ENCYCLOPAEDIA

OF BUDDHISM
Volume II
(btt caurtesy of the Brili,sh Museum, Lotdrrpl
.
ARHAT
Chineso glazed pottory l0-llth century from tho I-chu c&vos, Hopei
TNflYCI,$PAH&HA
OF BIJ$H}ffiH$M
edited, by
G. P. MALALASEKERA, o.B.E.
Hox. D. Psrr,. (Moscow), IfoN. D. Lrtr. (Ceyl on),
t{ov. D. Lrtr. (Vi dyodaya Uni v. of Ceyl on),
D. Lr r . ( Lond. ) , l \ I . A. , Ps. I ) . . ( Lond. ) ,
Ilembro d'honneur de I' Ecole Frangaiso d' Extrdme Oriont,
High Comrnissioner for Ceylon in Britain,
Formerly Professor of PaIi end Buddhist Civilization anri
Doan of tbe Faculty of Oriental Studies, {fniversity of Coylon, Professor Emeritus.
VOLUME II
Apa
-
Bharhut
1966
PUBLISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF CEYLON
PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS. CEYLON
l l l
Fascimile Reprint
Reprinted in 1998
by
The Department of Buddhist Affairs
Ministry of Buddhasasana
Direct Copied and Printed at the State Printing Corporation
IV
NOTE
THE system of transliteration used in the case of Pali and Sanskrit terms is that now generally
accepted by scholars and lexicographers. In the case of Chinese and Japanese names and words,
Wade's system has been followed. Where Siamese words are concerned, a system suggested by
H. H. Prince Dhani Nivat has been largely adopted.
In certain cases the textual word (Pali, Sanskrit, Tibetan, & c.) has been retained in prefer-
ence to a dubious English rendering with a connotation foreign to Buddhism. Thus, Sarigha for
the Order of Monks; bhikkhu for priest,
monk or almsman; arahant for saint; karma for action;
bodhisattva for aspirant for enlightenment,
& c. And such term will be used in the language of the
source employed, Nibb-ana (Pali),
Nirv-ana (Sanskrit),
& c. But a comprehensive sysrim of .torr-
references will ensure that the reader who is not familiar with such technical termsis guided from
an English term to the more precise
and classical one; thus, Appeiception, see Jav4na; Awareness,
see Sati; Void, see SEnya; & c.
In Ceylon the dates of events up to the l6th century have been taken from the Chronological
List in the univenity of ceylon, History of ceyton, vol. I,
part
II.
Instead of A. D. the abbreviation A. c. has been used throughout.
ADVISORY BOARD OF THE SANGHA
The venerables:
Phra Ariyanandamuni (Thailand)
Prof. Dr. Polwatte Buddhadatta, Maha NEyaka Thera, Agga Mahe Paqdita (Ceylon)
Phra Nirantarlfr4namuni (Thailand)
Prof. Dr. Dehigaspe PafifidsEra, Ndyaka Thera (Ceylon)
Shirob-Jaltso (China)
Rosen Takashina (Japan)
U Thiuhila, Mahd Thera, Agga Maha Paqgita (Burma)
Iilduruve Uftardnanda, Nfyaka Thera (Ceylon)
U Visuddha, Mahd Thera, Agga Mahe'Papdita (Burma)
BOARD OF HONORARY EDITORS
Phya Anuman Rajadhon
Prof. P. V. Bapat
Prof. Dr. F. D. K. Bosch
Dr. Chao Pu-chu
Dr. E. Cor:.a:€
Prof. Damdin-suren
Prof. Paul Demidville
Prof. Nalinaksha Dutt
Prof. Jean Filliozat
Prof. E. Frauwallner
Dr. Richard A. Gard
Prof. Dr. H. Von Glasenapp
Lama Anagarika Govinda
Prof. Helmut Hoffman
Miss I. B. Horner
Mr. Christmas Humphreys
Dr. B. C. Law
Prof. F. D. Lessing
Dr. U Lu Pe Win
Dr. Shoson Miyamoto
Prof. Dr. Heinz Mode
Dr. Makoto Nagai
Prof. S. Paranavitana
Prof. Nihar Ranjan Ray
Prof. Rahula Sankrityayana
Prof. Tan Yun-shan
Prof. Giuseppe Tucci
Prof. Dr. Ernst Waldschmidt
Prof. Friedrich Weller
Prof, O. H. deA. Wijesekera
vl l
A.
AA.
AAWG.
AbhK.
AbhKbh.
AbhKk.
AbhKug.
Abhs.
Abhcy.
Abhut.
ABIA
ABORI.
AbcPu!.
AbsPry.
Ad{P.
Akanurno 7
Alcanwno
2
AKM.
AM.
AMG.
,
Aniga.
Aneealc'd
Aak.
Au6.
BASR.
BB.
Bbh.
Bc.
Ariguttara Nikiya, f-Vf, ed.
R,.l forri s, E. Hardy, C. A. F.Ii hys
Davi ds, PTS. f 88b-f
gl 0
. o Agrguttaranikdye
Affhakatha,
(l\Lanorathapr-rrani),
I-\/, ed. M.
Walleser, If. Kopp,
pT
S. 1994-56
Abhandlungen der
Alademio der
Wissongchaften in Gcittingerr
Abhidhar,mahoSa (Ndeari
char.a-
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Baaaras, lg30
Abhidharmako6abhEsya,
ed. Th.
Stcherbatsky, BB.- XX, t9g0
AbhidharmakoSak6,rikd, od. L. de
la Vall6e Poussin,
Paris, lg3l
Abhidharnako€avydkhyd,
ed.
U. Woqihara, Tokyo, 1982-86
,A.bhidhammatthasarigaha,
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T. W. B,hys Davida, Jp?,9. 1694,
l _48
Abhidharm&samuecaya,
erl.
P. PraChan, VBS. LZ, l gb0
Abhidh*mrnEvat6ra, ed. A.
p.
Buddhadatta,
BM. l, lglS
Annual Bibliography of Indian
Archmology, Kerrr fnstituto
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Oriontal
P"esea,rch Institute (poona)
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itopadeda35stra (Sanikrii
toxt
errd Tibetan translation),
ed.
Th. Stchorbatsky and E.'Ober-
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Epd-
ramit6vy6J<hy6,
ed. U. iVoei_
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ABBREVIATIONS
AO.
Ap.
ApA'
ArtA.
Arus-
1.,S.
ASCAR.
ASC I.
ASCMem.
A8IAR.
a
ASIMern.
AaP.
Ata.
Archiv Oriont6lni : Journal of the
Czechoslovak
Oriental Insti-
tute
Apg{l}o_,
I-ff, ed. M. E. Lilley,
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ApadEna Atfhakarh6 (Visuddha-
janavil6sini),
ed. C.
'8.
God;-
kumbura,
P?,S. lg54
Artibus Asiao (Ascona,
Switzer-
land)
Arthavini6geya,
od. A. Ferrari,
Iiome, 1944
duvihara Serios (Colombo)
Archeological
Srrrvey
of Ceylon,
A:rnual Report
Archaological
Survey
of Ceylon,
Ilrscnptron
Archeological
Survey of Coylon,
Memoir
Archeological
Survey of India,
Amual Report
Archeologicaf
Survey of hdia,
Memoir
AqJasdhasrikdpraji
6p6ramit6,
od.
R. Mitra,
Caicuita, tggg
A@natil<asrltra,
od. I[. Iloftnann
(Bruchetiicke
dos Atanatiaa-
sritra),
RITwrJ. V, lg3g
AvaddnakalpalatE,
ed. S. C. Das,
ar. 1888-:98
Avg{grafetaka,
ed.
p.
L. Vaidya,
BS?. 19,
l 95g
Bulletin de I'Acad6mie
doe Soienceg
do Russie
Bibliotheca
Buddhiea (Loningrad,
Bodhisattvabhrimi,
U. Woeil
hara, Tokyo, lgBF36
o-
BtITS;".y6vetd,re,.
ed. L. de ta
vaueo foussin,
Calcutta,
l 90t - r 4
Boclhica_ry-qyalerapafijikd,,
ed. L.
de la Vall6e
pouinin,
f
g0Z
Buddhist
Dictionary,
by NyEna-
Iloka_
(reviseh-
-eailiort,
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BeaI, S. : lho Buddhist
T"ipi-
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Bullotin de l'6cole
trlanOaie€
d'Extr6mo
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Bendall, C. : Catalogue of Buddhist
Nanskrit Manuscripts,
Cam-
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Bhadrakalpdvad6na,
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Oldenboirrg,
1884
Buddhist
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Gram-
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F. Edgerbou, Yalo, lgd5
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BD.
Beal.
BEEEO.
Bendall
Bhkd,u.
aIrs.
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Bll.r,k. Bhavasa4nkrd,ntisritra (end com-
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1938
Bibliotheca Indioa (Calcutta)
Bibliogrephie Bouddtriquo (Paris)
Bollotino doll' Instituto Indiano
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A. P. Buddhadatte, P?,S. 19I5,
t927
Bullotin ds la Maison Francc-
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Bhikpqripr6timokga, od. E. Wald-
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Bibliothoca Orientalis llungarica
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Bulletin of the School of Oriental
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Institution
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Buddhist S*nnkrit Toxte (Dar-
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Buddbacarita, ed. E. II. Johrreton,
Cal cut t a, 1935
Buddhaghosuppatti (with transla-
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Buddhavatnss, ed. R. Morris,
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Tho Coylon Journal of Eistorical
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Coylon Journal of Scionce-Ssc-
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cpa-
CPD.
Cuisp.
D.
DA.
Ddlhu.
Dbhg.
Dbha.
DCBT,
DeS.
DeZ.
Dhlc.
Dhrnpr.
Dhp.
DhpA.
Dhpr.
Dhs.
DheA.
Dhscy.
Dhorytg.
Ntry-
BI.
BibtB.
BIIMEO.
BM.
BMFJ.
BTtnPrd,t.
BOE.
BPrdt.
A,S.
B^SO.4,S.
B^gs.
BST.
Buc.
Bup.
Buu.
BuuA,
Cabaton
Cq,tul.
CHJ.
CI T.
CJHSS.
CJSI.
Cku.
Coril,ier
Cp.
I ) P P A .
Dpv.
Dpu. ! .
I)ttltapt.
EI .
Ency. Bsnt.
ERE.
EW,
EZ.
Gg.
G]II,
GOS.
Gst.
G1,.
Guyti.
IIa,tl hu.
Hhs.
Hetub.
HJ AS.
HOS.
Hap.
I A.
IAL
IBK,
I C.
IHQ.
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JDLC.
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Jirgk.
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Ni rl dcsu-r' ar.rr.!Rnri ,
Papafi casi rdani ,
' l )arrr,mutthadi p*ni ,
. .
Paru.m&tthadiped, . .
Pararnatths,dipani, . .
l ' o,rarnal ,thadrpani ,
. .
Prlrrr,rn ult t h*dipani,
l'alarnatt]radipani. . .
Ilaru,r rru,tthaj otik4 f
,
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Parl nraLthamarrj usi ,
Sr;,,t{dharnrnapaj joi,ika f
,
fI,
Sadd ira,nrrnappakE sini,
Sarni rntapasfi di k6,.
S arnrrr ohav i n o rlu,n i,
iSirattirapptr,kEsini, . .
Sumangal avi l asi ni ,
V ru u dclb a1 outt v rhisjni,
\ r l j r r r l i r cl , od. f r r nr {
t r ar , r l r i t er i
) .
S. t t . l l r i khopni l | 1y*r , yr , , ,
S, r r , t i -
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Vi sm.
T' r t t .
\I ZKX,I.
Yam.
YumA.
?.DMG,
Crossrel erencos of speci al ti tl es to Abbrevi ati ons
Dhammasangani Allhaka,tha
ISuddhavamsa Atf hakat h6
.{t'rgutt ara }iikaya A!{,hakatha
Maha-iCrilla- ) niddesa Atlhakath6,
IIaj jhina
Nikdya Af,{,hakat}rd
Cariyapitaka Althakatha
f tir,rrttaka At
t,hakath6,
Paflcappakars,+a Alf,hakathd,
Petavatthu Apthakatha
lllheragathd A!{.hakatha
Therigatla A!,{hakathe . .
Khudclakapalha At thakatha
SuttanipE,ta A1lhakath !,
Visiiddhimagga Atlhakathd
Il ahn-(Cui l a-)
ni ddese Af
l hakatha
Patisam triridamagga A
t,lhakatha
Vinaya A'ythakathn
Vi bhanga
A!!,hakathn . .
Samyutta Nikiiya -{fi,hakrthii
Digha Nika;za Atphakatha
Apadana Agphakat ha . .
(DhsA.\
(BunA. \
( AA. )
(NdA. r, II)
(MA. )
(cpA. )
( I A. I
(PpA.)
(Puv,A.l
(ThasA.)
(ThEsA.)
(Khpa.)
(SnA. )
(ViarnA)
(Nd,4.. I, il)
(PsA. )'
(VdnA. )
( vbhA. )
(,S-4,)
(DA. I
(apA)
2. s. P. (: , e8420
XV
INITIALS AND NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS
Andr6 Bareau
A. C- Banerj oe
A. C. S. I{ariyaw&s&ru
Akira llirakawa
A. L. Bagham
Bimala Churn Law
B. I)andaron
Banduls Jayawardhana
Bunyii Matsuda
Bonjamin Rowland
Chii-tsan
Chang K'e-cf i611g
C. Prabha
Constantin Rogamoy
Cbou Shu-chia
C. Sivaramamurti
Choshi Takoda
C. Witanachchi
D, J. Kalupahana
D. M. Lang
Dheni Nivat
D. T. Devendre
Dovapriya VeUsinha
Etatsu Akashi
E. Conze
Ernost Hunt
E. Ilector Perera
Enshrr l(anakura
Enicbi Oeho
Fa-tsun
Lama Govinde
George Coed$s
Gyokusen Ilosaka
Gauri K. Wijesekera
Gisyo
Nakano
G. N. Roerich
G. P. Malalasokers
Huang Ch'au-hua
Iforamba Chatterjee
I{. G. A, van Zeyet
ffohugon fchihawa
K. I I e.
K. IL.
I{. Ifu.
K. Kr.
I(. KE.
I(. I(u,
K. M,
K. N. J.
K. O.
K. s.
I {. Tx.
K. Turi .
I(. Tuv.
I(. Ts.
Ii . Yu.
K. Ys.
K. Yo.
I-,. A.
Hidenori Kitagawa
Hajime
Nakamura
I{. R. Perera
H. S. Cooray
Hakuju Ui
I{ebnut von Glasonapp
II. Sr. Bailoy
Issai Funahashi
Indumatie Karunaratno
fchimyo Suzuki
J. D. Dhiregokera
Jean Filliozet
Jf,shin Ikemoto
Jun Kugao
J. Kunkeler
Joh Myung-gi
J. N. Ganher
Jishu Oda
J. Takasski
Juneho Tanake
K. E. Wells
Kotatsu Fujita
Kyosho llayashirna
Keiki Eigashimoto
Kanyu Kabcse
Kazuyoshi Kino
Kodo Kurebryashi
I(ao Kuan-ju
I(dgen Mizuno
K. N. Jayatilleko
I{6jun Oyama
Kyogo Sasaki
I(anga Takabatake
I(ashiro Tamaki
Koy[ Ta'rnura
I{enryi Tsukinowa
I(yod6 Yamada
Kdsai Yasui
Kuo Yiian-hsing
Li An
XVII
L. C.
L. Cr.
L. d. z.
L. L.
I,. P. W.
L. R. G.
L. s.
L. T.
M. C.
M. K.
M. Z.
S. K.
S. Ku.
S. K. N.
S. Kr:.
S. l l e.
S. III.
S. Mo.
S. \ [ u.
S. Nr .
S. No.
s. o.
S. P.
S. Se.
S. Su.
S. Te.
S. Ts.
S. Y.c..
S. Yo.
T. C. H.
T. r.
T. I(e.
T. Ko.
T. Ku.
T. R.
T. S.
T. T.
T. Yo.
U. K.
w. G. w.
w. P.
w. R.
vt , . s.
w. s. K.
W. S. Kr .
Y. C.
Y. H.
Y. K.r.
Y. I(n.
Y. O.
Y. S'
Y. T.
z. T.
z. N.
Lti Ch'8ng
f.i Chung-r'arrg
Luey de Zoysa
Lung-lion
Lu Pe lVin
Lakehmi R. Goonesekere
Lueng Suriyabongs
Lin Tzfr-ch'ing
Moti Chandra
Morito Kayamoto
Makoto Zen.ba
N. A. Jayawickrama
Novillo Gunoratn-e
Nyanamoli Bhikkhu
Nyenasatta Thore
Nguyon Thang Thai
Osama Takada
Phya Anuman
Phouwong Phimrnasone
Poon Pismai Diskul
P. S. Jai ni
P. V. Bapat
R. A. Gunatilaka
Ryrikai Etani
Ryosetsu Fujihara
Retna I{andurukande
R. I.ingat
Reiho Masunaga
R. ].Iagaswemy
RyOshO
Nakamura
Rahula Sankrityayana
Ryodo Shioiri
Ryojun Shirakawa
RyOshd Taire
Ry0gaku Tsumoto
Ryrijo Yamade
Subhadradis Diskul
S. Dutt
Seibun Fukaura
Shigoru Gorai
Shintetsu ItO
Shriyn Kenaoka
Shozen Kumoi
S. K. Nanayakkara
Shunkyo Katsumata
Seiren Matsunami
Seiichi Mizuno
Sodo Mori
Sokusui Murakami
Seiryu \fasu
Shunjd Nogami
Senshi Ogasahara
S. Paranavitana
Shinten Sakai
Shinjo Suguro
Shinjo Tekonake
Sti Tsin-jen
Susumu Yamaguchi
Shfiki Yoshimura
T. Christmas Humphreys
Taijun Inokuchi
Toshio Kazama
Tokusui Kotani
T'ien Kuang-lieh
T. Rajapatirana
Takoshi Sakurabe
Tokan Tada
Toru Yasumoto
Upali Karunara,tna
W. G. W-eeraratne
W. Pachow
Walpola Rahula Thora
\Vang Sen
W. S. Karunaratne
W. S. I{arunatillake
}-ii Ch6n-sheng
Yu Hsia
Yuichi Kajiyuma
Y. Iiarunadasa
Yriken Ozawa
Yirbi Sanada
Yoshiro Tamura
Zenn} lshigami
Zonky0 Nakagawa
XViii
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
sbhl dhamma ( abhl dhar ma) , ' epeci el
d, har nma, ,
the analytic doctrine of the Buddhist cenon.
Buddhiet philoeophy
;
n&me of the third group
of the sarronieal books,
abhlpeka, rituel initiation, consecration of a rulor.
Eoarlya (icarya), teachsr.
trgama, a division of the Sanskrit cenonical t€rte
corrrsponding to niknyo of tho Peli canon.
tn6glmln,
'novor-rotumor',
ono who hae attained
tho tbird stage of tho path of holinoss.
tpgaras, coleetial nymph.
srshsnt (arhat), the perfected disoiple.
llana,
geat
or support of a god or group of gods.
6sava (6srava), montel intoricant.
tgutt, inferior deity inhabiting a lower world.
aytdtne, Etory illusbrating the rseultg of an act.
Dl8gavtrr, e soction of the Pali texts, e division
for purposes of recitation.
Dllkkhu (bhlkgu),
a Buddbigt monk.
bhlkkhunl (bhtkSuql), a Budd[iet nun.
bh[ml, stago of a bodhinattva'e neligious psogloss.
DIla, lit.
'
seed
', '
germ
',
the eeod of onlightenment;
mystic lotter or syllablo in a magic fornula.
bodhl, enlightenment.
Doilhloltta,
'thougbt
of onlightenmont
,,
mental
efrort for enligbtonmont.
bodhlsatta (bodhlsattva), a boing aspiring to the
supre,mo onlightonment of a Buddba.
brahmaoarlytr, roligioua life, celibacy.
brahmaloka, bighest heaven, abodo of brahmas.
brtrhman, a momber of tbe priestty caete in India,
from Yedic timse onwarde.
brahma-vlhira, Ut.
'divine
abodos', tbo four
gullimo
or divine statee of mind (lovo, pity,
oympathetic joy,
equanimity).
Butlilha, tho Enlightenod Ono.
buddhak6ott8,'Buddhe.field',
domain of a Buddha's
miniotry.
ctltya, so€ oetlya.
caklayattln (cakravartln), world ruler.
c84{ela, an outcaste.
sotlya (caltya), a eepulohral nonument; e shrine.
deva (dovat[), a doity.
-loka,
hoaven.
dhamma (dharma), norm, law, doctrino; thi'lg,
objeot of mind
;
phonomenon.
dh[rapl, a magic foruula.
dharma, soe dhamma.
dbarmaf,[yo, ono of tJre tbree forue of existonce
of tho Buddhe, according to MahEydna, correti.
tutiag the essence of ell Buddhar.
dhy8na (lhtna), rtete of mentat abaorption.
dhyEnt-bodhlsattva, transconclont bodbissttva.
Dhy[nlbuddha, transcendeat Buddhs.
gstrdhabba (gsnalh8rTr), oelortial mueioian.
Stthl,
ver8o,
gt*nza.
gfvuta, a linoar Do€tsurs, lods t'hau two mileg.
guhyantna, m5rstio uaule.
Elnay6nq
'tho
srnall vehiole', Dsno iu Ma,b6ytrna
texte deecribing tbe ea,rly temhing of Buddhian.
Tborevdde being tbe bes0 howa.
lddht (tddhl), psychic powor.
titaka,
story of a previoue birth of ths Bud,lhc.
thdna
(dLyina), state of montal ebsot4ptim.
kalpa (kappa), a world oycle, an a€oD.
karma (kamma), action
;
law of cause
eod offcot,
khattlya (f,latrlye), e menber of the wenior oagte
klnnarl (kltrnara), mythical b€ing, pertly
hunan
ho{lr a croro or lQ
rnilli64.
kgatrlya, eee Mettlyr.
kusalg (kuislr), good, ncritorloue; skilful. rtuarlr
(akuiah), imrropor, wr(xrg, bad; ungkilful.
lona, a Tibetan Buddbigt priest.
lokadhttu, world eystem.
fahiydnc,
'tbe
greet vohicle', nano givea to tbo
developod t6r6ahings of Buddhisn, basod oa tbe
dootrino of seving othors.
xlx
ma4dslS, ma,gic cirele.
mantra, mystic formula.
mudrfl, mystic poso of the hand.
neg8, snako, serPent-demon.
Nibbins
(Nirvdna), cessation of the process of
bocoming, tho ultimato goal in Buddhism.
nlk6ya, sub-division of the Pali canon'
ntnya,
purgatory, hell.
ulrmii4akEys,
one of ths threo forms of the Ruddha,
aceording to Mah6y6na, constituting tho human
fom arloptod by him.
HlrvEUa, se€ Nlbbiina.
Docookrbuatdha
(pratyekabuildba)' &n onlightened
ons who doee not preach to the world.
pr$Clt, lea'rned porson.
pEramlti, perfection by a bodhisattva.
psrlbbelska (parlvrilaka), a wandering roligious
mendicant.-f.
parlbbiilka (parivr[iika).
p8rltt8, protoctive charm, usually part of the canon.
peta (prota), a departed sPirit.
plAiioa (pls6ea), I demon, goblin.-f. pMcl (plsSsl).
pratyekabuililhr, soo paocekabuililha.
purohltS, br6hman chaplain t6 s'
king.
rlf6,
king
or member of the ruling family.
Ialilhl,
s€o ldilhl.
rtkkhasa
(r6kgosa), a,lrind of malovolont demon.-f.
rskkhssl (r6kFast).
rtilhana, forrnula f,or tho invocation of a deity.
sakadegemh
(sakTiltrgilmln),' onoe rotulner', one
who has attainod tho socond stago of holinoes.
$oktl,
enorgy of a god, symbolisod as a fomale.
Sikya, n&mo of a clan to whieh Gotama Buddha
belongod.
$8miilhl, concontration.
sflma4era, e novice.-f. siima4erl.
sambhogakliya, one of tho three forms of existence
of the Buddha, according to Mah6yd,na, consti-
tuting the superhuman form in which he manifoste
hirnself.
sarnslla, round of birth and doath.
Sangha, community of Buddtriet rnonks and nuns.
sEsana, message, teaching, dispensation.
sdvaka
(6rf,vaka),
di sci pl e of the Budtl ha.-f. si vi ki
( sr i vl ki ) .
setthi, wealthy merchant,' treasurer, bankrrr.
si l a, morai practi ce, rnoral i ty.
Sl oka, stanza.
soti panna (Sroti panna),
'
stream-rvi nner' , who has
attained the initial stago of holiness.
sotapatti (Srotdpatti), enteriug upon and attaining
the first stage of the path of holiness.
sti i pa (thi pa), a rel i c-mound.
sutta ((s[tra), a discourse in tho canon.
tantra, a class of osoteric literature.
Tathigata, epithet of a Budclha, genorally used
by Gotanaa Buddha in reforence to himself.
thera, a
gonior
monk.
thori, a sonior nun.
thtipa, see stiipa,
Tipi{aka (Tripitka), the Buddhiat cenon, oonsisting
of threo eolloctions, Vinaya, Sutta, Abhidham"'a.
uddena, summary of contents.
upesaka, a lay devotee.-f. upEsike.
llp8sampAalf,, ahigherordingfisn of a monk or a nun.
uposatha,
'fasting
day', a woekly eaered day,
dopendent on tho pha"se of the moon.
flrqd (unp5), circle of bair botween oyo-brows.
u$Slfa (u4hisa), protuberance on head of Buddhas.
vagg:r (varga), chaptor of a book.
Yehana, the mount, of a doity.
vlhlra, monastery.
Vlnaya, monastic discipline. Collection of rules
of coaduct for monks and nuns, formins &
division of the c&non.
yakkha (ya$a), & domon.-f. yakkhlnt
(yaksi,
yakgi 4i ).
JoBa,
union
;
concentration of mind
;
endgavour;
austoro ascetic practice
;
(magic) powor.
yogln, one who praetisos contomplation;
one
p,ossessod of supernormal powers.
yogini, female demon or eny boing endowod with
magieal power; woma,n reprosenting a goddess
who is the object of adoration.
yot,rng, a linear me&srlre, ahout 7 miles.
XX
EI\CYCLOPAEDIA
OF
BTJDDHISM
VOLTJME II
IPA, weter, one of the mah6bhfita. Soo BIIUTA.
APA, a clase of deities montioned in the Mahfr-
eanury& Sutto (D. II, 259) among those attending
tbo groat concoureo of gods which essomblod to
hear tho preaching of the Buddha. The word
Apo detsd,,literally meaning water-gods, is mentioned
along with threo others, palhansi (oa.rth) detsd,
teio (fire) d,eod, snd a6,yo (air) deud. The
commontary on ths sutta (DA. T1,689) says that
the Apd, d,eud wetc born as such by virtuo.of their
having practised meditation on wat'er (d,pokosi,rw)
in their provious lives. But tbe four groups of
devas mentioned here are, more plausibly, doi6oa-
tions of the four elements, earth, water, fire and air.
B. J.
APABERAilSA, the generic na,me givon to various
Middle Indian Vemaculars es 8ep&rato from the
standard literary Prakrit languages. At first
they were only spoken dialects but later they,
too, roceived literary fom. The word et5rmo-
Iogicelly rne&ns
'doparturo
from correct speech'.
The Apabhrap6a dialects were the immediate
predocoesors of the modern Indo-Ary&n vernecu-
lars, Thoy were used by various Jain and Buddhist
authors but it is d.ifficult to say when they booamo
literary languages-
Early mention of the word apabhra,mia itself
goer &s far back as tho 2nd cont,. 8.0. lho uso of
Ap*bh'a1o.e by writers go6s baok to at least the
?th aont, A,C.; ond wos currerrt fsr somo half a
dozen centuries afterwards. P. C. Bagchi speaks
of a well-known Tibetau tradition that the
efreen sf the MnJrde*nr+etlyee
.rss
written in
Apabhrarn-6a.
I
In its lator days it, was a vehicle
of a class of Buddhist poetry in the dohfr met'to
(couplets of varying measure). Buddhist divines,
suo as TillopEda, Sorahapdda and l{aphapEda,
composed zuch verses on the subjoct of mysticism.
This idiom was then traditionally called eandhyd
bhd,€d (twiligbt tongue). The lator sects, €.8.,
Tantrists and Vajraydnists, also hed some litereturo
iu Apabhra4gSa. (See E. L. Jain, Thc Hi'st'ory and
Qulture of the Inilian Peopil,e, fV, 2I2 ff.)
D. T. D.
APACARA, a king of the first kappe snd e previous
birth of Dovadatta. I[o was tho world's firet li8r.
Ile was better known as Upacara.
APAOAYIKA SUTTA of the Sacw Saqnyutta
(,S. V, 468), incorroctly named Padyikc both in tho
text and thLe uddd,na (DPPN. ff' 92), etetee that
those who pay respect (opdyi'kd) to elders a,ro fbw,
whereas those who do not aro quite numerorrs.
The sutta is very short and was dolivored by the
Buddha to the monks.
APACCAKXHAKAilUA SIITTA. Tbe Buddha
says, in &nswer to a quostion by Vacchtgobtn,
that it is as s result of not making clear the rreturo
of the fivo groups of existence (klwdlnl bllo;r
diverso viows ariso ae to whether tho world is
etornal or not, finito or not, wbether the life and tlro
body are identicel or not, whsthor tho Tatbdgata
exigts after death or not (,S. frT, 262).
APAC0UPALAKKEAIIA SUTTA. Tho arisirrg of
diverse views, given in tbe Apm'cakhlnkornma
$utta, is attributod to not differentieti.E the livo
gtoupB of evistence (S.
rTf,
261).
APACCUPEKKEANA
SUTTA AttribUtOg tIrO
arlsing of diverso views to not looking into the live
groups of erietence (S. III, 262).
APACITADEANA.
PRAPURAUA
-VIDHI.KALPA.
VBKSA-PAU$TII(A-N^[,ilA,
the rtconstructed Sans'
krit title of a text, the authorship of wlrich is
1
"
Fuudamental Problems of the Origins of Buddhism "
Grawi-laa-d*i,a,
New Series, XVII, No.168). See also this
iasre ruthor's &'rdizs in tlu Tarrttay (p- 27
) for his lnterpreta-
tion of scndlra bMil as' lntentional speech
'-
APADA!{A
APADATA
attributod to Ye-$es rdo-rje (Jfiikravajra).
It6
Tibetan vereion cccurs in the Rgyud_trgrd
(ta,ntra
co.mrrrentary) soction
of the Tongyur uudor
tho titts Nar-f,grib-pa
dgari,-bahd cln-ga dpq-baom
lnrgyas-ptt
shes-bya-ba (peking
Ed" Tib. Trip., ed..
D. T. Suznki , Voi . 79, No. BgS4). The work
describes a rito to bo performed
for the rosioretion
of lost wealth.
'Iho
main instruetiong
e€t out
i:r the work are as follows.
An altar should be
erected with a rnixture
of earth brouglrt from
the promisos
of a not ioo poor horrso. An eiqht_
potallod red lolus should bo drawn on it with"the
figuros of a uajra in the micldle, a flask in the east,
a club (gadd) in the soutb, a shield in the north end
a coin (karsd,pana)
in tho rvest. Oblatione (bali)
and offorinp;s
of lamps, inconse, flowors and conch-
sholls should bo propared.
Garlands of flcryars
should bo hrrng on four posts of kL,atlira (aaacia
catechuj wood placed at the four orrtrancee. Irinaily,
precious stones, corr and tho like shoulcl be laid
out, on the top of tho circlo of offerilgs. trlowers,
leaves and fruits should thon be arrangod
along the
border cf the cirr:le (rrnndala).
Various kinds of
scont should be sprinkletl and i;zrsrz grass
strown
around. Curtains of difforent kinds cf silk should
be h.tog enclosing tho venue of t,ho sscrifico.
T'nages
and paintin.gs
of tho Tathdgata are to bs
placed on the sicles, as also offorings of dolicious
food, drink and paps. The priest, aajra and boll
in hand and decked
-,vith
ornaments, sbould. thon
perform the ceremor'-ial ablutions standing on the
ground strewn with lcuia grass.
Ilis assistairts,
also bsdecked with ornaments,
should be instailo,i
in their propor placos. Then those stsnding on tho
right should enter from bohind and drive out
evil spirits with the sound hil,m and, t..un back.
Thoso on tho loft should entor from the north-oast,
chant the formula
O\n uajra yakaa
hd,m hfim and.
so prevent the appearanee
of evil spirits responsible
for the docreaso of *'ealth. Tbo ceromony should
continue for three days. On the third day, the
priest shorrld enter the circlo (ma4dnla)
frorn tho
west, porform & coremony
of consocration,
make a
large offering to I{uvera and nominate trinr to be
in charge cf the r.iches. Theroupon t;he priost, and
his essistqnh should request l(uvera and tri.s
following
'bo
incroaso their woalth aad. prevent
any loss oi'it. IvIoro offerings ero to be rnacle to the
accompanirnellf,
of tho sour.d of e5rrnhals and
further bleesings
solicited.
R" H.
APADANA, the thirtoenth soction of tho Kh,wddaka.
Nikdga of the Sutkt, .Pipaka. ft is a narretivo
wurk entircly in Pali stanzae and, as ths title
of tho book iiadicrtoe, is a coli.ection of taloe of the
piour works of the saiqts cr srahante.
The book ccrnsists of four rnain
gocf,ions,
n&mely,
fi) tho Budd.hd,pailnrr,o,
.
(ii) the Pa.ccekahtddhd-
puldrn, (iii) the Therapadano and lestly, (iv) tho
Therd-a1n&ru,
Theso four eections &ro agaln
subdivid,ed into fifty-nino groups or l'aggas. Of
thsm, the first fifa,y-fivo vaggas consist of 6b0 tales
ubout theras, oach vagga consisting of ten teles,
and :ramod after the titlo of the first tale narrated
in the v&gga. In the first vagga are algo includerl
b}ae B'uddhopad,dno arrd tho Paccelc,abtuldtd,paddna
whi.:b aro but minor soctione of the book. Tho
lest four v&ggas of the book coneist of forty talee of
thoris, o*ch vagge consisting of ten i*rlos.
The Bu<ld,fui1taddno ie & glorification
of tbe
Buddha, tho
'King
of th€ Dtr&rnma, endowod
with tho thirty porfoctions
{parami)'.
Ilere
tho }Juddha hirnself is mado to pronounco i,his
gic-,rifieati.on in reply to a question raised" by the
t:ldor Vedeha. In thie glorification the Buddha is
rnade to deecribo tho various meritorious d.oeds
ho had dono in his provious brtthe and their good
results.
'Ihe
Budd,hd,paidna, en.ds fut 8l strnzas
with a brief admorrition to tho monks to be united,
hoeriful and to follow the Noble Eightfold
peth.
Tho Pqccckab,wlilhapadd,rrq,
is a glorifie*tion of
paccokabuddhas
who
'
go their soiitary way,
like the rhinocoros'. l'he entiro sutta of tt^e
rhinocoros (Khaggaai.siirw
Sutta: Sn. i.
g)
is inserted hers. To tlro 4l stenzas of that sutte
another 17 etanzas have beon added, I et the
beginning and I at tho ond, thus making tho
Paccekabu,Jd,hdpaddna
a compositicrn
of 58 stanz&e.
This sect ion of tho book is written in a metre
differen.t from the rsgt of the book. (The
ffrst three
stanzas of the book are also in the same notr€.)
Tlre 7'herd,7ta,tlfina describos the glorious
do€ds of
55O arahants, beginning with tho story of S6riputta,
the chief disciple of tlre Buddha. This story
alono is longer than both the Buildhrt,yffirw
urrd.
l;ho Paccelcabu.dilhnpa.ddna (2- stauzas). The story
of Sd,rirrr:tta is followed by thoso of other faeous
monks such as Mah6.Moggall6na,
Mah6,-Kassapa,
Anuruddha, Upili, Aflfid-Koldaflfia, pi4dola-
Bh6radv6ja, Auande, Rihula, RsFihapflla and
$opdka.
Thesr: biographies of tho theras are of tho somo
patterr," though thoir length differs considerably
from one another. I)very tale describee Bomo
moritorious deed done by the thera conoernd.
durirrp;
+"he
time
of a former Br:d.Cha and thon ths
APADANA
Apa.lrunl
pleasrrrea obr,ained during his subsequent eris-
Lgnces in nceordance with the prophecy uttered
try theib Butldhn s,nd. uiti:nately, the at,tainment,
of tho per.ferettion of nrr arahnnt," A:rotber charrlc-
teristic leatrrro of th*-.se Apaddnu-,t is fhu,t, like the
,l dtnkrts,l l most, al l of them have a story of t,her past
&Rd B. story c{ tho present,^
Wberess the Jtitolcos
relate a pror,'irrus existenco of the Budclha, the
Apadd,nas relate i.htr,t. of an arahant. Oniy a few
Apa'ildnas devia,to from this stereot5,pe.
"The
Tlteri-upadd,r,a is also compar"atively short.
It consists of biographies of fortv rerrowned nune,
divided into four vaggn,s or groups, each vagga
consilt,ing rrf ton bioqraphios. IIere appoar bio-
graphies of
gome
of tho famous nuns in tsuddhist
liferature, srreh as llahipajdpati Gotami, Khern6,,
ITpl r*rlu,"' ar.ir., 6. Patdc drd,, II r r n daiakesi, Tt i s6,gqt
alrr i,
Nanrtd, Jouapadakai.yir,ri, Yesodhar6, Il,ripananda
and Ambap6,li. These biographies of uuns follow
the same pattern as thoso of monks.
In additicn to these. there &ro & largo
number
of names which are only descriptive titles, e.g.,
the theras,t' Di spenser
of fans ",
,,
Di speneor of
elothes ",
Dispenser of mangoes
", " lVorshipper of
lbotprints ", $nd thc theris,
',
I)ispenser
of
water ", " i)iepenser of fi.ve se&ts ",
,,
Dispenser
cf rico gruol
" and the like.
Tlrc Apxtd,ano is eertainlv one of the latest works
of tfo Khttdd,aka Nikdga and of tbe canon. Ag
B. C. [,aw
ha.q pointed out irr his Histmy af
pali
Litcrrttu,,re (p. 7), th"
Apa.ddno is not includ.od as a
lrrrr.1, .r1' tJ:e K.huil.daka tlikdlta in tlro Di,ghabh^iqtaka
list,, but, it finds mention as the thirtsenth book
of'tho Elrud&rku N'ikdya ir r,he Majjhimobhinalco
list,, Thirr woulcl lead to the inference thet et tho
timei the Dngh,i,bhd,nalca listt was completed the
Apsddrw weg not congiderod ss I text of the
Khu.ddaka N,ikd,ya, and probably also of
+,he
cAnon.
Morerovor, the reforence in tho Apaddna to numerous
Buddhas presupposes tire legencl
of twenty-four
previorrs Buddbas which ie only a later develop-
nrent of the older legend of six Bucldhas
contained
irr other ports of the c&non srrch as the D\gho
!li,hd,ya. B. C. f,aw also sa,ys that
on6 of the
Apadaruw sooms to allurfe tc the Kathduatth,u,
&d &n Abhidita,mtz.z cornposition (Ap. I, B?) and
IlLyu Do-ido B,rBueF tlrst, if it i;i so, fne Apaddna
qr.et
lre o-r of'lhe rrery latest books of tfuo canon,
Tha Apaddnc melces no attempt to ioach the
higlrer doctrineg in Buddhisrn. fts storiee deel
with the merits done by the good pecple, laying
rauch strese ol the formal eepects of religion, 6.g.,
pfr,jd,
aondattti, ddna,, etc. Very often tho good
deed is tbe erection of a cetiya, cleaning round
a cotiya, white-washing a cotiya, sweeping the
compound of a cetiya or a bodhi-tree or some such
comrnonpls,ce action. Thtis, the Apoitdrw
hes aimod to emphasise ths charitable and human-
itarian aspects of Buddhiet life.
Tlne Apad,d,nn is as copious a composition as
the Jita,ka, though of less literary valuo. Its
naffativos boar much in corn'non with thoeo of tho
TheragrTtha, tbe Thertgarha and the Vimd,nantatthu
in their contents and also in their style. Sonnc
n&rratives of tho ApaC,arw give more details of tho
personeges
described in the Thera, Ther*gdihd. o.g.,
Kisdgotami
and Paf dcdr6.
The legends of the Apadana have beoa tbe eubjeot
mattor for many other ,later compositiong, like
the two Pali workg,l}rre Sdd,huenrito and tho Rua-
udhini, and the two Sinhaleso proso works, ths
Puj au alig a end tho K athind,nis ams &y a.
T\e Apaddrwhn its counterpart in t}lre Auaildru
in Buddhist Sanekrit literature.
I I . R. P.
APADAilA-ATTEAI(ATHA, the oommonrary oo
the Apadine. Ses VISIIDDEAJANAVILASINI.
APADAXIYA, Brr crahant thors. Ninety-two
kappas ago ho oulogised the life-hietory
@pffitum
pakittayir.n) of the Budrlhn and paid
homage et
hi.e feet. Ae e conesquoaco of this good deed he
know no svil birtb theroaftar (Ap.I,24).
APADIKA, & river, on the banks of which Vsgabha
thera, in a provioue birtb as the rnattsd
heirod
escetic (jaiila)
Ndrada, erscted t pulirw (sa,nd)
cetiya which was Bneared with gold in memory of
earlier Buddhas (Thag /t.. If, tO). Intho Apaffitu,
Vaeabha thera is reforred fe ss
prrlinathripiyatthera,
aud tbe river Apadiks es Amerike (var.
Apariko:
Ap. TI , p. a37) .
ApAlfUnA, a grove in tho city of S6nkE6ye
in
Irrriia, meationod in the Aaaddna Sda,ka.
'When
Maudgalydyana informed the Buddha in the
'Ird,yatrirpiat
d,euq, world that the people af Jambu-
d:tttpa were &nxious to
gee
him, the Buddha aeked
hivn f6 Bnnounce to them that be would come dowrt
from the deuo world and appeor iu the Apajjura
gr ove ( 4u6. 215, 216) .
U. K.
APALATA 4 A-P'AII
APAIAIA, a nega king converbed by the Buddha,
mentioned in the Buddlmaamsa corn'nentary
(BuaA. 32) along with Arav6la, Dhanapdla and
P6,rileyyaka, whoro it says that tho Buddha was
honoured even by beasts. In the Sama&apd-
sdd,ikd, (VinA. TV, 742\ the conversion of Apald.la
(Apalaladamana) is given among the stories
.not
included in the three Councils (Sohg6ti) but tho
reference to it in the Mahiuamsa (Mha. xxx,
84) as one of the many scenes depicted in ths
relic chamber of the Mahdthripa shows that the
incident was known quite early in Ceylon.
(See Vol. il Pl. I). TIte Dduyd,aadfrna (pp. 348,
385) makes referenco to tbo incident and says that
thon6ga was converted shortly beforo tho death of
the Buddha. I{stian-tsang (Beal, Records of the
'Western
World, f, pp. 168-9) gives the story in
detail. According to him this ndga was borr as a
man called Gangi in the time of Kd3yapa Buddha.
By his charms ho overcame the power of the
dragons and the people were able to harvest much
grain. Thereupon each family agreed to offer him
a peck of grain as a yearly tributo. Later, somo
forgot their promise and Gangi prayed that he rnight
become a dragon after death to destroy their crops.
IIis wish was fulfilled and he began to destroy all
the products of the earth. The Buddha out of com-
passion went there, to convert the dragon. Taking
tb.e mace of the Vajrapdr,'i spirit, he beat against
the mountain side. Tho dragon king, terrified, came
forth and paid him roverence. Ifearing the
preaching of the law by the Buddha ho was pleased.
Tho Buddha forbade him to injure tho crops but
tho dragon in order to support himself begged to
havo ons gathering overy twelvo yoars. The
Buddha granted this request. It is because of this
that tho Whito Rivor (Subhd,aa^str,r) overflowe its
banks every twelfth year.
Fa-hsien, too, gives a short account of the
conversion of the nd,ga. I{o says that the ndga
was the guardian deity of tho Subh6vastu river
and was converted by tho Buddha at Udydna
shortly beforo his death (Leggo, Ia-Eian'a
Traaels, p. 29). Nariman in his Litera,ry Edstow
oJ Sa,nskrit Bud,itrhism (pp. 194, 214) says that
this incident is montioned in the Sil,trdlari,kdra
and other Sanskrit books. Soe aleo AXARARA.
E. Ii . P.
APALOKINA SUTTA. The Buddha s&ys (,S. IV,
370) that the destruction of lust, hatred and
illusion is called the " undecaying "
;
mindfulness
rolating to body (kdyagar'dear?:) is tho path that
loa4s thor€to.
u. K.
AP^I-IIAR G A (Achgzanthes M.entatea), a modicinal
herb.
Tlbo C h' i en
-
s hou
-
ch' i en
-
y en
-
lcuan
-
shih
-
y i,n
- -
p' rt
-
so
-
chdh-pdns-ho-yao-ehing (f+ffiEgfrt*ffi?Affie
#B
Taish6, No.
f059)
says that tho power of
tho mantra of Avalokite6vara is such that if someono
chants it twenty-ouo timos, Avalokite6vera will
como to help him. The slitra goos on to state
many methods of curing diseaso with the help
of Avelokite6vara. Apd-mdrga is to be us€d
according to this sritra for a still birth as follows:
"'When & woman coaceivos and tho baby dies in
her womb, boil one big ounce of apd-mdrga witb
two pints of water, and take the
juice
from it;
and after chanting Avalokite6v&ra's mentre
twenty-ono ti",es, drink the juice. Thon tho
dead embryo will come out. No pain will be felt.
If tho afterbirth has not como out, tako tho eame
medicino onco moro, and it, too, will come out "
(Taish6, Vol. 20, p. l0a).
The Pu.lc'ung-chilan-so.t'o-lo-ni,-chdng (48ffi*
fflfttrffi
Tai,sh1, No. 1096) gives this &s the
medicine for opilepsy.
K. Tvre.
A-P'AN (F{#), the first Chinose Buddhist nun, of
Lo-yang in llonan. According to the Ta-surq-
s€ng-shdh-Iil,eh (^*€F.@ Taish6, No. 2126), she
renounced tho world but did not receive
ordination.
"'Whon
l\Iah6prajdpati becamo a nru1 as the
first Buddhist nun, her ronunciation was not easy.
A-p'an's remrnciation of the world is also wonderfirl
and she took only the throo fomulae of rofuge ae
the first caso of the renulciation of a woman in
China. So, the two
kinds
of the Order, bhikgu
aud bhiksuni, wero not in China yet. ........During
the spring of the eloventh year of the l-iian-chia ora
(434 A.C.), ten Ceyloneso nuns, Tissald and othors,
performed a Buddhist coremony
'at
the sime-
tna4dala of tbe Nan-lin lsvnFlo in Chien-k'o'g
for the ordination of nuns; and llui-kuo, a nun
of tho Cbing-fu templo, Ching-yin and maDy
others rsere ordainod at this seremoDy. And
within twelvo deys, moro than throe hundred nune
received ordination. Thus, they woro the 6rst
Aper.ra
APAI.{NAKA JATAKA
to receive orciiaalion in Chine, and A-p'an is
known to have tnkon the three formulae of ref'ugo
onl y " (Tai shd, Vol . 54, p, 238),
K. Trrrn.
APerye, a city in the Anguttar6pa, a country
north of tho rivor Mahi, evidently a part of the
Ariga country on the other side of that river (SnA.
II, 437). In the SaTnyutta, Ni,lcd,ya, Apar1a is epoken
of ss a township of the Angas, and the Buddira is
mentioned as having stayed there with Sdriputta
(S. V, 225). According to the Theragd,thfr
Atthakoth,a, Apana wa,s a br6,hman village anct w&s
tho home of Sela (ThagA.III, 45). Buddhaghosu
says that tho town was called ApaTa because it had
20,000 bazaars *nd was, tb,oreforo, distinguished
for i ts shops (MA.II[, 37).
The Buddha onco visited the city witb f250
monks, and ths whole company was enterl,sined
by the Jal,ila l{eniya (Vi.n.I, 245). Several suttas
wers prea,ched there, &mong them lbe Potddya
Sutta
(M. f, 359), f}re Laiukl,kopama Suna (M.T,
447), tho Sel a Sutto (M.II, 146; Bn. p. I02), and
the Saddha ot Apaqta Sutta (5. V, 226r. On tho
oecasion of the convorsion of Sela and Koniya,
the Ruddha seoms to have stayed there for ovor a
week and ordained
gQQ
msnLs in the compaay of
Sela (Sn. ll2). Noar the city, on the banks of the
Mahi, was the woodland where the Buddha stayod
during his visits. From Apu+r, he went on to
Kusiner6 (Tin.I, 246).
u. K.
APANAI(A, a monastery rn east fndia during the
period attributod to the Kfukih6r bronzes (9-lfth
cent. A.C.). ft is also nemod in a Buddha image
from Mathurd (JBORS. XX\If, 248 tr
).
D.T.D.
APANA SUTTA. SEO SADDIIA SUTTA.
A-PANG, a demon. See ABO.
APANNAKA, namo of a yaksa, who along with his
retinue, was tamed by the Buddha in BhraetdlB
near Kashmi r. (YdnMS, i n GM.IIf, i , fi rst' page
*fter the lost portion. Soe uota facing p. xiv).
APAryTAKA JATAEA (J. I,95 f.). lbe 6rer erory
in the J6take eolloction, rolated by the Buddha at
Jotavana-near Sdvatthi to An6thapiTdiLa aad his
five hundredfriends, disciples ofthe Bophists (titthiga.
aduaka). It is said that, once, while the Buddha
was rosiding at tho Greet Monastery (Mah.drtihdra\
at Jetavana, ho preached
the doctrine to these
followors of the " sophists
" who were visitirg hirn
with the treaguror AndthapiTr.lika,. They wore
converted, but no sooner had the Buddhs, gone beok
from S&vstthi to Rdjagaba than thoy abaadoned.
their new faittr a,ud revorted to the old onoa The
Buddha, roturning to Sdvatthi somo soven or oight
months lator, discovors this through AnEthapiTrlika,.
Ile theroforo preacbes to thom again, elucidating
meny aspects of his doctrine, a,nd rreletes this
Apanrwka Jdtnka to illustrato thet not only then,
but " even in times past'; those who migtook
apPeerarrco for reality, lilre
e traveller who mistakes
a mirage for an oasis, camo to griof, whilet mon who
in spito of odds adhered to reelity, prospered.
lbo atory is of two merchants who hed to take
thoir carevans across a hot desort on their flgrting
erpeditions. Ons of them bargairu to go earlic,
but, on his way through tho dosort, e demon who
has plnnn6d to dovour hirn and his mon, sppostt
before [irn, creating the semblanee of e man who
hag como from a raiuy region, and edvicoe him to
do away with his wator vessels, aa they aro sn
rurDoeossery burden, when an ooeia is so closo at
hend. The foolish merchant mistaking eppear-
anee for reality, takes tho dsmoa at his word and
dol ro5rs his weter vossels, but to find too lato,
th'at he and his men heve to die of thirst ia the
dosort.
'When
they are woak with thinct, the
demon and hig retinue arrive end eat them up.
Tbo socond morchant, the bodhigattva, comes on
tho sa'no routo, and is met by the sane domon in
similar disguiso and with eimilar advioo, but he is
able to see through tho false report. By reasoning
he'
Lnowe
that there can be no oasis near by. I[e
eon.vinceehie following that tho factual ovidence ig
to the contrary and retains hin ys,fgy
vessols on
the rest of the journey.
Ile completes his tlg.ling
exp,adition successfully, aod on the way seee the
dead bones of the foolish merchant and hie !oeu,
th,ol carts abandoned in the c.tee€rt.
The foolish merehant is idlentified with Dova.
datta and the wise ono with bhe Buddha himself,
while the two companies aro id.entified with their
respeetive followers.
a. G. s. K. B. J.
APAITNAKA SIITTA APANI.{AKATA SUTTA
APA{NAKA SUTTA. Thero a,re two suttas by
this name, one in rhe Majjhirno Ni,kaya (I, 400)
and the other in the Anguttara Nikd,ga (I, 270).
T}ao Majjhima N'ikaya discourse deliverod to
the br6,hman householders of Sala by the Buddha,
while he was orr tour among the Kosalans with a
iarge reti.nue of monls, deals with the question of
what is safe anchorage for a faith fol those who have
none. The Buddha takes several views held by
other teacl i ers and si fts thei r tenets, compari ng
the opposing viewpoint in edch case, asserting
rvhich of t,hese tenets is true and v'hich false, wherr
placed against certail propositions which ho says
are absolutely certain. For instance, he takes
the doctrine held by some recluses and brihrrrans
that " tliere is no result of gift, there is no result
of offering, thero is no fruit or ripening of deeds
well done or ill done, there is not this world, there
is not the world beyond, there is no benefit from
serving mother or father, thero &re no sponta-
neously arising beings, there'are not in the world
recluses and brdhmans who &re faring rightly,
proceediag rightly, who proclaim this world and
the world boyond, having realised them by their
bwn super-knowledge." Against this view, n'hich
ia tho Sd,mafifi,aphala Sutta (D.I,55) is ascribed to
the hereiic Ajita Iiesakambali, he piaces tbe
opposing view of certain recluses and brd,hmans
and then proceeds to analyse tho c&uses for the
earlier view tracing its origin to moral depravity
and the ignorance of the cerbainty of the after-life
which is borne witness to by the intuitions of tho
sages,
'
those perfected ones, who are knowers
of t he wor l d' .
In this
ynarlner,
the Buddha examines the views
placed before people by several schools, such as
thoee of the Natthikavddins as against the Atthi-
kavddins, the I{iriyavddins as against the Akiriya-
v6dins, represonted by statements attributed
elsewhere i;o Makkhali-Gosala and a few others,
which it has not been possible vot to idontify with
any known contempor&neous school of thought.
