftsilh BDd Knr4roripa. Ae ho is
$rid to have been blind in one eys bo w*e known ss
Kdnadeva, and ho ig calied Nilauotro ebc" as he is
e$id to heve h$d two spots rosemhling eyos on h.ie
choeks. trIo was probably so calied beceuse ho had
bluo oyes. It is also said that his rsal n&me was
Candrakirbi,r fu Chineee hie namo i.s trane-
litoratod as T'i-p'o and translaied as $hang-t'ien.
The Japanese pronunciation of hie n&sre ir* I)aib+*
(Deva) and the Japanese translation is Shoton. ftr
Tibotan ho is known as
Hphaga-pa
lha.
As regards tbe date of Ar5'udova we can tre
almost oertain th*t, boing e yolrnger contemporcr5r
of Nfrgd,rjrrna, be lived duri:ng the Zad eud the Brd
centurios A. O, The
pventful
part of hie life noenn
to fbll in tho 3rd contur;r A" C. Althougb somo
echolare give differont dstee
I
the ebove rlato s€oms
to be the most' plau$bie.E Someiisres ihe three
tr[4h6,5'6uist teachsrs, A$vaghopa, Ndga.rjuna and
Aryadeva &re mads oont'omporerios of
king
Kar;i$ka who lived in the latter pert of ths lst.
cgntury A" C.4 Even if Nag6rjuna waa a youthgcr
contemporory of lianieke it is bignly doubtfirl
whether Ar5ractova wes hia contomporarSr.
Opinion ie aiso divided as regards the birth-place
of Aryadeva. lVhile ssrne hr:ld ths viordr that, he
wae I eouth Indian br6hman, others marntai:r that
he was a nativo of Ceylon. Ilowever, it is generally
belioved tlrat hs was from Ceylon. tlstiang-tsang,
reporbing in the 7th century A, C., says that ho
hailed from Ceylon.
So
says,
" At e certain timo
ihoro was the bodhis&ttva of the island of Si4ghala
{Cih-asc-taeu)
cnliod Dev* who profoundly undor-
stood the reiationehip of l,rutlr Moved with
pil,y at 1,he iguo.,sn*s oi'merr he ceme to this country
(i.e., Inriia) to guido and direct the'people in tha
right way. At tlrie time the men and wornen wer€
ail aseembled wrth thc young anr[ old togethor
on
th.e bBn-ks of bricr rrver. Then Dova Bodhisattva
corrrpoairig iris s,Jpernatural s,ppearancoo
bernt his
head and dispersed rt (the rays of iiis glory
?) agaiu
*tris
appearsnce different from thar of other non.
Thor:; waa an iurbeliever rsho said
'what
doos my
aoll in altonng thus his appearance
?' Devc
Bodh,esttva angwerod
'My
f'athor,
mother end
rslatione dwell in tbe irrland of Ceylon.
f desire to appease l,horn from this rpot.
t'e
Eise-
'rcher68
Eeiiarig-tsang again ffiYB,
o
At this tirne, I)eve
Bodhissttv&, cc:nirig frorn the country of Chi-ace-
tseu
i Oeyl on)
. ...7' Theso worde may bo
take,n ee a good pioco of evidonco for the Oeylonese
origrn of Aryadeve. Ilowover, Thomas Wattere, ia
hie trensi{ition of flsiieng-trn rg,s
Trot)& (I, p. B2l}
!,hinkq that ths roferonoe here rray
bo to a countrf
\ /
in eouth l:rdi*, whereae S. Beal (ibid., U, 920, a. ?d)
\.--/
tl,inlrq it probablo tbet De'rs wes a native of Cefli.
A.nother important piece of evidencs to the afeot
that Aryade\.'a w€te a native of Coylon ie that lq hic
romnnentar5i tc Aryadev*'a CntuMataha, Corrdra-
kirti saya thnt .iI*ryadsv& was a netive of the islad
of $i+hala a,nd oarno to south trndia
{tm
a<icgd-;rc.
dikpornporfudg*tye), It is eignificanb thst
a
oomnrsntator on Ar5redove (end thoreforo
morc
raliable than lleiiang-taaag) rofsre to the birthplom
of Ar5iedeva ae tho
intrqnd
of Si:phala and not jrrrt
8i+be1$ (SianluWtapa --
Sdryo-l^afid-gl&,j9j.
?
Ihf,,
rn the Maejutri,millatantrr, too" ths hsnoe of 3cyr.
cisva is seid t'o bo ihe igland of Coylon:
aporol prav oj ibl.t 6r ea{nlt
nhphikapnartuaoj
o@o dryasojfrl oo
Bimlnl*Jvipotfrsirntt
6 Hg0rusit{4nf,'$.fiaoord tmadrt rt by 6 BarL II, ilg,
s tbtd. Iv. lr5"
7 Y, Bbrttsrre Igq,19E8, p, 0?8,
-
I e.9., JASB. f882, p.94. See slao Nrrnjir, eppondlr J"
No. 4 and tr-tdng't lllcord, trarstatsd by J. Taka*usu, trntre-
ductlsn, p. llx.
? Ary*deva'e dato is dven aa Ath century A.
,J.
oy
g,
t.j"
Yidyibhuaana in hie Hi.ttor11 o! huiian I'ogric,
V"
2€1, aud aliilo
by B. K. MookerJl tn his,4nciat hslir,n Erhmtirsn, pp, 55?,
b7g.
3 See the ebroqologlcsl toble at the end of E. Couza's
Buddhism, and atrao T. B. V, Muti, ?ia Csntrvt PhiffiJr7.i$
of Budd.h$tn,
p.
92 snd foot note 3 on tbo sam$ fs,Se"
I l-tritr4't Racotd, trearirtcd by J, Tekrkuru, lnbsdlt$
Hoq
pp.lYU and ll&'
ARYADEVA rr0
AnyepnvR
" Another great sage will appear in the city of the
Si n-hal ese. Al thoughhe i s not a sai nt (d,rya:arhant)
he will bear tho appellation 6rya and dwell in the
island of the Sinhalese."E Ilere too, it is significant
that the referenee is to the island of Ceylon
(Si,mhalod,aipa)and not just to Sirnhala.Tho historians
Td,rdnd,tha
e
and Bu-ston
r0
both record that irya-
deva was borrr " in the island of Simhala (Simhala-
dvr-pa) ". ff he wero from a province in south India
there is no re&son why all theso recorders should
speak of the island of Sir.nhala.. Tho Chinese
tradition whioh makos him the son of a south
Indian brabman could bo explained by the fact that
when the closs proximity of Ceylon to India is
considered, it is not strange that Ceylon w&s con-
sidored as a part ofsouth India by north Indian and
Chinese writors. Further, there is trustworthy
el-idence to show that there w&s very close contact
betwoen Ceylon and Ndgdrjunakonda, the centre of
activity of both Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. The
vase containing the ashos of Aryadev& was found
there. Irr tho N&g6,rjunakold.a valley there is a
tomple dodicated to the theris of Ceylon. In an
inscription for.md on the spot, a vihdra built by a
Coylonese Buddhist is mentioned.
11
I{once, it
would eeem that Ceyloneso Buddhists were not only
in the habit of going thero on pilgrimage, but that
tbey even took up residence there permanently.
Tbere is nothi.g strange, thereforo, in a learned
mo''L tike Aryadeve emigrating from Coylon and
settling down there as the pupil of N6,gdrjuna.
In the Coylonoso chronicle, the MahrtuarTsa
(xxxvi, 27 tr.\, king Voharika Tissa ie eaid to have
listened to the doctrine preached by a thera called
Deva, Tihe Di,pauarysa (xxili, 4l), giving the samo
information, aays that king Tissaka (i.e., Vohd,rika
Tiesa) heard the &ilrtno Sutta frotn thera Deva.lz
Agein in the Di,Ttaaamsa (rxii, 50), king Sangha
Tissa ie said to have heard the Andhakaainda
Su,frarte from thera Deva. Tho accounts that
follow in these records show that both these kings
wern greatly impressed by these preachings and con-
sequently increased their patronago to tho S6,sana.
Ilere it should be noted that both kings lived during
tbe 3rd century A. C., the period attributed to
,
8 N. Dutt, IEQ. 7934, pp. 137 ff.: 3u-ston' s Historg of
Buddhisrn in Ind.i,a and. Iibe!, pp. 130-1. Eere Bu-ston says
that accordilg to tradition Aryadeva had attailed tho 8th
8tage.
9 Tdrtud,tho'a GesclaioMe d.cs Bltddhisnura, Anton Schiefner,
pp. 83 tr
LO Ei*torU of Bunnki,rnin Inl,ia and Tibet, by Bu-ston,
translated. by E. Obermiller, p. 130.
It Early Eistow ol the And,hro Cour*rg, K. Gcpalacbari,
D. 146.
12 The Dipaparysa reference is not to king Abhaya as taken
by Yamakaui Sogen lu bis SAslatus of Buddhist TItoWll,
p . I SO.
Aryadeva. But &s Aryadeva had Mahaydnist
leanings it is quite possible that he was not quite
welcome with the kings and the monks of Ceylon.
It should be remembered that during this time,
Mahay6nist ideas, which were gathering strength
in Ceylon, wero being suppressed by Sinhalese kinge.
Vohdrika Tissa, who, a,s we have seen. had contacte
with thera Deva, is mentioned among them. Thus.
it is possible that Dova left Ceylon this not being
a congenial place for him to live in, and went
to India, where the intellectual atmosphere was
more favourabls to hirn. The theory tlrat this
thora Deva was the s&me as Aryadeva is made still
more tenabie by the fact that in Chinese, Tibetan
and Sanskrit literature he is often referred to
merely as Deva. Thera Deva of Ceylon came to bo
known as Arya-Deva in fndia. If Aryadeva had
remained in Ceylon he wouid probably never havo
attained the eminenco that he did, for Coylon could
not provide the necessary oncour&gement for the
development of his Mah6,y6nist tendencies. ft was
Nagarjuna who furnished that leadorship and
guidauce.
There are several soulces of information as regards
/
the life-story of Aryadeva. Among these are his
/
life-story translated into Chinese by I{um6rajivT'
(Nanji,o, No. 1462), Record of the 28 patriarefs
(Nanjio, No. 1340), Ilsiiang-tsang's Record of his
travels and tho two books on tho history of Buddhism
writton byBu-ston and Tdr6nd,tha. The information
furnished by all these works is almost the same.
Ilowever, this information is embellishod with much
legendary material and it beeomes difrcult to sift
the truth from fiction. There is yet another source
of inforrnation in Candrakirti's conrmentary to
Aryadova' s C atuh*ata&a which is not so full of details
and which seems to bo the most irustworthy.rs
Bu-ston
10
starts his account of the lifo of Arya,
deva by saying that he was the spiritual son of
Nagdrjuna. Ilorn and bred in Ceylon, Aryadeva
later went to
Ndg6rjuna and entered his school and
became proficient in all the branches of science and
all the heterodox and orthodox philosophical
systems. Bu-ston then refers to a heretical teacher
13 T. R. V. l {urt i , op. ci t . p. 92 and n. 2.
14 op. ci t . pp. 13G-2.
Anynpnva
l l l
AnyRprvl
celled Md,tgcela who was a follower of the god
Mahe6vara and was exceedingly powerful as an
exponent, of his faith. By his teaching he had
caused groat harm to Buddhism and won many
converts. Wren he came to Naland6, the Buddhist
monks there sent word to N6g6rjuna who was in
Sriparvata. Then Aryadeva, who was with him,
said that he would subdue }ldtrcefa and went to
Ndlandd.
15
On his way a tree-goddess begged him
to give her an eye and he gave her one of his eyes.
Aryadeva went thero and defeated the heretic. The
monks, not knowing who he was, asked his identity
to which Aryadeva replied that Mahe6vara, even
with three eyes, cannot perceive the absolute truth
nor Indra with a thousand eyes. But he, although
he had only ono eye, possesses this rare intuition.
Mdtycela was converted to Buddhism and became
a gteat scholar.
16
Bu-ston concludes his account
of Aryadeva by saying that accord.ing to trad.ition
Aryadeva had attained to the 8th stage.
Chinese sources (Nanjio, No.l4O2) give a d.ifferont
story about Aryadeva's loss of one eye. Aryadeva
wanted to show that a golden statue of Mahe6vara
was not the god
himself. To prove this
he pulled
out the left eye of tho statuo. Whon on tbe
following day MaheSvara visited him he toro out
his left eye and gave it, to hirn in order to show that
ho was genuineiy
devoted to the god and that be
had full faith in his spirit.l? Becaube of his
blindness Aryadeva was also called Ka4adeva.
Ifsiian-tsangr a4 oarlier recorder than Bu-ston,
gives a moro detailed accorrnt of how Aryadeva
beeame a follower of NigErjuna, IIe says that
Aryadeva, coming from Ceylon, sought to hold a
discussion with
Nagdrjuna. When tho gate-keeper
nnnounced tho visitor monk to
Nagarjuna, the
latter filled a borvl with water and asked the gate-
keeper to hold the water beforo Ar5zadeva, who,
seeing the water. was silent and dropped a noedlo
into it. When NagErjuna was infonned of this, ho
exclaimed that Aryadeva
ought to be a very wise
man and bade him enter. Ilere
N6,g6rjuna explains
the meani:rg of the story that the water in the bowl
symbolised his own wisdom and by dropping a
needle into it Aryadeva
meant that he Ua piercea
to tho bottom of that wisdom. When Arvadove
expressed his desire to be a pupil of NEgdrjuna, the
latter said,
" Your learning excels that of the world
and your fino distinctions shino brighter thaa those
of the former teachers. f am but an old and feeble
man; but having met with ono so learned
and
distinguished, surely it is for the purpose cf speaking
the truth and for transmitting
without intermption
the torch of the law and propagating
the teachi4g
of religion. Truly, this is ono who may sit on the
upper seat to oxpound dark sayings and, d.iscourso
1ath
,precisie11."
rs
Accorrling to llsi.ian_tsang
Aryadeva was as highly impressed,
by Negerjuna as
the latter was by Aryadeva.re
_
Hsiian.tseng in his aecorlnt of Magadha calls
Aryadeva a disciple of Ndgdrjuna, woll-known for
his wisdom and spiritual
"rr""gy.
A detailed
account is given
of how Aryadeva went to Vai66li
and subdued the non-Buddhist teachers there.
During this time there was hardly any Buddhism
in
Vai66E and Aryadeva,
obtaining leave from N6gd.r-
juna,
went there as N6gd.rjuna's doputy, vanquished
the heretics a,nd re-established
the Buddhist faith.
It is seid that in less than one hourzo ho was ablo to
refute the heretics in a public debate and ffnally to
win over the king a;ed the people to his side. Tho
account concludes
with tho informetion
that e
monument was also orected in memory
of Ar5zadova's
victory.
tl
Ilsiian-tsang again speaks of Aryadeva
iro his
accor:lt of the Srughna
country
in north India.
Ilere too, tho Chinese pilgrim
refers to him ris
profoundly learned in the Buddha's teaching
end
going to India from Ceylon to lead the people
on the
right path. An incident is reported of how Arya-
deva came &cross a group of people performint
e
I{indu religious rite at a holy ford and how Aryadeva
6rst attracted their attention
by trying to turrr beck
tho river's cur"rent.
When tho crowd began to
criticise him he tunred that criticisn against them-
selves and convinced them how futilo it, was to
indulge in such proctices in tho na,mo of religioa.
Arlrni6lit
U
their fault they became followe"s of
Buddhism.s,
Aryadeva is again referred to by llsiian_tsang
in his account of the Cola country in south India.
Ilore is mentioned an interview
Aryadeva
had with
18 The English translation
is thet of S. Beal, op. cit. p.
416.
19 S. Beal. op. cit.
pp.41b-6
?gd
T,
.Watters,
On
yuong
chwans' t Traueti in Iruiii, rI;bt. ioo, :12.
' -"'
.
20
Qge
hour accordinJE to p-egl, op. oit. p.
BBB. But, accord,-
ing to Watters, op. cit. II, p. tOt, iririo[ i*iiti6 a"vr.-'
21 Beal, op. cii. pp.33t-3;
Watters, op. cit. I, pp.
1G-11.
22 Beal, op. cit. pp. 219-20
;Watt€ts. op. cit. I. np.
g20-1
,
15
-
Compare this info-rma-tion with Hstian-tsans' s report of
$,ty_t_4q"1 .
deputising
-{o{._]!aga-.ju"a tn siruitriffi; ti;-;;;:
liuddlrisb teachers at vaisili i-eferrerr iotatei ir|tlis-iific-fe.
.
16 Could this
{[tpcefa
be the same Buddhist writer who iB
also sometimes called Miticitra ?
17 Yamakami Sogen, Systenr. s of BuH,hi;st T hought, pp.
Lgl
- g.
ANYADEVA
L12 ARYADEV^A
sn erhet nsmed titi,era. A:3-aC.eva had hear.d
ebout lJtdara as possosaing Eupornsf,urai
powers lrnd
attainmentg *nd he wiehed ta meet liirn. He etateci
hie difficultios ro Uttart who answered bheru ono by
one. trlowover, Uttara ooukl not, answer Aryadeva's
coun|or-qrtestions
upon which tho arhat transptrteii
histeelf to
'Iusita
heaven aild obtained rristrucf iotg
from }daitreya v'ho
told
him that Aryadlav&
'w{18
E
Euddha-to-be
Es
in the presont kalpa and bade him
roepect,
Aryadeva accorclinglv. Onco
+"ho
answorg
of M*itreys wero eupplied to Aryri,deve, ho recog-
Dieed thoee roplies to be ihose ilf Maiireya, wt-lers'
upon Utl;ara showed him great lespect.sc
In his doscription of Fraydga, IJeiian't's&ng s&yir
that Aryaclevs eomposed hie Sata"4,istro-aaipttlya
in
o
ashgitfr'ri,ma thero.
'Ihis
work +oulci be identifiec
esNawj i o" No. I l 8$ and Tai sh6, No" 1570. The
mlat,icn of
",hie
work to t}re Cotuh"&atakao tlro most
eei ebrated work of Arvadove, i s di scussod l o' ter on
i-n thig nrticie. trisiian-tseng aiso rofore to r!
discussion of iryadev* witlt a non-Buddhi""t
brAhraan Bt tho end of which Arya,deva wes *blo to
dot'eat iris oppcnent ut ar5luriont. Tho diseussiono
ae gvon by Roul, csnires round i'he thec'ry of'
so'ullessness as taught in Bucldhism'e6
Ary adevn, lrl ong with A6vaghnsa
"
N igu
j :rna an,C'
Kumd.ralabdha, is referred i'o
-n;r
i{eiian-tsang,
z(
as on6 of the four r*uns
';hat
illurnure the world.
f-hing, toon rnekee this comparison.sT
T.a
+,he
Chirroeo sgt;rk containing ther history of the
eucceeeion of tho 23 patriarchs f .rorn MahDkadyaprr to
bhiksu $irnhn
{Nu,njio,
No. 134$) Ar}'edgr'e,, uridor
tho n*rne I(dpadeva, irl :rrentiorreC ils irho tr4th
putrinruh unri ihe earne position is acccirded to hi::r
in his hiogr*ptry evuiir+Lrle in Oh'nese
{Naniio,
No. 1469)" Aecording to tho {-lhinoee sccoulri,s of irie
iif'e, Aryai'lr:v* died nt the hands r:f,* murderer.
'.lho
rtory is Lhat, onco in sorrbh India he hac{ dofentod
Eorne p()w"rrrfrrI nort.ftrrddhistsr in argumont and oue of
the pupila of a ietrding taacherrho wsg defeat'eC
stetrlbed A"yadeva to doath wlrila tire lalier sag
tekurg e st[('ll in a lonely aree. Many worde rrrs put
into the nruutlt of Aryadev* at
r-he
Etornertt, oi" hrs
untimely death, and acoording to this story eveu
tlre laet words of Aryadevr* Fero a digcor'rtae on i'ha
&7ng*fr, doctrrne.
28
As regards the works of Ar5'adeva tlroro is much
confusion &mong tho various sourcos of infor'mation
due tei the fact ihat a largo numher oi works by a
later tiinirie s.riter of the ?th or 8th century b;r tho
s&rue n&rne havo elsg been attributed to our
&Id,dJryamika exponeni. Tlris confusion, which hss
rrot boen quite cieared so far, soorns i,o heve been
thore aven aii the tirne of Bu-ston, for ho gives a list
of worke under tlie Madhyamika teacher in which
the rrorks of the othor fuyadev* aro also included.
I{c.ivever, it is notewort}ry that what Bu-ston says
erbout the life-si;cry of .Aryadeva portains only to tho
senior Arvacleva anC it is only rn the iist of workg
thar he troats the fwo autliors as ono. It may bo
that sithe,r h.e ovaricokecl tho distinction or tho con-
fusion was there evon nt tl-rat time or it is also
possiblo that as tho second Aryadova w&s a tantrio
s-iter arr attempi v'as mado by some, including
Bu-sf,on, to attribute ths works of the second
Aryadeva aiso to tlro other, in order to invest those
ta,ntri'r works with greater authority. This las',,
eum-niso Beerns to bo the ruost probahle. Tho eon-
fiision has continued, for i:r tho caialogue of tho
Tibetan Triyitaka (f M.l the works of both writers
aro givon
'andsr
,4,:-yrrclova wit'hout making a dig-
tinction bertwoan thom. Ilowever, in the Chineso
ttri pitalctt none of tir.e worire of the second Aryacleva
is mentionecl. This r:stabiiehes the f'act that as the
t)hiness
versions of Ar1,'acleva's Sanekrit workg wsre
rr:sde irr ihe frfth nnd the eeventh contu-ries thero wae
no pcseibility for the works of tho second Aryadeva,
who iived in lhs ?th or the 8th centur;r, to find a
placq in t,he Llhinoso canon. In ths Chiness ?ru-
Ftlak,,,
fhere ie no mention of a socond Arvadova and
tbe eoveo works al,bributed thore to Aryarlova aro
genurnely the works of
ths
first Aryadeva. But in
the
'iibetan
caEon therc are 23 works ettributed to
ArX,-ad.eva, of whrch I ars i'lnder the name Ar5radeva
end tire rest urrder F.{phags-1:e lha, tho Tibetan form
of thot, naino. Out of tirese 23 works only 5 works
&re bv ths firsl;, Aryaderva and out of thoeo fivo works
there ers four diflerent vergions, so:netimes com-
meri.i,aries, ui tho samo wclrk
{i.e.,
Eastaa1lapra-
karan'a1 anri as *lrcir Relually ihere are only two
rrc.rrks
ibhe
otiter being tho Cotuladataka) of the firet
Aryarleva.
(-1f
those two works tho Flc"yfor.rdtra,pra-
ia'vorw i.s irrongly aNtributed to Dinn6,ga in th,e
tlirrnesa Trt'pitu,ha" Thei .4&soraiat&ka of Aryedovr
23 Uorup$re ttuc irfornution witb ihe taci;
-tirac
he is oft€rr
refeffod t".r ag llorlhi,qattvo llcvn b]' the
(Jlrinese ' a' rifere.
It is :rlso worth meut,ioning here eg*in ihai accordin& to
nu-oton he stiained the 8th Btoge.
24 Resl, op. cit,
pp, 428-9 ;
Wattere, oi:. cit. fi., pp" 22*-b
t l $ Bei l , op. ci t .
pp. 25i ' 2.
26 Hes!, op. eit,. p. 42t{ : Wat,trrrs, op, clb. I, p. 245.
27 l- ltiw' B Remrd,, translatetl try J. Takakusu,
p. 1E1,,
_
'18
For tur'"her detai-lB ou tlree€ incidants 8ea
'ysmaLalsi
lo#S, oP crt. Pil.
10?-1,
ARYADEVA t 13
ARYADEVA
ie givon in the TM. aaa work of Ndgdrjuna. In tho
prosontrbrticle the works of the Midhyamika teacher
are sifted as shown above and thoro aro l0 works bv
hi-m as follows :
(I) Catul,Sataka, Catuhlatihd, or Sotakois tho most
colebrated work of Aryadeva (Nanj'io, l.Io. ll89;
TM. No. 3846
;
Tai shS, No. 1570). Except for
somo fragments, discovered and published by II.
Sastri irl the Memo,irs of the As,iati,c Society o!
Bengal, III, No. 8, pp. 449-514, the book is
lost in its original. But the completo text is
proserved in its Tibetan translation. (TM. No. 3846)
along with the commentary
of Candrekirti.
Although it is said that the last eight
chapters of this work were translated into Chinese,
actually the Chinese translation is not from the
Catul.r,Satalco, but it is the translation of tho lcari,kas
of the Sataldstrauaipulya, the mistaken identifica-
tion being due to tho fact that its contents are the
s&mo &s those of the last oight chapters of tho
Catul.tiatako. fhis is tbe work catalogued by
Nanjio under tho number ll89 and thus thero is no
mention of a Cotul.tlotaka in his cataloguo as a work
of Aryadeva. Ilence, ths Catuhsatalao proper was
translated &nd preserved only in Tibetan. The
Chinese translator was Ilsiian-tsang.
p) Saa@a)id,stra, translatod i:rto Chinsse by
I{um5,rajiva. This is moro or less a surnm,ary of or
an introduction to tho Catultiatqlca, The com-
montary of this work is attributed to Vasu who is
doubtfully identified as V&subandhu of VijflEnav5da
famo. This work, along with the Madhyarn'ika-
iastra of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva (soe No. 8 below)
and the Daada$onikayo of Nagdrjuna, comprises tho
basic toxts of the San-ron sect of Japan and the
San-ltrn sect of China (Todsho, No. l56d
;
Nonjio,
No. If 88). This work is not found in the Tibetan
c&non.
(3) Sala.dastrauaipulya, along with tho comrnon-
tary of Dharmap6,la, was translated into Chinese
by l l si i an-tsang (Tai sh6,
No. l 57I; Nctnj i o,
No. 1I98). The Chi neso work, someti rnss cal l ed tho
Ca,tuhiq,teka of Aryado\'& is tho translation of tho
k.arilc,ts of this work without the cornrnentary.
The contents of this work are alnaost identical with
tlrose of the last eight chapters of tho Catuhiataka,
with some resbuffling, and hence it is identified
with the Catul3iatako (see
No. I above).
(4) Akparoiataka, a synopsis of the Mddhyamika
doctrine, translated into Chinese by Bodhiruci and
avai l abl e al so i n' Ii betan (Tui sl n, No. 1572
;
Narj i o,
No. L254; ?,0/. Nos. 3834-5). Ths two works
catalogued in the TM. aro the toxt and tbe
cornrneatarJr'. The Tibetan tradition which ascribes
it to llagarju:ra soerrs to be incorrect.
(5) Mahapurusa-idstra,
available only in Chineso
(Ta,ishi, No. 1577
;
I{anji,o,
No. 1242).
yamakami
Sogen quotes from this work in inis Sysiems oJ
Buil,hiat ThoughL (pp. 63-a) aud says that ir was
trsnslated inio Chinese by a Buddhist scholar Tao_
t'ai of the northern Lia,n dynasty. According to
the quotation of Sogen this is a work advocating
tho Mahay6,nist ideal of bodhisattvahood., the ideal
that one should not bo afraid of samsd,ra and soek
one's own salvation.
One should feel an all-embra-
cing love for all beings ancl rejoice in conferring
bliss on them and by so doing attain Nirvdrra
( i bi d. p. 6a) .
(Q Sastra on the refutation
of four heretical
Ilinayd,na schools mentioned. in the
.Lahkdaatd,ra
StTtra translated into Chineso by Bodhiruci(Ta,ishd,
No. 1639
;
Nanj i o, No. l 2bg). The four school s
referred to are Saikhya, Vaiiepi,ka, Ndrgrantha and.
Gfiitiputra.
ft)
Sastra on the explanation
of NirvElla by
tweuty herotical teachers mentioned in ths
Lonkd,uoliro Stitra, translated by Bodhiruci (Tatsho,
No. 1640
;
Nanj i ,o, No. 1260).
(8\ M od,hy am,i,k a
-
i d,str a c o
-
authored by Nagar june
and Aryadeval (Toi sho, No. 1564
;
I{anj .i o, No. IIZg;
?M. l{o. 3824). I'his is not ro bo confuse<l with
the work called tbo Ilad,hyamika-ko,rikq,
of lrTagar-
j,trra.
In this work the authorship is shared be-
tween Nagdrjuna and Aryacieva in tho sensethat b00
verses of tho formor are corunented upon by the
latter. This is moro or less a commontary
by
Aryadeva on the celebra,ted Mad,ltyamika-kd,rdkds
of Nagarjurl€I, cornrnonly knern'11
as Chung-lun in
China. Along with tbe Sato.6astrq, of Aryadeva
referred to abovo and the Duad,alanikdyo
of
Ndgdrjrrna, this forms ono of tlre threo basic
texts of tho San-lun sec'" irr Cirrna and the
San-ron sect in Japan. Yamak*mi Sogen quotes
from thrs work in several places of his Sgstem,s
of Budrl,hiat Thoztght (e.9., pp. 14, n. t
;
:10,
23 etc.). The work was translated into Chinese by
I(umirajiva. In the
'Iibetan
c&non tho work is
attributed to N&garjuna. Aryudeva'e authorship
of this comrnentary dlpends on tho correct, identi-
ficatiou of Pingala,, r-hioh is hc.r the corrunontabor
is named in the Chinese works.
(9) This same work was later tranelated into
Cl i i nese by Prabhnkarami tra
1?aasft,o,
go.
I.b6O;
Nanj i o, No. l I 85; TI I . No. 3853) .
AnYRnnva
114 ARYADEVA
(10) Hastaudla,prakarana
antd'"*rtti
(TM ' Nos' 3844
and 3845), attributed
to Aryadova according to the
Tibetan tradition but ascribed to Dinn6'ga in the
Chi neso tradi ti on
(Tai shd, Nos. 1620, 1621; Nan' i i o,
Nos. 1255, 1256). As,T.R,. V. Murti says i n hi s Cen-
tral Philosophy of Buddhisrn
(p. 94)' this is wrongly
attributed
to Dinndga, for this is a work in which the
M6dhyamika
teaching is surnmarised
in six verses'
As it denies the reality of both the subjective and
tbe objectivo
worlds it clearly is a Md'dhyamika
work and as srrch its attribution to Aryadeva is
correct. Tho Tibetan and tho Chinese bexts with a
rostoration
into Sanskrit' have been published by
F. W. Thomas i n J-R,4S. 1918, pp' 267-310'
Tho teaching of Ar''adeva
is a progressive eon-
tinuation of that of his teacher Ndg6'rjuna' Ife was
the greatest exponent of tho Mddhyamika system
after Nd,g6rjuna,
whose ninyatd, doctrine is upheld
by him in all his works, chiefly in his nragnlt'rn opus,
tbs Catuhiatalaa.