In the case of those who deny the existence of an
after-lifo, he asserts that the sure (apannnlca)
dhamma, the certain fact, is that there is an a,fter-
life; and so on, with other views as well. These
categorical affirmations are probably the explanation
for the name of this sutt'a, the word apanna,ka
meaning sure or certain. It is interesting to note
hero that tlne A'pannaha Jdtaka, too, makes refe-
rBnce to the views of the heretical toaehers. So
does the other sutta by the same name in the
Aigdtaro Nikdya.
fhis latter sutta discusses the three kinds of
failure and the thres kinds of success. The threo
kinds of failuro are failure in morals, in mind and
in views. Seven of the. ten unskilful actions (daso
alcu,sala) aro mentioned, lapses which are given as
failures in morals. Coveteousness and malevo-
lence are given as failures in mind. As failure in
view is given scepticism about moral values and
rebirth, views elsewhere attributed to Ajita
Kesakambali. Strangely enough, the other here-
tical views norrnaliy mentioned with this aro not
mentioned here. The Buddha asserts that it is
sure " as a true die when t'lrrown resti evenly on
whatever side it falls, even so ", iL is certain that
theso three failures are tho callses of rebirth in hell.
The opposite posit,ions, that is, abstinence from
the seven akusala, tho absence of coveteousness
and malevolence, the holding of viows contrary
to ther assertions of Ajita K.esakambali are referred
to as leading to success. And here again the
Buddha declares this to be a fact &s sure as the true
die cast.
B. J.
APAI.{I{AKATA SUTTA of the Ahguttara Nilcaya
(I, p. ll3) discusses tho three qualities giving a
mo
k proficieney in the practico of
'tho
suro
way' (apannakata-palipad,a) and strengthens his
capacity to destroy tho d,sauan, namely, (l)
keeping watch over the sonses, (2) moderation in
eating and (3) watchfulness. The sutta goes on to
explain further what is meant by these qualities,
and how to acquire them. Tho first is attainod
by refraining from generalisation on sensual irn-
pression. " Seeing an object, (the monk) does not
grasp at the general features or at the detaile
tbereof. Since coveting and dejection, evil,
unprofitable states might ovorwhelm ono who
dwells with the faculty of the oye uncontrolled,
ho applies himself to such control, sots a guard
over the faculty of eye, attains control thereof.
lVhen he hoars a sor:nd with the e&r or with the
noso smells I scent,, or with the tongue tastes a
sa,vour, or with body contacts tangibles; when
with mind he co6prises montal states-ho does
not grasp at the goneral features or details thersof.
But since coveting and dejection, ovil, unprofitable
states might overwhelm one. .. . he sets a guarC
over the faculty of mind, attains control thereof
"
(trsl. Woodward, The Book of Groilual Sagings,
I , p. 98) .
The seeond quality is achieved by taking food,
not for pleasure or out of induigence, but as e
APAryNAKA VAGGA
APARADITTHI
SUTTA
treeeEsity for attaining tho ideal of self,restraint
leoding to Nibbdna. The third quality is aohieved
by tho pract,ice of meditation throush the three
watches of the night.
The term apaltnakata-pati,,pacl,d, (the Sure Way)
i s probabl y an al ternati ve for i l re
' Mi ddl e
Way
,
leading to Nitrbana.
B. J.
APA{ryAKA VAGGA (l ), the ei ghth chapter of the
Catukka Nipata of the ,4.ngu,ttara Nilcd,ya (II,
76-83). ft consi sts of ten suttas on vari ous topi cs.
In the first and thc sgsqn4 suttas the Buddha
decla,res tlrttl a monk who is endowed with the
following qualities, namely, virtue, learning, ardent
energy, wisdom, dispassionate,
benevolent a,nd
harmless thoughts,
and right view has entered
on the path to surety (apanynkatd)
and is with
determination bent on the destruction of the mental
intoxicants (asaaa).
This
.
path of surety
,
(apanqtakatfr)
has given the title to the entire
chapter.
The third sutta is devoted to the oxplanation
of the fourfold low qualities,
and their opposites,
which are found in an unworthy person (asappuri,sa)
a.nd a worthy person (seppurisa),
respectively.
Tho former speaks ill of another oven when aot
questioned ^nd
when questioned utters more of
it in detail. Ife does not speak good of nnotber
and when asked, grudgingly
speaks a fow good
things about him. On the other hand, he d.oes not
speak what is discreditable
to himself, but, when
questioned utters grudgingly
in brief what is to
his discredit. Even when not questioned
he spoaks
out what is creditable to himself and whln ques-
tioned gives more of it in detail.
In the fourth sutta, the Buddha says that, a
monk who has just
entered the Order is full of fear
and bashfulness liko a young wife just
brought to
tbe busbsnd's home. fn both cases fear gives
placo to bolrlnsgs, but a monk should alwavs be
like a newly-wed wife.
The fifth sutta is dovotod to a d.iseussion on the
fourfold perfections (aggani,),
n&mely, the perfcc_
tion of virtue, of concentration,
of wisdom and of
releage,
Iu the eixth autta, which is an oxtract from the
Mah,apari,nibbd,na
Sutta, the Burldha just
beforo
bil d€ath invites the monlrs to question
him with
regard to any doubts or misgivings they
may have
ebout the Buddha,
Dbamrna and Sangha.
fn the seventh sut,ta. the tsudd.ha
cleclares that
there are four unthirrlr ables (acinteyydni,),
namely,
the Buddhas, their musings (jhona).
the fnrit trf
action (karnma,-uipaka)
and world.spoculation
(lokact)ntd.).
Ile also says iliat by thinking
of theso
things one would be distraught and ryould
como to
grief.
The eighth sutta discusses the fourfbld
puritSr
regarding gifts. Irr one caso the giver is virtuous,
and not the receiver. In the second tho receiver
is pure, but not the giver, in the third neither
ie
pure and in the fourtlr both are pure.
fn the ninth sutta, the Buddha explains
to
Sdriputta, why it is that, 6ome people
suceeed.
in
their trade and others do not, while yet otbere
prosper even boyond their hopos.
The tenth sutta is devobed to oxplain to Anauda
why women B,ro excluded from public
assemblieo
and serious business. They are uncontrolled,
envious, greedy and week in wisdom.
I. K.
APANUAKA VAGGA (2), the firsr chaptor
of tho
Eka Nipdta of tho Jatalcatlhakathd,,
consisting
of ten
Jd,nkas (Nos. l-10) and deriving iis titls from the
frst of them, viz., ATnqtnako Jd,taka (J.I,
96_14g).
L. R. G.
APAPA (var.
Aheha, Ilaheve),
name of a cold
hell. See AIIAIIA,
APARA, ono of the five hundred paccekabuddhes
who were in ancient times living
on the Isigili
mountain in seclusion.
He w&s seen by the p"optu
of that tirne entering the mountain
ra,nge,
but was
never seen thereafter.
Ilence the people usecl to
say that the mou.ntain
had swallowed
up the sago
(isi gilati)
and n&med it fsigili.
The n&mes
of
these paccekabuddhas
are given
by the Budd.ha
in the Isigili
Sr;tte (M. TTT,
69 f.).
Buddhaghosa
i n hi s commentary
(MA.
TV, ZI7)
relates how these sages had
msd,e their dwelling*
inside the mountain behind a rock which
*ooid
open and close like a folding
door.
Apar* is further
distingrished.
in tbe Isigili
Suttaby the epithet
.
the sage
,
(muni,).
I{. G. A. v. Z.
APARADITTHI
SUTTA (^s.
I, 144_6)
descri bes
how the Buddha
refuted, b;r means
of a miracle,
APARAGAUDAM
APARAGOYANA
the wrong notion held by a Brah:rei that no recluse
or brdhman could come to his world. The BuddlLa
went to that Brahma-world a,nd sat cross-legged
in the air above the Brahm6,, flames radiating from
his body. The Buddha was followed in this by
Moggalldna, Ilahdkassapa, I\Iahakappina and Arru-
ruddha. The BrahmE was first agitated by their
rctions, but, later ho was delighted on learning
from Moggallana that there were many more
disciples of the Buddha who could do iikewise.
u. K.
APARACAUDANI'
according to Rockhill (Life oJ
Bwdd,ha, p. 84), occure in the Dulua as the name of
one of the four great (Buddhist) continents into
which tho earth is divided. Soe APARAGO-
Y.5,NA.
APARAGAYA,
' farther ' ,
i .e., west€rn Gaya
mentioned in the lWahdautu (trsl. J. J. Jones,
Vol. IIf, p. 3I5) es a placo where a ndga king named
SudarSana had invited the Buddha to stay and
teke his meals. From bere tho Buddha
journeyed
on to Vai6dli. Tho tranclator notss thet the
incident is peculiar to the Mahda*ctu and that in
ths Laldtavistara it occurs aftor the meoi;ing with
Upaka.
D. T. D.
APARAGOYANA
ie the western continont in the
set of four continente mentionod chiofly in Buddhist
commontarial litoraturo' es found i:r each thousand-
fold world-system
(cokkaudto). The $sdrlhint
conception of cosmography resembles tho brah-
manical geograpbical conception (soo: Jacobi,
E&E.IV, pp. f 55 fr.) in which Mount Moru is in the
contre of the univorse, eurroulxded by four great
doi,pa, islands, continonts, or dwellings of men.
Thess island-continents are outside tho seven rings
of oceans (seo SAGARA), which surroulxd Mount
Meru, and Aparagoy6na is the continont which
lies to the west of Moru. Ths word Aparagoydna
bas boen translatod frequently as
''Westorn
Pastu-
rage
'
(De La Vall6e Poussin, ERE.IV, pp. 132 ff.)
and Iiterally as " Westorn Ox-Wain "
(o.9., Wood-
ward, Grad,ual, Sayings, V, p 4l). Variant readings
are Ap'aragodinika, Aparagod4,''iye and Aparago-
ddna.
The only Nik6,ya references to Aparagoyina are
found in the Anguttara, where in one instance
(A.Y,59), the Buddha illustrating the universality
of chango describes tho a'akkoudlo, t}re tbousendfold
world-svstem, as containing thousands of suns,
moons, etc., and among them thousands of each of
the four continerrts, of wtricb Aparagoyd,na is
mentioaed a,s one. I{ere tho lluddha is apparently
using conventionai syrnbols to demonstrate tho
universal nature of the laws of anicca and dulckha
rather than to assert, tho literal existence of thou-
sands of continents Aparago5rdna by na,me.
The general tone and trend of tho argurnent shows
that his atbempt here is to give examples of
' enti ti es ' ,
convcnti onal l y bel i eved to be sol i d and
eternal, and to show that they aro far from being
so, thus destroying the iliusion of their pcrpetuity.
To attempt (seo, o.g., Hardy, Legend,s and, Theories
ol the Buddhi sts, Edi nbugh, 1866, especi al l y. p. 80 f.)
to buiid up a Buddhist cosmography on the basis
of this t5,pe of evidence &ssumes a character far
removed from the spirit of a schoiarly researclr.
That the illustration is merely symbolical is con-
firmed by another reference in the same Nik6ya
(A. 7,227) in which, answering a quostion askod by
Ananda, tho Buddha declores rhetorically, that his
voico exterrds to the ends of ths universo, which
is deseribed in the same stock d.escription of the
cakkaad,ln with its thorusnds of suns and moons
andfour continents. i:rcluding the western continent,
Aparagoyd.na.
In tho soynrnent&rial literature, however, tho
notior, of Aparagoydna is teken more literally.
The Sutta Nipata commentary describes it as
surro
'nded
by fir'o hundrod islands and ths whole
continent, as being 700 yojanas in extent, a fi.gure
caloulatod by l{ardy (op. cit., pp. 85, 89) to bo
roughly 70,000 miles.
Tha Digha Nikoya cornrnontary (DA. II, 888)
says that the hours of sunrise and sunsot vary
from continent to continent. Thr:s, sunset in
Aparagoy6na coincides \rith mid:right in Jambu-
dipe, the southern continent,
gunrise
in which
occurs simultaneously with mi,lnight in Apara-
goy6,ua.
The cornrnentaries also speak of Aparagoydna
a,s s [rrrn6n habitation, (KhpA. 123), the peculiar
characteristic of the inhabitants being that they
have no houses and sleep on tho ground (ThagA.
r r , I 87
) .
The m1'thical l;adamba troo (nau,clea cadantbu)
Lc believed to stand at the contre of the continent,
Aparagoy6.na, and to remain there for a wholo
Inppo (Dl BA.298l . The Buddhauamso commen-
tary (BuaA. If3) includes Aparagoydn& &s being
in the orbit of krng Videha aloag with Jambudipa.
It is thus eyideu! thet the idea is associated with
APARAITTA APARAJITA.
a
tho conception of wkkaaatttin. Tlro Ddugd,uadina
con-flrus this conclueion with the description of
Mandhdtd's campaigns. The Diuyd,uaitrana also
add-g that Aparagoydna, along witb the other
continents, roste on I cirele of gold and is on a
level with the ocean (Diuy. 215).
Ibe j6,bakas mention a magical
jewel
supposed
to bo capablo of roflecting, among other wonders,
the four continents, Aparagoydna being one of
tbem (Vidhuro Pand,ito Jd,talca: ..I. \{I, 278).
It is of interest to note that Aparanta is
said to have been occupied by migrants from
Aparagoydne who came along with the conquering
MandhE'0e,.
Ilardy describos the continent as being shaped
like a mirror
(op. cit. p. 85) but gives no referonce to
the source. See further COSMOLOGY.
B. J.
APARAJITA
(l), & for:mer Buddha. IIe waa
proclaimed by the Buddha Dhvajamapardjita and
he himself proclairned the Buddha Supratdpa
( Mhau. I I I , 230. t 0 f . ) .
c. w.
APARAJITA (2), one of the five hundred pacceka-
buddhas who ia ancieni t,irnes lived. on the fsigili
mouatain in seclusion. Tlrey were soen by the
peoplo of that timo ontering the mountain r&nge,
but, were nover soon thoreafter. Ilsneo the name
of the mountaio, that it swallowod up sages (isi
gtldi,). The n&mes of those paccokabuddhas
sro given in tho Isngi'ltn 6untu
(lW,IIT,09
f.).
Buddhaghosa soys in his commontary (MAt IY,
217) that these sages lived inside ths trountain
behind a rock, whicb would open aod closo iike
a folding door.
AparEjita is distinguished in the Isigili Sdto
by the epithet : he wbo triumphed over Mi.ra's
might (M d'rabalarT' ai esi,).
g.
G. A. v. Z.
APARAJITA
(3), & world-ruler (cakrauartin), &
former birth of tbe bodhisattva in his fifth stage
(bh{trni) of bodhisattvahood. IIe dedicated
to the Buddha ].Te,resvara sixteen mongsteries
studded. with the seven precious stones and many
other valuable
gems, aad wished for Buddhahood
hi mnsf f ( Mhuu. I , t t Z; .
c. w.
APARAJITA (4), a, world-ruler (calchauattin)
wllo
lived sevon aeons &go, B,n earlier trirth of Avyadhika
t hor a ( Ap. I , 2I 5\ .
c. w.
APARAJITA (5), a househotder of Bandbumati.
Ile sought the advice of his elder brothor, Sena,
who was en arahant monk in the time of the Buddha
Vipassi, as to how he should uso his wealth to
perform an act of great merit,. Ife was asked to
build a gondhakuli for the Buddha which ho did,
using all kinds of procious metals and gems, and
offered it to the Buddha. Tho monastery sur-
ronnding tbe gard,haltuti,
ho thrice filled knee.deep
with the seven precious things (satta ratarm) to
be takon away by the peoplo coming to hear the
Buddha preach. To colobrate the dedication
of
the gand,haku{i,
he ontertained 6,800,000
monke
for nino months and at the end presentod them
each with tho three robes. L&tor, he made known
his wish that he should n6ver be deprivod
of
anything belonging to him either by many hundreds
of kings or thieves or by fire or wator. Tho
Buddha wished that his desiro be fulfilled. In
a still earlier birth he had given sugar-cane to
a paccekabudCha. In the time of the Buddhe
Gotama he was born as the troasurer
Jotika
( DhpA. I V, 199 f f . ) .
Apard,jita had a nephew, his sister's son, by
tho samo name. Ilo was refused by his rrncle e
sharo in the building of tbe gondlwkug|
and so
he built next to it a kufrjarasdl&-sn
elephant
stable according to DPPN. f, p. llg-tho mea,ning
of which is doubtful. Ile was a former bturb
of the treasuxer Menda,ka.
c. w.
APARAJITA (6), & yaksa mentioned iu thc
M ahimi,yzirl (BE S. s.v.).
APARAJITA (t), one of the ei ght deva mai dens
of the eastern quarter. The Buddha is said to
have invoked their blessings on Trapr:.sa and
Bhailika who gave hiru his first meal after the en-
lightenrneat (Lal. 282). According to the
Mahouastu (III, 306) he invoked the blessin.gs
of
Dh;tard^sfra, the sovereign lord of tbe eight deva
meidens.
c. w.
APARAJITA l 0 APARAJITA-IWERU.
APARAJITA e),
& goddess montioneci ;n f,he
Mai l j utvt-n' aul a' l col pa
(318. l 2
;
396.1 f.), presumabl y
tho eanro es .Lryaper5,jit5, in the same rvc,rk (312.
6; e.v. Apard,j i ta tn AES.),
Tho narn€ ApardjitE oLrcurs several times in
tbe Sdil,hanamd'la. In the Aptahfut.iu-kuntktilcT-
adlwna, she occupies t'ho sorrth-e&etsrn potal of t,ho
eight-petalled lotue seat of Krrr':rl<uila Bha,gavoti
(Sddh. E, p, 35t. 6). fn the Apardj;'tp,-sdnl.hu'tt'o,
she is representod as a tlvo-arrned goddess, yellow
in eolour end adorned with all kinds of ieweller.v
(i bi d. p. 403). Her ri ght hand i rs i n a rui secl
poeition displaying the abt of slaJrping
(c<tp4a.d,inabhinayannkpindkd,ra), while her left
hand carries & nooso round its index f;.ngor whicir
ie held against hor cirest. Elor face Lrr,s & ferocious
sppearenoe. A psrusol is treld above her head
by e nurnber of ferociour gods. She is referred t'-r
n Gana,patiaamikra,rdd (one who tramplos Ganapati)
and sometimes she is representod in this posturo
(eee B. Bhattacharyya, Iru7ian Buld,hist Iconogru,phll.
Cal eut t a, 1958, p. 246 and f i g. I 89) . I n t he
Jodtrdrnukhi,-sal,hana, Va
jravb,rfi,hl
is called
Ary&par6jita, the mother of the throo wcrlds
(Sddh. II. p. 4S4 tr
).
There i e arrobher Si dhana
named Ar,ya-sitd,tapatra-apard,lita
(ibid. p. 395).
It is difficult' to say whother the s&me persons,ge
ie meant in all thsso casos or whether any of them
can be identified with tho Aparajiia mentioned
in the M aiiju"{n,-rnwlakalpa'
c. w.
APARf,JITA
(3), orro of the sister goddosses
(ltum&rr, bhaini,) related to Maiijui;ri. the oliror
throe 56ingr Jay6, Vijaye and Ajit6.
In tho Maflju6ri sect,ion of the LkirL'tradlratu
mapd.ala, Aparajiti ie at t,lre left of Trrmburtr,
her trrothor, and belorB A)iLd (Mmk. 537, it4{.J, 513).
IIer mystic syllable is c, her s1'mbol (sarrtaya)
ie a bar, and her secrot l)&rlte is Yajrd. These
are manifirstations of the Pure Wisdom.
Rogarding her figrue, tlna Pi,-tsenq-chi
(#ffi;e)
moutions that Aparajii6 is flesh-coloruod and
holds a bar in her hand.
'Ihe
,Shosetsu-fuCo-ka
(ffit||Tfilm etetes thst she has
gome
object in her
right hand, aad that eho keops her closad left hand
at
lor
waiet. the sits facing front. Opirrions
diffor as to what she hBB in ber right h&rd.
Aocordi:og to ths ma4r{ale of tho Li'ch'{c'ching
(EilIf)
sh€ is to the woet of Tumburu, and her
figure is rathor difrsrpnt from thst of the Gerbha-
dbitu-ua+dals.
tr(. T@.
APARAJI TADI MJA, t i re Tn, t hi gabn, ur: i l er whom
S6, kyamuni , &s & i : u, l hi sat t va, l ong ago pi ant ed
t he i i rst seeds of rneri r,
v, ' h. i i e l t i ri g bori r rl s a
caktat' tlrt i lir,jr-r, f ,rllowrng tirc nn,Lural c,aroer
(prokrt ' i , cc. rud), t he f u' st o1' l , he {' ourf ol C oonci uct of
a l i odi i i r: ai t va, (] / hr, . rr. i . +). Al sc-r i l re rrarne of a
bodhi s*r, t , t r. s, rnent i cnert ut
(' i t : t 1t i .
115. 9.
\r.
().
w.
APARAJITADHVAJABALA. a JJi i i l rl hrr I"' }Tos,;
nrLrrrr,. ie rneni iorrcri trrtone thost: (|, ,i.r,ll tu.i_rltlken
i i ne rtt j i .tLus u' l i o, boi n[ hel
i l l ' Lr' :ul rt,ors,
wcro
propi ti trt,cd b:". tl ,c nl gfrr,-gori dr.-rs Samal r.urrsat,-
tvu,tra.r.roj ul .r,ri ' t
..i i l ri i t,
strtvi trg tu q,-1rri the i torl frrsu,ttvrr,
sn,l vnt,i ;;r r t badi ti .:' ri t
t :u -
r i i t r,; A: sa
),
r rn r rttl , l Srrr,,' sl .l <h.
bhimu khaj rignd\-rn:Ivrlniri rr,it:a,rr ti [.!'
i L:
t
t u,
"
I Sir
"
! 0) .
,1' .
R.
APARAJI TAJf f AI { ASTf i Af f A, n' [ ' ar hi i qa1. a
u: h. i r e
namrl oecrlrs i)61 'eelt. i\rriri,.r,,n,navir1'ri rind Srirls,n-
tavi l oki taj frfi ,na, i n a i i st, ol
' l ' athagata.;
rrho wol e
yr r oJr i t i at er l ( ar r i gi t al by t he Sak3, r i - gi r l , f l opl r . i n
l r er pr evi ous bi r t hs
( Gr l u. . { 21.
20) .
T. I t "
APARAJITAMERU, a trorl hi sabLva
rvhoser ni tnl c
e(:ctl rs ui a l i st
r-rf'
Iuturo T' ri thagata,s (Gtrqi l ,. {49.1).
!-or Ll etai i s soe IIAYADIJVI.
A PAR A J I T A. TUP R U V A R ABH ADR Ei T
g
ARA.
RATNASADHANA, r' . Sari sl i rrt, work. tl i e T' i betan
transj ati on oI whi c]r occri rs urrdor ti re ti tl e
G s h,art,
-
g
11
is
-
r rr i..t lt u,b
-
y'a tiu iu r i
-
r a.b t nc hog
-rrta,
r L n
-
po
-
che bzari -' poLi
i tsqr:"ti t-tha,bs
rt 1he Rg;.ud-hgrel
(tantra commentary) secti on of t,l re Tcngv-ur
(Pekrng Ed. Ti b. T' r' i p., ed. I).
' l ' .
Suzuki , Vot. 86.
No. 4:i 30). J.' ht r:ol cphon, whi ch states that
Intrabucte
(In<l rabl i i ti )
\!-i r,s the author of the
' work
arrti " 1l i t.r,t 1{}ru,-cri re f)u,n-t,l i en *i ,nci _l ' sl tul ,fi }rri rns-
gsl ron-nrr $:t' ro t]),e t.rrrnsl ator*s, gi ves Gnod,-sbu.i tt,
y,kJ
-
h
Jt
h, r o g
-
g z bs g r ub t i t u it t ( Y nii s ct n,u n a l t,it r as,icilt o n t-t
j
as the ti t l e oi tJre *-orl .:.
(,' orrl i e,r
quotes
yak-
ai t t , t t n, anohq, r i
. sdi Ji i , a, r r , t ' r nd, l
pcr aci t ant
e, r u- i , l r ct l u-
ti l :ururatti ,aoi trtl c*gri cl ,l *1,/i arr, us otl i er. n&rncs,tf the
r vr ; r k ( ( ) or Ci ey, LI I , p. I 7: t , No. 43i . Thn t c: i t i s
not pr esor vor , l i n t . hc Sdo- t j gt ; edi t r on ( i l , M. . ) .
A
doscri pti on oi ' thc
l rrot.ttri rtrrl
crt ti ;e per{brmarrce
of a ri te forrns l l re couterrt o{' ttter s"orl i _
Incanl ati ons to i :e charrtcd i i rrri ng the cerenrorrv
aro quoted.
n. H.
APAR AJITA.}IAMA-SADEANA
t t APARAJITAVRATADEVAJA
APAEAJITA-ilAUe-sAoxlxA,
rhe Sanskril tftle
of * work ertant in its Tibetau translation under
ths n&me Gsh,an-gyie m,i thub-mn, ahes-bya.balrd
agrub-tlpba ia the Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra commenta4r)
e€ction of the
'Iengyur
(Poking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed.
D. T. Euzuki , Vol , 6?, No. 292I). Thi s work i B
different from the Apar6,ji,td,-sdd,henar (q..r.). The
prescnt work deale with a procedure of worship
presumably for the invocation of the Buddhist
goddese Aparajita. There ie no deecription of the
form af AperEjitL. The Sanskrit title is montionod
in tho work but the names of tho author and the
traneletsr
ar6 not given. The Sde-dge edition
givee the neuree $og-rab akyon and Dana6ils es
those of tho eutbor end translator, respoctively
( ?r 11. No. 2004) .
R. H.
APANTJITA. NATI{A.BEAIInA. SADEAilA. ilATA,
e Sanskrit text, the Tibetan tra,nslation of whiah
oocura in the Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra cornmentar5r)
aoctiou of the Tengyur, undor the title A-pa-ra-ei,-
b in-chen bzan-pahi egrub-tlnbe ehu-bya-ba (PeLing
Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 86, No. 49g7,
pp. 2f6-18). Tbe
'work,
which begins rilrith &
ealutation to Yajrapd^li, doscribes tho procedure
of worsbip of a deity, whose norne appoers to be
tho yakqa Apar6jita,
juAgtng
from the namo of tbe
tnxh Gnod-abgin Aparajdta,l.ti, qrub-tlnba (Yakpo-
Apordjdn-addlwtnol given in tbo colophon which
ney tre nn altoraative nemo for Apardjite-ratna-
bhadra, occurringin tbetitle at tho treginning of tho
tort. According to a descriptioa in thc s6dhana,
tbe deity bears the form of a demon (yakgol,
white in complexion, one-facod and two-arned,
who carrios an iron hook (Tib. lcags-kyu, Skt.
aiku6a\ in his right hnnd,
holde e water-pot made of
jewela
in the left, is decked with jewel
ornaments,
we&rs
A?r
rrnder-ga,rment (Tib. Carn-thabe,
gkt.
ontanfisal of groon silk, snd has largo 6yor.
Instnrctions about tbe offorings to be made to the
deity are grverr aud tho topice of meditation aro
specified. Inceotatione to bo chsnted in tbe
course of the perforo.ance of the ritual are intoq-
sporred in the toxt. Tboee eppe&r to be quotetiong
from tho original Sqnsl;r'it work. The following
examples tn'ay be given I O\n andra ma,hdropaqta
httla pha{, Orp irE dza A-pa-,ra-ji-to dzq dzn
.ot'1te-ma,?e. , . wdlui
;
batrim lcha lclw khfrhi khnhi,.
fto colophon givos
the name of the author ae
lndrabodhi.
Acoording to Cordier, Gnod,-sbyin a-pa-ro
-iti,-tahi
sgrrfr
=tlwba
zob,ma y ah-d,ag (Y aksdparaj,ita-gfi.8.ha-
stdbh&-h-uddlwr.e) b sleo a title of tho work
(Cqrdder,
3, S. P. ( ' . eB4zo
III, p. 222, No. 62). The Sde-dge edition
of the
Tibetao Tripigeka does uot oontaia tlris text.
R. H.
APARAJITA-SAOXeI{A,
a very ehort e6,dhaas
iext devoted to the worship of the Buddhist
goddess Apardjit6 ($ddh. 408. For an English
traneletion of this sddhana seo fhg Inilian
Buddhist I corcgraphg,lB.
Bhsttachaq4ra,
Calcutts,
1068, p, 246). Ibe following Tibetan translationE
of the tert oocur in the Rgyud.trgrel
(tantra
cornyngntsry) aection of the Tongyrrr.
(I) Gslvan-gyis mi-thub-mahn agrub tftoba (peking
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T, Suzuki ,Vol .
g0,
No. 40g2t
Tho Saaskrit title Apord,jitd,-sdd,Iwrzary
ie giveo
iu the text. 4ss6r.ding to the colophon, Abhayo
and Tshul-kbrims rgyal-mtehan trenslaired
ths
work into Tibetao (cp.
TM. Nos. 3240, BpEg).
(2) Enorn-par rgyal.mahi agrub-pal.ti, tlta,bs (poking
Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 80, ll'o. 4208).
Ihe S^nnkrit titlo Apord,jitd-eddha,nar.n
is quoted
in the iext. The colophon states that
Don.yod
rdo-rjo and Ba-ri woro the translators.
(3\ Gdnn.gyie mi-thuh-n ohd sgrub.tlnbs (peki,,g
Ed. Ti b. T"i p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 81, No. 4416).
Tloa Sanskrit title Apordjifri.sdillwnwqn
occurg
in tho toxt. Grags-pa rglral-mtehan trenslat€d
tho work into Tibetan (cp. TM. No. 3893).
Geh,an-gyia rni thub-rna,hd egrub-tlnbo is the title
of yet anothor tort in the Rgyud"l+g"ut (tantre
coynr,'etrt&try) section of the Tengyur. The Sanskrit
title Apard,jitd-sddharuar.tt, occvrs at tho beginning
of the text. Ilowovor, the contents of the work
indicate tbst the sddhsns is devoted t,o the worship
of the goddoss Sitdtepatrd. The corroct titlo
of the work, Ephage-ma gshan-gyi^* rni thub.trra
gihtga dkar-molti qrub-thabs,
occurs in the colophon.
Thie text is a transiation of tbe Sanskrit work
Aryudtiinpofid,pardjitd-sddhana (Sadh. p.
gg5.
For an English translation of a section of this B€e
T he I ndion Bud,,ilhdst I conngr aphg,B. Bhattacharyya,
Cal cut t a, 1958, p. 216) .
R,. E.
APARAJITATETAS, n me of a bod.hi settva
occurring in a list 6f !6rihiss,btvas (Mhvyut. i32).
APABAJITAVRATADfl VAJA, A BUddhA WhOSE
D.&rne is mentionod
ottrong
thrgs of
o^
unhroken
APARAMAEAVTNASETIYA T2 APARAr{TAKA
T. R.
and eveD more women entered the Order.
ApARAMAEAVINASELIyA, n&me of ono of the
Buddhism could have heen known in Aparantaka
early Buddhist (sub) socts, whose monastery at
ovon during the time of the Buddha (Dutt,
the site of NagdrjunakoTda was found by Esiia,n-
Early E'iatory of Buililhisrn, p. I90). But the
tsrng, though the sect, lrad. ceasod to oxiot by
reference ie to Sundparanta which R. G. Bhandarkar
tbat time. Along with the Uttara6ailas, this hill
(Early Eistorg oJ Dee,can, t9) has ideutified with
community had probably been a local branch of
modora Konkan'
line of
jhws, who, boing her preceptors, were pro-
pitiated by the night-goddess Samantasattva-
tr6'lojalr6ri while striving to gain the bodhisattva-
salvation (bod,hisattaa-uimoksa) named Sarvalokd,-
bhimukhajagadvinayanidar3ana
{Guye.
284).
the Mahd,sanghik6. They wero found in tho
south.oast of Indie and noa,r such places ag
N6gdrjrnakonda, Amard,vati, otc. The Apara-
mahdvinaseliyas aro rnentioned in tho inscriptions
in the ayaka columns, of 2-3rd cent. A.C., at the
former sito. It eeoms to be this word which has
been abbreviated into " Aparaselika(ya)s " in the
Dipoaamso and tho Molfiuaryt.eo of Ceylon. The
ogaka pillars where the inscriptious were found
wero thoso attached to the Mahdcetiya (great
thfipa) of Ndgirjunakoqda. The following
extract from & translation of one is
given as &n example (J. Ph. Vogel) : " For the
bonefit of tb.o Masters of tbe Aparamah6vine-
seliya eect this pious foundation of tbe Mahdcetiya
hse been completed by the Rovorond Ananda,
who
lr^ows
lh.e DEglw-and the Mojjhdtna Ndkdgrc
by heart, (utho i,s'1 a dieciplo of tho Maeterr of tho
Ayira.harbgha (Skt. Arya-eohgh.a) who are residont
in Parh4agdma and who are preachors and pre-
coptors ot' the Di,gha, the Majjhnrna- (ni,kd,yal
and of the fivo M6tukas," otc. (ASIMein:
Nos.
64, 7L; . Ef . XX, et c. )
D. T. D.
APARAIINA, tbo aano of the bodhisetta in his
birth as a vultr:re in Gijjhapabbata (var. Apar+B-
qagijjha). According to the Migdlopo Jdr,oka
(J. III, 255 f.), in wriich be figures, he advises his
son, Migd,lopa, not to fly too bigh, but the latter
clisdafuxs his advico and comes to grief. Tho
story provides an interesting parallel to the myth
of lcarus, Apara++a's rolo il, this story being
that of Daedalus in the Greek. In the Buddhist
legend, Migalopa moots with his death by being
gtruck
by the Verambha winds, while Icarus
moets with his death as a rosult of his comirrg
too close to the sun. See further MIGALOPA
JATAKA.
APARANTAKA (var. Apard,nta), one of the nine
regions to which Asoka sent missionaries after
the third Council. According to the Ceylon
chronicles (Mhu. xii, 4, 34-6
;
Dpu. viii, 7)
Yonaka DhamrnarakLlpta preached the Aggik-
khandhopoma Sutta there and 37,000 poople
embraced tho new faith while a thousand men
Aparantaka in anciont times referred to wsstom.
India. The MarkanQ,eya Purdna (cb. lvii) calls
it a
jona'pada
whereae tho MaMbhdrato (Bhiprrw
Paruon, ix) refers to it ae ono of tho provinces of
ancient ludig. Accordi'g to the Kduyamimdr,ned
(Gaekwad Orieatal Series, No. I, p. 94), it is tho
country to the weet of DevasabhE (identified
with
moderu. Dewas in central India) and aecording
to the Pili Sdsanaao\nso (p. lI), Aparantake or
western lndia lies to ths wost of the upper lrawady.
Aparantaka is referred to in Asoka's Rock
Edict V. T'be Nasik Inscription of Geutami
B&la3ri eays that her eon oxtendod
hin
sway over
Apar6nta. This w&s later conguerod by the
Saka Satrap Rudradi.'.'an as evidenced by the
Junagadh Rock Insoription of 150 A.C.
According to B. C. Law (India, ag Descri,beil dn
Early fcntu, 73), Aper6nte may have comprisod
that pert of wosteno Indie which lay to the west
of the Buddhist mid-land and to the north and
south, rospectively, of the
pglrkhine,patha
eDd
Uttardpetha. Bhagavanlal Indraji, says B.C. Law
(Histnricol Bngraphy of Anci,nt lnd,fu, l3), took
Apar6nta to bo the wsstern
gee-boa,rd
of India.
According to
Tfeiian-tsang's
acoount, westem,
India Boeyns to heve se'.'Frised Sindh, westenr,
REjaputdn6, Cutcb, Gujarat and a portion of
the adjoining coast of tbe lower courso of the
Narmad6.
According to the Dharnmopadaftlwhathi, (DhpA.
III, 482) and the Mojjhirna Ni,kdya A{thakothd,
(MA. f, 184), when Mandhat6 conquerod all
the four continents, people from the three other
continent,s c&mo over to Jambudvipa and lived
thero. Finding it impossible to go back to their
own countries after the king's death. they obtained
the minister's permission to stay in Jambudvipa.
Thus, the land where the people co'ning from
Aparagoyina settied down is said to
bsve boon
known as Aparanta. B. J.
APARAP ARIYA.VED
AT{IYA.KAMMA
l 3
APARASAITA
the Apar6,ntas
(lit,.
'wesf-enders ')
have
sometimos been regarded. as & Beparate ra,eo or
trihe. Ilultzech (IruieriTttiorts of Asoko, I, xxxix),
howor-er, takqrs the term to Ine$n
.'
west,eru.
borrlerors ", g€.o€rrrlly, u,mong s'horn sre included
tho Yonas, tho Kambojus and l,be Pitinikas.
Tlre word has varrous roadings, e.g., Aytalaqntd
in Iiock lldicr V in Ku,lsi, Altola'm,td, in Dhauli
and Aparamta iry Shahbazgarhi.
II. R. I' .
APARAPARI Y^A- VEDANI YA- KAMMA,
mor al &c_
tion w-hiich will bear frr.rit, nof, in the present
cr
i n the i mmedi atel y i ' ol l oni ng l i i ' e-span" but i n
sorne indefinile future., whenover the opporrr:nity is
right to procluce its result. In ite reduplieative
formatiori (opardpara)
iho word indicates such
karma as wili be knorryn (ued,an[ya) or experierrced in
any possible successive existence. A rjiaesical
exarnplc of such indofinitoly ofl'ectivo actiorr is
f,ounr1 in the story of the dea,"lr of the srahant
Malr6,-M,rggaliEna (SarabharLga
Jd,talca; J. V, 126).
Tn a previous iif'o ho wanied to put his agod father
anrl mcthr:r t,u deatli ae a result of listening
+,o
his
rrife" .r{lthough he ditl not actua.lly kill his par-
ents, his sharrroful action remained like a ci:re of
firo hicidon under &shes, for over biding its tirno
tiil it could find an opporl,unity.
'Ihen,
in tlrr:
List, life of the arahant, this act comrnitted of
uld and carr-r'ing with it consequences to be ex-
periencecl on sollre fubure occ&sion, got its chanco ibr
mischief, when Moggall6rra's superrror:mr,,l powers
failed him and he beeame unsble to oscape the
seventh ati,empt on his lil'o by some hired brigencls.
IIe vras beaton up so se\zeiely that all his bones wore
crusheci
;
but he kept his miud sready i:r rnodiiation
r:n t;ho Ruddha till lle furall;r. riied.
'I'lre
MiliruTa-ptartha (p. 1t)B) also i:elates rif
Uevadatta hoq" ho heapc,ci up kar.ma on kurliia, :lrri!
rvould pass for an eniiless sories of .iirr,ip*s irr::ri
tcrmenl , to torrnent i ,l nd i rom per.dri rr,n l t r' ,._ri i ri ro' ,-.
Hi s suft' cri ng, houever, bccunro f-i rri tr:
t' t.,' rl i !r
i 1::
had entored the Order, and fi rtl eri :;v tl i L, i rr;,_. ,.i j t-rs+d
i-,y previous karrna woultl aiso becciuil,
ij1;1i1;r;',1.
AparrTpariyu-.t,ed,a,nzya-kanttnq. t$. oiie oi i.ire
sirte.:n kincls of karrna classi{ied in fcrirr groups
a::cordinq to their fu;rctir,,n (kirt:a1, their ejTicir,ct,
(palcuddnu),
thelr time
,.rl
taklng efftcb (nakakuJa)
anrl t,ho plat-e of their effect
(pakutliwna).
EI " G A. v. Z.
APARAPUHAMJAYA, name of rr yo,ksa, roenl i .cnoci
i ti tl re Mul ui ntl i :trt,ri
(l i /{i i "
s;.r,.).
APARARAJAVAVADAKA
sUTRA, 8 Srr.rrskri t
srLtra rr:ferrod to in tho S,iksd,samuccay& (g.l2).
Tbe sfitra purports to admonish a king rogardiug
the practice
,...f
virdue without negl,ect of his cblige-
t'ioa.c to the poople.
W" G. lV.
APARASAII,A, onc of tho schooi s of r:arl v
Iluddirism. As a secrt they were not, kn,lwrr to the
trarLition of the $arnmatiyas according to llhavya,
and the Sinhalese clrronicles do noi. cr)Lint t,hom in
the coruposition ir,nd rr,lTiiiation of {r;,'lr secrs
but onJy amongst a
Fpoup
of si-x sch*til,, u.ppearing
iater. \r;sumitra plocers then sirl' i,';' sr.i..,. u.ith tho
Cu,iti.yas and the Ut,tu,r'u,iaiias anl.,rng
,r.he
lrrtcst,
developmonts of the Mahi,,sdrrgr.11n,,=. but P*rami,r-
t,ha does ;eot rnontion tlrem ii. l,l. {-:orriiJf.,r'i'.r\r on
Vasumi tra. I' i re }l ahd,sai i gi ri k,, l .' i ,
' ri
' l i r,rr.eLl
by
Bhuvytt and Vinitadeva piact.s l-hi,ur :l,rrlrng the
r\Iahd,e6,nghikas sido by sicit-. wil-ir the I'iu.;aiailas.
Ituddhaglrosa, mer.l.io&.s tLt,ru i.::.
(!nc)
of t,ire four
Andiraka schools.
If they were at il dist,i-ngLrishod irorn the
Prlrva3ailas t,he;' 1l'r r.'(' probtrbly orre of i,heir
school s, for i r,Ii ti re :.,r.,
,,.' -*
whrt:i l aro a,ttri bnu' i l
gg
them by r"ari otts
:,r
i ' {r...r i trr' r cr)nuttt.' n tu f ;r)t}t.
Thei r ear l i est &pl ) c. . ' ; - t : "' i ' , r t t t he seconr , l hal t , ' . 1 t l r e
thircl cenrurv TJ./ -
Their pl'eserlc'r rr;.1 i{iilri rj,.irriikor.rtltr d,,rlir.; t}to
f kFvaku r i vnr =' t t ' ( j i r i t ' . ' r , . t . . \ . C, ) r s t , er t r l i . r , d by
severai i nscr' ,- 1.i ..' ; ,,
i JtI"
i i rl st,r' i , l :j /. ,i X, l 7 ff.).
t' hi s corrfi -rr, rr,
i .rtt"
i .-,1' ,' wl ,:db,ri f.i ..rr:;-r trth+:r soi u' i i os,
whor r , I i t i r . : , i l l . r . i ' : l , , . i si r , e. g o
. . u. n. i . l ' - s
t , hem a secr t ,
c; f . ! ' 11, . . . i l i l , i , . , : : , i ' l ; o: r ( 1r * ) . r ! . . , : l .
i l r - i ; t r .
I , 9) . Hl t i au.
ts.ar;;; f r' .i a r:rori *ster' ;' ci t,rro Apara6ai l as orr e
r!-.(.,i l .ri .r, r frr-sL
.,f
l )h.ur.ryui rul r.i r,Lr-r,, brrt at that
+,i mo
i t vi l r ,,i r.ua,l 3' ;;ri si l ' l ,a' i -l
{{rI' rtri }l ' l .: than a huni 1' gd
. I y' ( l t t t l
{ ' { r r i . r i . , l ; t t ' i ,
i . , i " t r , '
J
Lr 1l i r . . i , i 5' , 9 ! [ ' r an: el s on
i i . t t ] , 1, . l l i i r ; .
'
' , ' i , 1' , 1,
11, r s
{ $r : l ; ' - . : or
I J. i . p. l l i i )
f-rf' :.ri i !.i rtti t .
t'
.o.,.i .",
-rAd
di sappeafed
i .1,1
,
,
i i ti i r"
,.,1"
.l ;i -tti fr:-rtt.; .-i ,l i i ,.r.: ..i l " i r"-.l r.utl i i (7th
f :(-rxr i
1l
,
A
r r ' . : r j : r i l i l 1+: r i [ ] t l ' i ' . o" . . ,
'
; ' 1, - 5f t g1. " ' :
.
j ' . ' - r s
ug I
$t i i r i '
: r , . " ' " . . 1: r l { : i l r : 1 r : . ] - l i , ol 1' . 1/ . ; : : ' ; t ; . . i - ) ( '
I ' I Li f t ) nt i Oni ng
agc, L; ; . :
. , . . . : . 1: i , . , i l x. + i . ' t t ; i t " t ^ l ! i - ' r r " . t 7l dnw- . *nd
SUfi i ,,t,tt,,i 1S .,r,,t*i j 3,rl , l i )j ],tr.-'
.r .,+.i ,.,1r
ti rr6 l l IAtUk*S
{ E[ "
$a: , i i r i . t , i r . ci t . l ' ; ' t ; , r . . ; i l r . l l i u1i ewur ' t , l r y t het t ] r s
ri ,.vi si i i ne of i he $ett,rl -st+r::,tol :t al ' r ;e-ferrod to as
nikriyus arl i.s duno by ti;n Th,cr*i.'ri,-iiae of Ceylon,
ri,D.{i llot a*s ngamea ns in r:t-}i'th-weut lr'i.ia (Ka6rnir}"
N. Duti is rif opinion i,hBt ihe five llldl,u'kaa wore
sulrrrnr{riag of tbr {irntyt; .Pi,;aka, &s tbo Vinaya
of ihe Mah6;,;S .;i!- *-a-s c{,i}'tists cf five parts (Ecdy
trTonasti,c Bu{i;lo,"s1lt, II, pp. 55'6}. But it is
APARA ST'TTA 14 APARIEAT{A DHAUMA
not likely thab in tho
third
century A.C. the Vinaya
of this soct would have treon nut dore than five
separato tables. ft is much more likely that they
rsfor to Abhidhamms summaries, for this colloction
was developed by all schoois but latoly, nnd ronuained
for a very long i,irne in tho form of separate
md,t'i,kd.c.
Vusumitra observes that most of tho thoses
of the Aparaiailas, as those cf tho lJttara6ailas and
tho Cait,iyas, from whom ho does not disiingrrish
thom, are sirnilar to thoso of the Mahasinghikas.
Th,oy are :
(l) Bodhisattvan aro not freen (a,imukta) from
rebi-rth in evil statos (durgati).
(2) Worship &t I erfipa or caitya does not produco
g'reat results.
(3) An arahnnt rney have impuro seminsl
discharge (asuedsukkatisal{hi,).
(4) An arahant has ignoranco (ajfrdna).
(5) An arahant has dgubts (kanksa).
(6) An arahant is takea ecross (paroaitdranaj,
i.e., savod by someons else.
(7) Although one rnay have attained the path
of hclr:ress (sumrt.pdnna,)
one mey yet
break tho rules as to speecb
{aac6bhetl,a\.
(8)
FIo wbo is assured (ni,yata)
as to the future
enters tho path to the goal (ni.yd,ma\.
(9) The six spheres of ihe senses aro sstablished
sinrul6sngeusiy
in the mother's womb.
(10) Supramnndane
knowle,Jgo (lokutta.ra-fid,no)
has twelvo objects (dudd,asaua.tthuka).
(l l ) Al l thi ngs (sabbe
d,hammd,) l ast onl y ono
thought -moment
(elcacittalcklwnika).
A. B.
APARA SUTTA (t), also ealled tl:le
pdragdmtr
Sutta
(S. V, 81), says that the seven l i mbs of wi sdom
(saff,a-bojjha,ngo),
if cultivated, conduce to the
going from this shore to thc furtbsr shore, Nibbd,na,
i.o., &cross the ocean of .samsdra,
u. K.
APARA SUTTA (?) says rhat the four bases of
psychicai pow'er (aattaro ;ddhipddd,l. if cultivated,
condrrco t,o the going from this shore to the further
shnrs (,S.
V, 984)"
APARIBfiINHA, the 54th n&Ino in the first' list of
approximatoly 100 Buddhas
(actually only 97 are
named in this fi.i'st list), which was recited by
Ifaha-KAtviyane 8,t tihe request of Maha-Ka'(yapa'
The list cont$ins bho names of Buddhas undor whom
the Buctdha SaLyamrini acquired merit when ho was
abwancirrg as a bodhis&ttva from tho first to tho
soventh stago erf development or bh&mi (Mhuu'
I , 1. 37) .
H. G. A. v. Z.
APARIHANA DHAII{MA,
also eailed a'parihdni'ya
d,hamma., the conditions of welfaro. There aro a
nu-mter of lists in Pali and in Sanskrit ]iteraturs
enumerabing the conditions of welfare. Some of
tho lists aro identical, whiie others ovoriap ooch
other, and still others are entirely different from ono
another.
'Ibey
enumerato conditions, both positivo
and negative, v-hich lead not, to the decline but to
the rarelfare of individuals, bot'h monks and laymen.
Tbe Anguttara Nikd,ga g"ives twelve conditions
in six pairs which savo tho trainee (oehha) from
decliniag, namely, the absence of anger and malovo'
lence (aftftodho and anupnniha), of hypocrisy
and
spito (amalckha and. apnld,sa), of enwy and grudging
(onissti and ama,cchariya), of deceit, and troachery
(amaya anld asd{heyya}, ar.d finally the prosence of
modesty and scrupulousness (hiri' and ottoptpa: A.
r , 96) .
llhree conditions aro given in the ltdauttalca as
not, ieading to the decline of a trainee
;
they aro,
takingno deliglrt in worldly affairs (nc kanmrd,rd,rnatd\,
in gossip (nabhassdrdnntii), and in sleep (roa niddi'
rdrrtutrt : It. 7I-2\.
'Ihese
threo conditions, in addition to taking no
clelighf in compeny (na sangani,lcdrdmatal and
reflect.ing on the rninci as it is released, form a list
of fir'e conditions that do not learl to the decline of
a trainee, or of one
-wlio
has gained temporery release
(1. I1I, l 16, 173;. l ' he fi rst i ;hree condi ti ons i n the
above two lists with the addition of taking dolight
in guarding the doorg of the senses and boing
modoratei in eating. form another list of five at, A,
III, l?3. Tho first three conditions in addition to
taking no delight in company, being graceful in
speech and having good friends forrn a list of six
at, '1. IiI. 310. The same list occurs elsewhero with
the last two conditions being replacecl by having
guarded sense-doors aad being modorato in eating
( . 4. I r I , 330) .
Tho fu'st three conditions given in the above
list,s together with iaking no delight il. company'
not, falhng uader the influence of wrons dasirm, u. K.
APARIHANA DHAMMA
t 5 APARIHAI{A DHAfitl[A
beiog not friendJy with evil-rloers and not 4erning
to a stop on the way to Nibbd,na ibrm a list of Eeven
condi ti ons of wol fare of monks (D. fI, 77^g
: A. W,
22
;
Mhytt. t?5-6). The first four conditions
siven in the list immediately preceding, together
with having guarded doors of the serrsos, bning
moderato i n eati ng and gi vi ng cl ue pl i i ee to the
cldors, forrri another list of seven conrlitir:ns I,hich
do not l er-r,d to the decl i ne of a trai nee (/. Il I, 2*_S
:
IV, 25). Tl re l i rst si x condi ti orrs i n the precocl i ng
i i st together wi th sol i tary l i fe and taki ng
no cl ehght
i n cl i ffuscness form a l i st of ei gl tt
(A.I, g3l ).
Four con<litions--listening
to clhumlna, ol.rsonce
of confi rsi on i n the dhu,mma l i stened to, rofl oc|"i on
on ihe dhamna already listoned to and unclor_
standing of what is not underslooti-t,hese
do not
l ead to the rl ecl i ne of any porson (,4. \/, l 0l ). Four
rnore conditions are givern again, namcly, grtrduoi
decreaso of lust, of ho,tred a,nd of delusion anci tho
possession of tlie e;e of rx'iscloru pcrnetrating into
profound matters (A.II, 144).
The possession of faith (sodd[c7), morlesly (hiriJ,
senrpulousnoss (ottugryta), energy
{uiriya)
and insight
(pafr,fr,a) are also t,he contlitions of welfaro (^S. II,
207
;
A. V, I25). These fi vo concl i ti ons together
with much learning (balurcsuta,ta)
and rniudfulness
(caio) form a list of seven at D. II, ?8-g and at
4.TV,23. fn the Ma,hdparinirudna
Stttra is fourrd
the s&mo list with learning boing replacod by
concentration (Llhps. p. 126).
Tho traineo rrho is possessed of the following frv+;
qualities doeg not, decline: he is not busy nor elever
at worldly affairs; he does not spend tho day. use.
lessly
;
ho docs not, livo in comprlny with either
layrneu or. recluses
; ho does not, enter tho villago
too eorly or leave it t<",o la,tu
;
and ho spoaks wor<ls
full of moonirrg, tloes rrot, let tho time for solitudo
slip try *nd r+pyrlies him*self to calrrririg the heart
wi thi n (.tt. IIT, 177-8).
'Jaking
no tlolight irr visuri.l objects, irr sounris, in
odour,q, i rr t,astos, i rr phyai cal torrch arrrl i n thoughts
arisen rl th*> mind a,r.r) siven ilr iS. IV, T? rrs six
conditions of wel.far.e.
Practising l<indncss
of action, speeeh and thought,
towal ds t,l rei r col l c,ogucs, usi ng thei r tl i i ngs i n
corrunon, Lving &lltorlg su,int,s possessing vir.tues
which are produet,ir.*l
rif fi.eedonr, praised lly the
wi se,' untrl rni sheri ,
and cond.uci ve bo concerrtnrti on
of mincl, s.ncl also living
arnong saints chorishing
th&t, rx)l ,l (: i nsi ght whi r.h l cacl s t,o l ,he compl ete
dest,rrrrrti on ot' serrow, such are l he si x condi ti orrs
that do not loacl i,u the tlecline of morrks (,D. II,
g0).
The following six ccrnditirrns are givon in the
Angv.ttara Nikriya: rovororrco for tho lfeecircr" the
teaehing, the community of the Sangha, the trairring,
tlre pnseession
of diligenee (appamada) and good
friendship (pa,titanthdra : A. IJI,
gB+-l):
.I'!rs
same iist is found in tho same nikdya, having tle
last two conditions eubstituted with modesry antl
scruptrl or.rsne-"s (.4. fII,-3.?l ); end wi th the fi fth
being replaced with graco in speech (untaeaasa,td
:
A. III, 423-4). Tho Mahdgtardruirad.na Sfr,tra
gives a list of Ber/en conditions wbere the firat threo
<ronclitions are the s&mo ea in the precoding liat,, and
the forrrth is adrnonition (anuidaarfi,), the fifth
cliligence, the eixth good friendship tur<l the seventh
concontration (sawul,rlhi, : Mltps, p" lZa).
Ihe Buddha onur.rorates, with referenco to tha
Vajjie, Beven conciitjorrs that Iead not to the dealins
tnrt, to the welfare of a natiorr. Thoy are: (l) meoting
constantly t,c discuss matters of publio ivnpcrtance,
(?) meeting end carrying out thoir trerrsacbions in
r)oncord, (3) enacbi4g nothing not already estsblished
nnd abrogating nothing already enactod, (a) paying
tittontion to elders, (5) not aloducting women or
rnaiderre, (8) honouring their shrinos
{ceti.ya)
anil,
(7) defending and supporting the arahsrntg (D. fI,
73- 5; . 4. I V, 16- 17; 18- l g
;
*I hpt . pp. l 08- - l l S) .
Soven conditions ero
Freacribed
oe conditions
ftrr ttro u'elfare of rnonks. They aro: (l) moeting
conetantly, (2) moeting in concortl, (B) enncting
nothing not already establiahed and abrogeting
nothing already enacted, (a) paying ettention to
elders, (l'r) not falling under the inffuence
of craving,
(6)
taking delight in a life of solitude in forests end
(7) traini-g their minds in self-possesaion (t. ff,
7&- 7
;
A. I V, 2l - 2
;
Mhps. l : ?0- 1) .
-
Tlre sevon limbe of wisdom
{satta,-ba-ijha,hgal,
too,
are oxplainod ae seven condit,iorrs of vi'elfaro (D. If,
79; A. I V, 23
;
S. V, 85
: Mhpt . p. 128) .
l'ho dovelopruoni of
geven
ideas, as objects of
meditetion, foun anothor list of Boven, nomely, the
idea of irnperm&nonce (anicca-aofifr.d),
of non-self
(areatta-aari.fr,a),
of impurity (aaubha,-s"'1,
of dangor
of evils
{fuJirw,uo,-s''),
of getting rid of evils(p,hdrw-
.e''), of detachment (uirdga-s'') ond ceseation
( ni r od, ha- s" ; D. I I , 79
;
A. I V, 24) "
Seveu conditions aro given &s eonducive to
welfirre of lay disciplee, narnoll', visitrng monks,
listening to t,he dhamrna, being trained il lrighor
virtue, trusting monks, listening to tho dhamr''o
without seeking faults, rrot seeking gift-worthy
oues outsicle tho Sangha an<l s€rving rhe Sairgha
fi rst.
Seven couditions rrre givon in tho llahfiEorinir"
vd.lt<l S&tru as conditions of wolfsre c,f rnorrkq ; thov
APARIHANI
SUTTA APARTMTTAYU(
E)-STOTRA
t 6
are the reaiisation of dhsrma, meaning, tirr,e,
proportion, oneself, people and thoir rninds
{Mhps"
p. 126) .
Wben the two words oTta,rihdna and d,harnmo ara
eomponnded to rosd aparihd,nadhamm,a., it rrreans
the individual wllo by virtue of his acquired na,rure
will not, decline" Tho Puggola,pa,fi,frattd says that all
noble iadividuals (ariyapuggal,a)
are not subjoct
to decline by virtue of their nature (apariharw-
dhanvma: Pug. p. f 2).
U. K.
APARIHANI SUTTA of ihe Bojjlwnaa Sar.nyutta
of the Samyu,tta, Nikd,ya (V, 8b) givos the Bov6n
fectors of enlighten:arettt, (bojjhangaj as tho sevon
thin gs that declin a nob (apariltdnig a
-
d,lnnwn,a).
Cr W.
APARIEANIYA SUTTA (l ),' the eecond sutta of
tbe Anuttariya
Vagga of tho Ari4utta,ro Nilcdya
(IIf, 310), proached by the Budclha to the bhikkhus,
while staying a,morrg tha Sakkas at S6,mag6nia
near the lotus pond,
llere the Buddha informs the bhikkhris that
thero are six things which do not c&use one,s
downfell (Ttari.hani).
They &re: not <ielighting
in worldly activity (kamm.d,rd,matd,),
no| tleliehting
in talk (bhassdrd,matd,),
not derlighting in sleep
(nid,iloramatd),
rl.ot delighting in cornpany (eaiqa-
nikdrdma,td), engaging in fair speech
{souacercsati,),
and cultivating frienclship with goocl tnen (kalydna_
ni,ttot&).
I. K.
APARIHANIYA SIITTA (2), the seconrt sutta of,
tbo Deuatd, Vagga of the Ahguttara Nikd,yrt. (III" 930),
preaehed by tho Buddha, while iiving arnong the
Sakkas of SdmagS.rna near the lot,us pond.
A certain devatd approached the Burldha and
informed him that there were six things whir:h
did not lead to a bhikklru's failure. Thev e,r.e:
rovorence (gd,ra,uatd,)
for the teacher, for ilre dhamma,
for the bhilrkhus, for ttre training, for earnestness
and for friendship.
The Buddha agreed with the view of the devu,tfr,
and informed'the
bhikkhus of oll that had taken
pLoce.
APARIMITAGUNADHARMA, a bodhi satr,va whose
rra,rno occurs in a l;st of futriro Tu,thfr,gatas (GvyrZ.
442. 2j . For detai l s seo MAYADEVI.
APARTMTTA c{I$A
-ANUSA
MSA-n AUe-
pHARAHI
(Arya-Ap'), the iitlo of a Sanskrit text the Tibetan
iranslation of which occllrs in the ltgyud (tantra)
section ot"the Kangy-rr under the trtlo Hphags-po
gon-tan h.sttags-pa dpag-trt, mcd,-.pa shes-bya-bal,i
gz' u,n-s (Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. ' Suzuki ,
VoI. 7, No. 286
;
Vol . l l , No. 476). Aecordi ng to the
Sde-dge erdition, oue vereion (?i14. No. 679), occurs
in the Rg;'ud
lrbum
(100,000
tantre) soction aud the
other, 7M. No. 851(6), i n tho Gzui s-hdus (dharani )
section. Tlie work which begrns with an adoraticn
of the Tl:ree Jewels eontains the following dhdrani:
Nanw ratnrttrayd.ya'ns,m,o bfugavare Arni,tdbluiyo
tntlwgatdyet, arahate santgoksumbuddhdya. fad
yothi. Cm. Amfie Arnftorl,bhoae Amytaaamblwae
Atn'ftavikrante A,mrtagd,minL Goqarwlcari,ti'kare
Sa,rrakleiakgayahkare wdhd.
'fhis
iE followed by
a,n onumoration of the benefits of chanting it.
It is stated that chanting it once will expiete
the sinful deeds accurnulated through a hundred
tlrousand aeons (halpul; chanting it three times
each day will purify the effects of all sins and
generute themerit acquirod by *thousand Ruddhas;
chanting it, t'"ventJ,-one times will lead to tho
expiatiorr of the four rnoral transgressions
;
one
who chants it a irundred tbousand times wiil
seo Maitreya
;
one who chants it two hr-rndred
thousand times will see Avalokite6vara,
;
and one
who chants it threo hundred thousand tirnes wiil
see Amits,bha. Tho colophon does not give the
n&me of thel author or tr&nsl&tor.
Tho ibllowing Chinese translations of tho
sitr'& aro known to exist t A-rni-t'o-Ju-shuo-chqu
(FqtHFE{#ffiH, Ta.ish6, No. 369)
;
Kan-tu.ehi,n4-
t'o-!o'ni-cito?, (fffiffiFbffiE,\n Tai.th6, No. lStG ;
ep. Tai ,sh6, N<r. l 3l 7)
;
Kan-l w-t' o-l o-ni -chou
(fiFpEffim,FR roithi;, No. 1317
;
Nanjio, No. 540),
translateil by Siksanand.a of tho T'ang dynasty,
618-907 A.C.; Wu-l i an4.kttng-t6-t' o-l o-ni -chi rq
(ffi
RsffiFtffitr ffi T aish6,No. I34, N on'iio,No. 892).
R. E.
APARITUITAYU, another oamo for Amii:Eyu(s).
See AIIITA
(1), AIIITA (2).
APARIMITAyUTH)-SfOTRA.
tho reoonstructed
Sanslirit title of tl. Tibetan text extant in tho
Rgyud-lgre\ \tantra
coumenlary) aecticrn of ttre
l . l t .
APARIMITA YTIR.II OMA-VIDHI. L7 APARIMITAYTIR.J fr AI{AHRDAYA.
Tongyur under the titlo Tsha.d,pag-rn,ed-Ia bstorl-pa
(Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . Zg,
No. 3522). Tho col ophon whi ch statos that Jetdri
was the author of the work, givos tho names of
six translators, viz., Ba-ri lo-ts6.ba, I.{chims-pa
Brteon-hgrus sot'l-ge, Rgyu rrari phug-pa, Dbus.pa
rai.s-rgyas
lrbum,
Bla-ma dge-sdins-pe and Bla-ma
baam.gtan bzan-po. Cordier quotes tho name
Dgatr-batri dpal as thet of a transl;rtor (Cordier,
I I , p. 298, No. 0) .
Ihs work eonsists of torr sfanzt-i,s of ilcloration
addroseed to ths Buddha (Sakyamuni), Ildo-rje
(Vaj ra), Padma, Ri n-chen (Ratna), Phri n-l as
( Avalokito$vara),
Kun
-
gshi gs (Adibuddha
),
yon
-tan
(Gu+s), Yo-6es (Jfr6ne), Mi-gyo (Acaia) and Tsho-
dpag-mod (Aperimit6y u).
R. II.
APARIMITAYU N-g OMA.VIDEI.NAMA, A SANSKTit
text translated into Tibetan by Balacanda bla-ma
and Darme tehul-khrims and included in the
Rgyud.l.rgrel (tantra commentary) section of tho
Tengynr rrnder tho titlg Teh.e dpag-tu med,-paltd
sbgin-treg-gi cho-ga she*bya-ba (Peking Ed. Tib.
Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 2e94).
The formula of salutation addressed to
Aparimit6yu ie followod by a commendation of
the great morit that followr tho performance of a
horna
{bunrt
offeri.g). Ths procedure of the
porfomance
of the homa is then explained in
detail. The mantra, Oqn agneye wdha
Oqt saruapd,parn daharw uajra ga aad,hd,
Om aajraaijaye wd,lfr. Om mah.duegaye'ndhd.
Orp ma,hd,balaEe aud,hd Om uajra
tiyuge ge eadhd,. Orp, apratihata,va.iraye md,hd, is to
be recited while making an offering of butber,
ourd, sesame, rice, barley and lontils to Agni,
the god of fire. The formulae, Ayu pufijiryt, Icuru
oqr and Oqn aajra ayuqe a,myta sidd,hi hilm, are to
bo rocited along with an offoring, soliciting longevity.
Tho rospoctive rswards of differont kinds of offerings
are also enumerated in the text. It is said that
an offoring of butter increases wealth, that of
sesnms destroys sin, that of curdlod milk and
cookod food promotes knowlodge, that.of barley
develops zoal, thet of rico confors atrility, that of
wheat and lontils diepels dieease, that of d,urua
gra€s granter long life, freo from diaoaso, thet of
Euda grasa ,affordB protection against all impodi-
mente ond t,hat of rnilk and honoy boetowa per-
foction (Skt. .nddii, Tib. ilrrygtr.witht.
The text ends with the statoment that all beingr
will obtain a,parimi.tdy'z (Tib. tthe dpag med,-po)
tlrrorrglr the merit of the performance of tbe horna
describod in the text.
R. H.
APARIMITAYUN..Ifi AHAF" i :IDAYA. NAMA- DHA.
RAI,JI (Arya
-Ap' ),
tl r,r ti ti o of * Sanskri t work, tho
Tibetan translation of vlrich occurs in the Rgyud
(tantra) section of the Kang'yur under the title
Il'phag s-pa t,she-d.ai, q e
-
i es d, pag
-tu -med -
pahi s iii n
-po
shes-b' t1a-bahi gzttns (Peki ng l i d. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 7, No. 363; Vol . l l , No. +75) . f he
work begi rrs wi th an adorati on of the Buddha and
al l bodhi sattvas. The substance of the sfi tra i s
ae follows : The Buddha addressed an assombly of
monks and bodhisattvas and said. . In the world
called Sukhdvati, in tho western region, thero is a
Tathdgata called Aparirnit6,y'u. They who chant
hi s name wi l l be born i n that worl d. Thore,
no women are to bo found and birth in a womb is
unknown. Beings there emorge from lotuees of
jewels
in a miraculous m&nner and they obtain
food, cl othes, medi ci nes, robes, couchos and the
like, as soon aB they think of them. The Buddhas
i.rr the ten directions praise Sukhdvati. The
Buddha who lives thero, the Dharma he preaehes
and the Sangha aro boyond the reach of intellect,
and tho resulte of boing devotod to thom &ro ag
incomprohensiblo. The palaco of tho Tathdgata
Aparimitdy'u is ten thousand miles in ertent. A
cakravarti k.itrg called Bzafr-pobi mchog (Bha-
drottara) was tho father of the Tathdgata Apari-
mitdyu. His kingdom w&s Gzi-brjid-can (Tejasvi)
and his
euo€rn
was callod Bzafr-skoyfr-ma (Bha-
drapdli). The Tathd,gata AparimitEyu had a son
called Zla-bal.ri ho{ (Candraprobha).
If ono wero to bear in mind tho name of tho
Tath6.gata Aparimitdyu for sovon days and chant
the dh6rani, AmTtad,und,ubhisaarard.ja, throo times
during the day
'and
throo times at night, ho will
seo the Tathd,gaba Aperimitiyu and also the Buddhas
living in the ten directions. Aftor doath the
devoteo will be born in the Buddha-field of Apari-
mitd.yu. The dharani is as follows : dabale abal,e
eornu.iale nird,e6e n'irjate nirugate nirmukhe
ir"lo-
pari6od.ha,ne sukhaaate ni,rd,e$e amite I dyugarbha-
nirhara am'ite dguprasddhane ni,rbuddhe dlcd'lanird,elc
nlcoia-nirjate d,kdianirkulale dkaionirde$ane. . ., . .
Ctttudridharma-prasdd,ane m,tudrd dryapatya-praad-
dane catudri,mfrrgabhana prasfune,balauEsta pna-
eddane ... . ku.iale kuial,an'irdeie kula,Laprati4llwpa
buddlmlcuiale v6u,&llwprobln etffilwrm&armta
ApARmrrA Y u R-J ff Al{A-r[A I.{
pAtA-
t 8 APAR I}1IT AY U R-J fr ANA-NAUE.
nhjdte nirbuildhe u'i,ma'le airaje. . . . rasd,gre ra,sd-
grabale rasagre adhistrhi'te lcu,le pratikule u'ikule
ildntoaudd,ntacitte attpraii,ntacitte su'prat'ist'hi't'e' .' .
onulay abale budilha
-alcdla-
gu. nabuddhe 6kd,6an'ir gun,e
Arnftadun ilubh ihs x ar e s a d'hd,.
l'trey who preach this dhdrar.ri will be born in thtr
world of Aparimit6,yu, where ho sits surrounded
by e vast nurnber of bodhisattvas, with Avalokite!-
var& on his right. Further, if a thera or then, or a
lay devotee, either male or fernale, rememJrers
the name of Aparirnitdyu he or she will ]rtlve no
foar of danger from fire, water, poison, weapons,
demons or evil spirits. The srltra ends n'it'h the
statoment that the congregation, delighted, lauded
tho sorrnon of the Buddha. According to the
colophon, Punyasambhava and Ba-tshab-iri-uui-
grags translated the work intrr f ii-retan. A Chineso
trarrslation of the v'ork, A-rni-t'o-ltrt'-t1in-shdn'g'
ruans-t'o-to-ni-chins (FqlffiffifiFffiEfeffitrffi Tai
s/ i . d, I r f o. 37A; Nani i o, No. 485) i s er t ant .
R. H.
APA RI MI TAYU R.Jfr AN A.M A
N P
A t A.VIDHT.
I{AMA, a Sanskri t t' ext, a Ti betan vorsi on of whi ch
occurs twice in tire Rgy'ud-hgrel (tantra comlnen'
tary) secti on of tl re Tengl mr under the ti tl e ?she
dam ye-6es d.pag-tu. nted,-pahi dkyil-hkhor'-gyi cho-ga
ahes-bya-bor (Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 2993
;
Vol . 86, No. 4887).
Zla-ba bzan-po and Glan Darma tshul-khrirns are
citod as tho translators of the rvork. The fc-irmula
of adoration is addressed to the Tattrdgata Apari-
mit6,yu.
After an initial statement tlrat the priest should
p&y reverence to Aparimitayu and eornmenco t'he
nfe
@id,hi)
as declared in tho tant'ras, the methotl
of its perforrnanee is detailed. The priest shoukl
choose a, suitablo spot, ongage in meditation,
offor flowers and make preparations for the drawing
of tho man{ala. Then a yellorv-complexioned
deity decked with ornaments is said to appear,
her body only partly visible. Instrtrctions for
p6,king
offerings to her and singing praise of her
aro givon in the text after the carr5'ing out of whiclr
sho is said to disappear into the oarth. Offerings
are to be then made to the guardians of the quarters.
Tho blossings of the gods should be invoked by the
recitation of mantras. The priest should therr.
enter tho maqdala and proceed with tho rito as
onjoined in the toxt. Tho following are some of
tho
mantras quoted as those to be chanted in the
corrrse of the performanco of tlre rite t Ory, hrtrlt
'uilttrldha
dltarnto saruapdparp . . . . vi$odhayoaikolpa
apan,atle h'un. Orn n,ama,ste hftm. Om nq,rndrni hil1n.
Namo narn.ah h'ufn sudhd'. Om' sarua-ta,thd'goto-
bud,d ha ab h, is elcu,q u,ta iit rnd,tt
q,nt
ni,ryt ata'11 d n t'i s u,rx sta
-
thagatu uu-irarotnu ubltisi,fraa rrud'r7t. l'ajra uh ka
om i l ft. hi l ,rn. The authorsl ri p of the work i s <rredi ted
bv
(' l r-r' rl i ,:r
1o Si dcl l raraj i i i (Grub-patri l gval -mo).
Candrabhadra (Zla-ba bzari-po) and l)harrnaSila
(Dar-ma tshul -khri ms) are sai d to have transl ated
tl re work i nto Ti l ' retan (Cordr,er,II, p. I98, No. 51
;
f ) I ,
i r .
1$0, No. 59
t
TM. No. 2l . t l ) .
R. H.
ApARrMrrAvun-
(JfrANA-) i l AMA- DHARANI,
the title of a Mahaf ii,na text extanb in the original
Sir,nskrit and also in Tibetan, Chinose aritl l(hotanose
versi ons. Sce APARII{I' f.I.YI]-R,-JNANA- NAMA-
lt-\ T{A \lA i*iA
-
st-r T li .\ .
APARI MI TAYUN
-
JNANA
.
NAMA
-
MAHAYANA.
SUTRA (Ar1' a
-AI,
),
the n,rrne of a l {ahi r,ydna texl ,
containing a sr-rt,ra s:r,id to liave beon proachod b.y
tho Srikyarnuni :r,t.tire rnonastery of Anlthapinda,da
in ,lettr,r-ana in Sr6,va,sti. The work begins with
an adorati on Lo ,\val oki tei vara antl to tr,l l Brrddhag
antl hodhi sattvas. -\ceorcl i ng tr-r the sri tra, t he
Buddli.a addressed llairjuAri Kumd,rabhfrta st
l, large assernbly of monks and bodhisattvas
l,nd said :
'Ihere
is a rvorld in the regions above,
Aparirnitagunasaff.cay6 by namo, whoro a Buddha
called Aparimit,af urjfld,naslvini6citateja proachos
the doctrine. If the people in Jambudvipa, who
a,t present are short-lived, were to write the religious
di scourse prai si ng the vi rtrres of the Tathdgata
Aparimitd,t'us&, or callse it to bo written. or hear the
rnere name thereof, bear it in mind or recite it, or
keep a, book containing it in their houses an.d pay
respects to it, then they will li"'e s, hundred yo&rs.
Further, they who hear the n&me of AparirnitS,5mr-
j fl 6,na-suvi ni 3ci ta-tej a,, boar i t i n mi nd or utter i t a
hundred and eight times will also have their span
of l i fe l engtl rened. They who wri te, c&use to be
wri tten, reci te or keep i n Lhei r houses a book eon-
tairring tlre fbrn-nrla, Oryt n'arno bhu,llauate Aparitni-
I d,y u,r
-.i
fi,a r t rt
-
s u t: in i i eit a
-
t ej o
-r
d,j d,y a tath.tig atd,u drh at e
saltt.llak-sant.budrlld,yu,. Tad yathu. Orlt. pufly6-
p tt n y a
-
mal td,
-
7
t tt t.t y a
-
ap ar'im,it a
-
pu 11'!J u
-
ap ar imi td'y uh
-
punya-j fid na- sambhdropacite. Orir, .torro-,ramskd,ro-
pari6zrddha-dltarnuate gagolla-samud'gate suabhfrao-
ui,,iudd,lrc malr,anaya-ptariad're sud'hd, will live a
hundred yea,rs and bo born in the Buddha-field
(Bud,dhaksetra) of Aparimitdyusa, in the world
Aparimitaguna,saicay5. The abovo forrnula termod
Apari.nuitd,yuh eil,tram in the toxt occurr
twenty-one timos moro with tho rtctoment thot
APA RIMITAYUR.J ff ANA.IIAMA- APA RIMIT A YTIR-J fr AXA.SADHAITA
t 9
roveral crcres of tsuddhae recited it or with an
snumeration of the berrefi.te of writing it or cawing
it to be written, Tho m$ntra, runs:
'O4l,
saluta-
tion to tlle Flltga,vtr,t : fo the soveroign of end.less
life, wiedorn and urrfailing glory
;
io the Tath6gata;
t,o the Arhat
;
to the perfect, Buddha
;
thus, O4p, to
the soul of the virtue of virtuee; the great wirtue,
tho mongrrrolese virtue, tho knowledge of measure-
iess load of virtuo
;
and Om to the possessor of all
purif,od and
irure
duty
;
to hi'n who can riso t,o tlro
sky
;
to tho scion ofthe naturally pure and rightoous
r{ico, ma.y this be propitioue.' The sfrtra errcls with
six stanz&s the first, of wirich is &s follows :
dfrna-balerw-sarnud.gata-buddlw dd,rw-bald,tl,hlgato
nara-timho dd,no,
-balasy
a ca 6r[t yati, iabdo kdrunilcasy a
Twre Trrau,i.fantonn
(?j. The other five stenzas have the
eeme vsord.ing excopt fcrr the tact that the words
Ir,lrt, ktrl,nt'i, utrya, dhyarw arrd prajfid occur in
place of dd,na,
Thero &re three Tibeta,n translations of the
work in the Rgyud (tantra) section of the Kangyur,
rrnder tlre title
llphags-pa
tshe-d,q,n ye-{es d,pag-tu-
nued-po ahes-bya-ba theg-pa chen-ptoh,i zrxio (Peking
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 7, Nos. 361,
302; Vol . l l , No. 474). hi the Sdo-dge edi ti on
two of tbo translations are in t'he Rgyud-hbu-ur
(100,000 tantra) section of the Kangyur (7M. Nos.
674, 676) and the thi rd, ?M. No. U49 (4), i s i n the
Gzuns-lldus (dhArafi,i,) section. The naruos of tho
tra,rrelators are not known.
Copies of the sfitra have been fouLd nmong tho
Tibotan manrrecripts from Tun-hua,ng which Sir
Ar"rrel Stein broright back t'roru his secorrd expcdil,iorr
to central Asia in 1906-8 and whish were eventually
reeeived in the Indin Office Library (I{os. 308-10;
403, 2 iu tho Cata,logue af Tdbenn Manuacri'ptta
Jrorn
Tun-htnng, published by the Co'.'tt-tonwoalth
Relatione Office, f962). L. de Ia Vell6o Poussin
states that these doserve special notice and that
the paper is quite different lrom the paper of the
other manuscripts in the collection (ibid. p. xv).
Tbo Chinese translations of the sfitra aro oxtant :
(i) the Ta-ch,'eng-wtt-li,ang-shou-tswng-gao-ch,i,ng
*lftffiltt$lffi
o" the Ta-ch'eng-uru-Iiang-shut-
chdrry (Taishb-, No. 936) translated during the T'ang
dynasty (618-80?A.C.). Thonamo of the transl ator
is not known. (ii) The (Fu.shu,o-) Ta-ch'eng-ah.6rq-
uru-l,i<zn g -shou-chiieh-ting -lanang -
nitq
-
warLg
- ju -
bn-
t' o
-Io -rvi -chins
(^tFgffi
tFRiE)b EE Efu
*fffStr
g
l|stah6, No. 937
;
Nanj'io, No. 786).
A compleio manuacript of a
T(hotaneso
version
of the sttra was found by Sir Aurel Stoin in the cave
fornplos at the I[aUe of the Thousatrd Buddhm.
Sten l(onow has edited this vereion together with
the Sarrskrit toxt arr<l the
'l'ibetan
tranelation.
trIe has also given an English intorpretation of tho
Tthotanese Lext (I'urk. Rent. pp. 289-329).
'fho
Khotaneso Aparinr,itd,au|3. Sutra has also been edited
Lr1. I{. W" Railey (Khotanese
Buddhist Terts, Loudon,
1951, pp. 94 tr.). For an edi ti on of the Sanskri t &nd
Tibetan texts and a translation of the Sanskrit
and Chinese versions into German, aeo Aparim'ild.
31
ur
-j
iiuna-nama-m,ahay
d,na- cfr,tram by Max Wailesor,
Iloidelberg, 1916. According to the colophon of a
Nepalese manuecript that Sten Konow used, the
work wus known by tho namo Ar11o-Aparinuitdyur-
rwm,o-dhd,rar.ti, (Turk. Rem. p.292). Wollwor, tno,
notes this reodirrg in hie odition of ths text.
R. H.
APARrUrTAyun-fff,xA-rrADEAtA (1) (Aryr
Ap'), a Banskrit work extant in its Tibetan tmm-
lation undor the title (flphage-prl Ttha il,o* yl--{a
dpag-tu-med,-pahi agrub-thabe in tho Iigyud-b$€l
(tantra commentary) soctionof ths Tongyur (Peking
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . ?9, No. 3523).
Tho opening aalutation addressod to Arya-Apa,ri.
mitdyur-indna is followed by the etatement thrt
all beings doeiroua of guarding their livoe should
writ,e out this work degcribing tho procodure
of
worship of Arya-Aparimitiyu. The subioct
ynattar
of the work consists of a description of thie proco-
duro of worship. After making tho prelirni-n'?
vows ons should perform th.;e rnoft$aln worahip
s,nd. the ceremonios of ablution at e solitary elrd
suitablo spot,. Pure in body, epeech and
tt ind,
tho lamas, the Buddha and othor doities ehould be
propi ti ated.' fhe four' i mrne&srrr&bl es' (tho quati -
tios
of rna'itrl,, lcaru4fi,, nuditd urrd, upekEd) and the
emptinoss or illusory nat'are (6&nyotal of all things
shouid be contemplatod upon. fhen one ehould
refleat on tho moaning of tho maglo formula,
Om saabhd,ua-ttdiuddlwb suroadlfirt/fr aa&lfruo.
vitudillw'lwr7t', and proclaim tho might, and power
of
tho ono-faood, two-armed, red-cornploxionod deity
Ary*-Aparirnit6vu who sits croea-Iogged, with a
smile on his fsco. Two mantraa ar6 to be reoited,
b}ae mi,it-gi' sings
{l
nema montra), vw., Oqt td
VdhA
Aparimite Ayurjfrdrc hrib inTm ndhd
ac quoted et, tho ond of the tort and the afrih poln-
eioge (t aqjrunwntra\. A rocitatlon of tho
Arnftdm'dubhistora-dhi,ro4,1, should follow. Ibig
dh&nanl is not quoted here hrt it ocours in tho
text Aptoritndt eyw
-j
frdna,hTdag o.ri&ma. itrhfironi, (q.v.l.
Frrrthor ofreringr should
tre rnado
to tbe deitiGs
APARIMIT A YU R J fr AI{A.S A DH A NA 20 APARIMITAYUS SIITRA
after the recitation of theso formulas. Ths work
ooncludes with the etstement that through the
morit of the porformance of thie rito all tho beings
in the eix rrorlds will receive tho injunctions of
Aparimibdyu and be froe from ali sorrow. The
c0lophon ascribes ths authorship of tho work to
Jetdri.
Hjam-polti
dbyafrs and Lce Dgab-bal:i
dpal are ssid to havo translated the work into
Tibotan.
R,. I[.
APARIMITAyUn-rffANA-SADE.ANA
(2), a sans-
krit toxt the Tibetan vorsion of which is oxtant, in
the Rgyud-hgrel (tantro commontary) section of tho
Tongyur undor the title Tahe dan ye-du dpag-tu
med-ptohi egrub-thaba (Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed.
D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 2990). The authorshi p
of the work is ascribod to Ye-6es-kyi mkhab-bgro-ma
Grub-pa!ri rgyal-mo (Jf,6na{6kini Siddharejai).
Tbe work is identical in content, with the
Apnrimitdyur-nfrn'w-addhonn (q.v.) writton by tho
same author.
R. E.
APARIITIITAYUN..IfrANA.VIDHI.NAMA,
a Sans.
krit text the Tibetan translation of which is found
in the Rgprd-fgrel (tantra commentary) section
of the Teng;rur, under the title Tehe dan
g e-{ec dpag
-tu -meil -
pahi, cho
-
g a shes
-by
a'ba (Peking
Ed. Ti b. Tr i p. , ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 79, No. 3524) .
The opening salutation of the text is addressed
to AparimitEyur-jfl6na. Instructions regarding the
porformanco of a rito to worship him form tho
subject matter of the work. The text states
that a chosen spot should be sprinkled with water,
incenso burnt and a mystic cirelo (manQalal drawn.
The circlo, to be adorned with flags and canopies,
should heve eight lotus petalled entrances. Four
initial offerings to be mado &ro specified-an
offering of milk in the east, fish in the south, blood
in the west and liquor in the north. Topics like
ths four
'irnmeasurables'
(the qualities of maitri,
lcarupd, m,uditd and upekgd,) and the omptiness or
illusory naturo (9fr'nyota) of all things, that are
to bo contemplated upon, aro then rnentioned.
A description of Aparimitdy'u-a red'com-
plexioned doity bearing marks of water-vessels
on his hands, who emerges from the mystic
syllablo hri,h and sits on a lotus with a calm or-
pression on hig faco-follows wit'h tho instruction
that ho should be circumambuiatod to 1,he
accompaniment of the rocitation of the msntro:
Om namo Wory Ayurifrdna hril.t aroldko h&'q hrdl.t.
Further, meditation on the following
irnmortsl
deities is enjoined : Rda-rje (Vajra) in tho eest'
Padma in tho wost, -Qin-chen (RNrw) in the south,
Las-kyi (?) in the north, Kun gzi,gs (the All-seoing
One) in tho north-e&st, Yom-tan (Guf,nl in thc
south-east, Ye-$es (Jild,rul in the Bouth-west arxd
Mi-gyo (Acala) in the north-weet. All theee
deities aro deecribed as boing red-complexionod,
possessing cahn facial exprossions and bear:Ing
marks of water-vossels on their bands. More
irrstructions &ro given about' tho continuation of
tho rite and the following formula is quotod aa a
rnantra to be chantod during a consecration
ceromony . Or.n uairomna dywifid'rn siddhi aamagd
&hirydilco hil.tp.
The colophon ascribos the authorship of tho
work to Jet6ri. SrImafiju and Lce Dgab-bahi
dpal are said to have translated the work into
Tibetan.
R. E
APARIMITAyUn-}{
AMA-SADEANA, tho possiblo
titlo of a Sanskrit text, tho Tibotan vereion of
which occurs in the Rgyud-tr$ol (tantra com-
montary) soction of the Tongyur undor the title
Tahe dpag-tu m,ed-pa ahes-bya-bal.td sgrub-thabc
(Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 86,
No. 4886). The titlo as quoted in tho text ia Ayu-
aparimita-sriilhana. The authorship of the work is
ascribed to Yo-ies-kyi mkhab-l1gro-ma Grub-pahi
rgyal-mo (Jfrdnadakini Siddhar6jfli). The formula
of salutation is addrossed to Aparimitd,yurjf,ana.
The work proscribes moditation on several objects
somo of which ars s&id to arise from tho mystio
syllablo lri. Among those to bo meditatod upon
is tho Tathd,gata AparimitS,yu, a red-complexioned
deity, docked with ornamente, who sits on a
fivo-petalled red lotue. Tho following mqntr&a ar€
quoted as those to bo rocitod while oircurnambu-
lating i,he sacrod objocts I Ory hrdP brdTn uoiro
jfi,drw ayuge wdhrt. Ory hilrn bnhp oaira
ifi.dna
dyupe wdlfr. Or;n &x, ffim uaira
iilarw
6yufc
wd,hd. Or.n bhrttry bn7 aaira
iltana
dgugc ttdhlt"
O\n o brttqn aajro
iilarw
dyupe ettdM. Ory bnbp
aparimdto d'yurjfrana suuini,lcdn tuiardi&ya ildh,lt.
. . dza h&m bam lw opardrnira' d'yurif|d'tu
wahi.
R. H.
APARIMITAyUS
SUTRA, a sfrtra bagod on the
Pure Land doctrino, oxtant in its Chinose trans-
lation nndor the titls A'md-t'o'chirry
(F{ffiF[&
Tai,sh6, No. 362) in two fasoicles translatod
by Chih-oh'ien
during tbe Wu dynasty (222'80 A.O.).
APA RNUITAYUS-S
UTRA.SASTB A
APARIMTTAYUS-S
OT ROPADESA
2T
lhis sfitra eontains the twenty-foru vowi of
Dharm&kara
as well as the llu-tia,ng-ch,in4-ching-
p'irry-t&ng-chueh-chdn4
(fttffiF+Sft,ffi
Taish6,
No. 361) as opposed to other ,gix
puro
Land sfrtraE which mention tho forty-eight vowe
of Dharrn6.kara.
Ac thia sfrtra is wrjtten in prose
rtylo, it must bo the oldest slltra of the rnany
C)hinese, $enekrit and
'Iibstan
editions of the
Sukhduatio.sgfr,ha.
Tllro sfrtras catalogued as Aporimitd,yu,lt
Sil,tra by
Taiahd sag Nos. 360, 86l, 862 ancl 368, eorrespon-
ding to Nanjio Nos. 2?, 25,26 and
g68,
soern to be
relatod.
K. Tmn.
APARIUIITAYUS.SUTNA.6ASTNA.
SEO APAN,I.
MITAYUS.SUTROPADNSE.
APARIMITAyUS-SUfROpADEi A,
che rosrored
Sanskrit title of a work by vasuband.hu, extant in
ite Chinoso translation. ft doais with the doctrine
of tho Puro Land.
This work consiste of two parts, viz., the verse
ahd ths proso. T'an-luan, a commentator, des-
cribes the vorse part es a general teaehing and
tbe prose part as an intorprotation.
The vereo part contain+ twearty-four verses'
oacli of which has four lines. fn this part Vasu-
bandhu exprosses at first hig undivided dovotion
to AmitEbha. Then, he saye that he summaris€s
whet is taught in sitras and spoaks of the poth
to Amit6bha. Tho noxt twenty.one vorses
describ| tho adornmeni r of the
pure
Laud. In
the last verse Vasubandhu confesges
his aspiration
to bo born in tho Pure Land with othere.
In the proso part, \rasubandhu interprots tho
verses and explains the
'Five
Spiritual Gatea'.
viz., tho Gate of lYorehip, tho Gato of
praise,
tho Gato of dspiration, tho Gate of Porception and
the Gate of Merit Transforense. Tho Gato of
Worship me&ng bodily action and ths Gate of
Praise oral action. The Gate of Aspiration is
sololy and oxclusivoly the aspiration to be born
in the Pure Lend. Tbe Gato of Perception which
is taught in detail will be oxplainod below. The
last, the Gate of lfforit I'ransferonce is the accom-
nlishmeut of tho compassionato
heart in trane-
ferring merit to all boings in suffering.
In the Gate of Perception, tho three kinds of
adonnments may be porcoivod. Tlress ar.o the
l7 kinds of edornrnonts of the Buddha Land,
the I kinds of ador.nments of Arnitdbhs and
the 4 kindg of ador:rmonts of the bodhisattvae in
the Pure Land. Thus, the throo kinde of adom-
mont ers furthor divided into twopty-nine- But
all thoeo can be aondensed into one word, i.o.,
dhanna, which me&na
'purity'.
By the word
purity ie meant tho true wisdom and non-oreeted
ilharmakdyo.
This iB the most impor{ant doctrine of the
I]ure Land. All adornmeute of the Purs Land
oro condensed into one dlnrma, namely, Whati.
In other words, it msane that the Pure Lend ie
the rnanifeetation of the tatlnld. T'an-lusn toaohe
two kinde of dhornnkdya of Buddhas end bodhi-
sattvas, namoly, ttro dlwrrrutkiiyo of trutb (resli-
eation of Cfinyaffi) and the dlwrmakri'yoof expedienoy
lupd,yo,
purpoeo and moans to sslvation of othots
arld roalisatron), The twenty-nino adonements
of the Puro Land are produced as tho dlnffiya
of expedient moena to save all beinge.
According to Vasuhandhu, if a porson prectisa
the
'tr'ive
Spiritual Gatee', ho can obtsin the
rnerits of the Five Gates,
yb.,
the Gate of Approach,
the Gate of Great Congrogation, the Gato of
Premise, t'he Gate of the l{ouse, and tho Gete of
Strolling in ths Gardon and Forest. Tho first
four perfect the merit of ingrees and the fifth
the merit of egresa. The first is so celied bocaue€
birth is gained in the Puro Land; tho eocond
bocaugo one becomes one of ths mombers of the
great conpJregation in tlro Pure Land
;
the third,
because oDe con enter the premiee of the Lotus
World (P'ere Land)
;
and the fourth, becauee ono
enierg the Puro Land and enjoys meny a pleasuro
of tbe perfect enlightonrnont,. The flfth ie called
'of
ogrese' becauee witb groat compassion ono
incarnates in tbe garden of birth and dooth to
seve all rutroring beings. Thus, one can ottain
porfect enlightenrnont.
This work was traneleted into Chineso by
Bodhiruci in 529 A.C. (or in 631) undor the title
Wu-Ii.ong
-shou -
chin4
-yu-7to-t'i-ah€ -ytran-aMng -chi
(ffiflFgfrd'ft€Hs'l&
Ta;aha, No. 1624) in ono
fascicle. This is eometimee callod. Wan4-ohlng-Iurt
(Gs.n)
or Tehry-tu-tzn
(F*,8).
T'ten
-Iuan
(47 E-642 A.C.
)
wrote the con::nentary
bhe W u
-ldarq -
chou
-
chdng
-yu -
4to
-t'
i
-
ah€
-y
dnn
-ebtng -clui
-chu (ffifrHffifr&#EeH€iE#
Tohtti, No.
1819). IIie comnentary, too, is very importaqt
in Pure Land Buddhism. Later, many commant-
aries and troatis€S reero written on this work
and on T'an-luan'a commentary also. Tho oat*-
logue volumo of tbo Toisho Tripifoke. rooords
sixty-ibur eornmontariee and troatie$ on this
work. Marry monLo, includi'S Teo-oh'ao (602-645),
APARISROTAVAEANA n Aperrt
Shan-tao (613-68I)
and Shinran (t174-1262),
quote frorn this work and discuss its conterrts.
The JOdo sh'i, a Japanoso sect of Pure Land
Buddhism, admires Vasubandhu bocause ol' this
rrork and places lrirn as the third in t,he line of
the oiglrt patriarchs,
A6vaghosa being the first
and Nagdrjuna the second, or &s the first in the
liue of the five patriarchs of its own sect. In the
J6do-shin shri, another school of Pure Land
Buddhism in Japan, Vasubandhu occr-rpies the
posi ti on of the second patri tr,rcl r., N[g6r' j rrrra
being the first, in the line of its seven n&srers.
K. Tun.
APARISROTAVAHANA, a former Buctdha, men-
tioned in a list of former Buddhas trnder whonr
Sakyarnuni whilo in ther ninth bhumi acquired
mer i t ( Mhuu. f , 139) .
APARITB$ITA, a former
Buddha, ment,ioned in a
list of former Buddhas under whom Sakyamuni
while in the ninth bhumi acquired merit (Mhuu.
I , 14t
) .
APARMRTYA SUTRA, & Sanskri t work.
See AVAIVARTACAKR,A.NAMA-MAHAYANA-
SUTRA.
APARYANTABIIADRA, a bodl i i sattva whose n&mo
occurs in a list of futuro Tathdgatas (Gryw. 443,
g).
For detai l s see MAYADEVI.
APASADIKA SUTTA, two sutas bearing tho
corrunon title of Apdsd.ddka (var. Appasadika),
occ',-rrring in succession in the Akkosaka Vagga of
tbe Paftcalca l{ipd,to of t}ie Anguttaro l,{i,lcaya (III,
255-6). They each deal with fivo dangers open
to ono with a troubled mind and. uice aersa, with
the advantages to ono whose mind is at peace.
L. R. G.
APASMARA-GRAHA-NIRMOcAKA, the recons-
tructed Sanskrit title of a toxt extant in its Tibetan
version in tho Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra cornmentary)
section of the Tenglrur, under the titlo Brjed-byed,-
kyi gil,an-las thar-par-byed-pa (Peking Ed. Tib.
Tr i p. , ed. D. T. Suzuki , Yol . 79, No. 3813) .
The work the authorship of which is aacribed to
Ye-6es rdo-rje (Jii6navajra), deals with a cure for
opilopey.
Aftor the formula of salutat,ion addrossed to
Vajrtr,pdni it statos that those wtro wish to be rid of
epilepsy should knorr the time of its on-ooming and
the symptoms. Morrlings and evenings of the
eecond, fourth, ninth apd twelfth days irr that part
of the montlr in which the phases of the rnoorr
incroaso arrd tho twent5z'ninth day of the rnonth
frrlling in the dark half of the month are specified
as the times during which lrot-ternpered poople aro
susceptible to sttacks of epilepsy. The symptorns
eited are as follows : letting out froth from tho
rnouth, fainting, perspiring, dizzinoss and falling
on the ground. As part of the treatment, an initial
offering of various kinds of incenee, flower's, roots
of the d,eaadd,ru (juniper) and u{ira (anfl'ropogott
mrtricattls\ trees and cooked rice is recommendod,
alter wtrich the patient is to be bathed, and a
medicino applied. The ingredients to bo rtsed for
the preparation of this medicine aro givon, viz.,
an olulce oach of tluee kinds of grains, black peppor,
long popper and ginger
;
a hundred bulbs of garlie
;
a thousand white mustard sseds and equal portions
of td.Ia (palmyra) seede end root of the bilaa (wood-
apple) treo. Thoso aro to be ground with goat's
urine, and four handfule of tlre mixturo are to bo
boiled in sixtoon handfuls of the urino.
R,. H.
APASSENA,
rlame for ArakLhad6yaka (q.v.) thera
in a provious birth as a king.
APATHY
(thlrw), &s montal indolonco (cdttawa
akarrvmafi,fiatd: Dhs. I156), one of tbo five hindran-
ces or obstacles to ethical perfoction. See NTVI-
RANA.
APATRAPYA (Pali : attappal, fear of blame and
consoquoncos, which prevonts ono from doing an
el-il action &s &n external'c&uso, always combined
with tbo fnf,pinsic shame of moral irnpurity (hr[;
PaIi hi'ri). See ANOTTAPPA and OTTAPPA.
ApATTI, offonco against monastic disciplino,
transgression of rules (tikkhd'parla\ of disciplino
(ainaya). Thero are two media by which a monk or
a nun rnay cornrnit an offence, namoly, tho modium
of bodily action and that of spoech (Vrn. Y, ll8).
Killing a living being comes undor the former
catogory, whoroas telling a lie comes uuder the
iatter. Some of the offencos, killing' for inetanco,
and lying, aro ethically wrong (polcoti'aojia), whilo
others, such as taking meals aftor noon, otc., &ro
only Iegally wTong (pafrilarfi'uajio), bocause thoy
are prohibited to monks a,nd nuns (KhpA.23, 4).
APATTI 2g APATTI SUTTA
The Dhmnmanarigarfi,
hae two divisione of dpatti,
ono division having 6vo groups (pafi,ca-d;pu,ttik-
klmnd,ha) ancl the ot her aeven
{s
atta
-
tl.pattilckhancll n)
(D/zs.
$$
1329-31). "Ibe Atthasd,Ii ni , oxpl ai ns the
formor category sB consisting of
Ttiiruji,lca,
the
gravost offence involving defeaf, the eompleto
destruction, of i.ho nobls life of the offcndo4 sunghd-
rJisesa, an offence which roquiros srrsperrsion from
the Order and which ean be decidecl only by an act
of ths Orrler in assombly (,s<tnghakarmnu); pd,c,i,ttiya,
an offonce roquiring expiation; pd,tid,esanEya, an
offenco requiring confession; and dukkato,, a mero
wrong-doing, a kind of slight offence. The other
clivision consists of the five groups of tho first
division together wibh tlnilI&ccaya,, grs,vo offenco
and d,u,bbhaaila, offerrce of wrong speech (Dh,s A. Bgl),
'Ilrc
lllttktsarud,etiadd,o-uinayauastu
also has five
groups of d,pattd, nam'sly, parajiko, sahghuuaiesa
(sahghiclis esa), pdtay anrilca (pacittiy a), pro,tid,ei aniba,
$td,ttdesantyct)
a,rrd d,u,sk7ta (d,ukl ntu,:
GM. IIf,
g,
109-10). The first four divisions rlro founrl also in
the Mahd.uy,ut,pattd (BB. XIII, 103 ff.). The worrl
Tfi,tayantika
is aleo spelt as
Fauatti,ka,
.pa,patti,ka,
and
Trdya,$cittika.
The pdcittiya-aputti (pd,tayantika)
is of two kincls,
nsmely, n'is saggig a-Ttdnittiu a or naihs argi lca
-
Ttd,tag
an
-
tilca and pure pd,tayantika
sometimes called tudrl,ha-
pd,tayantika.
In Pali, the latter is just
called
pdcittiya.
AII thoso d,pattis ar6 dividod int,o t,lu.ee general
r,a,l ,egori es
of two eubdi vi ei ons ench, namel y, (l )
rhttthulld, d,Ttatt'i, gravo offertces, i.e., pdrajilra and
srtrt.ghfuT'ise^so,
&Rd adalthutlrtr d,pa,tt,i,, offolctrs wlricft
r:!,r-F ilot gTrrvc, i,e., the othsr five groups (Vin. Iy,
i l L: l ' i nA.l v, 886)
;
(2\ gan&eapatti ,maj or
offonces,
zuttl lu,lutkd d,pa,tti, mi:eor offences; and (J) s'd,uasesu
ci,pcrtt,i, partial rl{feuees, offcner,'s that, cau be dono
rrrvrr,.y' rvit,lr antl ututaa^gesrl d,4sutti, eomplete offences,
o1t' ene es that cerurol , be done oway wi th (A.I,
gT g
;
I ' i n. I , 354
;
TI , t i 8; V, l l 5) .
I'ir+rre arg Vtrta.y* rulos (si&/chd,pail,a)
corresl)()1-
r.ling l,o ail tJrcso r:ffrrnces.
: i , . e
Rl go $i I T( t i HApADA. VI NAvA.
ApRITIDESANAVIDHI, ti re bi bl e of two rl i fferent
works extant in their Tibota,n tranglations
in
the Dbu-ma (Marl hyama.ba) sect,i on of the Tengvrrr,
rurder the ti tl e Ltutt-ba bi aos-pahi , aho-ga (Peki ng
l l <1. Ti i r. Tri p., uq. D. T. Suzuki ,
Yol . 103, Nos. SB68
ancl 5369). The authorshi p of No. 5368 i s credi ted
to Deva(d,nt,i and the translation is attributed to
Dipa,nkaro,-(rijfld.na and Tshul-khrims rgyal-ha.
The work deals rvith the. procodure of confession
of ocelesiastical offonc es (d,patti, q.v .) .
'Ihe
offender
should recite a formuln two or throe times in
which ho boseechos tho cornmunity of monks to
forgivo
him the offsnces of body, speech or mind,
committed through passion (rdgal,
hatred (d,uepa),
ip;rroraneo (moh,a) or avarice (rnatsa,ryal , Similarl5r,
ho ehould reqrrest the community of monks to
forgive the offenees rtf his preceptors, toach,ers,
ptrrents, all beings of tho ton clirections, otc. The
text also eontains a list of the ofi'ences.
The authorship of the secorrd Apattidelanaui,tlhi
in the Tibetan I'ripifak*r, (No. 5369 referred to
above) i s credi ted to l )pnl }Io,r-me mdsad ye.fus
(Sri Drpu,i karaj nnna) arrd tho transl ati on
i s
attribrrted to Dpal \,[ar-rne mdsad ye-6es
ancl
Tshul -khri rns rgval -brr.
' Il ro
work i s si mi l ar i n
content to tho previ ous text. The offender i g
recquired t,o recite a, statemont three trmeg,
confossing his offenees in the prosonce of all Buddhris,
Vajradhara a,nd the like, and tlre bodhisattvus
rcsi di ng i n the ten di recti ons. Ths formul n of
confession ct-intains &n onrrmera,tion <lf offonces
of' bod5, speoch or mi nd, occasi oned by ti rs
ovcrpoweri ng nature of passi on, hatred or i gnorance.
Soms of thc-so listecl aro the ten sinful deeds (la.Io-
kuialakarrrto,), thre iive worsf, suts (pafi,cdnantarya-
karnw) an<l thoso comi ng nca,rest to thom, tho
transgression
of the corler of rules cnlled tho
prd,ti.molcga, the disregard of the t,eachings of
the bodhi sattvas and tho vi ol at,i on of sol ernn
\ro\!-s givon in the secret religiotrs insbructions
(Tib. gsan snags, Skt. guptaudda).
APATTI SUTTA, tl re fi rst two sutr,ac of rl rs A?tatt;
l ' aoga of the Ari guttara Ni kd,ya (II, p. 239).
Tho first was preaehed by the Buddha to An..r,rrd,r
in the Ghosita Park near Kosambi. Ananda hrrrl
sai d that he \sns ul abl o bo sottl c a di souto
' l ' l rt' oerrretl rodsu,ro
preseri tred for' ri si ngup' f' rorn
A fragrnent of a text r:.r,l l ed f,turi -ba bsaos-ptr
&lr rrfferrce
olready eomrnittod (dpattd-uu,([hd,ntt);
(Aputt'i.deiand,) occrrrs among the Tun-hua1g ]te.s.
tlro.v aro
Bariud,sa,
livilg un,.ler probntion, abbhd,nq,, (No. 316, 2 in the Catalogue oJ Tibetan )llanuscripts
r.-lralrilital'iorr of & mr)[k w]ro hae uadorgono a
Jrottt,
ll'un-hu.artq published by the Cotnmnnu;ea,lth
penftnco for sn ovpiable
offonco antl rrudnafio, a sori Rel,a,tiott,s o.fice, 1962).
r,rl ponnnce u,ttochocl to tho cornmission of a sanglul-
rl i sesn offerrce
\Vi n.
fff, I 12; IV, ZZE): these
R' H'
uitrLhtrdr oFply to all ttrt, parajikd offences.
U. K.
APATTI VAGGA 24 APAYA
(artrluikarann) bhat had arison arnong the bhikkhus,
rincs Bdhiye weB in favour of disgonsion in the
Ordor and Amrruddba boing Bdhiya's friend did
not want to interfere in the matter. Thereupon
the Buddha said that he sirould not havo depondod
on A-nurrddha to interf'ero in disputes, for lto was
by temperament unfit for such aetion. Fur*"her.
it was the duty of Anenda, Sdriputta and
Moggalldna to havo atl,ended io thet matter.
'I'he
Buddhe then proceed.ed to discourse to Anandti
'u the four probable reasons fcr a monk to tre
desirious of ereating dissension of the Ortlor
(sanghabhed,ana).
A wicked rnonk who is immoral, of a wicked
nritutrg, impure, of suspicious bchaviottr, and of
ccvert deeds, who has wrong views, rrir,t is a wrong
Irvor, and who is desirous of gain and honottr,
wishes for disssnsion in tho Order, sinco ho is of
opinion that when the bhikkhus &ro united blrev
eould harrn hirri.
l ' ho second Apatti Sutta (A. II, :40-3) was
preached at the same piace to the hhikkhus. l'he
tsuddha explains the fotrr kincls of offenees : t,her
are the
Tidrajilca
rlho'tntna (mattels of grave oI'fence),
sahghdd,i sesa-dhattt,t tta (rnatters cal l i ng for a deci si on
of tho Ordor'), pacittiya-dho (rnatters caliing for
exoiation
),
tnd pat id,esani,y aka
-
dh'o (matters reqtrir-
i ng confessi on). Each one of them i s expl ai nerl i n
detai l wi th examni es.
I . K.
ApArn vAGGA, the twenty-Ii fth ehapter of
the Catulclca Niptd'ta of the Ahgutttrrrl Nikaya
(II, 239-46), contai ni ng ten stri tas on vari ous
subj ects. Thi s vagga was preached by i he Buddha
while staying near Kosambi in Ghosita Park. The
flrst threo suttas are ratlier long irncl tho rest
are short,. For tho first two suttas se,nr APATTI
SUTTA.
In the thi rd sutta the Il uddha sa\rs thrr,t a hol y
l i fe i s l i ved for tho sake of the tri l i tri rrc of furtl i er
wisdom, of the ossence of relea,se and oi bhe osson'.:e
of mindf'.rlness.
' f he
f our t l r st t t t i t , t l i sct i sses t he post t t r cs o1- pt : r i l s
who l i e fi at on thei r backs, of the l uxrrri ous wl i tr
Iie on tlieir left -"iCe, of the lion who lios on his
right. side and of the Tathigata wtro enters on
rind abides in the fourfold t,rances (jhdna).
putting an end to.all sensual pleasures (hamal.
The fifth sutta montions the four: persons wirtr
aro worthy of a rel i c moul d (thuparaha)' Tht' y
are a fi rl l y enl i ghtened one, & paccekabuddl i ri '
a dieciplo of the Buclilha, and a world-rril,'r
t cdlckaootti-rdja1 .
trn the sixth sutta tho Buddhn declarss tlrat,
tlrero tr,re fout states which devolop one' s wisdom
i,fta' fifl,ti\, nn,rne.ly, the association with a gor1t1 man,
heari ng of t he good docl ri rr. e, f i xi ng ouo' s nt t ent i on
with a pllrpi)so, anrl living in rlceorCs,ncs with
the Dhamma.
' fire
neixt foirr suitas deal wir,ir tho v*riotrs
rnorl r, : : of spe, oeh i rof h rt obi e (ari t l a) rt ncl i y4rrobl e
(,t,tturiurr,\.