Two commentaries wero written
to it, one by DharmapEla
and tho other by Candra-
kirti. Of the 16 chapters that composo this work,
the first eight aro devoted to the esposition of
Midhyamika
theories and tho second eight are a
polemic against the rival schools of Buddhist
thought as well as the Sankhya and the Vaidesika
systems.
In importanco
as a text of the M6dhya'
mika teaehing it is socond only to lhe Mdd'hgo-
nika-lcdrikos
of Ndgdrjuna.
For further details see
CATUIISATAKA.
Aryadova's contribution to
Mdd,hyamika
teaching would be still greater if the
Cbinoee vorsion of the Mdd'hyarni'ka'id,stra, nurnber
eight in tho above catalogue, is actually his, which,
most
probably, is tho case' for it is generally
believed
that tho commentator Pifigala is none
other than Aryadova.
In this easo Aryadeva
bocomeg
still moro important, for tho San-lun and
tbe San-ron sectg of China and Japan, respecti'
vely, are based on this Mddh'yarni'lca'6dstra wit'h
Pingala's
commontary,
the Sataid'stra, also of
Aryadeva,
and tho Dudd'aianilcdya of Nagarjuna'
All theso works,
the Catuf;iataka,
the Maclhya'
rnika-6d'elra,
the Sut'a.idstra of Aryadova and
the Dadda.iani,lcd,ya
of N6g6'rjuna, form the
basic tests of the Mddhyamika school and
doal with tho same subject matter; only the treat-
ment is differont in each caso.
ss
Aqradeva's
cout^ribution
to Mddhyamiks
teaching is eruiched by
another work
Lnown as the AkEarodatal:o, treatod as
nrunl,rer four in the ebove catalogue' With regard
to thi s workT.
R- V. Murti (op' ci t' pp' 93-a) guotes
29 Rlehard
A. Gard- eays
known in CNua and Jepao
Fitmts. Jou'rnal of Indian
)iu.' 2, March 1954,
P.
5.
that even Llne Dodl'qSanikdua as
has its commentarY written bY
und Btttld'hist Stltd'Us, Vol- II'
the following words of Gokhale, " The title in itself is
so typical of an fuyadovic production tbat one
might easily bo tempted to suggest, a chronoloqical
sequence among tho wotks : Catul.tiataka, Sataka
(Sataidstra) and Ak.laralata'lw, where beginning
from Catufi"1atalcathe logical argumonts become moro
and moro systomatic and pointed, till in the presont
toxt thoy develop into a short and neat refutat'ion
sololy dirbcted against tho Sd,nkhya^c and Vai$es'ikas
who probably formed in .4.ryadeva's timo the urost
powerful opponents of Buddhisrn." Murti, giving
his own opinion, says, " It must be admitted'
howover, that the Aksara.$atakam does not seem to
be very intelligible even with the commentary. The
general drift of tho i,reatise is to refute both identity
and differenco
(bhaud nailcatuaqnbh'innatuam apt), sat
and asatkd,rEaudda and to establish that things aro
apparont (napnasamar.n\, The twenty ocld pro'
positions which form the entire subject,-matter of
tho treatise are introducod so abruptly and with so
littlo argument tbat it singularlv fails to add to dur
knowledge of tho M6dhyamilra system."
Ilence, it is soen that the Alcpara$ata&a is an
abstract of the M6dhyamika teacbing. In his
Hastaudlaptokoreiut, number ton in tho above
cataloguo, Aryadova givos a vory briof su:rrmar.y of
the Mddhyamika teaching. It maintains tho
Mddbyavnika standpoint of the unroality of both
tho subjective and tho objoctivo worlds. In the
Mahd,pum,qa-6d,stra, number fivo in the above
cataloguo as quotod by Yamakami Sogerr,
Arvadeva omphasisos the velue of dsvoting oneself
to the good of others, which is bhe cardinal principie
of Mah6,y6na. According to the two works attri'
buted to Aryadova in the Chineso tradit'ion, corn'
prising tho nurnbers eix and soven in the abovo
cataloguo, Aryadevo has composed works solelv to
dispute tbo views of tho various eehools of philo-
sophy, not only the Sddkhy. *d the Vai6eeika, but
also Jainism.
It is en accopted. fact tbat Aryadova's mod,us
operandi was to ostablish tho viewpoints of his own
school not only b}l its exposition, but also by
criticising the rival echools. This ho did by his
critical wtitings and by public dobates whenever
tho occasion demanded. Ilo won qreat fame as a
skilful debator in tne wbole of India. The rival
schools during his time were in fear of both his pen
and his tongue. In this r'espeet he was one of the
galaxy of great thinkere that euriched and enlivened
the intellectual life of medieval India. Sbating the
ARYADEVA l l 5 AnyannvR
honour of founding and establishiug the Md,dhya-
rnika
school with his guru, N6garjuna, he can un-
doubtedly be called a seeond N6gdrjuna. The firm
and unshakable establishment of the Madhyamika
system by defenrting it against the criticisms of the
rival schools was more the achievement of Aryadeva
than of Nagdrjuna and as such this svstem owes
mucb of its popularity and stability to him. If not
for the post-Ndg6rjuna proiection and nursing that
were afforded by Ar;'adeva to this systern against
tbo rival schools, specially Sd,ilrhya and VaiSesika,
tho Madhyamika rovolution would not h&vo become
so perrnanent and acquired tho popuiaritv it sub-
soquently came to possess.
A. G. S. K.
Brnr,rocnanrv (selected) : Chinese Accounts oJ
Indi a, trsl . by S. BeaI i n 4 vol umes; On Yuan
Chwang'.s T,rauels i,n lrud,ia, trsl. by T. Watters. 2
vols.
;
Yamakami Sogen, Sgstems of Buddh'ist
Thought,l9l2
;
M. Winternitz, A History of Ind,ian
L'iterature, II; T. Stcherbatsky, The Conception of
Buddhi,st Nirud,q,a, L927; T. R. V. Murti, The
Central PhilosophyoJ Budd,hi,s???
; S. C. Vidyabhusana,
The History of Ind,ian Logie; Bu-ston's History of
Budd,hism in Indi,a and, T''ibet, trsl. by E. Obermiller;
Td,rand,tha's Geschichte d,es Buildhismus in Ind,ien,
Anton Schi efner; .IIIQ. 1931, p. 634; 1933, IX,
p. 978 and 1934, X, p. 137
; JASB. 1898, Vol .
67, p. 175.
AnyepnVA (2), a Buddhist tantric writer who
lived in India during the 7th or the Sth century A.C.
A complicated problem has arisen due to the
attribution of a number of Tantric works by this
Aryadeva to the other Ar5radova, who was a disciple
of N6gdrjuna, the founder of the }ladhyamika
school and who lived in the second and the thircl
centuries A.C. There is no doubt about the exis-
tonco of this MS,dhyamika Aryadeva. But, as
was showrr in the precoding article, the Tibetan
tradition ascribes a largo number of Tantric works
to the earlier Aryadeva and judging from the nature
of those works they could not have been tho works
of thot Mddhyamika teacher. In the Tibetan
calnon, as given in the TM., tbe works of both
Aryadevas are catalogued. under one name. There
is no di.fficuity in selecting the works of the earlier
Aryadova. Once these works &re removed from
the list, it may be surmised that tho remriining
works were written b,v the later Aryadeva in the
?th or Sth century A.C. One significant point
in this problem is the fact that all the works,
I 0. S 1. . 1' . gga2s
referred to in the Chinese canon as those of Arya-
deva, are genuinely the works of the }tddhyamike
teacher. Ilence, it will be seen that not a singlo
work of the second Ar;'adeva was admitted into
the Chinese canon. tr'rom this fact it would
foilow that the tantric works, which are catalogued
below in this article, v'ere written by an author
different from the \Iddhvamika Aryadeva. But
the difficulty is u'ith regard to the identification
of thi s second Aryadeva.
P. B. Patel, who has prepared a critical edition
of the Cittauiiuddhiprakarana (Vi6uabhd.rati,, 19491
says in his introduction (p. xr') that this w-ork is
certainlv not a rvork of the earlier Ar5'adeva.
I{ere he also gives instances where many authorities
had mistaken this work to have been composed
by the Madhyarnika teacher. He further says
that at the ti:rre the tenets of Vajraydn& were
current in Bengal, there was a, writer named
Aryadeva and that he s'as supposed to have been
known by two or tlrree other names. Many v'orks,
both in Sanskrit and in Bengali, on tho then Vaj-
raya,na are attributed to him, and Patel identifies
this tantric writer of Bengal as the author of the
Cittauiiudd,hipralcaraTta. As regards tho dato of
this Aryadeva he places him
just
before the 8tb
century A.C., a, period during which Saraha's
disciple Nagarjuna, the Vajray6,nist (not the
founder of the }ladhyamika teaching), fndrabhrlti,
the king of Orissa, and the other sidd,has wera
aeti vel y propagati ng the Vaj raydna.
These valuable findings of Patel can be further
confirmed by sporadic, vet substantial pieces of
information. Thus, in the BIue Annals (I, 359-60)
it is said that Ndg6rjuna, the disciple of Saraha,
had four ehief disciples known as Sakyamitra,
Aryadeva, Nagabodhi and Candrakirti; and
Patel says (op. cit., Introd. p. xvi) that Aryadeve
was tho predecessor of Sdkyamitra, thereby substan-
tiating the statement in t}re BIue Annals. It is
generally accepted that Indrabhuti, Ndgdrjuna
(Saraha's disciple) and NA,gabodhi, were contem-
poraries in about the 7th century (see the Chrono-
logical Table at the end of E. Conze's Buddhisml.
Ilence, it becomes clear that this later Aryadeva
'w&s
a disciple of the later N6gd,rjuna and they,
with tho other tantric writers, were active in
Ber'gal when the Vajrayd,na was gaining popularity
there. Three of the works of tha taitrie Aryadeva
given in tbe TM. arc cite<i in tbe Blue Anna)a,
one of whicn is the Citt<tuiludrtrhiprakaraTta (Cittd-
uaraqr,auitlodh.ana, TM. No. 1804
;
Blile Annala,
II, p. l0i9). The other two are thb Caryd,metrd-
Ttalcapradipo
(TII. No. 1803; BLue Annals, T.
AnyAonva
r.16 AnvAxo$A-NAMA
pp. 362-3) and the Protd@ieAraiatnlco
(TM-
No. 2334
;
Blw Annala, n, pp. 803, 8ll). Sinco
tlre autbor, nemed Aryadeva and reforred to in tho
Bhu Awnl,e, as show:n earlier, was Done otbsr
tJran the tantric writor, it becomos cioar that ths
tautrio works attributod to Aryadeva in the
Tibotan c&non ere the worke of the later Aryadevs.
In the
introduetion to tho Sil'lwnnmdn I[,
p. cxxxiv, n. l, B. Bhattacbaryye aleo is doffnits
about the existenco of e s€cond Aryadeva who
composod tsuddbist tantric works. Thore he
edmite than the Cdttatiduddhiprakaro.tw was writton
by the tantric Aryadeva, but wae wrongly attributed
to the Mddhya,rnika Aryadeva. E. Sastri slightly
differs when be eays that the CifradluddhiprokaraTn
was written by the earlier Aryadeva and wsg
revised by another Aryadeva let€r. Ile, too,
admits
',hs
sxistonco of an Aryaaeva in Bongal
wl". wrot'e eleo in B.og"Ii (IEQ. 1926, p. 464).
T''
connection with this ppblem it msy bo
remerked here that it was a practioe cornr"cn in
rnany anciont litoreturoe thst the worksoompoeed
by loss-known writors woro attribut€d to bettor
hnovrn suthorg, in ordor to invost thoso works with
greiter authority. IndiB waa no oremption from
this. Tho two Mddhya,miko teachers, NegErjuna
aud Aryadev&, tho toaaher and the pupil, were
well-known and wers acceptad aa autboritise
on the Mf,rlhyarrikg, t€sching,
and the philosop\y
of tbo Yajray6na also wae based oa tbat of tho
l[6dhy*'niLa. And whou the Vajray6na w&s
gaining popularity in the ?th and the 8th conturies
iu Indis, apecially in Bengel, thoro appeared a
Nig&rjuna, a tantrio writer. In keeping with the
Madhyamike tradition rso 806 a pupil of this
NEgarjuna calling himself Aryadeva and composing
tsntric treatises. T'his being the c&so, one ig
tempted to suggeet tbat tlre two namoe Nagdrjuna
and Aryad€va wero assumad by tbose two writers,
probably in emulation of the Medhyarnika tradition.
Eence, it may be that they wefo known by somo
other namoe beforo they assumed the rolo of
Yajrayinist propagators and that they called
thems€lves Ndg6,rjune and Aryadeve to invost
tbeir works with greeter authority. Thus, many
vorks composed by tho lator tantric Aryadeva
have boen wrongly at'tributed to tho earlier Madhya-
IniLa Aryadeva owing to the obscure history
nrrrounding the later Aryadeva. Tho absonco
of a prop€r sense of history among the encient
chroniclers-for they can hardly bo called [istorinns
-slrch
a,s Ru-ston and Tiran6tha, has led them to
rogard both as identical, Thus, in Bu-ston's
aocount of Aryadeva, ss given in his Eistory oJ
Brddhis'm in Indda ord Tdbet, pp. 130 ff., he gives e
more or less legendary. account of the Mddyarnika
Aryadova and in tho 1i8t of works attributed
to this Aryadeva are ingluded the tantric works
of the later Aryadeva. The fact that both the
Tibetan Garron and Bu-ston do not distinguisb
two writers and includo tho works of both teachers
uader ono narrro shows that the Tibotan tradition
bas overlooked tho digtinction ontirely.
In this connection it could aleo be suggested
thet these tantric works that have to be attributod
to tho socond Aryadeva wore perhaps composod
by miscellanoous authors and woro attributed
to an imaginary Aryadeve for reasonp
just given.
Tlris could perhaps well bo the caso with the eocond
Nigdrjuna, too.
Tho following is the list of works that havc
to b€ attributod to tho tantric Aryadeva as taken
from the fM. whore tbe works of both Aryadevas
are given indiscriminately, somo under tho name
Aryedove and the others undor tho Tibetan form
of thie n&rno,
I'fphags-pa
tha: l. Sricoturpilha'
g ogatantrasil,lnnn (T M . No. I 6 I 0). 2. S rlenturpitha'
tartro-rdj omaq4a,lavi'd'hisdrosomu,ce'ay a-nfima (T M.
No. 16I3). 3. Prdopod,got'aru-ndma-$i'kd
(f M.
No. 1794). 4. Carydrnctrapakapradipo
(f M.
No. I 803
).
5. C ittitsar aryavi$ odhorw
-ndma -
pr okar aqta
(?M. N<r. 1804). 6. DpaI gsah-ba-ldw-pattd rdsoga-
rdm mtlnr phyi,n-pa
gIW.
No. 1808). 7. Nintikal-
ynTrakara4'a (TM. No. 2279). 8. Prot'ipotttsdro'
$atako
(7M. No. 23341. 9. Ma'dhyomakabhrama-
gfu-nanto (TM. No. 3860). 10. Jfi'dnaiuaraed-
illwna-rdrna (1'M. No. 1612). 11. Dpol gdan
bahi-pofii zab-don-ston-pa-&rE getg-gi dkoh-lrgrel
gM.
No. 1614). 12. Vojragha4,lapttjasadlwno-
kromo (?M. No. 1615). 13. Suddiglhdrwkramapra-
bheda ("M.
No. 1805). 14. Abhibodhdkrornopadeda
(?M. No. 1806). 16. Sm'a$drnaidhi (?M. No. 1807).
16. Dug lho sbw-pahd l,qrn rnchog-tu gsah-bo
bsam- gyi,s
-mi -khyab -
po shes
-Ay
a-ba ( 7M. No. 2457
).
I 7. Skhalitapramard,annyuktihetusiddhi-ndma
(T M.
lrTo. 3847). 18. J frinasdrasarnuccaya-nd,ma (TM.
No. 3851) .
Of those works the numbers l , 2, 4, 5,17, 18 and
probably I0 are refenod to as Aryadeva's works by
Bu-ston in his HistorV of Bu.iltlhiam in Ind,ia ard
Ti bet , p. l 3l .
A. G. S. K.
ARYAXA, namo of a cakravartin (Sdmp. 160.f4)-
AnVAKOqA-NAMA, literally a treasur5r of verees
(? composed in the Arya metre), tho title of a
short collection of gnomic vorses occurring in the
ARYAKOSA-ilAMA
i l 7
ARYASATYAKA PARIVARTA
Thun-mon-ba lugs-kyi bstan-bcos (Niti6astra) sec-
tion of the Mdo-hgrel (Sutravptti) division of tbe
Tengyur under the title l,ahig.s-su bcad,-pahi rndsod
ces-bya-ba (Peki ng
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki ,
Vol . I44, No. 5823). The authorshi p of the work
i s crodi ted to Ni -ma sbas-pa, (Ravi gupta) and tho
translb,tion is attributed to JfldniSdnti and Dpal-gyi
lhun-pobi
sde (Srimerusen&
accord.ing to Cordier,
f f l , p. 482, No. 2g) .
Verses attributed to Ravigupta occur in Sanskrit
antholoeies.
Fifty-five stanzas in the Subhd^sitdruali.
are attributed to the poet Ravigupta. A poem
called Candraprabhd,-uijaya is said to havo boen
composed by him, & quotation from which is
given in YaSodhara's commentary on Ydtsyd,yan&'s
Kd,ma,id,stra, tho Jayama,ri,gaia (Tho Subhi,sitd,uald
of Vallabhadeva, edited by P. Peterson and Pandit
Durgd,prasdda, Bombay, 1886, pp.
gg,
100). Vi dya-
kara cites Ravigupta as the author of two stanzas
in his anthology
of verses, tlne Subhapitaratnakopa.
The editors of this text assign two moro to tlre
samo author (see p. xciii in the Subhd,sitaratnaTopo
compiled by Vidyakara, edited by D. D. Kosambi
and V. V. Gokhale, Ilarvard University Press,
r 957) .
Tho sun does not change though it sinks in the
ocean nor does the waning moon
;
never is the
greatnoss of a virtuous person impaired, even
if he bs in declining circumst&nces. That a cahn
person
will not be subject to fear is uncertairx
for black smoko rises from & white lamp. A
groat person, though in distress, will not seize
another'g wealth
;
the sweet-voiced. nightingale,
though thirsty, will not drink se&-water. Men of
virtue are found emong the inferior classes and
wicked ones &mong tho superior; lotuseA spring up
from tho mud and worms appear in lotuses. That
which the great accomplish during the course of
&eons, the wicked hastily destroy
;
tho harvest
that is slowly tended by the w&ter, the fire burns
in a moment. The misory felt at the wrong done
to othors is nob equalled by that incurred through
injustice done to oneself
;
the earth, motionless,
whon wronged, tramples at injustice to others
;
-these
and other similar sayings form the content,
of tho presont collection of verses, the Aryd,kosa-
nfrma,.
At the end of the work the author states that he
composed the stanzas v/ith the hope that others
may practiso the path taught by tho great.
AnYAXgl, a forrner Buddha mentioned in a
list of former Buddhas under whom SiLvamuni
acquirod merit rshilo in the oighth bhumi (Mhuw.
r , t 37) .
ARYAMOGHA-P0JA-MANI, & bodhi satrva, rhe
fiI'th figuro from the south (i.e., from the right)
among tho figures of the eight venerablo ones
of the susidilhi section of the Garbhadhatu-ma4da,la.
Hi s mysti c n&mo i s
' Ju-i -chi n-kang '
(Ci ntd-maTi -
vaj ra ?) and hi s seed-syl l abl o (bd7a) i s Oru. Hi s
symbol (samaya) is a gem or a trident.
On tho figure, tho Pi,-tsang-chi (
filffi;? I
mentions, " This figuro is in flesh colour and has
four hands. One of the left hands has a string.
One of the right hands holds a sword and the
other a tri dent. "
Arnogha moans
'
completion
'which
is symbolised
b5r the gerrr (cintd,-rnoni). The sword resomblos
-the
wisdom s'hich cuts off all delusions and by this
wisdom all beings attain tho realisation of tho
truth. Here the realisation is represonted by a
lotus and tho truth by a gem. The trident ro-
sembles the three kinds of wisdom by which karma
is purified, and tho string resembles tho fivofold
wisdom, i.e., the wisdom of }lahdvairocana.
The Chinese work Hs&an-fa-szti-i-kuei
? + r d - + &! l
(gE+ffiFn) ment'ions this bodhisattva for tho
first tirne.
I(. Tun.
Anye-pUitGALA, & model human porsonatity.
See AIiIYA-PUGGAIA.
AnVASAXGA, a native of Gandhd,ra who lived
mostly in Ayodhyd (Oudh)-probably, in the
fourth century A.C.-and who was first a follower
of the Mahi36,saka school. Ifo later founded the
Yogacdra school with his Yogd,cdra-bh.um,o-6a,stra
which is sai,d to have been dictated to him by
lflaitreya in the Tusita heaven. See ASANGA.
E. H. P.
Iny^q-Sl tYA, the Four Nobl e Truths. See
ARIYA.SACCA.
AnyeSRfYAKA PARIVARTA, name of a Sanskri t
work, or a part of a work referred to in the St*pa-
somunu,ga (165.I7). R. II.
Anvnsnxl I l 8
Anve3une
AnyRSgXA, whoso nrtnl e was transl i terrr,ted i nto
Chinese as A-li-veh-szr'i-na (
F-*J4gXllStt{S ),
or A-l i -szfr-na and transl ated as Shti ng-chi i rr,
gF
),
was & monk of Rdmi ydn. Il e l i ved
i n the 7t,h cerrtury A.C., and bei onged to t,ho
Il ahi rsanghi ka school , but v' as wel l versed i n the
doctriner of Vij rl5navacla.
\Vhon llsiian-tsang cante to Bamivrln, ^irva*eno
and Aryadova treated hi m hospi tabl v, as i s men-
tioned in his biography.
K. l ' un.
AnyeStmHA (var.
Si mha-bhi ksu, Si mhal aputra),
the 24th patriarch of }lahi5rana Buddhism in a
line of succession bogirurirrg with }Iaha-KaSyapa
and Ananda, and including A6vaghosa antl Ni,qd,r-
j unu,, wi th Bodhi dharma as the 28th a,nd l ast
fndi an patri arch, after whi ch the l i ns of successi on
is corrtirrur:d in China.
Ho is mentioned in the Dictionary oJ Chinese
Buld,hi,st Terrns (Soothill ancl Jlodousr p. 924)
as the 23rd or 24th and final patriarch according
to the T'ien-t'ai school, depending on the inclusion
of S6,4rakav5,sa who was contemporary with his
predecessors Mahe KnSyapa and Alanda, But the
(l h' an
school reckons twenty-ei ght, i rr whi ch l i ne of
srrecossion fuyasilnha or Simhaiaputra ranks 24th"
Ilcr was born from a brdhman family irr contral
Irrrlia *rntl Lrercame a most prgmising disciple of the
then living patriarch llaklenaya5as
or
padmaratna.
Sir.nhalaputra (lion-son
;
Chinese : Shih-tzq
ffi7)
asked his teacher one day : I'o wh&,t must I givo
my chief attention if I would attain the true
kuowi edge of thi ngs ? And tho repl y was : By
cl oi ng nothi l g you wi l l compi v wi th the toachi ng
ot the l3rrrklha. Tho obviously implied thought
i s that &ny fcrerrssi rrg of attenti on
on sel f-attai nment
can nLrlrer lead to i.r.Lrc lirrowledgo of things which
aro voi d of sol t' .
On hi -o teocher' s tl orr,tl r (:09
A.C. Chi neso chrono-
lrgy) lre ryent to Canclahar (Gandhara),
wherc
he converted many people to Buddhism.
Somo
herei,ics and criminals, however, in an attornpt, to
evtr,de tl re l aw ol so assrrnred the n&me of Btrddhi sts,
whereuporr lho king with iittle or rro cliscretion
aut t-rff.tho hcnd of the patri arcl r (Zbg
A.0.).
Owi ng to thi s rurl ortunate i nci derrt, the l i st of
patri arcl rs was consi rl rl rcd bw sone as termi nat,ed
wi th hi s death, But, tl re contompl ati ve.school
of
l]oclhid]rauna hn'e retained tho twentv-eight
nrrmos. tl nti l we come. however. to tho l astof the
fndian patriarchate, Bodhidharma (Chinese : P'u-
t' i -ta-rno
#F}[E)
*ft" di ed i n 528 A.C.,
the historictr,l dates given to the verious patriarchs
are not rel i abl e.
H. G. A. v. Z.
AnyA$TlxcIxe-uARGA, tho Nobte Eighrfold
Path. See AJf,HANGIK-4.-MAGGA.
-
l -
ARYASURA, a Buddhi st poet, wel l -known as tho
author of the Jatakamdld,, a nativo of north India.
llo was a br6hman by birth, and was later con-
verted to Buddhism, but one is in oblivion es to
who convertcd him. Arya6rlra, whoso n&mo is
transl ated &s Shdn-yung (l i t. hol y bravery), or
T6-yrrn (lit. great, bravery) in Chinese, and a^s
Sffanr-dfrgas-mkhan-chen-po-sl ob-dpon-dpal r-bo :
Mahakavi Acd,rya6rlra (Ac6,rya6ura, the great poet),
and al so &s Sl ob-dpon-dpah-bo:Aci rya6frra i n
Ti bet an ( Mdo Tengyur , XCI ' l - 48, I & 3, 2 & 3) ,
is commonly referred to as S[ra and also Acarya-
6irra (Sura, the teacher) by T6,randtha, and it seoms
likely that as in the case of Aryadeva the profix
Arya (q.v.) meani ng nobl e was opti onal and coul d
be omitted at pleasure. Nevertheless, the full
form AryaSira was known to Tibetan translators,
as is found in the colophon to No. 4 of the Tengyur,
where it is given in transliteration. The Tibetan
historian Td,rd,n6,tha identifies AryaSrlra with ASva-
ghosa, and attributes several other epithets to
hi m, vi z.,.Kdl a Durdar6a, Durdar6aki l a, M6tpcel o,
Pitrcefa, Dhdrmika-Subhuti and Maticitra. IIow-
evet, this Tibetan tradition, as recorded by T616-
n6tha does not seem to bear any vestiges of his-
torical truth, for it is contradicted by internal
evidence as mav be seen by a comparative analysis
of the works ascribed to theso two authors, which
apparentl y poi nts to a di versi ty of styl e and
thought. l t woul d not be l ogi cal to assumo that
works so different in style and spirit could be of
i denti cal authorshi p.
Works. Of tho several rel i gi o-l i terary works as-
cribed to Aryasilra, tho Jdtakarndld, (Garland of
Ri rth-stori cs of the Buddha) attracts the attenti on
of the reader most. The Jdtakamd,l d,, whi ch i s
trlso knorvn as the Bodhisattta-auadd,na-mald (the
(*l ri antl
of Stori es of the Bodhi sabtva), i s a treati so
compri si ng k' gcntl tr,r' ;- ttr,l ts, di l ati ng upon t,he past
bi rths of Gautama Ruddha, and resembl os tbo
Kal pandntandi ttkd, i n styl e. As a l l uddhi st San-
skri t poet Arval ura bel onged to the cal i bre of
A3vaglr.osa, whose ptrth he has followed intuitively.
AryaSfrra's airn is not to invent new stories, but
ARYASURA r 19
ARYAST}RA
to retell the old legends in ornate and elegant lan-
guege. In the composition of the Jd,takamd,l,d,,
for the elegaut and interesting collection of homilies
which are given in the form of edifying anecdotes
of the lJuddha's past births, Arya3fira has primarily
drawn from the Pali Jataka collection and. the
Cariyd,pitaka. The motive of the author is not
so much to excel i n graphi c poeti c descri pti on,
as to illustrate the pd,ram,itd,s (perfections)
ascribed
by Buddhi st theory to the Buddha-to-be, and i n
this respect the contents of the work bear
much concordance wi th the Pal i sources. Apart
from these basi c Pal i texts, the author has al so
drawn material from Mahiyana sources, a fact
attested by the first anecdote of Lhe Jdtakamdld,,
viz., the Vy6,gltri, JrTtaka, which tells of the extra-
ordinary benevolence of the bodhisattva,
who
insisted on sacrificing his life in ordor to feed a
hungry tigress who was intent on preying on her
own cubs, whom she could no longer suckle. A
few tales of tho Jdtakamala havo their parallels
also in non-Buddhist works. The Vartakapotaka
Jd,tnlca, for example, is evidently related to the
Sarahgopd,khyano in the Mahd,bhd.rato (f, 2Zg).
The story of Unmd,dayanti occurs thrico in the
Kuthd,saritsd,gara (Ocean of Stories), where tho
heroi ne i s eal l ed Unrnadi ni (Tarahga, l i , uu.68 tr..
33, ua,62 ff.. The story of Td,raval oka i n the same
toxt, (Tarahga, lI3, uu. l7-gb) corresponds to the
Viivantara Jdtaka (Jrn. ix), and in Taranga 2g,
29 ff. the outlines of the Rsd,rtti Jdnlca are traceable.
As observed by I{. Kern, " In the Satupattra
Jdtaka, every reader will recognise a well-known
widospread fable, which is supposed to have its
original heme in ancient Egypt " (EO,S. f,
preface
to the Jatakqmd,ld,, p. l0).
Tbe Jitalcamdli in its present f6rm gomprises
only thirty-four jdtaka
tales, viz., l. Vy6ghri,
2- Si bi , 3. Kul mi Sapi Tda, 4. Sresl hi ,
5. Avi pahya, 6. Sa6a, 7. Agastya, B. Mai tri bal a,
9. Vi Svantara, 10. Yaj fra, l l . Sakra, 12. Brdhmona,
13. Unmddayanti, L4. Supdraga, tS. Mat6ya,
16. VartakE-potaka, 17. Kumbha, 18. Aputra,
19. Bi sa, 20. Sres{,hi , 21. Cul l abodhi , 22. Il ar.nsa,
23. Mahabodhi, 24. Mahdkapi, 25. Sarabha, 26.
Il uru, 27. MahEkapi , 28. Ks6nti , Zg. Brohma,
30. Il asti , 31. Sutasoma, 32. Ayogpha,
33. Mahiga and 34. Satapattra. But a
passego in T6,rdndtha's Histmy of Bu,ildhosm (trsl.
p. 90), the source of which is to be fouird
jn.
Jd,toka-
rruIA-pafi,ji&d, a shorter comrnentary on fbe Jirtako-
miild, by an author aamed Vajrasirnha (Tenggur :
Mdo, xtx, f ll-28 ff. 3B), seys that Arye6rira,s
work was origiually intended to eontain ten tirnes
ton
j6tekas
conosponding to tho ten pdramitd,s,
but owing to the non-completion of tho work
only thirty-four jdtak&s
were composed, of which
the first thirty &re connected with the fi.rst three
pdramitd,s.
AryaSnra has made the Jq,takatndla a moans to
impart religious insiruction to devotoes, and for
t'ho inculcation
of virtues such as iraddha (faith)
and bhq,kti (devotion) in them, in which respoct
ho has achieved his aim. The great popularity
cf the Jatalcamala is best evinced by the fact that
the frescoes of tho Ajafrld caves include both
pictures and vorses, proving the existence thon
of the text. Tbo Jatakamd,Id, lnas also been praised
by I-tsing, &s ono of tire particularly popular
works in contempor&ry Buddhist society.
AryaSfira is also accreditod with the authorship
of the following works, which are, however, of
less significance than the Jd,tokam.dld:
l. Bodhisattuajatakasga
dharmagha?ti, a poom
in thirty-five verses, of which the fi.rst thirty-four
correspond to th,e stories of the Jatakamd,td, and
the last is a finale. Each verso ends in a refrain
sounding the ghaqttrE (crux) of the particular
jd,taka,
and the whoie formd a sort of versified
tabl e of contents.
2. Supathdde&aparikathd
or Su,Ttathideio munin-
d,renokto uirac,it&4ca,
naAd pralcdianiyah
(The
Supathdde6a expounded and composed by the
great Sage, Silent One, and which is to be olucidated
by -e), a, general work of moral exhortation,
which professes to be a commentary on the word
of the Buddha. Verses &re interpolated in the
text, but any account of their prominence
or other
literary allusions aro not obsorvable.
3. Subhapi,taratna,-karaqtS,akakatha,
comprising
twonty.eight tales which correspond to the Dr:d,aim-
datyaaaddna, is according to S. L6vi (sea Album
Kern, p. a06) composed merely of verses concluding
the stories in that work.
4. Pdram,itd,samd,sa,
as denotod by its title, is
aa abridged account, in verso form, of the pd,ro-
ntita (pefiections).
5. Prdtimoksas'ittrapaddhali,
a commentary on
the Pr6timoksa of the Sarvdstiv6dins, is ascribod
in the work itself, and in the Tibetan ind.ox, to
Srira, but by giving tho authorship as reported,
thbse seem to arlrnit of a doubt.
6. Karm,aphala,ru,rdeia
Sil.tra, translated intg
Chinoso by Sanghava,rman (Nanjio, No. lB49) under
the title Ta-yung-fdn-pieh-yeh-paoliteh-chdng
(a
srltra on tho fruits of karma), briefly explained by
tbe bodhisattva Arya6rira, is aleo ettributod to
Arya6ura by Chineso tradition.
AnynSUnn t 20 ARYASi }RA
The worke ot' Arya5[ra aro not onl y' to bo evul ua-
tod as rol i gi orrs Lextsl dcal i ng wi th t,he pri nci l .,l os of
Sanskri t Budcl hi srn, but al so asl cl u,ssi ca,i Srr,nsl i ri t
wor ks of hi gh, l i l er ar v mer i t . Fr or n t hi s poi nt
of vi ow, t ho r eader ' s at t ent i on i s pr i r nar i l y at t r ur : t ed
by the Jd,takann,Iu.
q' hi ch
ma,y bo rtrgi l rtl ocl as ti re
fl ower of Arvashra' s poetrv. fnfl uorrcerl rl nd
i nspi recl by tho el assi tra,l Sanskri t l i tcrrr,ture a,s ho
was, A"y*r ( i r r a adol r t er l t h, r et yl o of t ho er i abor at e
kd. L, ya i n t he composi t i or r of hi s monr r r nent al wor k,
tho Jdtukond;d. Tl re cl tr,ssi ctl l st;' l e empl oved
by Aryasura best exempl i fi es tl rer rernrrrku,trl e
commrl nd ho hu,d over tho Sani skri t l anguage ancl
tho resorrl eos of hi s trrt. Hi s l anguage i s wel l -
bal anced, car ef r r l and pol i sl r ed, despi t o t ho
ocr:asi onal rocondi to verbal construcbi ons and
oxpre,asi ons uscd by hi m. Arvai i i ra i s a,t hi s best
i n the ci el i neat,i on of scerres of patl r.os. I{i s styl e i s
nei ther uai darbl ti nor gaudi , i n tho stri ct Bense,
but presents a beauti ful mi xturo of both.
AryaSrira was not, only an adopt in Buddhist
l ore, but i ro was al so oqual l y acquai nteci wi th the
thesarrrus of Hrndu wi sdorn, from whi cl r ho often
draws i n srrpport of hi s vi ervs, especi al l y on pol i ty.
Tlrus, Aryairlra tielibera,toly paracles his krrowled.go
of the Katrti l ua-arthai q,stra, to whi ch ho has ma,do
sevoral reforences in the ,Iata.kamall (Illaitrebala
Jata.ka, No. vi i i , u. 14
; Vi i uantoro Jd,taka. No. i x.
u. l0
;
Suhtsomu, Jd,taka, No. rxxi, t:u. 5Z-S).
Arya3rira's profieieney in political scienco and
Hindrr law is seen at its best in the l,iiaanta,rq
Jataka.
The language of AryaSura's workn is gonerally
i n conforrni ty wi th that of the cl a,ssi ctr,i Sanskri t
wri ters, and hence the l i ngui sti c pecul i ari ti es of
Ar5'a3ura's Sn,nskrit and vocrr,buln,ry soe.m to bear
chi efl y orr l exi ol ogy, rather than on gra,mma,r or
stvl e. The fact that he has dra$' n hi s mrr,teri al
from Brrri l l l i i st works has, of course, necessi t,ated.
the uso of a pattern of terrni nol ogy such as i s to
be found i n Pal i sorrrco-books.
Cl osel l ' rel at,ed to the qrrosti on of l i ngrri sti c
pecul i ar i t i r , r s i s t hat of met , r i r : al per t r . r l i r l r i t i es.
Aryasri nr,' s metres nre
€i enonrl l v
i n harrnonv tvi th
tl i e el egant rrrannerr of hi s narrul ,i on. An observod
by Speyer, " In thel choi ce of hi s met,res i i o wns
gui ded by st yl i st i c mot i ves i n accor <i r t uco r vi t h t ho
tone and sent.i ment reqrri ted at i r gi vern poi nt of the
nar r et i ve " ( J^. I nt r ocl t r ct , i or r , - xx. i v) . Howet er .
he ompl oys, at ti rues, &l so somo of the Iess comsron
met,res,
Date and thought of Arya$i i ra. Thr-' pr.rbl em of
tho date of AryaSfi r&, who probabl y bol onged to
t t ro school of Mat rcet a al t hr-rul rh of rr, consi cl ora, bl y
l a, l or ci at e. i s of 1. qunl i mpoi t i r , nce. I I or vover .
owi ng t o t l r r r pa. r r , - i t v 6f sf i l { 1r n1: t - . . nob} r i nl cor t ai r r
i s known : l s r r ^g; I r r l : r t i i c
1>cr st l n
of t i r o r i r r t l r r t r a, ncl
hi s f i r no. L' r r l i i <o 13t r r . r a, t l r r - r cl u, ssi ct l poot . , \ r . , ' i l . r r r a
dot - . s not gi ve anv i nr l i cat , i ons of t l r r : i r 11o t r l r vi r i ci r
ho l r el ongt ' t l . JI r ' i r e, . . , ono i , q l of t onl . r ' * ' i 1l r cxt t . r nr i , l
ovi r l cn<r e, r r ' r t l r r - eg; r r t l t o t ho sol , . r t i or r ol t , l r i s pr ol r l cr n.
As t o t ho t l at o of . i 11' , r . r - r t a, I l r . cl ' ( ) l , l , , r r l r t r r g
( Sper ver , Jr n, . f r t t i ' or l t r ct i r r n, xxvi i i
)
ol ) sc) r ve: r t hat
t l t o t er r ni t t r t , \ r t . t t t l qt t r : r n i s t ho enr l of t i l r l t i r cor r t r r r v
4. C, . si nco i t s( ) or ns t hi r , t t ho
( l l r i r r t , i e
t . r i l r , ' t , . l l t . r
I -t si ng speraks of t ho Jri . t q, l ; ant rl l <i . Sr, cnes f rorn t he
Jat akarnd. kt , s' i t , h i n; ; cri l t ot l st rophcs {rort r . \ r-i , 1. rrra
aro l bund &mong t l rc f ' rcscroes i n t . hc r' : rvrl s of -. \ j ri r. rt . r,
and i t ha. sl bcen 111' p6. pt , ed t hat t l Lesi r i rrsrrri l rt i ons
bol ong pal necl gr i i , Jr i r i cr r , l l v t o t he 6t h r , er i t r r r y
A. Cl .
Number l 3- 11) of Nanj i o' s Budt l l i i st ca, t i r l osue sar i s
t hat Lho, Karnt apha, l o, t t t rd, e. . l a. sut , rrr, . rf ^\ rvl . rrra
wag t rt l nsl at ocl i , nt o C. l ri neso i n 434 A. (1. , rrnrl l rr' nce
ci r ca 4t h cent ur v A. C. r nav bc, t aken t r r l r c. t her
pr obabi e dr r t , e of Ar yui r r r t r , . Ti ^i s ( : or r r : l r r si on
i s
f ur t hor suppor t ed by t he pur i t . v i l nr l r , L' qi l nr . r ' oJ'
t he l an65urr, ge, wi ri ch nercessari l y pri i nt s t . () rr r)r. ri o(l
of a hi gher st ancl ard of l i t orary t rrsLo u, nt l rr f l ot rri sl r
i ng st at o of l ot t ors. Thi s has i ndt rced I [ . I i erri t o
pl ace Si r a appr oxi mat el y i n t he cent r r r v of I i : i i i i i : 1sn
and Vardhami hi ra, t i ut as observecl bt ' Srri . _ver,
" oqual l y f avourrr, bl e ei rcumst anccs rnrrv 1rt , sul r-
posod t , o havo oxi st ed o coupl e of cont ur i cs car l i or "
( Jm. I nt r oduct i or t , xxvi i i ) . An i nt t - . r ' cst i ng l ogt , nd.
woven round t he crhrrract er of Arva, ! ura u' l ri c, l r t hrow' s
sc' me l i gi rt on t he nat ure of t he por: t , has been pre-
gervecl
by t ho l i bct on hi st ori an l . rrt r. nat . i ra. The
l ogend mns t busj : " Pondrrri nq on t i re borl i ri sot t va' s
gi f t of hi s or vr r bor l v t o t ht , t i gr oss ( cp. , | r n, . i t .
he t hoi rght , ho coui d do t i rc sarrre. i l s i t rv: 1, ; rt ol so
very di l l i cul t . Oncr-. o. s i n t ho t i rl e, he s; ! \ v i ! t i gross
f ol l ov-o<i l . ry hcr youn, g, near st rt rvrr' i i on. At
f i rst Lro coul cl rrot rr-' sol ' , ' r, ' on t l i e s, rl f ' -srLel i i i t . , ' . l rut .
cal l i ng I br t h o st r ong f . r i l i r i n t ho I l ur i t l i r t r , i i r r t l wr i t -
i ng wi t h i r i s ovr r bl ood e pr &yer of sevr ur t v sl okas
( st r i uzr r s) , her f i r st ga, vo t hor r hi s bl oor l t o dr i r r k,
and rvl ron t , hei r bodi es hat l t akcn l i l t l i -- l brce, of f r-. : ed
hi r nsel f ( Jr n. f r r t r or l uc: t i on, xxvi i i ) . Tl r i s ar r er : r l oLe
Boomrj t o be corrol ; ori r, t ed by t i re ascrrpl i on of t i re
appel Lr t i on
'
bocl hi sat t vu' t o Ar 5' usl r a. I n b] i i s
cor r nect i on Sp" yu" r emar kg ( , 1m. I r r l , r , r . , xxvi i i ) ,
" I n t bi s l egt : rrt l I rocogt ri sc t i ro sorl i rnt nt , so t o spet rk,
of t , he st r eunr of er not i on cuused bv t l r e st i r nr r l r r t i ng
ol ocl uonce <. rf t i ri i t gi f t ed Maht i vt i ni sL
l i rcacl rer
on t ho r ni nds of hi s co- r el i gi oni - st s. "
Al t l i ough i \ ryai rl ra vr' u, s rr prol l agancl i st of Sans-
kri t l 3uddhi sm, he seems t o have cl oscl y l i ri l crrvet d
t hc c&non of t ho H. uravrrna Buddhi st s, i n t he
AnylvaUsA l2r
ARYOGRATARA-SADHANA
formulation
of his roligio-philosophical thoughta.
The tenetg
of Buddhism expounded by Arya6rira
in his worke bear moro conforrnity with the doct-
rines of the l{inay6ns worke than with those of
Mahdydna.
His concopt of the matorial aspect
of human lifo is vory much in accordaneo
with that of lIinaydne Buddhism. The triplo
concopt of Ilinaydna, viz., an'icca, duickta and
a'na,tta, often finds oxpression in his works, as is
best illustrated
by tho following excorpt from the
Jdtakarrm,Iq, (i, v. 22) :
Nirdtmake
bhedini sdrahine
Dul.tkhe krtaghne satatdiucau co
D ehe p ar asmog upay uj y am om e
N a
Tnitimany
o n{, uicaksa4ah sah
" This body, boing void of a soul, frail, pithloss,
ungrateful,
always irnpuro,
and a sourco of suffering,
lro is not wiso who shouid not rejoico at its being
spont for tho bonefit of another. "
Arya6rlra was moro attracted by tlro popular
aspoct of Buddhism thsn by tho philosophico-
doctrinal aspect wlrich it contains. I{o- often
oxtols karurii (compassion),
dd,na, (generosity)
al.d prajfin (discrirninativo knowledge) which last
ous is the pivot rould which the principal doctrines
of Buddhism aro wovon. This may bo because
of tho fact that fuya6ura composed, his works for
tho Buddhist, populaco in goneral and rrot for the
student, of tho philosophy of Buddhisnr. Arya-
6frra assumod the responsiblo position
of a religinus
preacher.
I{e was an active advocate of tho new
faith and showed much zeal in his task. As a
skilled writer, the contribution made by him to
Sauskrit Buddhist literature is remarkable.
l V. S. I(r.
Brsr,rocnepsy : M. Wi nterni tz, Hi story of Inrl i an
Li terature, Vol . ff, 273tr.; l ' . W. Thomas.
,' W' orks
nscribed to A.ryai;ura
'
in Albtr,m liern--405 ff .;
A. B. Keith, Historrl of Sanskrit Literoture, 6T ff.
;
J.
"S.
Speyer, Jatakunui l Id, transl ati on
.-
(,gBB.
Vol.I)
; Nariman, fJa,nskrit Budd,ltisnu : Jutukernola.
AnVl Vnl tSA, tho fourfol cl nobl e fami l y, i .e., of
recluses conteut with tho four requisities. Soe
ARIYAVA\.{SA (l ).
AnyeVa$i eXnfU, a former Budcl ha menti oned
ur B list given in the Mahauastu. He eppeers
in tho " reooud hundred of tlr.e host of Aryans in
tho ninth bhumi ", and botween Prakd6adhanna
snd Devardjaprabha Buddhas (J. J. Jonee,
t r sl . f , p. f l l ) .
AnyaVenMAN (l) of tho Sarvdstivddin school
is said to bo an author of a wqrk on Vaibh6qika
phi l osophy (DC BT. 288 b).
Anyavl nMAN (2), Ari napal ma or Ari vapal ma:
A-li-yeh-po-mo (F{#XI!HE
),
a Koroan monk of
the Si l l a cl yna,sty (5? B.C.-935 A.C.), who fl ouri shed
in the middle of the ssveuth century A.C. Ho
left Ch'ang-an, the then capital of Chirra, during
the' Ch6n-ku&fl ' era (627-49 A.C.). Il e stayod at
the Ndland6 temple and engaged hirnsolf in copying
meny sirtras, and was deeply versod in bot'h tho
Vinaya and the Abhidharma.
According to the
Hai-tung-lco-eung-eltbn (
ffiHffi'fg€
TaishS, Vol'
51, p. 1022), hs di od at the Ndl anda
tompl e shortl y
aftor his arrival thoro. The To't'ang'hsd-yii'
ch' iu
-J
a
-
k ao
-
s 6.ns
-
chuan (
*E'trfi * ?*H{Fg$
T ais hd,
Vol. 61, p. 2) mentions that, ho was about
sovonty years ofage then.
Somo other Silla monks who wont to India with
him at that time wore IIe-6b, who stayed at the
Boclhi tomple, Hybn-gak and Hyr5n-jo, who both
stayed at tho Tai -gak templ e. (ap. Barn-guk' yu' so
-mHS
Toi .sho, No. 2039
;
JRAS. New Seri os,
XI I I , 565
;
and I A. X, 246, f or not es hy S. Beal . )
K. Tun.
AnVaVgff, a namo for the river Aciravati. Seo
ACIRAVATI.
AnyAvRfTADr, e Buddhist Sanskrit work, con-
taining four short commentarjos
on
'the
Sloks of
the four truths', o&ch of which is called a pokpo
(BendaLI . p. l 4).
AnyocnerAnA-sAnHANA-NAIIIA,
the ti tl e of a
Sanskrit text, tho
' Iibetan
version of
' *' hich occurc
i n t he Rgvuri -hgrel (t ant ra comment ary)
sect ' i on
of the Tengyur under ther title I.Tphags-nt' a
sgrol' ma
d"rug-nt ohi sgrub-t l t , ' t bs al rcs' bya' bo. The aut horshi p
of t l re rvork i s credi t ed t o Rt ag-pahi
rdo-rj o
(SSf vat avaj ra) al rci t ho t ran' ql at i ci n
' i s
at t ri but ed
t o Sri \ ranara, t na and }I ai rj t rsri (Peki ng F)t i . Ti b.
Tr i p. , ed. D. T. Suzuki . \ - o1. 59. No. 259i i ' ! ' Ths
Scl e-dce ecl i t i on t t ont ui ns anot her t ransl a, t i on mado
by Nag-gi ri n-chon errd Bsod-Dams rgva-mt shof i
r de ( ?M. I ' I o. 1728) .
ASA
t22 ASABASEO-UEISEOTO
The work dealg with the proceduro of worehip
for tho invoestion of the goddose frgrat6,rB. Aftor
fomulas of sslutation addressed to Tere and
Ugret6r6, the eaviour goddoss of the threo worlds,
the author statos tbat he would set out the s6dhsne
aB taught by the lamas.
T''etructioDs follow,
according to which the worshipper ie enjoined to
practiso meditetion in a la,rgo, walled enclosuro or a
cemetory and
to obtain spiritual powers (siddhi)-
I[e should then take refuge in tho Three Jewels,
eonfogs his sins, reflect on tbe four Divine Abodes
(brdtmavihd'ral, cultivate thoughts of enlighten'
nent (bodhicittal and contemplato on tho voidness
of all worldly phonomena
1lanyardl.
X'urther, he
should think of hirneelf as Tdr6, a youthful deity
originating from the syllable hiryn, who instills
drosd and fear. Sho is short, has en ugly, drooping
head, a bulging belly and a faeo with three red,
round eyes, a rolling tonguo and a grinning erpres-
eion. Sho has a tiger'e skin around her waist,
earrioe a sword in her right hand and a bluo lotus
and a skull in her left.
Ae a reeult of the meditations and the reeitation
of the sedhana the worshipper is B&id to reach
Mafijusri- The author endg his work with &
Et'anza, exprossing homago to Ugratd,r6,, whero
ehe is further d6scribed as having a plaited tuft
of h,air a,nd wearing a la,rgo cobra as &n ornemeut'
R. E.
I8A, one of the four daughters of Sakka tho
other.e boing Saddhd, Siri andlliri. They figured in
an inoident (described in Sud'hdbhojana Jd'taka':
J. V,392 fr.) whish is reminiscent of the
judgment
of tbe Trojan prince, Paris. A brdhman ascetic
by the namo of N6,rada was carrSring a celestial
flowor (pdricchattakc), wheu he came acrosg the
meidens who wore rosting after sporting in A-rrotatta
lake. Each desired the flower for herpelf, but he
undertook to give it to the one among them whom
they would elect a,s their queen. They called
upon him to make the choice, but he referred it
to their fathor. Sakka did not wish to bring
obout diseension among his daughters by any
judgmont of his and he sent them to Macchariya
Kosiya who was then an ascotic in the Himilayas.
To tho ascetic he seut ahead a eup of divine food
and romarked to his daughters that tho one among
them whom Macchariya Kosiya ealled upon to
ghare
it with him would be the one to be selected.
lbo ascotie had the habit of always sharing his
food with another and, when'As6, and her eisters
came b€fore him, his invitation fell sot to her but
to lliri. He did not summon Ase to share the
meal, adducing as his reBson that sho indulgod
in the prectico of gi;ng fife to thoso who ploeeed
her and declining to give it to those who wore not
pleasiog to her; that, tlierefore, she brought about
the destluction of some pooplo. Iler two other
eisters wero si"rilarly rejected. In the
'Irapuga-
Bhallik+ story of the Mahfiaastu
(ITI,309), 46tr and
hor three sisters were included among tho eight
young deva-maidens in the region of the-northern
quarter.
D. T. D.
A6A, * female lay disciple to whom tho monk
Sdradhvaja refers Sudhans for advico with rogard
to the course of conduct a bodhisattva should
adopt. She was the wife of king Suprabha, living
in the Samantavyfiha park to the oast of the city
of Mah6prabha in the Deccan (Dak-$iTepatha).
A6B refers Sudhana to the sage Bhi-smottaranir-
ghoga living in the district of Ndlapu in the Deccan
Gwa. ee-l r0).
U. K.
ASABA-SE0 (
F44#fD ),
a Japaneso work
in two hundred and twenty-eight fasciclos by
Shocho (1205-82 A. C.), which mentions the rituals
and the orally transmittsd doctrines of esoteric
Buddbism of the Tendai sect.
Tho namo
'Asaba'
ie from tte commentary on
tlrls Mohdaahnanabhdsambod,hi by l-hsing (Tai^sh6,
No. 1796). .4 means the section of the Buddha,
8o tho section of the Lotus a,r.dBo ot Va' tho sectioa
of ths Diamond. Thosa three sections signify the
Gorbhakodadhd,tu.
Tiris work was completed in the second month
of tho twelfth year of the Bunei era (1275 A. C.),
but the author continued to revise it for some
years. It is iacluded in th.o Dai,ni,ppon-Bukkg6-
Zensho (a collection of works by Japanese aubhors
on Buddhism) and tha Toish6 Tripilolco.
I{. Tue.
ASABASE0-MEIsE0T0-RYAKUDEI{
(
W*ffit4.
BEE+ffi€
),
a Japaneso work in three fasciclee
by shocho (1205-82 A. C.) of the T ndai sect.
This work contains the abridged biographies of the
Buddha and seventy-one ominent monks of India,
Chino and Japan. They are: Kd6yapa, Ananda,
Sdriputra, Maudgalyayana, Upagupta, Vasubandhu,
A6vaghoga, N6g6rjuna, Ndgabodbi, Bhdvaviveka,
ASADDEAIIT}IAKA
SUTTA t23
ASADISA DANA
DhamapEla,
Dharmarakpa, Kum6,rajiva, BodhiJ
rlha,ma,
$ubbdkaresr4gha, Vajrabodbi, Amogha-
vajra (the l8 Indians), Ilui-zri, Eui-yiia,n,
Clrih-i,
Cha,ng-an llsiien-tsang,
Tao-hsiian, Shnn-1,ge,
I.hsing, I-lin, Esiian-ch'&o, Eui-kuo, Shun-hsiao,
Tao-Sui, Eging-ma,n, I,to'ao, Fa.jun, f-ch6o,
Fa-ch'iian (tho 18 Chinose), Saich6, Kfika, K6j6,
E
rrin,
Enehin, S06, Gonsy6, Sonni, Ry6gen,
My0tetsu, J626, Kohei, C'hoon, Myokai, Ryoshin,
Gy6gr, Gens6, Gishin, Ench6, Anno, Shfiei,
ghinzei,
Annen, Taakoi, Z6my6, Shobo, Shokfi, K[ya,
Ankoi, InBhO, Bnin, Genshin, Koiso, Jy6jin, Inson,
and Kakucho (the 36 Japanese).
As many of tho works quoted in this text a,ro no
longer sxtant and as it, sesfains meny quotations
freim those worke, it t€mqing velueble for tho study
of tlie history of Buddhicrn.
This work has beon published
in the Dainipptt-
Bu*lcy6-ZercIw.
K. Trrq.
ASADDEAUOTAKA
SUTTA,
.
B group
of five
suttas with a cornynon titlo (Aaailtnmfrlakd
pofootl
containod in tho second choptor of tho Dldtu Sory-
ytttto of t}re Saryyutta Ndkrtyo (II, 160-2). One
finds intheso a restatement of the contonts of eome
sf the suttes of the eame chaptor and tho nert, all
of which centro round the fact that.peoploof similar
disposition a,ro drawa togothor. Tho Buddbe
docleres that beings oome together according to
thoir naturo: thus, unbelievors essooi,Bte with un-
bolievers, tbe nhqmoless
with the shemoless,
believers with believers, the vriso with the w"iso, etc.
This group of sutta,s was proeched by tho Buddha
when he was staying et Sivatthi. Tho fivesuttas
contain repetitiors, each one beginning with
aaadd,hd (rrnfslisvsm)-henco
the titlo. Thero are
only
mingr
variations a,mong them. Ttre seeond
one differs from the first in btiat anaftrtpirw (Lhe
rockloss) and their opposites ottiipinn(tbe scrupulous)
aro substitutod for ahirikd (the shamoless) and their
opposites hi,ri,mand (tho modest). In the third
theso g.tu way to aTtpastutd, (the uneducated)
and their opposites bohuseutd, (tho learnecl). The
fourih bas kuei,tci (the indolent) and their opposites
drffi,ha,oiriyd (the energetic). In the fifth they are
replaced by rnufiIw,satitw (the muddlerninded)
end their oppositos upallhitasati,m (the attentivo).
L. R. G.
ASADDEA SUTTA (,9. II, lb9_6O). Tbo Buddha
eays to his
monks thst it is through an element
(dh"ar'u')
that
beings join
with buings of stmilar
character;
unbelievers with unbelioyers, the un-
consciontione
with the unconscientious and si'ni.
la,rly
with tho indiecreet, tho untaught, the lazy,
tbe muddlerninded,
and the unlyige. So do belio.
vers join
with bolievors, etc.
u. K.
A$Apgg, namo of a housoholder in the timo of
I{66yapa Buddha, mentioned in the Aaddno-
datako (Aa6.161).
ASAITHARAUA-SAiIcEARAUA,
e temple in Ku-
cina. T}clo Ta-t'arq-hsi-yu.chi (
*EtrfiFe
Tad-
iDd, No. Z0sz1 by llsiian.tsang spoaks of this
temple as follows :
" Tho b^ell of this templo is opon and spacioue.
Tbo image of Buddha is beautifully carvod. Tho
disciples ero gravo and docorow and vory diligont
in their duties; mdo and rough men como herp
together
;
the ogod priosts are loa.rnod and of gre6t
telont, and eo from digtant spots the mosf, emin€nt
men who dosiDo to arcquiro juet principlee come
borc and fx theh sbode, The king and hib
rninisrtnrr
and the groat mon of tho realrn ofrer to these prircsta
the four eorte of roquisites and thsii fane aprcede
fa,rther
"
(S. Beal, Buddhist Recorilt o! tln Westenr
WorU, Vol, f, p. 221.
tte Bamo work relatos an intoresting story about
tbo hA.7no
of this temple. A king who believed
in Buddhigm founded it in ordor to cornynomorato
atr
oxtraordinary deed of his brother. Ifenco,
tho na,mo udlfi,rorta or
'oxtraor&inary'.
Estian-tsang (600-64 A.C.), on
his
way to India,
etayed here for over sixty days owing to snowbound
roads, a,ud ho discussod the doctrine of the Sarvdsti-
vdda and of the Yogd.cdryobhil,rni-6dstra with
Mokqagupta who lived there.
I(. Tue.
ASADISA, the borlhisatta, born as prince of BEr6-
4rasi
and hoir-apparent to tlro throne. IIe, how,
evor, rejected kingship
and later took to ascoticism.
After death ho was reborn in the Brahma world.
Ils was the elder son of king Brahrnadatta and tho
chief cha,racter of Asad'iso Jotaka (q.v.).
L. R, . G.
A$ADISA DANA,
' the
Gi ft Incomparabl e' , the
celobrated alm,s-giving heid under tbo guidaneo of
quoen Mallika by the Li'rg
of Kosala. For si= days
ASADISA JATAKA
124 ASADRSAGU NAKIRTIDEVAJA
the king and the eitizers of Sfi,vatthi were engaged
in a competition, as it were, to entertain'the Buddha
and the monks, each party taking s turn, on alterna-
tive days. Wren the king saw tho rich gifts
offered by the citizens on the sixth day ho thought
that he would never be able to outdo them and
was greatly worried. Tfowever, Mailiki eame
to his rescuo with the idea of an Asadisa Ddna
which she said would never be equalled by the
citizens.
Accordi ng to Mal l i k6' s pl an a pavi l i on was erected
rrsing only thei best of sdla-wood. fn this were
made five hundred seats for the Buddha and the
monks over eaeh of whom an elephant held a
white parasol. There
'wero
maidens of the warrior-
easte, one for each pair, fanning the seated monks
and between each pair of monks was also a warrior-
casto maiden crushing perfumes. The crushod
porfumes wero put into golden ships set in the
centre of tho hall, by other maidens. These were
mingled with clusters of blue water lilies and made
tbe air scented with their smell.