According to t,ho f}rttldhrr, tltet' r: &re
ci ght modes of , nobl o speech ' t nt l oi gl rt , i gnobl o.
lrr tlie seven.th and tl-ro ninth sutta' s tire Burfdha
i {pl l ri rrs i gnohl o spoech, na' mel y, speaki ng of
i l ri ngs n()t , sLren i ns seen. nnd seen as not s$on.
etc.
' llhe
orghth rr,rrtl ttre tsnth suttns are
rl evoi -eri t , r-r di scLrssi ons on nobl t : srreo(, h whi oh
i s t hs opposi t e of i qnobl t , speech.
I . K.
APAYA.
' Ihe
word apci11a, (Sl(t. apaya, frorn
apa*
j)
'
going tlw&y
' ,
is used in thtl tsali Budr-lhisr
l i t orat rrre
' ri t h
several merrui ngs. f t st and-q f rrr
soparat i on ari cl l oss as i n xri ud' pdUa
(I )hp.
Zl l ),
I oss <rf proport , r a, s i rr t he Di gh' a | l i l cauq (I I i , l 8l ),
I l ei r, 1i rr, gr, or ot rt f l ow of wa, t er (D. t , 74), and t r
f al l i ng a, n' av i n conduct ' (D. I , 100). f n i t s bosi ,
l <nol rn rner, l , ni n! : . l t rl wo' . r: r, i t st an, -i s f o; ' t t st t t t e
of sui f eri ng t f t er deat h, i rr rni i ri . y resl -rot rt , s equi -
val ont t o t he not , i on r, rf prrrgrr, t ocv i rr l rt rl l . Never-
t , hel ess, i t rs di i f i et ri t t o l , rt t (i e rrny evi dence i n
earl v l Juddt ri st I i t ert t rrre t ha, t i t , connoi , ed any
part i cul ar l ocat i on as i s rr, ssoei at od wi t h t he
rnedi eval Europet r, n rt ot i on of he' l I , wi ri eh t yt r, s
bel i evet l t o ho undergrount l .
' f l rl oughout ,
t he l {i l <i ri , : r,
l i t era, t , ure, aparyn i sr
l r{' el r. rt l t o as t r st at e o{' sui f t ' r' i nq t hat c. , mt t s i n
bhe l or r n ol ' r e' t l i but i on f i - l r t t ct s of evi l . Tl r e
Sd; mart f rnpi wl a Sut t a, \ D. I , 82) gi vos t hrso eart s: es
f i - r l r e bi r t h i n t hi s st at o, namel y, t ho r evi l i ; r g,
i n i t uL, speeel r
()r
t l i c. rt rght . of t i re Nci i . ri i ' Ones
(arh1a), hol di ng of wrong I ' i ews. ori rl u' ' ' -; t ri ri ng
t he dcmeri t of aet s whi ch rest rl t f rom
' wrrt r, i : t
vi orv. .
l r r t he Ahgut t ar u, ) { i kayo ( I ^ i i 5) ,
' , vl i t r n
l i , , : f l t " l , : 1l r ' .
i s asked wh1' bei ngs are l t orn i rr l , l ri , st t t , t o, he
r epl i es t , i r r r , t i t i s dr i o Lo t ht : i r r t t i " r gi r r t r ; i ' . t ci r r
rlnci crookeci-rioss. lrr the $B,rrlo r:liri^t-tl. l - 5ii)
answt - nr i ng t , ho br al t mar r J. l nt t s: r i , r - : ' , t i r , - I ' r ' dr l he
sl rvs, crvpt i ui i i l -. t , t i ri r, t t i ro ci t . t t ri Lr i s . . t 1: --i t
i : l l i
i r,
i i rri l omi ssi cn
\ kat ot t d
{o r, i , i : of cl f J ! ; . r\ si "; i i
t i r expl aur f ur t hor . i t e enY, ' i l r r i ; , i . r r t , . ; t t l , . ssi . , t t ^
i rr act , speer: h or t hrrughi ' ' ci i rnt l --i l rt . ; , : i : . , ' r3 u. rl rl
t l re orni ssi On, i D rl c' i , , si , t t och r' l t . rr ' i ' rl i : ' , i t i rt . ri ' t l , l
rrr: i s, l oud t o t t re rt s. 1 i ' . i ai t d' yu.
l rr t i re s&rrro
(: oI ri , ext . r{rl et i rl S ' -i i arrrl a t l re
eongequencres of t , he i t , : rrurrl l i i bj i r. of t t u: l norol i t v,
APAYATAEA
25
APAYA
SUTTA
he nontione
guilt (, the aelf upbraida
the self
,),
blrmc by tha wise, loes of reiutatiorr,
insa,nity,
*nd after death afigo.
Those who are elated try gaine and ravourg
as
well ae thoee who
aro moved
by loss and lack
of favours Bre
eleo subject io thie plight
{l 9.
Ir, 23S)"
$o ona but, e etroam=winner
(aotd,panna)
can
ol*im to be free from rebirth
in tho four unhappy
6tatee, viz,, hell (niraga),
the womb
of an *rri_"f
(tdrwelxirw-yoni),
tho reat,- of ghoate (pe&iuiaaya)
anrl the etate of ap6ga (,4.
fV, +Of). The world
with ite gode and men is onvoloped,,
.
tan[fled
like a ball of threed',
unablo to crose over apayt
which ie oomparod
to an ocesn of ruin and des_
tmetion (,S'. Iv, lbg). Not oven a king, roller-
of-tho-whool (calckaaattin),
can, withoui virtuo,
oross it (,S.
V, 842).
Nor c&n prayor
holp
(S. fV, 313), nor ri tual (D.
I, tOt).
It is the privilege
of Buddhaa,
aa S6riputta
points out (D. fTf,
lll), and of arahant$
&ccording
to tho Buddha
himsef (D. I,
gZ),
that when thoy
bave reached the moditativo
etate of reminiscence,
they see in contemplative
vieion tho passrng
away
rnd rebirth of beings in both heeven
ead, apdya_
all fariug aeeording
to their
desorbs. Boo furthor
MRAYA, PETALOKA.
B. J.
AP^IYAJAHA,
n6mo
of o bodhisattva (Mmlc.
{ 0. 13
;
68. 6
;
l l l . B
;
426. 19) .
APIYAUUKHA,
a term
originelly
used in tho
s€ne6
of erit ee opposed to iigamukfta
which moant
ontrqnco.
In theee
sengog the two terms
occur
h tho
Ait4n*aara Nilcdya
with referenco
to the
eluiees
of e lake
thet a.lmit
water and drein it, out.r
T9hile reta.inisg
the underlying
compnrigou,
th6
two torms havo been
employed
in tho Eamo pgssego
with raferonce
to woalth
in order to indicats
esue€c leeding
to the loss
of woalth or incroaee
of
it, reepectively.
Four sueh o&uaes loading
to the
lom
of wealth ars montionod:
namoly, yi"tairrg
to r.reo's pqseion (dhrfi4
for women,
d"iok;S"*Ufi"!
rnd bad frionds
i
and, converaely,
tbo fourfolcl
eontrol of these passions
ie mentionod
ae lead.ing
to increaro
of weelth.
trr tbe DWlfi
Niknyar
eir carrsoe
of loss a,re
mentioned which include
not
only the four alroady
indiented
but two
others as woll. Thoee comprirc
(1) addiction
to liquore
that reeult in intoxioatiou
and hoodleeenesB,
(Z)
street walking
at unusual
l:,r"",
(3) froquenting
theetrical
perfor:manoee,
ilt
gambling,
which
reeults in heedloesneae,
(5)
association
with bad friends,
and (6) lazinese.
Tbe oomraentarios
regarrl theee
as causog for
loss of weelth
bocaueo thoy
not only erh^eurt
wealth
alreedy
accumulated
but also begst
nothing now.8
Thig torm h.as also been oftou oynployod
in the
plural aB apdyamukltini
and thon gonerully
explainod
eornrnentarially
aa o*uae6 of nrin
(ai,ndaa){
or&soccasiongof
ruin (adndoo,rrea
}lffinif
.
Such eauses of lose
aro, hriwevor, not oonfined
to weelth
only. The DWtw Nikdya.
has slso
mentioned four caueee
of loss in regard to thc
acquieition
of supreme
knowledge
and conduot
1ti.j
j d
-
e ar ona
-
s arn p add,) ;
(l) A recluso or brahrnan
without over having
attained flrpremo
knowledgo
and conduet migbt
go into the forest vowing to live only on fr"it"
that have fallen of themeelvee,
or (2) to live only
on bulbs, roote and
fmite, or (B) ho might build
himeelf
a fire hall and servo. ths fire god, or
(4)
he might build
himself a four-doored
alrnr.
houee at a junotion
where
four roade me€t,
and dwoll thore with the hope that he would
srtertain
any necluao
or brEhman
who peseod by.
It ie also eignificant
that ths nofiion
of
apciyomuhln
soems to bave been moro or lsm
sJmonJrmoue
witb that of pard,bhaua
mukln whioh
meens cause of dofeat or ruin. Many auoh cr:us€a
of dofeat are moutionod
in the
pa)ablw,xt
S,uila,
as for inetanco, not aupporting
one'a egeC parentr
while ono hae ro3ourcos,
doceiving people
by
faleehood,
e€lfiBh enjoymoni
of cns'e
-;-i,JhJ,
lttd
aquandering
all that {;o{, ge.i;.r on wo:rrstr,
drinh and dice
?.
H. $. c.
APAYAPRAilAT.HAtf g,
a beirrrieertve
whocc
n&me occurn in a iili ,.:f
i:rtulu
'Iai:h6gatae
(WA.
443. 1-. t" Th'.r fiurl t:ciit,iuir roeds UpByapramath,ane,
BIIS. t r' .). i .i '
._;rai l s
seo IIAYADEVI.
APAT. ii 11'1-- r'Ar & ehort rligoourlo
itr prrorc!
concludod witlr three atanzas,
oa two types
of
poopie who are doomod to downfall and rcbirth
If:Ih,'ffir';'
"''
I Dd. III, pp.
9{41-6.
1 DA. | , D. 268.
5 l l . I t l e .
l B 0 .
I f;l3.niJH'"
APAYIKA STTTTA
28
APFTATAT{A
in hsll
(opdydkd ne'rayikd'), viz., one *ho claime
to bo a saiot although leading a gorlless life
(abrohmudrr) and one who haraseos
nnot'her who
leadg a eaintly lifo by accueationa of moral lapses
(Ie pp. 12-9, sutta 48).
E. G. A, v . Z.
IPAYIKA SUTTA' the ffrgt sutta of t}rle'Apa4liko
Vagga of tho Tiha Nipdta of the Aiguttora Nilfr'ya
( I , 286) .
The Buddha explains to the bhikkhus that
there aro thro€ psrsons who will be born in
puryatory unlosa they givo up their evil habits:
ho who cleirng to lead e holy life while leading
an impure life; he who falsoly chargoe with im-
morolity e
1rcreon
who leade a very holy lifo;
and he who be<romee intoxicet€d Fith luets by
preaching end holding tho vlem that thore ir no
feult in eenruality
lh6]rro).
I. K.
fffnfn VACGA,
the twelfth chapter of the
Tiln Nipdto of bbe Aigutbta Nikd1o
(1, 206)
ooneieting of ton suttas dealing with various topias
and eddressod to the bhikkhus.
For tbe flrst, sutta se€ ApAYIKA SUTTA.
Tho eocond. sutte dsals with three persons who
sppoar only raroly in this world, nomely, a fully
enlightoned ono, a
lrerson
ablo to expound tho
Dhamma taught by the Buddha, and ono who is
mirndful of bonefite end is grateful. Tho third
rutta says that it ie di.fficult to find one who is
easily measurod
(auppan*yEo), ono whom it i8
hard to mo&sure (duppomeyyo\, and one who
is i rnrneasul ablo (appameyga\.
The fourth sutta explains the throe eorta of
p€rsonl who are reborn in the compeny of the
dovas
(goda) in the various spheres of infinity
of epace
(dkaaa), of coneciouanoaa(tifrfrd1.a) and of
noth ingnesa
(uki ilcofl itol.
The fifth sutta merrtione the threofold failures
(uipatti), and thrae Euccosaos (sampe.ddl: the failure
in morale
(ailal, in mind (citto\, and in view (tli!(hi).
A person ie reborrr in hell after death, duo to
theee throo failuros. On the othor hand, tho three
succosaos aro tho opposites of theso failures and
it ie duo to them that ono ie reborn in hesven afbor
death. Tho sixth sutta merely repoats the fi.rst
eoction of the previoue sutta. In tho eeventtr
rutcr, which ropoote the fifth sutta, thoro is e varia-
tion in debail. In place of failure and suecoss in
mind
(cdla), the iatter montions failure and sucoosS
in tiveLlpod
(6ih:ol.
The eighth sutta explains
threo forms of purity
(soceyya), namely, purity of body, of speech and
of mind. The ninth sutta ie only a repotit'ion
of the eighth sutta, but it gives a detailed
explana-
tion on tho purity of mind. The last sutta
speake of throo porfoctions
(mnneyyd'nf), namely'
perfection in body, spooch and mind, and says
iurther that porfoction in mind could be attainod
by the d.eetmction of ths daauoa' This udgga
ends without the usual table of contentn
(udddrut), and thus tho individual suttas have no
titles. Rut it is obvioug that this D&ggo has derivsd
its titlo from the subject matter of the first sutta,
which is tho only one in this cheptar to doal witb
downfall
(t'pdyo).
I . K.
APIYIIIHA VAGGA, the ninth ohaptor of tho
Ebo Nipata of tho Jatakallholcothd
consisting of ten
j6takas (Nos. 8f-90) and deriving its title from
oNWZnha,
tho first word in ite flrst
jdtaka (J' I'
300-70).
APERTURE, ltunited Epaoe' oponing
(paricchintfr'
biiaol, used as e devico (kosinal ftrr eoncontration in
tho dovolopment of montal
abeorption (ifuarc)'
See KASII.{A.
APEYATANA,
a templo in Burma, traditionally
essignod to king Kyanzittha,
1084-lll2 A,C' (Thc
Gtaea Palac'e Chroni,cla of the Kirqs of BurTno, p'
l0S). Arr inscription on tho wall of the tomplo and
datablo, palaoographically,
to tho fifteonth or the
eixtoenth contury, statos that tho temple wae built
by the chiof qrroen of king Kyanzittha and ite
name was Aporatana.
It is said to havo boon
construoted. at the spot whero Apoyatana, hir
quoen, weited for him when ho wae in exils to
u""tpu the wrath of his fat'her Anawrahte' Tbe
monastory is also
L.own by eevoral other variations
of tho namo, such
ae Ameyadana, Apeyadana'
Aboyadana and AbhaYadana.
The tomple is a squaro building with an inner
chamber surmounted'
by a stfipa' Insido the
chamber is a largo image of brick, of a eeatod
Buddha. The main interest of the temple liee in
the paintings with which tho ineide walls of ths
temjle aro decorated
(see VoI' II, Platss f' fI)'
Theso paintings represent, mainly,
the divinities
of the Mah6y5,na
panthoon
(ASIAR' 1930-1934'
43 f . ) .
On the innor face of the outor wall of tbo temple
aro m&ny figures of Mahaydnistic
godsandgoddeesot'
both iD thair peacofu-l and 6eroe forms, ea woll aa
APAIALA, tho rri i ga ki ng, corrvertecl
from Nd,gd,rjunakoncJa.
(ltli
courltslt
of the Archreolo{tital Departntatt, India)
i r1 t l re . l Jrrrl dhn, , B, s repl esent ecl i n a rol i ef
(tty courlery 0.f tht Archrcologil:al Detrturliitt:trl, liurtna'1
APEYATANA
TEMPLE, l \tyi rrl rat{arr, })i rg5"n, Bul rna"
Wal l pr l i nt i ng
i n or r t l i r r e. r l nJr i sf i ng
Vi sr "r u on
i Wt r l l
l r t r , i r r t i r r q
i r r out l i ne, r l epi ct i ng
Si vaonhi s
Car ut J+1, . I , l r t r l n1i , : r l : u, i t , h
t r l , o sr ; nkos.
I l l r . r l l .
4 s. l ' . { _r s8420
PI , , \ TE I I
f:.,t tt
APEYATANA TEMPLE, Myi npag&n, Pagr i r r ,
western portion of the south rvall.
Qu courteqt oI the Archeotqizal Deportmenl, Bunnt)
lJurzna. Orr.tline of a wnll painting on the
APEYATANA
27
A-P' I-TA.M
O
-CH' U.SH
F]-SB IH.LU t{
images of bodhi-qattvas. The borlhisattvs images
aro in three rows, one above the other. The imagers
of the lowest row inre in the artlhaparyan&o postrrre
caclr with a cn,akutct., & crown, ear-rings and other
bodhisetbvn,-orni+ments and folt boots. The i'.'agce
in the middle row &re i-u tho lal,i.ta-mud,rd on double
lotuses with the rigirt leg pendant, and the foot
resting on a, lotus. Tho right hand is resting on
ttre right knee with the palm in the aarad.a,-mud,rd,.
The left hand is brought to the breast in the abhaya-
tnudra. Eaeh i mage i s worshi pped by two gods,
one seat,ed on either side. Irr the upperrnost row,
t,he images stand on lotrues
.rvith
the outer hand
raised and holding a ring. Tho other hand is
pl aced on the breast wi th a wea,pon i n i t. Ai l
these
images
in the three rows are in non-trrntric
form and they are all devoid of any legend. Judgecl
bv the attributes in their hands tbey may bc
identified v'ith Vajrapini, Padmap6ni, Avalokit,es-
vara and Matiju3ri, or they ma,y even represent
Avelokiteivora, in his various form,s.
Ami dst the other pai nti ngs on tbe wal l s of the
temple ere figuro's of the Buddha, paintings of gods
and goddosses, rnonks, ascetics and kinnaras.
Isolat'ed scenes, presumably from jEtakas,
appear
amidst them but t,heir identification has not becrr
possible. A series of fivo such scenes ha"s beon
identified a,s depicting Bome scenes fiom the
Unmagga Jdtaka. They depict arr a^scet,ic s'ho
was enticed by & kirnari in order to induce
him to kill a blood-sucking spider. These seenes
from the jdtakas
aro HrnayS,nic in character.
Some of the paintings of the temple aro tarrtri<r
in character. One of them depicts a goddess
holding snakes in both hands. Another figunr, l,
god, is depicted with a terrific expression shou'ing a
row of fangs and with snakes as wristlets trnrl
bangles. and. a garland. of human heads as the
no<;klace. A god holding il human skin ircross
l ri s back an<l another standi ng on rr c()rpse are
others of that type.
'Ihe
godrless rvith six arms
carryi ng a ri ng, a, kni fe, a hos,, an arro\r, a head and
I sr,+'ord, arrd with a garland of heads rorrncl her
neck, al so bel ongs to the srl mo orrl er.
Gocl s l i ke Bral i rnA,, *i v,r, Yi snrr i l nrI Ci l ,r.resi r i l r,,
olso depicted on the rvalls. Bralund is on rr, guos€.,
*i .ra or, o bul l (1-ol . fI, Pl ate f), ancl Vi :i r.rl r on rl
ganrcl a tri rd (zl SJ.dfi . l 9:10-34, l 8l tr.).
Thc Apc,yat'rr,na t,emplc i** onc of the ourlv Bu,,l-
dhi st monuruerl t.s of Il urrrra. Its tl i scti vtrrr,' rrri r.l
l r r osr r r vu, t i on
i n 1930 l r r r , s f i r ci l i t l , t , er l t he si r r r l v oi '
Il uddi ri sru .rrr IJuri nA of ri rat Deri od.
APHEGGUSARA,
a wor k r ef er r ed r o i n t he
Sdsana-
t:a,msa(48)
as being c,omposed
in Hamsavati
in .lJurmg
about tho fourth
century
A.C. Tho work is B{riC
to contai n
di scussi ons
on sbhi dhamma topi os.
The ,SoscnoLtefft,sa
is silonr about its author.
w. c. l v.
APHEGGUSARA-DIPAi l I,
a book composecl
at
Ilarnsavati,
probably
by Mahdsuvan{radipa,
teacher
of queen Sivali. In
Nevill,s lIS. Cataloguo in tlre
Britislr
Museum it is describoil a,s an anutikd
dealing
v"ith matter in the Abhdd,hommat
ho-
t ibhuuinr
(Rorle.
peti
Literature oJ B,urma,
36, n. 2) .
w. G. w.
A. PHREN
KA- PHREX BNB UCHOG
HKEOR-
LOHI RNAL-HBYoR
cHEN_po BsGoM-pA
SHES-
BYA-BA, a transl ati on i n Ti bet*l n i rom a Sanskri t
tt:xt. See SA}TRARACAKITALIKALI
MAHA.
}. OGA
-IJHA\-AN.{
-NAN,TA.
A. PHREN KA. PHREf i -GI
Si l AGS. KYI
RI M-
PA SHES-BYA-BA, & tran-ql ati on i rr Ti bstm
frcm a Sanskri t tort. See ALIKALt-l tANtnR_
JNAt.i A.NAl ta.
API LAPI YA, nrrme i bl Ti kandi pupphi ya (q. r. . )
thera i n a pl t' r' i ous bi rti r, ts a ki ng.
A-P' I -TA-MO-CHI EH-SI {EN-TSU-LUN,
ri t rans-
l at i <i rr i nt o
(l hi nese
f rom & Sanskri t t cxt . Seo
,\BHIDI{^\RU..\.
.
DHA' I' U KAYA
-PANA
" SASTRA.
A-P' I -TA-MO-CHI -I -f Ui U-t SU-LUN,
. r r, rl , rrsi at i on
i ni l r
( l i i i nt ' sc
f r om a, Sar r sl i r i t t ext . See ABHI -
l ) H. . \ I t t L\ - S. \ \
( ; I 1' I - PAr t \ ' AYA.
A- P' I - TA- MO- CH{ f - SHE- " Un, : r , t r . t nsl i r t i on i r i t o
( - l hi t r csi '
f r om a Sansl ; r i t t r : xt . St t e Al l Ht l ) FL\ l t l l . \ -
i i os^{-sASTtIt,\.
A- P' I - TA- Mo- CH U- sHi - Luu- pEN- s UNG. i r 1 r ans-
i rr,ti on i nto Chi :rese frorn a Sanskri t t€)xt. See
, \ RHI I XTA R} I , \ - KO S. \ ( S. \ ST11. \ ,
) I i ARI KA
A- P' I - TA
- MO- CH
t r - SHi - , n, n- , Un, a t l ansl at , i on
i nt , - r t l l r i r r ese f r om r r Sar r skr i t t cxt . See r l l i HI -
r )H A rtl l A-1i O s.\- (VYAXHT: Ll
-;
SASTRA.
F. , R. P.
A+'I-TA.MO-FA-CEIE-LIIN 28
APO-KASTNA
A
-P'I-TA-UO-FA-CEIE-LIIN
( Abhid,harna
- j
fiC na
-
prasthdna,-ddstra1
,
e translation into Chineee from a
SansKrit text. See JfiANAPRASTEANA.
A-P' I-TA-UO-FA-Y0N-TSU-tUN
(Abhi dharnw-
dharmz-skandha-pad,a-idstra), & trenelation into
Cbineee from & Ssnskrit text. See DHARMA-
SKATVDHA.
A-P' I-TA-UO-FEN-LEI-TSU-tUN (Abhi i trharma-
prakarana-idstraj, a translation into Chinose from a
Sanskrit text. Soo PRAK-ARA\TAPADA.
A-P' I T-A-DIO-KAN-LU-WEI-LUN, a transl ati on
into Chinogo from a Sanskrit text. See ABHI-
DHARMAMBTA
-
(RASA-
)
SASTRA.
A-P' I-TA-IUO-MING-CHING-LUN, & tranel ati on
into Chinese from a Sanskrit text. See ABIII-
DEAR}IA.PRAKASA
-SA-DHAXE.
SASTNT.
A-P' I-TA-UO-P' IN-LEI-TSU-LUN
(Abhi d,herne-
prakora2te- pd<l,a.dd,stra), e translation into Chinese
from a Sanskrit tert. Seo PRAK-ARAITA-PADA.
A-P' I-TA-UO-SHIH-SHEN-TSU-LUN, & transl a-
tion into Chinese from & Sanskrit text. See
ABIIIDIIARMA.VIJNAWEXAYA. PADA.
A-P'I-TA-UO-SEUI{-CEEI{G-LI-LUN, a tranela-
tion into Chinee€ from & Sonskrit text. See
AB HIDEARMA.IVYAYANUSAR,A.
A-P' I-TA-UO-TA-P' I-P' O-SEA-LUN, a transl a-
tion into Chinese from & Sanskrit text. Soo
ABr{rDEA-RMA. MArrA
-laBEA$4.
A-P' I-TA-UO-TSANG-E8IEN-TSUXG
-LUN,
a trans-
letion iato Chineso from the Sanskrit text Abhd-
dlnrma-praka,raqta-idaanta-4dstra, also known &a
Abhidharmo
-
sornoy o
-
pr adifikA- Cdatra
{q.v.).
A-P'I-T'AN-ESIN-LUN, a trenslation into Chi''ege
from a Sanskrit text. See ABEIDEARMA.
EBDAYA-sAsrne..
A-P' I-T' AI{-KAN-LU-WEI-LUN, a transl ati ou i nto
Chineso from a Sanskrit toxt. See ABEfDIIAR-
MAMBTA-(RASA-)
SAsrne.
A-P' I-T' AN.-PA-CHIEN-TU-LUN, e transl ati on i nto
Chineee from a Sanskrit text. See ABTTTDIIAR,-
MASTAGR,ANTEA..
A-P' I-T' AN-P' I-P' O-SHA-LUN'
a l ransl ati on
i nto
Chinese from a Sanskrit text. See ABIIIDEAR-
M-{-vrBHAgA.sAsrne.
A-P' I-T' AN-WU-FA-ESING-CHINC,
a transl atron
into Chinese from a Sanskrit toxt. See ABEI-
DIIAR,MA.PANCA.DEAR,MA-CAR,ITA.
SUTR,A.
APKBTSN A, a samfid,ha or a concentretion of both
r.ir\d
and body attained through tho deep medita-
tion performed by me&ns of concentrotion on water
(ap). It is possessed by the bodhiss,ttva Gadga-
daevara who lives in the world system (Iokad,hnful
called VairoeanaraSmipratima+dita (S drnp, p. 3d3
).
See al so APO-faSfWe.
U. K.
ApO-OgAfU, water-element, &s one of the malrd-
bhflta. See BHUTA.
APOHASIDDHI, a Sanskrit work extant, in its
Tibetan translai:ion under the title Sel-ba grub-pn
in the lletr;r:idy5, (Tshad-ma) sritra-commentary
(Mdo-hgrei) section of the Tengyur. The work is
credited to the authorship of Sankar6nanda.
Manoratha of I{a6mir and Dhimatprajfia (Blo-ldan
Ses-rab) tranelated the work into Tibettn (Cordier,
IfI, p. 453, No. 20 t TM. No. 4256).
E. H. P.
ApO-XASIIA, an aid to concentration by means of
which a state of mental absorption (jludrn) may be
obtained. Tl.ere are ten dovicos (kasiqta),
four of
whiclr are based (kamnwehnna) on the four elemeuts
(bhilta, q.v.). Those four olements are represented
and visualised as follows : extonsion and solidity
by earth (pa,ghaul, cohesion and saturation by
wator (dpo), heat and temporature by,firo (teJo),
motion and oscillation by ab (odyo).
Apo-kaai,na, then, is a device using t\g element of
water to concentrate one's thought
; end physicat
water becomee the material object of coneentration
by fixing one's ga,zs on this particular object. In
preparing the object of concontration (parikamma-
nirni,tta) one should uso & bowl or pot filled brimful
with elean and colourless water (Vi,am. v,
S
B, p. f 33)
for any contarnina,tion or colouring would merely
diritract the mind. But, it is irnrnaterial
whether
water is collected frorl rain (arnbu), from dow (udri\,
from flowing water (udaka), from rr.nning warer
(solila) or stagnant water (apo), as long as it is
clean and colourless. The bowl or pot should be
filled with water to the bri'n, lest the reflection
of tiie upper edge of the bov.l be seen in the warer.
Just as in the caso of other meditation-dovices,
the bowl of water shouid not be placed in the middle
APPAKA STITTA
29
APPAUADA
SUTTA
trf n courtyard,
but i n a remote pl ace whi ch can be
eereened
off, insirle a dwelling or under an over-
hangi ng roek (i bi d. i v, g
94, p. l 0O). Ite si ze shoul d
be not more than a cps,n and four fingorbreadths,
i ,e,, l 13 i nehes, i n di ameter.
After having thus prepared the object of conoen-
tration one should sweep the place around aad hevo
a bath, so that one feels cool and comfortable.
Facing the bowl of warer at a distance of,slightly
less than four feet (2| cubits), ono should prepare
a low stool of about one foot in height. Seated on
the stool one should next propare the mind by con-
centrating for some tirne on the special qualities of
the Buddha, his teaching and his Order of monks,
leading a life of renunciation, till there arisos a
longing to escapo from senso desires which is the
only means to solve all conflicts and problems.
After this when the mind is calmed and.lieinterested,
the eyes should tre opened modorately and thoir
gaze fixed on the object : water.
Every little detail of instruction has its proper
significance as oxplained by Buddhaghosa: if ono
sits too far off, the meditation object is not distinct
;
if ono sits too near, the faults of the object become
apparent nnd
c&use distraction
;
if one sits too high,
ono has to bend the head and neck low down in
order to view lhe kasina; if one sits too low, tbe
knees wi l l begi n to acho (i bi d. i v, g
26, p. l 0t).
Itrus prepared in mind and body, no attention
ehould be given to the qualities of the object, w&ter,
but
just
the general concept should be refl,ectod. on,
and brought beforo the mind's eyo a hundred
timee, a thousand tirnes, and even more than that,
until the concept is established, whether the physical
eyosi aro open or shut. This is eailed the arising of
the learner's sigtr (uggchanirnittarn
upTtajjati:
i bi d. i v, g
29, p. l ol ) .
From now on tire material <ievicer (l:asina\
has s€rved its purpose, and further concentration
should bo developed on the mental image ttrereof
whicb with the approach to the contemplative
stago (u7ta,cd,ra-samadhi)
unfolds into the transfor-
med efter
-
image or e ountcr. aign (p at ibhng a
-
nimrtta\,
which forms the basis of mental absorTtion. See
JEANA.
H. G. A. v. Z.
APPAKA SUTTA of the Kosala Samlqutta
1^\-.
I, 73 f.)
etates how king Pasenadi
of Kosala told the Bucidha
that i n hi s vi ew nrost peopl e, when tl -rev acqui rc
groat, wea,lth, beeorrre intoxicated therebw and
indulge in greed
of sense.desiree, and rnisconduct
themselvee, wherras only a few (appa&o) would
not be eo. The Buddha agrees and utters a stanza
in confimation.
The sutta ie nahed Parndda Butta in the Sutto
Sartsotu (p. 19?).
H. R,. P.
APPAilADA, diligenee,
earnestnesc, hoodfulnoes,
lit. non.larity, is coneidered in Buddhism as the
foundation of all spiritual progr€ss.
,,All
whole-
somo msntal qualitiee (kwala-dltamnta,)
are rootecl in
diligence (apparn&,a-mfrJoho\,
aro united in zeal
(appantddasq,rnaara?dl
and heedfulness
is among
them the most import, anl" (oppamddo tesam d,hantmd.
-
ntorn aggarm akkh.dyatd : A.' V, 2ll.
fllustrations ehowing this importance are not
lecking. It towers over all other montal qualities,
like the Buddha over a,ll other beings, like the
elephant's footprint over thoso of all others, liko
the main beam of a house over all rafters, liko the
scent of sandal-wood and of the jasmino
flower
over all other porfumes, like a world-ruler over all
princes, like the moon. at night over all start,
like tho ocear over all the water of tho rivers
( l oc. ci t . ) .
The cornm.entary (D A. T, I 04) explain s appam,,i d,a
as the pr€sence of mindfulness (satiyd auippud,sa)
which is the one nnd only way (ekdyana,
moggal
that leods to purification and realisation (M.I, S5).
It is called the wey to the deathless (amatapadam:
Dhp. a. 9l ); and ono who del i ghts i n vi gi l ance
(appamdd,arato)
is not liable to fall (abhabbo pari-
hanaya) but is as though
h the prossnce of
emancipation (nibbdnaas'exa
sarrtilce: ibid. u. BZ).
Its supreme importance, however, is shown in the
fact that this was the final e.rhortation of the
Iluddha, just
before ha departed from all oxistence
in samsara : " Impermenent is all that is condi_
ti oned. Stri ve to accompl i sh your ai m wi th
diligence " (ap,punrid,ena sampdd,etha: D. II, 120).
Ifence, t,he wise praise diligence in virtuous
deeds (appamddam posamsanti pufi,fi,akiriyu.su
panSi t a: . f t . p. l 6) .
E. G. A. v. Z.
APPAMADA SUTTA. There are fourteen suma,s
by this n&me, of v'hich nine appear in the Samyutta,
f'our in the Aiguttara l{ilcdvo and one in tlne lti-
uuttal ;a. (i ) The Buddha, i n answer to a questi on
by P.r,senadi , ki ng of Kosai a, says that di l i gence
is the one quaiitv that aequires and keeps
.relfaro
botb i r thi s i i fe end i n the nexr (S.
L SOJ.
APPAMADA SIITTA 30
APPAUANASUBHA
(2) A clialoguo between the Buddha and Pasenadi,
king of Kosala (,S. I, 87), where the Budelha reports
to the king a previorrs discussion he had hnd with
Ananda : Tbe whole of this life in religion consists
in righteous friendship. r\ monk in friendship
with the righteous is expected to follow tho Noble
Eightfold Path
;
an<l it is because the Buddha
hirnsolf is the best of good friencls that boings rrre
delivered from suffering. It is the dut5r of the
king to beeome a good friend
;
in order to be such,
he must be diligent. When ther king is diligent
all his subjects will also be diligent, rvith the
rosult that his life, his rromen, his rvealth, all will
be guarded and safe.
(3) The Buddha says that those recluses and
brihmans who do not know the nature, the origirr.,
thc cessation and tho path leading to tho cesss,tion
of decay and death, of birtb, becoming, clinging,
eraving. of sensations, sense contact, of the six
spheres of sense contact, name and form, of con-
seiousness and of mental formations. must be
di l i gent (^S. II, I32).
(a) The Buddba says that diligonce is the ha,r-
bingcr of the arising of the Noble Eightfcld Path,
just as the dawn is the forerunner of the arising
of the sun (S. V, 30).
(5) The samo sutta i s repeated (i bi d. 32).
(6) Diligence is the most, useful factor for tho
arising of the Noble Eightfold Path (ibid. 33).
(7)
The same sutta i s repeated (i bi d. 35).
(8) There is no other factor except diligence
that is conducivo to the arising of, and tho pro-
gress in, the Noblo Eightfold Path (ibid. 36).
(9) The same sutta i s repeated (i bi d. 37).
(10) The Buddha advi ses monks to be di l i gent
on four occasions, i.e., in giving up evil decds,
words and thoughts, and wrong vicws, and in
cul ti vati ng thei r opposi tes (.4. II, l l 9).
(l f) The Buddha. i n answer to a brShman' s
question, explains in six similes that diligence is the
quality which, if developed, brings succoss both
i n thi s worl d and i n the next (1. III, 36,1).
(12) A dei ty vi si ts the Buddha at Jetavnna ancl
mentions seven things v-hich lead &w'&v frorn
ruin, nameiy, respect for the Tcachdr, the f)tramma,
the Sangha, the training, concentratiorr of the
mind, diligence and goodw-ill. Tlie Buddha reports
the i nci dent to the monks (1. I\r, 97-8).
(13) The Buddha expl ai ns to monks i n ni ne
similes t,hat diligence is the basis and liighest
quality among all good qualities (kusala tlh,arnrnct),
just
as the Tathd,gata, is thc highest, among oll
bei nge (-4. V, 2l -21.
(I4) Nanre given in the Suttasaigaha (199)
to a sutta quoted from ths ltiautta,ka, on the value of
diligence (applmdda). It
'is
said in this sutta
that a person would bo benefited in this world
as wel l as i n' tho next, i f he i s di l i gent (Abbo-attha
sui l a : r r . 16) .
u. K.
APPADIADA VAGGA, the tenth chapter (aogga)
of ttre Bo.jjlnnga Samyutta of the Samyuttu Nihdya
(V, I35). It contai ns the fol l owi ng ten suttas: (l )
Tuthdgaua, (2) Pada, (3) Kuta, (4) MuIa, (5) Sd'ra,
(6)

asstba, (7) Raje, (8) Aan'di,md, (9) Suriya,
(I0\ Vattha. The title of the vagga is derived from
a, ppamdd, a meani ng' ear nest ness' ( Woodwar d,
Kindred Sayings, V, p. 115). See under relevant
headword for each sutt&.
Anothsr Appurruoda Vaggo occurs in ths samo
Bojjhango Sar.nyutta in an extremely condonsed
form, obviously intendod for repetition and memoris-
ing. Mere titles of l0 suttas are given, " to bs
developed under the title of lust
"
(rd,gaaasena
vitthd,retabbo .. ,S. Z, 138).
B. J.
APPAMA[{ABHA, & class of gods who form one of
two sub-groups of the genus
AUUa
deva, tho other
being the Poritt6bha. Tho Appama+abha aro
mentioned in the Sankh'druppatti Sutto (M. III,
99) and the Anuru.ddha Sutta (M. IJJ, 145), tho
latter going into a detailod discussion regarding
their characteristic quality of luminosity, which,
in contrast to ttrat of the other sub-group, is bound-
less or infinite. A}.e Abhid,ham,n'tatthasahgalw (p.221
places them in the second jhdna plane of the
Rrlpaloka, while this work and the Kathd'uatthu
(p. 207) cal cul ate tl rei r l i fe-sp&n as l asti ng for four
great aeons (mahakappa). Tlrc Vibhangatthakathi
(p. 520) al so menti ons the AppamEnabha devd.
Seo ABITA DEVA.
B. J.
APPAMANASUBHA, a cl ass of gods menti oned i n
the Sahkl wuppatti Sutta (M. fII, 102). They
apparentl v bel ong to the Subha genus (s. v.
AsrrA DEVA), wi ti r tho Pari ,tta-subha ai the other
sub-group, but they are significantly absent from
the parallel list in tlna An'urtrd'd,lt'q' Suttz, (M. III'
147). The Al.,hid,harnnwttho-suigaha
(p. 22),
the Kathq"*atthu
(p. 207) and ti re Sarnmoha-
,;inodani (VbhA. 520) calculate their life-sPan a.s
being thirty-two great aoons (mahukap'pa) n.
APPAMAfi frA 3l APPANA
durati<ln, The first mentioned of these commen-
t ari al works f rrrLl rer pl a, r: es t hem i n t he t hi rd j hnna
' pl ure
of t he Rf rpal ol i a. See i urt her ABHA DEVA.
B. J.
APPAMAfrfrA, the four Boundl ess State-q, namel y,
l ovi ng-ki ndness (ntetta,), eompassi on
\karuna),
altnristic joy (mud,itr.r,) and ecluaninrity (upekkhd).
See BRAH}IA.VIIIAR.\.
APPADTATTA VAGGA, t he ni net eent h chapt er
of the Eka l i i puto of the Anl tnttara Ni katl a (I,.
35-8). Just as i n Jrrmbudi pa, tri fl i ne (appurttattaka)
are the pl easant pi rrks and the pl easant l akes
whi l e much more numerous are tho thorny brakes
and i naccressi bl e mountai ns, si mi l arl y. verl - few
i l re thoso who rvi l l crornl rr.el rt' nd the doctri ne ar_rd
i rttai n sal vati on wl ri l e rni ul v more &re those who
v-i l l not .so attai n.
Thi s chapter i n tu' o secti oi s gi vcs vari ous other
combina,tions contrastinr tlre i'es- wito u'ould fare
well with thc' rnanv l'lro rvould fare bildly. Thu*s,
few are those mcn r+'lio u'oulcl brr reborn os human
beings while mony are those rvho woulcl be born in
the states of woe, etc. ft seems l i kel y tl l r,t most oI
the combi nati ons have de.r.el oped round the kernel
of the ori gi nal combi ni tti on and are of a l atcr date.
L. R. G.
APPAMATTA
SUTTA. Si ' c
APPAMATTEYYA
SUTTA.
SUTTA.
, \ S. \ }I ATTA SUTTA.
See ]IA' l ' TIl YY,\
APPAMEYYA
SUTTA, t he t hi r d sr r t t a of i he
A1t <t y, i ku l , ugguof t he Ti t : t t , Ni 7; d: a r : f t he Ar t gut t ur a
Ii i kaya (I, 266).
fn thi s sutta ther Bucl tl l rrr, i rtl drosses the bl ri kkhrr,q
nn<l sa;,' s thl r,t tJrr.rc an' threc' sets of persons l rho
orc- harrl to be l orrnd i n thi s rvorl ti , narnel v, he u-ho
i s easi l y rueusurerl (sttl tprtntc.r.l ya),
he rvl rorn i t i s
di{ficult tu nreasure (luppanrct1.i/a),
and he rvho is
imnrcosura,blo (o1rytut n e
i l ll
u
)
.
Thc Buddha further e-r.pl i ri ns that a monk n' ho
has prrt an encl to rrl l ruerrtu.l i ntoxi cl .l nts (/rl ri nasai ' a)
Ls cal l ecl ' i r nmeasuni bl c' ( nppant eyya) .
I . K.
APPAM SUPATI SUTTA of the' Roj o Vagga of thc
Paricam,oka \ipdta of tbe Aiguttara Nikaya (III,
156) speaks of five individuals who sleep little
at ni ght, and keep awake. for the greater part.
They are: the woman who l ongs for a man, the
man rvho longs for a wom&n, a thief who harbours
the idea of stealing, peopl'e who are engaged in tho
work of the state and the monk who lonss for
relerlse from bondage.
w. c. w
APPANA (Skt. arpana), fi xi ng of Lhe mi nd i n the
state of
.
ecstati r: medi tati on (j hd,na).
In the
process of concentration (sarrua,rlhi) it is distinct
from and succeeds nei ghbourhood or accoss-concen-
tri rti on (upacdra-samndhi ) whi eh i s tho fi nal stage
frorn where mental absorption (jhnnu) is attained.
The attainmerr.t, of absorption itsolf is thcn ths
beginnirig of ecstatic concontratioa (appand- samd-
dhi ). I{ence. i t i s the mosb i mportant step i n the
entire process of rnind-culture (bhauanu), whieh
opens up & neu' t5,'De of mental life, in which the
rnind perretraies witlr mental application (appand-
uitakka) into tho inncr nature of the object of
contcrnpl ati on. ,\ grarl ual di spensati on wi th the
constituents of the lower stages of mental *bsorp-
tion (application through diseursive thought :
z"i takka-ui cd,ra; spi ri tual j oy
, pi ti
;
wel l -bei ng :
sukha) letrds to a stato of equanimity (upekkh,i)
irnd the fullest development in mental absorption.
A7tpand, although applied to the entire process of
concerrtration (sonr,ddhi) and absorption (jhana),
is prirnurily intended tbr tho o*itakka-factor in tho
initial stage of absorption, for it, is this factor of
cliscrrrsive mental .rpplication (uitalclca) which in-
serts (ttppel i ) the mi nd, as i t were, i nto the obj ect
of tlrorrght. An internsifi.ed form, uya,pptond, focuss-
ing, is used together v'ith appand, fixation of thought
( Dhs. I ,
\
7
;
DhsA. 142 f . ) .
Buddhagliosa frequently links the terms fixetion
{rnd absorption together, e.9., ekacittaklchanikam
appantt,-jhd.nam, rapt meditation on a eoncept
induccd by tlte momentary faslr of a thought.
Thus the orrhodox vieu' (-I(tru. 458) upholds against
ttre Sa.bbatthivadins and the Uttarapathakas that
concerrtration is involved in each momentary
unit of consciousness, from which some heterodox
teachers concl uded that one eoul d wi n the' ecstasy
of concerrtra,tion
(,appan'u-santad'lti)
on the actual
occrrsi on of anl ' sense-cofi ni ti on, even at tbo very
rnourent of thi nki ng i mmoral thoughts.
Tlre term appani is also used in an altogether
differerrt connection. although maintaining the
APPAITAXA JHANA 32 APPASSUTA SUTTA
of fixation, in tho Dlmrurnman4a,nE,
rhore " throughout Book I, in the cae{, of eecb
inquiry which op€ns up a Dow subjoct, tho snswer
is sat out on e deflnito plan oalled u.dd,eao, oxpoeition,
and ir roundod ofi invariably by bLLe oppand,, or
empbrtio ruaning up "
(Paycholaginal Ethdcs,
Intmd. by C. A. f,. Rhys Davide, p. xxviii).
H. G. 4. v. Z.
APPIFAKA JEANA, a foru. of scstatie med.itation
rbere breathing rs hold up in order to stir up
uneluggish onerg"y end to sot up unmuddled
rnind-
fulnoss. Tbe Buddha after his great renuneiation
practieed it duriag tbe period of eelf-mortification
with the above aim in viow, stopping breathing-in
and breathing.out through ths mouth, nose and
6als. As be pra*tised it, he saw i+"s ills, such &s
th6 ossoedingly loud noise of winds escaping by
the auditory passages, such winde renting inside
tho heerd, s€vero heedecho and fieree heat in i;be
body. In addition, as ho prectised it, lris body was
turbulsnt es he wag striving against, the pain it,
csusod (M.I, 24? tr.
;
TI,2l 2
i
J.I, 67
;
Mhtnr. TI,
l?4). In the foregoiug passqgea tJrs Buddhs
hr obviously diocoureged this form of motlitation
ar trreleer.
H. R. P.
A?PAITIEITA-VIUOKEA-UUKEA (Skt. epro-
Vihi*-vimokpo-muklnl,
gateway to doeirolesg
liberation, is one of the threo gatoweys to litieration
(Cp.
anhnitta-'aimalcha-mulcha : M.I, tg?
;
Pa. trf,
18; Vi sm. 684; Dhamg, 15 ;
I' ank 183
;
Gzryd. 472
;
Lal . 7) .
Buddhaghoea identifies the gatewey to dosireless
liboration with the contempiation on pain
(dukkhrinupaasand,
: V'iem. 564\.
'Wben
ono eontemplates pain, one's facultv of
concentration (aamd"d,hirudriya)
becomes oredo-
minant, and with its predomin&nce, insight reache.g
ite culmination and settles down firmly in the
contemplation
of pain. This faculty of concen-
tration thus strengthened brings a},rout the entry
upon the state of the gatoway to desireless liberation.
T'his gateway leads to the out,let from the world,
that is to say, to the stirrrrrg up of the mind with
respect to all formations and to tho entering of
consciousness into the desiroless eloment
\oppanihita
d.hffiu) which is Nibbana (Ps. II, 48;
Yism. 584). Seo also VIMOKKIIA.
APPARITIOT{AL BIRTE, or spontaneous bi rbh.
See OPAPATIILA.,
APPASSUTA SUTTA (1), the el eventh sutta of
tJoe Peyyd,I,a Vaggd of the Md,tugdrna Sarnyu,tta
(s. Iv, 242).
The Buddha, while staying near R,Sjagaha in
the Ban''boo Grovo (Vefu'uona) at the Squirrels'
Feeding-gpound (Kaland,alcaniadpa), erplains to
Anuruddha the fn'e qualitios which load s woman
to be roborn
'ttr
pt-rrgatory, namely, faithlessness
(asaad,rlha), ehamelessnese (ahdrika), unscru-
pulorxness (anott&po), srnall knowlodge (oppueu,ta)
snd weak wisdom (duppafrf,al"
t. K.
APPASSIITA SUTTA (2), the sixth eutte of tho
Bhan$agamo Vaggo of the Ariguttara Ndkdya
( n, 6 f . ) .
The Buddha, while stayiog emong tho Vajjiane
at Bha+dag&ma, tolls the bhikkhus about four
classes of persons existing in this world.
There are two sets of peoplo, some of smsll
learning, others of wide learning who havo only
a srrall knowlodge of the nine divisions (anga) of the
Buddhist
texts and. do not live in accordanco with
tho I)hamrua.
Gn tbo other lrarid. ther€ ere two othor sets of
perlJons, anmeil', tlroso who have little lea.rrring.
and tboee whc ira,r'e a wido lrrowledge of the nino
ciivisions of the Buddhist toxts rnoniioned above,
and who profit by th.eir learaing by knowing the
toxts with their mearrings and by living in
accordance \ryith the Dharnme.
I . K.
APPASSUTA SUTTA (3), a group of two suttas
with & common title (apitassuta) contained
i nthesecond chapter of the Dhd' ttt Samyutta of the
Samlltrtta, Nikaya (II, 164-5)" In the u.ddd,no
(the l i st of ti tl es at tho ond of the chapter) thi s
group is referred Lo as D'se Appassutena. Elowever
on the anal ogl ' of tho precedi rrg suttas, e.9.,
Anota,ppa,nt[tlaka t[,n'i, tho corresponding title
for this should be Appassutamfr,Iaka.
In this pair of suttas one filds a restate'ment
of the corrtents of some of the suttas of the samo
chapter and ther next. al l of whi ch sentro round
the l ast that peopl e of si mi l ar di sposi ti on &re
drarrn iogether. The Buddha declares that beings
come together aceording to fheir nat'ure
;
thus,
the uneduceted assoeiate with the uneducated,
the wis€ with the wise, and so on. U. K.
APPATIVAxT
surre . , t ) APPEARANCE
AND REALITY
1l ' hi s grorrp of' suttas rvas preachccl bv the IJuri dhu,
rvhern hc wi i ,s sta,vi ng nt Si rvatthi . The trro are
very sirnilar, both beginning with appa,ssuto
( t he uneduca, t ed) - hence t l r e t i t l e. The onl y
difference is t,hat irr tlie second srrbta rnuttha,satirw
(the muddl erni ncl ed) and thei r opposi tes
u,ptttth' i to.sati ;i o (ti re rl i tenti ve) are srrbsti tuted for
icuslta (the incioieut) and drad,dlwuiriud (tho
energeti c) of the fi rst sutta.
L. P, . G.
APPATI VANI SUTTA, a sut t a ( , S. I I , l B2) wher e
the Buddha sa\-s tirat, by him v'ho knows not
bi rtl r and becomi rrg. gtaspi ng, cravi ng, feel i ng,
contact,. et,u., there rnust be no turni ns back i n
thc search for knou' l edse.
I--. K.
APPATMDHA SUTTA, a sut t a ( S. I I I , 26t )
where the lluddha, in answcr to rr, question by
the pari bbaj aka Vacchagotta, sa5rs 1h*, di verse
views (as to whether the world is eternal or not,
finite
or not : whether life and the body are identical
or not, and whether the Tathdgata exists after
death or not) arise for want, of pereeption of the
five groups of existence.
U. K.
APPATMDITA SUTTA. A dei t-y vi si ts the
Buddha and utters t,wo stanzas: " Tl i ey who
have never grasped the truth of things are led
astray amor.g other creerds. Norr th:rt the Ruddba
has appeared in the n'orid, it, is time for them
to grasp the truth. Thev rvho have tlone so {rre
not l ed astral ' " (r9. f, 4).
tr. Ii .
,
APPEARANCE AND REALI TY. Ther e r vi l l be
hardly anvone s-Iio has not experieneed from
tirne to time that things aro not, alwavs u,.hat t,hey
eppear to be. Such experi ence i s the real i sati on
of an i l l usi on, whi ch resul ts i n maki ng a di sti ncti on
in things as they appea,r to be and as they realiy
&re. The causes of such i l l usi on and del ti ri on
whieh mistake the appeafance for t,he reality
mal ' be touched upon here l ater, but w' i l l be ful l y
deal t wi th el sewhere. See AVIJJA.
This distinet,ion between appearan<re tlnd realitl',
and the search for rea,litl.' ha,r-e erngaged most
phi l osophers throughout the rl ges i u t,he Il ast
and in the l,l.est anci made tbem arrive at the
most, divergent, coaclusions.
Ancient
VedS,nta
believed that everything, e\-ery experienee, was
an illusion (maya), a deception of realitv
;
antl
tl re real i sati on of the non-duu,l i sti c (adua,i ta.\
natrrre of the cosmos as the absoiute Rrahman
is the emancipation frorn the illusion of a senarato
exi stence (r1tma,n\.
Various idealistic schools of western philo*"ophy,
parti cul arl y l (ant' s transcendental
i deal i sm.
which takes the standpoint that, consciousness
embraces ai l experi once, Berkel ey' s subj ecti ve
idealisrn, leading to a tra,ns-subjective
and theo_
logical reality, and llegel's swrthetic idealism,
which merges the world of subjective consciousness
i n the uni versal consci ousness, l ed i o manv
thei sti c, panthei sti c and pessi mi sti c der.el opments
cl nd i nterpretati ons, some mai ntai ni ng ti rat real i tv
i s the oni v exi stence, other-q denvi ng the very
exi stence of real i tl ., some denvi ng tl te real i tv of
phenomena, the real i ty of exi stence, others gi vi ng
real i tv to the i deas thernsol ves.
Without entering hero into the merits and
values of the various systems, it is obvious thab
the point of dispute is a crucial one and c&nnot
be i grrored.
When speaking of appearances or phenomena
it is commonly ulderstood a,nd taken for grantecl
tirat thev are aspects or forms of something
else,
the underlying substsnce, the unknown
essence
which is the real thirrg, the thiag in itself. But
the Buddha's view of appeerB,nce
and realitv
i s the very deni al of such subst,r' ' ce,
whi ch.
however, i s not a doni al of real i ty.
As l ong as
the search l br real i ty i s a qrrest for the i deal , i t
remains unreill, because the problem exists only
in the mentai approach. fn predetermining
that real i ty must be absol ute and must be di sti ncr
from a,ppeera,nces and phenomeua,
the &nswer
to the problem has alreadv been fixetl, and the
seareh for a sol uti on becomes unreal .
To the Ruddha, real i tv meant
,,i ,he
state of
beirrg such "
;
and tho penetration
thereof
(tatlruttd.ya ca,
,pati,pajjanti:
D. f, iT5) is the
attai nrnent of emanci pati on.
Rcal i sati on
(abhi,satna,ya) exists in knowledge of things as
such (yathd,bl ti l tctfi d,na
: S.