The king gifted everything that wa,s there
to the Buddha and t,ho monks. It is said that
he spent fourtoon crores of money in one day.
Four gifts of priceless value, a white parasol,
a couch (nisid,ana-pallahka), a stand (ddhd.rakal
and a foot-stool (pdda-pilhi,ko) wero offored to the
Iluddha. Thero wag no one olso able to offor
gifts in such o m&nner. Ilenco it was called tbe
Gift Imcomparable. Every Buddha roceivos such
a gift onco tr his life-time and always it is ananged
by a woman ( DhpA. I f I , 183 f f . ) .
The commontary of the DWln Nikdya (II, 653-4)
gives a rimilar description of the Asadisa Ddna
but with a fow voriations in detail. According
t.o this, the alms were continued for seven days.
The Sinhaleee vorsion of the story found in the
Pfi,jd,aali,yo adds a few more details to the story.
The Aditta, the Dasabrd,hm,a.7,a and the Siai,
jatakas
wer6 all preached in referoncs to the
Asadisa Dirna.
c. w.
ASADISA JATAKA. The Buddha rel ated thi s
jataka in connection with his Grest Renunciation
in order to show that, it was noi the fi.rst time he
had renounced kingship.
The bodhisatta was once born &s the elder
son of Rrahmadatta, king of Bdrdnasi and was
nn,med Asarlisa. His brother !v'as Brahrnadatta.
Tho bodhi satta i n due courge l earnt al l the arts at
I'al<kasild and became sn exceptionally skiiled
archor. On his father's deatl iihe kingship was
offered to Asadisa, but, he rojected it and his
younger brother succeeded to the tbrone.
Tho bodhisatta, hearing that his presencc in
Bdrdnasi was causing anxiety to Brahmadatta,
left the kingdom and entered the servico of another
king as an archer. Ile perfonned great feats of
archery. Once he offered to bring down a cluster of
mangoes with the downward shot of &n &rrow.
IIe first shot an arrow which rose to the realm
of the C6tummahdrajika. IIe sent another shaft
which hit the first one bringing it down and itself
went to the Tdvatirnsa heaven. The first one
in its deseent neatly cut through the stalk of the
mango-clu$ter. Asadiso caught the mangoes
in one hand anC the arrow in the other so that
they should not fall on the ground. There was
great applause at this marvel and the bodhisstta
received mueh wealth and honour from the king.
Meanwhile seven kings taking advantage of
Asadisa's absenee from Bdrdnasi besieged the
kingdom. Brahmadatta in his fright appealed
to his brother. Asadisa returning to Bdrd,r.rasi,
shot &n &rrow bearing i! messa,ge threatening
the warring kings. The arrow fell right into the
dish the kings were eating from and they fled in
foar. I{aving brought his brother to safetv,
the bodhisstta became an ascetic and after death
was born in the Brahma world.
The Buddha identified prince Brahmadatta
as a provious incarnarion of Anande (J. If, 8O-gZ).
Tine Sarakyepa,rya Jdtalca (Mhau.II,
82 f.) bears
Bome resemblance to tho last part of this jd,taka.
A scene from the Asad,i,sa Jdtaka is depictod on tho
Bhdrhut stipa (A. Cunningham, The Stfipa oJ
Blnrhut, p.
'7O,
plate xxvii, tf).. Beal was of
opinisrr that a bas-relief at Sd,flci was & representa-
tion of this j6taka (See note on p. 152 in Fergusson,
Tree and Serpent Wmship, which refers to pl. xxxvi,
fi 9. 2.of the same work). A poom based on thi s
jdtaka
was composed by king Rdjedhirajasimha of
Ceyl on (Mhv. ch. ci , 13).
L. R, . G.
ASADISA VAGGA, the ni net' oenth chapter of tho
Jotakattlnkathd, w}i.ic]n forms the fourth section of
the Duka l ' Ii pata (J. II, 86-tl 3). It consi sts of
ten jdtakas,
and takes its title from tho first of
t,hem, the ,4.sodi.cct Jd,taka.
ASADBSAGUITAKIRTIDIMJA, a Tarhdeata
whoso namo occurs. between DharrnavimEna-
nirghosa and Pralambabdhu, in a list of Tathdgatas
ASAHI.YAIIIA I2it
ASAMAPEKKEAT{A SUTTE
who were propi t i at ed (araqi t a\ bv t he Sd. k1' a-gi rl ,
Gopd, i n her previ ous bi rt hs (Guyu. 422. 22).
ASAHI-YAMA (
#FtIl ),
a mountai n i n Hydgo
prefecture of Japan. On tho top thero i s the
Dainichi temple. It is believed that this templo
was founded by Hodrl around the Taika ora (645-50
A.C.). Al though hui l di ngs of thi s templ e were
destroyed during the Tenmon era (1532-55), they
werq resiored later. This temple beeame famous
when Shinjaku.bo and otherg who wer.e dirciples of
Il onen (1133-1212) staved thero.
At presont, thero are a main hall, a hall for tho
hmrw (sacrificial firo) ceremony, I hall in com-
msmoration of the founder, & belfry, otc.
This templo belongs to ths KOya sub-s€ct of the
Shingon (esoteric) sect of Japan.
K. Trm..
ASAEYA, a fomer Buddha given it a Mahdxutu
list. IIe iB named in tho group between the
Buddhas Sudar6ans and Jinen&a. IIe was pro-
clairred by Ketuttama and ho himaelf, in turn,
proclaimed Jdmbrineda (J. J. Jonea, tnsl. IIf,
p. 228) .
AIiAIK$A (:Pali: wekha, aseklchal, oas who ao
lsnger needs religious t'16ining. Sse ARIYA-
PUGGALA.
AI|AKRT-SAUADEI,
a ssm6dhi or I ooncentration
of mind in more tban ono forouLa, or urodd (DCBT.
104) .
ASAKUSA-KANNON,
tho Avalokite6vsra (Kannon)
of Asakusa, which is the rrame of a temple in
Japan, b,rtter knowu as Senn0-ji (q.v.).
AsefrA-pnRAIIARA, a procession (perahrira) held
in Ceylon, during the month of Asela (Jul1.-August).
S€e FESTIVALS (Ceyl on)..
ASALLAKKIIANA SUTTA,
a di seussi on (,S.III, 261)
betw-een Vacchagotta and the Buddha. Vaccha-
gotta asked the Buddha the reasons why thero
*-ere diverse views as to whether the world is
eterrral or not, fiuite or not, whether life and
body are identicai or not, whother the T*thdgata
exists after death or not.
'Ihe
Buddha h,nswers
thot these diverse views arise because of not
discerning
the naturo of tho fivo groups of existencs
(7nfi.cakkhand,hs)-
U. I(.
ASAMA (l ), chi ef di sci pl e of Buddho Sobhi ta
( Buu. v i i , 2I ; J . I , 35; ApA. p. 38) . Ho was t he
half-brother of the Buddhr, their fether being
king Sudhaynmo. It wae to Asama and anothor
half-brother Sunetta that Buddhe Sobhita
proached
bis first sermon (BuuA. p. 167)
ASAUA (2), king of Campakaand fathor of Padum
Buddha (Bwu. i x, 16; BuoA. pp. 177, l 8l : ApA.
p. 401. Eowovor, the namo BpFears m Paduma
in the Sinbaleeo editiou of tbo ApA. and in the
Jdtako (I, 36).
ASAUA
(3), ono of the two chief lay supportors of
Paduma
Buddha (Bzv. ir, 23).. Acoording to othsr
ff)urces Varu4a was tho chief laysupPorter
(J"f' 36;
BuvA., p. l 8l
;
ApA. p.40).
AtAilf,
(4), a clereof dsru mdtior.d rl boing
preeont at the proach'ng of the Mahdeomaya
Badiro (D. U, 259r. They ere motioned elong
rith the Ye'me god!.
A3AIA
16l,
a crihlrlrrlttin
(world'nrler) of aixty'ttree
ksppae ego aod e previoua birth
qf
Suva4ne'
bibbobaniya tbers (AP.I, 2141.
ASAUA
(l), mother of Padune Buddha and wife of
kiog Asane of Campaka
(Bzu. ix, 16; 'f' t, SOl'
ASAUA
(2), ono of tho two chiof wom&n disciplos of
Padumuttara
Buddha (Butt. xi , 25; BuuA' 196;
J . I , 17
;
S- d. I I , 90
;
AA- I , 287
;
DA' I I ' 489) '
ASADTAHITA
SUTTA
(,S.
-II,
T66). ThE BUddhA
says that it is through an eiement
(d'hatul t}rat
beings
goin with beings of like temperament' o'9"
unbeliovers
with unbeliovers,
tho unconscientious
with tbe unconscientious,
etc'
ASAMAPEKKI{ANA
SUTTA,
A di SCUSSi ON
(,S. ITT'
261) between Vacchagotta
and the Buddha'
Vacchagotta
puts the same que-stion' as in tho
Asati akkhnnd
,Sutta (q.v.). The Buddha answers
that theso viervs arise because
people clo not consider
the nature of the five groups of existence
(pofrcah'
khawJha).
U. IC.
AS AMASAMA.PA ft' C A-SKANDHA r 26 ASAMBANDHADRSTI-NAMA
ASAMASAMA-PAfrCA-SKANDI{A (Ti betan: mi -
mfl am-pa dari mi ur,m-pa[i phun-po l na; Chi nese :
wu-f6n-fa-shen,
frhfr,* ),
five kinrls of merits
which are obtained by Buddhas and arahants, viz.,
ii'la
-
skard ha, somid,hi
-,s",
praj it d,- s", uintukti- s' anti
uimukti
- j
fid,na
-
dar.4 ana.
-
x' .
The Samyu,tto liikoyo 6ays, " But tell me,
rinanda, when the venerable SE,riputta passed
away, did he take with him the constituents of
virtuo (silakklnrulfta.)
? When he passed away did
he take wi th hi m the consti tuents of concentrati on
(sanvid,hikkhandln),
or those of wisdom (pafiiwk-
klnndfut) ? Did he take with him when he passed
&way, tl re consti tuonts of rel ease (ui nrutti kkhandho),
tbo constituents of rerlease by knowing and seeing
(uintutti frd.narlas.sanakkhard,ln) ? " (,S. Y, p. 162
;
trsl- Kind,red, Sayings, V, p. 142)
Tl ro P' u-sa-yi n-l o-p0n.yeh-chi ng (#ffi $Xef*g
Taishi, No- I4lJ5
)
states, " By precepts
(.{ikr) onc excludes impuro acts of the body
;
by
medi tati on (sarnad,hi )
one attr-ri ns tr*nqui l l i ty
of the mind
;
by wisdom (prqjfi,q)
one realises the
voidness of thiriliirrg
;
untl by ernrr,ncipu,ti on (uiyr711fug;,1
one puts an errd trl ol l fetters. Then one r.ea,l i ses
that sl l bei ngs have no bondagc (ui nrul cti -j .i dna-
dariana), trecause one has attained enlightenrnent
nnd bccause al l dharmas are voi d equal l y " (Tai sh6,
Vol . 2. 1, p. i t t l 3) .
The ,ii/c-slcandha is pure activit.,- of body and
speecl r. Tl rc santadhi -skandha consti tutes the three-
{bl d concentrati on of the orre who no l onger neetl s
rel i gi ous trai ni nq (ai ai ksa),vi z.,
voi dness-concentr*-
Lion (i'Enn1 rut[i,
-
snmrirlh.i,), desirelessness
-concentrat
ion
(opranihito -
sanwd,hi) and signlessness-concentration
(andmitta -
s amadh,i), The'pr aj fia,sl;,anrl,lru, rneans ttre
correet rvi scl om and percepti on of the a.4ai ksa,and by
xi mukti -.gkq.ttdl ta ts rneaut the cl ear rrn<l erstandi ng
(,,ul hi rnokNt)
rvl ri r:l i i s r:onntcLt:d wi tl i the correct,
percept,i on of an ai ai k,sa. And the ui .mukti -j fi d,na-
darSuttu skurttl l r,u i s ti re l i rrowl cdge of peri sha,bi l i ty
lkgaya-j'iLana)
and tire knowledge of non-origination
gnutpada.jfi.arw).
I' he Ta-cl fdng-i -chang (
^*frH
Tol ,sh5, l i o.
l 85l ) expl a,i ns I,hc &se.rn,e,-sanl a-Tsari cu-skarul hrt of
thg Buddtra :
' fhe
bocl y of the Ri rci dha i s tai ntl ess.
6cr no ovil dcccls can bc: done by the Buclclhil arrcl
t hi s i s cal l ed
' vi r t , ue'
; medi t at i on means t ho st i l l -
ness of the nature of the Iluddha
;
by wisdom is
mer&nt tlrrrt. the Buddh.l hiis no darkness of ignorance
as hi s mi nd i s cl car
;
emanci pati on means that the
Ilrrddha, ha,s no fcttels
;
and by knowledge anci the
orperience of emanc ipat ion ( u iru ukti
- j
;id, ne
-
dar.' a na
1
are Eesnt that the Buddh.r }inows that he has
roal i sed the truth and that he has no tai nt. Thus,
accordi ng to the doetri ne that the dharma-kdya
(body of the doctrine)ist'aintlcss in itsclf, asu.ma$aTrw-
parico-skandho is explained as the meritorious
aspects of the Buddha.
Ii . Tun.
ASAMATTA SIITTA, also called btlo Apparrwtto
,S'urro (,5-. V, 4L2), whero the Buddha savs that
assoei ati on wi th the good, l i steni ng to the Dharn' na,
svstematic reflection of the mind and livipg in
accordance with the precepts of the Dharnrna-.
these four things, if cultivated, lead to infinite
(asamatta) insight.
U. K.
ASAMA-YAMA, a mountain in the Mie prefecturo
of Japan, on which there is the temple, KongOshO-ji,
of the Rinzai sect. ft is believed that this temple
was founded by Gyodai or, according to another
tradi ti on, by Kyotai , and was restored by l (frkai
(774-835 A.C.), the founder of tho Shi ngon sect.
Later, the temple became the centre of Zet (medita-
ti on) as wel l as Shi ngon or esoteri c Buddhi sm.
In the thi rteenth year of the Kei chd era (1608
A.C.), al l bui l di ngs except one hal l wore burnod
dou-n., but, in the following year Terumu,sa lkeda.
restorcd them. Duri ng i ts rnost prosperous ti me,
there u'ere fifty temples an<l forty-nine monasteries.
I3ut o*'ing to fire on many occasions, many buildings
were l ost.
Now, ten buildings are there, and the main hall
i s under the speci al protecti on of the Japanese
government. -Arcnong the many precious things
of ti ri s templ e, the i mage of Uh6-doj i (mH€?),
ti re pi cture of Yoshi taka Krrki , i r copper mi rror
wi th a pri r of phoeni ses, a cl ay tube for hol di ng
sutra,s ilnd a swold are nationrr,l treasures of Jauan.
Ii. Trrn.
ASAMBANDHADB$TI-NAMA,
the Sansl i ri t ti tl c
of t,wo di fferent, Ti betan texts occurri ng i n the
Il gyrrd-i rgrel (tantra commentary) secti on of the
Teng'1rrr under the title lTbrel-med,-kyi lta-ba
sl ues-bya-ba.
Of' these two texts, that written by Iiampala
(Kambtrla) and translated by Ratnaphala contains
&n argument ative c onsidersti oo (h1i al
-
b y e d t sh ad
-m&)
of the term (Skt. sonr,jfrd. Tib. tho sind,) hji.g-rtert'
(world) with the intent of elucidating its true
ASAttrBAl{DH A-S AR cA
-D
R
$ Tr
-NA
M A r27
Aslre
sense (dori. do*). The doctrines of the emptiness
(sirnyata)
of the three worlds (Tib. khams gsum)
and the irnpermanenee
of all component thiags
(aa1nskd,ra,) are also erplained (peking
Ed. Tib.
Tr i p. . ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . Gg, No. 8206) .
The second Asanbandhadrsti-nqma
in the Tibetan
carron, a short text, begins with & statement
on the irnpermanence
of wealth, youth and pride of
descent, which disappear at the time of the annifuil6-
tion of ono's self (bd,ag fiid
ltjig-par figyur-bahd
d,us).
Fathers, mothers, children and grandchildron,
it is stated, are like spectators assembled at a
performance. The refrain running through tho
text poses the questions,
"'Where can there bo
another meeting of tho so-called you and I ?
Will there be a reassembling of the parts of a
boat that falls to pieces in the oceen ? " Nag-po-pa
(Kn+a)
is the author of ths work (poking
Ed. Tib.
Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki Vol . 6g, No. 32l b).
R. II.
ASAMBAI{DEA-SARGA.
DB$TI
.
NATUA,
'
thE
Sanskrit title of a short work, the Tibetan version of
which occurs in the Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra
commen-
tary) section of tho Teng1rur, under the title Shen-
med-kyi ta,-ba shes-Aya-ba (peking
Ed. Tib. Trip.,
ed. D. T. Suzuki , Voi . 69, No. 820?). The author' s
n&mo is Kambala. The text describes a heroic
horsems.n,tho equal of whom is not found in the
world, according to the refrain rta-pa bdag ld,rahi
dpafi,-bo ni, hji,g-rten na ni yod ma yin, occurring
bhroughout the work. IIe traverses tho six
puro
Abodes (tshan^s-pal,ti gnas drug) and, d.oing so,
subdues the thxee poisons (lcd,ma,
krodho arid. moho1.
The fivo Buddhas (bde-g,iegs lfia) rtde on the horse
and tho four
'
Great Gods
'
(Iha chen) cling,to the
saddle.
R. II.
ASAIUBERATIIVAoANA, a fomer Bud,d.ha, men_
tionod in a list of former Buddhas under whom
S6kyr-,t.ri while in the ninth bhrlmi (q.v.)
acquired
mor i t ( Mhuu. I , l 4l ) .
ASAUJfrISATTVA, beings without consciousness,
one of the classes of Rrlpavacara gods of the fourth
dhyana-bbr:mi. See ASANNeSeftA.
A,SAIUKIRNA, a former Buddha in a list in the
Mahduastu (I, 139.1). IIe is placed next to Varti-
tdrtha and irnrnediateiy
before Devagarbha, both of
them Buddhas.
A.SAMPADAXA .l AfaKA (No. l 3l ), retated by rhe
Buddha when ho was staving at Veluvana, in
connection with Devadatta's ingratitude.
The bodhisatta was once born in Rajagaha
as a banker named Sankha. IIe was worth eighty
crores. He had a friend named
piliya,
a banker iu
B6rdnasi, of equal worth. The latber lost sll
his wealth and looked to his friend for assistance.
The bodhisatta in his munificenco
save him half
hi s enti ro estate.
In courso of time a similar fate befell Sankha and
ho went with his wife to Bdr6nasi to seek his
friencl's help. The ulgrateful
piliva,
howover,
dismissed him with only half a quartorn of pollard
(palipatumbor.n).
An erstwhile servant of Sankha
who had been given to Piliya recognised
his old
master and mistress and brought the matter to ths
ki ng' s noti ee.
The hing wisbed to punish
piliya
for his ingrati_
tude by ordering him to give his ent,ire wealth to
Sairkha, but the latter agreed to accept only
what had originally belonged to him. The bod.hi.
satta returned to Rijagaha, re-established
hims€lf
and spent the reet of his days engaged in works of
merit.
The ungrateful Piliya w&s Devadatta (J.
f.
465-9).
This j6taka
derives its title from the first word
in the stanza
'
osampadd,nena,
(unequal
charity).
L. R. G.
ASAMPADAWA VaCCA, the fourteenth
cl.rapter of
t}re Ekan.ipd,to of Lhe Jd,takatthakath.d,,
consisting of
ten jdtakas (Nos. f3f-40) and deriving its title
from the first of them, viz., Asomptqderw
Jataka
(J. I, 465-86).
ASAIIPRAMO$A, a samddhi or & concentration
of
both mind and body, wherein one does not forgot
the samddhis to,which one has already attained
( BB.
XI I I , p. 9; or sP. f 4t 6) .
ASef t A
@t sad:
t o si t ) , seat ; post ur e.
In both Pali and Sanskrit the primary meaning
of the word is seat. In the Buddhist
scriptures
the word is of very cornrnon occun,ence.
Sittiug
being one of tbe main postures, it certainly
had an
important place in the daily behaviour of the
Buddhist monk. As the beha-iour
of the Buddhist
monk was highly disciplined, it was natural that
tho Vi''aya rules domanded that a monk should bo
ASAT{A 128 ASAXA
quite discrirninating ovon in the e€lection of a eoat
or e bed. Ilo was not at liberty to ue€ evory t54re
of eoat, bed or coueh that layruen usod. Only
certsin types were allowod. In thie, too, the
monk had to follow tho Middls Patb, which ig a
cardinal teeching of Buddhisrn. Ee was prob,ibited
from ueing oxtremoly comforteblo or luxurious
types of
geats s.''d
beds, but ho was n.ot askod to
ueo uncomfortable eeatg and beds snh thereby
to
infict unnecesaary pain upon hi:nsolf.
Thue, tn Vin I, 67 and 72 it is caid how eome
monks woro in the habit of enjoying choice food
and sloeprng on very comforteble
.
bods, woll'
protncted from wind, etc., (sublwiatfrni bhufiiitud
nfudtaau s@yon?au aayanli). When the Buddha
wae told sbout this he had to lay down the rulo
tb^et such prectices were taboo. Then agtin in
Vin. fr. I23, tho Buddha prohibits monke from
sleepiag on bods scatt€red over with flowers
(pupphakitr'eat, e a,y a'neat) -
On tho other hsnd, in D. I, 167 and .r{.. I, 296,
it is EBid thet the refusal of a eoat (fuonapolikkhiilnl
and rema,ining on on6's feet is ono of tho many
self-tormenting practicoa of thoeo who practiso
ertreme e€lf-mortifieation which is not allowed for
,nu Sudrthiet mouk.
In /.
TTT, 389, in a list of things that a genuine
rlonk should avoid, a,n nnsuitable eoet (anrtaona\
is given as on€. Now it is worthsrhile to find out
what the mitoble end what the unsuitsble dsann
is for a Buddhiet monk.
A cloeo perusol of tho Pali literaturo holps ue to
solve this question. In the Molfrni&'so (I, l3l)
thore is a description of the type of eost that is
suitable and theroforo rseommondod for tho
meditating mo'''L : " A eest ie 6 f'hing on which
one sits ;
it carr be a bed, chair, mettrsse, mat,
skin, rug, sprood of grass or o spread of leaves.
Such e eeat which is fre€ from unguitable sights
(i.e., seal,e<l on which one is not d'etractod by
unsuitsble eights), soun&, smells, tagtes ^''d con-
tacte snd thue free from the fivefold unsuiteble
(for a monk) senso-attractione, is tha eo&t miteblo
for the meditating
rnonk. "
Ihus, it is clear that one of the primary coneidera-
tions given in defining the typo of seat suitablo for a
rsrk ie tho ervitonmeat in which the e€8t is
pleced. The indispensable prorequiaite for a
meditoting monk is the op€nneBs and the quietness
of ernvironmont (uiailfiazn opponigglneoqn), Ile
should practise his meditation in au atmosphoro
wbere h,is Bonse-orgAns &re not distracted by
various objects. Any environrnent in which
attraotive forrns cucha€tho6o of womon, or sounds
as tboseof sw€€t Eusic,orpleasarri smells,or where
ehoice food is'easily availoble, or srry s6&t which
givee too much comfort is prohibited for the monk
who practisos moditation Tho .sest ehould elBo
be in sunpundlings that.ane quiet. This is why tbe
monks are roquested to retire to a
golitary
place
(euilffigdro) frm from eny disturbanco.
Tho othor coneideretion regerding suitability is
the sizo of the e€ot or the bed' Irrospectivo of
whether & monk ie engaged in meditation or not,
hie Beat shogld oonfom to theeo roquiremonts.
Thus, in Vin.
G,
192 and If, 163) high and broed
s@ts and b€ds (u'daayoia mahdeayarw) are
referiod to aa unguitable for monks. Although
it is the tet,u.-. eayatw (bed) that is used here it is
clear from the context that thie tern includes
wla (daorw) as well. Ilere a long list is given as
corning under u&soyana aad, m,ahdsayaru, : daand'i'
(eofa), pllnhlca (divan), gornka (long'haired covsr-
let), cdtbka (many-coloured coverlet, i.e., a covorlet
made of various colours ombroidered with picturos
of wild boasts), paliln (white covorlet mado of
wool),
F4ati,taa
(a woollen covor into which s floral
pattern is woven), tilliW (cotton quilt), Dilcatil&
(woollen coverlet decorstod with
nnirns'lg' foms
such aa lions and tigers), u,ildhal'onin (woollen
covering with bair ou tho upper side), ekodalomi'n
(woollen covoring with hsir at ono side), kafthieeo
(silken shoet studdod with
iewels),
koaeygo
(sheot made with eilk threads and atudded with
jewols), lcuttokn
(daocer'e
carpot, i.e., a shoet mado
of wool suiteble for tho dances of eixteon dancing
grrle), futtlwtlhora (elepbant-mg), rothdlwro
(chariot-rug), oiinappooend (ruge of black antelopo
ekins), kdalimigopomrapurnttlwroqta
(splendid
she6ti-g of the hids of l}lle lcafuJd deer,.tho best
kind of shoet), aorrttfrru'clnfu (eheot with a red
arnring sttrcbod ebove) snd ublntalnhitalca'pdldtta
(couch witb a red cuehion at either ond). Theso
thingF aro probibitod for a monk.
'When
the torm uffiaayotw ig exoYnined it is
s€€le that tho word uma definee that a monk ebould
avoid seets, beds, otc., which &re morre than of a
particular height. Now this hoight b given in
Vin. LY, 168 as eigbt finger-breadths (a4\lwiglin)
raid to be eigbt, inches. Ilonce, a chair or a couch
or any other seot usod by a monk' if it is higber
tharr tbis, becomes an un&ayana and thus unfit
for his use.
The idea in laying down this height seerns to be
that tho monke were not intended to uee sosts
tbat were noted as comfortablo. Tbus, 6
high
s€at msaD,t a comfortablo seat. This fact hes to
b€ svq."nined from both tho religioue aud the
Aslxa
129 ASAI{A
sociological point, of view. Indian religious litera-
ture, such as tho Brd,hma,qtas, reveals that at,
religious firnctions tho priests were given the
highest soat, because of thoir superiority ovor all
the others on earth, being regarded as gods.
The concopt that the religious or moral superiority
of a person should be physically expressed by
giving him a high seot is a universal idea. For
tho eome rea,Bon, the gods are in heaven, abovo us,
whereas those who are inferior ;o us aro in holl,
in the nether regions.
Ilence, when venerable and superior men lsere
given higher seats it goes without saying that srrch
seats wore moro comfortable than those of lees€r
height for they :rore me&nt for higher dignitaries.
1l'l!:,.ru, & high seat (u,uasa,yana) became almost
EJrronymous with a comfortable seat. This s€€ms
to havo been so in Indian society oven prior to the
Buddha. Thorefore, when monks wore prohibited
from using high seats and beds,
,it
meant not so
much the litoral idea of height alone but also this
extended idea of comfort, which such high seats
provided. An examination of the list of ud,sogana
aud fimhdeoyoruL as given above from the Vinnyo
Pilako will confirrn this viow. The list containe
twenty such seats, and all aro such as to provide a
groat degroe of comfort.
It ehould be noted that the terme dsorw and
8ag&rw did not heve the ssme connotation as they
hove today. Any
kind
of material used to sit,
roclino or sloop on wae donoted by these two terms.
A mat or oven a spread of leavos was cslled an
iiaana ot e aa,garur.
Ths V'inayo Pitole firrnishee us with further
information about the seats used by the Sangha
during the time of the Buddha. It wae a cugtom
during that timo to prepare various kinds of seats
also in the opon air. Tn Vln. fV, 40 eome s€ats
(6aana) a,re enumeratod sueh as mafirn (couch),
ptllw (chair), bhisi (mattress) strd kooch.a (stool).
Ilere too, it is seen how both t}re d,sarlo and soyana
(seats and beds) were treated as coming under
ono category.
The couch (mafico) was of four kinde
i (l)
masdraka, e long couch, (21hfidikdbaddlw, a couch
witb slats, (3) kul,rropodako, orre with curved lqgs,
(4)
aharcapddaka, one with removable legs.
Ttre pilha (chair) was aleo of four kinds'with the
eamo four names given to them.
The bhisi (mattress) was of five kinds : (l)
ultrnbhiai, one made of wool, (2) colobhisf, one
msde of cotton cloth, (3) udkobhisi, mado of bark,
(4) tiqtabhisi, ono mado of dry gras6, (5) pa4,r.ta,bhi,*i,
mado of dry leaves. Sirnilar lists are found also
i n Vi n.II, 150 a;nd Vi bhA.36-o.
Koccha wag & kind of seat liko a etool or a sett€o
made of bark (bolwma.ya), of usi'ra grass (usiromaya),
of mafiju graee (mafi,jum,aya) or of rc+ds (babbajo-
rnaya). It s€ems to have been a small seat or a
settee made by stu-ffing these kinds of grass wrth
stitching on the sidos, somewhat like a modern
cuehion, for it is said that it was bound, after the
grsss was tucked tn (anla sor;walllwtvd baildlnry
hotil. It was bound in the middle and spreod
out abovo and below. The middlo, being mado of
the hides of lions and tigors, gavo the senisatu tfu
&ppeerance of being mado of gold.
These kinds of deanf, o;rd, eoyarn aro given es
beiog ueed by tho monks during the time of the
Buddhe and they wero not prohibitod.
A comparieon of this list with the one given
above as unsuitable for the monks olso shows
that tho ideo of dieapproving cortain kinds of
fuana an.d aoyorw was to prevont tho monks using
tn deorw or a coyarwL that could be cellod luxurioug.
In the pmhibited list are included highly comfortoble
woolon mattroes€s end cushions which woro mede
beautiful by working floral and other pattoras
on them. It was this type ot lururioul sogorura
and dcafldE end which exceodod the prescribed
height of eight inchee thet wero teboo to tho monks.
Ibo s€cond list' of fuonaa a;ndcayorw glven above
includes the same
kinds
of seets and beds as in the
first list, but with tbo differenco that thoy are
simplo and have only utility valuo. Simplicity
and utility wero tbo charactoriet ics of tho 6acnac and
sagaruut allowed to the monk. Ths aesthetic
aepect of a seat or o bed was of little velue to a
meditating monk. Simplicity, ao characterigtic
of Buddhism, was what the monks required to
practise meditation. Soyana and fuona, being
two indisponsablo iterns in the life of a monk, had
to be selected in consonance with the epirit of the
Buddha's tru*ghing, with due rogard to simplicity
and by avoiding tho two extremes of excessive
comfort or discomfort.
Thoso facts are further demonstrated by a iist
of beds (eeyyd), as given in Vdn. IV, 41. Here the
types of bed (seyya sayona) allowed to a monk aro
further enumerated and coneist of bhiti (mattress),
cdmildkd (carpet), utthnttlwra4a (bed-cover),
bhummattlwraqa (ground coveringl, tufidlcd (straw
mat), comm,aklcluaqtQa (animal's Bkin), nisidarn
(rug),
.ltoccattlnrar.w
(sheet), tipreantMra (grass
met) and
TnqrTtaaorrtharo
(leaf mat). All those
ISAI{A r30
ASAI{A
kiDds of segyd'aro allcwed and it is ssid that thoy
should bo under a roof arrd at least partially
enclosed (ibid. 196). Ilence it. is soon that. the
berlnu, dsanz meant anything which was used for
sittlng upon and sayatw, any placo used for sleoping
(Puu,4. 80). It might be a mat, e plank or even
sone gress or leaves (u.9., J. V,ll0 : rukkha:rn&Ie
s ay an ar.n ott har d,p etu d') .
So much for the suitability or otlrervrse of a
particular seat to bo used by the monks. Then
tbero were various traditions and customs built
eronnd the use of the dsarws and aayarws. Sucb
eonvontions had trecome part and parc,el of the
sociai life of bhe Buddhi.st fraternity.
For instance, it is often said in Buddhist litera-
turo that when the Buddha visits any place where
thers is a gathering of monks, ho sat on the seat
set apart for him (pafifi,atte dsone nisadi). This
would mean that, wherever there was o gathering
of mo.l.s, it was the establighed custom during
the time of the Buddha to have a seat specially
reserved for
hirn.
Even where a monk dwelt
alone tbis custom was observed (DA.I, 48). The
origin of tho cugtom was thet rdhon the monks
took instructions from the Buddha and ongagod
themselves rn meditation, it might happen that
they becomo distracted and thus fail to attaln
thei-r goal. ths Buddha would eee th.is through
his divine eye and mddenly make his appearanco
in order to give encor:ragement and guidance.
When the Buddha did this, tho monks found it
difiicult' hastiiy to preparo a soat for him. Ther.e-
{bre, they made a point of having a soat in readiness
for him beforehand. There was nothing spocial
ir this seat except for the fact tbat a cloth wns
spread over it. The seat itself was ono of tbe
kinds
of seats referred to above. Very often it
was an improvised seat like I stoDe, a hoap of saad
<lr a heap of dry kraves.
TT-ris practice of having s seat set apart for the
Buddha later assu-roed a different meaning, since
such a seat cams to bo regarded as a symbol re-
presenting the Buddhe. Thus, in later times it
becarne a practico omong the Buddhists to regard a
stone seat as a qmbol of the Buddha'g presence
and pay respect to it as if it were to the living
Buddho. Till tbe Buddbo image was created
bhis practico continued to bo in vogue.
There is another item of interesting information
contained in th,e Pali tecbnical term dsarwkusola
(skilled as regard soats: M. f, 469). This meant
that a mo'rk, when in an assembly of monks, should
know how to select his seat aecording to his status
ard without violatiag the rulee sf discipline. Such
lnowledge was rogarded as one of the nocessary
qualifications of a good monk., It was a part of
proper social behaviour (abhisomdcara). A monk
who was ignorant of 'these
niceties of conduct was
regarded as uncouth in his habits (pdarasamdcdral.
A monk had io be c'areful not to occupy a sest,
that was meant for a monk sonior to him nor was
he to unseat a noyics and sit thore. Both these
acts were regarded as violations of eocial etiquette
s.rnoDg the brethren.
Mention is also made somotirnea of a particular
monL who wog responsiblo for arranging snd
appointing tho seate according to ths ecceptod
canons of social behaviour omong the fraternity.
Such s mo"k was technically called dsanapuilM,-
pako, ono who assigns Beats (Vin. T7, 305). Ilis
task was to s€e that in a gathering of monks the
so&ts wero allocatod with dus regard to seniority
etc.
Ae it is nowadays, in tho tiso of the Buddha,
too, the ofrerbeg of aD 6sand to e stranger was a
part of social etiquette, as token of hospitality.
The phrase that a stre.nger was offered a ssst
(dsanena ndma,ntetd\ is co'n"'on in Pali literaturo
(J. fV, 435, otc.). From J. Y, 214 it would Bpp€8r
that not overyono was considered worthy of a seat.
It was only the virtuous that deserved to be ofrored
e seat. Itle important thing is ttrat preparing a
seniaanq (lodging) for a monk was the chief item
of hospitality in the Buddhist fraternity. Seeing
to it that visiting 66nks were given proper &ccom-
modation was &n accoptod fom of social duty
among them. Thus, in Vin. f, 196, the Buddha
asks Aranda to prepero lodgings (serfi,sana)
for
a visiting tnonk (dgantukasso
bhilckhuno).
In the allocation of sendsana thoso responsible
for such allocation had to be eareful not to put
together in one placo those who could not fit into
each other's comp&tty, duo, for instance, to tem-
peramental incompatibility. Seats and beds wero
given to a group of mo'''Ls in ons place only if they
wero able to live together peacefully. Thus,
tn Vin. f, 356, the Buddha categorically says that
the quarrelsome mo.ks of Kosambi, when they
camn to SS,vatthi, should be given send,sa,nn, sopa-
rately and not be allowed to consort with the othor
monks. Further, in no way should a seni.sorw
of a senior monk be taken.
Vin. TI, 176 gives a list of five qualifications
that are required of a monk who is responsible
for the distribution of send,sarw. Ile should bo
free from partiality (chand,a),
malice (dosa), folly
(nroho),
fear (bhaya.)
;
he should know
what votes
have beon taken end what have not been taken
ASAilA l 3r
ASAI{A
(udditthdnu"ddittham
ca,
jdneyyaj.
The firsl, four
sre collectively ctlled the four a,gatis or irnproper
doings. To be liee lrom these for:r is the rluaii-
ficati<-ru alwu,ys ascribed to one who rightly fills
any judir,ial
of6ce.
Vin. TT,74.-6 shove lrrrw a regulator of senfuana
is appointed; and, here, his duties are given as allo-
eating sayana and &sana to the monks according
to their interests and dutiesl €.g.r monks wtro
meditate are givon & particular place suitabls
for meditetion end those who chant the suttas
are put together in an environment suitsble for
them.
Ali these rules end regrrlations that have to be
observerl r'ilir regard to saya,o and d"*ano anp
eolf ectivoly ca,lled s eni^se,na
-D,ttta
(V i n. fI, 2 I 7-20).
A practieo prevalent during tho time of tbe
ISuddhs and roferred to in the Pali literaturo was
that of placing a number of beds ono over the
othor and maki.g a, " grandstand
" in order to get
a good vi ew of somothi ng (e.g.,J. In,456
;YI, Z77
;
DhpA. fV, 69).
Tben thers was rhe dlwmmiserur, & ffai piece
of stono or a met, orr which a preacher oat, while
a hall with soatirg eccommodation used for large
gatherings was eommonly called fuarwsdli in
Buddhist literature (DhpA. If, 65; Vism. 6g).
Asrna (posture). Wherr used in Buddhist and
Eindu literature the originol meanr;'g of the term
deurw is extendod to mean posture, The word
is commonly used in referrin65 to tho various pos-
tures in which the Budd,ha and verious deities
ars iconographically represeated.
Most of tho postures enumer&ted were the crea.
tions of ertists. But, thero was one cornmon
posture adoptod by meditating yogins. It was
tbis particular posture that tho Buddha and his
<Iieciples adopted. ft, is describeC in the Sd,mafi-
fuphal* SUn of the D:tglw Nilcd,ya. Ilere it is
ss,id that tho medirating yogin should sit cros6.
legged on a raised seat, with erect body, and fix
his awareneas in front (nzsldati pallankan, d,bhu,-
jitaa
ujury lcdyam par.tidhiiyc,
1:,arimulcham
.gat,irn
vpa(lhapetud,l. Another esrlv description of this
posture is found in i.ho Bhagauad, Gdld which says
that the yogi should be steady, holding his body,
heed and neck balanced and rnotionless, fixing his
gazc on tho entl of his nose anrl lc,oking not
abqrut hilrn
{samorn
kayaiirogriuam-4hd,rayanno-
c;o'lra[ *thi.rah : sarnprekga nisilcagrarTt saanz-4i.ioi-
cd,twtfulca,y*n: VI, l3).
i t r . S. i ) ( ' 9 8 . 1 z r )
It was thi s posture that was l ater devel opod i n-
to various other prrstures wit,h minor changes,
for instance i.n' the aajrd,tana, the comrnonest atti-
tude in which the Buddha is represented icono-
graphically. The uajrdsaut is the pose of medi-
tation in which the legs are firmly interlocked with
the soles of both feet turaed upwards. ll.is atti-
tude signifies deep meditntion and introspoctioq
It is the pose of absolute imrnobiiity.
'When
the Buddha is represented in this manner.
as is most cornrn6aly the case, the position of the
hands (mud,r6,) varies according to the idea meant
to be eonveyed bv the parti cul ar representati on.
A nuruber cf clifferent mudrds a,re repres€nted with
the Buddha seared i:r this attitude. See MUDRA.
Very often the Dhyanibuddha in ltahiyana
Buddhism is scated in this attitucle on a full-blown
lotus, or sometimes it may be the double.loius
(vi.suapad,ma), witlr one row of petals turning up
and the other turning dovrr. ttre Aaibudd.ba,
the hrghest deity in the MahEydna padtheon, is
also always represented in Lhe uajrd,sana attitude.
Tho oblong seat under the Bodhi tree at G.ay6,
which tbe Buddha occupied when he attained.
enligbtenrnent, is also described as the otajrd,sarw,
tho " diamond " seat, in the Buddhist texts. Ilere
tho terrn refers not to the posture but to the mate-
rial seat
;
thrs will be subsequently discussed.
A less cornrnon. posture of sitting found in Bud-
dhist iconogr&phy is the bfuid,rd^sana (pralambapada)
in which both legs rtre pendant. cornrnonly
rendered as the " modern style " of sitting. For
instance, in the Ajanla cnves XVI and XVIf
and in CapCU Mendut (Middle Java) the Buddha
i s seated i nthi sfashi on (See Vol . ff, PI. VIft). The
seated fig.rres of Maitreya are often depicted in
this style.
There are other, less common postures such as
th,e paryuhlo attitude in which case the legs aro
placed one upon the other, with both soles invi-
sible. Then, there is the ard,haparyankd,sana
(afutha-paLlahkal also called the mahdrajaliil.ri (pose
of roya! oase) where both legs are on the same
pedesttrl with ono of the knees raised while the
otlrer
js
bent as in LLrc
'--ajrd,sana.
Tliis a.sana
has to be distinguished from the l,alito,suna where
one- of the legs is pendant while the other is benr
in the marrner described before. Td.ra. one of the
mosr" popular Buddhist gorftlesses,
'sits
in this
posture.
The term d,oona is also used to denote the pedestal
upon which a statue is piaced. The term pa-tio
is elso used in t,his eense. Thus, tho throne shepetl
/ISANA t32 ASANAGEARA
lile a lotus or adomed v'ith lotus petals is very
c()mmon irr Irrtlian art ond is called Lhe padmfisarw
(lotus throne). The etanding figure of the Buddha
is then placed on a pa'dmfisana. According to
Buddhist tradition, the Buddha, when preaching
hie first sermon, is usually depicted as being seated
on a lion-throne (eimhdsa,n'a). The simhdaana
is norrnolly connected with kings, for the royal
throne is consistently referred to as the .simhasane'
The couch upon which tlte Buddha passcd erway
is also represented in art most frequentll' with
l i on' s feet. The connecti on of the l i on u-i th hi s
e€at is a syrnbolical expression of the greatness
of the Buddha.
Therr there is tbe aa.ird'sana, tho
o
thtrnder,'
' di amond'
or
' adamant i ne'
t l r r one. The t r adi '
tiorr has grown that the Buddha should bc seated
on t l'a1jrd^sann in depicting him while engaged
in lds stmggle against II6ra. Now, the word
'r,ajra
tneal:rs both the thunderbolt and the diamond.
The hardness arrd the destructive power of theso
tv'o have resulted in tho apiro beinq regarded as
a svrnbol of destnrction of evil forces" This seerns
to bc one ro&son for the Buddha's seat under the
botlhi tree being called aajrdsarw, for it wae on this
seat t,hnt he overcsme the evil forces of Mdra.
I'lris magical coneept of the oajra, as being power-
ful enough to destroy a.ny enemy, is much older
than Bnddhism, for it is found even in lho
Sgaed'a.
To express this idea artists hsve sometirnes marked
tho etono-throno with uairo
iewels
or the thunder-
bolt. For instance, the
geats
of the l2th centur5r
Buddha statuos et the GalvihS,ra in Poionnaruva
(Ceylon) have thunderbol'us carved upon them.
trnlike the uajrdsana
g;nd
l}.o pruimd'sarw tli,e
tenn si.mhd,sana doos not dosignate o special attitude
of si tti ng.
Reg*rrding the various Buddhist deities of the
Mahayar.ra, almost all of them a,re represented
either seated or standirrg on lotus supports, with
a few oxceptions. In Tibet and Nepal this lotus
support,
(padrnisana) is very often the xiiuapa.d,ma
or tlie doublo lotus with two rows of petals, one
turned up and tho other turned down.
T.ho foot-rest of a god or goddess is also called
dsana and it, is gencrally in the form of a small
lotus flower with
a stem attached to the lotus
throne. Maitreya as bodhisattva has this support'
Ifahayana Budclhist gods like Mah6k6la, Yama,
Ilevajra, and others, are represented st'anding
on various supports, which are also ealled tisana
ot adhana zucb as elepbants, bulls and such oth'er
nni mel s.
A.rarta,s. in the sense of postures, are multiplied
to thousands in the Yogic practices and are com-
monlv called the yggasarws.
A. G. S. K.
Brnrrocnepsy : B. Bhattacharyya, The l nd,i an
Buf uThi st I conogr aphA
;
B. Rowl and, The Ar t ai l '
Archi tecture oJ l nd,i a; Al i ce Getty, The Gods o.l
Northern lJud.d.hism; J. N. Banerjee, The Deaelop-
ment oJ Hi,nd,u Icorwgraphy ; I{ocart, Ceglon Journol
of Sci ence (Sec. G), f, pp. l L7-23.
ASANABODEIYA (var.
obodhika),
an arahant thera.
Ii'inety-two kappas ago, in Buddha Tissa's time, he
pianted ar.. a,sana troe. which became ttre Buddha's
bodhi Lree, and tended it for five ye&rs. The
Buddha predicted a bright future for him in later
births. Ile was born as king of the devas for thirty
kappas. Seventy-four kappas ego he was a,
cakkavottin (world ruler) by thena'ne of Dapdasena.
A kappa leter he was born seven times as a cak-
kavatt,in, Samantanemi by nArno. Twenty-fivo kap-
pas a,go he was a cakkavattin named Punnaka
( Ap. I , 110- I l ) .
The com'nentary goes on to say tbat in Buddha
TisBa's timo ho was born of a high family. It
'w&s
& fruit from ttre asorw-boitrhi'fteo that ho plantod.
IIe tended it with great care. In this Buddha
age he was born into a high femil)t end entersd
the Sangha at the age of saven. Although young
in years, being advanced in sar.ne6ra, oven while
his hair was being shaved he attainsd arahant-
abip (ApA. pp. 383-a).
L. I i . G.
AseNeeglnl (tho llouso of the Seat) was
a type of shrine known in ancient Ceylon. The
sole object of voneration here waa a throne (dsarwl'
the symbolical seat of the Buddho
;
the teacher
himself was not represented, his presence being
merely indicated in this m&nner. The ofigin
of this idea may be traced to tho Vajr6sana in
Buddha Gay6, which is, to this day, a most rovored
memento of tho Buddha's Enlightenment. The
daana itself was, in Ceylon, a smoothly chiselled,
large rectangular slab of stone. It was mounted
on a raieod platform which stood deep within,
at the end of a circular building, as may be seen
in the sole identified survival in Pulukundvi,
on the east coast of the island' The Mahi'aalnso
(**rvi, I04) refers to the setting up, ilo the Znd
cont. A.C. (kiag Go!6bhaya), of a stone s€at
AsnxnrrHAvIKA 133 nsnxca
(pollohka) at the south gate of the bodhi tree
in Anu/6dhapura. (See S. Paranavitana in the
Univer$ty of Coylon Hi^stmy of Ceylon, I. Pt. l,
p. 263 ant i Pl . VI t . )
D. T. D.
ASAXATTHAVIKA, &n arahani, thera. In €!
provious birth, thirty-ono kappas ago, having lost
his way in a forest he came B,cross the Uttama Cetiya
bui l i i n honour of Butl dha Si kl i i . He pai d homage
to the Buddhs,'s seat ancl sang his praises. As
e result' he knew of no evil birth thereaftbr.
.fwenty-seven kappas ego he was born cakkavat,t,in
(worl d-rul er) seven t,i mes by the n&mo cf Atul yu
\ Ap.
I , 2i >5; ApA. p. 176) .
L. R, . G.
ASAI{DIIIMITTA, chief queen of the emperor
Asoka. She
'was
ao narnsd because the joints
of her limtrs wero invisiblo except when ehe bent
cr stretche,d them out (MhuA. 203). She was
also of porfect boauty. Both thoso were the
good results of her directing a paccekabuddhq.
who was lookiog for honoy, to her husband who
'w&s
& honey-dealor in one of her previous births.
Tho bonoy-doaler was Aeoka himself. After this
maritorious act, she made a wish to be the chief
quoon of tho king of Jambudvipa, (Mhu. v, 51, ff.).
The " Eatended" Mutud,uaqnaa (v, 350 ff.) says
thet Asoka put Asandhimittd to a test, as ehe had
boaeted of merit acquired. She was ordered to
provido robes for 60,000 monks in one day. With
tho help of the god, Kubere, who remembered
the kindnose Bhown by hor to the paccekabuddha,
sho eccompliehed what ths king demanded of her.
Aga-rrdhimitt& waa a devout follower of the
Buddhr,. Whoa preparetions
'were
beiog made
to bring the branch of the bodhi-tree to Ceylon,
she offered to it all kinds of r:rnaments and flowere
(Mhbo. 8it). Having heard that the voice of the
Buddha was like that of tho karaui.ka bird, she
obtained a bird and became a, stream-enterer
(sotd,panna) through the joy of listoning to its
song ( MA. f I , 771; DA. 453) .
Asandhimitta died in the twelfth year of Asoka's
rei gn
l Mhu,
xX, 2).
II. R,. P.
ASANGA (l), fouuder of the Yogdc6ra systom of
Buddhi sm. (Seo Vol . fI, Fl . IX).
There is no anciont biography of Asaigal.
Whatever we know about him wo learn mainly
frorn his brotber Varubandhu's biography : The
LiJe of Vasuband.h,u by Paramdrthot, which is
the oldeet and best, authority.
According to this accoun!, Asaiga was bonx et'
Pumsapura (modern Peshawar) in North-West
India (now Pakistan). In tbat city there lived
a court priest, a brd,hmana of the Kau6ika clan
wbo had threo sons. Although all throe were
given the cornmon name Vasubandhu, tho oldost
bscame known as Asafrga, the youngest as Viri-f,ci-
vatsa, while only the middle cne retained the
nanne Vasubandhu.J
The third son, Virif,civatsa, became a bhikgu
in tbe Sarv6.etiveda Order end attained orhat-
ship. Nothing more is k''own about, him.
The socond son, Vasubandhu, also became
a monk in the same Order. " IIis learning was
I There seemg to have existed a biogrsphy of Asaiga in
Chioese aboui the end of the 7th or the beginning of the 8th
century A. C. Ilui-ying, a pupil of tr' a-teang, quotee in his
'Ia-fong-hnw-fu-futa-y*n-ehiw -kan-uirw-ehuan (T aiah6, 2O7 4,
p. 173b, 8 f f ) a bi bgraphy of Asari ga. See E. Frauwal l qer,
On tlu ilau ol tlw Bund,hist Maater of thz Law, l'aauband.hu
p. 4? (I f ome, 1051).
2 trhe LiIe of Tasubarulhu bu Paramdrtha translat' ed
by J. Takakrxu, T' oung-pao, 1904, or Repri ni , E. J. Bri l l ,
Leideu.
Param6rtha, a learned Buddhist monk from LTjjain, scrit
by the Indian court at ihe request of the- Chilcse enl-D{' ror
Wu-t i (502-549), arri ved i n Chi na i n 546 A. C' . and st ayed t here
till his death, moetly engaged in trsnslating into Chinese the
Sanskrii texts (about 240 bundles of palm lcaf manuscripts)
wbich be took with him.
3 According to a Tibetsn trad.ition, both Asaiiga and
Vssubandhu had t,he same mother. a $-oman of thc brihmana
easte called Pr&salrnesilii
(Tibetan : gnl bahi tshul khrimsl'
Rut Agai ga' s f at her was a kl at ri ] ' a, u' hi l e
. \ ' rsubaudhu' s
was
a brl hmaba.
' f hc
Ti bet an t radi t i on rei at i rt g . t o Asanga has
been recoided in T6ranatha' s llistory of Ruddhist4 (German
translation from Tibctan bl ,\. Schiefner, St. Pebersborugh,
1869) .
asaxcn 134 esaxce
wi de, hi s knowl edge many-si ded, ........ hi s i ntel -
l ectual geni us bri l l i ant and transparent......-. hi s
personal discipline
Pure
and higb. "a
The eldest son, Asang&, wa,s & man " endowed
with the innate character of o bodhisattva. "
I{e, too, became & bhiksu ilc' the Sarv6,stivdda
Orddr,5 and afterwards he practised meditation
&nd "
became freo from desires' " Though he in'
vestigated
the doctrine of " voidness " (tifrnyaki\,
he could not penetrate and
'realise
it. fn dis-
appointrnent
and desperation he was about to
comrnit suicide. Then an arhat, named Pifr-
dola, from Prlrvavideh&, expounded to him the
doctrine of "
voidness " according to tho Hina'
y6,no. Although Asanga comprehendod and rea-
lised it, he was not content and did not find full
satisfaction in tho exposition of &il'nyatd as given
i n the Hi nayi na. But he di d aot l i ke to aban-
don it. On the contrary, he was determined
to go further and realise the full significance of
this deep and subtle doctrine. So he went up to
the Tugita hosven by ths supenaatural power
(rddhi) whicb he had acquired through th.e dhydna
meditation eccording to the llinay6na, and
there saw Maitreya, the bodhisattva, who ex'
pounded to him the doctrino of &&nyato (voidness)
according to the Mah6y6na.
On his returq to Jambudvipa (Indira), Asanga
investigated tho doctrine of Sfunyatd according to
the methods taught by Maitreya and soon became
enlightoned. Afterwards he often went' up to
the Tusita heaven in order to learn from Maitreya
the doctrines of the Mahdydna sfitras which the
bodhisattva expounded to him extensively.
Asanga explained this doctrins to others. But
most of those who heard him did not believe him.
So he prayed to the bodhisattva I'faitreya to
come down to Jambucivipa and expound the
Mahdydna. Thereupon, Maitreya, ceme down to
Jambudvipa at night, had a large assembly of
those interested. in tho doctrine convened in a
hall, and began to recito the sfrtra of the Sapto-
d,aiabhilmi$. Tho recitation of the seventeen
par t s or sect i ons ( bht t mi , l i t .
' gr ound'
' st ago' )
of the sfrtra was completed during tho nights of
four months. At night people asserqbled in the
hall and heard the religious discourse by Maitreya,
but in the day-time Asanga commented, for tho
gake
of others, upon what was taught by the bodhi-
ssttva. In this way people could hoar and believe
in the doctrine of the MahBydna. Further, Maitroya
bodhisattva taught Asat'rga how to practise tho
'srrrrlight'
samEdhi (xilrgaprabhd,sarndd,hi). Asanga
thus attained to this abstract meditation, and what
he could not understand formerly became all cloar
to him now. Afterwards ho composed soversl
treatises end cornmontaries on some important
s[tras in which he expor.rnded the doctrines of
tho Mah6,ydna.7
The relation of Asafrga to Maitroya in thig
story cannot bo teken &s a historical fact, although
some eminent seholarsE bave triod to prove thet
Maitreva, or Maitreya.n6,tha, was a historioal
personago who was Asairga's teacher. ft
'w&s
a universal tendency of religious psychology in
tbe ancient world to attributo sacrod toxts (oven
some seculer and literary works) to divine origin
4 There is diffcrcnce of opinion as to \thether it was this
Vasubandhu or another Yasubanalhu of a later period who
was the auttror ot Lt'e Abhid'lnrmakoia.
5 Accorrling to Hstian-tsang, Asaiga flrst belonged to the
Mahi66saka sect. These two accounts should not be considered
as contradictory, because MahiS6saka was a brench of the
SarvAstivlda. Sec Andr6 Bareou, Lee Sertee Bou.d.dhi.quae
rtu Petit VChicuJe, p. 24 (BEFEO. Saigon, 1955). Bu!
according ta t}:re Mahdaarpsa, ch. v, 8, the SarvlstivEdins and
the Dhaimaguptakas were offshoots of the MahiSdsakas. In
any case, Mahisesaka and Sarvlstivlda are iu the same Une.
6 Saptadaiabhtmis are the seventeen books or
gectlonc
of
tbe Y ogdndrabhfrmi, Lsaigu's maonunt. opua. Ite L7 bh&rni* are :
1. paficavijflinakiyasamprayu]h bh[mi, 2. mano bhfimi,
3. savitarkd eavicEre, bhflmi, 4. avitarki vicirsm6tri bhtmi,
5. avitarkd avicird bhflmi, 6. samlhitd bhtmi, 7. asamdhittr
bhumi, 8. sacittiki bhnmi, 9. acittikd bhtmi, 10. Slrutsmay
bhtmi, 11. cint6mayi bhumi, 72. bhEvandmayi bhrimi,
13. 3r6.vaka bhtmi, 14. pratyekabuddha bhumi, 15. bodhi-
sattva bhtmi, 10. sopadhikl bhumi, 17. nirupadhik5 bhnmi.
7 Such as: Yqdadrabhumi, Abltflharmasatnufcaq&, trtalfi-
Udnaaaigratw,
Mah.iiyd,nasfrlrd.la,hkd,ra. Madhud.nladbltilOo
or Mad,lwilntantibhahga, Pralcarandvaldaanaldstra or Arya-
id.sanaprakaraltaAililra, TrimfulikdUdljprajf,d,pd,ramildydlt
kd,rikd,aaptatih
@
comme_ntary on Prajfrdpiiramirll) : also
attributed to tlsairga are :. Aryosanfi,hini,rmuanab&gga, Madhy-
lfu*llnusd,raiiletra, Pafrcavirpiali-praj frdpll,rarn*qtadala, Abhi-
sanryd,la,hkiira4ilstra, Dhanna-dlnrmatd-ttibha,0ct, Ta,fru-
vi,ntlcaua
(ou the Abhisamaydlahlcdra\, Mahdudnoltaratnnfia-
idstrooUd,khUd. and a commentary on the Vajraccludikd.
8 e.g., E. UL lMaitreyo os a histori,cai pertona4e,Lanman
Studies, 1929, p. 101
;
G. Tucci, On sonw Awects of ttw
Doclnnee of Maitreua (ndlha) atd, Asaiga, Calcutta, 1980,
pp. 3, 9, 12 : E. Frauwallner, On the date of the Budd,hirt Mostcr
of tltc I'ow Vawbandhu, Sdrie Orienhsle Roma Iff, Bome, 1951,
pp. 22, 38. tr'or a further bibliography on this question,
see E. Lamotte, Satdhinirmocanwttlra, Preface, p. 25
(Louvain et Paris, 1935).
ASAT{GA 135 ASAiIGA
or inepiration.e Ia India not only the Veilos
but also some secular sciernces like the Ayurveda
(medical science) ore attributed to divino origrn.
Buddhint's, too, woro affected by this religio-psycho-
logical tondeacy of the times. If the Maho-
y6na tradition attributes tho Yogdc6ra-Abhidharma
to tbo borlhieattve Maitreya who is in the Tusita
heavon, tho Tberavdda tradition clei'r's that the
Buddha preachod tho Abhidfunrnrn6 not to humau
b€ings on this oarth, but to tho gods in tbo TEva.
tiqnEe beaven, bimself residing thero for three
months.lo It might bo possiblo that Asanga
considered the bodhisattva Mairreye aB his
titular
deity (is(ad,euatd,) and that ho thought or felt he
derived inspiration from him.rr
Asaiga'e eecond brother, Vaeubandhu, & man
of oxtraordinary talents and attainrnents, was
&
*
Ilinayinigt'
'
ond criticieed the Mah6y6.:aa.
Asanga wes afraid that hie younger brother, who
rv&s B man of great gifte, might composo a idttro
ltreatise)
and errsh the lWahay6na.
At that tirne Vasubandhu was living at Ayodhy6
where he wae greetly honouretl and venerated by
king Beldditya, while hie elder brothor was staying
at his native placo Purusapura (Peshawar).
Aeairga, therefore, sent a meeeerrger to his brother
BsJnng, " I am seriously ill at present. You
had better attend on me quickly. " Vasubandhu
carne, saw his brother and inquirerl what tbe cause
of his il}ness was. Asanga said " I have now
a serious diseaso of the heart which &rose on accotrat
of you. " Vasubandhu asked, " !l'hy do you
s&y on accor:-u.t of rne
'J
" " You do not believo
in the Mahdyina ", said Asanga, " &nd you are
always attacking and discrediting it. For this
evil action you wiil be sure to sink for ever into
e rni,qerable life. I am now grieved and troubled
for your seke to such an extent that my life will
not last long. "
On hearing this, Vasubaadhu was suryrrisod and
alanoed, and requestod his brother to expound
the Mah6ydna to hirn. Aeauga did eo and his
brother ssw at once that tt'e Mahiy6na excelled
tho llinay6,na" Vasubandhu further studied snd
investigated, under his brother, and realieed that
tbe Mab6yb,na was the right and more completo
teechi.g. If there were no Mahdydna, he thought,
then there would be no Path (nfirgo) and no
Fnrition (ph"l") or the Triydna (i.e.,.Bodhisattve-
y6.na, Pratyekabuddhay6na and $r6vakay6,ne).