, 144). Compl ete
perfection is found in one's owrr true naturo
(pari ni spanna-s' "*abhd,ra : Lank. l B2, 227,
g4g).
And if this actual nature is rmpermanent (aniccal,
there is also conflict in impermanence (anicce_
dukkha), and confi .i ct i tsei f i s wi t[out base
(.dukkhe-anattd,:
A. IV. 465;. Such i s the actual
n&tu-re of the eosmos in flux, of the flowing rive.
of life, of the individual process of action antl
personality.
APPEARAI{CE AI{D REATITY 34 APPTEA
It should not be tbought that tbis problem
ebout a,ppea,r&nce, and roality rsmained unobserved
in tbe early centurios of Buddhist thought. For,
tbe school of the Snrvdstivddins
broko &wsy
from the original Sthaviras, probably during the
reigpr of Asoka at the conclusion of tbe council
of Pdlaliputta, with their main thesis that every-
thing,
past, present and future; exists (santarm
asti\. ReaI existence was attributed by them
to dreams, to sounds, to reflected
i-agles in water
or in a mirror. Although the concept of indivi'
dual i ty (satkdya-i t' rs!i
w&s consi dered hereti cal ,
it had according to them a real object, viz', tb.e
five bodil5r and mental aggregates of clinging
(pafi.cupadanaskandhd.),
which are taken for the
*lf
(atta). It is clear that, the Sarvdstividins
did not subscribe to the soul-theory as a permanent
entity and ultimate reality. but for them, ag for
all early Buddhist schools, the ultimate factors
of i ndi vi dual l i fe, i .e., body and mi nd wi th i ts
sensations, perceptions, volitions and consciousness'
were real phenomena. In other words, for tbem
appearence was reality, but there was no reality
as I substance,
underlying and supporting the
phenomena.
Such was not the view of the Puggalav6'dins
who maintained that a person exists in t'ho sense
of a real and rrltimate entity and who were refuted
irr an eiehtfold argu-ment (Kuu. i, l). The use
of popular terrns in their convent'ional sense, such
as individual (puggala) and self (atta), does not
confer on them an ultimate and phiiosophical
meaning as entity and substance or soul'
fn not su-fficiently recognising this fact, meanings
have been attributed to terms, which &re con-
tradictory
to the main tenets of the doctrine'
" These are merely n&mes (Ioka'sam'ailira),
expressions
(Ioko-niruttiyo), turns of speech (Ioka'
aohd,rd), designations
in common use in the world "
(Ioka-pafi ' fi ati yo : D. l , 202), sti i d the Buddha to
Citta. When, therefore, reality is mentioned
it is not as an absolute and permanent entity
or substance, but as the actuality of phenomena
or appe&rances
which are by nature impermanent'
And thus, the Buddha denied the existence of
reality &s an entity, but accepted the reality of
phenomene, i.e., the actuality of n'ppearances'
A desire for conti-n'ued
exist'ence has becloudecl
the mind and substituted an abiding reality for a
Jrhenomenal
actuality,
whereby a sensory illusion
forms the basis for a mental delusion (moha)'
The
real is the fa,ct (.sat'ga), which is the word
for truth
(sacca\. And thus, reality is tbe factual
natr.rre of things snd events, and not
g
stagnant
entity, rrnse€n, unknown and unknowable.
Motives and values are not real, as they are attri-
buios which are not inherent qualities.
And thus, the concept of reality as the actuality
of mdre phonomena stands between the t,wo extreme
views of permanent existence and nihilism.
There is no doer of a deod
Nor anyone to reap its fruit.
Phenomena alone flow on
Ard thi s the onl y vi ew that' s good.
(Kammassa kd,roko n' atthi,
oipd,kassa ca uedako,
s u dl,hadh ammi, p au ott anti,
eu'etam. samm,ad'assarurr.n : Visnt'. xix,
$
20, i'l17;
H. G. A. v . Z.
APPELLATION,
descri pti on, mani fested noti on
or concept. See PANNATTI.
APPEI{DANT
(hi i tcano), the evi l ' somethi ng' t}rat
sticks or adheres to the character of a man, and
which he must get rid of, if he wants to attain to
a higher moral condition
(PED- s.v. kifi'cana).
It is deflned as the three impurities of lust (rd'ga),
hate (dosa) and delusion
(moha : D" III, 217). Its
opposi te,' wi thout attachment' (ki fi ,canaryr, n' uttl ti ),
is used &s &n attribute of an aralrant (Dhp. 2l).
H. G. A. v. Z.
APPERCEPTION,
a phase i n the process of
thought, at which stage perceptivo a,w&reness
becomes vol i ti onal and karmi cal l y producti ve
consci ousness. See JAVANA.
APPICCHATA,
state of being satisfied wibh few
possessions, of de.siring little or nothing, a charac-
teristic of the true spirit, of renunciation in a monk'
See CONTENTMENT-
APPIHA
(var. Ambasuppi ya, Ambi l ri )' a si l maperi r
wiro lived il the Srrvannakufi in Dakkhinagiri
vih6,ra, at Anurddhap-rrra
(Ceylon). It is sai{
that on the day after hi s ordi nati on hi s rnother
prepared seats for eiglrt monks. Ily ttre power of
icldh'i (psychic power) sixty-eight thousand bhikkhus
u'ere able to sit there- This story is relatecl to
illustrate
the po\r'er of iddlz;i that prevailed in
connect,i on
wi th the constructi on of the rel i c
chamber of the Maha Thupa in Anuradtrapura
( MhuA. I I , 552) -
L. R. G.
APPTICATION
APPLI CATI ON. Sust a, i r r c<l anpl i cat i on of r ni ud
(, z, i t : drrt )
i s an cssent i al f i rcrt or i n t he di scrrrsi ve
f unct j ori i ns
o{' ri l re mi nd w}ri r: l r t ri get her wi i , }r appl i ecl
t l rougl rt
(. ui t al ; / ; a)
i s onl y di scardecl i n t i re seconcl
st age of ment al absonr t i on. See JHANA.
APPLI CATI ONS OF MI NDFULNESS ( s t t t i pr t t .
l h. onu, ), t he f i . rrrr mct hocl s of at t encl ance (u, pat t huna, )
on mi n<, l i ' ul rl css (sat i )
ol , awareness i ] , s regards
tire botlv
(,1;rtt),
fc<-.linss
h:erktna), thought
' rr:,itto,)
ancl merrt ai obj ect s (Tl nnt nt a, ).
They ri , re sai cl t o
bc
'
t he onl v
g-a, v
t hat l crrcl s t o Lhc at t ai nrnent of
pt rri t y, t o t l re overcorni ng
of sorrow and l srncnt a-
t i on, t o t hc enrl of pa, i rr i rnd gri ef , t o t hc ent el i rrg of
t he ri ci rt
l rt rt h
and t o t he real i sat i on of Ni bbi t na'
( I ) .
I , ! 90r - ! / . l , 5; - f j ) . They nr e f our cont empi a_
t i ons rcl l at i ng t ci t t re f i r-e aggregat cs , l f
exi st . errcc
ftta' ii,cai:klouruIh,o),
le:i-r,rling to insight into the
unsubst i r. nt i . rl i t l ' oi - al l phr, ' nornena. _b. or cl r: t ai l s
see SAI I P, \ ' ] ' THANA.
H. G. A. v . Z.
APPLI ED THOUGHT (ui t akka) t oget her wi t h sus-
t a, i nec-l appl i cat i on (ui cdra) const i t ut es t he di seursi r. e
f unct i oni rrg of t he mi nd. whi ch i s onl 5, di i carded
i n t he sccrond st agc oi " ment al absorpt i on.
See JI {AN, \ "
APPREHEI I SI ON eompr i ses t he t ur ni ng of t he
r ni ncl t or vr l r ds t he st i mul i at t he: , . ense ( i oor s
( Tt ai t cadt ar a" t j j ana) .
I t i s t he r eact i on of t he
mi nd rrl i i ch at t ends t r: or appr, ehends t he obj ect ,
t hat i rnpi nges on t i rc l i vef ol d door of t l i e senses.
' l ' he
t l r, ' o ot l t cr el ement s of rrpprehc' nsi on are t he t wo
l eci pi ent el t : ment s of represent at , i on
{, sant po. t i ccha, na)
: rncl of c. i a; r, i nat i <11. 1 (^-rt
t t t i ru, qut l . Ti ri s t ri pl e f i r, cul t v
of i rpl rrr: l rerr. -i on (rt t cut odhdt ut t i ka)
i s capabl e of
t aki ng pa, r' t onl v i n a prr: sent at i r-e (but never
i n & l epr csent at i r - e
)
ccgni t i on ( Cont pendi ur r t ,
of
Pl t i l osal : h! / , i l t ransl at i on of t l rc Abl i i i t t l arrnt rat t l l a-
sai uqul t u, London. l l f l 0. p. l 0S, n. 3) . See
' t vAJJl , \ - t .
H. G. A. v . Z.
APRAKARA, a" ,gati rcttl l ui or a concentr.ati or-r of
both mi nd arrr-l bodv rnr-nti oned i n the )fol ul ,yrdpatti
i BB. XI I I . 9) t ' her ei n one does not concci ve cven
t he f or r n of al l phenomena ( r l har ma) . I t s l i t cr ai
r neanr ng r s
' l or ml ess'
( Sspp. p. 1{ j l ) .
U. K.
APRAKE$U ( r , ' r i r . , \ i r r i r , pr i sr r ) , a f or mer Bucl r l ha,
mcnti oncd i n rr, l i st of former Rrrddti as undr.r u.hom
Sakya"mr:.ni rrhile ut bbe nintir bhnmi acquired
APRAPTI
mel i t ( JI l t u, u.
I . l 4t ) . Edger t on, whi l e admi t t i nc
that lvhar \zas rrreilnt is not clear to him. sar,-s thai
Senart' s emendati on of thi s name i nto -.\prakrsg,a
i s not pl ausi bl e.
APRAMANABTI A, a cl ass of Rupr i va, car a- gor l s
i n tl re secori d Ll l tyd,na-bhfrnr.f. See Apl ' Al IANAgUe.
APRAMANAGUNASAGARAPRABI I A,
a Tr r , t hi sat a
i n thr: rrortl t-westcrn quarter, i n the worl d-
rcgion (lokodhr:rtu)
Ga,ndhalarikdrlrlrr,rciraSubha_
gar bha. Al ong wi t h t he ci r cl e of al l at t endant
borl hi ss,l .tvas hearl ed by the bodhi sattava Asari ga-
ktl ynrasrni tcj omrr,ti ,
he cornes q' i thi n
ttre.rangc
of
tl re eyos <rf the grri l t{-l eader (i resthi n) }ful i tri k.r who
st ri r-es for i rri ,i :r,ccompl i shes the Tathi gata,
-sal vati on
n.l rned -.\sa,i gavvhha, In t,he Gu,ndaryul l u, ,\fi ,tra,
where rt:ference i s made to thi s
' I' trtl i i gata,
l fuktaka, bei ng trpproached by the youth Sucl hana
who l .ts come.to hi m for i nstnrcti on i n the course
of conduct of bocl hi sattvas, rnenti ons tho Tathagata
Apramdnagrr+asagareprabha
in enumerating
the
narnes of ten Tathdgatas in ten worlcl-regions
i n the ten di recti ons, headed by whorn the
Tathngatas, the worthy-ones (arhot). tl :re ful l y-
enl i ghtened-ones, come wi thi n the range of hi s
vision (t-i,"yu- 8I).
T. R,.
APRAMA{ A- PARAMOPAYA, t } r e Sanskr i t t i t . l o
of a text restored accordi ng to a }fongol i an i ndex
corrcsJ.i ondi ne to the Ti betan ti tl e Tha,bs mchog-
dpag gi s rni l art-pa. Accorrl i rur to the si l me i ndex,
t he t cxt . t he aut hor shi p of r vi r i eh i s ascr i bed t o
Vi rnal a. occi l l s i n the I' .rvud-hgrel (tantra
com-
r nent ar y) sect i on. I l owever . i t i s not pr eser ved
i n tl re Scl e-dce edi ti on (T-II.) or i n the P,--hLng
l i di t i on of l ) . T' . Suzuki .
R. H.
APRAIUAT{A-dUBXA, a cl ass of Rdpavacara-god,s
irr tlre thirci dhyana-bh.ttmi,. See APPAMANA-
SUBHA.
APRAPTI, non-rl ttai nment (Ti betan
: tl rob-pa-med-
pil
;
Cliinese : v'u-so-tcl
fr,ry'f.$). All dharmas
are r-oi d, so no dharm.-r,s can be attai ned.
Tlt e P raj fi.d, pdr a ntitri
-
hrd,a,y a S,itra (SAE'.
XLIX,
Part i i , pp. 153 f.) says, " O SS,ri putra, form hero
is emptiness, and emptiness indeed is form. E*p-
tiless is not different from form, form is not different
from emptiness. \{'hat is form t}rat is emptiness.
what i s empt.i ness that i s form. The same appl i es
to percepti ou, name, coacepti ou and knou-l edge.
li5
APRASAE APRAKI6 N-TT IU A 36 APRATIMA
" I{ere, O S6riputra, all things have the eharacter
of emptiness; they have no beginuing, no end, they
ere faultless and not faultless, they
.
aro not
imperfect and not perfect. Therefore, O S6riputra,
in this emptiness thoro is no form, no perception,
no narne, no coneepts, no knowledgo. No eye, ear,
noso, tongue, body, no mind. No form, sound,
smoll, tasto, touch, objects. . . Thero is no
knowledge, no ignornnce, no destruction of
kTrow-
bdg", no deetruc+"ion of ignoranco, etc., no destruc-
tion of decay and death; there are not the Four
Truths, wiz., that thero iS pain, origin of pain,
stoppage of pain and tbe path to it. Thero is no
knowlodge, no obtaining (of Nirvdna). "
lbe Ta-fin-pan-jo-chirq (tftffi#ffi Taieh,6,
No. 223) says " Since the beginning of the
religioue life, a bodhisattva must learn the law
of voidness and of non-attainment. Tho bodhi-
aettva practieos charity, morality, humility, assi-
duity aad concoatration owing to his achieving
tho law of non-attainment . .non.atta'nrnent
is tho aspect of prajfiapdramil.d; non-attainrnont is
the aspect of ontfttarasamyaksarnbodhd
;
and non.
gtteinment
ie the attitude of the practitioner of
prajffipd,rarnitd " (op.cit. Vol. 8, p. 373).
These sontences indicate that as all dharmas
are void ultimately, there a,ro no differences like
five ekandhae, twelve dyatanas, eigtrteen dhdtus,
twelve-fold causation, Four Noble Truths, and
to on. A bodhisattva must try to realis€ this
Iaw in his roligious life.
On the differences between noa-attainment and
at tainment, the T a
-
pan
-
nieh
-
p' an- ching (^fiR ?g
qg&
Taisl6, No. 374) states that ae bodhisdttvas and
mahdsattvas have not the four misleading views
(ndtg a-ai,pary d,s a, sulcho
-uipary
ds a, ttic,i
-
uip ar.gdso and
6tm,a,-ai,parydsa), tbey are unhindered, and. they are
called non-attained. If someone clings to the
diferent aspects of many dharmas, then he falls
into theso misleading viows. But if all differentia-
tions sre left behind and no
rlharnes
are elung to,
it is called as[-a,t't'a,inrnsnt.
So, the reality of dharuas itself is callod non-
attainment. The Mohnprajfid,param,i,td-,idslro says
that the reality of dhannas is called non-attainment,
because thero can be no special aspects in it
(Tai -*h6, Yol . 25, p. 197).
K. Tm,.
APRASAEAPRAKA;A-NAMA, tne Sanskrit titlo
of s text, the Tibeian voreion of which occurg
in the Rgyud-lrgrel (tantra cornrnoutaqr) section
of the Teugyur undor the title Rab-tu md grws.po
gaal-bar don-po shes-bya-ba (Peking Ed. Tib. Trip.,
od. D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 68, No. 3079). The euthor-
ship of the work is credited to Gflis-med rdo-rje
(Advayavajra). Vajrapini and Nag-tsho Tshul-
khrims rgyal (Jaya$ila according to Cordinr,
f[, p. 214, No. 20) are given as the n&mes of the
translators.
Tho text, which begins with a salutation to Mafr-
ju6rikumdrabhrita,
contains eleven etanzas. Tho
first of tbeso states that the knowlodge set out
in tho work, a heritage coming from the Buddha,
conformity to which promotos the welfare of
all boings, is to be deeired by all. Tho stanzag
tbat follow contain
gtatements
on tho ovil offscts
of lust (Skf. kdma. Tib. hd,od), ttre ineomprohen-
sible naturo of all substances (Skt. d,Inrma,
Tib. chos), the doctrine of {&ny& (the illusory
nature of things) and tho like.
R. E.
APRATIEATACUNAKIRTIVI UO
K$ APR AB E A.
RAJA, a Tathdgata in the zonith, in the world-
togion (Iolcodhrttu) Lak.?anaruciravairocan6. Along
with the circle of all attendant bodhisattvas
headed by the bodhisattva Asangabalavirya-
mati, he comos within the renge of the oyes of tho
gr.rild-leader (6resthdn) Muktaka, who strives
for and accomplishes the Tathdgata-salvation
named Asafigaw5n1ba. Iu the Gand,auyuha S&tra,
where reforonco ismadetothis Tathd,gata, Muktaka,
being approached by the youth Sudhana, who
has eomo to him for insfrustion
in tho course of
conduct of bodhisattvas, montions the Tathd,gata
Apratihatagunakirtivimoksaprabhardja in enumera-
ting the nemes of teu Tathdgatas in ten world-
rogions in the ten directions, headed by whom
the Tathdgatas, tbo
' worthy-ones'
(arhat), tbe
fuily-enlightened.-onos, corno withdi tho range of
hi s vi si on (Guy&.811.
T. R.
APRATIEATA NETR A, name of a deity (deua- putr u\,
one of sixteon guardians of the boilhim,andalo
eccording to the Lal'itaui*tara (BHS. s. v.).
APRATIMA, the n&rro of Ysgodhard in a previous
birth when sho was the queen of king Ku6a, who wae
the bodhisattva in his seventh bh&mi. At that timo
Devadatta was the regional king (prad,e.4ard,ja),
Jafhara. Ilaving heard of Apratim6, he demanded
her of I(uSa, threatening war if sho was not delivered
to him. Ku$a posed tbis problem to his
queerr.
Amidst a flood of tears sbe sssured him that she wae
A PRATISANKH
YA
-I{IRODH
A APRATI$THANA-PRAKASA
, 4
J I
powerful enough, both by physicai mee,ns and
miraculous devices, to dcfea,t Jathara's evil inten-
ti on. " I woul d del i ver you, my l ord, of two such
l bes as he; my magi c nower i s i ncal cul abl e, the
world is as straw to me. Let tlio king, therefore,
bo undismayed, and, wearing sweet-smelling
garlands, let hirn paco his palace-grourids
and amrrso
himseif a,mong his thousand women."
ll-hen Jalhara unsuspectingly came into Ku,Sa's
inner
apartment she carried out her plan. She put
her right foot over his heart, her left on bis ankles
and, with the victirn in her power, chided him with
appropriate words. Jathara cried out to her to
spare him; and KuSa, entering at that moment,,
pleaded with her to release the man who had now
become a suppliant and besought her protection.
" Such mercv is the dharma of the good ", said
Ku6a, the bodhisattva. The incident apparentiy
ended rn this rn&nrler,
for there is no further re-
ferenco to the three persons under these particulqr
namee (Mahdaadtu, trsl . J. J. Jones, I, pp. l 0l -g).
b. r. o.
APRATISAi XEyA-XIRODIIA (' Ii betan
i so-sur-
brtaga-pa ma-yi,n-pahi ioogs-pa
; Chinose :
Jei-tsd,-
m'inh
)Fffidj, mealing,
'
the extinction due to
Iack of a producti\,e c&use
',
which is, accorcling to
the Sarr'6.stivida, ono of the seventv-five dharmas,
and according to tbe VijAanavada, one of the one
hundred dharmas.
The Sarvdstivadins classified all dharmas into five
groups, the last group being
'the
non-conditioned
elements' (asamskyta-d,lnnna) comprising three
dharmas, viz., s;raee (akaia), extinction tlrrough
intellectual power (pratisafikh,yd,-nirod,ha)
and ex-
tinction due to lack of a productive cause (a.prati-
sankh,ya-ni,rodha).
The Ju-a-p' i ,-ta-nrc-tun (
Fi {-Ei *E-# Tai sho,
No. 1554) sa,ys, " There exi st,s a dharma, aprati -
sankhyd,-nirodha, which suppresses the product,ion
of dharmas which otherw'ise would ariso in the
future..
'l'his
dharma, is neither due to the lack of a
producti ve cause nor due to the resul t of
Lnowl edge.
When the eye and the eye-consci ousness concen-
trate orr one fbrm, the cronsciousness of other forms,
of sounds, of smel l s, of tastes, and of contacts do not
take place. Then, they obtain tlne apratisankhya,-
nirodln whichprevents tlrese kinds of consciousness
from taki ng pl ace, so that they do uot occur at al l .
The l ack of a produeti ve cause al so i s due to the
po\frer of this
,ntrorllw.
'Ihus,
the apratisahkhy,i-
n' i rod,ha i s an actual l y' exi sti ng dharma " (op. ci t.
Vol . 28, p. 989). The Abhi d,l tarrna.nyd,ydnusara,-
iristrz aiso mentions that thi,s is an es.istrnq djrarms.
Al l dharma,s oecur wtren thev come to the preseat
from tl rei r posi ti on i ri the future, owi nq to i l re com-
binatiorr of productive causes, u,nd at the moment
of thei r occurrence, al l dharmas become exti nct by
passing into the past,. But, when a dharn:,a ltrcks
productive c&uses, the a,pratisailc4yu-nirod,ha
pto-
vents the occr:rrence of the dharma, so that the
dharma remains at its position of rhe future for ever
and wiil never take place. The number of aprati-
sahkhya-nirodho is the same with that of pheno-
men&, because, when one phenomenondoesnot tako
place, it is due Lo an apratisankhyd,-nirodha,
The doctri ne menti oned above i s that of the
Sarvd,stivS,da, and other schools have different
doctri -nes on thi s. The SautrEnti ka states that
tlrere is no such existing dharma as apratisankhyd,-
ni rodha; and that i t i s onl y a provi si onal name. Non-
occurrence of a dharmu, due to the lack of produc-
tive c&rutes, is called apratisanlchyd,-nirod,4a.
According to somo early sects, it is defined es the
suppression of tho roots of evil which would arise in
the future, but for the uon-existence of those con-
ditions which otherwise would have givea rise to
then (Ency. Bsm. Yol . f, p. 1a9). Accordi ng to tho
Mahdsanghila, by aTtratisankhyd,-nirod,h,o
is meant
the non-recurrence of a dharma, once it has perislred.
But according to the Vijflanavada, all non-created
eiements (asamskrta,-dlmrma),
one of which is the
aptratisankltyd,-dharma, are the aspects of thusness,
which is nrriversal, and tbe apratisanlch,yd,-nirod,hn
becomes manifested when phenomen& do not occur
owi l g to l ack of producti ve causes.
K. Tyn.
APRATI$THANA-PRaXA6e, a Sanskri t work
of eleven stanzas written by Advayavajra in
the llth or the 12th century A.C. The Sanskrit
text is published in the Aduayctua,jrasangraha
in whicli Advayavajra's short works are collected,
and edi ted by M.' II. Shastri (GO,S. XL, p. 48).
It is also translated into Tibetan.
Translated into English the title would mean
" the publ i cati on of the want of basi s (of
towl ecl ge) " and thi s basi s of knowi edge i s the
full faith in the Buddhas, as taught in }lahaydna
Budcl hi sm. Ow-rng to the extreme brevi ty of
the work some of the idea"s expressed evado clear
expl anati on. Yet the contents show that the
author's preference is for the lfidhya"'iks
doctri ne. It i s sai d that consci ousness cannot
exist, for the past, present or the future and,
therefore, it is said that even consciousness is
I
APREMA-SAMANA-GARA-PRAYOGA-
38 APSARAg
absol utel v w' i thout essence
(.nai h.stabhd,ua).
Owing to the fact that the origin of t'he dharma'e
is ineomprehensible,
it is called i&nyatd (verses
6-?). Tbese are .' {ddhl ami ka i deas.
A. G. S. K.
APREMA- d, quaxe- cARA
- P
RA Y O GA- EI hAN-
YAMAT{I-NAMA,
the reconstrusted Sanskri t ti tl e
of a Tibetan work occrirring in the Rgy-rd-hgrel
i tantra
commentary)
secti on of the Tengyur
unrler the tit'le Xli-mth,un-po shi-bar'byed'pahi rtsd'
,sbyor d.byi .g-gi nor-bu shes' bya-ba
(Peki ng Ed' Ti b'
Tr i p. , ed D. T. Suzuki , VoI . ?9, No. 3853 and
Cord,i er, II, p. 351, I{o. 90). The authorshi p of
the text i s attri buted to Ye' Ses rdo-rj e (JfrSnavaj ra)'
According to the injr:nctions set' out in this
text, he who wishes to settle quarrels and disputes
should enter a thick forest, draw a four'spoked
magic circle (mandala), invite the gods to be
present, request them to be seated, perforu the
consecration ceremonies and the like, make offerings,
sing songs of praise and recite incantations for
seven da1' s and seven ni ghts. Furtber ri tual i s
prescribed, during the course of which white
mustard seed, olesnder flowers
(.karabtra) and
ash taken from the premises of a cemetery should
be thrown towards the disputants, to the aceom-
paniment of the chanting of spells. These ritua'
lisbic perforn&nces are said to restore harmony
among the contending
Parties.
R. E.
APRIYAKEYA,
name of a yaksa, menti oned
i n
t be Di uyd' uadd, na
( 41- 4 : EHS. s. v. ) .
APSARAS,
i n the earl i est Indi an concep"i on, a
cclestial and water nymph whose consort' \Pas a
gandharva. Later mythology associated her kind
r*'ith trees, describing them as particularly fond
oi musi c. Apsarases are sai d to have had physi cal
contact wi th mal es, both heavenl y and human'
Al though
they were pri mari l y associ ated wi th
gandharvas,
it was Indra who was tbeir lord
ancl master
(A. A. l facdonel l , Vedi c Mythol ogy)'
In spite of these ideas, the early Buddhists
dicl not incorporato
the apsarases in their scheme'
But these spirits came in later when the Buddhist
panti reon
(so-cal l ed) was bei ng el aborated' In
its formative
process apsarases wero palticuiarly
concerned rvi th two functi ons, i ' e., i n the ci rcums"
t.Inces attendilg the eniigirtenmeqt' ot Slkyamuni
an,L to glorify tite Buddha irr. tht'ir oeo, wsy' I.u
such works a,s tho Mahdua'stu, f'al'ilattistara,
Sukhiuatiugiha and Budd,hacari'ta, t'bey are strown
as attendants in the train of the bodlisattva.
(See BibIB. IX-XX, item 742 w-ith reference
to G. Borsani.)
The Mahiuastu rsferences (trsl. J. J. Jones)
give a picture which could be taken as typical of
&psarases. Tt ey Uved in the Tr6yastrir.nsa
heaven. Thus Gav6, & public laundress, w:aa
reborn here as an apseras in the mansioo, of t
splendid and powerful deve-the good rrgsrlt of
her having offered a Lompon robe to the Bucrdbr
(ibid. III, pp. 299 f.). These nymphs wtln
hear.ily bejewelled (ibid. III, p. 120)
;
thoy wem
expert in singing, making musis and dsncing (ibid.
II, pp. 15, 136, 184). In honour of the bodhi -
sa,ttva'B entry into the womb of his earthly
mother, IIdyddevi, they rained down continuorut
showere of celestial blossoms and aromatic
powder s ( i bi d. I , pp. I 14, 170) . Tr oops of
thom performed tho tasks of bathing, cleansing,
massaging and aaointing the body of the
expectant motber
(i bi d. f, p. l tO). They offered
their services at her a,ccouchement (ibid. I,
p . 1 1 8 ) .
Apsarases wore gariands of land and wator
fl owers, gems and
j ewel s (i bi d. I, p. 172). They
frequented the heavenly grove of Nandano where
Sakra hirnself came for enjoyment (ibid. U'
p. 400). In this is seen the continuanco of the
Vedic connoction betweon Indra and tbe spserB,ses.
When men died and were reborn in the celestial
spheres as req'ard for virtuous actions performed on
earth, vast numbers of apsar&ses would be there to
greet them and mi l i ster to thei r pl easures (i bi d.
II, pp. 34?, 350). Compare the story of Nanda
(Ud. p.22 f.) where Nanda waq promi sed a vast
retinue of n1'mphs if he agreed not to abandon
the rnonk's life. Ile accepted ths offer and later
was tauated by' hi s col l eagues.
Several
jitakas contain informaiion about
apsareses. They are generaill' described as
'
dove-footod'
(.kakuta-pdd' i ni yo).
Sakka had
a multitude of them and wa,s constantly
getti ng more as hi s reti nue (pari cdri ka: J. II- 93)"
They lived in the Nandana Llrove in Tdvatirnsa
and sang and danced to him and, evidently, es
they danced they appeared in diverse bues (puthu
ndnat t aaanni yo:
cp, ] L I ' 337) . f hey coul d
assume whatever col otl r they wi shed. They
seem to have been of several graCes, some of them
goddesses i n thei r osrr ri qi rt l e.g.'
Laj a) and i ndi q'
crimi:ratelv referred to as deuadhltti, deuakaitiid
and ecclurd, wbile others merely formed p*rt
APIITTAKA SUTTA 39
ARADA
of thc retinrre of
guch
goddossea, o.g., Gtt,ttila
Jataka (J. II, 256 ff.). Becuuso of thei r extra-
orrl i nary bearrty, Sakkn worrl d aomoti mee u8o
thsm to tempt aecotics, who by tlieir austers
pract,it'en tondod to become too poworful. Thus,
Alambusd wos sent to tempt fsisiirga
;
ho
ruceumbod and lay in her arms for three years.
fn art the &psaresoB have been roprosented,
ln peinting ee woll as sculpture, in all the known
Il uddhi st l onds. (Soe Vol . I, pl ate VII; Vol . If,
plate IV.) They have aleo b66n reforrod to in litora-
ture. They aro the Tennin who havo oeen shown
in images of the Northern Wei poriod, especially at
ths famed cavos of Yun-kang and Lung-men in
China
(Seo BibIB. YI, item 447 with reforonce to
M. Oguohi ).
D. T. D.
APIITTAKA SUTTA (,S. I, 89) reletoa the etory
of a woolthy burgoes of S6vatthi who diod intestato.
Paaenadi , ki ng of Koeal a, vi si tg the Buddha snd
tolls him that he had
just finished having the
bankor'g wealth removed to the royal coffers,
' ei ght
mi l l i ons of gol d to cay nothi ng of si l ver' .
And yot the banker ete nothing but sour huek-
gnel left over from the provioue day and woro
only hompen gormonts. The Buddha Bays that the
tne&n man who hes aoqr.rired great, woalth does
not maks ths bost us€ of it. Thoee ricfree of hie,
not rightly utilised, aro confiecated by kinge or
robbod by robbors or ar€ burnt by fire or carrisd
swey by floods or &ro eppropriated by heirs for
whom he had no affection
;
tho richee that are not
rightly utilised nrn to waete, like a lake of clear,
oold, delicioue, crystalline weter, with good ehoros,
but lying in a savage rogion. None eould utilieo it.
But, on tho contrary, a gouoroun man, if ho is rioh,
makos the beet urse of his richoe which may be
oompared to a lovely lako situated near e village
or a city whore people can uee it.
Anothor sutta of tho 6amo namo (S. I, 9I)
oontains 6n &ccount of th$t bankor's pest. In
a former birth, he had givon slrnr to e peccoka-
buddha, Tagaraeikhi but later repentod and
wished that ho had
givon
tho food to elavee and
gervante.
As a rerult of the alrns givon he wag
born saven tirnog in hoavon and Bovon timee
ae a rich men of S6vatthi. His repentanco mado
him incline to dorry himself enjoyment of :onse-
doeiroe. Owing to the murrlor of hie nephew in
hie previoua birth, tre re&B ehildloee in this life
and he died intestate. Aftor that he was bonr
i.u lhbe-roruvr purge[ory"
AQUEOUS ELEMENT, an Engl i sh oqui val ont of
d,po-dhotu (el ement of water). See BHCTA.
AnnfngRvATTHII
SUTTA of ths
yomaka
Voggo
of the Atthaka Nipdtn of tho Ahguttaro Nibdyo
(IV, 334-35) descri bes ei ght occaei one on whi ch a
monk should strive hard to attain and rsalise stateE
of mind yet unattainod and unrealised by him.
Before undertaking a task ho should strivo hard
to attain and realise ststos of mind unatf,einod
and,unreslisod by hirn, becaueo during the timc
he sponde for the task he would not bo ablo to
concentrate on tho Master's teaching
;
ho should
etrive hard in tho ssme way aftor a taek ia dono,
becaueo he worrl d not bo abl o to . eoncentrato on
tho Maeter'a teachinz while tho task ie boing done
;
elrnilarly ho should
gtrive
hard beforo unrlertaking
a journoy and afber finishing a journoy,
having
partaken of little food, for then his body would
be light and pliable; end having partaken of
much food, for thon his body would be etrong
and pliable
;
whon ho is indisposed with a slight
illness, for the illnose might grow woree and he
worrld not bo ablo to etrive thon
;
and after
rocovering from an illnees through feer that hc
might fall ill agein.
w. o. w.
AnenHntl SUTTA of tho Tikanfukr vqgs
of the Pailcamokn Nipota of tho Anguttaro Nilcdyo
(UI, 105-7) mont,i ons fl ve ki nde of poopl e: (l ) thorc
who eommit a feult and repent of the fact but do
n-othing good, and do not knss the emaneipetion
of hoart and emancipation through wiedom by
whicb all inflows (deaua) aro doatroyod without
a remeindor; (2) thoso who commit a fsult but
do not ropent of what thoy have done or not
dono, and who do not know emaneipotion; (B)
those who do not comrnit a fault, but repent of
what they havo not dons, and wbo do not know
emaneipation
;
(4) those who do nsft, sernrnit a fault
nor repont, of what they have not done, end do
not know omancipation
;
au,d (b) thoso who do not
commit a farrlt nor ropont of what they lrove not
done, and know emancipation.
A truo followor
of the ttuddha should try to be lihe tho peoplc
of the fffth group.
w. G. w.
AnAPe (var Arada), a Eago undor whom
Sakyemuni $udiod for a tino. Bee undor the
b6tte knovn narYre
AJ-I-RAKALAMA.
u. K-
ARADDEAVIRIYA SUTTA 10 ARAgAf, CEREUOrI
IneppgeVIRIYA SUTTA, n&me gi vcn i n tho
Su.ttasahgoho
(pp. 3I9 fr.) to tha Cara Sutt'a
(q.v.) of ttre Aiguttora Nikdyo (II, 13 f.) which
ig algo found in the ltiautnlca (pp. 116 f.).
ARAET. See ARAE.TNI.
ARAHAIYI SUTTA. Thore sre Eevon suttas by
thie name, six of which occur in the Sarnyutta
Nikdyo and tho seventh in the Anguttaro Nikdya.
The first sutta is in the rSclli Vaggo of the
Dersotd Sor.nyutta
(S. I, 14-16).- A dovat6
questions tho Buddha whether an arahant by
speaki ng of
' I '
and
' mi ne'
shows t her oby
prononess to notions of self or soul.
'Iho
Buddha
denies it and declares that such Bn arahant
thoroby only conforms to common usago in such
metters. According to Buddhaghosa, the
questioner \s&s & forest devat6 who had hoard
tbo forest dwolling arahants talking thus and
who wanted to know whether the arahants had
any' sel f-concei t (rndno) at al l (,S/. tr, 51).
The eecond sutta is found in the Anto Vo,ggo
of the Khand,o Somyutta
(S. III, 16l ). Tho
Buddha tells the monks that an arahant is one
who hae roally soen the arising (samudaya) and
the ending (atthagam'a) of the satisfaction (aasd'do)
irr, the misery
\fulinaua)
of, and the escapo (nza.
earapn\ from, the factors of the fivefold clinging
to existonce (upddarwkkhandha)' viz., body, eto.
The next two suttas occur in the Sudd,hika V"gga
of the Indriya Samyutta (,S. V, 194). The contents
of the two suttas aro idontical, except for slight
variation in detail. The Buddha doscribes Bn
arahant and declares that a monk who sees tho
roal naturo (yothd'bhuta) of, tho satisfaction
(assad,a) in, the misory (od'inoaa) of, the oscapo
(niaaorano\ from, these fivefold controlling powors
(pafi,cindriya), namoly, tho controlling power of
faiL}a (sadtlha), of energ'y (uiri'ya), of mindfulnoss
(eati), of concontration (samd"lhi), and of insight
(pofi,fia), is freed without grasping (anupado).
Furthor, ho eays that such & one is called sn
arahant, booause of having dostroyed the mental
intoxicante (daaua), lived the holy life, done
what had to bo done, Iifted the burden, gained
his own welfare, worn out tho fottors of rebirth
and been roloesed by perfect insight (sommadoft.fii\.
In the fifth sutta occurring in the Capala Vogga
of the lddhipdda Sor.nyutto (,S. V, 257), the Buddha
rays that the Tathagata is called an arahant, a
fully enlightened one, by the fact of bav'ng
cultivated tho four bases of psychic poror
(&t^dhipado)of wbich the featurea Bre desire' oner8tr,
tbought, and invetigation.
In tbe eixth sutta whieh occura in ths Koligdma
Vagga of tho Sacw Samyutta (8.Y,433) the Budrtha
doclaros that the arahants, tbe fuily enlightonod
rlnos, havo tho full undorstanding of ths Four
Noble Trrths as thoy really are.
In tho last sutta whioh occnrr in tho Dara6
Vaggo (/.. III,42I) the Buddha tolle ths monks of
Da4dakappa that tho six qualitioe of sloth, torpor,
flurry, worry, diebeiief a,nd heedlessness should
be given up, if orro w6ro to attain ara]rantahip.
I . K.
ARAHAN, gonorally lrrown as Shin Arahan, a
famoue monk in Burma with whoee essisianoo king
Anewrshta (L044-771 sproad Theraveda Buddhism
in Upper Burma. (Soe Vol. If, Pl. III") Born in o
brFh"'ao family he bocamo e Buddhist, nonk ond
warhtown as Dharnrnedaeoi. Whiie he was dwelling
in e f6est in Pugar6.rna" a huntor took hi'n to
king Anawratrta. Tho monk proeched to the
king and convincod him of tho Dhamma. At
this particular timo a tantric sect callod Ari (q.v.)
had becomo vory poworful in Burma and had
obtained the support of the kings of the oou.ntry.
Shin 6"ut*o who won ths faiih of tho king took s
prorninent parb in sotting tho oountry froe of
thoir dorninetion and faise dootrineg. I{encefortb
Upper Burma boc.amo a Theravdda country (?i.c
Glass Palace Cltron'icle of the Hdctory oJ Kings ol
Burma, 7f ff.). On the advice of Shin Arahan
king Anawrahta obtainod copies of the Tipr(ako
from I'haton in Lower Burma and also holy relior
of the Buddha, Learnod monks oamo to reside
in the domi:rion of Anawrahta from this tirno
(i bi d. 77 tr.).
Shin Arahan livod for a fairly long poriod, for
ho rs&s tlre adviser of Anawratrta's succosaorl
I{yanzi ttha (I08f If 12) and Al aungsi thu(I I12-67).
Tho Shwezigon pagoda bogun by Anawrahta wan
complotod by Kyanzittha on hie advico (ibid.
I08 f.). Ile died in the reign of Alaungsithu
(ibid. llg). In the Ananda temple of Pag6n ir
a life-sizs im"go of Shin Arahan (D. G. E. Hall,
A Hiatory of Soulh East Aeb, l2g).
II. R. P.
ARAHAN CEREIIIONY, a ceremony lbr showing
r:gverancs to arhate.
On the origin of this ceremony tbe Uu-ttu-
t'ung-chi (6mHff3e ?oochd, No. 2036) montiou,
that, at his paruurvaam ths Buddha totd tho
PL,\T}] IIJ
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\blt cou,rtesu oJ the Archaological I)eparttnCnt ol the Iktolrrli.onary Goternmevl rtf llnt Aniott, of Brtrnta,)
ARAHAN, port rai t , f i grt re of Shi rr Ara, harr i n Arranda, Tcrnpl c, Pagi i n, I Jurrna.
-l- m
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i i
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Sj-,'*
5 s. P, L' . 984 20
PLATE I V
'",'
':;l 16;
APSARASES, s,ppoa,ri ng
as mural pai nti ng on si gi ri Rock, coyl on.
(reproduced
Irom
the Art and Arch-itcthtre of India b11 Benjamin Routkrnil, ltt;6
APSAFASES, a r el i r . f i n Ar r gl i or Wr i t , f Ju, nr t r odi a.
ARAHAil CEREMOI{Y 4l ARAEANT
sixLeen srhnts to beeome true fields of merits
(punya-ksetro,J f-or their devotees. Accordingly,
oll orhuts prolonged the length of their life with
thoir supernatural power. And they made peoplo
grve offerings to the monks and went to m&ny
places and temples, whero they reCeived offorings,
without revoaling their holiness in order to heve
the donors obtain splendid rosults (Toish6, Vol. 49,
p. 3I 9) .
In China, the araban ceremony was porfornrod,
from oltlen times mainly by the Ch'an seat.
T?re Ching-t6-ah'u.an-ting-lu (fiffi{Sffiffi Tahld,
IIo. 2076) ment'ione tbat Ts'ui-wei Wu-hsiieh of tho
T'ang dynasty showed great honour to erhats.
Then, a priest asked him,
'Why
do you rovere
arhate, tvhon Tan.bsia burned a wooden
i-age
of
the Buddha ?' IIe anewered,
'Tan-hsia
burnod e
Buddho i*age but ho did not cling to tho buraing;
I revere arhats but I do not sling to tho act of
rdverence' (i bi d. Vol . 51, p. 3I3). And the Mi -on-
ho-shon4-yii-Iu (fri$fif8eFffi Taiah6, No. tggg)
stat€e that arahsn ceromonieg are performed with
a8 much entbueiasm at prosont as in the past
(ibid. Vol. 47, p. 967). These are indications tbet
srah'n ceromonics have been held in China.
In Japan, the srahen ceremony has been
pertbrmod at many temples eincc tho l(arnelmra
per i od ( 1184- i 383 A. C.
) .
Ei sai ( 1141- 1216) ,
the foundor of the Rinzei eect in Japan, wroto
irr his work, K6ze.n-gnle6ku-ron
tfiilFilItslffit,
rhat, ho porformorl the arahan ceremony et
the b ginni:lg of evory January and mede thig
cr:r€rlrorry also a monthly ovent. Koben (1173-
li32), the reetorer of the Kogon (Aaataryd.kd,)
:'ectr eomfiessfl
'the
mothod of porforming the
u,ireruorry lor the sixteen arhats' (J'fr,roku-rakan-
;:oshik'i *'ltffif;ffi*), according to which he
perfbrmed f,hs {r,r&tlrn ceromony at tho l(6zan.ji.
T)ri l i rrg tl re secorrrl year of the Kangon er& (12+4
' ! C.), Ki kai , eno of the di sci pi os of I(Obon,
t-orrstructed the Rakan-d0 or araban-hall in
reruerubf&nce of tho thir[eelr.fh anrtiversary of
ri.e death of his toacher I{6ben. and had three
pri esr"s stay i n the hal t. Kei zan (1268-132b A.C.)
nerlbrmed tho arahsn ceremony at the EikO-3i
i i uri ng the fi rst year of the Gena6 era (1319 A.C.)
lor t'be lirst timo, and established the coromonial
:uethod, Afterwarde he performed the drahan
..rrr.rooD$
on tbe flftoenth day of every monttr.
^{i th6 T6-fuku-ji in Ky6to, when the ff.fty scrolls
:a wtr.ich flve hundred arhats were picturod were
.
-gieted, tlee graLsn
cerern.ony w*s perfOrned
r Ocl ober ol the thi rd year of the Shi toku era
(1386 A.O.), when i t was deci ded to revere arhats
at the Shusho ceremony which ig held il January
el'ery yo&r.
K. ' I r an.
ARAEAHT. The word is dorivod from tho root
orh, to deserve, to be worthy, to be flt, and isr uaod
to denote I porson who has achieved the goal of
roligioue life (in Theravdda Buddhig6)"
This word is not purely Buddhistic in origin.
In t'he earliest stagos; and prior to ite achieving a
technical meaning in Buddhism, it wao ueed to
describe a porson of higb standing not necessarily
on spiritual or moral grounde. Thus in ttro
Sg-
ueda (II, 3. 3) the god Agni is so describ€d. Tho
Sotaptna Brdhmano ug€s thie term probatrly in
the eeng€ of ruler when it etatos that
,.
whe.aever
people cook food for some worChy
Ilerson
(arirant)
then the attendante 6!qut
hirn,
the non_nryal
Li..g-makors,
the horalds and headmen, hevo thoir
share ass{g"ed to thom
"
(f. B. Ifornor, fluilg
Budd,hist WEorv of Man Perfr)ad, p. 64). But
moetly the term was usod to deecribe roligioua
lerders who wore considored to bo greetly edvaaoed
spiritually, particularly of noligigus temherg othor
than ortbodqy fuiFhynnnr. orre of the epithete of
Vordba,mdna Mab6vire, the founderof Jainisn, was
orlnt (BBE. XXII, p. xix). Tlro Bul,:Jhe, too, wag
roferred to by thi. epithet whon the general publio,
includ
i.
g non-Budd hists, qroke ebout h irn (e.g., D.I1
49). Religioue ioaders as well ae their
diroiples
who took to the roligious life in the dirpensation
of their particular teaohers, depeaded aolely oa the
genorosity of the public for their eust€nanee
end
the virtuous ones srnong thom were considersd
Ba
'worthy'
to rscoive honour, salutetious
end
gifts from tho publio. Groat competition
eoorDa
fo bavo exiated smong ascetio gtoupg in their desire
to gain the title orahi (:worthy)
from tho public,
In the C&laa-tlnnil.a
Sutn (M. I,03) wo see ths
Buddhe adrnonishing his disciples to procleim
without fear that'roal reclurrce worthy of honour
are found only in
his
Order.
In its usege in early Buddtrism the torm donotee
e person who had gained insight into the true nature
of tbings (yathobhilafrar.w|. l-n the Suddhist move-
ment tho Buddha was the firnt arahant. Ilo was
rogardod aB an arahant, along with other erahants,
without any distinction. Thue, aftor the conversion
of ths group of five monk.s
\pafreoaaggi,ya),
tlne
{irst converts to tho teechinlgs of Gotama, it is
statod that there wore six arahants in'the world
at tbe time ( Yin.I, l4), the Buddha being rockoned
one of tbem At the outsot, on,co au edhorcau
ARAEAT{T
42 ARAEANT
re&lised tho true nature of things, i. e', that whatevor
h*s arisen (somrtfuya-dlwnmol
naturally has a
ceasrng-to-be
(niroilha'dlwmma'1, he was called an
ara'hant, and with this realisation ono is said to
heve put an end to repoated existence. The Buddha
ie Bsid to be oqual to an arahant in poinr' of attain-
mont,
the only distinction being that the Buddha
was tho pioneer on tho path to thet attainrnont,
while arahents are thoso who attain the same
state having followed the path trodden by tho
Buddba.
The arahants are described as buil'dhdnubuddhd,
i.o., those who havo attained enlightenment after
the Fully Enlightened One (Thag- p. f f I)' This
is brought out very clearly by a simile in the NirIQn'a
SorTryutta
(S. II, f05-6)' A man goiug about in
the forpst soes &n old road used by the people
of yore and, going along it, he sees the remains of
an old kingdom. IIe comes back to the town and
telle the people that in such and such a forest he
had soen tho ruins of a rnagnificent city, and tho
people, too, following the road-marks indicated by
the m&n como to the ruined city and seo it for
themselves. Even so the Buddha was the pioneer
on tho Noble Eightfold Path
@rtyo-a4lh'ahgilca'
nqgal a,nd having followed this path ho reached
tbe city of Nibbaua. Lalor, coming amidst tbe
poople ho revealod this path to them, and following
thie path they, too, abtarned the goal of Nibb6na'
In this rerpect the Buddha as well as his disciples
follow the s&mt prrfih and roach the same goal,
and ttro distroctiou botwoen the Buddha and the
disciples who become arahants is not wi$h rogard
to the attninrnent, but with regard to the fact
thst tho Buddha rediecover€d the age'old path
(,proqnm afijasoml to ths city of Nibb6na, while
the disciples come to the same city having followed
tho path tiiscovered by the Buddha. Tha Buddha
is, therefore, ealled the revealer of tho path
(ntagguao oktch.df'd'). I{o is tho teacher (sctr;id) who
toachos the disciplos to attain the same ideal
as attained by him.
But, &s time passod, the Buddha-concept
developed and special attributes were assigned
to the Buddha. A Buddha posgesses the sixfold
euperknowledge
(chalnbhifr'rtq; ho has matured tho
thirty-soven limbs of enlightenrnent
(boilhipakkhilco
illnmma\; in him compassion
(ka,runi'l and insight
(pafrfra) develop to their fullest
;
all the naajor
antl minor charaeteristics of a great man(mnhi'ptt'riso)
appear on his body; he is possess€d of the ten
powors (da,so balal and tho four confidonces (colz
vend,rajja); and ho has had to practise the ten
perfeotions
(pdramdt'dl during a long period of
time in tho past (seo s. v. BUDDIIA).
When speaking of arahants these attributes
&re never mentioned together, though a pa*icular
arahant may have one, two or more of the attributes
discussed in connection with tbe Buddha (,S. fI,
2L7, 222\. In the Niddna Samyutta (,S. II, 120-6)
e group of bhikkhus who proclaimed their attain-
mont of arahantslrip, when questioned by their
colleagues about it,, denied that they had developed
the five kinds of superknowledge-namelv, psychic
power (idd,hi-aidhti), divino ear (ili,bba,-sol,o), krow-
Iedge of others' minds (paraci,tta-uijd,nana), power to
recall to mind past births (pubbeniad"sd,nussati,) and
k''owledge
regarding other peoples' rebirths (cutil'-
papatti)-and declared that they had attainod
aralrantship by developing wisdom (pafr,iidai,mutti\.
An attempt is made in the Nikdyas as woll as
in later works to define tho content of the attain-
ment of arahantship. The commonest and one
of the oldest, definitions of an arahant is that he'
has in him the thr,.'efold knowledge (tis.so ui;ija),
namely, knowledge of his own previous births,
knowledge of the rebirths of others and knowledge
regarding the utter cessation of mental intoxicants
(dsouaklchayafr,ana). Most of the poems in the
Thera-, Therl,-gathd"s end with tho statement " The
threefold knowledge have f attained and I have done
the bidding of the Buddha" (ti,sso uijjd, a,nuppatt6,
kato\nbuddhassa sd,sanaryt,: o.g., Thag. p. 9). Other
definitions of arahantship &re : " Arahants aro
those in whom the mental intoxicants (dsauo\
are utterly waned " (khl,r.td,saud, arahatrto .' S. f, l3);
oue becomes an arahant by the utter waning of
lust, hatred and ignorance (S. IV, 252); arahants
are thoso who have cut off completely the ton
fetters (samyojana) that bind a man to sarps6ra
(Vin. I, 183); an arahant is ons in whom seven
things, namely, belief in a soul (sakkd,ya-ilitthd),
sceptical doubt (aicdkicchd), holief in vows and
coremonies (selabbatapard,mdsal, greed, hatrod,
ignorance and pride aro not found (A. IY, 145);
he is one who has crossed tho sea of sar.ns6ra (pd,ragtrl.
Ths word arahant is dofined in a fanciful way in
some places.
p61
instance in the Majjhinw Ni,lcdyo
(I, 280) it is said that an arahant is so called because
all sinful evil things are remote (drokol from him.
T}ae Yi,rndnaaotthu Al.thakatha (105-6) definos the
term in the following words: "An arahant is so
called becauso he is remote (draka) from sinful
thirtgg; becauso he has destroyed the spokes (aro)
of the wheel of sar.nsdra
;
bocause he deservss to
receive the requisites : fo od, clothin g, etc. (pancog drwm
arolwtti\, and becauso he does not sitx ovon in socret
(roludbh.d,uo).
The attainmont of arehantebip is expressed in
sovoral formulas of which tho commonesi ono at5rs
ARAHAT{T
'destroyed
is rebirth, lived is the hiqher life. done
is whot had to be done, after this preeent life there
i s no beyond' ( V, i n. I , 14, 95, l 8B; D. f ,
g4) .
The
declaration itself is called
',the
declaration of
knowledge
" (afi,iid, bgd,lcorana: M. III, Zg). The
Buddha has indicated a method of verifying the
trlth of a disciple's statement when he declares
that he has attained arahantship. A few questions
have to be posed to him and if he answers them
correctly then only should
he be taken at hie word..
The first question is with regard to the four con-
ventions (ca,ttdro v9hi,rd,). A true arahant doee
not, feel attracted to or repelle{ by things soen
(di(tha), heard (suta), sensod (muta), or cognised
(tif,fi,ata)
and ho is indepondent, not infatuated,
and dwells with an open rnind, &nd thus his mind
is rvell freed with regard to the four conventions.
The next question is connected with the fivo sggr€-
gates of grssping (upadirwkklnr?dlw).
The true
arahant understands their nature as depondontly
originated, and he is detached from thom, and all
the latent biases that aris€ through attachmont,
to them are destroyed in hirn. The third quoetion
is regarding tho six elements (illfitul.
A truo
arahanthas no notions of
'
I
'
or
'rnine'with
regard
to these elements and all biasee that crop up through
attachment to them &ro completoly- eradicated
in him. The fourth question ie connocted with
the internal and external eenee sphercs (ajjlratti,ka,
bdhi,ra-ayatana,\.
The mind of a truo arahant is
freo from attachment, desire that is born of these
sense spheres, tho consciousness born thereof aud
the things tbat a,re known through tho medi
'rn
of thie consciousnose, The fifth question
relatos tn the vision and insiglrt through which
all latent biaees such a,s
tI'
and
'mino'
aro com-
pletely
cut off. A truo arahant should be able
to reveal how he attained Buprome knowledge,
that is that ever5rthing
has an origin, a cauBo to
its origination, a cessation and a way that leads
to its cessation, through which his mind becomes
free from thirst for serrso pleasure, becoming and
ifnorance (iW. fII, 29-37).
The dieciplino of a Buddhist monk is aimed at
the attainment of ara,hantehip. Thoro aro four
distinct stagee of attainrnent as on6 pursuos tho
,lisciplino from the beginning, namely, the states
of the stream-ent,ra,nL (aotdTtonnrt),
fln6 once-returner
r.saka.digamd),
the nol-netumer (andgfimi) and the
arolwnt. A disciple by attaining the state of a
stream-entr&nt does Bway corrpletely with the
mentsl intoxicent (dsaaal
of falss views (dilthi)
And ths into$06nts of lust (kdm,a\,
becoming
rbil'cl.tal and ignorance (aaijja) which produce
Lirth in low statee (apdAa)-
By atraining the
ARAHANT
state of a onco-returner he does Bway with
mental intoxicants connected with gross (oldrihal
sense pleasuree and Bome moro cankgrs of bocoming
and ignorance. By attaining tho state of a non-
returrrer a disciple completely puts an ond to all
mental intoxicants connected with eonso pleaouree
and also further alleviatos the cankers of becorning
and ignorance. By becoming an erehsnt a disciple
completely puts an end to all mental intoxicants
connected with becoming and ignorance (Pa. I, 94).
In the Mahale Sutta (D. f, 156-7) e cloarer and
moro precise description of the four attainmente is
given. According to it ono becomes I Btream-
entrant by overcoming thlee fetters (eamyojorml,
n&mely, belief in an enduring entity (sokkii,yd,ifihil,
doubt regarding the Buddha; the Dharnms and
the Sanghu (uhikiccfta) and belief rn the effieacy
of :mere rule and ritual (si,l,abbalapa,rdmd,sal.
Ono
becomes & once-returner by dirninighing lust,
hat'red and illusion (rdga-il,osa-nwlw) in addition
to overcoming tho three earlier fetters, and
guch
a trcurg returns to thirr world once only and pute
a' end to the procegs of birth and death (aar.nsdrol.
Ono bec:'mea & non-returner by ov€rcorning the
first five of tho ten fettors which belong to tho
sphere of the sonsos (pafioa oramblfigi,ydni tqrya-
jannni),
i. e., sonsuous dosiro (kA,nncclmnfu) and
ill-will (Wdp,ad,al L. addition to the three fettore
mentiorred in eonneetion with the etream-ontrent
and the once-returner. One becomes an anahq.nt
by conopletely doing &wey with all mental intori-
cants (daaudrwm
khayd) having attainod the ornenci-
pation of heart (eetnui,ntutti,) and emancipation
thlough wiedom (pafrfiauim,utti).
The disciple who undertakes to pursue the peth
to the attainrnent of arahantship has to follow a
graduated procoss. Arahantship ie the result of
understanding tho true nature of things (yfuld-
bhfut{r) and one can Eeo the truo naturo of things
only through a non-prejudiced mind. To develop
a non-prejudiced mind one has to develop conc€n-
tration of the mind, and this is possible only by a
disciplined mind. So the process starts with tho
practice of virtue (sZla) whiclr leads to concentrstion
of the mired (sonaoihil which ultirnately resulte
in true wisdom (pufrfia). In the Deuotd, Samyu,tfu
(.1'. I, 13) a deity asks the Buddha how a persou
disentangles the tanglo of eernsdra and the Buddha
replies that, a wise man, establiehed fi.rmly on virtue,
concentrates his mind and develops true wisdom
by which ho clisentangles the tangle of sar.neer'6
fn several suttas we ffnd detailed descriptionr
of how a disciple initiates hirnsslf into the dis-
pensa.tion of the Buddha arrd
Fraduallv
followe up
43
ARAEANT
44 ARAHANT
tbo path. A son of a noblo family (lculoputta)
ligtens to the Dhammb preachod by the Buddha
and begets confideneo in him and decides to follow
his teaching. Ile entere the Order of monks,
thereby cutting hirnsolf awey from all femily
bonds and making himsolf free from all activities
that keep a la5rman occupied. Ile rofrains from
sinful activities such as haming life, stealing,
uttoring faleohood, back-biting, slandering etc.
and cultivates positivs virtuos such as loving and
pitying all beings, spoaking gentle and kind words,
speaking the truth etc. Ilo guarde the doors of his
sonses so that hie mind is not distracted when
objects of s€nsation como in contact with tho sonse
faculties. IIo is always alert and mindful with
rogard to all his activitios. I{e lives content with
whatovor he gets by way of food etc. Wrtan ho
has cultivated theso virtues his mind is read.y to
embark on concentration. IIe retires t'o a lcrnely
spot in the forest or noar e mountain cave and
sits in a befitting posture to concentrate his rnind.
Ee now Burveys his mind and cleanses it of all
shortcomings and eoes to it t+hat all fivo hindra,nces
to mental cultivation (ni,aara4,al, namely, cove'bow-
neas (abhdjjlfi), ill-will (tyapdd,a\, sloth and
torpor (thEnamiddln), worry and flurry (udil,h'ncca-
hukkucco| and doubt (tti,ciki,cchn) are compl,etely
dono away with.
When he sees himself completely freted of all
these hindr&ncos, he bocomes delighted (p'amujjal
and this in tum loads to
joy
{pl,ti,)
and thirs makes
his body tranquil (paaeadd,ha) end he oxperiebces
happiness and his mind bocomes conc€)ntreted.
Now he proceeds frorn the first ocet&ay (jhfrrwl
gredually up to tbe fourth. When t'he rnind
ie
brought to a high state of concentratiion in this
marmor, in it could bo devoloped tho sixfold
Lnowledge (see ABEINNA), the six'ch being the
L''owledgo
of tho utter destruction of mental
intoxieants (d.eoaalckhaga-ftdr.ta).
'!l'hon
the
disciple has doveloped the knowledgo of tho uttor
deetruction of these eankers ho has completoly
rmderstood the truo nature of things and for him
there will be no more becoming*he isr an arahant
(.D. I, 62-84). Tho arahant is also ctrlled asekha,
(g. v.) because his training is eomplote.
ft should bo stated that this peak of mental
culturo c&nnot be reechod quickly. One has to
cultivate virtues for a considerable lerrgth of time
in order to elean tho mind of its ]atent biases. The
various methode adopted to purify the mind also
vary &ccording io the character of tho individual
eoncorned. There are several types of characters
discussed in this respect, namely, the passion
dominated m'an (rdgo-carita), the ill
-rrill
dominated
man (doso-carito), the ignorancs dominated man
(moha-cariic), tho faith dominated man (sa.dd,hd''
carita,), the intelligence dominated man (buddhi-
cardta\ and the refloction dominated rnan (uitakka'
carin). The detaiis of the training differ according
to the character of the'individual (Vi'sm. p. 82).
Though it is generally accepted that the path to
tho attainment of arahantship is a graduated one,
thero are instances of people who attained arahant-
ship without following all the details, for instance,
Suddhodana, Khemd,, Maha Aritlha and meny
others wbo attained arahantship even before they
entored the Order of monks. There is recognised
a type of arahants called tho sukka^uipassaka an.d
if we accept the view t'hat suklea stands fot sud'd'ho
(pure or mere) the term then donotes ihose who
attain perfection without over having attained
any of the mental absorptions (ihdrn). The
Vhudilhimagga (ch. xviii, 503) calls such persone
tuddlw-uipacsani,-ydni,lco a,s distinguished Jrom
those with " tranquillity as vehicle " (samalha-
yd,nika). T\o Mi,li,ndapafi,ha (&sl. 2, 254) disrcus-
sing this problem says "thero is no realisetion of
arahantship in ono single life without keeping of
the vows. Only on tho utmoet zoal and the most
devoted practice of righteousness and with. the
aid of a suitoble teacher is the realisation of
arahantship attained." It would thus not bo
incorrect to say that the Theravdda view regarding
arahantship is that the practice of virtue is essential
and that evon those who follow the suditrha-aipassanfr-
gdno can do so because thoy have practisod tho
virtues io previous births.
Lay llle 8nd srshanhhip. Though there aro
ma,ny instanoes of persoru a,t't'a,ining spiritual
devolopment up to the thrrd stage of non-returaer,
inetancos
are not many of individuals attaining
arahentship while yet being lay'mon. Yaea attained
arahantship while being a layman, but ho, too,
entered tho Order immediatoly aftorwards ( Vdz. I,
15-20). Khemd,, chief of the Buddha's womou
disciples, attained arahantship before she entered
tho Order, but she entered tho Orderwith tho
congent of her husbend Bimbisdra, protrably on
the same day
ghngA.
f26 f.). Srrddhodana, tho
father of the Buddha, attained araharrtship a
iittle while beforo his death (DPPN. s.v. Suddho-
dana). Tho Mahd'uamsa (ctwp. xvi, l0-ll) records
that fifty-five brothers headed by the chief ministor
Mahari-tlha attained arahantship in the tonsure
hall, while their heads were boing sb&ved prior to
being admitted into the Order. In the Kathiuotthu
(157-6) the questi on whether a l ayman can become
an arahant is discussed. The point maintained
ARAEAI{T 46
ARAHAT{T
in it iE that wba! mut,tonr is not the external charac-
teristice of & rccluse or s layman, and thar enybody
rr'ho ie lree lroru th.o sr.ental fotters nud iives a
life of complete renunciution could attain arahant-
uhip. I(ing Milinda, tr-io, rrraint,*ins this viow
anrl rluotes the following words of tbe tsriddha:
" I would magrrif,v, O brethren, the supremo attain-
men0 eitlr.er in r.r, laJrman or in a rocluse. Whether
he bo a la5rman. 0 brethren. or & recluse, tho man
who has reaclred the eupre.rno trttuiunent sherll
overcorrro all tho diffrculties inherent thoroin, ebell
win his w&y even to tlre excellent conrlition of
araharrtshi p" (M' i l n. trsl ., SBl q. vol . 36, p. 56),
but so far this statement has not heen traced in the
Ti,ptr,laka. fn the Mildnda,pafi,ha. (ibicl. p. 57
i
again, a question is posed as to why & porsorl should
entet tho Order if la5rmen, too, could attain arahant-
ship. In reply it is shown that facilities and
opportunities for cultivating the mind ere greater
if one eniers the Order, since monka ere not bound
up with duties of laymen such s,s earning to maintain
onoself, wife and children and looking after the
needs of relstivee. In ths Subka Sutta
{M"
II, lg7)
tbe Buddha says that a porsoa, whother he bo e
laSrrnan or a rscluee! who loade a virtuouu life,
ever striving to clqanse the mind sf irnpuritiee,
would progreee in the peth to liberation.
'I'hera
ie e current lmlief Brnoug the tsuddhiets
uf Coylou thet when e laSrman ettaine arahautsliip
he should enter th6 Ordcr tlro eemo rlny or eieo ho
would die before tho end of that day. N6gaserne,
too, rioufiruru this viow (MiIn" trsi. pt. 2, 96). It ig
rliffcult to trace from canonical sourcee any €\ridence
t,o Bubets,ntioto this view. The idea developed,
prohably, from the fact tlrat, somo laymen who
attained erohantship joined
the Order immediately
after, rrnd sorno trttained arahantship a little
*lril.: L.:f.ro tlr,oi. .le,rth.
Again, if we examine tho connotation
of the
word aruigdnr.i (non-rotur:rer
to ihe m$teriel worlcl)
lr$ obtoin moro evidence to support the view
th*l, arahantrhip ie attainablo outside tho Order of
nl(rnkg, If an andg6,mi doee not attain arahantship
in that very exieternce, he will pass ewey and will
be rebom &mong tho Suddhd,vd,sa deities, whero
he will put,
en end to reiteroted existenoe ieee
ANAGAMIN
).
Women Bnd arshantship. Ihe lluddha placed
women orr a psr with men in the capacity of develo-
ping tho mind to the higheet, level.
.A
few yea,re
after the inauguration cf the Order of monks, an
Ordor of nu_D,s, too, was set up with Mahapajapati
Gotami, the Buddhs's foster-mother,
as ths firet,
recruft (a. v. MAttAp,t.lAf,,ttl COTAMI). The
Yinaya Pi,laka contains a section of speciel rulee laid
down for the guidance
of bhikkhunis. As is obviour,
the purpose of tho religious iifo is to attain arahput-
ship.
.W'omen,
lile men, entered the Ordor in ordsr
to roaiise this state. Nowhero in Budrthiqt litetature
do we como acroag statements 6sn6unging the
capacity of women to develop tbeir minds, snd.
in this respect no distinction is shown botwoen
rnen &nd women. T\o Ther-r,gd."thdis full of
instencee
of thoris who had attained arahantehip (e. g., Thi,g.
pp. 126, I29, l 3t etc.). M6' ra once attompted to
dissuade Som6, a theri, f19p
gf,ls,ining
arahantehip
sBying t,hat she with littls brains could not ospire
to attain a noble etate atteined by sages with high
montal
liowers.
Som6's reply was that if the
ynind
is properly cultivated so as to develop true lrnow-
ledge by which one u:aderetands the real
gtato
of
things, womanhood is no barrier to the attainment
of arahe.ntetlp (Thtg. 129). Mrs. Rhyn Devids in
the Introduction (p. xxiv) to her transletion of the
Tharigdfhn states that the instnnssg of thErla
declaring their ettainment of arahantship 8ro mor€
in the Therigdthd than of monkB doing so in the
Theragathd,.
Arahants snd $oclety. Whon we study the lilo-
history of the Buddha as well as thoso of
hin
chief
disciples who wore arehants, it becomes abundantly
eleer tbat the Buddhs did not oxpect his diaoiplec
to forsake rociety altogether, before or after the
sffsinment of arahant"hip. During a poriod of
forty-five yearB the Buddha was buay domg
missionary work among tbo poople. Tbo botter
part of his dey wae spent in golng ebout and
mooting peoplo and teaching them how to lead
better livos.
'W'hstr
bo mot p€oplo be did ad
alwaye Bpeek to tbom about the minry of lifo.
When he met s;dinnry p€ople he admoniehod
ther:o to rofrain fmm anti-nooial aotivitis and to
de f,hings which are for the bmedt of the m4ny
(D" Ilt, f8O-93). Whon he met kirgs 61d
higher
mjlisters he spoke to them of wa5rs and means of
good government,
which would r€sult in ths heppi-
nese of all concemed. When he came aor'ogs poople
who w€no grievad by varioug
'nisforturxos,
ho
spoke worde of comfort to them
ghrgA.
f08-f7).
When he cnyno &croBa crirninale he preOched to
reform them for tho bonefit of tbe criminals ag
woll as for tho bonofit of society (TlwgA.III, 5&64).
IIe spoke of the duties of childron towards their
parente and nlca ncrlo, of tho dutioe of a vife
towards hor husband and thos€ of e hrubaud
towards hie vrife, and ho also spoke of the mutual
duties of all people for the better end umoother
run:ring of sogiety. When he
gathor.ed
round him
ARAEA}TT
46
ARAHANT
his first Broup of disciples, sixty in nurnber ancl
ell of them arahents, he dispersed them in all
directions asl<ing
^rhem
to pleach the Dhamrrra f<tr
t ho wel f ar e of t he mar r v ( l ' i n. l
,
2l
) .
Cl , i ef
di sci pl es l i ke Sdri putta. l l oggal l ana, KaecE varra
and other.s, fbl l owi ng the exampl e of the tsucl cl ha,
sporrt al l thei r l i r-es i n v,orki ng for the spi ri tual
upliftment of the rnaises. I'he Buddha ri,s well
as hi s di sci pi e-. l i ved i n srtr,i ety, l :ut tl i ev were not
of soci etv. TheS' l i ys.l i i ves of compl ctc renl l n-
ei ati on, though they deperrrl ed on the gener.osi ty of
the public for their sustenance, arrd worked for their
spiritual upliftment.
,Iheirs
s,as a disinterested
service. The life of a tnro cliseiple of
*,he
Budclha
i s compared to a l obus i n tbo pond (-4. II, 3g ; Sn.
p. l 0l ). The l otus bud grows i n the mucl i n the
pond, i s nouri shed i n i i , but, i t grows through the
water, eomes above the surforret, blossoms out.
and is untouched
b5r the rvaior. Likewise the
disciple rlevelops
into & firilv-awakened
m&n,
while being in eoeiety, brit he is rrot bound by the
fetters of soeial iife. lle is rrol carried awav by
what takee place in it. fn the lIuhrlm,aigalq,
Sutta
(Sn. G-7) it is strid ilur,t if one ciln stand. unmovecl
(citta,m
Stct^esco
rw kompati) when affected l;y the
tbinge of the woricl (phutllwssu
lokadharrr,nteln)
iL
would be a great blessing.
Though such i s the general atti tuCe of a di sci pl e
towards sor:iety, we see a pai.allel
d.eveiopment
in Bome toxte adrnonishing
the true sage
(muni :arahant)
Lo steer cl ear of s,rci ety and make
a quick escape l-rom sarns6,ra. Society is depieted
as a very evi l pl ace, ful l of vi ci ous peopl e, the
hannt of all vilos, and he,nce the mu,ni
ghould
have nothing t,r do with it. -tfe shoulcl wander
about all alone, far away from society, likc the
rhi noceros (,Sn.
pp. 6-l Z).
The lffahd,ydnists
put forward the ideal of tlie
bodhisati;va-a
being dedicated to the serviees of
humanity, probably
&s a protest
against this
development.
1,V.G.W.
As time went on the ward. arhat, which is
the Sanskrit form for the Pali a,reh,,i, arahant,
wa,s gradually
replaced t'y the v,ord ,4rdualcct
and in iater liter&ture, e.g., the fuIaltd,aryrdpatti,
it seems to have disappeared
ahogether,
especially
in referenee ta bod,hi or enlightenment.
A:ed, the word, ird.aalco seems to be used in a dero-
gatory
sense, similar to hina-yd,/ro, in&smuch as
,4rrfurL,kq,.g
mereiy heard t,heir teachers ancl followed
thei r rul es, though someti mes; they themsel ves
wero preachers. ,9rathka-bod,hi
c*rne to bc, usod
&s a rrvnonym of ni ruana as the i deal of the arhat.
Thus, a contrast c:l me to bo establ i sher.L betwoerr
the arhtt, who is content with mer€! Nrn,d,na,
the cessation ol tine tiiraua.s, and the boclhisattva
rvhose ideal is suprerno tl,nd perfcct errlightenment
l u.rtuttarct,-samyak-santbotl hi ). Sanskri t rrri ters fre-
qrrentl v coml rare rr,nri uontrast the two i deal s,
evi,n the highest form of' Nirvfr,na ilttained as a
irauctlca (arltat\
tieing consiciered inferior t,o the
sant,borJlti atta,ined by a badhisattua. fn an interes_
ting ptrssage of tlrc Satusdha.srika-,;prujiiri-paramita
(pp.
l l 90-l ) i t i s sa,i rl ti i rrt i re
-*rho
tri es to persuade
a man to be ccrntent wi th the stage of a i rd,ztaka i s
a brrrl frierrcl (pugtu,.rni.tra)
and is d.oine the work
of the Evi l
()ne
(nrtl rakannary,i ).
The entire sixth chapter of the
Sadd,harmn-
Wndari ka
i s devoted to an el aborati on of the i dea
tha,t the mcst eminent of the Sakyamuni's
dis_
ciples including K66yapa, Mahakdt5zdyana
and
Ilaudgaly6va,rra
who havo won fame as arhats,
shoul d conti nue thei r spi ri tual devel opment ti l l
they attai n Buddhahood.
The conrl i ti on
of Ni r-
vdna wlrich they
have attainerl as arhats, is repre_
sented as bel ongi ng to a l ower stage.r fn another
chapter (the 8th), the i nadequacy
of the ol cl i deal
of Nirvana is set forth in a speech whir:h the 500
arhats (see below) addressed to the Sd,kyamuni
:
" We conl'ess ortr transgrossions,
Lorcl. lVe havs
al ways anu at al l ti mes thought t,hus :
.Thi s
i s
our' final Nirvd,na
;
we are finally released.'
Wo
havo been foolislr and unv,ise, we have not known
tbe right way. A:ed why ? Because we have beon
content with this sort of inferior knowledge, whereBs
rve should havo acquiretl perfect enlightenment
througl r the knowl edge of the Tathagatas.' ,
And
further on, they are made to say :
,,' We
i magi ned
that we had been l i berated through the stage of the
arhat. We can harclly be said to live inasmueh
as
we aro satisfied
with such inferior knowledge.
But our aspi rati orr for the knowl edgo
of the Omni s-
cient One has never: wholll- perished.
Anrl the
Tathdgata, Lord, teaches us :
,O
nonks, do not
t hi nk t l r at t hi s i s Ni r vd, na . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . Havi ng
been taught thus, we hrlve today received the
prediction about our supreme, anrl perf'ect enlighten_
rnent. " The Sadd,harmapurSdariha s&vs quite
categori cal l v
that al l arhats, who have d.estroyed.
the 6Sravas, must go futther anr-l seek the supremo
sambodhi .
I, In. the gradation
of,
!he,
bhiln[ or stages of the bodb;_
sattvs' s_ career, the bodhisrittva in tris sixln- stage is-nride
the oquivelent of au arlurt.
ARAEAI{T
47
ARAgAilT
The MahEydnists Bccuse the arhut of eelfishnoss
trecause
he strives only fbr his o\pn liberation from
aorrow instead
of working for t,ho liberation and
happiness of all beings. They exert themsolves
only for tlreir own completelrlirvdnn (dttut-pa,rinir-
tfr,ru,-hetch : Sclm,p. p, 7b). The Srdvakas think
only of their own good (eurirtha, : Mahd,yu,na,siltrd,-
I,ahkd,ra, 53.4). The arhat s&ves no one but him-
self. IIo is like one confined in a dungeon, who,
baving found a, w&y of escape, hastens to set him-
self at liberty, while callously leaving his fellow. ,
prisoners i:r darkness and captivity.
The bodhisattva, on the other hand. is the
embodiment of supreme unselfishness. Ile solemnly
dedic.atos himself to the service of all beings who
stnrrtl in need of succour, suffering the most
atror:ious tortures, if necessa,ry, if thereby he
may s{rve others from pain and sorrow.
Ii, must be stated, however, th.rt this charge of
s€lfishness made against the arhat, in contrast
with the unselfishness of the bodhisattva, is not in
accordance with fact. In the first place, the con-
eept of the bodhi sattva i s not pecul i ar to Mahdyd,na.
i n the second pl ace, i t,woul d be qui te i ncorrect to
say that the arhat, as depicted in Hinaydna, is
entirely occupied with his own salvation and is
callous of the salvation and sufferings of others.
As has been stated earlier, the word a,rhat rnearts
' one
who i s worthy' and hi s worthi ness i s of a
ki nd that cannot be reconci l ed wi th any form of
=elfishness. " Even as a mother watches over her
,rnlv begotten child," says Lbe Sutta, Nipata, one
of the oldest texts of the llheravdd&, " so let his
ireart and mind be filled with boundless love for
all creatures, great and small, let hirn practise
ir,enevolence towards the whole world, above, below,
e.cross. without exception, and let him seC hi.neslf
utterl y free from al i i l l -wi l l and enmi ty." And,
another text, tho Iti uuttaka (19), savs " al l the
rleens that can be used as bases for doing right are
rot worth one-sixteenth part of the emancipation
, f the heart through l ove. That takes al l those up
:nto i tsel f, outshi ni ng them i n radi ance and gl ory.,'
.\*o selfish being could, therefore, become an arhat.
-{rhnt,ship consists in a spiritual exaltation that
:ianscends the limitations of temporal individuality.
No s-v--stem which aims at tho elimination of the
r,iienomenal ego can be accused of egoism or selfish-
TLBSS. Arhatship is the full realisation <if tho trans-
i endental self and such self-realisation is far removed
:rom selfishness and, indeed, involves self-sacrffice.
In charging the arhat, therefore, with being over-
mndful of his own dovelopmeut and salvation and
Frth igrroring tho moral and spirituul *sll-fsing of
his fellow.men, tho Mahiydniets were hardly fain
The arhat, on the other ha.d, is one who acts in
accordanco with tbe principlo that each man for:mg
part of a spiritual whole of which all his fellow_men
ano also parts and that to sarvo tbem ie to enrich
and ennoble his own higher Bolf, whilo to neglect
them would be 1e irnpoverisb
it. Even at the
lowest estirnnf,6, tho arhat is one who seoks and
attains an enlightenrnent, for hirnnelf so that
he
might subtr&ct at least himself from tho vast
burden of sonow and pain thet woighs upon the
world. Ilaving dono this, ho continuos tho good
lifo for the gain and the welfare of the many, irr
benovolent, actiwity, although it could add nothing
to the reward which he has alroady won.
After he has won arhatship, up to the time of his
death, the arhat lives wishlossly, happy and con-
tented, becauso his supreme achievemont
lsevos
no room for wishes of any kind. Accordi.g to tbo
Milind,apafi,ha (pp. 134 ff., 2b3) he is liable to sufrer
bodily pain, howover, because ho cannot control
his body. But such pain he boars with equanirnity
which nothing can disturb.
Aceording to the Therav6dine, the acquieition
of Nirvdna is final snd d6finite Bnd can nevor ogaiD
be lost. Ths Sa"''.itiyas, Vajjiputtiyas,
Sab-
batthivddins and somo Mah6s6nghikas,
howover,
held that the arhat is liable to fall awey. The
Saddhnrnwpuqtd,ari,ko (v, bg-89) speeks of the
nirvdna of the arhats ae a temporary reposo and
distinguishes it from the flnal Nirvaq.ra of the Budrrhr.
The Theravd,dins regard the arhat as being of almoet
god-like stature but tho Mah6sdnghikas
mein-
tained that he was human and ho had mony im-
perfections, €.g., that he could still be troubled
by
demons, have various doubte and bo ignorant
of
many things. Tho Andhakas said that the srhat
could bo surpassod in knowledge by others, in
opposition to tho Vibhajjavddins in whoso viow the
arhat has completo knowledgo.
The Pubba- aad Apara-seliyaa held that tho gods
of ths Md.ra group (Mdrakdyikd)
could i-po"e
plrysical impurities upon arhata (Kau. i, 2; rt,
2--4; iv, l0
;
xxii, l). In many tomplos in
Thoravdda countries figuros of arhate aro found
sculptured or p&inted on tho walls, generaily
with
the Buddha ae the central figure. Most often it ig
the two 6hief disciples of the Sd,kyamuni--SEriputta
and Moggalldna-who
&rs so ropresented..
Ia
Clr,ina, howevor, oepecially in the more important
tomplos, thers are generally to bo found two
row'B of large figrues, one along the oast, and
tho othor along the weer wall. Thoso figures,
which are nsually numbered and labellod, alro
ARAEAI{T 48 ARAEAr{T
called the eighteon Lohan, the eighteern groat
disciples of the Buddha. In Korue, in tho anoient
Buddhist tomploe, sirnils'f ffguree are to be found,
but only eixt€en in numbor. In Japan,
rinila,rly,
wo get the
gixteon
Rakan and irr Tibet the sirtocn
Sthavires, oooasionally (S€o Vol. II, Pl. V) elghteen.
Loban and Reken stand for A-lo-haa' cqrirrelcnt
of Arhan or Arhst. Ibe nrrmber rnbeequently
increaeod to five hundred. Tbo rtory of thil
devolopment is givsa in deteil in the soctioil tbot
follow
ivnmortiqtely hoeafter. (Scc elro lrtiole xvi
in tho znd psrt of Yol. YIf of frzlrrrplw &tn
Chimc Supereoit&nu by Eenri Dot{, 8. J.' f022).
The Mahiy6ne lit ta$ulo ooateinl aey aooounte
of arhats found innumercus otber worldc, espooially
in Btffiln-lcpetru (Buddha-flelds), where they
funotion as retinuot to tbe Buddhas there. In
moh oos€Gtheirnumbem are moorded by the million.
goo
BUDDEA-KFETRA.
G. P. U.
Thc Slrtcon Arhats. The sixt#n a,rhats wdt
disoiples of Sekyalnuni Buddha. Aooording to
Buddhist te:ts, tbcy were said to heva betn
atnrct€d by tho Buddhe not to mter Nirvlaa bUt
to stsy in thfu world as the obieot of worthip of ths
peoplo and the
"
feld of bless€dnoss
"
to all boing;
In anoiont tnansletionB of Buddhist soriPhret,
suoh ee i:r the Ju-b-ch'&ryJun
(AJf,t MaM-
yMa&ira-ffiEtro: To'icl6, No. fffi4) traoslstod
by Tao-t'ai of the Northera Liq-g . pciod
(397-439 A.C.), it is s8i4 "
Thero arg the lixt€€"l
gmet
grivskacr
Pi4{olabh6radv6je, nehub,
€to., Uving on the various continents' ............
pmteotrng Buddbim." Eut not ell tho
"a".es
of
tbo eix0oon erhstt
a'r,o gtvea. Boaidc thlt,
in the Mi-ln-hnilr-ebeng-ehlry
(ilOTgE
Bturr
on ttn Dcewnt of Udarcyo : Toiel6, No. 458,
a *perate oopy of the *lth faecicle of tho EkM-
gatrc), of wbioh the tmdrtc'8 nlrmo is lost, it is
seid, " trhik{u Mablkl&yapa; bhiksu Ctfdrpan.
tbaka, Shikiu Ptadolabh5redv6je and bhiksu
R6hula, you four grrot 6revakes ehould not errtsr
Nir:reaa trntil my Dhoma ia entirely extinguirhad."
ft ie elso esid in the r9lrd-ti./1r-raer<Illil
(*fl#Ftlt
Strtro
.on
tha
Qwtthu
ol Sa*g*tto: Taial6,
No. 1466) by
an
BnonJrnons trannlator of
the East€rn Tain dytarty
(3U--420 A.C.),
"
AftE
my passing ewayr the four great bhikaur Mahi-
k66yapa, PiTdolabhErud.vBje' Cd{apanthaba a,trd
R6,hula, sbould not enter Ninr6ne, but ctay ia
this world to pnopeg*te my Dharrns." Basrng
his elst€mant on this traditiou' Chih.i (638-0? A.C.)
of the Sui dyaasty remarked in hie Fa-hzn-uen-
dr{t
(*#ffu
AnnJgtilnl Studg of the Sffihor-
*vzpwfurllm
Sfutro, faeo. ii, fcdafro-, No. l7l8i
thus
'
" The Buddho ordered the four great
arhatg not to enter Nirv6ne until his
Dhnms is entiroly extinguiehod." But in ox-
plaining this pessags, Cha.a-jan (7ff-82 A.C.)
of ths T'pnB dynasty eaid in bis Eo-hue-wen-cht*
ahi (ti#{6p Notea on tt& Arwl'ytiel
BAdg ol ttu Seharnryuf4$Iko Sebru : Ta'hh6,
No. l?19),
" Aeoording to the Pn-gun-chirry
ordered sixto€n arbats to suEtein Buddhim
and not to onter NirVir,ra
gntil
the seyning of tho
nort Buddha. In that eritra the n&rnss of arhets,
tJreir piacos of rosidone€ and the numbsrs of their
followers are all fleffnitsly stated. Tbue, the holy
onee took thoir oath in tho pr€senco of tbe Buddha,
saying,
'Wo
shell diseorninal,o and uphold tbis
sritra with our supernatural pcwers and shsll not
oter Nirvdna'. Among those sixteen arhqts
Pi?dolsbhemdv6je and R6hula ero countod, but
Mab6k66yeps
is not."
Now tho Pu-yiln-chdng (R&umeglw BrZtra) has
two differsnt versior$, ths ono trsnel6tod by Man-
drarna of the Liang dynasty (606-67 A.C.) and
the other by Mandraeena and Saighap6la of the
l'm dynady. But this posasgs is formd in noither
of fhm. At, the end of the 7th faecialo of the
lrttc versinn, howev6r, we do not havo tho passage
sbout thc rooeptanco and practice of tho afftre,
whioh i! tbo nrlo eonlrnon to all sfrtras. Perbaps
tomo pa{Fagp fu missing in ths oxtant' vorsion, and
if thet ia the caso, it is difroult for us to make
ony definite ooncltrsion Atl the, oxigting terts
the sixt€€n a,rhats aro based upon
Erifa'n.t ang's tra,nalation of tber,To-o-ln-lnn-nan-
J i'mi-to
-l.o -oo -etnn -fa-chu-ohi (
* FffifrH |F;rt.ffi
fiESA Nordhwitrdcnfrrw : fais!6, No. 2030),
that is a reoord left by tho mhot Nandimitra, a
netivo of Einbala (Coylon) about oight hundred
y6ars after the Buddhe'a Nirvipa.
In tb T o-o-l,o
-lmn-tnn-t'
i-mi-to
-l,o-so-ahuo -fa-chu'
dld (N&di0mi#:dtl,&rc1 thess arhats are enu-
merated as follows: lbe first, PiT{olabh6,radv6ja,
a,nd his retiuuo of ono thoussnd arhats mortly
livo in Aperagod6nrla Continont in ths W'ost; tho
reoond, Kanakav6tsa, and his rotinus of flvo
hundrsd erhate mostly Uvo in l(e$mira in tho
North; the third, Ksnekaparidhvaja (?), and his
retinuo of six hundred srbats mostly live in Pfirva-
wideha Continent intbe Eeet; tho fourth, Subinda(t),
and his retinue of sevon bundred arbats mostly
Iive in Utterakuru .Continent in the Nortb; the fifth,
PT,ATE V
. . l i . - ! . '
".r.1
,t --"t.' ..ii 1 r,, :
' ri*:_!.4.t' ..:;.
."' i1.
'
Ci f i l i
. . ,
' h
:t:'
Y.
ij{
"iral
' : : ' t ' ' '
':\
(bg uturlrsy r{ the I'ublit Relalians Dcpartment, I'ictoria and, ilbert JIueeum. Londan)
THE BUDDHA u,ri tl l ,l te si xtei ' n grt,{ri trt' }rat,' r ryi th Hvrr-sl rang rr,nd Dl rtrr.matdl a, arr
upd8eke.
PI-AfE VI
Imago of an arhat in pottery, possibly
from & te?nple in HoPei, south of
Peki ng, Chi na, oj the Li ao-Chi n
dynaati es (l 0th-l 3th century).
(W courtpw of tlw M dtopolitan
M ueeum of A rt,
New York, t/. S. /.)
Painting of an arhat, attributed'
to l(uan'hsin
Weetern China
(832-900), knowr in Japan
Zengetsu Daishi.
(Irom the colleetion of Baron Takahathi, Tokyol
of
aa
ARAHANT
4g ARAHANT
I',iakula, and his retinue of eight hrurdred arhats
mostly live in Jambudvipa
Coutinent in the South
;
tho sirth, Bhartrra, and his retinue of nine hundred
arhats mostly live in Tamare Continent ; tho
seveuth, Karika, and his petinue
of ono thousand.
arhats mostly live in Sarr.ghata Continent; the
cighth, Vajraputra, and his retinue of one thousand
one hundred arhats mostly live in
porala
(?)
Continent
;
tho ninth, Svapaka, and his rertinue of
nine hundrod arhats mostly live rn Mount Gandha-
rnu,clana
;
the tenth, Panthaka, &nd his rotinrre of
ono thousand threo hundred arhats mostly livo
in
'I'rE,yastrinr$tr,
I{eaven : the eleventh, Rahula,
and his retinue of oue thousand one hundred
u,r'hrlt,s rrrosfllr live in Priyaigu Continent
;
the
tweliLh, N6gusona, and his retinue of one thousand
two hrrndred arhats mostly livo in Mount
Potal aka (?)
;
the thi rteenth, Ingada (?), and hi e
retinuo of one thousand three huldred arhats
mostly live in Mount Vipulapardva
;
the fourteenth,
\:anav6,si, and his retinue of one thousand fou_r
hundred arhats mostly live in Mount Vatsa (?)
;
the fifteenth, Ajita, and his retinue of one thousand
five hundred arhats rnostly live in Mount
Gfdhrakfrta
;
and the sixteonth, Cfrdapanthaka,
and his retinue of one thousand six hundred arhats
mostly live in Mount Nemindhara.
Since the translation of the Na,ndimitrdaadd,na,,
the sirteen arhats have been universally venerated
and praised by Buddhis',s. fn the existing m&nu-
scripts of tho T'ang dynasty found in the Tunhuang
Caves, there are still preserved two verses, each
,:oosisting
of eight lines of scvon characters, in
r-'raise of tho oighth Venerable One, Vajraputra,
asd the eleventh Venerable
One, R,dhula (see the
T,tn-lru.anq-tsu-clrui
trH#ffi Record, of
,
Mds-
:;iizrrcsui Pt)ndi'ngs of Tunhuang)- There is also
,, i ' , rrrk l r-rrcrwn tr,s the Shi h-l i u-ta-a-Io-han-yi n-huo-
,',in.e hien-.\uns (+^*f-JffiKERHEffi
The Verses
the Rnowled4e oJ Cau,se aruJ Efrect r$
:1-: .Si r teen &req,t Arhats), attri buted to an
' Indi an
)i ntr\i ttr8, ,Tfrana.taka' ,
but the dote <l f the trans-
.-;ion is not given. It is prefaced by l'an Chung.
-,-it:
of the Sung dyuasty, wtro said that
:i ---nq the Ch' i ng-l i peri od (1041-3) he once
;' .-: rrr T{trlung
on official duty and passed a. night
-
:i.: Tce Vrlloy l{ostelry at Paote, in presont,
-..,i :-i r
F)fovi rr(,e,
where ho di scovered thi s book
' -::-i i n
the be,rr,rns of tho o&ves, s,nd tl srstttt
.-.: :acie a monk of the Ch'errg-t'ien rnona,stery
- ;1,.
prfffectiuel
city to msks a copy of it,
..: l re$€r
sti el l ,
In 1048 Hui -ch€, I monk of
:- -:i-.r-nir. produced his copy and said that he had
! E !:.'. ,:d rt f!6m s uob.k haraed P,u-huan at Wuli:ng,
f.: :j:ai he hed treasured it for moro thsn thirty
years. This book contains seven verses spoken by
each of tho sixteen arhats to Manoratha on the
'knowledgo
of causo and effect' as they
had per,
sonally obtainod, making a total number of ll2
verses altogether. But judging
from its shallow_
ness and crudity, it is wrdoubtedly e Bpurious
work writton by eome Chinese people during tho
Sung dynaety. Nevertheless, tho production itself
is evidence for tho prevalence of the worship of tho
sixteen arhate emong the peoplo of that time.
In tho Pi-chuan-chu-l;.n (ffiW*ffi Grwe of
pm,rls
of the Secret Palane) there is preserved
a post-
script written by Chiang I{u'ei of the Sung dynasty
to a scroll of painting about the sixteen erhets
by a I'ang artist, in which these verses woqo_all
quoted. This says that fhe Shi,h-I,iu-ts-o-lo_lwn-
yin-kuo-shih-ehien-eung
(Verses on the Rnmnled,ge oJ
Cause and Efiect) was quito popular during the Sung
dyuasty.
Coneerning the pictures of the sixteen arhats,
there was a painting by Chang Seng-yu of the Liang
dynasty. as mentioned in tha Hsijan-ho-hrm-p,u
(#HfiH
Record, of Pai,nti,ngs of the Hsijan-
ho Collection fasc. II). But it is difficult to ascor
tain whether it was based on the description of tho
arhats in the Ju-ta-ch'iing-lun (Mahiud,nfraold,ra_
iastra), or on that in the Pao-giin-chi,rry (Ratnamqlw
Swtra) as mentioned by Chan-jan. We licrow,
however, that the sixteen arhats were not yet
popularly worshipped by the Buddhists during the
Liang dynasty. After lfsiian-tsang translatod
the T a-o-Io
-ha,n -rwn -t'
i
-mi -to -lo -so -
shuo
-Ja,-chu_ch,i
(Nand,im,itrauad,arw)
during the T'ang d5rnasty,
Lu Leng-ch'ieh
of the Ch'ien-yiian period.
(758.9 A.C.) had a speci al l i ki ng for depi cti ng tho
portraits of the sixteen arhats, and many of hie
works on this subject are mentioned ia bho Hsdnn_
ho-hun-p'u (Record
oJ Paintings of the Hsiinm-ho
Collection, fasc. II). The sam6 book, Vol. X,
mentions forty-eight pictures of the sixte€n arhats
by Wang Woi (70r-61 A.C.). During the Five
Dynastios tho prbductions
on this subject wero on
the increase. Illuetrious painters,
e.g., T'ao Shou-
liof the Sotrthern T'arrg (see Shih-ku-t,an4-ehu-htn-
k'ao
**Hi*E# A Research orl Cal-
I,i,graphical and Pictnriel Collecti,oru oJ Shih-ku-
t'ang, fasc. II), W*tg Chai-han of the same state
lsee
.Esrian-ho-hua-p'u:
The Recmd of
pai,rdhtge
oJ the Hsiimn-ho-Collection, fasc. IV
;
Ching-hn_shu-
hua-fa,rry HiEJ*tffi A Boat of Cailtgraphy
and Pai,nting of Ch'in4-hn, Vol. V; srrl,
pi-chuan-
chu-l,in: A Grwe of Pearla of the Secret,
patrme,
lbsc. IX), Li Sh6ng of the Earlior Shu state (seo
Hetnn-ho-hua-p'u:
The Record, o.f
painlirqe
of tlw
Hsila,n-ho Collection, fsgs. TTT),
Clraag Hstian of tbe
ARAHANT
50 ARAHAT{T
Ba,no stato (seo .H.r'r?on-ho'lwn-p'u
: The Record
of Paint;,n4s of the Hs;ia,n-ho Colleation, l'*sc. III;
Ah''ing-ho-shu-hua-Jan4:
A Boat af Caliigraphy an'd'
Po'intin4s oJ Ch'ing'ho, fa,sc. V). and Wang Tao'
ch'iu of the Wu-5nieh state (seo Shih'ku't'ang'
ehu-hua-ic'ao : A Research, on Calli,gra'phiaal an'd
Pictorial Collecti,ons
"f
Shih-ku't'ang, fasc. II)-_
all had works on this theme, and of these artists
the foremost one was l {uan-hsi n
(832-912 A' C' )
of the Earl i er Sl ru state
(see Ch"i n4-ho-shu-hua'
jon.g t A ]|oat of Catligra'phy and' P'L,inti'ng oJ Ch'ing-
ho, fasc. V; Iii-ku'lu
yEfrffi
4
Reecrd, of
Bel we,T Anti qui ti es ;
Shi h' ktt' -t' anq-shu-hwr,-k' ao
:
A Research on Caltigraplti,cal arul P'ictardal CoI'
l ecti ons of Shi h-ku' t' ang,
fasc. X). After that, we
have Sun Chih-wei
(sao Cth"ing-ho-shnt'-hua-fang :
A Boat of Catligraphy and, Painting of Ch'ing-h'o,
fasc.Vl), Li Kung-li:r (see r-Shan,-hu-u;a'ng ffiIffiffi
A Coral Net, fasc. XXIII ;
Yen' chou-szi l ' -pu'
kao #N[qffffi
The tr'our Worits
"f
W'ang
Y en
-
ch,ou, fasc. CXXX\III ; S hi,It"ktt'-t' ang
-
slt'u'
-
h,ttn
-
k'ao : A Reseo'rch on Cailigraphicol ctnd, P'ictori'ai
Col l ecti ons
"j
Sl ri l t' ku-t' ang, fasa. II; P' i -ch' uatz'
chu-Iin : A Graue of Pea'rls oJ th,e Secret Po'lace,
fascs. IX and X; Shu'hua-ch'ieti-yinS EB:ffiW
g
Mirrw of Call'igraphy and, Pa'int'ings, fasc' II
;
I'ao'
hui-lu fiffiffi
A Record of Prec'iott's Pa'intings, iasc.
X ;
P
"ing
-chlin-lcuan- chien-tsang
-shu-hua-
chi {Fts€'fr€
H€EF8
A Record, oJ the Calligraph'ies ari'd' Paintings
Preserued, in the P"ing'chin Sturlio ; Chiarry'ts'u'n-
shu-hua,-mu lff,'l€EE
A Catalogu'e of the
Cattigraphical and, Pictorial Collect'ion's of Kao
Kian4-ts' un
;
Hao-ku-t' ang-chi,a-tsang
-shu-h'ua-chi
fTfrHXffi€GFe
A Recrtrd
"f
the FamilY
Coliectian
"f
Calligraphies and, Paintings qf
Hao-ku-t'a,n4, Part I, and San-ch"in-lco-sh,u-tbul''
tw
=f^H€$ffi
A Catologue of Cal,l'i.gra-
phi,es oruJ Pa'irrti,ngs Collected' dn the San-cl,'itt'-lco,
Part I), Yen Po-wen, (seo Shi h' ku-t' ang' shu-hua-
Ic'a,o : A Research on Calldgra'phical and, Pdcioriol
Collect'io'tw of Shih-lcu't'arL!1,
fasc. l[), Li S]rih-ts6
(see Shdh-ku-t'ang-shti'ltua-k'ao
: A Reseqrch orl
Caltigraphical and Pi'ctori,al Coll,ectiotts of Shi'h-ku'
t'a,ng, fasc. II), Liang K'ai,
{see
Shu'hua'ahiert'-
ging : A M'i,rrm of CalligraphE
and' Painting,
fasc. llf), and Sun Pi-ta (aee P'i'chuan-chu'-i'in:
A &rou.e of Pearls of the Secret Palace, fasc. fX) of
tho Sung dyreasty. Tho same dynasty produced a
number of monk-artists, e.g.. Fan'lung, (seer ,9han'-
bu-utang : A Coral' Nel, fasc. XXIII
1
Yen'-t:hou-
szil,-pru-lcao: The
Eour Wmks of Wang Yen'chrtu,
faee. CXXX\III ;
Shih-ku-t'ang-shu-hu<t'k'ao:
A Re'
eearch orr Cattigraphical, anl Pi,ctmial' Collectior* of
thdh-ku-t'ang,
faac, ff ;
the Ta'kuan-lu :tH#*
B*ori!, o! Qreat Viettts, fase. XfV;
the Chiang'
ts'un-lwiao'Inia'lu lrf'JlgHffi
Rewrd, oJ Spending
the Summer at Kiang-t8'u'n, fasc. I
;
Ch'in4-lwi'a-
ho-t'i-hua-chiii,eh-chtt, ffiEgffiEffift
The Varses
Wrdtten or., the Paintirqt Col,l'ected, i,n the
Ch'in4-hsi,'d-ko), Yiieh-p'eng
(seo Sh'ih,'lcu-t'on4'
shu-hua-k'ao : A Research on Calligraphi'col'
antl, Pictorial Oollection's of Shih'-\ru-t'ang, fasc.
II), and Hai-l':n (aeo rd-ch,tnn-chu'lin: A &twe
of Pearl,s of the Secret Palo,ce, fascs. IX .t X)
of the samo dlmasty. During the Yiion dynasty'
thore wers Chao l\{6ng-fu (see A Supplent'ent to the
Pi-chuan-ch'u-l'in : Groue of Peatls of the Secret
Palace" faec. X) and Ch'ion llsiian
tvid. Sltdng-
chirog-ku-kun4-shu-hun-lu mHffiBAEffi'
A
Catu,logue of Catligraphies and, Painti'rqs Collecteil' in
the Imperial Palace at Sh€rq-ch'ing, fasc. III)
;
drrring the }Iing dy'nasty, Wu Wei (vid. Pi'chuan'
ch,u-li,n : A Groae of Pearls oJ the Secret Palace,
fasc. II), Ch'ou Ying (seo A Record' of the Calli,-
graph'ies aruJ Painti'n4s
'in
the Collection of Kuo'
'.tru.n-lou
iE€ffi'glF;E fasc. IV; tho Record,
of Spen'ding the Sumrner at Kian'g'ts'tln., fasc. I;
A Catalogue of Callioraphies and' Painti'n11s of the
Irn,perial Palace at Shdng-ching, fasc. III), Wu Pin
(see Shih-ch'ii-pao-chi,
7trtrHfr The Precious
Collection of Shih-ch'& L'ibrary, fasc. III), and
Ting Yun-p'6ng (see Shih-ch"ii-pao'chi, : The Precio'tts
Collect'icn af Sh'ih-ch'il Lilnary, fascs. II & III).
Ail these artists had famous works mentioned in the
records and catalogues of the suceessive dynasties.
Concerning the sculpture,g of the sixteen arhats'
the earliest were the images of the sixteen arhats
c&r.u'od by \'u Ycn-shuang of the Wu-yiieh state
in the Yen-hsia cave at llangchow. Two of the
images &re on the interior portion of the right wall,
fbur on tiro front
portion
of the sarne wall, and the
other ten on the left wall of the cave. The carving
techn;que of the images is the s.ame. Juan Yiian's
L[.ang-ch€-chi,n-sh,'itt-cttiLt, (ffifff'68f; Record, of
I'nscription L'iterature on Metal.s and Stones dn
Cheki,an,g) conta,ins a, documont from the
Yen-hsi a Cave enti tl ed
' the
Record of Wu Yen-
ehuang's lIerit in }taking Buddhist Images'.
Wu Yen-shua,ng was the younger brother of the
wif'o of Ch'ierr Yi-ian-kuan, the king of tho Wu-
5nieh
state. During the Srmg <iynasty two images
were adtled to the group : one was a monk and
the other the wei l -known
' Monk
wi th a, Bag' .
But the art was very far urferior to that of the
previous sixteen i-ages. Evidently, the statement
rnacLe
jn
the Hsien-ch'u'n-li,n-an-chih (ffiHffi*,*
Topography of Itin-ant., compiled, und,er the
Hs'ien-ch'un Peri,od,) that " formerly thero werne
cnly six stone images of arhats, aud the king of
ARAHAf,T
5l ARAEA}TT
Wu-yi.ieh, being rnspired by a ciream, carved twelve
ruore, mrr,king t* total of eighteen im&gos",
is but a
forced conciusion.
fn view of the paintings and sculptures of the
srxteen arhats &s surveyed above, we may see that
tho worsh;.p of t,hese arhats was developeC durirrg
the tr'ive Dynasties, particularl;.
in tho south of the
Ynngtze River, and the number was fi.nallv evolved.
irom sixteen into eighteon.
The Eighteen Arhats. The evolvement of the six-
teen arhats into eightoen ar:hats seems to have
siarted in paintings.
The earliest known portraits
of the oighteen arhats are in a painting by Chang
Ilsiian of Chin-shui in Chien-chow of the Earlier
Shu state. Su Shih of the Sung dynasty obtainecl
this picturo at Tan-drh and composed. eightoen
verses i.:r their praise (see Tung-pt,o-ch',i-ch,i
H#tR
J'he See-'eru Collectionc of
gu
Tung_po's
Il'ritings, Part II, fasc. XX). Ife has not explicitly
stated the names of ths arhats. The next ono was
the pieture of the eighteen arhats by Kuan-hsiu.
On his retuilr. journey
fror:r Hai-nan, Su Shih
passed by the Pao-lin Monastery at tho Ch,ing-
yiian \rnlloy, where he saw this picture and. wrote
eighteen panegy'ric verses. In each of the verses
the name of one of the arhats was mentioued.
Apart from t,he sixteen arhats, thei sevonteenth one
\sas Nandi mi tra, i .e., the author of the Ta-a_l o-han-
r m n
-
t' i
-
mi
-
t o
-I
o
-
s o
-
s huo
-J
a
-
chr t
-
chi, ( N ardi,rn itr d,u
qd
A
-
iia), and thc eighteenth Fildola, who was in fact a
repetition of the Pildola-bhiiradvija
among tho
{roup <rf eixteen arhats (aee Tung-pt,o.ch,d-chd
: The
Set's77 Callections of Su, T,ung-g;o,s Writinos,
part
vff,
fasc. X). In the Pi-chuan-chou-I'in
{Groue
of
pearls
,,-f
the Secret Palace) of the Ch'ing dynasty there is
rcceirded aiso a scroli painting of the eighteen
ariiats b,y Kuar.-hsiu, with three epigraphs by Su
Kuc cf the Sung Cy-nasty, Chao M6ng-fu of the
Yiian ciynasty and TsuLg-16 of the Ming dynasty,
respectively, but none of them mentions the names
rf tho srhats" In the Inscription on the Tablet of
ihe Fivo Hundred Arhats dated the 4th year of
:i hao-hsi ng, (I134 A.C.) duri ng the Sr:ng dl nasty,
rn the Ch'ien Ming court at l(iang-yin, the name$ of
llLt- arhuts are given in a list before the names of
i.u ijve hundred arhats, in which the seventeenth
nL- \
-as
also Nandi'nitra, while the eighteonth wes
I
'
; n,' i ol e,.
In his tr'u-tsu-t'ung-chd ({.frfrHffi./{ Record,s of the
Ltneage oJ the Budd,ha and,
patri,archs
: Taishd,
)i ,r. 2035, fasc. XX-Xi l I),
composed. i n the Eth
' ,,,rl r
of l l si on.ch' un (1269 A.C.) duri ng the Srrng
rl-nd:iiv, L)hih"p'an ret'pted the above-mentioned
.;,.-.,..rrv under the item " On Making Offerings to
Arhats ", pointingoutthat
Nandimitra as tho author
of tire Nq,nd,i,m'itrduadina could not be among the
arhats who wero asked by the tsuddhe to etay in
this wor1d, while Pitrdola was simply a repetition
of ths B&mo n&me. I{o maintained that the two
lasi, arhats should bo Ka6yapa and Ciidapanthake,
the two of rho four groat Srdvakas who had not
been included in the group of sixtoen arhats, as
mention"ed in the Mi,-lA-hsi,a-sh€n4-chi,ng
{Maitreya-
ayakararm).
The Tibetan group of eighteen arhets consists of
the sixteen arhats and f)harmatdla, an up6eaka,
and the " Ifonk with a BBg," but this was also a
tradition brought from rhe interior of China.
'hen king Glari-darma of Tibet deetroyed Bud-
dhism (in the first, year of
'Eui.chang
during the
reign of emporor Wu-tsung of the T'aog d5masty,
B4l A.C.), six Buddhist masters left Tibet and went
to Ilham where they wore irnpreseod
by the general
presenco of pictures snd imagw of tho
gixt€on
srhats in tho various monest€rios. Pa,rticrrlarly
interestod wore Klu-noes and Knrn.chua so much so
that they mado duplicates of the pictures and took
them back to Yor-pa in Tibet. lbeso are the
famous portraits of the arhats at Yer"pa, Aftcr-
w&rd.q, two noro arhats were added in accordanco
with the verious traditions introduced from the
interior, Dhermat6la was ssid to be I Il*tivo of
Ilo-lan Mountain in Kensrr provinco (Ablagohan
Banner). By virtue of his pious dovotion to the
sixteen arhats, ho obtained spiritual rosponso
by
the vision of ihe Amit6bba Buddba appearing
in the clouds overy day (see Dalai Lema V, The
Ritu,al af Makdng Ofreri,nga to the si,xteen Arlwbl.