Thus wss
Vasubandhu,
tho , great Maeter of the
Law, converted to tbe Mah6ydna by his elder
brothor Asanga.
Becauso he bad formerly dono harn by spoaking
againet tho }lahdydna in which he then had no
faith, Vasubandhu w&s now afraid that he might
fall into a miserable life as the result of that wickod-
ness. Ile reproached himself, earnestly repented,
and camo to his brothor and seid, " I now desiro
to make a confession. I do not
k.ow by what
me&na I ean be pardoned for my former evil action.
I did harm speaking ill of the Mah6ydna by moans
of my tongue. I will now eut it out in order to
atono for my crir.re. " But his brothor answered,
" Even if you cub out your tonguo a thousand
ti mes, you cannot wi pe out your
g1i me.
If you
real l y waut to wi pe i t out, you must
' nd
somo other
me&ns. " l!'leen \rasubandhu requested his brother
to suggest, the way to wipe out his offence, Asanga
said, " Your tongue was able to speak verv skil-
fully and efficiently against the lfahayana, and
thus discredit it. If you vzant to wipe out your
0 See, e. 9. , Paul Dcmi dvi l l e who i n hi s st udy Lo L' ogd. cdra-
bhumi de Sai Lsharaksa (] JEFEO. XLI V, f asc. 9 (1954) p. 381,
not c 4) Bays :
'
(j
'
egt par une srl rprenant e mt l conrrai ssance deS
donndeg les plus dldmentaires de la psychologie religieuse (er
litt€raire), aussi bien que de la notion d' hfutorici[6, qu' on
a voulu faire de Maitreya un " personage historique ".- Ile
points out howCtrristianity, Islam, Taoism, etc. have attributed
their sacred writings to gods and angels, and says that thc
attempt to prove Maitreya as a " historical personagc "
is due to a " rnanie historiciste introduite de I' Occident ",
and G. Tucci who also Dow accepts Demi6ville' s opinion
rtays,
' :
The discrusion whether Maitreyanltha
was a historical personage or not . has been, to m-"-
mind, definitely settled by P. I)r:mieville in his recent studl' on
Llrc Yogd,cdrabhitmi de Saigharakfa " (Giuseppe Ttc<:i, Mirwr
Buddhist Teils, I' art I, Sdrie Orientale Roma, IX, Rome,
1956, p. 14, n. 1) -
l O , I dt aka{l haua&r. rand, ed, Fausbol l , f V, p. 265
;
DhpA. l TI
,
pD. 21G-8.
11 In faci Sthiramati sa]' s that Maitreya was like t.he
titulary
,Jeilv
U.sladeoatd\ of Asanga. Also, many other grear
teschers in India and China are sinrilarly reportetl to have-been
in relation with and under the inspiration of Maitreya. For
details, see Demi6ville, op. cit. pp. 376 fl' . scction : Moitrcya
I'inrpiratcur.
Even today there are people
who believc in titular dcties and
iu their hclp and iuapiration.
nsexce 136 nsnrcn
offoncc, you urust now expou:rcl the llahay6na
equal l v ski l ful l y and efftci eni l y." So. one mi ght
say, at, the i nsti gati on of hi s el der brother, Vasu.
bandhu wrote several importri,nt works to expoulcl
the llahivrlna doctrines.
I r
Accr:rding to T6.rar_r6thar3, Asanga visitcd many
parts of India spreading the i\{ahd.yEaa an<l est*b.
lishcd about twenty.five
monasteries for Mahd,-
;'6na
bhiksus.
Date. From all tho evid.ence brought to light
through researches
by competent, scholars during
tho last sever&l decades, rre may now safely say
t,hat, Assrjga flourished in rho 4th century A.C.
i n the north-west
of Indi u presontl y
paki stari .tr
MahEydna
systemati sed.
Earl y Buddhi sr school s
(the so-cu,lled l{ina}'&na
schoois) had already
given a definite shape to the ideas contained in
the onginal sfitra,s by elaborating their Abhidharme
texts : Tho Theravd,dins had their seven Abhi-
clhamma PokaraTtasls
;
the , Sarvdstivddins had
their Jiirl,napruthrina
and ths Vi,bhasa. The
lfahrly[nists
also had to elaborate and. to formulate
thei r Abhi dharma. Thi s tusk was done by two
great Masters who might be considered as the
founders of tho two principal schools of the Mahd,-
yd,ntr: NEgErjuna (about the later hrlf of the
2nd century A.C.) establ i shed the M6dhyami ka
system by his ]fillnmad,hyam,ikakdrikd, ancl his
enorrtrous cornrnentary on the Prajfrdpdrarnitd.
Asanga establiehed tbe Yogdcira (Vijfr6.npveda)
system by'his rnonumental work Yogdcdrabhdmi-
idstra. \lhat the Pali Abhidharnmaytigako is
to tho
'J-heravEding,
the Jild,naprasthdna to the
San'u*stiv6dins, the Maluaprajriapdmmdtd#atra bo
tho M6dhyamikas, so is tho Yogddrabhil,mi,$datra
to the Yogdcdrins.
Today ail soriou.s students of history of tsuddhism
and Buddhist th.ought agree that the Mahayd.na
is a later dovelopment.
'fhis
should not be con-
sidered .& new discovery. The earliest Buddhist
schools, at leaslr soms of them, seem to havo held
that the Matrr-rydna was not, only a later develop-
rnont, but also a systom oxpounded by tirthilaat
(herotics,
non-Buddhists), and that it wag not
really the Buddha's teaching. The Samanta-
pasdd,ikd and the foIahd,uamsc rolato that st the
time of Asoke in the 3rd centur5r B.C. tian;t1a
(Skb. firthi,kd), in order to gain comfort
nnd
honour,
entered the Sdscno (Buddhist Ordor) and expounded
end propagatod their ow:n thooriee and viowg
as the word of the Buddha.
rc
It was irr order
to denounse and reject theso new opinions and
views that the Kalhduatthu was compos€d by
Moggaliputta-Tissa, tho prcsident of the Third
Council held uader tho patronego of Asoka.
_ -
tZ Palam4rtha says,
...
. . all those who study
Muluiyrlua aud Iliney'auu iu Iudis anO fn- aii the
-fr;;aie'r
couutrles use tlre wt_rrks of Vasubandhu as tbeir text_books. "
(Thc Lile of Yatuhadhu,
Ir. ll7)
13 Tiranitha or Tdrinitha, a Tibetan lama (whose Tibeian
llT"J -i" Sul:{g*lr
s.fryin_-po,
,.The
Ussence oi UappirieeJl)
wns Dorrr_Itr f 573 A. C. l,ater he went to Mongoiia-where he
gpent
thc last part of his life aurl estsblished sever*&l monasteries
illu,r.u
qrljf gr thc a,uspices of the Ohinese culperor. T{is,, Htstory
ot lJltdi,hitm. tn Indkt" tased on Indian and Tibcton solrces,
*as conrf i l t ' t t , rl i rr 1608 A, C. I n Tai , ra! : i t h&' s t ccount , t oo,
, YasuDAn(' t t t l l
was 4. \ &rl ga' S yOUDger
brut i rur and wag COnvCrt ed
l u [ , l l e ] l l rhAyi na hv Asal i ga.
_
14 Asanga' s dat e i s deci ded af t er hi s brot her
yasubsndhu' s
date..
-
' lhc
il ucstir.rn whct,her the author of iii-l,bniditnrmal;ota
uus- t hc samc as. Asi l nga' s brot her or rvhct hi : i t hey were t wo
l 4st l bi t nCl . l i us
bel orrgi rrg l . () t wo di t rereut peri ods,
does not
coucerl r us hcre.
' W| at evcr-
rt nr&y be, al l r[ ri ni ons' agrec t hat
Asari ga' s t rrot , her Vasubandhu l i vdri i n t ne i f h cent ri i y A- C.
Su wc takc the
.lth
centruy ls Asarigr' s peiioa.
-
foi"Altaili
!,tc: /.
Trrlirrklrsu, A.Studv rtf
parandrttn' s
tilrnTVisuiitiiiu
an. d t t t z dt i l t ,
([
Vnt ubundhu. J/ j . {"\ . l gt )j , pp. 33_J3: Syl vt i n
],dti, _
trluhfiidn-nsutrutaitkara, (rarii,
-
iSiil- rritioaiictiiin,
l;l;l;i,^; _!rgl
il!,ri. A proyis de ta' date ii t,asubantlhu' ,
, : ! t !
! ; , !
-\ r ( l ! , 1 l ), pr, . 330_3i i 0 ; E. r. j i , On t he Aut hor of
,rI u hd
lJ
fl- n il s fi t ra i a it k a r a, Z e it s c hri
ft fil,r I ni olo g ie u nd I r anistii,
\ . r,
. (
r
' . , : s). -
pi ] ,
: l . l , l . -; l . r
; . I . l akakusu, I , he dat e of VasubawJhu,
tN li,r(ut titt,iilhi.*t
I' hilosopher,, Indian, ,stttdizs' in horurur oj-
!j,n1yt1s
Rockrtell Lanman-, Cambridgo, r,faii., i-OZO, pp. 2.,!_S8' :
I' . Kirnrrra,
' !' tte
tlutc of vasubctrulhu ,bri
Jrih-tne e' bitdhorma_
, (o. q(l , I l rrd. . . . [ ' p. 59-St , j
i L+. l )no, , l , h, e t l ut c 0J Varubandf ut seem
. l rc' nt t nc f l t gLuru of n' r, {t / 4i {{
}, hrLoxt phy, i bi d. pp. 03_4
;
}f..1{i 1te.J 1,1
t z, i
. !
i y
1
ory o
t
t n.t ie ; i ii i; ;i,;;;', r,:ot -i r, rbarc u t ta l
l yl {,)
p. Jhrr, n. 6
; },. I,' r;rrru.al l ner. Orr the ti ate oJ ti e Bu,drthi si
_l t a$l er
o. l t l t ( l , at D L' ut ubnnr l ht r . , ( ROnI c,
I gi I ) :
, l ' h.
Sr eher _
barc-]i y-,_Bra.1d hi st L.os i e. \' ol . I, ( ri ou t oi i C-
-Ci ,..
i bi ., i , p. I i ' i .,
- \ f . , x. \ 1 4) r ui l n, . Annl ys. i s
- , t f
t he . \ r dt akahhi l . nt i ) i anuscr i ] , t
( I l ni vcr si t y
of Cal i f or - ni a ) . ' r ess, t g6t )
i , t . - i 9 I l .
_ 15- , - i z, . ,
Dhammasai gaTt t ,
Vi bha. i ga,
puqgal apar i i ai l i ,
l) hdluklhd, !'arnaka, ttaginaw, iatnat,ini.
ASANGA
Thcso ol d auci "rsat i ons : rgt t i ri st t i re rrcw i t l ei rs
ancl ci el ' cl opment s rvcre st i l l currenl , i n t ht ; 4t h
cent Ll l v A. C. , f or s-e f i nd f rom Asanga' s rvri t i ngs
t hat hc rvas qui t e a\
-are
of t hese ort hodox chargcs.
I t , i s i nt crest i ne t o sec how
j re
t ri es. t o rcrl eem t he
l l ahl vana f rom t hese accusat i ons and t o est abl i si r
rf s aut hori t y as t he worcl of t he Bucl t l l ra hi msel f .
In the trLahayunasil,trala,itkdrari ^.\sir,ngtr, sa)is
t hrr, t i t t he \ I aha. vd, na, i s a, l at er i n' , ' ent i on by some, -
ong (pa, 4cri t
kendTt t l u, t pddi t at t t , ), t , | rc: n t i re I l udcl h. r,
si roul d har' e pret l i ct erl i t as rr f t rt t rrc rl ari gcr
(azi . rz.
rl rt t abl ut . rl aJ.
But ho rl i cl not . Tho \ Tahi vrhna
ol i gi nat , erl at t hc si l me t , i me as t he Srar-i l l i a' , ' r1rri l ,
and not l rrt cr (. sat t i okdl am et t i ri i uaka, l Jdnrnrt , mnl t e-
t l a. nasya
yraurt t i t ' upal abhuat e, na pal cat ). So *-hy
sht rul d i t not be consi cl ercd as t he word of t ho
I Ju<l dha (buddhauacana, )' !
' I i i i s
subl i rne ancl pro-
t ound doct ri no i s not *' i t hi n reach of scept i cal
rl i al ecf i ci ans (t d, rki ka), f or such a t eachi ns
j s
not
fbund in the treatises of ireretics (tirth.ikaid,stru).
Even i f i t i s expl ai ned, t l rey (t ho horet i cs) do nob
underst and i t , . I t i s not ri gl rt t o say t hat t he
Srdvaka5rdna (: Hinayala) is the but]' Jllauaeana
ru, nd t he Mahdyl na i s not , . f or wi bhout , t he Buddha.
yan& (:l\Iahiy5.nri)
Buddhas carrnot a,ppcrlr. I' ur-
thor, in the Mahuydnasai4rah,a, aftol quotin6;
rI passage, Asar' rga says, " This passogo of the
sfitra shows that the }IahayEna is tho v' ord of the
Buddha (b uddhau acana) .r8
ASANGA
We knorv that the Mahtlvlna is a new antl hig]rly
devel opcd i nt erl t ret at i on deri ved f rom t he i deas
conl u, i necl i n t hc ori gi nal srl t ras. Asa, uga, hi rn-
sel f ri dmi t sre t hat t he sense (art l t a) gi r-en i n t l i u
i l l ahrrl ' t i ni r i s not af t er t he l et t er (na yat hd, r' ut arn).
I t i s an i rrt erpret at i on beyond t he l ct t er.
' I l rnre-
f ore, st r, vs Asi l ri ga, f ol l owi ng t he meani ng of t he
letter one sliouirl not thinli that the llil,hr,iya,na
i s not t hc rr. ord of t he i j uddha. "' l ' ho scnse i s
n<. rt t o bc underst ood accordi ns t o t he l ct . t er. "
e0
Al ayavi j rt f l na. I n t he Yogi rcri rrr (: Vi j i rt i nar' dd. i )
scl rt rol <rf Brrddhi sm, at ayaui j . f i , arut i s one of t he
n_ ost i rnport ant doct ri _ners dcvel opcd b-v Asari ga.
I{e divicles tho tij ficlnaskaruJha (aggregate of
t <rnsci ousness), t he f i f t l r of t he f i vo skand, hqs
i nt o t hree di f rercnt aspect s or l avors, narnerl y.
ctttct,
' tltanoE
trnd aij,il.d,na, fn the l' her.rvida
Ti p' i l aka i i s wel l a, s i n t he Pal i comment ari es,
thcso tlree terms (citta, rnatuts. ai,fi,fi,ana) are con-
si dcrcd as synonyms denot i ng t ho samo t hi ng. 2r
The Sarvf r, st i v6, da al so t akes t hem as synonyrns. 22
Even tlr.e Lankdt' atd,ra Sil,tra, rvhich is purely a
llahdyana text, ca,lls them s5mon5,-rns23 although
their separate functions aro mentioned elsewhero
in the s&mo slltra.z{ Vasubandhu, too, in his Zizn-
iatika-' "^ijfi,apti,matratd,si.dd,hi
considers t,hem &s
Bl' rronlrns.25 Sinco any one of tlreso three terms
(citta, rne,rlcLs, uijfi,arw) represents somo aspect
19 SulrdJankdra, I, 7 antl eornmentarS' .
20 ibid. 1, 4. aya,fijatwto' rlho nn cu
jileyafi.
Laikat:atdrastilra, p. 154, also says : yulhdru,td,rthagraha-
r.rary, rut kartatg arp, b orlhieattaerw m ahds altu e nd,' ny aii ceti " Ttre
sense accordi ng t o t he l et t er shoul d not bc t akou by t he
bodhisattva, the Great Ileing, and by others.. "
21 I n t he Vbl r. p. 403, t o t he quest i on kat umi ni sat t a ei l t d. ni
" \ilhat are the seven minds' i " ihe answer is: cakkhtraiiiild.norJt,,
sota- g hd,na-
j
ix h.d- kdA avt ii rid
f.arlt,
manodhdt u, n a nou i,f, fi.ii4.t
-
dhitu. So citta. mano anduiitr-tdqta are synonymous. ,l)ls. also
(p. 209,
$
11S7) t o t he quest i on ket anw dha, mnd ci t t d, ? gi ves
t hc same ans\ r' er as t he above i n Vbh. l t i sm. p. 333 ssy$:
aiitillnatlt cittarp mannti althato eil;arp. See aiso l). I, p. 21
;
S. I I , pp. 91- 5
; Vbh. p. 87.
22 Cittarp' mano' lha vijfr.dnam ekd,rthayn : Abhk. II, 34.
23 QittarT, rikalpo oijfiapttr mano ' ^ijiianam eaa ca alayaryt
trtbhaaaiceptd, ete ciltarya paryaAdh. Laik. p, 322.
24 ibid. p. 46:. Cittena ciyale karma, manasd, ca aiel,Uale,
t" ij i dn e n a a ij d nnti, dr iU an k a I p e t t yt a rtcab hi h.
25 Ctttaqr mano aijrtanarpuijitaptiA ceti paryd,yd,l.t: Viryt.
p. 3.
' t
1]t
r 0 a
17 St$rdlahkdra,l, a, 7 i{nd commeDtary.
__
AIer
^W^ayman
(Arnlgsis
of thc Srd,mkabhutni Manusript,
Univ. of California Press, 1961, p. B0) thinks ilrat the MaAd:
Udna,rutrdlnnkilra was not writfen blr Asanga because he
(Asanga) refers to this work elsewhere,
' t' hiiopinion
is not
tenabie for two reasous : first, we cannoi be ceriain t,hat the
tnrm sulrdlankdra it thc
lassage
quoted by Waynran
(Qerg.
T., Zi, 193a-4) refers-t,c.r t,liis particular' text, iIah.d-
ydnasfilrd.l,ankdra.
The word alo.ftkdra in the }trahiyana
t radi t i urr was a spcci l l t erm u-qed t o denot e a ki nd oi ' ex-
Pl anat ory
conrqosj t i r. l rr. a sort of comment ari ai t vork,
j ust
fiFe
the-term allhakahn (Skt. arthakatid. cornmentarl-) in-thcr
Theravi rda t radi t i on. Al ai ki i ra here i s eoui val t -nt t o' rarnond.
" c-t pl nnat i t . rn ". " dcscri pt i on ". (I n Pai i al so t a44t nnd i ;
sornetimes used for al.lhu,kutha, as suttatur1ltatid,, fot
wlta!!.hakathi).
-
Arrv work. and commtrntarl' . ivlrich
e. t pl ai l u: t l t hc i dcas cxprcssed i n t he sf i f ras was ea] l ed srj l rd-
l ai kdru. - That i s esacl l y what Asuri gl says i n i l re
l rassasc
rl uot , erl by Wayman : " t he eomrnerrt ari - t ruj r-
r_epresent i ng t he ul euni ug of t he szZl ras
l t romul l at crl ' by t ht ,
Tathirgata
-
is
_
called
' sutrd,ktrltkdra.' 1
Tlre
' llherrjvrtrh
tradition also bclier' r-' s that the atthokathd. contriins
..
thr,
meani ng. of t he sdl ras promul gat ed
by i l re Tat hi gat a. "
-t' or an interesting tliscussion oir the lern alunk[ira irr ilre
Mahayl na t radi ' ui on sec G. Tucci , On some Aspect s of t he
l)gcty1n9s
.of
llaitreyo (nattn)
onil. Asaisa, p:
10 ft. -{
Sut rdkt ri t r' dra i s at t ri brrt cd al so t o Ai vagho; a. (Sec
! f , _Wi nt erni t z,
I I i st . I t t d. Li t . I I , p. 95S;
p. -I l dnri dr. i l l e,
L' I nde C' I nssi q, a l l , scct i or r 2079)
. Sccondl . v-, e_r_e4 i f t he above passage (quot ed
by. Wayman)
refers to the ),Iahuyurtasii.t.rdlaikdra itseli, there ts no rctson
wi t . ' - -{sai rga sl roul d rrot ret ' er t o }ri s own w-ork. }Jur| i l ri r-
ghosa
refers to his oivn Visu,l.dhinnggu cluitc oftelr irr his
ot hcr - w- or k" s, e. q. . . l / . { . l , pp. 10, 5j , ; ; , t ' : : , t . . l : J, - , . t l ( t , Lr J,
r : ) J. - l i r 7, { ' t ( . . i t o l r i s own Sumni Lgal aui l asj ni ( Oor unr ent ar l .
crn t he Di gha) J. t , l . I , p. ! .
18 La .\amme du, Grantl Vdhicule d' Asaigo, (llahuyam-
sal nqruha), t raduct i t ' n l i t i enne f , arnot t e, (Lcruvai ri ,
1g3ri ) p. Z.
I t i s i n. t crcst i l g t o-not c here t hat Theravri di ns never l ry t o
provel t hat t hc Tl rcravada i s t he bui dhauat ana. I i i $
usually acceptcd as the deaching of the Buddha.
ASA}{GA 138 ASANCA
oven thouglr not all espocts, of the fift,h aggregato,
vijifrrwskandha, thoy nay roughly be correidered
a8'qrnonJrms,
Ilowevor, for Asanga, c,itta, n&n/&8 o;nd uijfi<ina
are threo differont and distinct aspects of ths
vijfinnaskandha. Ile dofines this aggregate aa
follows :
" What ie the definition of tbe aggregate of
consciousn,esa (ti,jfi,arwskardhal ? ft is mind (ctac;,
montal organ (marwa| and sleo coneciousnesa
Itijifrna,)."
" And there whet is mind (cdtta) ? It is dl.ayo-
vijifrna (store-consciousnere)
containing ell seode
(aotrahEjako),
impregneted with the traces
{im-
pressions
; vd,candpa,ribhd,rtita\
of aggregatea (akan-
dlro), elemonta (dhatu)
and spheres
ld,yatanal."......
" Wbaf is mental orgsn (manml ? It is the
object of dl.ayovijfii,na,,
alwoys having the natr_rre
of e€lf-notion
{self"conceib, nwnyanilma,kal aaso-
oiated
with four defilemonts: viz., the false ides
of eolf
@tmad4qld), self-lorr6 (dfmaanehal, the con-
ceit of
'
I-e'n
'
(wmimfr,na)
and ig-nor ance (aui.d,yo).1..
"'What, is eonrciousness (vijfid,na,1 ? It, eon-
sists of the six groups
of consciousne-qs (S@ vij-
finru,kd.yilfu)
: viz,, visuol consciousness (calcpw-
ttijffirwJ,.auditory
(drotra,\,
olfectory
{ghrdqw),gueta-
tory
$ihvd,),
tactile
@Ayal
end mental eonscious-
neaa (matwai,j
fi,tuw)..
".
Ihus we ean aeo that vi,jfin?o represents the
eimplo roaction
of response of the aense-organa
when they
aome in contact with tlr+r erter:o.al
objects. Thig is the uppermost
or superficial
aspect or layer of the ui,jitfrrwskandho.
Monns
reprosonts the aspect of its mente,l funetioning,
thinking,
reasoning, conceiving id.eas etc. Ci,tte,
wbjch is here called dta31anijfinfl{r, repreeontg ths
deepest, finest and subtlest, aspect, or layer of the
aggpegato
of consciousness.
It, cortains ali the
tracos or impressions
of the past actions and ell
good and bad future potentialities. A}ire Sandhd'
nirmnca,nm Sdtra also str,ys Lhat d'Iayauijitdrw is
ealled citto (Tibetan sezr,s).r?
trt is genorally beiieved that dlayaaijffina is
purely a Mahdy6na doctrino and that nothing
*bout it is
,foFnd
in the llinayina. But in
t}ea Mohdydrw*afigralwqt Asanga himseli says that
in the SrEvakaydna (==Ilir,ayana) it is mentioned
by synonyme lXryryd,yol and rcfers to a passege
in the Ekottardgama which reade : " People (praid)
like the dlaya (dlayarara,), aro fond of the dlnya
(dlayiirdnw), arp delighted in tbe dl,oyo (dJaya-
aammud,ita), ans attached to tbe dlayo (dlayo-
bhiratoJ. Whon the Dharma is proachod for tho
dostruction of the dlaya, thoy wish to lister (s!,ini-
€arq
and lend their eais (6rotrom oodadlwli'),
thoy put forth a will for the porfect knowledge
lijfuittan
upaatldpnyati| and follow the pattr
of tnrth (illwrmdnudharmoprotipomol. When tho
Tath6gata appeers in the world (prddurbhorn),
this marvellous (dicargo) and extraordinory (ad-
bhut'a) Dharme eppears in the w,)rld."
Lemotte identifios this Ekouara4onn p&Bsoge
with the following pa,ssege in tho PaJi Ari4uaara
Nikoga (A. ff, p. 131): Alayardmd bhikkh&,e
paja aloywotd d),ayasom,muditd, ed Tilh.dgenn
ond,Iage dhnmme desiyomdne stns&yoti sotoqt ofu-
Iw$, ortfitui,ttam upghdperi'. T ail.Agahsaa bhihlolw:e
or alwto aamnfrsanbuddhasw pdtubhdod oyo\n p4lw
-
mo occhnriyo ahbhuto d,hammn patu,blwati,.
Besides thrs Anguriaro passage, tho torm, dlzyo
in tho r&mo sens€ is found in soverel other places
of ths Pali caron.2D The Pali commentaries
erplain this term es " attac.rrmtent to tho five
sense-pleasures "80, and do not go deeper than
thet. But this also is an aspoct of tho dlayattiifrdtta.
Iu the Lahkdoatdra Sfi'tro the term tnt@ata-
garbho is uged aB a sJm.onSrm for dlayavijfirtwst,
and it is described as " luminous by naturo "
{prakTtiprabhrtsuoral
a,nd "
pure by nature "
(pra-
krtiporii-wldlr*r), but appearing as impure "bocsuse
27 Sandhinirmacautri*a, texte tibdtain, 6ditd et traduit
par Etienne Lamotte, Louvaia et Paris, 1935,
pp. 55, 185.
28 MctMuhrsson4rola, trel. Lemott€,
p. 26.
29 e. 9. , M. I , p. 167; S. I , p. 136; Yi n. f , p. 4.
30 ll$afimdti uiln pafirasu kdmague.$u dlnvanli. M A, II,
p. 174; Alavardntdli eallil paficakdmquq. alfr,yantt (YinA.
96l) ; Inte4tirnryvlfuyo,
Yitm. 242.
3l bi *. pg. L21, An.
, ^28.
AbhidlnrnaEaTnttcceya (pradhan
Ed., Visve-Bharati.
19.50) pp.
rl-tz. The sa:me ileflnitione of
'eUa-,-nla,rwi-znd
viiildno-arc
iven briefly io the Mahtvan"ntiainiari,p.Tz+
(41X. Z.s)_:_ Cittam illitvooijfi.tutnn,
-
nwna,; UanlaiiSinon
dtmad4 gly
dflisarya ay11ft[6, 6i nAnai
ra4
vij ildiwhdy db.
AgAHOA 139 *sAilAn
it ie aullied by advontitioue dofflemonta,, (dgan.
tarlcahlatrapakliglatuyq.st
fu the Angfirara Nihdyat
,
ailta' iE dsscribed as " luminous " (pablnasaro),
but it is " sullied by advontitioue
rninsl
dsfile.
mente " (dgantulcehi
upakkilesehi upaktrilighornl.rr
Ons mey notieo
hero that fu11atijfinrn (or
Whngat4orbhal and citto aro doecribod al"'oet
by tho samo tenns. We have soon oarlior that
bhe Sardhinirtnocarn Bfitra says thot dlaya,ri,jfrdtn
ia alsc called cr:rro. Aeariga, too, mentiona that it
ie urmed c;tta..6
It, ia this &I,ayoudjfrfrrm ot e;#o th.sf ia aongidered
by mon as thoir
'
Soul
', '
Solf
', '
Ego
,
or Ahm,an.sa
I[ere ws rrray r€nflnbor,
e6 a coq,erato oxemplo,
tbst Sill,i, ono
of the Buddha'g dieciplee, took
viiltuipa (uiifAndrt
in this ronso and that the
Buddhs reprirnandod
bi"n for tbie vrong vlew.E0
Iho attainment
of Niw6+a ig achieved by
..
the
revolution
of diaEnijildinn" whioh is oalled dlroya-
pr&ffii,
or 6layoprdvyfui... The esnoe idea ia
conveyed by the exproseion dloyoaanwgghrtb
" upmoting of dloga
" which is urod in the
pali
(]&rron
as a eJrnonJrm for Nirv6na.3o llere we
"hould
remember also that anttbgo
,,
\a-dlaya',
ir another sJmon]trn for Nirvaqra.rr
Tbs ,aldydo$mrcprfu7tti
is aomgtimer osltod
ItijopardvTtld
" revolution
of the e€€ds,' Es w€ll.4r
Bnja horo signifi€s tfus
" s€€ds
" sf defflsmmte
(atuplclntikd,lwnrdtjal
whioh e.aueo tho eontinuity
8_S" lbld.- pp. 77, 9ff,. Buluti (.S'rudnrr
jn
Uu Lodtnffi-
,9W-$,
p. lEC) Eyr, " . . . The l*ikiloaltra dlffen from
tIe I ogBo[r8 ln one lmport*nt polnt, 1.e., th*t whlle ths lattcr
F&intslnr
tltat the dlaUa le eUroiutoty pure ancl trar nottrlng
l,o. do wf th dof,lenroaCr erld uvll pe.eetoir,
the t"afildoalerq ertl
+lyrg.hqt8
matataln the_ vlew that thc Tqlwoetn_gorblw or the
yiuq_t8 [hs storag€ of the irnpum 8r well ag ihs
puJe
. . . .,,
Ituc.thfa IB Dot co. The YogEcfra abo coudders Ltrat l}|!a alalt
F .qh-o
gt4f.rsg- of
_deflhmdnrr.
Ci: ;wwdrtrdniiritnfrSi
,otlhdnahAd MVqt:
,,
ft {s c8llod- it&aryrr tbe leeOr of dl tho
dofll-eBoqts. " frw. p. tB. cp. ',lolt- ElrysdjfiMar
dJvthta,lbld-
p.
lc.
'
sg d. I ,
D. 10.
E.f.
'{bu
gomnle4tertr
rryr tbrt bere
..
ci4t mocnr btwtvll-
trt
ts
-'
: tilta$i blwozAOaoiltcm.
E5 Mah8Vdtwt$olra, p. 10.
36 l bl d. p.
Mi ?: ri 6. pp. 10, ZZ; D. I , p. 21.
-8.?
Esro lt.ehould bs remembered th& Aban$flitru lr ono
of the efght tNWtut.
88 U. f,
DD.
268 ff.; Mahilaafitui*Lap Sr&r.
.8!_
Mrdy_u11a.pwdo7ttir
itl: dlrclotto ulo4i\j&ats e,aya-
4lf,dnam
(Tritrtd. p.
44).
iilnmtn
nnirvoala7ograMf&
futtavi.
oa u arhd aoodM (ibld. p.
lt.y.
of aomadra. Ry the " revolution of thoso s€eds "
ono attains Nirvdna. Again, the Pali torm khi,qa-
btrjan', which is ueod to denote an arahent whoee
" seede of defilemente ars deatroyod
",
expr€€Eos
tho ss,mo idea.
Thue, ono rnay eeo that, although not deve-
lopod ss in the MahEydn*, tho original ides of
dl,agolrijfudno w&a elreedy there in tha Pali cauon
ofthe Tberavdda.
Vltfieptimtrtrt (ide$s only). Accordi-g to tho
VijflEnav6de (YogEcira) philosophy, the oxtornel
world or objocte oxint, sfly as idose or msntal
conceptiorrs (rti,jiwpt&rndtro or c'ittarndtrdl. In order
to undorstand thie, ous must bave svon I vory
brief idoa about tho Buddhist ooncoption of mottor.
Aocord.ing to Buddhist philosophy, both the
llhmav6da and tho Mehiy6aa, m4tt€r ie rcducod
to such extneme rubtloty and finsnocs thot sve[
a port of our thoughts, ideae snd ooncoptione ia
oonsidored to bo compoaod of mattor{, whiob
in philocophioel lenguege ie callod
"
matter in-
oludod in the sphore of mind-ob;octa " (dlwrrrfr-
galatwoqngyhilartpal.$
AEanga onumerste flve
Lindt
of
rnqtior (rW, inoluded in
"
tbe sphore of
Ednd objeota " : l. extremely conoontratod matter
(,fth;wr.nkgeptkol which is etom (porenfrq,u); 2. or-
tremely diftssd mottor (obhyaooffi{dko) whiob
is space
i
3. aensation or oxperience pertaining to
t8 Tc bhlttaDUd avirtlililnlwil niltui dlhd .... ln
l\c Eahna Sultu :5h. p. 41.
The btjc tttotry of the Yoglclro should be coapared rltl
ths &htufibltd,ravillf,d;ne (DIjc) of the Thsravlda-.
14 Uodom rciom kusss llttle rbout thb a.poct of nrttrr.
45 Abttty, p. 4
;
Ybh. p.
72; Dho.
p.
f
gS
! 6gf. Xrtirr te
fncfuded alro ln lba dlutffitn.' YDA. D. 80.
. tiiddnnndm pardoTfiilt
anlt&:aoo dhtttr oirntlffi
, Stttlll/d'l"kdra, xl, 44),
^ !!-rayat11a
pardol#im
anutTttuw o&rnyilloln (Lorid.-
p. 2U2r .
. { 0
e. c . , A. 4r p. 8{ ;
f r r , p, 86: .
. mdanl f f i s
prpasntngy-o
flayacatnulghllo
Wtryaelrdo btwbW
* llgo nird,lw ni.bbthnm.
-{1,,
$:
[v-,.
n. 872;..qlso
_yo
bdycoatovhdya ogrrorvirr'ryr-
nrr@rn pa4rnuwgo
mu/J}i ondlsyo.. ,S.
y,
p. r[2f aad paetln.
t2_ S.r-ttttuli4lf,tw,
rl, {{
1 btie4lcrrfio(or ilt d/llryeo$frd4,
patf,o+#dl4.
asnrce 140 ASANGA
praetieos
lednfidd,niko,
i.o., atijfiaptiril,pa)
i
4. things knowledge (kleiajileyduaraqtaprahrtrd,rtlwrn) and to
producod by imagination (parikalpita) and 6. attain delivoranco and onrniecienoo (mttkaoaorva-
things produced by rddhd or supenr&tu.ral powers jfuiluddhigamdrthorn).ae
(aaibhutuikal'
floro again, it is interesting to draw attention
It is signiff,cant that these five categories, thougb to somo statements found in the original Thora-
considered a,s composed of matter, &ro not included vdda Pali ca,rron-such &s " There is nothing more
in tho spheres of visible forms, sound, odour than name "uo, " All thinge (dh,anwm) are ways of
taste or tho tangible (rfr'pa-iabd'a-garuLha-raso or notions (concoptions or designations) "r1, " Ths
spra4{atryd,yatarut), but in the sphere of mind- world is led by mind "6s-which may be considerod
objects (dharmd,yatana\. With referenco to the as the gerrne of this doctrine of ui,jfrapti,mi,tra or
v;,jftaptimatra (idoa-only) or citta,mitra (mind-only) citnmatro rrow regardod as purely Mahd,ydna.
philosophy, wo must romember here that tho atom
(the 6rst in the abovo list) is a mind-object and
The Bodhisattva Iileal. Aeariga's Yog6cdra system
not an object porcoivod by any of the physical
which quite rightly extols the bodhisabtva id.eal,
Bonses (eye, ear, noso, tongue or body),
is not opposed to and does not, orclu6o or run
rn this connection, Asairga's dofinition of tho
down the attainrnent of Nirvdna as a 6rdvs'ka or
atom is extremely important ancl interesting.
a. pratyekabuddha' rn fact' in his nxagnurrb opw'
Ele says, It ie said that a mass of mattJr
th: Yogd'cdrabhd'mi-6d'stra" Asariga devotos two
(rfipasar*uddya) is composed, or u,to*"
I i*t^u*"-
entiro sections to Srd'uakobhilmi and Pratyelcobu'itr'
aafi,cita). rhore, tho atom (paramdpu) should
dhnbhtt'mi' which shows that both the Hinaydna
be understood as not having a body (physical
and tbe Mahaydna aro included in tho Yogacd'ra
for,rn r nih.4arEra). Tho dotermination or ti.u Lro*
eystem' rn his otheilworks also Asanga doos not
(paramdnuayauosthdna) is dono by ,hu il}ruttu"i
ignore the Pratyekabuddha'yd'na and Sr6vaka-
(budahya) through tbe ultimate analysis (pctryonta-
y":"' But theso aro inforior (han'a) to tho ideal of
pra,bheda) of mase of mat,ter.,,{c
o-.-'--
e bodhisattva (Mah6yana) who aspires to bocdme
a Buddha to save other beings. This is quite in
8o, if the atom bas no physical form and if it keeping with the Theravdda tradition which, too,
ie only conceived by mind, then the objects and holds that one may be a bodhisattva and attain
the world which &ro composed of atoms are only the highest ideal, tho stato of a Buddha, if one
mental conceptions, mental representations or achieves the requirod qualities and porfectione
notions. This idea is eorroborated by ttre Lankd- (pdramtm;
;
but if one cannot, one mey attain the
vatdro Sil,tra when it says that " A:ralysed into stato of a pratyekabuddha or of a Srdvaka accor-
atoms, there ie really no physical form to' be dis" ding to one's capacity. These threo statos may be
eriminated &s euch
;
what c&n be ostablished considered ag throo stagos or destinations on the
(es a fact) is only the mind (i.e., menial concoption eame path. fn fact, the Sand.hinirmocana S&tro
or notion). Ono does not clearly see (or believe) clearly says that the Srdvakaydna (i.e., Hinay6.na)
tlrie due to erroneous viows. "{t So " the whole and the Mahdydna constitute ono yd,na (elcoyd,rw),
world ie only a conception. "48 and that they aro not two difforent and dietinct
This in brief is what ie meant by udjfi,apt'imfitro,
'vehiclos''6e
b,rt many treatisee aro written to explain thisi Asaiga's definition of the tbreo gd,nikaa (fol-
doctrino in detail. It ie not B mero intellectual lowers of the threo vehicles) is vory interesting and
or ecientific theory
;
i+" is a wa,y to realiso the instructive.sa A {rd,uakayaniko (ono who takes
truth of
' no-sol f ' ,
of
' no-substanti al i ty '
both the vchi cl e of di sci pl os) i e a perBon wbo, l i vi ng
with rogard to the individual (p,udgala) and things according to the law of the disciples, by nature
(dharrna, i.e. pud,galadharm,o,na,ird,tmuapratipd.dardr- having feeble faculties (rn?'duindriya: i.o., Craddh6,
tlwrn),todestroydefllemente and the obstruetioneto ourya, amrti, aamfrdhi, prajfr,i), bent ou his own
40 Abhw. p, 41. I t i s i nt erest i ng t o not e here t hat even
t oday t he at om ean be regarded aa bei ng not hi ng more t han
t hi s. I t has no physi cal f orm. I t cannot be seen or t ouehed,
but ls coneeived by the intellect end iis existenco is proved
by its effects and traces.
4? Laik.
p. 64, v. 128 : a7w^4o bha'jyamnnatTt hi naioo
,fipary ti,kalpayet, cit.temAftqrn oyooaetMnarp btul,fgtrUd rw
fiqsidali.
t8 ibfd. p.270: Lolcawaiiflaptirndlrarf (Saglthakam 44);
27 t : vij ilcptindnarp trihltotton ( Ssgeihak8m 7 7
) ;
PdAtJ. p.
3,
49 Tfirnf. p. 15.
50 nimn bhiyo na oijjati (S. I, p. 39).
51 aa.bbe d,lnmm.d paf,f,attipalhil (Dhe. pp.226
& fB08).
52 ciltena niyati Loko (S. I, p.
89)
;
ciffano klp bhtbkhry- loLa
nl uari (4. I I , p. 177).
53 Sondhinirmocona, pp. 73, 147, 198,266.
,1 Abttw. p. 87.
esArce
t4t ASAXOA
liberation through the cultivation of detachrnont
(voi,rdgyabh.daard), depending on the c&rlon of
the disciples (Srd,wkapiloka), following nrajor
end minor rulos through the eultivation of energ.v
$firyahhavand),
gradually puts an end to suffering.
A prilyekabu.ddhaydndlca (ono who takos tlro vehiclo
of ind.ividual Buddha*r) is I person who living
rccording to tho law of the individual Ruddhas,
by n*turo b^eving modium facu-lties (madhyend,r'iyal,
bent on hie owrx liborsticn through tho eultivation
of dotachmont, baving the intentiou of attaining
enligbtenment exclusivoly througb his Gwu
mental culture, doponcling on the Srduokapi'
lclaa,
praotising mojor *nd minor qualitioe, boro
et a tirno when thore is no Buddha in the world"
gra<tually puts err end tnr auffering. A n,nhd,-
yonilca (one who takes tho groat vehicio) ie o
porson who, living according to tbe law of the
bodhisattvas by nature having sharp facultioe
(tnkppendrdga), bent on tho liberation of all beingB,
not having the intontiorr to be fixed in Nirvane
or $nqrsdra66, cloponding on tl.lo cnnon of the
bodhieattvss (Ilo,Thisoilaapiyako), matures otbor
boinge
{oattad,n
paripd'cayalr,), cultivatea tho pr;re
Buddhe-domain
(buiWhabhttrnd), receives predic-
tione (uyd&erer.ut) linm other Buddhas, and finatly
rueli.sss porfoct and complet'e enlightoqnent
{aarnyukeantbodhdr,
Fronr this wo may soe thet anyonewbo aepiree to
beaome a Iluddhe ie a follower of Mahdy6,ne, thoiigh
he may belong to * Buddhist country or community
popularly and traditionally regarded as tho Thers-
v6da or tho l{iney6ne. Similarly, a porson who
trise to ettern Niwaqe &s an arahant is a 6rdvako'
y6nika, thotigh ho may belong to a country or I
oom'nurity bolonging to tbs Mah6yana"
A Buddh*, a pratyeka!:ud.rlha ancl a' 6ravak*
(disciple) are equal and sliko with regarcl to their
pr:rifieation or their delivoranee from the obetruc'
tions of defiloments (Icleid,uaraTwd&tdtthi). This
also iE r:allod vimuktikayc
""d
in it thero is no
difference betweon thom. Ilut only a Buddha
schievss tho purificotion or deliverence from
'bbstmction
to the knowabls, i.e., obstrlctions
to knowlodgo (jfizydua,ronelji4uddhi), not tho
fodvakas and pratyokabuddbas. fhis also iB
56 He does not lif,e to bo tixed in Nirvd4e becauee of hig
grert compa.ssian (mahd.kdruod.) fot all beings,. and is not flxed
ls mmrlrr bocsuto of his gt€*t wiadom
\mthdprajfiii).
called dlnrmakfiya, and in it the Buddha d.ir-
tinguishes hiruself from the Ardvakae and pratyeka-
buddhas. It is this second purification or por-
fection thrt produces tho o"qnrgcience (ransojfutuol
,
tho perfoct enligbtdnment of the Buddha.6s
A bodhisattva is different
,end
dietinguished
from s Ar6vaka and e pratyokabuddha in folLr
weys. I. A bodhiesttva poesossos sharp facultios
(6rod'd,hd, tfirga, et'c. : trlc€14ondriyo1
;
a pratyeka-
buddha hes modium faculties (mtdhyerdriya),
whilo a 6rdvaka possessoe t"eeble faculties (mrd-
verdriyaj. 2, A Ar6vaka or a pratyekabudrlha
ir
.devotad
tre-
hin
ow'rx good (at'mahita) whoroac
o bodhieattva is devotod fs
his
own good and
"
to the good of others, to tho good of the many,
to tho happineBs of the many, out of compassion
for the world, to the welfaro, to the good, to the
happinoss of gods and men ". 3. A Ardvaka
or a pratyohabuddha is versed in ekortl'ln (aggro-
gatos, ripa, uedand, etc.), dhatu (elements), dyotana
(sn h oros),
Ttrotrty
atamu,t pdd,a (conditioned genesie),
athrindathdrw (possibilities and impossibilities) and
eatgo (truths)
;
but a bodhisa,ttva, in additiou
to these things, is versed in all other forms of
hnowlodge" 4. A Arivaka obtaina es fruit (phala)
6't'daa,lcubodh'i, a pratyekabuddha a pratyekobodhi,
but a bodhisattva obtains as fruit, supromo and
porfoct enlightenm ent' (anultar&rlt Bnrnyokaotnbdhi
plwktm).61
tr\:rtber, a ArEvaka-abandone the ontirs Peth
and attains Ninr6'Ja without reeidue (ndrupadhi$ega.
nintdna.d,hdtu), but aot a bodhisettva. Elence,
bodli.isettva€ ars called " those whoeo wholesoms
roote rrro inexharrstible
"
(alcpagakulalom&la) and
" rc'hoss virtues ero inexhauetible "
(akeoyagunal.
A borlhisa,ttva realises the truth and cultivates
the path whr.ch counteracts or destroye tho obsto-
oles to tho knowabLe (j finy aa arag pr alipalcpamdr g al
throrrgh tho path of mental culture (bh.d,uaninnrga)
in tho ten stagos (dolabhtr,w'), but bo does not
oultivate tbe
'path
which counieracts or destro5n
the obstscles of dofilemente (klelduaroq'n-
Xnatipakpamdrga).
Elowevor, when he ettainr
66 B&hisa.Awbhilrni,8,. 3 ;
Satdhininuarur, pp.
L49,267
;
flrirtt{. p. L5; Siddhi,
p. 566.
trt i;i interesting to not€ here that S. III p. 66 also sayr
that i,he Tathegeh and a pafr,Fcddmulla bhikkhu (a bhikkhu
Iiberated thraugtr wirdom) aie equnl with regard to theil
vimutli (irberation), but the TathAgata is different and
dietiugtrished frcm tho pafiiavirnull.a bhikkhu ir thet ho
(TathAgata) digeovers aud ebows tbe P*b
Qnqga) tbat
wc.s not klowu before"
6'l Bdhit@hriart p. E.
asnian r42 ASAIYOA
enligbtonmeut (Whdl he ebandons both tbe
obstaolee of dofile4pnte snd tho obsteclos to tbe
loowable alrd becomos an arbat, a Tatb6gate.oE
Somo of tho bodhisattva doctrines found in
tbo Yog6cdra uystom, sueh ae tbo ten stages of a
bodhfsattva (da{abhAmil, which a,re: l. rnuddki
$oyous)'
2, virmla (irnrnqculgto),
3.
Tnobhnkarl
(olarifying), 4. arcdamati, (radiant),
6. ilurjaya
(bsrd to win), 6. obhimukhE (fe"cing diroct), 7. d{trah-
gottd (far reachlng), 8. aeld, (irnrneygfolo\,
0. adlw-
natl
(good,
oomprohension) and 10. dfutrmarncgltd
(rain of Dharma), are unkno\rn to tho Therev6da.
A bodhissttva has to fulfil aix
Ttdrarm,ifde
(per-
feotions) : l. Mru (charity), 2, 6ala (morality),
g.
kfit 1 (pationco,
forbearance, toleranco), 4. trirya
(energyr offort), 6. ilhyd,na (concontration)
and
8. prajfrfr (wiedom).
When it eoneorns the oblrd-
wnay@namitfuirgd of a boclhinattva, four more
pibarnitd,s ere addsd
-
upayakatualyo (ability in
akilful moans), prar-t'id,hd,na (determinabion),
bala
(powor)
an.d
j
ffirn (inteiligonce).6e
Ths Personallty of tbe Buddhas. The theory
conc€rning the personality of the Buddhas ig
highly devoloped in tho Yog6cd.ra s5retem.oo The
Buddhae have threo difrorcnt bodies (kd,go\:
l. Dlnrmalcdyo (trlth-body) whicb is the
twhhdtnhdyc (ossence.body).
2. Sambtwgolcif,ya (onjoyment-body)
which
depends upon the dlwrrvnkfuyc and which enjoye
lbre Malfigdrndhnnrw as woll aa the extremoly
pure do'na,ins and the asromblioe of tho Buddhas.
It is through this body thet a Buddha enjoye
hime€U Bnd loads bodhisattvae to rnaturation
(pari,p-ocarw). This is a matorial body though
extremoly subtle and mystic.
3. Nirmrtqtokdya (vieible or apparition
or
trA,nsforu.ation or rnanifestation-body)
also
depends on the d,lwrnaakdya" Thie ie tho physicat
body of the Buddha who was [s1a nrnong
rrlotr,
renouncod his family, went, through various reli-
gious practices &nd meditation, attainod eulighten-
ment under the bodhi treo, pnrached the Dhanna
aad attainod parinirvdna. This is all appoaranoo
or manifestation based on the d,harma,kaya. It is
with the help of this body that the Buddha leads
Sr6vakas (disciptee)
to maturation.ol
Of theso three bodios of tho Buddha, tbe d,hofln-
l@1a ia tho reel Tath6gata, the ossential body.
fhis steto of the Buddha is called fathatd.,
" Trutb-noes "
(or
'Thus-noss').
Tho purest
Toth,ofi ie ths absoluto ebsenco of Solf, and that
is tho " solf " of the Buddhas iu the senso thet
it ie thoir ow:r nature.or f$hatd is the samoness
or oquality of all dharrnas
;0{ henco Budd,ha.tva
(Buddhahood) ie identical with all dharmas as it
(Btddhataol ie innsparsfls
fre6 fothatd,.s lbo
Tothati which ie tho Budd,hatua is beyond duality.
So it c&nnot bo callsd " oxistonce " (blfiaol
ot
" non-exigtence
"
(ab!fraol.
c6
Jt, cannot be called
" oxistonce " boc&rr".",t it is chareoberisod by the
non-exist'€Dss of tl:a individuality and of ths
dharmas (pdgafa.dhnrnn -abifru
alalcgaqtatu dtl, and it
ebould uot b€ called " non-existenco
"
becauso
thoro is the charactoristio of Tatbatd (tn
hafd.-
Ialcgaqteludnn[. Thst is why the Buddha did not
68 AbW. p. 101.
69 Boilhi,tffiMhilmi, pp.
68,8?1.
_
Accordlng to
-ttro
lberavlda tradition there are alwaye ten
2&ami l l l t : . . 1. --i l d' nt , . 2.
f u, 3. t l ekkhornma, , 4. paf i i l d,
6,^viriya-._-6. hllznti, 7. unca,' 8, ad,hillhdrw, S. np$n aad
lO. upckhhd.
_
00
-
For detailr eeo.. Mahdg&nasawgralta, Lo Som,ttw du
Emtd. YChi.+uJc, ch. x (trad. Lamoite, louvain,-igsgi:
SffiIirltltro,_ix, 6G-00i__TIu Threc Bili.ec of N Au*init
by Ia Vdl6e Pousdn tn .t.R/S. Oet. 1906.
6l Of theso three bodies of the Buddha" onlv the
d.lwrma,kdyo (-dlwmmakdya)
is apeciflcally mentionoO in iiri
Pali eanon,
-?. {II,
p.
81. Tho-Tath6grita is identrcsl-with
Dhamma : "!' ak}-+Ii, be who seesthe_Dh{' mma aees-il;he;ti;
s€es me eees the Dhamma
,,
yo l.cho v-akddli poseati
so m&rp paasati,
Uo mern poswti eo illwmrurp putali:
-S.
IU,
p . 1 2 0 .
62 TatlntltbltddLa6fl.allt. S&trdl. ix, ZZ.
.
qq.
-tb!d' ix, !3:
a4rarp nairihmyary oiiu'Jd,hd btW, cii ca
bttdd&nilm llffi nab Moltrtlet 4.
64 lbld. xviii, 37 z wndlnrrwomailIm totWm.
65 lbid. ix, ,4-5.
60 Thie eonception of non-duality-neither exleteuce not
non-exlstence-tg unfamiliar to Wegiern thoueht wNch ls silll
under theinfluenceofthetradition of thelast? or 3 centuries'
rclence and philosophy, but i+, ie now gradually being under-
stood due to recent scientiflc discoveries, particularly
in the
f,eld of atomic ecience. Iu this conneetioir,-it is tnteresting io
note here a sCat€ment by Robert Oppenheimer, the well-
known scientist: " If we ask, for instance, whether the position
of the electron romains the eame, we muet say
'
Do
'
;
if we
aek whether the electron' s pcition
chaDses' wlth 0line. we
must aay
'
uo
'
;
if we ask wh-etner the eleciron is at regt, we
ruuFt q4y
' _no
l;
jf we ask whether it is in motion, we must Bay
' so' ,
The Ruddha has gi ven guch
answers when i nt errocat €d
ae to the conditions of man' s self after death but thei are
not familiar answers from the tradition of the 17th and l8th
ce-ltury scieuce. " Ilere Oppenheimer' g referenc to
'
man' a B€lf
after death' ie of course not correct. The Buddha hag
civeu
tuch answers to the queation whether the Buddha (oT ro
arahrnt) sfter death efirie or not.
ASAITOA
143
ASIAfrOA
ortswer the question
whether the Tath[gats efter
his deoth exiets or not,
c?
'When
ths hest of an
iron disappoars, that etate cannot bo callod
" existenco
", becauso it is characterisod
by the
non-existsnce
of heat
;
but it cannot be calied
"
non-oxistonce
" oither, because it has tho cbarac_
toristic of cooling (6d,nt;,y.
ee
Ths Dlnrmokd,ya,
Tothafd
or Nadrd,hnyo, which
is ths truth, is tho oseenco of tho Tathdgata.
It is tho same for all Budd.has. Ilonce, it the
pure real.n (ani{raaad,h.dtu)
one c&nnot spoak of
rrnify
or plurality
of Buddhas. There ie no unitv
because tho Buddhas
proviouslv
had separat'e
physical
bodios, and thero ie no plurality
boceueo
in thoir real ossence thoy have no physicel
body.
ee
Juet as qp6ce is univeroel,
eo is Buddhn6i (Buddha-
hood)
'rn,ivorsal.
Just as Epace ig universal in all
objocts, so is Budd,hati
wiverssl in all boings.
But. when tho watsr-vessel
ie broken, tho image of
the moon is not reflected thorsin.
Similerly, tho
i'nage
of tho Brrddha
u not roflocted
in porverted
beings.
7o
?athatd
ie com,non to all boings witbout
any fisslimina,lien,
and 3..olhatd is Tatb6geta.
flenee, ell boings aro called Tafhfi,gatagarbho,
matriees of the Toth6gata.
zr
Asanga rejocte as f,alse the thoory
of Aa*uaaU
(originel
or ffret Buddhe)
which was curent
among somo Meh6yFnists.
Ile says tbat without
eambMra (oquipmont
for enlightenment)
a
Buddhatua
ie impossible,
end aombhdra
is im_
poseiblo without o Buddha.
Elenco thore cannot
be an Adibudana.
re
Falling flway of
Arhats- Asanga
holds that certain
tylree of arhate may fall away (parihiini)
from
ttreir
etato of sthatship.
ra
Ths Sarv6stiv6da
eleo mai4tsjnrl
ilri..r theory.za
But tho Thertv6da
rojects it ag felso.?E Noverthelees, thore is r"r
rutara*tng
oosr lre Llno
ganyutta
l,Ii,ko,Uaiu
wbich
auggests
something
like the falling
ewey of an
arehet
; Godhika thers &ttoin;
aamadhiko_
uetouirnutti (a mystic
steto)
six times
and falle
eway from
it each timo. But when
he attained
it for the soventh
timo,
he committed.
suicide
ai srt rdl , i x, 24,
Accordi ng
W MA. I I I , p.
l 4L, t he Cernr
ylyy"
jn
the.question
i noti,' taiffii,;;-i;ri"*r4na
.
meaus Eatto
'
a beilu
' _,-bgt-
this expiaqat' ion
is questionable.
Asarigal. opiaion th;t' it lcferc io tirc nitfhtri ls much mort,
acceptoble.
68 SittrLl. ir, 25,
(t {}
i bi d. i x, 26.
70 i bl d,
rx, l $r 16.
?L i bi d. i x" 3?.
7n t bi d. l r . 77
; $ Abhsu. p.
st .
7+ Abhh-vi , p. ZbJ f l ' .
76 Eathdoatthu,
i, pp. Sf03.
78 .S. I, pp.
IBO-?.
Iest he should fall away from it. Ths Buddha
declarod that ho w&s
Tmrinibbdo. Now, the
torm, porinibbuto
is used with referonce to tho deatb
of a Buddha or &n arahaut. So Godhika diod an
arahant. But Godhika attained all soven times
the same ad,ntilhika-cetoaimuttd.
Ths toxt givoe
no indication of the slightest difforenco between
the seventh and the previous six attainrnonts.
Every time the word.s fi,ndilhika_cetoaimzfiti
aro used. If he could be considored an arhant
'when
he attainod
fi,tndd,hika, cetwimutti
on tbe
seventh occasion, thoa he should also bo consider€d
an arahant w-hen he was in it on ths earlier six
oceasions, although be f,ell ewey from it lator.
Antaribhava.
Asanga accepts the antarfuhauo
(intormediato
evistouce), i.e,, rLn
oxistouce betv-eon
tho doath and the robirth of a being.
??
The oaar6-
blwao ie for beings who are going to bo born in
the world of senso.plea,sutos (lcdmadlntui
or in the
world of form (rd,padhdtu)
and for thoso who err
deperting from tbo world of no-form (drilpyadtudful.
A being in tho antardbhooo
ie also called gandh,anto
who is mind-made (monomayo),
IIo livos for
Bevsn days the most, and may dopart oven oarlior,
and then ho is reborn in anothor'existonco.
The
Sarvdstivfida
aleo ocaepts tho antard,bhova.TE But
tho Therav6da
rejocts it ee felse.?c
Anitma (no-self
)
and 6iinya (volal). Thoro ar€
some who maintain that Asanga seorns to have
postulated a sort of a transcondental
aelf
@f,rwnl.
This opinion is absolutely 'nieguided.
Like all otber
great Buddhist m&stors,
-{sanga, too, dsffnilely
and cloarly in unequivocal
terms denies the existence
of on d,trrwn
and troats tho doctrin e of onfutma
(no-self)
in its highest senae. In the Abhidharnn_
oantuecayo,
E0
ho oxamines the ekond,ha (aggrogates),
dhdtu (elernente)
and d,yatano (sphoros)
in about
fifty-nine
ways from all points and anglos such BB
mundane and supramund.ane,
time and
gp&ce,
good and bad and neutor, rolative
and abeoluto etc.,
and proves that there is no dtman. IIo says that
an individtal (iud,gal,a)
exists ae designation or
convention
(prajfra,pti),
but not a€ substance
Abhw. p.
tZ.
Abhk. ii1, pp. 86 ff.
Lalhdvattlru, ii, pp.
B6f tr.
pp.
10-81.