In the paintings
ho wae always ropresentod as
carrying a sr-rtra-basket on his
!66[ with a tiger
crouching at his right side. But up to now, only
sixteen arhats are montionod io the ritual of
makirrg offerings.
Tlre continued odition of the Pi-chuon-chw-lin
(Groz,e oJ Pea,ils af the Secret Palane), Book fV, mon-
tions a copy work of " tho Eighteen
Arhats "
dono
by Chung Yii-t6 of the Ch'ing d5'nasty after tho
origi-nal of Lu Leng-ch'ieh witb supplomenta,r5r
figures added by I{uan-hsin. The ecroll bears en
epigraph in verso written by emperor l(ao-tsung
in which ho asserts that the sevonteenth arhat in
the posture of subduing & dragon was M&hd-
I(d,6yapa, while the eighteentb, one in.the poeturo
of taming a tiger was Nandimitra. Theso identifr-
cations wero rns,de by the Lcan-skya lluthuk-
thu of that time. But the talo about tho dragon-
subduer and the tiger-tamer w&s & tradition of
leter developmen+". In the " Reeord. of tho Vision
ARAEANT
52
ARAEAI{T
of Arbats in a Dream " in ttre Turug'p'o-chi,-chi'
(Scaen Colleation"s oJ
[Su]
Tung-po'e Writi'ngs),
tbe writer says that in the 4th year of Ytian-feng
(1081 A.C.), he saw i n a templ o at Ch' i -t' i ng an
image of an arhat with a dragon at
hin left and a
tiger at his right side. This showg that ddring the
Northern Sung dynasty it was not yet necessary
to have two soparato arhats, one reprnsented as
conquering a dragon and the other taming a tiger.
If we mako a study of the two supplomontary
rmages in the Yen-hsia cavo carvod by the Sun
artisan, ropresenting a Buddhist monk and the
'Monk
with a Bag', we shall find that the latter
was tho image of monk Ch'i-t'2il of the F6ng-hua
county i:n Ming-chow flourishing under the reign
of emporor Chao-tsung of tho T'ang dynasty, and
ho was believed to bo an incanration of Maitreyo
bodhisattva. Therefore, the imege of tho other
monk must alao bo a Chinose monk wlth supornatu-
ral powers. Aecording to the T''ien-t'ai-slron-chih
(Xeilfi Conuplete Topography of ttw T''ien't'ai
Mounlain, fasc. X), durirng,the Ch'un-hua period
(990-4) of the Sung dynasty, there was & monk
by the n&mo of Tao-jung in tho Kuang-yen
monastery on tho T'ien-t'ai mourrtain, who,
pwing to his constant practico of medita[ion and
his many supernatural manifestations, was regarded
by the people &s an arhat. Aftor
his
death, it wae
seid that Bome people had identified his likoness in
one of tho images of the five hundred arhats in
the Shou-ch'ang monastery. Thus, tho image of
that monk in tho
yen_hsia gs\r6 ,night
havs been
e represontation of this person.
In viow of the devolopment of the various thoories
related above, it may bo concludod that tho tredi-
tion of the eighteen arhats had no scriptural basis,
but was a convontion gradually stabilieed by pain-
ters who wished to initiate two extra figures into
the original tradition of tho eixtoen arhats, thus
giving rise to tho different conjecturos and thoories
about the eighteen arhats. According to tho
earliest tradition, eince the seventeenth in the list of
the eighteen arhats was Nendirnitra, tho author of
t}ne Nand,inxitrdaadi,na, the eightoenth one ought to
be Hsiian-ts&ng, the translator of that work. But
&s no decision could bo made about llstan-tsang
as the eighteenth arhat, pooplo put Piqrdola in his
place, thus making a repetition of tho same person
and leading to a number of variant interpretations,
which are oxtremely puzzling. Tbe rosult was that
the tradition of tho eighteen arhats became gene-
rally acceptod and ever sincs the Ytian dynasty
their images have been as a rule installed in the
main shrine-hails of monasteries, while the tradition
about the sixteen arhats on tho other hand has lost
much ground in its
PoPularitY.
The painters of succossive dynastios who hrd
works on the eighteen arhats, &s are mentionod in
various records, include Tso Li of the Later T'atB
period (see the T'inh-uang-slnn-ku ffil[il
The lron Net Coral by Tu Mu of the Miog
dy-nasty, fasc. XIII) ;
I(uan-hsiu of tho Earlier
Shu state (seo the Pi'chuan-chu-l'i'n : Grwe oJ
Pearls of the Secret Pulace, fasc. IX)
;
Li I(r:ng-lin
(see the Pi-chuan-chu-lin : Qroae oJ Pearls'of the
Secret Pal,ane, fasc. III : Sh€n4-ching-ku-lcun4'shu'
hua-la : A Catalogue oJ Cal,l'igraphies ond Poinrdrrys
Collecteil
'i,n
the lrnperial PaJace at Sh6ng-ching,
fasc. II i Ku-wu,-ch'AmJieh-so-ahu-h1n'm-1" frUJW
flFF*HHffi:
A Catolosue oJ Caltigraphdea
and Poi,ntings of the Antiquitg Mtneum' fasc' V);
Chu Ju-w6n (seo Sh'i,h-ku't'ong'shu'htn-h'ao : A
Research on Call,'i'graphhal and Pictori'al Collectians
oJ Shi,h-ku-t'ong, fasc. II)
;
Chia Shih-ku (see Yiieh-
hsiieh-shu-hw-tu ffi&*!ffi,
Yo-hsiieh's Catalogue
of Calligraphies and Paintings, fasc. If) and the
monk llai-lun
(soe tho Pi-chuan'chu"Ii'm : Groue of
Pearls of the Secret Polace) of ths Sung dynasty
;
Chao M6ng-fu (see the contimrod efition of the
Pi-chuan-chu-lin : G'roae of Pearlt ol the Secret
Pal,ace\, Ch'ien llsiian (see Ku'uru-ch'6n-lieh-so'
ehu-hun-m,u-lu : A Catologue qf Col,ldgrophdes arud
Pa,intings of the Anti'qui,ty Museum, fasc. V), Chang
Wo (see Shdng-ching-ku-lcurq-shu-hua-lu
: A Cato-
logue of Calligraphi,es and Pointirrys Collected i'n the
Imperial, Po,lace at Sh4ng-ch'in4, fasc.III) and Fang
Fang-hu (see Ku-J6n-lco-shu-hrtrt-chi, tfffi*ilfle
A Record of Calldgraphies and' Pabxirqa Collected im
the Ku-J6n-ko) of the Ytian dynasty ; Ch'ou Ying
(see the Pi-chrnn-chu-l'i'n : Grwe of Pearls of the
Secret Palace, fasc. XX),
'Wu
Pin (see Shi,h-ch'ti-
pao
-chi
: The Preci,ous Collection o.f Shih-chii Librory,
fac s. If I
),
Ting Yun
-p'6ng (see ll4 Ang'y {tan' ahu'htt o
-l'u
FH€effi
A Catalogue of Coll'igraphies an'd,
Paintings of MAng-giln'n: lbe Pi'-chtnn-chu-li'n :
&roae oJ Pearls oJ the Secret Palnea, fasc. XII:
Sh6,ng-chi,ng-lcu-kung-.cfuu-hu'a-Iu
: A Catalogue of
Call,igraphies and Paintings Collected in the Imperial
Polace at Sh6,rq-ching, faae. TII; Ku-tou'ch'6n-li'eh-
so-.ghu-hua-mu-lu : A Catalogue oJ Calli'graphies arul
Padrrtdngs of the Anti'quitg Museum, fasc- V), Ch'ien
Kung (soe Tu Mu's Shih-pai-chai'shu'hua-Iu
+Effigtffi
C atalogue of C alligraphies arul P aint'ing s
CoUected in the Shih-pai'-chaf,
fasc. XXIf)' Li Lin
(see the Pi-chua,n-chu-Iin
: Groue af Pearls of the
Secret Palace, Part II) and Ch'en Fan (soo the
Pi'chuan-chtt,-l'in: Groae of Pearls of the Secret
Pal.ace, fasc. VIII) of the Ming d:nrasty.
ARAHANT
53 ARAEANT
The tradition tlrat the sixt,et_.rr ar.hats woro bidden
t,tl sla,y in this rr-orld as defenders of tho Dharma
insr-rirecl Chinese lluddhisis with deep vonerotion
lbr tlro arhats, and henco brought about another
tracl i ti on, tl re tradi ti on of the i i ve hund.red arhats.
The Fi ve Hundred Arhats. fi re tru,di ti on of the
fivc hundred arhats is frequently met with in
Ruddhi st scri ptur.c.s. For i nstarroe .Fw-u;u-pai -
t'i
-tzti -tz{t -
s ltt to
-
p An<: h i " c h in g (
#FfL fi' 4+ H ffi 6€ffi
Stitra on tlte Fiue If un"drecl, 1)'i.sr:iptles tell.ing' th,eir
o'.DrL Nid,una : Taishrj, No. 199) translated by
Dharmaraksa of thc Western Tsin dyrrasty,
contai ns the statement that after the pari ni rvE,na
of
the Buddha, IIahal<i,Syapa and five hundred arhats
held t,he first Couneil to rehearse the Tripitaka.
fn the Sh6.-li-f u-u;6n-thing (Sutra on the
Questions
of
Sari,putra) it is said that after tha rlestruction
of
Buddhism by King Pusvamitra, five hr.rnctrecl
arhats revived the toaching. There &re rn&ny
other such traditions concerning tho five hundred
arhats. In the interior of China during the Eastern
Tsin d,"nasty when Chu T'an-yu w&s dwelling
on the T' i en-t' ai nrountai l r, there was al ready &n &ge-
long tradition about a file vihdra on a precipitous
rock where dwelt the saints who had realised the
truth. There was a stone bridge stretching over
the chasm, but a protruding rock barred the
pessage. After an ablution and fasting for several
days, Chu T'an-yu sut:ceedod in crossing the bridge
and saw a divine monk in tho vihfi,ra, where they
burrr.ed incense and had the mid-day meal togerher.
The divine monk saicl to Chu T'an-yrr, " Ten yea,rs
after, you shall come here again." Thus he returnecl.
(see Kao-s€n4-chuan,
H{g€
The BiograTthies oJ
Entinent Monks : Tai.sh6, No. 20bg, fasc. XI.)
I{enco the later trad.ition about the five hundrecl
arhats at the Stone }3riclge monastery. It, is
esid in tho " Inscripti,ort. on the JJablet of th,e tr,iue
Hurul,raL Arhats " at the llrra-lin rnonaster5r i-n
Kunngtrrng province that Nakula, who was the
fifth one &mong the sixteen arhats, had a retinuo
of eight hrrndred monks, of whom five hundrecl
l i verl on t,he T' i en-t' ai mountai n and three
hunclrer:l
erl tlte Yen.tang mowrta'in. fn the
' J"i en,t'
ai -aha,n-ch,i eh (Topograpthy of the,I,' i en-t' ai
frIountain)
there is a quotal,ion from tlro " Record of
the
Lrnusuoi Manifcstations
of the Five llundred
Arhats in t,hc I'a,ng-kuang trfonastery ", saying that
" Chiian, a local official of \-ung-chia, had paintecl
the figrrres of thc five hrrrrtired b,rhats." During
the Five Dvnasties, the r.r'orship of the fivo hundred
arhats became parti cul arl .v- popul ar. The Ch' i en
regime of the Wu-yiieh state rnacie bronze images
6. s. P. C. 9E420
of tire five hundred arhats in the Fang-kuang
rnonastery on the T'ien-t'ai mountain. In the
Ii rst vear of Hsi en-td (954 A.C.), Tao-ch' i on, wi th
tho perrnission of prince Chung-i of ths Ch'ien
family, then the nrler of the Wu-ytieh state, removod
the images of the sixteen arhats at the Lei-f6ng
Pagoda tcr the Ching-t'zi-r monastery and eonsrrlrcted
a hell of five hundred arhats. Emperor T'ai-
tsung of the Sung dynasty made five hundred and
sixteron images of arhate (i.e., the five hundred
arhats plus the sixtoen arhats), which were placed
in tlrs Shou-ch'ang monastery on the T'ion-t'ai
mountain in the 2nd year of Yung-hsi (984 A.C.).
The edict issued by emperor Jen-tsung of the Sung
dynast,v about rnaking off'erings to the ffve hundred
arhats at the Stone Biidge is still recorded in the
T"ien-t'ai-sha,n-chieh (Topography of the T'ien,-tai
Mountuin). In the mona,steries at various plaees,
a hall for the five hundred arhats was usually
constructed. Su Shih has an article on " the Pavi-
lion for tho Five Hundred Arhats at t,he Tzrl-fu
rnonastery in Tungkuan County, KuangJtung
Province ", written in the 3rd year of Yiian-fu,
(1100 A.C.) of the Sung dynasty at the request of
the monk Tsu-t'ang (see Tung-p'o-ch',i-chi : The
Seuen Collections of Su T'unq-pto's Writings, Part II,
fasc. XX).
There are also traditions at different famous
mountains about the arhat c&ve or the monastory
of the hol y rrronks of the Bamboo Grove. Thero
is a Five Hundred Arhat Cavo, for iristance, at the
Sung-shan mountsin in flonan province. Accor-
dine to " Rocord of the Cave of Five Hundred
Great Arhats in the Chung-yo l{onastory " (also
known as " The Inseription on Constructing the
Holy Bamboo Grove Monastery ", &B seen in tho
Supplernentaru .Recmd, of Stone In,scriptdons ot
Pa-ch'uns-sh'ih Ailg#EffiE fasc. CVIII) com-
posed by the monk Yu-t'ing in tho f.rst year of
Ch' ung-ni ng (1102 A.O.) duri ng the Sung dynesty,
it is said that at the boginning of the T'ang dynasty
Fa-tsang, a monk of Sze-ch'uan, by virtue of some
spiritual response first realised that the Bamboo
Grove monasterlr in the mountain was the dwelling
placo of the holy monks. Thereupon, Ch'ung-
ching, the abbot of the monastery during the Sung
dynasty, selocted that cave for the site to make the
images of the {ive hr:ldred arhats. The halls for
the ffve hundred arhats that survive today aro
thoso of the Pi-yiiLn monastery in. Peking, tho
Lung-hua nronastery in Shanghai, the Kuei-
y-iian monastery at lfanyang, tho Hua-yen non&s-
terv at Chungking, the Ch'iung-chu monaetery a!
Kunming, and some other tomples.
ARAHANTA SECT 54 ARAEAI{TA SECT
fhe painters of successivo dr-nasties,
.'rhose
chief works on the five hundred arhats bave been
montioned in literary records and catalogues, wero
Chu Yu of the Liang dynasty, whose works wore
proserved in the
'Chung-hsilg-kuan-kuo'
of the
Sung dynasty; Li Kung-iin of the Sung dynasty
(a* C'dng-ha"slru-hua-Jang : A Baat of Call'igra-
phies and Padntings of Ch'ing-ho, fasc. YIII; -Fa-
ahw-mdn4
-hua -ch'i
en
-ut
dn
-lu
EE &f,.E Hffi R ecor d of
Stand,ard' Calli'graphi'ea and Fannous Paintirt'gs
;
Shoh-
ku-t' a,n g
-
shu
-htn-k'
ao : A Reaearch on C all'i gra'phi'cal
and Pintmial Collectiow of Shih-ku-t'anq, fasc. fII)
;
and Liu Sung-t'ing (see the Pi'-chuan-ch,u-li'n:
Groae oJ Pearl,a af the Senret Pol,ace, fasc. X) and
Wu Pin (see Shi,h-ch'ii-pa'o-ch,i': The Precious
CoUecti,on oJ Shih-ch& Li,Arary, fasc. III) of the
Southern Sung dynasty.
Ae regards tho names of the five huldred arhats
in the Stone Bridge monastery on the T'ien-t'ai
mountain, it is said in a note in " Tho Inscription
on tho Tablet of the Five Ilundred Arhats in the
Ch'ung-fu court of the Lung-hsing monastery ab
'Wu
(Hsuanchow) ", written,by Ch'ung-i in 933A.C.,
as rocorded in the Pao-'lc'o-ts'urg-ptem
(frfl#ffi
Col.Iecti,on of Preci,ous Insoriptiona, fegc. XV) that
tboy wero derivod from the Fu-chai,-peiJu (fr:ffiffi&
.Ca.talogue
of Inscriptions Cotlected,
'in
Fu-chai.).
In the Chdn-shi,h-hs&,-pien (#E'ffiffi Continu,ed.
Recoril af Inscriptiona on Meta,Is and, Stones: fasc.
X\rII), thero was also an inscription of the n&mos
of the arhats i-n the Ch'ien-ming monastery at'
K.iang.yin, ongraved in the 4th year of Shao-
hsi ng (1134 A.C.). I3ut nei ther of theso i nscri p-
tions is any longer in existence. Nevertheiless,
tho
' Inscri pti on
of the Ch' i en-mi ng mcnastery'
had been ro-enpp&r'od by Iiao Ch'eng-yen in the
l 6tb yea,r of Ch' ung-cl i 6n (1643 A.C.) of the
Ming dynasty in the magistr&te's nransion of Ohirrs
county, and his son l{ao Ylu-szi. again re-engraved
it and the document was collecied in the Ohi.ct-
hcirW-hsu-tsa??g"(HRmffi Continue.d Ed,ition of the
Trifila,ka of Chia,-h.ting t Case No. XLIII). The
origin of the nu,mes of the fivo hundred arhats
mentioned in this book is unknown, but in all
probability they seem to be only a fabrication of
the poople of the Sung d;,rrasty.
C. Ss .
ARAEANTA SECT, known also by several other
rramos, wee thg fraternity of Burmese monks who
claimed to be in the direct line of descent from
$o?a and lfttare, the two arahants sent to Suva++a.
ffirirni (Lowor Burma) by ]Ioggatiputta"Tissa. As
they clairned descent from theeo two arahants,
they were known in Lower Burma, accorrling to
the Kalyali inscriptions (IA. XXIf, 154), as
Ariyd,rahanta-pakkha-sangha. But later they camo
to be called Kamb<ija-sangh,o-pakkha after their
chief thera in the T'Ialanagar&, whose monastery
w&s situated near & settlement of Cambodian
prisoners of war (loc. cit.). Tlte Sdsannuaqnsa does
not ment,ion any of these n&mes but cails this
frtr,tenrity Sorluttaravarnsa (Saou. 47).
Theravd,da Buddhism was established in Upper
Burma by the great thera named Arahan (q.v.), a
scion of the Ariyarairanta-pakkha of Sudharnrna-
pura (Thaton) in Lower Burma. Slace it was estab-
]ished earlier than tho Sinhalese fraternitios (there
wero three in {Ipper Burma and fivo in Lower
Burma), this fraternity was calied Purima-ga{re or
Former Order (Sesu. 67
;
IA. XXII, 154). Tho
Sd,sanauarp,so also refers to it indiscrirnina,t'6ly 6t
-{rahantag&n&-va!$& (,Sri-su. 71, 82, 94), Arahanta-
thera-gar1a (ibid. 67) or Arahanta-thera-var.ns*
(ibid 83). It is not clear whether these aro variant
forms of .\riydrahanta-pakkha as found in the
Kalyd,ni inscriptions or are derived from the namo
of bhei thera Arahanta. Ifowover, there is no doubt
about the fact that the Burmeso monks, whether
they were known as Ariyd,rahante-paLk[6, or
Arahanta-gar1a, all claimed to be of the samo direct
line of descent, from Sona and Uttare. And,
unlike the Sinhalese Sangha, they remained united
as one fraterlity.
Neii,her the Sd,sanaaamsa nor the Kalydli
inscriptions make any valuable contribution to
the reconstruction r:f the history of this seet. Tho
SaturwuatyLso has fr-rund oniy a handful of theres
of this fraternit'y whom its author thought fi.t
to mention by name. Bui; it is clear that the
Araiiautagana existed sido by side with the Sinhalese
Sti,ngha and continued to do its service for the
lr-elfare of the religion and receive the patronago
of vilrious Bulfirese kings.
Thr,. Kal 5' El i i nscri pti ons (/d. XXII, 942) cl ai m
ttrat all the monks of ld6maflnamandala (Lower
Bunna) rerceived the pure Sinhareso ordination,
re-iltrodut'ed to Burma at, the requost of king
Dharmnace'-iya. If this claim be correet, then
any differencos that existed between tbe Ariydre-
hanta-pakkha and the Sinhalese fratendtioe must
have been obliterated with the final triumph of the
latter. The Srlsana,uamsa (47) says that tho
Sinhalese ordination introduced in the time of
Dhammacetiya was spread throughout Upper
Burma (Maramma-ra11ha) as well. But whether
ARAHANTA
SUTTA ac ARAI, SEKIZEN
this ie to be taken a,s a complete triurnph of the
$inhs,lese fr*temity over the Arahanta-gana in
Uppe" Burma as well is doubtful.
c. w.
ARAEAHTA SUTTA, two euttas (by the same
name) of the Khajjani,ya Vagga in the Samyu,tta
Nikd,ya (III, 82-4). To regard tho five aggregates
(khandha) as impermanent (anicca), suffering
(dukkha\ and subgtanceloss (arwtta) is the way to
aee things as they roally aro, by right insight. This,
ln order, leads one to disgust (nibbid,a),
detachment
(uirdga)
and deliveranee (aimutti). Then the
lrrowledge of release arises in him. The one thus
reloaeed, the arahant, is tho highest being in the
whole world. Eight vorses describing the noble
qualities of an arahant aro apperrded to tho first
sutta.
c. w.
ARAEA SUTTA, na,me of four suttas in the rSarr,-
gdta N,ikdya. (l) The Buddha, sa,ys to Rad.ha
that a monk who sees, ia their true nature, the
origin, the coesation and the satisfaction of, misery
in, and ese&ps from the five groups of grasping
(pafr,ca upddnnakkhand,ha) is called an arahant
(s. nr, r93).
(2) The Buddha says that a monk who sees, in
tbeir true natu.re, the origin, etc., and cessation of
tho eix seDso-faculties (cfta ajjlw,ttdlcani, ayatanani\ is
celled an arahant (ibid. V, 205).
(3) also called ths Bwddha Sutta
'(loc.
cit.),
whero the Buddhe s&ys that he fully comprehended
ths rnsa,ning of boi'g enlightened when he catoo to
know, in their tnre nature, the origin, otc., and
cessation of the eix sense-faculties.
(a) Tho Buddha says that a monk who soes, in
their true n&ture, the origin, etc., and escape from
the oontrolling faculLy ('ind.ri.ya.) of ea,se, that of
discomfort, that of hoppinegs and that of indifferenco
is celled s,n arahan.t (ibid. 208).
U. K.
ARAEATTA SUTTA (l), a conversation betweea
tbe paribb6jaka Jambukhddake snd Sariputta,
where the le,tter explains tho nature of arahagtship
end the way leading to arahantship. TtG des-
tructiou of lust, hatred and iliusion ie arahant-
ship, and tbe lfoble Eightfold Path is the way
loading thereto (S. IV, 262).
ARAHATTA SUTTA (2), a sutta where the Budd.ha
says to his monks that six evil qualities-conceit,
underrating, overrating, complacency, stubbornness
and instability-have
to be givon up before
arahantship is attained (.4.. III, 480).
U. K.
ARAHATTA
VAGCA (I), the seventh vagga of the
Khardha
Sary,yutta of the Sar.ngutta Ndkd,ya (fII.,
73-81). It consists of ten suttas, namoly, tlpdd,i,ga-
md,rw, Mafr,fi,amfr,na, Abhinand,amd,na, Anicc,a,
Dukkho, Anatta, Anattaniya, RajaniyasaTt{hi,to,
Radha and Surdd,ha. Tbey discuss, from verious
angles, the nature and tho evil consequonces of the
five aggregates of exist,ence (paficaklahandha).
u. K.
ARAHATTA VAGGA (2), the ei ghth vagg& of the
Chakka N,ipd,ta of tbro Ahguttara Ni,lcd,ya(Ill, 429-14).
ft consists of ten suttas. They each prescribe six
qualities that havo to be given up and also thoir
opposito qualitios that have to be cultivated, if
one wore to attain arahantshin.
U. K.
ARAI, SEKIZEN (ffi#Etpt, a Japanese priest of
the Soto sect.
IIo was born in December of the first year of tho
Genji er& (f864 A.C.) at, Yanagawa-machi of
Iwashiro (prosent Fu-kushima prefocture).'Whon
ho was twelve yea,rs old, he became a dieciple of
Nyozen Arai of tho l{6koku-ji in his native town.
In the twelfth year of tho Meiji era (1879 A.C.)
he enterod the S6t0sh[-honkO, tho central school
of the Soto sect. During the fourtoenth ye&r
of the s&me era, ho lived at the Zentoku-ji in the
Sugito-machi of the Saitama prefocture, aftor
whicb ho changod over to the Jdshun-in in the
sa,me prefecture. In the following year he gra.
duated from tho school and travelled through the
Tohoku and Hokuriku areas following Baie€n
Kurog&mi.
In f 88g' A.C. he l ectured on Buddhi sm at the
J0shun-in and taught Buddtrism at the first branch-
school of the Soto sect in the Saitama prefecturo
for eeveral years. Six years later, he becamo ths
dean of th€ Sotoshrl-Daigakurin or the Univorsity
ofthe S6td sect and held the post ofprofessor ofthe
university, concunently. In 1892 A.C. he stayed
at the Daikei-ji in the l.Tiigata prefecture; thsn, u. r(.
ARAJA
o0 ARAKAI{
after three vears, he was appointed to the supervi-
sion of the S6t6 sect in the Akita prefecture, where
he founded a middle school of the S6td sect'
After filling the post of abbot of the Sett6'an
at, IIeda, of the Gokoku-in at Nagoya, and of
Saijo-ji at Kanagaw& successively, ho became tho
chief priest, of the Soji-ji, one of the most irnportant
temples of the Sdtd sect, in the ninth year of the
Tai shb era
(1920 A.C.). In the fol l owi ng year,
ho
'w&s
given the special title
'Taiy0-shinkan-
Zenli' (
lsBtrffiffiFfi,
the Zen prieet of
true paragon like the su:r). Then, he went' to
Ilawaii to attend the ceromony of plecing a Buddha
image in the llawaii brancb temple of the Soto
sect and made a
journey preaching Buddhism in
North A-merica.
IIo died in the soeond year of the Sh6wa ora
(1927 A.C.) at the age of si xty-four.
Ilo wrote mB,ny works and aftor his death,
tho Ara'i-sekizen-Zerwhd.
(
#ftFAfrFeH,
the
complete works of Arai Sekizen) in twelvo
volumes and the Arai-Selcizen'BukkyS-kden'zerwhil
6#Affiffittffitrefi,
the complote collection
of the lecturog on Buddhism by Arai Sekizen)
woro published.
K. Tun.
ARAJA, one of the three palaces occupied by
Dharnrnadassi, before his attainment' of Buddha-
hood. The other two were known as Viraja and
Sudassarra
(Bua. xvi, L4)'
ARAJOTTARIYA,
a former Buddha, mentroned in
a llst of former Buddhas under whom S5,lcyamuni
while in the ninth bhirmi acquired meric (Mh,uu.
I , I 40) .
ARAJOVI RAJONAYAYUKTA'
& samt cl hi or a
concentration of both mind and body mentioned
i n the Mahduyutpatti (BB. XIII, p. f0). Its
literal meaning is : " endowed with the method,
devoid of defilements. " It is mispritLed arajouir..t'
jonoyukta in the Satusdlw.sri,kaprajfi,apd,ramitd,
(p. Ial a) ;
and omi tted i n the ei ghth chapter of the
samo work whero sarnddhis are explainecl.
U. K.
ARAKA, the bodhisat.ta born in & former age
as a br6,hman religious teacher' His story is given
i n the Araka Jd,taka (q.t.). He practi sed the four
sublime abodes (brahmau'ihd,ra\. Afterdeath he
was reborn in Bratrmaioka and remained thero
for seven ages.
A referenoo is nade to Araka in the Dlnmmd-
dhajo Jdrakn (J. If, I95) whero the bodhisstt's
roaalls how as Araka ho had cultivated loving
kindness (n ettal for seven ye&rs, and enjoyed
rebirth in Brahmaloka for seven &ges.
Araka is also mentioned in the Sunetto Sutta of
fbe Anryaara Ndl cd,yo (IV, 35-6). I{e i g ono of
Bevon teachers of old, freed from passion, who
taught the way to attain birth in the Brahma
world. I[e had hundreds of pupils and those of
thom who followed his teaching were born in heaven
after doath. while the others were reborn in states
of woe.
Arake is referrod to again in the immediately
succeeding sutta, viz., Araka Sutto (q.n.), whero
his advice to his pupils is that this life is very
short and full of
rnisory,
and therefore, thev should
engage in good deeds and pursue the holy life
(brahmacariya). In the Angu.fra,ra no mention is
made of bis practice of the four sublime abodes
(bra}urw'vihdra,\.
L. R. G.
ARAKA JATAKA
(No. 169). In e former Bgo
the bodhieatts was born il a brd,hman family and
was n&med Araka. 'hen he grew up he took to
the religious life and lived in the l{imdlayas as a
teacher with a great folior*'ing of seges. IIe prac-
tised the four
'sublimo
abodes' (brohrrw,uihnro)
and pointed out their blessings to his ptrpils.
After doath he was born in the Brahma world
where he remained for seven ages.
This j6,taka is said to havo beeu related by tho
Buddha at Jetavana in connectiorr with t]lre Mettd'
Sutto ttt order to
ghow
the beneflts of practising
loving kindness (mettd,j, v'hich is the first of tho
f our ' subl i me abodes'
( J. I I , 60- 2) .
L. R. G.
ARAKAN, a stri p of l and ri l ong the Bay of Bengal
from the Naaf estuary to Cape Negrais with Arakan
Yoma as the eastern bouradary. The country is
co.' ' ' ected wi th the fortunes of Burma of whi ch
it ruay be considered a part because of the commu-
nity of race and language. The story of Arakan
opened in very remote tirnes, aecordingto indigenous
traditions which trace the event as for beck as
2666 ts. C. claiming a iine of two hundred and
tu'enty-seven kings. Legends state that the first
cani tal , whi ch i s untraceabl e, was Ramawadi and
th.rt it lr'as founded by the Upper Burrnese tribe of
lianran. A kurg who was miracufously born of a
ARAXAf, 67 ARAKAI{ PAOODA
doe fouaded Dinnyewadi (Dhafifiavati) lator oa;
f,[6 nnrn6
duly cane to be applied to tho whole
kingdom. Ptolemy (lat century A. C.) called it
Argyre which meanl Silver
T+rrd.
Conturies letor,
from Upper Burrna again, came Kanrezagyi who
with hie followors establishod a kingdom with tho
oapital nesr Kyoukpadaung. A tJrousend years
leter Cbandra Bfrrye (eecond century A.C.) beccrno
king,
It iE during his rnign that the farnou.B image
of thg Buddhr,, Lnown as tho Mahimuni, wa,s
c.st, King Minyezagi (1593-f612 A. C.) dedicared
to it Ugga By"o, lord of Sindin in Akyab district
rith some Talainge 6qd fadinnr as slaves. The
llahf,muni pagoda ig aleo known as the Arakan
pagode.
IB it€ fwtunats days Arakan iteelf carriod its
a,nnr into fiorcign territory and beld parts of Bongal
in eubjotioo- Ihe psople etill rocount the oxploits
of the tsvatmnth oentury king Min Kbamauns
vbo invadod that Indirn provinoe and oxtonded
hie conquosts as far ae Dacga, which is now tho
oopital of Eost Pakistan.
Arakan's bistory was chequerod by invasions and
oonqu€at't by tho Bur:mese,Telaings,
Shans, Siamoso,
rulers of Pegu, Moghule, Portuguose adventurera
cnd tbo Britirh, to tho leet of whom it fins.lly fcll
in tbeir war ogainst Bunrra in l8Z4-gO. Thereafter
it was cornpletely integrated with Burma until
that cotrntry, in recent ye&rs, bocame indepondont
of outaide eutbority end reconetituted itself ae
the Union of Burmo. The presont capital iB
A-kyab sud tb€ population of the corrntry at tho
lrot
oongus ses about one million.
It ir probeblc that Buddhirrn rcached the country
esrlict than it did Burrna. After the tenth contur5r
tho croun0ry wor profeaeodly Budclhiat. Near
Mindon in Thayetmyo dirtrict lhey built a Maho'.r-
yrtmrrnl pagode
about lIO0.
Under Narameikhla
(140f34) Inlam aame to have e merked influonco,
for the
ting
rrerl helped by the king of Gatu to
tido ovm int,orusl troubles
and regain tho throne
in 1130. As a rffiult, tho kinge, though Buddhist,
adop+ed the practioe
of addiry Isl&mio.desiguations
in additiOA tO their own nllrnea end
even of issuing
medallions boaring the deola,ration of tho Islnrnis
fuith intrribed in the Porsian rcript. Mrohaung
ras fouodod
as cepitel by Narnmeikhla and in it
rn built the Srnrriknon mosque- I|l1 ths eame city
lrug rf,irbi$
{lggl-Eg A,C,) built tho pagoda of
Shrodounf nnd tha temFlu Shittheung, Dukkan-
thoin nnd I-romyethne, ss ursll as Andsw rrhich
Elhrin€d a Tooth Bolic from Ceylon. I'he
parebew
pegodl wer built in the oity by Minyazagi. Thir
Eiry hsd sD ouligbt€ne{ rninirtor
by the nano of
Mahapinnyakaw who was lord of Chittagong,
nvnorrg
whose contributiorls wE€ the compiling of
legal precedenta, gryottdn, which placod the inter-
pretation of tho dharnynosattha^s of Manu' on a,
Buddhist baeis and camo to occupy a valuoblo
position ernong tho works of its kind
in tbe country.
The guoen of the next kiog (Ifusein Shah)
Minlrkamaung (1612-22) built the Ratanabon
pagoda in Mrohaung, arrd Narapaiigly'i (1638-45)
the trfingalamanaung pagoda as woll as Pitakataik,
tho library which housed scripturos from Coylon.
Sandathrrdarnm& (1652-84), who ie revored as ono
of the noblest kittg., built in his last year the pagodas
of Z inamanaung, Th ekyatnanaung, Ratnaman&ung,
Shwekyathein Bnd Lokamu, all in Mrohaung.
Forty Arakanese monks woro sent to Coylon to
ostablish the higher ordination of mo''Lg (trpa-
sampadd,). This was in reply to a requeet from
tbat country in which the Dutch actively co-opora-
ted as a mearxl of their dostroying Roman Catholi-
cinrn 6n4 the influence
of ths Portugueao with
whom it wpe thon s5monJrmous.
Tho last king of Arakan was Thamado (1781-5)
after whom tho cotrntry went under Bodawpavo
(1782-1819).
In the firet instanco be wae invited
by certain aobles led by llari, and Ieter he oceupiod
the country by forco, aftor sevoroly using the
peoplo. Tho Burmeso thereaftor mado Arakan
into a province under I governor at Mrohaung
and having Sandoway, Ramree and Cheduba as
sub-provinces.
Tho most treasured capturc wag
tho Mah6m
'ni
image which was ensh_rinod in l?g4
in Arakan pagoda, along with sir out of tho thirty
bronze images of Ayuthia which had beon taken as
spoils from Siamoso irxvadere in f Egd.
D. T. D.
ARAKAN PAGODA, in tho suburbs of Mandalay,
Burma, eo called aftor tho oelebrated Mah6muni
image it containe, which wes originally installgd
in Arakan ond aftonnards transforrod to the
presont place.
Arakan is the aree along the weet coaet of Burrna,
shut off frorn other parts of Burmo by a hill rongo.
Therefore, it has a separato history. Easy com.
municatioa by oeo rendorE it likely that Buddhiem
reached Arakan before it roachod the interior of
Burta. The shriae where the Mahdmuni image
w&s er.ectod,
at Dinn.r,awadi twenty_two milee
north of Mrobaung, in the Akyab district, wae
poesibly tho oldost in Burma. Arakanoso aasigu
it to thg reign of
lri-g
Cbaadra Srir5re, who aroended
ARAKAN PAGODA 68 ARAKKHA STTTTA
the throne of Arakan. in 146 A.C. Tho image
became eo famous tbat miraculous powers wero
attributed to it.
Wben the Burmeso king Bodawpaya conquerod
Arakan in 1784, he feared tho l\lahdmuni imago
whioh overshadowod Arakan with ite protecting
power. Thereforo, it ie believod, ho sent wizarde
who, disguisod as mo.ks, went to Arakan to
perform magical rites at the shrino in order to
doprive the image of its power. Then in 1784-6,
30,000 rnen under tho Crown Princo swarmod ovor
the passes or wont rotrnd the coast in boats
;
they
met, wir,h iittle rosistaneo, capturod Mrohaung
and returned with tho royal family and 20,000
poople as prisoners. Among the spoils wore the
six images which &re now found at the Arakan
Pagoda, at Mandalay. This pagoda was built
to enehrino the LahErnuni irnago, boing the
greatost of all tho troasures brought from
Dinnyawadi (seo Vol. II, Pl. VII).
Maurico Collis who visibed. this pagoda in 1920
describos it as follows: " This building, rathor a
shrino than a pagoda, houses tho oolossal imago
of Buddha. . . . It was for conturies the palladium
of Arakan and, when installod in Mandalay, becamo
Burma'e most sacrod image. Tho shrino lies on
tho eouthern outskirts of l\Iandalay and is entored
through a long colonnade, on oach side of which
are bazaar stalls, where you m&y buy, &mong
other things, food, gold leaf, candles and incens€. "
"'We wont on and woro soon in front of the
great imago, whero it sat boneath tho supporting
pillars of the central pyath,at of soven roofs. It
had beon so plastorod with gold leaf by worshippere
that its antique beauty w&8 covered op. Il,owg
of candlos burnt at the base and incenss rose from
burning sticks into a ceiling of mosaic. The half
light, the strong scont of the incense, monks passing,
tho sound of gongs, distilled & BonBo of devotion
moro intonss than I had ever noticed at, a Buddhist
shrine before, whero in general all is gently dovout.
Eaving made their bow to the Buddha, they took
mo on a tour of tho precincts, showed mo tho tank
full of huge aneiont turtlos, a courtyard
jrrm[le6
with stone
inccriptions which Bodawpaya had
oollected from moriastic sites, noi for historical
but for revonue reasons, and in anothor courtyard
six large bronzos of mon and elephants, part' of
the loot captured by the Burmeserfrom tho Siarireso
in 1664, which in 1699 had beon carried away by
the Arakanese'and
in l?84 recaptured by the
Burmese. Theso bronzos, which aro among tho
moet curious antiques in Brrrma,
go
absorbed mo
thst I forgot my oarlier disoonfituro-"
I(.Iu"u
Brnr.roonepuy : G. E. Ilarvey, EwtorV ot
Burma, p. 313; C. M. Enri quez, A Burmese En'
chantmarrt, p. 288; b. E. Ilervey, Outline of
Bu,rmese Eistult pp. 165 f.; Maurios Collis, fn o
Hid^den Bu,rm,a, pp. 64, 67.
ARAKA SUTTA, the tenth sutta of t}l'e Mahd
Vagga of tho Satnho Nipdta of ths Ahguttaro
Nilcdya (IV, 136-9). The Buddha advisoe tho
bhikkhus that life is short and they should not
loso ti'no being indolent. Ile relates tho story of
Araka. In a provious age when tho span of life
of a human being is seid to havo been sixty thousand
yoars, thore was a roligious tsacher namod Araka
who was freed of lustful passions. I{o had a follow-
ing of m&ny hundreds of pupils. He proachsd to
thom that life is like but a dewdrop or a water.
brrbble, trifling. insignificant and shortlivod. It
is fuU of sorrow and tribulation. Thoroforo, should
ono do good doeds and load tho holy lufo (brohm*
cariyo).
Thoro is a referenco to this sutta in fbsViauddhi-
moggo at p. I9B.
L. R,. G.
AnnKr<naDAYAKA, tho dosignation of two
arahant theras in the Apadd'na. Ono of thom is
said to havo had a railing mado for the (thfipa of)
Buddha Siddhattha and providod protoetion for
it ninety-four kappas ago. Ag a result of thess
good doeds he had no occasion for foar in any of
his lator births and he escaped birth in all woeful
statos. Six kappas ago ho wag born as a world-ruler
(coklcouattin) by the namo of Apassona (Ap. f,
2r4-r6).
Iho other thera has oarned his designetion for a
similar meritorious deod, but to a different Buddhe.
Eighteen kappas ago'he had a fonce mado for (the
thdpa of) Buddha Dhammadaesi and made provi-
sion for its protection. This act rosrrlted in his
lssqrning a', arah&nt in tho prosont age (Ap. l,
263) .
L. R. G.
AnlKxxA suTTA, the sovonth
gutta
of thc
Kesi Vaggo of tho Ahguttaro Nikdyo
(TT, 120)'
proached by tho Buddha to Kesi, the horso'trainor.
In this sutta tho Buddha saye that earnost care
should be exorted to grrard ono'e thoughte from
running riot among passionate t,hinge, from being
malicious and deluded and from following tho patb
laid down by variou roohuer.
r. x.
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ARAKTAPRAVADA
ARAK' fAPRAVADA, a former Buddha, menti oned
in a list of former Buddhas under whom Sekyamuni
while in the ninth bhrlmi acquired merit (futhuu.
I , t 40) .
AnAUA, abodes of monks. See ABODES (2).
AnAUADANDA, a lay disciple of rhe Buddha who
w&E convorted by Mahd-Kecc6-na. IIe was a brih-
man and had met Maha-Kaccina when the latter
was staying at Vara{rE on the bank of the I{adda_
madaha (muddy lako). IIe aaks Mah6-KaccEna
about ihe cause of nobles quarrelling with nobles,
brdhmane with br6hmans and hougeholders with
hous€holders. Mah6,-Kacc6na explaim that it is
because of bherr attachrnont and bondage to
sonsual passion. Further, rocluses quarrrel with
rocluses becauee of their attachment nnd bondage
t'o the lust, of opinion. Ard.r"a6rO{a tbon onguires
whother thore is no one in thig world who is frue
from thoeo two
hinds
of bondage. Mahd,-I(aco6,na
ropliea tJrat anoh a person was the Buddha who
at that tirno
q'rr
living at Sdvatthi.
At, this Arartrada+da risos flsp hin
eeot and.
fa"iog the direction of Sbvatthi p&ys homago
to the Buddha. And he aeks Mah6-Kacc6,na to
accopt hirn ag a lay disciple (.4. f, O5-?).
L. R. G.
ARAMADAYAKA, aD araho.nt tbera, who, irr
one of his former births, planted a garden with
troes whioh gavo dense shado and offered it to the
Buddha $iddhattha. Ilence his name. I[o also
with a h*ppy rnind
offered him tbs fruits and the
flowers which grew there. As a result of this
offering made ninety-four
kappas ago, he did not
experienco ary miserable existence (d,uggati).
But, thirty.sever kuppas ago, he was born seven
times as s world-ruler, endowed with tho seven
royal treasures (saito ratanw: Ap. I, 251).
I . K.
ARIUADUSAKA JATAKA (t), retated. ro tbe
bhikkhus concerning a lad who spoiled a pleasnre-
garden (J. I, No. 46, pp. 249-51).
Onco, o,landlord of a village invitod tHe Buddba,
and his monks to a meal and at the end of the
meal gave them leavo to wander about in the
grrdon.
While they were walking about they ca,mo
across a bare patch of land and lear:nt from the
gardener that it wss ca,rrsed by a lad who hacl been
esked to water the plunts, ond who before watering
59
AnaMSeNAcoHEDANA
them, pulled tbem up to see how they grew.
The ]Juddha then related the story of the past,
to show that the lad had done the same thins in the
past , t oo.
Once when Brahmadatta was the king ot
Bd,r64asi, thero was a i'estival and all the townfolk
assombled to keop holiday. The king's gardoner,
wb,o also wished to join in the festivities, asked tho
king of the monkeys who lived in the royal park
if he would get the monkeys to water the trees
in his alrsence, to which ths menkey king agreed.
lVhcn the gardener had gone, he distributed
the water-skins (camrrutn(o,l and the wooden
watering pots (dirukuta) among the monkeys,
asking them to weter the trees. The monkey
king instructed them to pull out the plants and
water them so that the plants with deop roois
would get moro water and the plonts with small
roots less, for the water should not be wastod in
time of scarcity. Thereupon, a wiso man, who
happened to witness this foolish act, rebukod the
tnonkey king who was the lad in the story of the
ptEsont.
I . K.
ARAIUAD0SAKA
rArnr<e (z). Tho story
(No. 268) is the s&rne &s Ardmad,irsalco J1tako (ll
(q.v.) but more concise. Tho verses in the two
jdtakas
are nrot identical. fn tho former story
the wise man reoites only one vere€, wheroas irr tho
latter he recitee two to the monltoy who also
answers him in verse. On the whole, the converss-
tion is di-fferent. Aocording to the latter story
the wise mnn ig supposed to heve come from a
good family in B6rdnasi. The festival had takerr
place in Bdr6,nasi during the reign of kurg Vissasena
and
qot
during the reign of king Brahmadatta,
ns mentioned in the former story.
This birth story ("/. III, 345 f.) is related with
reference to a lad in Dakkhir.ragiri, and not to a
lad in Kosala.
I . K.
ARAMASSA, a village in Ceylon granted for tho
maintenance of a bronze image of the Buddha
by ki ng frdaya, 797-801 A.C. (Mhu. rl i x, l 8).
ARAMA SUTTA. S€€ SARIPUTTA.I(oTTIIITA
SUTTA.
AnnUgni l ACCHEDANA, a samddhi or & concou-
tration of both mind and body, mentioned in tho
Mahdtrydpatti, (BB. XIII, 9) and explained
in the
ARAMMANA
60 ARAMMAIA
Satasatwsrtkdproi
finpdram'itd
ae a s&m6dhi wherein
one cuts oneself off from the. objecta
(drornbanal
of al l samddhi s (SsP.
P.
l a2l ).
U. K.
ARAilUAIIA.
While analysing the mental pheno-
mona, in his attempt to traco the causo of suffering
and unhappiness
in the world, the Buddha dis-
covered that consciousnese
(ti'frfuAq1n'l is due to tho
intoraction of tho subjective
(aiilwtti'ko\ and ob-
jective (Mhirakal processos
(M' I, lll-12)' Ilo
recognised the interdopendence
of the subject and
tho object. According
to him theso two processos
were relative, one implying the other, that is to
say, tho subjoct cannot exiet without the objoct
eind. tti,ce aeraa. They wero not solf-existont
but
relative or dependont
(pat&:wornupponna)
pro-
coaSoa.
Consciouenoss
may be tontativoly defined as the
rslation botwoen tho subject
(dramtnaqtd&a) and the
objoct
ldratwrwnal.
According to the Abhidharnma
philoeophy thero is nothing in this world which
would not sorvo as tho object of consciousnesg
(Vian, p. 454). This statomont of Buddhaghosa
is very significant, for if it is true, then tho wholo of
actuality a,nd roality should bo comprehonded
under tho obioct
(d'rornrna'nol.
Aceording to the Abhi'd'lwrnmatthuafqolw
(p' 13)
the object of consciousneas
is oither object of
sonao or objoct of thought-
Otlsct ol Sense. The object of sorrse' celled
Tnfi,cd,rarnrnaqto
{ibid.
p. 38), subdivides itself into
five classes: forrns (rtopal, sounds (saffia'1, odours
(gandha), Bavours
(rasa\ and tangibles
(potlh'obbal'
Out of theeo five sonsibles, sight, or rather light,
and sound ere classed together by Buddhaghosa
(Vdsfii.p. 376) w oprptotta'viaaya,bocauso
they do not'
como into physicel contact' with tho respectivo
sons€-organs but stimulate the aenses from a
dista,nco. But tho objoct of touch comes into
immedioto contact, with t'he body (Icdya) and is,
thorefore, called aarnpatta'uisaga.
Smell and taste,
on tho other hand, being but modifieations of
touch, are classed with the solfsame under sazr-
ptlanirpo. Alt
theso sensiblos aro considercd
to bo constittit€d of derived matter
(updffirfipa),
dorived from the primary matter (bhfinnt'pol
(ibid. 3?5). Ttre quoetion was rais€d as to why
the different
s€nse-organs
were sonsitive only to
perticular
gtimuli
or sensibles, e'g', tho oye to
tight and the oer to sound. To explain this the
Auf.ial"**ikas
postulated tho gonoral principle
tbct rssitivity wes of like to like' Elements
that wero of a similar naturo rosponded to ono
another, a vie\p attributed to the Por64as (ibid. 376).
It is interesting to note that only the proseut
(po,ccuppanno) sensibles &ro said to servo &s objocts
of the sonsos (Abhs.
P.
l3).
Objeet ol Thought. According to ttre Abhidham-
rnatthasangatw
(P. l3) the objoct of thought (ilhatn-
rndrammaqta\ consiste of six sub'classes : mind
(citto), mental concomitants
(cetasika\, sensitivo
qualitios of the body (patilatfrpa\, subtlo qualities
of tho body (sulchumorfrTn), concopts (pafrfiann)
and Nibbdna.
The inclusion of the mind among tho objocts of
thought is vory significant. llre opponents of tho
idealietic school of Buddhist philosophy, by making
use of tho similo of tho sword which, thoy said,
eould not cut itsolf (Bc. pp' 391-3), triod to rofuto
the thoory of the idealists that tbo mind can be
awaro of itself, a thoory which the latter mado
uso of in thoir ottempt to provo that the oxternal
world is only a product of conseiousnoss (tti'iffirw).
Although the Abhidhammikas hold that mind can
become an object of consciousnoss' yet they do not
fall in lino with tbe ideelists becauso they reeogniso
the oxietence of an external roality which is non-
mental (a.cetwi'ka) and devoid of the naturo of
congciousn oas (cdtta vi' p poy uttnl .
Ths mental concomitants
(cetodka), such as
contact (ph.asao), feeling (aeilarfi), etc., also &ro
included in the category of ths objectsof conscious-
nesa (dlwrnmd'rarnmorta).
Tho sonsitivo parts of tho fivo sense'orgeffl aFo
included in eonsitivo metter (pasilarepa), being
the conditions for the apprehension of the sensibles
boeauee they ere, as it w.er.'e, bright liko the surfacs
of a mirror (Vi,snx. p. 381)-
Subtlo qualitios of body (sukhuma.tfipa) includo
tho principles oi status of the two sex€s (i'tth'indrtga,
Trurisind,riya),
the vitol principle,(ji'virindrtyal,
the two media of communication, sign and word
(lcd,yati,frfrotti, aaciuifi,fratti), spsce (dkdsadMtul,
the properties of matter such as lightness (lahdii),
pliancy (mudukil, adaptability
ilcammafifrato),
e!'c.
and the nutritive principle in foods (kabalihkd,ra-
ahnra).
The objects (d,ramrrwpa) rnentionod above serve
as objecte of consciousness in the sensuous sphoro
(lcdrnal,olco). But concepts (pafi'fiattd) can bo the
object of consciousness not only of the Bonsuous
sphero but also of the spheres of form (n7pa\
and the formless (arilpa|. The objects of the first
five
jMna consciousnoss are inducod by tho trang-
forrned aftor-imago (polibhdgandrndtta) which is
AnnuuRNA.PAccAYA
AnRuunNA-PACCAYA 6l
only an imago of one or the ol,her of tbe lcasinns
coneeptualised. Again, tho first four stages of
jhana'induced
by the exercise of amity (mettdl,
pity (karurfi.) and appreciation (mu.diaQ are worked
on the concept
'mankind'
;
but the fifth stage
induced by the exerciso of equanirnity (upekkhn)
is also concerned with that concept, not a,s &n
object of love, pity or appreciation, but as an objoct
of relative indifference.
-Agairr, the first exercise of consciousness in the
higher or irnrriat,erial (arilpa) jhina
is on tho
concept of space (akasa); the thi rd i S exerci sed on
the conce pt of nothi ngness (aA.i r-rca).
Thus, al l
these forms of consciousness have concepbs (pafr,-
fiatti\ only as their objects (Abhidhammq,ttha-
,"*i.bhd,aini,--ed.
D. Pafl fl 6sdra and P. Wimaladhamma.
1933, p. 75) .
Ni bbana al one i s sai d to be the obj ect of trans-
cendental consciousn clss (Iolcuttaru, -
citto : Abln. p. I 4).
The i ncl usi on of Ni bb[na arnong the obj ects of
thought, to tr, certtrin extent, points to the fact
t hat i t i s a r . nent al st t l c.
According t.o ,,1blt idltunt,m,o, philosophv, concepts
(pofi,fi,atti) {ir,ll into t}re category of conventional
truth (santr,rnuti-saaca), while rnnd (citta). mental
concomitants (cetasika) and matter (rt7pa), con-
stituting the empirical world of relativit v (patzcca-
sanxuppantrLa), and Nibb6na, which is the transcen-
dental reality, are a,ll included under ultimate
trutb (par amattha,
-
s acca).
What is evident from the foregoing examination
of the object (d,rarnma,na)
is that it comprehends all
these forms of'actualit;' and reality. This further
proves the statement of Buddhaghosa that there is-
nothing in this world that cannot become the object
of consci ousness.
D. J. K.
ARAMMANA-PACCAYA or rhe rel ati on of obj ecr
or presentation is one of the twenty-four forms
of relations (,paccaya) enumeratecl in the Pa,tthd,na,
tlr.e soventh book of the Ablti.dlnmma Pitalca of
the Theravndins.
A phenomenon (dh,amnr.a) which assists or renders
help (upakd.ra) to some other phenomenon by
way of an object or presentation to which
tlro latter coulcl cling or holcl {'ast (d,Iambigqri\
rs sartl to be related in this ma,nner. Just as a weak
person (dubbala purisa) mnkes an attempt, to stand
up leaning on au stick (d,arula) or holding fast, to
a ropc (rajju\, cven so mind and its co-elliciente
(citta-cetasiJca-d]t amm,o,) arise only with an object ive
support (l'istn, 4o4).