78
7g
80
ASANGA LE ASAilOA
(d.rauya).8r In his
.qroa,t
work Yoqdad.rat;htimi,
in tlro section on Botlh' isqttt;.J1.)ltil.m,i, Asarrgir, defineir
put l gal anai rdt nr, t l a (no-sel f ness of t l i t : i rdi vi ri rrai )
aud tlh,u rr ruu n u i r ut t t t' y, t (
no
-
solfnor:s of thi: rl h ar r tr,as )
arrrl savs t i i at t here i s ri e sel I ei t i rerr i r' i i hi rr or
wi t hont :
" Agai n, a bodhi st Lt t vrL ri nderst ' auri s i u roal i t t -
(yul l ut l t hut uTn, praj unat i ) t ho t wof ol d no-sol f nt , si l
(dt ' i ui dham nai rat t uranz) of ai l t hi ngs condi t i oni , d
and r.rnc ond it io ne d (s aryz s lv t d,,s arns i;r t ti n d m,s e, r L' t t d har
-
nt t i , . ' 1t 111a), narnel y, t he no-sBl f ness of t i t o i nrl i vi rl uri , l
(pudgal anai rat mya) and t he no-sol f nc. ss of t i ro dhrrr-
ntas (rl, I n r r n ano,i r ut n,t
1
ct) . l'hore, lbe p wl g al u rt e i r,.i I n ry a
i s t l ri s: t ht rt uoi t hor t hese erxi st i ng t hi ngs (ut rl , , t at ndnd,
d, f uvrf i l t J are i ndi vi dual s ncr cl oes t hore oxi st
anotl' rer irLclir-idr.ra,i (p' urhaLa) f' rec tiom (apart from)
the-qe existing things. Thoro, tlfi d,JLarmanatr,Ttmlla
i s t l i i s r t hat i n ai l t hi ngs cxpressi bk (sarues, t
at t hi l apUe. t t t t : rJ, t t t t . su) t here sxi st g no dharnut
l rossass-
i rrg t l rc rul l . ri l o o1' (c<-, rre: sponrl i nq 1, t r) al I t l rri , t ox-
I l l usr i ( ) n
( a, l l i l r t r " i i s o. vl l r csser i ) . Tl r i r s, a, l r or i hi -
d&t t vri , rurderst onds i n l eol i t S. Lhu, f al i i i haruro"
ore v' itlrorrt. sclf (so,ruuLlwrmd,
o,nilluinufi). "
sa
T' ho farn<ttrs wolcls rvilusuq,bhuwil! srul;udharrndlt
(al l dl i rl rmas or t hi ngs aro rl evoi t l of t , hei r r: wn
nrlturo) irr tho Va' ipulyo, also sigrrify tlro samo
dh,arrnunai,rr-ltrrtyrt, Commenting on bhese words,
Aeanga savs t hat al l cl harrnas are cl evoi d of t t rei r
osql. r.aturo boc*usc of thoir non existonce in
t herrrsel ves (, t t . : ct , uqr, r, abl wuat u), because rrf t , be
nr:rr
-
e xist ence of t heir own eelf (su e.ruitnt' and' biuit:atti),
becauso of the instability in their existenco (sr-re
bhd.,u e' n auaathital .aa
The opinion expressed in some cjuefters that
whilo the llahdvd,na, teaches botb lhe pul,gala-
rwir ritrny a anrl l,ho d hur nwn
qir
dtm'y a, t he Tlr.errr,vfr,da
teaches only the
' pud,oulanairatrnya
buf nr-it, the
dharmana,iratrntla, is unfounded. Exactlv liko
the Nfahayana, the Theiravada teachr:s ,lhorm' a-
nr.ti,rd,tznya too. i' he woll-known
.,vords
srrbhc
dhommd, ana,ttd, (all dhormag &ro wit,horrt; self)
found in many places in the PeIi canon
8{
clc' arl5r
aignrfy dharntanaird,tntya in unequrvocel tein:rs.8s
Quoting
th,ese rsords, Asanga hirnself sa,ys : sarD(
dharmd and,tmd,nah paramd,rthena iiintlctd, " all
dharrnas aro rvi thout sol f, thi s i s {fi nyutfr (voi d)
i n the ui ti rnato senso. "
86
I{ere agai ri , t}ro .l octri n,' . of i unyatu shoul d
rrot, be consi c.Lorei l a,s onl v l l ahl y6ni st. The
'l'lieravi.rla,
t,oo, tcra,ches ib in tire same w&y. The
Burl di rl tei l s Moqi i uraj o to srre ti re worl d as voi d
(sui r,i i ,:t: i ' frnya) by removi ng tho i doa of sel f.
87
Si ri -
pl l ttrr srt,yg fi i .l f a vi rtuous monk shOul d cO' si der
thr: Ovo aqsregates as sui t"i La (r' oi d) wi thout sel f
(antttta).88 An*rr.da usks the Buddha: " Si r, they
sav the worl d i s .tufi ,fi ,a, the worl i l i s sufi ,fra (&ttnya,
voi d)
,
l ;ut,, Si r, i n what respect i s ths worl d cal l ed
a' ui i fi ,o,' ! " The Buddha &nswers, " Ananda, aB
i t i s voi d of sel f or anythi ng pertai ni :rg to sol f.
so the rvorl d i s cal l ed sufi ,' fi ,a. "
8s
Buddhaghosa
in ]iis lrisudd,lt'inrtgga sitys thal narrut..r&pa
(nome-
fonn) i s su,i ri 1,a.eo
Tlre tonns nairatnrya ot aruatma, dltartn,anih,auo-
bliriL:r.t, iitnyo,td, tatltu,trT oxprcss i.he same truth iu
rl i ffrrrt,.nt wrl ys. Tl ri s dr;ctri ne ehoul d not be
consi dorcd as nogati ve. It i s the l ruth, and tho
tl trth i s never nega,ti ve (though tl rere i s a, popul ar
exprossi ()n &s
' negati vo
truth
' ).
A8 Asanga
verv aptly s&ys : " There is tho fact of no-self "
i nntr
dtmy ast i t(r
).sr
Fratityasamutpeda. Asariga's treatrnent of the
prafi tyaaamutpdda (eondi t,i oned genesi s or depon-
dent; arising) is rnastorly.e2 It, has threo main
charaetori sti cs : l . i t ari ses through non-di rocti ng
cc,nrhti ons, i .o., wi tl i out an ri gont, mover or croator
(.nir:tlutprtilyo,4rt)
;
2. it ariscs ttrrough imper:manont
condi f i rrrrs (a' ni t,l apraty(Lya) and 3. i t a,ri ses
' ,,hrough
efi ci ent condi bi ons ysanarthaTtratyaya). Thess are
tho chartr,r:teristics of the conditions of existonce
and conti nui by.
Tho
Ttratltyasamutpdtla
reVoals eleven facts
(artha): l . thi r,t there i s no creator (ni fuhartrkrl rt' ha),
2. thal t'hero is causality, c&uso and effoct
( . sahet ul car t l t a) , 3. t hat t her e i s no bei ng, l r o
indivitlual (ni,l3,sattadrtha), 4. that everythirg is
rslativo and iuterdopenrtent (paratantrdrtho),
5. that there is no mover behind the rnovement
(.niriholcd.rthu),
6. that everything ie ir-rpermencnt
81 Sutrdl. xviii, 92 :
'prujfi.apt'gastituail
ud.etiah
'ptulgalu
drq,Walo rur t'tl,
g?
Bod,hiaattoabhfimi, p. 280,
83 Abhw.
p, tl4,
E4 e. 9. , Dh' p. xx, ? (vcrse 270); M. I , p. ?2E
;
, ! . I I , pI ' . 132,
133; I V, p. 401 et e.
85 For a det ai l ed di scuesi on on t hi s pcri ni , see eh. vi ,
Wlnl tlu lltuirtlut I' au4ht by Walpola ltahula (Oordon Praser
Gallery, tsedford, lJnglaurl, 1959 or Grove Press, Now York,
l 0e2),
Se . \ i l l rd] . xvi i l , 101.
87 Sn. o. 1719 : s1rfiilNo lakorp aoakkLntau, Mogtwrtja
s adil tato, u,ttd nud,
Nliryt
fihrw*a.
88 , q. I I I , p. 16?.
bg .S. IV,
f' .
5,tr : aufrilo loko $rflilo lnkoti bhantc ouccati,
klttduuta ut, ];ho bhanle sufi.ilo lokoti,
tsuccati?
|' aami hho
-|runulnz strfifiatp altetur, I,d attaniyeru, !A, tesmd rufi,ilo lobotl
vutalti.
90 Vi $n. pp, 50S-i 0
gl
lbas' n. p. 3I.
92 ibtd. pp" 26-.8.
ASAITOA
I46 ASAfrOA
(ani l yd,rtha),7.
that i t i s momentary (ksani kartha),
8. but that there is the unbroken flux of ca,use a,nd
effect, (hetuphttla,prabhnrd,hanuTtacched,a), g.
that
there is conformity of causo and effoct (anurripa-
hetuphald,rtha), f0. that c&uses and. effects &re
variod and manifold (aicitrahetuphald,rtha),
and
11. that there is regutu^rit1
of cause a\d
SflS$
(
1+ot{ruiy
ot ohetupTw,l,arth,a)
.
The
doctrine
of pratityaaamutpdda
io extremely
deep
and
subile
: although
ii l.
momentary
(kaanika),
yot
thero
is also
duration
and stability
(' sthi ti );
ol though
i ts condi ti ons
€,re wi thout
an
agont
or & mover
behind
tber:r- (ndrihakapratyaya)1,
yet they
aro efficient
in
.,hemselvos
(santartha_
pratyaya);
i t adrni rs
no_bei ng
(ni hsattua)
i n real i ty,
yet
one may
find a being
in the eonventional
Benso;
i t admi ts
no doer,
no creator (ni skortrko),
yet tho results
of actione
are not annulled.
(karma-
p-haiauipranafia).
It arisee
not i;;^ itself,
nor
frorn
anothor,
nor from
both
;
it i. produceid.
not
by i ts acti on,
nor by another,s
""ti J.r,
nor wi thout
fffftr"
Elence,
the prat:otyosartutpdd,o
is pro-
the 37 bodhdpaksadha,rmaa (37 dharmas conducive
to enlightenment). As is well-known, the 37
bod,hipaksad,ltarmos are composed of 4 emrtyupos-
thd,nas (Paii: sati.patlhd,no\, 4 sarnyakprodharws,
4 rddhipdd,as, 5 indriyas (iraddha, uirya, etc.),
6 bala,s (.4radd,hd, airyo, ete.), 7 bodhyahgas (Fali :
hqiitr,q$\S$.ll ss{ \\b \u\\s \\g\\\s\il \u\\. h $s
(<<<<ss*,s5s\:s:ss"t,^lS:U>,S\:E\hi"i,
aspects
undor
different names.
Thus, 4 smrtyu-
pastltdtws
are called the path of examining
objects
(aastuparLlcsatndrga)
;
4 samyakpradhan<rc,
the path
of str,enuous
oxertion
(uyauasd,yikam,rirga\;
the
4 rdd,hipad,oc,
the path of preparation
for concentra_
tion (-catTfid,hi,parikarmamd,rja)
;
the E ind,riyu,
tho path
of application
for perfect
realisation
(a^bhisamayaTnayogilcatnarga);
the O bolos,
tho path
of adhering
to the perfoct realisation
(abhi,samayo-
llistamiirga)
;
the 7 bodhyangas,
the path
of perfect
roalisation
(abldsamayamdrga)
; and the
Noble
Ei ghtfol d
Path i s cal l ed tho path l eacl i ng
to puri ty
and emancipation
(ai|udd,hinairyd,nikamd,rgo).
So,
we may see that the Noble Eightfold
patb
is onlv
ono aspect
of the mirgasatya
5. Ni ,sl homargo
(path
of cul mi nati on).
Thi e
eonsists
of xajropmmasamddhi
(diamond-like
so,nnd,hi)
attained
by & porson
who
has gono
through
the bhd,uonarnrirga.
This sanfidhi
i8
ealied uajropama
because
it destroys alr defilementr
(kl e,/a)
even &s a di amond
cuts al l other gems.s4
_Again,
Asn.nga's
definition
of madhyamd,
pratipadd
(Pal i :
maj j hi nn
pal i parJa),
,,
Mi d<l l e
path
,,,
i s
difforent
from that
of the
,IheravEda
tradition.
Accorrling
to the Theravdda
,
tlrc majjhima pa(ipad6
l i l l :
Nobl e
Ei ghtfol d path,
""a
i t i s cal l ed ths
Middle Path
becauso
it avoids the rwo extromoe
(ubho
ante),
namery,
self-indurg
ence
{kd,masukharti-
lcd'nqloga)
anrl seif-mortificatiJn
@ftakilam,athdnu-
yoga).
But, according
to the
yog6c6ra
system.
the two
extremes
(antadaayq
;
,,
duJuty,,,
i.e', bhriuo
and obhiaa,
" existence
,,
and
,.
non-
existence
" or
" affirmation
" end.
..
negetion
,,.
The madhyamd
pratipadd,
,,
Middle
path,,
avoidr
daaya,
duality,
and hence it is caliocl
duayo
"
non-duality
". One extreme,
bhd,ua, is to affirm,
occording
to popular
conventions
and designations,
tho
existence
of matter, sensations
(ripo,
uedandl
tttc., visible
forms, sound.s
etc., eye, ear etc., good
(ku$ala)
and bod (akt#ata),
birth ancl deatb, past,
prosent
and future,
conditioned
(earnskrta)
agrd
unconditio
ned (asa,rp^tlc7
ta) ev en inc luding
Nirveaa.
The other extreme,
abhaoa, is to negate
the
existence
of thoso things.
Adaoyo,
non-dualitv.
'i\tflf.'3!!Er;:
p'
r34' For details or the r,uryudw,
iliirgasatyr.
Aeeording
to tho ThoravEda
texts,
the fourth
Noble
TrutL
is always
aefi.,e,l
as the
Noblo Eightfolct path
(ariya
olino^gilro
magga).
But Asanga,s
treatment
of tho
path
(md,rgasatya)
Ls quite
different,
and the
Noble
Eightfolcl path
ie not givon
its traditional
positio.r.
A""o.ding
to
Asanga,
the
path
(marga)
coir,sists
of five categories
:
t*i;,'iJTi'*KT:o:'^.,'li'1,;f
"H:riiln,"::
(6|la),
tlro
control
of the sonses
linarlyeru
ryuptadudra),
mr:ditation
(dantathauipa4gan,d),
ot"c., practisod
by
the ordinary
m&n (prtiagjlw,
*""ijit
ruf.
,
,: Prayogamdrg.a.
(path
of application).
Thie
leads
to the acquisition-(i,hrough
;;;';""vious
parh)
of the
whol esome
penotrationr"n*llllioy;;:!:-{:1"ff
3"",T,1:
to some
extent
at difforonl
d.g"""r.
-
3.. Dardanamdrga
(palh
of insight).
This leads
fo insight
into
tho tmths.
S'*n
expressions
u uira,iar.n
uItamala,ryr,
dharmocalcpur
uaapad,r,
(pali
:
virajam
aitamalo,m
dhanrmacakkum
udapfui),
d7_plad,harmd,
prd,ptadharmd
Diditndhoo^A
poryoro_
gad. hodllarmd,.
. . (pali
: d,it{hadhammro
Ttattadhqmmo
vid,ita"dhnmma
pariyogo.lhad.ham;
.
".
.) found
in
fhe srftras
ss
rofer to this
path.
,
4-
.
Blfi,uand,mdrga
(path
of mentai culture
or
'iovelopmont).
Thie
correiets
oi-l".rooU
others,
--_
93 s. 8. ,
S, N, p. 47
V, p. 4Zg;
. . t , I V, pp.
186, s10, et r c .
ASATTOA t46 ASAilOACITTA
ie to avoid them two extremee (aildrngovdaorjirol.
That is rndhgarnd prdi,FdA, the Middle Path.
It, ie neithor af0rmation nor nogotion.
e5
Tbe abovs erplanation may bo supportod by
some Pali suttas.
ec
I'he Buddhn says tbat poopte
&re attached to duality
{d,augoni,cs'itol,
i.e., to
aflrmation (ahhira\n) and to nogation (nauhnt'ar,n\.
To sey thst ovorything sxists is ono oxtrem.o
(aabbar;n aehifi . . . aUW eln anro'1; to say that
oothi'g exists is the soaond extremo (e&born,
nafrhi,ti . . . aqa\n iluadgo anro). Tho TathEgata
teaohos tho Dhar''ma in the middle without falling
into thoeo two oxtr"omog (ele . . . ublw a,nlo
orwpqentna rnajjhimem Tailfigdo dfunvnar.n
altActi'). Thie indieatoe thet " middle "
(rdhya or
maiihnl it
"
non-duality "
(drmga!"
The Mah6y6na, though genorally congidored
as a lator devolopmont, i^s, in some points, much
olosor to the original Pali suttas than tho Thoravdds
Abhidharnrn* tnxts a;1d cornrrrsnta,r'ios. For ins-
tan,ce, Asanga's trestmont of ilhycirw is much mora
in kmping with tbe originel Peli suttas than thst
of the Pali Abhidhamrla texte. It is well-Icnown
that in ths Thora,vflda Abhidhq'nma texbs Bnd
coumonteriea 6ve ni@uamrujhdrw (dhyd,twt
in ths liealrn of X'orm) sro msntioned. But in
tbo PalL Nik&yoo of tho Sufiapilako wo como
aoross only four rirpdomara-jhfuwa. It is evident
that the list of five
jhdnaa
is a later doveloprnont
io the Tharavdda Abhiclhp'.r"a. But Asei.ga,
in koeping with the original sritras, givm only four
rrtyiruacatro-dhydnas. X'urthermore, his analysie of
Lloie dhyfufi,igo (factors of dhydrw'1, quit€ differeni
from ths Thoravdda tradition, is much mor€
foithful to the sbereot;4red formulas of the four
clhyinas found in tho original suttas.
e?
Logle. Asange
'".rey
elso be considorod &s &
pionoor iu 6u4dhiqt logio which l)iin6,ga and
Dharmekirti s;reternatised, developed and porfocted
l,ater. The seation on vdfu (art of debate), inciudod
in his Abhddlwrmreormmyoet, Boortrs to bo an oarly
attonpt at Buddhist' Iogic.
Ee treote the subjoct under Beven hoade:
l. debate or dieoussion (udful, 2. assombly of
dieoussion
lffi6idhdlmra.rn),
3. topics of discugnion
(@dhdgttdffi : ail,ltga, thirrg to be proved,
frdhoru, prcof), 4. or:ramoate of dieolrsaion
(tffiill^otildra : proffcioncy in Lrrowledge, &ccom-
plish'nent in spooch, otc.), 5. defeat in disoussioir
(vddanigralwl,
6. oxpedioncy in dieeussion (odda-
nilwmaTw\ and ?. vory useful qualitiee in discussion
(u&' bhuhdrd ilM,h: wide lnrowledgo, self-
co.'ffdonoe, quick wit, etc.l. Finally, quoting e
psseago from the Malfi,ydrfibhidlwrmu&trc whieh
says that a bodhissttva should not debeto with
othors for twelve ro&sona, Asaiga edvisos th&t
one should sngago in diecuseion only to gain knor-
leCge for ono'e oqnr edifioetion, but not to deboto
with othere for dobato'e sgko.
w. R,.
ASAfrOA (2't, ne"no
of a yakga, mo'iionod in
ilahdrffiyW
{aB)
es dwelling in Bharuknnchoka
(8.&8. e.v.).
ASAfiOABAIADEAHIIt, nar"o of s for:nrer Buddhs,
occurring rn a list of Buddhas in the Ca4QaoyAta
S&tro
1261.2O1.
ASAfiGABALAVIRYAUATI, & bOdhiSEttVA, thE
leadsr of ths circlo of all attqrdant bodhissttvag
togother with whom tire T*thdgata Apratihata-
gunekr-rtivimokqaprabhareja in tbe zenith, in tbe
world-region Laksap.aruciravairocan6,, eomes within
tho rongo of ths visioq of Muhok^a, tho guild-leades
(6rejlhinl, who striv* for and eccompliqhee the
Tath6gata-sslvetion (Tatluigato-trimokea) named
Asaigawy&ha
GWe.
81.2S f.).
T. It.
A$ttOenUDDHI, a bodhieattva montionod in a
ligt of about fivo thouesnd bodhieattvag reaiding in
Srdvasti along with the Bbsgavdt in the pinaaolod
dwe[ing of groat splondor:r in Jotavano, tbe
horrnitage donatod by Andthnpil{ade
{4rye.
4. l3).
A8AfrGACITTA, a bodhieettva *t the head of tho
circlo of aii attendent bodhissttvas togothor with
whom the Tetbigate Meruprtdipardje in tl:a
wos0€r:n quarter, in tbe world-region Sarvagan.rha-
prabbssevati, eomee within the raage of ths visi.an
of Muktaka, the guild.lmdq (dtadtldnl, who stsivet
96 AodHrd,odh8rni, p.39.
90 o.8., ^9. rI,
P.
1?
'
TTT,
P.
11i6.
9? For a detailed dlgeussion on tblr rubjwt wc A
Conparutiu &ltd,y of Dlw&ua wfiing ta Trgro@a, Scrudb-
tlffia otd MaMUdnd by lYelpolr Brbub h tbo .Ucb Aodfd
J oy,nel, Oslcutts, 1902.
cg /.blq. pp. 104-6.
,*
ASANGA ( . l api t r i t : sc:
t t or t hor r r ocf t l gor r t r l 1r i r l i
Muc hak u) ; r r , r y oor l , : r r s r ; r l l r r t r i r t r l r v Lj r r l i , _, i ,
1; l i i , : cr l
I i ol i u. cr . r r - cl 0 r . i l ' 11r , l KoI r r j i r r t r : ; r r Pl i , . \ r r , r . r r , . Ji i , l ) i i , l l .
I 2, s. P. ( ' . { ) 81{ 20
Pj , , \ f i i x
t \
, t
L
t
.i
o
5
:i
{
i P
j < ' :
€*
: c
' c
.t-
. C H
\ !
a.)
t s !
+ Y
T :
: E
t-
F"
a
a
{;
F".1
r d
i'
f:
o
/
lf,
'5
d
Fr
q,:
U
kl
()
a
4t
{' _ .,: .-,::t,
. - : ' : : , : - :
- , - { - ' i i ' - t
I -.
-.
r- -:'i:3
' ; _ i r . a . . '
i
-.1,,,.1",t
':'
, , , i i { , ' r r .
'
- - , - ' ' 1
i
. : : j ' . . . . . . . * " . : u l . . ' : '
' :
' ' , . j ' . . ' ,
i
t:'." _.
.';'"r*i+::
'.'
,"
,
i.o-
:-f
,"'-,
, '
' t t
, .
t '
; 4 .
I
, , ,
'
" . ,
, '
' ;
'iit '1..
{ri ; t
, , ' . ' ' "
i;':i
'
ASAITOADHARANI 147 ASAFTGAII1UKEA
f*rr
-
and accomplishes tlie Tatiidgatrr-eaivation
(T athdgaia-uirnoksa) hamed Asariga-l' rvtiha (Gt:,1&
81. 6 f . ) .
' I ,
R.
ASAfi GADHARAT{!, a eamadhi or & coneontrati on
of bo' ,h mi nd i l nd body, one of ti re ei ght5' qui r,l i ti es
crf a bodhi sattva enumerated i n the i l ahduuutpatti
( BI J. XI I I , p. l 3) .
eSnttCnpHVAJA, a baChi sattva :nenti orrecL i n a
l i st of about fi .ve throusond botl hi sattvai i esi tl i rrg. i l
SrAvnst,i a,l ong wi th ther Bi rag:i ,vat i rr tl i er rri nnl l i crl ,
d-' ,rel l i ng of great spl endour i n, Jei i ,,-.-ri na. 1.l l e herrni -
tago donated by An6tl ra;ri rrdarl n, (Gl r7u. :.l El .
ASANCA- Ji l AnnxEt UDHVAJA, name of a f nr r ner
Bnddha
{Oayzi"
14.24}.
AsAi l cAKl yana6mITEJoMATI, & botl hi sattva
st the lieirr,cl of t,he citcle of rill atterrdant bodiiisattva-.
toqetirer r.vith whom the Trr,thS,gata Apramdna-
grt{raseq8,r$prab}ra in t}re nort}r-",voster:r quarter
in the world'region
(landh6lankir,rarucira6ubha.
go,rbh6. comes wi thi n t,he range of the vi ,;i on of
lfutaka, the guild
-lr:ade
r
\srestlt'irt),
who strive"
for and accomplistreis tho Tai,higota-snlvation
(Tatltrigota-aimoksa)
narnotl A-o':,rignryriha
!Gttutt,.
8l . 20 f . ) .
T. I i .
ASANGAMATI, a Bucl cl ho, rrront' i onod. &morrg those
of an r.rnbrokerr li.no of
jinos
who, being i5er pre-
l eptors, vTere propi ti ated b;' the ni gl rt-goddess
SamanLe,sattva,tri r.roj ahSri rvh!i t: stri vi ng to ga,i rr
t,ir.o bodhrssttva-sah'a,tion
\ttoilhisattua-ttirnokF&)
rirrrnerl s,r.rcalolttibh'irnui:hajago,ilrizlotla,n idul.4utur
l Guy{t,.
28i .2 i
).
ASAXCAIT.{ATICAX{DRA,
name ef a tbr-' ner }Judcl }ra
{ Guyi l , . 256. S) .
ASANCAMUKIf A, rr rne+.horl c,f Lrodhi sat,tva-
sal v$ti on (' o' i nrtL.saJ, referreci t,o r:n Gtutt. (69, 92 tL).
I-rl Mahdydns,, vfl ,ri ,,1l : nrr' i nc: ri re' gi r-:;rl to i hr' ,sei
rnet,horls of salration but hc,w tlre1. rr,rt'r ai;hier.'erl-
i s orrot speci fi cal l y descri berl i n the trrxl -s. i n ti ri .r
r.onrpounci , nsu,n,1a, meti ns non-;rttachrnent turrl
r t l i l ; ho. means
' door ' , ' ent . r ' i t nco: ' .
Thr r q. t hc
i ri rrn :.rre&n$
'
sal vat i cn :i ,ci ri *' ' ' <r.d i i u' ougl ' , n.ofi .
*, t t *, i i i r r r i er r l , ' "
In
{-r"\i1' i. (pp. 69-72), a biriksu, named Supra-
lisfhita. cla,ims to have achieved salvation by
this method. Without descri.bing the actual
meihorl of u,chieving this salvation, t' he bhiksu
ta;zs tn a devotee named Sudhana that, by sontem-
piation, pract,ice, rerncmbrarrce, analysis, etc.,
of tliis form of uimaksn. he has attained the light of
i nt ui t i on
( j f i , anr1, | oka)
whi ci r rs desi gnat , od as a, sango-
koii, which in ti.rrn rneans the
' acme
of non-
a, t t ael i ment ' . Thi -q t erm i s cf very great si gni -
licanct-- beca,l-*e it shows the all-pervadingl charac-
terisi.ic of this form of salvation which rs the
absence of attachment to anything. This is why
t he urr. nt i l ] st a, t e of a person who i s rel eased by
1, 1ri r. ; i rrcf i v-' rt l i s ca, l l ed asanga, kot i , t l i e hi ghest possi bi e
st rrt e rrf
non-a, t t achment . Next , i rr order t n subst an-
t i rr, t e hi s : t a, t crnent t i r: r, t , l re hai s reachod t he acme of
,.lc' .irelesr;rress,
lre cD.unlerat,es the various aspocts
in s-iricir he iur,s
qiven
rrp every form of attaclunsnt.
I-[e siivs that once the state of monial insight,
r:alieC a,sangaA:otd, is ati,ained, the individual is in
tlro srirte o! boditi,,sattua-zsirnokqa. Onco he is ig,
that condition ho is totally fieo from any form of
attachment. In tho enurner6,tion that follows
tho cla,irn is rnacie that he has no desire ibr: anything,
rrhether g;ood or bad. One very significant thing
ahout tliis enumeration is that' tho list of things for
which he savs that he lias rro liking doeg nob include
anythi-ng mateiial. Tire list consists only of
t,ranci:s {sctr,tidhr,} anri similar psychological states.
Thr,i first irr tho list i; called -*arta.gattua,ci,ttacar' itd,uo-
bl t r] sa. . \ rr exrrmi nat i on of t t r. s semant i cs of
tiro term siltlrrs tha,t" it rncans he has no at,tachment
for tlie r.erious monr,al rnanifestations (d,h,gq,Htl.
I' rorn s-hat follou-s il is obvious that the develop-
rrreiit of tho mind (bhauand' ) in st' ages, in the fbrm of
dh,ydttas, is not, rrecosse,ry for him as he has gono
beyond u,' ll that. IIe ha-q achieved. emancipat' ion
zlnd. therefore. ]re ha,s no need. for them" As the
sccond i i . em i n t he i i st he says t hat , he has no
cl ssi re f i n' t l re l i nowi edge t hat enabl es one t o see
t' rre lrirth ari,l tli,e passing a,v/ay of beinss
(cutyu' pc' -
pattiparij,iid.).
' fire
aequisition of this knowledgo
i.,c an essentiai stage in nhe progress towards final
ri:leil:;e" Whenel' or tho }ludillra speaks
c,i
the
*' a-lt in ra-hich hc attarned eniiglitonmerrt. be srlYs
that, ira obtrr,ined this kno' ' vledge in ti:o seeond
s.r' atr:h of the nighl,. In the came wa-v f.r' ;e bhiklu
srr vs t hr],t, he |r,r"s rlo rlcLr{l oi tire cliter lbrms of,
l wrorvl erl p4c, t i ri l t : 1rr' obt ai nei i
j ust
bof ore enl i ght er: *
ment.
' l' he
knox k-;d(e a,bout tr,li t,he \"edic lore
pertainurg to srr,i:riiii' ;.:,i i i+' es.
.tii)ntru,,J
lt' ttf, man' tras,
et c. , &re of no use i o
j , i ru.
I i i ' crv f orrn of cl ocl ri ne
t ha, t i s i rl t ur. rl ri l t r, ri i -<i rei t he , Loubt s of peool e and
the ana1.1-ti' .l i<rlowic.dge rr,bc,ub fhe senses, ali tiro
ASAIi GAMUKHA
t 48 ASANGAVYUHA
' !' iirava
nrles. are of tto value to hi-nn. I' Ie has no
eonsr. i orrs: rrr. ss of t he t i rne el ement , f or whet l rer
i t i s <i l l v or ri i qi rt , morni ng or eveni ng. i t rl ocs not
met t er t o i ri rn. ){ext , he ref ers 1, o i he }I ahl i yana
con-eept of Brt rl rl l i a-f i el ds
(bud' dhahsef ro) and savs
t hrLt hr' hrs no ri esi rt ; t o meCi t at e on t hese I l uddhas.
g' hi ei r.
at : corcl i ng t o l I aha--vana, i s i ndi speasabl o
f or <rne who aspi res t o be an at rhat .
What t he bhi ksrr Srl prr: , t i st hi t a rr-ant cd t o say
h' r' tiris &ccoutrt, rr.,s tilirl: he wi;,s a ptrson who
had t l i scarderj cr-t : rv f orm of desi re ancl i i s such
was. f i , n r l r ' hat .
' l ' l i e
t er m ar i i at i s nol used,
as l re cl ai ms t c l t al e acl i i cvecl emanci pat i on by a
Mah65' Lna rrrct l rot l
(rt sai i qant