In the world of empirical events Buddlusm
holds that everything is rolativo aad iaterdepend-
ent. Mental phenomena (rfrrna-l and matter
(rttpa) are interdopendont
;
the ono cennot' sta.nd
without the other, Thus for the manifestation
of the mental phenomena somo kind of oblective
support is a sine qua non. This objective basis
is worthy of being examined, Tor it is said that
there is nothing in this world.that would not become
the obj ect of consci ousness (Vi sm,. p. 454; Abhi ,-
dhnmmatthaui,bhivint,, ed. by D. Paf,frEsdra and
P. Wi mal adhamma, 1933, p.f 38).
The object of consciouanoas is said to be either
object of senso or object of thought. Tho former
is
'subdivided'into
five classes, viz., visible form
(oakkhuudfiit eyy a-ritpa), audibie sound (sotovifif,eyya-
soddn), odorous smell (gh&nauifi,fr.egya gandhn),
sapid taste (jialuiviirfreyya-rasa) and tangiblo
matter (kayat:,ififi,eyya-pollh.abba) These serve &s
ths basis or support (paccaya-upalcdraka dharnmal
for the arising of the cons(liousness
(.udfi,frarnl
of sight, sound, 8mell, taste and touch, respec-
tively. I{ence, thmo fivo classos of seusibleg
ar:e related to tho fivo darree of ooDsoioumegs
byway of the relation of objoOptuttlrrl4a.pcrrroya :
Ti,kap.I, L-2).
The object of thought eonsists of eix olasser.
Tleey a,re (l) all classes of corrciourness (orbr,
(2) all states of mental concomitAntz (ffi1.
(3) all kinds of material qua,lities (r&pa) wbethsr
they are sensitive (pasa,cla) or (4) subtlo (eubhumol,
(5) all terms expressive of concepts (pafrfi,aAil
and (6)
Nibbana. These can be termed ideas of
reflection and are collectively called d,Iwmmd-
ra,nurrnlne (Abhs. p. f 3).
All these sensibles or objects of eense, pfft,
present or future, and all objects of thought,
past, present, future or outside time, comprising
tho convent,ional (sammut'i), the relabive (paticca-
sanxuppanno) and the transcerrdenlal (Iokuttara),
are d,rammanq,-paccayo and a,re causally reiated,
several l y, to tho soventy-si x cl asses of conci ous-
noss knowrt a,s rnind cognitions, which are t,he
pocc&y u pponnd, dhommd,.
In the s&me way, the actions (kornma), tbo sign
of oction (komm,anim,ittal an.d the sign of destiny
(gatinim,itkr), presonted to a m&n at, the momont
of death, serve &s Llrc rirarnnulrul-paccaAo and aro
causally related to the consc'iotrsness known aa
the life-continuwn (blw"*attga\. It is clear from
tbi e that the dyi ng-consci ousness (cuti ,ci ttal of
an individual cannot generate rebilth-conscious-
ness (pofisarullicitta) without, the support of theso
aRAUUATIA SUTTA 62 ARAITAVTBEAI{GA SUTTA
objects whieh arno preeented to him st ihe momont
of death. Only to tbe dying
"oos"fousoess
of a
trrerson
rho hss attained 6nal emancipation
(pri,nihbdna) aro these objects not presonted; for in
tho opisode of Godhika (,S. f, 120 ff.) it is eaid tbai
he possod eway with consciousness fi1ding no basis
(opptifihi,terw ni fi,ffi,T ena),
A caroful arnrnination of the doctrino of depon-
dent arising (pali,cwarnuppddal with its twelve
fectore would reveal the fact that this seme rola-
tion is obtainod betwoon the fifth and tho sixth
factors. ff name and forn (rfimorfipa) is taken
to b€ the subjectivo procoss, then tho six spheros
(ealdyara,rw) senre &a an objectivo basis or support
for tho arising of contact (phnsaol rosulting in
f66ling (aedandl. Thus, the objoctivo procesg
eomprehonding tho eix spheres (salnyatann
)
is tho
rytnyo-dhomma
and contact (phnasa) the pancoya-
uprynww-dlwrnnta, the rolation oxisting between
these two boing ono of objectivity (6rommannl.
It mey bo pointed out that this r€lation (object)
itvolvoe a subject, thus indicating a standpoint
thet ie opposod to orthodox Buddhist philosophy,
viz., the posi0ing of a subst&nco or agont. But
it
.should
bo noted that tho objoct (dromrnaqtal
involves .no correlate of metaphysical import;
snd thie opplies also to the subjoct. The ever-
cbangi:rg object or tho objectivo processr is regarded
es tho thing-which-relates (poccaya) and tho ovor-
changing mental aggregates are the thing-related
(ponaoyupponrw: Cornpendium of Philosophy, a
translation of t}:re Abhi.ilhammattha- sahgoha, London,
1910, p. 2), the only constant factorbeingtho concept
of tho spocific relotion (JPTS. 1915-16, p. 25).
D. J. K.
ARAtUAryA SUTTA deals with four persons
who practiso concentration (S. III, 266). One
is skilled in concentration but not in the object
of it
;
ono is ekilled in the object of concontration
but not in coneentration
;
one is skilled in neither
;
and tho fourth ono is skilled in both: ho is the
greatest of the four.
Another eutta of tho samo name (ibid.
275')
gives also four persons who practise concentration :
ono is skilled in the object of coneentration but
not in the range of it
;
one is skiiled in the rsnge
of concentration but not in the objoct of it
;
the third
ie skilled in noithor and the fourth is skilled in both
;
ho is tho greatoet.
U. K.
ARATJADIPIYA (var. Apannadipiya, Arannodr^
piya), an arahant thera. Ninety-four kappae
ago when ho was born
qs
& dov&, ho cams dovm to
oarth and made an offeriag of five lamps. Owing to
this good deed he oseepod.all evil births thereafter,.
Fifty-five kappae ago he was born as a world-ruler
(cakkaaottin), named Sqrnantacakkhu (.4p. f, 231).
L. R. G.
ARAI{AfrJAEA, namo for Asokaprijaka
.(q.
v.)
thera in e previous birth as a king.
ARANASAUAVASARAIIA. a eamedhi or a GoD-
centration of both mind and body urentionod
in the Mohdnytupofri, (BB. XIIf, p. l0). It is
callod Arannsoranuamansuarann in the Sotasd-
hurikdprajfrd,pdramitd (p. l4l4), aud explainod
as a sam6dhi, whoroin sdmedhis do not becomo
defi.led (,SsP. f425).
u. K.
ARA{ ASARAI AS A RVASA} I AVASARAUA, &
sem6dhi or a coacentretion of both mind and body,
the attainrnent of which is chBrBcterised by froedom
from all defilements and passions (BB. Xfff, p. l0
;
,SeP. pp. 1414,1425).
ARAry.I SUTTA. The Buddhe, in enswer to tho
questions by a deity, ssys that the roclusos in
this world are undefiled, their way of life is nover
wreckod, they r:nderstand earthly desire,s, and
theirs is oternal freodom. In virtue eetablished,
they receivo homage from mothor, fathor and
brother. Noble warriors reverently salute them,
though they be of low birth (lS. I, 4+-5).
U. K.
ARAIAVIBHANGA SUTTA contai ns an anal ysi s
of the peaceful state away from strife (ra7ral. Ths
kernel of the sutta appears to bo a brief statement
made by the Buddha which rvas exp*ndod later
as often happens inlboSutta Pita'ka (M.m,230 ff.).
The sutta is marked by a gradual approach to tho
goal and a gradual devolopment in self-tarning so
characteristic of Pali Buddhism (I. B. Ifotter,
MiHle Lerqth SaEings, fff, p. xxvi). lt describes
the life of an ideal Buddhist monk, not that of a
hermit or anchorite, but that of the teaeher who,
after working out his own salvation, makes $''
eamest effort to lead his fellow beings on to the
sarno goal. The path trodden by him in order to
ARA$AVTBEAfrGA SUTTA 63 ARA$I SUTTA
reeeh self-perfect,ion as well ae the method adopted
by him in leading others to the solfsame goal, are
free from strife (rana),
Tho training of oneself consists in following the
Middle Peth (majjhimi, patipadd), avoiding the two
extremes of indulgenco in sensual pleasr:res and
s€lf-mortification. Happiness associated with
senso pleasures leads one to anguish, annoyBnce,
trouble, fret and hence to strife (ranal. Ifan, by
nature, yearns for happiness anci rocoils from pain
(M. T, 34L). Therefore, any form of mortification
of the self is practised with great aversion. A
psychological warfare, a strife, has to bo n.aged
by tho persorr who indulges in sur:h practices. But,
t'he Middle Path (majjhima pali.pada), which is
adoptod by the Buddha, in order to attain porfoc-
tion, avoids these two extremes and is characterised
by absence of strife (arana\. It, is tho Noble
Eightfold Path.
Again, the inability to judge
what happiness is
also Ieads to strife. I{appinees based on the senses
is not stable. Aloof from the pleasures of sense
a diaciple should be intent on inward happiness.
AJter tho attainrrent of self-perfection it is the
duty of the disciple of the Buddha to lead suffering
hurnnnity to tho selfsame goal.. The method adop-
tod for this purpose, as is givon in the sutta, too, is
characterisod by the abs€nco or avoidanco of strife.
In inparting the teaching to others, the <lisoiple
rbould not try to approve or disapprove of the
doctrines to which they have held fast, but should
simply teach the
Dhamma. In the Kalalmyiafu
Sutlc (Sn. pp. 204 fr.), thb attempt to approvo or
disapprove the doctrines held b5r others is seid.
to lead to strife. Ilence the avoidance of it,.
A secret ehould not be spoken unless it is condu-
nivo
to tho attainment of the goal on the part of tho
person
to whom it is spoken and also if it is the ripe
:ime, for otherwise it would lead to endless strifs.
-{gain, the disciple is asked to speak slowly and not
:rurriedlv for if he does so, not only would ho suffer
:h1-srcalll' but he rvould also not be comprehensible
' : r
t he ot her s.
In thi s attempt to teach. the di sci pl e shoul d. not
af;ect the di al ect of the respecti ve country (j anapa-
t;ni nttti ), for sr-rch an attempt woul d not yi el d the
i erred frui t, but s' oul d l ead to stri fe. On the other
,ran,l . i re shoul d not devi ato from the recogni sed
-r ant'.r.
1
stitrt aiiriam nuti.dlw,ueyyu),
-tr. t lre end of the discourse B, young man, Subhiti,
.-. r:'oised, bt-'corrsr: hc walked where calm
(oruna\
- : .
AnAi l EMI (l ), a rel i gi ous teaoher of a past age who
taught his many pupils the way to ettsin birth in
BrahrnB,lsfts. Ile was freed of all lustful passious
and practised non.violence and compassion. After
death hs was born in Brahmaloka and eo did his
disciples who followed his <ioctrine (.4. III, 371
;
IV, 135). Il i s name occurs among si x teachers,
the others being Sunetta, Mrlgapakkha, I(udddlaka,
Il atthi pdl a and Joti pdl a (,4. III, 371); el sewhoro
(/4.. IV, 135 f.) a seventh n&me, Araka, is added.
T};.e Divyd,uaddrw (pp. 632, 65 l, 653
)
also mentions
a brahmanical sage named Aranemi and so does
the Ma,hd,u'gutpatti (3472) where the name is spelt
-A,ranemi.
L.R,.G.
ARANEMI (2). Accordi ng to the Ti betan DuJua,
king Aranemi Brahmadatta of SrBvasti was the
father of Prasonajit. He elso had an illogitimate
son named Balamitra. Once Aranemi Brahmadatta
is seid to have lived at Campd where he had been
exilod (Rockhill, The Life of the Buddha and, tlue
Earlry History of frie Order, pp. 16, ?0). Ilowever,
dccording to Poli sources, the father of Presenajit
(Pasenadi) is Mahdkossla. This could, of courso,
be a title and not a name.
L. R. G.
ARAIJEUI, a variant reading for Anoma, king of
Jambudipa fifty-five kappas aBo, a previous
birtb of Bakkula thera (Ap. T, 329).
ARA{EMIKA, a school of brihmans, a subdivision
of the Chandogas (Di rV. 632.23). See,\RA{EMI
( l ) .
ARA{I SUTTA, the ninth sutta of tt.le Sukhendriga
Vagga of the fvfl ri ya Samyutta (,S.V,211-tB). TbD
Buddlra declares that there are fivo iruJriyas (eow-
trolling faculties)-those of ease, diseomfort,
happiness, unhappiness and indifference. Just
as from the striking together of two sticks (kallho,
e swlonJrrrr for which k ara1,i from which the sutta
takes its name) heat and fi,re are produced and
from tho separation of the two sticks the heat and
fi.ro thus produced are extinguished (cp. ,S. fI,
g7
;
fV, 215), in the s&me way, each of the fivo ind,riyas
(eontrolling faculties) arises as a result of tho ap-
propriato contact and passes with the coasiag o{
that contact. Thus, from the contact that is to be
experienceci &s agreeable (sukhauedanEya-phassol
ari'ses the controlling faculty of ease (sukhindriyal
and dis&ppearf on tho ceasing of thnt contact,:
D. J. K.
ARAfrJARAGIRI
64 ARAfrfrAKA
sirnilarly with the other four eontrolling faculties-
According to the udldna' of some MSS. this sutta
should have tho t'itle aralnTn or arahd (from aroha'to
in tho ud'M,rw\ but there appeers to be no
iustifi-
cation for such a titlo.
L. R. G.
ARAffJARAGIRI, a mountain renge in Madhya-
de6a, in India. In its neighbourhood was a pdpulous
town on a river, probably the river l(ontimd,rd
(J. VI, 492). Many men bathed in this river and
along its banks sat beautiful courtesans, tempting
the men. It was one of theso courtesans lrho
tempted Ndrada, a hermit, who dwelt alone in a
cave-cell amidst the Araf,jaragiri mountain range
(J. rrr, 463).
Vessentara (q.v.) and his f5Ynily had to pass
Arafljaragiri on their wey to Vaikagiri. It was
along the road followed by men banished from
tbe kingdom (J. \|I, 493). Other places also men-
tioned are the city of Jotuttara fifteen leagues
aw&y from Arafilaragiri, the Suva44agiritdla
mountain ten Ieaguos away,andthe river Kontimdrd
five leagues aw&y. (But according to J. VI, 493,
the river Kontimd,rd flowed by the mountain range.)
Tlrere was also s brBhrnan village, Dunniviffha, on
the other sido of Arafijaragiri fivo leagues eway
f r om i t ' ( / . VI , 514) .
I I . R. P.
ARAfrtA JATAKA, related by tho Buddha
(J. III, 147-9) concerning the eeduction of a youth
by e coarse grl. Tho ineident is. identical with
that of tbe CuLlanrtradakaseopa, Jdtako (No. 477).
In S6vatthi, there was a young girl who wae not
married. The mother thought of inducing a bhik-
khu to marrJr her. She propared various kinds of
food, and lookod out for a bhikkhu to offer it. Then
she Bsw a certain bhikkhu walking along the streets
for alns, and invited him. After the meal, she
oskod him to come thero again. On tho nert day,
the girl following tho
inctructions
of hor mother
tempted the bhikkhu and s€duced him. On his
return to the monastery, he gave up hie robes.
Wben this was reportod to tbo Buddha he related
this story to show thet the sano girl had beon a
hindrance to tho monk's holiness evon in the past.
Once, the bodhieetta was born in a brdhman
family and was sent to TaLkasil6, where he learnt
all the arts. On tho doath of his wife, he wont with
his son to the Ilimdlayae to lead an ascetic life.
Ona day, he went out to gather fruits, leaving his
eon behind at the hernitage. A young girl who
had fled from brigands came to tho hermitago
and seduced the youth. When sho asked him to
go s,w&y with her to live in a village, the youth
wanted to consult his father. Thereupon she
asked him to meet her on tho way and left the
herrnitage. When the youth told him about hie
anxiety to livo in a village, the father warned hirn
against leaving the herrrrrtage and taught him the
way to mystic meditation (lca$naparikamma). Both
son and father praetised mental absorption (jharni
and were reborn in the Brahma world.
I . K.
AnnfifieXA
(var. d,rafi,fi,i*a and wafrfiaka;
Buddhist Sanskrit d,ra,Ttyaka\, a forest-dweller; tho
word is also usod in its techuical sense, i.e., one
who undertakes the ascetic practice of dwolling in
tho forest. In this sense it is a d,huta,nga called the
d,rafi,inkahgo, ono of tho thirteen d'hutangos (,4. If[,
2lg, 220; Pug. 69; Mi,l'n. 3-o9
;
Visnn 48). There
are only twelvo dhutangas in the Buddhist Sanskrii
l i terature (GM. fII, i i i , 122; Dl umg. 13; AgP.
38?). See DIIUTANGA.
The foremost among the monks who practisod
d,rafrfia,kohga, during tho life-run" of the Buddbo,
was Revata Khadiravaniya (A. I, 24).
It is one of tho seven thinge tb,at prevont ths
deciine of monks (satto aparihiniya-dhanvna) :
" So long as monks dwell in forests. growth nay
be expected, not decline " (A.IY,2L). The Buddhs
is stated &s expressing regret that monks do not
livd in the forest unlike in tho past (S. II, 208, 209).
This shows that there was neglect on tho part of tho
monks with regard to ascetic practices during the
Lfo-time of the Buddha hirnself.
There aro five kinds of drafi,(,akas, i.e., one who
has gone to the forest out of folly and blind"ess,
one out of evil desires and longings, one foolish end
mind-tossed, one at the thought that it is praised
by Buddhas and their disciples, and the ono whosc
wants &re few, and who wants only soclusion,
The last is the highest (L. III, 219
;
Vi,n. V, l3I
;
Pca. 69l .
Tho Mi,Iinfur,pafi,lp devotes a whole chapter
(chapter vi) to the glorification of tho thirteon
dhutangas.
Ttre Visudlhino4ga gives a detailed account of
llne d,rafi,fi,okanga in the Dhutanga' N'idd'esa.
The forest-dweller's
practice is undertakon with
orre of the following statements : " I refuse an ebode
in a viliage " ;
or "
I undertake the forest-dweller's
practice ".
ANEfrNAKA MAHA.ABHAYA 65
AnAilfrA sUTTA
Ilaving done so. the forest.dweller rmrst leave
the village in order to meet, the dawn in tho forest.
If his preceptor or tcacher is ill and does not obtain
what he nceds in the forest, ho should take him
to a village abode and attend to him there, but he
should leave in t,ime to meet the dawn in a place
proper for the practice. If the affiiction increases
towards the time of dawn, he must attend to him
there and not bother about the purity ofhis practice.
T};.e d,rafifi,akahga has three grados : one who is
strict in his practice must always meet the dawn in
the forest
;
the medium one is allowed to live in a
village for the four months of the rains
;
and the
'nild
one, for the winter months too (Vism. Sg).
ff, during the defined period, tho forest-dweller
goes from the forcsr and listens to the dhamma in a
village abocle, his ascetic practice is not broken even
if he meets the dawn there, nor is it broken if he
meets it whilo he is on his way back after hearing
the dhamrna. But if, when tho preacher
has got
up, he thinl<s, " I shall go after lying down a while,"
and ho meets the dawn while asleep, or if. of his own
choiee, ho meets the dawn while in a village abode,
then his ascotic practice is brokgn.
The spiritual bene$ts of this practice &re many.
I'he forest-dwelling monh develops his concentra-
tion. His toacher is pleased with him. IIis ruind
is not distracted. IIe is froo from anxiety, aband-
ons attachment, to a worldly life and enjoys the bliss
of seclusiot (Vism. 57-g). Such special qualitim
&g fewness of wishos, contentment, effacement,
eeclusion, dispersal, energy and modest needs will
bo perfoctod in him, Thereaftcr, when he has be-
come established in the first tlrree of the heritages
of the Noble Ones, viz., contentment with any
sort of robes, with any sort of alms-food and with
any sort of lodging and thus finds delight in aband-
oning (pahdna), he mery become worthy to attain to
tho fourbh heritage, called delight in development
(bhiaana: A. II, 27
; Visn, 48).
U.K.
AnefrfrefA MAIIA-ABHAyA, a learned monk
of Ceylon, formerly known as Abhaya thera when he
was & resident of tho MahdtalEkavihara (var. Maha-
v6.likavihira). Later he left tho monastery and lived
in a hut in a noighbouring
forest, and thenee camo
to be known as Arai.flaka.
A lar,,man who onco
hesrd him prcach w&s so pleased that for twelve
yo6rs ho provided the monk with his needs.
After some time the lalrnan found that the monk
did not make u.se of the robes given to him and al-
weys woro a rag robe. Wishing to find out the
e&uso he gave robes to the monk again ond waited
hiding near the hut. A thiof, Ilarantika
(var.
Arati), was in the habit of stealing tho robos given
to the monk. This time, too, he saw the layma,n
bringing robes to the monk and in the night c&mo to
the hut and took them away. The layman caught
the thief with the robes in his possession and, having
thrashed him, took him to a cemetery, tied e
corpso ou to his b&ck and loft him thore. Tben
he went to the village and warned tho people that a
devll (amantrs.ro)would
come to the village that night
and they should not open the doors, howover much
the devil might plead. In the night, Ilarantike
went to his own hous€ and sskod his wife to open
the door, but being frightened, sho would not do so.
Ilarantika went round the villego and pleaded in
overy possible way, but was unablo to gef, any help.
Ultimately ho went to the mon\, who untied tho
co{pso, bathed the thief and applied oil on his body.
The layman, wbo was going round in the morning
looking for the thief, came to the hut and sew what
was happening. Whon tho layman exprossed his
.lioeppror.al
of the moqk'g action,the monk edmoai.
shed hirn saying that he
ghould
bo compassionato
towards the thief. Subsoquently, Earantika ob-
tainod ordination from the motrk and later beoo"'e
an arahnt (Rasat:dh'ini, ed. Sarepatisea, Part If,
pp. 5 ff.; ,S.ruu. f4 f.).
II.R.P.
AneilillxAxAcera-BEAyA surrA, Dargo
given in the Suttasorigaho (pp. 326 ff.) to the
Antfrg ot a,Szlf.o of the Ai4uttora N i,kiiy a (IfI, I 00 fi.
).
ARAfffrASATTA, name for Nirnitt'as*fifiq.fts (q.v.)
thera in a previous birth a.s king.
Anefrfre SUTTA. There ana four suttes by
this name, three of which occur in the Arigtilara
liikaya and one in the Saqnyuffa Nikoya.
The first sutte is in the Abhifrfrfr Voggo (A.TI,2521.
The Buddha, while residi-g neBr Kosambi in
Ghosita Park, tolls tho monLs that a bhikkhu who
harbours four qualities, namely, sensual thoughts
(kumn -uiaklco),
malicious thougbts (vya@-vitahlca),
harmful thoughts (ui,hi,7nsd-udtakkal,has woqk wisdom
(d,uppafi,fr.a), dull-wittednea.s (jalal and imbocility
(ektmtrgal, is not fit to live alone in the foreet.
On tho othor hand, one who has thoughts of renun-
ciation (nnlckhomnw-dbkka), harmless thoughts
(aaihimsd-uitokkal and who is not dull-witted
(ajalal nor imbocile (anel,ornilgo), is fit to do so.
ARAfrfrA SUTTA
66 ARAfrffAVASI IIIKAYA
The second sutta which ocours in the Koldh'a
Vagga (A. trI.I, l2l) is addressed to the bhikkhus
dwelling near Vesdli st the I{ifagarasdle i:r MahA
v8ua.
The Buddha speaks of the ud.vantages of deve-
loping d,rwpd,nasot'i (mindfulness on breathing
in and broathing out). Ile says that if a monk
ia possessed of five qualities, nemely, that he is
set on little (appa!!ha), engaged in litble (appalcicca),
frugel (subharal, well eontent with life's necessities
(ausartaso ji.vitapariklchd'resu), that he takes &
small quantity of food (appdhnral and does not
Barvo only his stomach (arwd'arikamanuyutta),
that he is lazy only to a small extent (apparnid'illw)
and is hoedful and vigilanr
$a4ariyamanuyutt'a),
that he livos in tho forost (drafiitaka) with a solitary
bed and a seat (ponlaaennsana) and that he reflocts
on tho mind as froed, such s monk bocomes very
conscious of his breathing in and out and penotrates
the
ivnrnovablo (okuppo) before long.
llhs next sutta, which occur€ in the Pfuuwhd,ro
Vqggo (.,{.. IrI, 135), is sddross€d to the bhikkhus
dwelling uoar Koeembi in the Ghosite park.
Tbo Buddhe says that a monk who has five
qualities, namely, tbat he is virtuous, restrained
in the obligatione (Nri,nfrkkha), porfectod in eonduct
and habit (fud,ragocaruarntpannal, Bees danger
in the
st'tallest
fault and traine hims€lf according
to the procopts, rtho is learnod, of retentive
memory Brrd possessed of a well-r€ad mind (tuta.to,nni-
ccara) with nogard to things good in the boginning,
good in tho middle and good in the end, and lea,de a
life of celibacy, perfect ln all its espects, \pho
atides in aotivs enorgy, puts eway all wrong things,
takes to right things, is et€adf&st and strenuous
(da$wporaklmmoi, and shirks not the burden of
right things,-$1sl e monk obtainn at will the abodes
of eaee (mklwtitdra), tho four statee of mental
abeorption (jlfirw\, he entere aaed ebides in the
emaneipetion of the mind (cebti,mutti) and in the
emanoipetion through insight (pafrfttuimutti). and
attains to intuitive wisdom (abhi,ilm,Q having
reslisod it by himnelf.
fro last sutta which occure in the Nal,a Vagga
of the Soqnyutttt Ndlcdya (,S. f, 5) is a dialogue
botweon the Buddha and a deity, at the Jeta grove
in Andthaprtrdika's park-
Ibo doity asks how the bhikkhus in the forest,
being cal'n, leading a lifo of coUbacy and partaking
of oae meal a day, possees a beautiful complerion.
The Buddha replies that they do not larnent over
the past, do not yeant for that which is not come,
and maintain themaolvos with what, they have got.
Fooiish people who lament over the past and yoarr
for that which is rrot come, get withered up like
a reed (nala) which is cut off
I. IL
ARAfrffA VACCA, the nineteenth section of the
Pafi,caka Nipata of tho Ai,;utta,rv Ni'kaya (III, 219-
9l). It consists of teq suttas, each sutta dealing
with a group of five.
In the ten suttas, ten clasges of men aro described,
such as, those who have taken to the practico of
living in the forest, wearing rag.robes, sitting
at the foot, of trees, haunting the gravoyards,
living in the open air, sitting in one place, accepting
whatever seat is offered, sitting alono, living
alone, not eating aft'er a fixed time, and eating
from one bowl.
The Buddhe s&ys that,
just
as the esgenco of
ghee(sappima4f,nl is the best of the fivefold products
of milk, viz., milk, cre&m, butter, gheo end oesenco
of ghee, likewiee of the five persons in each of tho
gtoups mentioned, the one who is content with
little is tho foremoet.
I. K.
ARATfrAVASI NIKAYA, also called Vanavdsi
Nik6ya, was & section of monks in Ceylon dwelling
in quiet forest regions, dovoted chiefly to modits-
tion, &s opposed to G&mav6si Nik6,ya rcsiding
in towne and villages en.gaged in activities dirocted
towards cultural and educational dovelopment.
In matters of doctrine, thero was no difrsrenco
between the two sections
;
they diffsred only in
the rigour of the roligious life they led. The
arafiita,udsiru led & moro ascetic and socluded iife
thnn the gdmoadsins drd.
tr'rom about the sixth centurSr A. C., they are
referred to as a distinct
Broup,
though not as o
separate sect, (Mhu. xli, 99
;
lii, 22
;
liii, 14
;
liv, 20).
As in tho caso of pomsukil'Ii,kas, t'he arq.fi,fioudsins
wore found in all the sects in Ceylon. There is parti-
cular mention of araFtfi'audsi bhikkhus belonging
to the Mahdvihdra in Anurddhapura (Mha,lii, 2l).
The forest-dwelling monks were sometirnes
referred to as tapassi, " hermit " or " ascotio "
(Mhu. xli, 99 ;
liv, 20), which is not a tonn usually
applied to bhikkhus. In the tenth centtrry, reference
is made to a monastery called Tapovana, " Ascetica'
Grovc " nea,r Anurddhapura, which w&s the
residence for forest-dwelling monks. Thers were
also pamsuktThlc*s living in this monastery (Mhu.
liii, f4). This may be tho group of so-cslled
ARAfifrAVASI NIKAYA
\,vestern mon&sterios iving in 1,he forost aro&
to the west of Amrrd,dhapura (Memoirs o-f the
Arahaeologi,cal, Suruey c,f Ceyknt, Vol. f, p, l8),
The drekr\a/trr&s arid Lbe paryt,suktilikae
artr onl5r
two ot'the thrtelen groups follo'rnng ascetie practicos
(dhukntgal.
lllhere were moiiks who obs€rved
ofher dhutarigsas l*e p,iqtd",a,pcit'ilea.
But they are
not regarded e,s separate groupo.
fn lat,er tirnes, {,}re arafifr.ako.*, too, iike l,he
gdn*attr.iein.s, tock greator in+,erest in intellectua!
pursrits, and wero engaged in writinq not, only
roligious but also non.religior:s wcrks. The
Bdld,vabodharw, s, SenFrkrit grern:et&r, writtc..nr
in tho 12th contury by Arafliiavdsi Diiirb.rjdgala
Mahdkassapa, is a good example. Among fnrnarrs
scholars belongiriq to tbis sect, wero Ananda \rana,
ratsnaiissa, Vodehe, Coliya Buddhappiya,
Culls,
Dhamrnapdla, Medharikara, Ananrda and Sidcihnttha.
It lsa€ rl-r'r+r-rfievfrsi llirirbulEgala
Mah6kassapa
lirnself who prosided over the eor:ncii r:f the mern-
bere of the throe fraternitiee*-1[ahadhd,ru.
Abha,ya.
qiri,
end Jetauarw,-held under the patronege of
Parikramab&hu I, s kurg of Oeylon (fl53-g6
-{- C.}, where ihe throe frnteruities were r.reoncilo<1,
arrcl the rurdesir*ble elenrents within the Onior
rrf the rn.enks erpelled, tfrue
;rurifying
ttre
S6sans.
The Araririavisi selet, contigued io flourish
ovan duri ng thc r2th una the l 3rh centuri eg.
anrl when Vijayabilru III
rtr&B
rergning et,
Il ari rhadepi ya (1239-6 A. C.i , the ht.rad of the
seot was an eirisr nu,moci Ananela (colnphon to l,he
Pcda**ddhnrur Sannp.)" fhring the tirno of Kalikdle
ijlrhitva Sarvajfra Par:ldiia P*rrdkramabihu
,
rl .tr i;rrirlrar{or.riya ( i 236- 7 i .r}. C.
),
Araflriakg
]Iedhankarn of Diftbuld,gala, tha ehief of the sect,
l.,iesided
ovet t,ho sy..norl of monlre and expolted
ihoso rnonks who were limncl g-trilty of nrisconduct
t,lj$,nultul(ni
Katilcaauta). Tihe king built, for ther
ir.ie of iiraflrir"k* tnrul[s q11i.
la mountoin in the
iorest, thc Pu!,abhai,tasela (PalEiratgalrr)
rnonastery
tll'hu.
lxr.xiv, 24
),
which iater becamo f,amous
rrJ thei abocle of ruitn3' urunks crf, great learning
:rrrJ isggefe airg.{,eritiss.
'!-hr:
Arn,fifiln'fi^si soct str:1ems to ha,vo lieerr closell
.rr:.i rrc.i aterl wi th the Ii ' r,{d}rrsrts of K{rl i ri g*. fbi
,i ul i ng t,he l .i rne r_rl Aggatrodhi l l --ki ng
orl
(;e,vi on
l 1)l ,,.l l ,r1. C.)--the ki ng oi }i +rl i ri ga cl l i l rro to
i
r..vion and heoa;ne l, rfir-rnk nttachr:cl to tho Ararifra-
' .
i Ls; ,i (l ct (hi l w, xi ri " 4{ ri (}}. l .l ' ,-cn *t .+.ho enrl 6f
l rr l i Jl i r c,-ul ury. r' c {i nct Vodrrhi t .monti nni ri g t,l i e
.:;,li,r:, r,ri u l{.6liriga }Iahathera (cok:phon
t* i,he
i i .t' ;r,tri fi ,t:,i ] who neted as $patl sor e! Vorl eha' s
-,rci i ni r,t.r,rg hr Anri ,ntl a..
( 7
AR APA CAI.TA.P
{TJ.A VI DHI-I{AMA
By about the lSth coatury,
however, the difie-
renco between the t,wo socts*-Lhe GFrns\rasi *^4
Arafl-d&vrisi--sseura
to have been only in nanne,
anr.d 1o6 in practice.
Tlress trpo
eoctions" in leter
timoe, wero known as lfbhnyavEsa,
.
Ths Twcl
Jtresirlences' (N ikd.y a Sa:4grafia ^ pp" ll0_24)
"
The modern oetabiishnrents
cf Malwatta and
Asgiriya, the two chief terrpios in Kandy, Coylon,
seorn to be the docon.ients of ths old Lrbhayav6sa,
I ho forrnor
berng the G6,mr-rdsa and the latter the
Argfrliav&cs.
II. K.
A n n
{
y
n K A, ii-;in g m t}re foreer. $ee AITASNAKA.
A"RAPACA}IA, nlao ualled Sadl.onubhava-Arapa_
c&rr& or Saciyonubhava-Mari;utri,
a form of
the bodhisottva }Ianju6ri.
Hs orig.inates from
the soed-sylleblo (bija-ahaaro)
,
A', wherea.s
his
lbur eompnn-rons,
namsly, JdlinikurnEira (or Surye-
prabira),
Uandraprabha, Keiini and Ir'pake6iru-,
originato lrom the aeert syilabter,, ra,
IxL,
a, and no;
and henr:e hie namo .{raprnceu*.
He is bright like ths moon, hes * smili.g
feco and is either red or whit€ in colour. I[e
we&rs becutiful orrr^ammte a,nd r€d gern€nts,
He ig ncrmnally ropreaonted as being seetod on a
lotus in t}oio
wjrapryoftlca postura,
ovor engeged
in meditation. Somstfuares, it is seid, hin
forut
dxplays a vory passiorrate spl)€areuce (.iTngoraoa{a).
Witti his right hand he wields e BworC which
symboiisos tho deetruction of ail ignor*nce Anai
witb the left hand held agaurat the chosb ho carries
a book, thre Prajffi,firuntitd,,
which ie regarded
as tbo orrbodimsnt of all knowledge.
In fom" the
four corup*njone are very
girrrilar
to Arepacana.
Of tbem. Kefini and Upake6inl aro on his right
aad loft, reepectively
l
JdlinikrrrnF,ru is in frant ap1l
Candrapr*bha behind" (S€o ,Sddfs. f, pp. ll2_Ig,
l?2 and 130 ff.; B. fthotr,whnryya, Tlw Ind,i,art,
Eud.dhiat lcorcgr*phy, pp. 320 fi.I
A.r*pacsne, sa s forrn of Mhfiju.6ri, is quite
Ixitruiilr
in Tibst snd Cbin$ (A.
K" Gordon"
Ic*nngrr.t7th,'g a! Tobef.an lTanwfiant, p. d8)" Some-
tirneis his hand is ehown as irclding a b€ll, which
alsc
"nay Lr*vo treori of the sevre s.trmtx-riic, value
as ther awqrd
{Alice Gett;i, GrxJ;l' of Northern Butd-
h,isrn,. i-ei Tutt,ls odition, lgffZo Pl*i;e XXXIT a).
S. X" l.r
ARAPACAHA-pSJAVIpHI"l i IHA
{Arsa"waol , &
Sanei{rit, text ths Tibetan tr*nslation of whieh
grista
irl t-h*l Rgyud-lgrel
{tantra
offiolnefixtary)
t i 84: l ()
ARAPACANA.P UJAVIDHI-NAMA ARAPACAI{A SADHANA
68
Bection of tho Teng'yur under tho title (Hplngs-pal
o-t'o-pa-ba-rwl.ti-mchod-.pafui clw-ga shes-bya.-bo
(Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 79,
No. 3540). This tran"slation is attributed to Ni-ma
rgyal-mtshan dpal bzan-po (Sr3ryadhvajairibhadra
accordi ng to Cor&i er,II, p. 302, No. 24).
Tlce work which begine with s salutation tp
Arya Arapa,cana deals with tho procedur.e of making
offerings to Arapacana. Asselding to tho injunc-
tions Bet out in this work, the offerings should
be arrangod in front of the magic circle (rnondnl,o)
and the formula Or.n ah h&rn, wbictr ensurea protec-
tion tb tho place, the names of oneself (the donor)
and of the priost should bo pronouncod, Then
the following mantra, supplicating Arapacana
to accopt tho offerings of flowers, tho wator for
washing the feet (pd,ga), tho water for consecra-
tion (prokgo4c) end the like, is to be chsnted. Oqn
torm taildgfut.n ..nnmd,m,i blngacanta,r.n
Aropwna ndtlw dnlp hth,n fu,m lnh prarinchernarp
buumdfr,jaldm n&tn lwh
W
Ab hA\tu
lttauoro
eatlfitd,yo Aropunndyo, padyor;n patic*lw hilfn
amhd. OrlL
4
M,l.r
Tnowro
aatlciriiyo Aropco-
niiyo prolagonam prall,uha h&ry &m:hn. Ory dh
hri{t
Tnaooro
auilcdrdyo Aropornndgo fumanar.n
prannAw hery srfrld. Ory
4
fu6h proooro aa,t-
kfrrfryo Ararynrfrya arglvm prafbnlw
lnim afi\fi.
lbi! is to b€ followod by a rcoitation of the ssluta-
tory formulas, quoted below, addreseed to Mafr-
jughoge (a va,rirety of Maflju6ri of whom Arepacana
is s form) and his sttendants, the five Dhy6ni
Buddhas and thoir spiritual consorts except
Vajradhitvi&va,ri : Otm namo Mafi,juglwgdya d,hnh om
Vajrcpuppe h{try ewhn. Orn nenw JdJin|,prabhiyo
,v\n. Ory aajra'. Om namo{ Candropnoblfiya
pary. Om uajra". Om nnm,al.t Kei,i,nge caqn. Am
oajro". Ory, nama Upakeli,nye rwrn,. Or7, uajroo.
O\n ,aonw Aktobhgdgo h{rr.n. Om, aajra". Orn
ryorno Vairom,ni,yo . . . . . .. Or.n aajra". Or.n rwmn
Ralnaaomblwadya hhfn. Orn uajra". Orn rua,rno
Amifdhhdya hnlr. Orp, tnjroo. Orp nama, Amngha-
tiddhe klnry. Orp aajra". Orn rurrw) Locanfiye
bry. Om aajro,". Om nanw Mdmaki, mdry,. Om
oajra". Om rwmah Pd,nd.ard,ye pdm. Om tajroo.
Oqn rnmas Tard,ye tdry,. Oqn aajra". Om ah hum.
Among other mg.ntrag quoted in tho text tho
following may be cited: Or.n aa.jro tothd,gatu plja
mcglnptrusara samfr te ? Spharolw
himor.n gage-
nakam h"ry pha,{; O?.n d.h aaraata,thigatdbhiseko-
samagairiye hury ; Orytt, Arapaca,niya arghuln
Ttttstokolrustdyo
imar.n bal,i,ry kha kha kluilhi ktuahi ttana
lnrn doha da,hu poca pano numur saruaaatad,nd,ii
co bandlwr.n bard,Inni, d,hnry, hri klmm;
and the mantra ealled Satd,ksaragdrhd which also
occurs in the Arapw,rwaddlnrw (q.v. Sad,h.I. J6).
Tlris mantra is as follows : Om tsa,jrasalua sanwyorn
anupalayo.
Vajrasataotuernpatiptlw. Dfdlw me
blnuq,. Su,tosuo rfte blw,aa. Supogyo rne blwoa.
Anurq,kto m,e blnaa. Sarua.siddhi,rn me prayaccha,
Saraa,karmasu ca nae c,ittann ilreyah kuru hfr,rm ha ha
ha hn hob blwgaaan saraatathdgalao*ajra ntd ma
mufr,ca u aj ri,bh,aua mahds amag w ota a d,lt,.
R.II.
ARAPACANA SADEAHA,the ritle of three different
s6dhana texts
occurring in the Bdd,harwmdld.
These terts which deai with the procedure of wor-
ship for tho invocation of the divinity Arapacano
are BB follows :
I. Sddh. f, No. 55. The formula Namo
'rop-
caniya occurs at the boginning of the text. The
author of tire sddhana, Ajitamitra, who begins his
work, a metrical composition, with a salutation to
Marijughosa, stetes that he would givo instmctions
in brief for the worehip of Arapacana. The
priost, who krrows
the magic formulas, is instructod
to eit, on a soft and comfortable seat a." a ploasant
spot rtrewa with fragrant flowers and sprinkled
with scented water,
pnd
refloct onbodh,i,citta, (thought
of enligbtenment). IIe should then recite the
Sadhfruuiudd,hanrwntro and contemplato on the
illueory nature
Qifunyotd)
of all plronomena and on
Mafijughoga, a variety of Ma.fijusri (Inildan B.u.ddhist
Ioonography by B. Bhattacharyya, Calcutta, lgb8,
p. lOa) of whom Arapacana is also a form. M&fl-
jughosa,
as describod in this text, sits on a lotus,
absorbod ia meditation, wears the five rags (part-
catiraml, carnieg a sword and a book, is rosplendent,
with all ornarnents and bears a complexion, white
like tho rays of the moon. Ke6ini is seen on his
right, Upake6ini on the left, Jd,liniprabha in front
and Candraprabha behind. (For a note on Ajita-
rnitra,
tho author, so Sdd,h. If, p. xciii.)
Five Tibetan versions of this sddhana occur in
the Rgyud-trgrel (tantra cornrnentery) section of the
Teng;rur. Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T. Suzuki,
Vol. 80, No. 4132 contains a version, the Tibetan
title of which is Ara-pa-tsa-rwl.ti-sgrub-thnbs.
The
author's n&me has beeu renderod &s }Ii-pham
b6es-giien. Kamalagupta and Rin-chen bzan-po
(Ratnabhadra
according to Cordier, Iff, p. 4,
No. 6) are said to have translated the work. The
title and the Tibetan rendering of the author's n&me
aro the same in Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 79, No. 3538, the col ophon of whi ch
attributes the translation to Vibhuticandra and
Chos-rje dpal (DharrnasvEmi6ri
according Lo Cor-
di er,II, p. 309). Peki ng Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki. Vol. 80. lrio. 3gg3 contaias a version of the
ARAPACANA
$ADEAHA
69
A RAPA CAilA.SADEANA-VIDHI
Arapocaruu Sdd,hana under the titlo Spros,pa med,-
pahd qrub-thabs attributed. to Abhaya and
.Ishul"
khrims rgyal-mtshan (Siladhveje
according to
Cwd,' i er,If, p. 377^ Nos. 33 and 34). Ttte Ara-pa-
taa-rwhi, sgru.b-thabs of Mi-pham b6es"gfren (Ajita-
mitra), translated by Sri Vanaratns .and. Iigya-
mtshohi sde (Nags-kyi Inin-ch€n nnfl
S6garaseua
accordurg to Cordier, IIf, p, lTZ, No. ?), is also a
translationof this sddhana. Clordier (loc. cit.)statos
that the monastery of Dpai Gnotl-gnas (Sri Jam-
bhala) was tbe venue of the translation and he also
quotes two other titles by vhich tho work was
knownr
viz,, Arapacarw h$-hwhi agm*ba
{Aropa-
cannpafi,c ad ec* o
-
s dd,ln na) errd I.I
j
ant
-
dbg ahs ar oTta,ca
-
nahd qrub
\Mafi,jughogdrupatana,-addlarw\. T1xis
translation forms
No. 4837 of tho Peking Ed. Tib.
Tlip., ed. D. T. Suzuki, Vol. 86. The fifth Tibetan
version of the toxt, Vol. 80, No. 4270, rB by Grags-
pa rgyal-mtshan and it bears the title A-ra-pa-tea-
nehi sgrub-thabs.
2, Sddh, I, No. 56. Thie sddhana is a compo-
eition in prose with four verses forming part of the
text,
&n<l the concluding stanzs giving tho name of
the euthor Muktako (circa
Il00 A.C,) and also his
oi,her n&me Padrndkara (l-or
moro inibnnation on
Vrrktaka, seo Sqdh.II, p. cv). The col ophon cal l s
t he text M ulcta,k eruiropa,can&, E ailharw.
I'he salutatory fbrrnrrla N ama' raTntondy * oec urs
at the begi-ruring of ths text. fhs work contaius
rrrst,ructions nn moditation and theoffering.g
to be
rrru.de lbr tho worship of .Arapecana, Thus, the
x'orshipping priest is onjoined to meditate. on the
.lcrur divirrc sti-r,tos
\catur
brahmntrihdra\,
neruely,
rri<t,itrE (lovo), karu,nd, (eompassion),
ntud,ito (joy)
ar^d upekpa (equanimity), each of which is defined :
iLe sb,tuld make offerings of flowers, incense, lampe,
robes. parasols and the like. recite the stanzas
.tuoted for the confession of sin (,pupad,eiand),
i rrr risfererrcet oll rner,i b (.puny dnr tnndani), soeking tho
; lrreo reftrges
{tri.4antndgantan"a\ and production
r'f' tlrr: thouglrt of enlighl,enment,
(bctdh.'ici,ttotptfula),
ntl e<rl , on fhe i l i uson' naturc of al l thi ngs,
chant
i l',e iorrnu la O rn, .: uablwua{u ddh,i h saruarlharntdlt,
s,*a
-
i,iLut:a,4trcld,ho
'harn,
and thinli of liirnself as lfaii-
,rtst' I
tvl ru i s ci esr-ri ' i bed. l l ]he ci escri pti on of l ,Ian-
,L;sl .i
i rere i s suui l "rr ro l l rai of }frri rj ugl i osa of the
l rrcr.i rrrrs
si trl i r.a,rur, (Ed,<l ,h.
I, 55). Ti re work :-r,i so
-,i nl aurr* descri pl i ons ot' Arrr,1;auu,na a,i i tl hi s four
r..i tcndants, .Ji rl i rri prl l bhrr, On,ndrnprai .l l ra.
Ii c$i nr
ri i ,l l -i p;r,l i t:i i i ni .
.l reci tat,i ou oi the xi atul ;saru-
,; ti l t,ri rl rrot,l ri i rr i ,i re text, Conci ndeS the ceremony at
ti rr outi ui r+fi i cj r the worsi rtpper rs s:.r,i tl to attai n
. i i prututi lI L:dOiL
\t
il t u,ii)qr$I
)t,
brfihinl
l.
There are two Tibetan versions of this sddhons
in the Rgyud-irg"el (tantra
comrnentary)
section
of the Tibetan Tripifaka.
The first of these is the
S pr o s
-
p a nt ed,
-.p
a hi s grub -th.a,bs
translated.
b;, Abh aya
and Tshul khrims rgyal.mtshan (peking
lJd. fiU.
' Iri p.,
ed" D. T. Suzuki , Vol .
g0,
No. Bgg4). The
coloptr.on gives tho tiilo
of tho work ae Tshi,g thug_
pahi, A-ra-pa-tsa-nalr,i,
agrub_thnbs.
The second
Tibetan version
of the text is the translation
dono
by Grags-pa rgyal-mtshan .(Kirtidhvaja
according
to Cord,ier, JfI, p. 30, No. 145), undgr the titlo
Tthi g-l hug-pa,l .ti
a.-ra-pa-taa-nahi
sgrub_tha,bs.' Ihs
$anskrit title quoted in the text is fuIulctaketn-
o,r&pctc.rrw-.cdd,itano,.
The a,uthor's name is given
as Padrnahi
trbyut'r gn?s (Padm6,kara).
3. Sad,h. I, 65. This Arapeca,ncl
Sd,rlhalw is
in prose, with a stanza at the end. in which the
author, whose rame is not mentioned,
wishes that
the merit gained by composing the work would,
cause al l peopl e to attai n the abode of the Vi cto-
rious One (Jina).
As in the previous two s6d.hanas
(Sad,h. f, 55, 56), here too, the worshi pper i s i ns-
tructed t,o meditate on lopics like {d,nyaia (illusory
nature of things), recite incantations such as the
8 u abh,auaiud,d,lt q, -
mantra and S il,ny atd,ud,caka-ntantra,
and to
.r'isualise
hirnself as Mafljughosa, who is
descriherl in the text. IIis companions, one of
whose n&mes is given as Srlryaprabha in place of
Jd,li-rriprablia of t,irc
other two sacihanas. are also
descri bed.
A Ti betan transi ati on
of tho toxt exi sts i n ths
Rgyud.hgrel (tanrra,
comrnent,&ry) secti on of the
Tenglrur under the title A-ra-.pa-tsa-ruahi
sgru,b-
thobs- The translator's
n&me is given as Grags-pa
rgyal -mtshan (Peki ng
Ed. Ti b. Tri p., ed. D. T.
Suzuki , Vol . 80, No. 4280) .
R. I { .
ARAPACAi l A-SADHANA-VIDIII,
thE ti tl E Of A
Sanskrib text, tho Tibetan translation of which
oscurs in the Rgyud-bgrei (tantra
cornmentary)
sccl,ion of tirs 1leng5.-rrr urder the titie A-ra-pa-tsa-
rwl ti -sgrub,thobs-l cyi cho-ga (Peki ng
Ecl . Ti b. Tri p.,
ed. D, T. Suzul i i . \i ol . 79, No- Bb37). In the work,
ther authorship of which is attributed. to Sraddhn-
karavarman, t,he worshi ppcr i s i nstnrcteci . to refl ect
on the thouglrt
of enlightenrnent (bodhicitta)
;
rec ite Lhe S u abhau a,i udd ha
-
ntanrt r a, v i 2., O m s u ab hd,u o
-
;iud.Llhah sartwlharrttti st,ablttl uaiutidho' ham : .lon
-
tenei -rl ate on the i l i usor;.' nature (i unyai C)
of al l
thrngs and chant, tlte f,trmula Ont, sunyatd,j.iaunctt;ajra,-
suabltdritrnako'ltartt and n_reditp.te on Maijuvajra
(fuam.pa|ri
rJrt-rje) w.iro is describetl" Ile is one-
faced. bwo-armed aud carries the sworcl oi' rvir.lorn
A.RA-PA.TSA-NAEI MCHOD-PAEI
70 ARAVAI,A
reised in his right hand aud the Prajiiapdramitd'
book in his left, placed against the chest. Ile is as
resplendent, as ten million auturnnal moons, sits
papt in meditation and bears a smile on his face.
The worshipper should also meditate on MafrjuSri,
who originates from the sytrlable a and whose form
is the s&me as thot of lVlafljuvajra described earlier.
snd on Jdliniprabha, Can&aprabha,
Ke6ini :r,nd
Upako6ini who originate from the syllables ra, pd.
ca and zzo, respectivoly. Al1 these meditations will
result in the attainment' of supteme wisdom.
R" } I .
A-RA-PA-TSA-NAHI IICEOD-PABI CHO-GA
SEES-BYA-BA, a translation in Tibetan from a
$s.nskrit text. See ARAPACANA-PU'.IA-f'IDUI-
NAl!LA..
A-RA-PA-TSA-NAHI SGRIIB-THABS, the Ti betan
rendering of the titlo^of a sddhana in the Sddhann-
ft61.a. See ARAPACANA.SADHANA.
A-RA-PA-TSA-NAEI SGRUB-THABS-KYI CHO-
GA, a translation in Tibetan from a Sanskrit t,ext.
SEE A-R,APACANA. SADI{ANA.VIDHI.
A-RA-PA-TSA-NA
FPHRAT-DU
i l AMS-SU My-
ON-BAgI SGRUB-THABS, a transl ati on i n
Tibetan from a Sanskrit text. See SADYONUBHA-
VARAP ACANA-SAD}IAI{A.
ARATI, a deughtor of M6,ra, tho second named of
t'he threo sisters who tried to tempt the Buddha
when he was sitting at the foot of t,he Ajapala
banyan-tree, in the fifth week after the attainment
of bodh.i . Inthei rendeavours to temptthe Buddha
Bw&y from the futuro which he had chosen and to
brrng success and joy to their father where he him-
self had failed, the daughters usod wily devices,
but were themselves discomfited. The t,hree aro
sometiynes regarded as the personifications of Cra-
ving, Discontent aud Passion; Arati is reqarded as
Discontent (,S. f, I24f .; ?he Boolc of the Ki,ndred
Sayinga, I, 156 f.). They posed the Buddha with
different questions. Arati asked :
" IIow must a brother mainiy slape his life,
W}ro having crossed fivo floods would cross tho
eixth ?
Ilow many impressions of the world of sense
Ile kept, outside of him and catch him not,
Who mainly in rapt meditation bides ?"
Arati"s name oc{iurs as Priti il t,he Bu.dtlltacarita.
ILl,ra's ilrmv is also sometimes crrlled Arati.
D. ' 1' . I J.
ARATI SUTTA. Once' wherr Vangi sa was i n Al avi
he noticcd that iris t,utor, Nigrodha Kappa, never
left his cell aftep his return from the alms-rou-nd.
Dissa,tisfaction arose in Vangrsa's heart and he was
troubled by tlioughts of lust. IIe composed five
verses by way of self-admorrititln ancl uttered them
to hi-mself (,S. I, f 86) i " f, who had given up likes
and dislikes in all that stirs imagination, m&y not
make anywhere a haunt for lustirrg. He w'ho is
free from lust is truly a bhikkhu. All rnaterial
things &re impermanent. People cling to all
that makes for l i fe, to thi ngs they touc:h, pereei vc.
see and lrear. He who is unaffected bv tliese is
cal l ed a seer."
Another sutta of the same na,rn€ (' 4. III, 448)
savs that in ord,er to get rid of t,he evil qualities
<lf discontent. harrning others, .r,nd acting in
ignorance of the Dhamma-one shoulcl cultivot'e
glaclness and non-vioieneo and act according to
the Dhamma, respectivelv.
U. K.
ARAVACCHA, a river which king l(appina crossed
when he was hastening to visit the Ruddhs in
S6.vatthi. When he came to its bank, he found
on inquiry thu,t the river was a leaguo cleep and
twn league-s wide. There was no mode of trnnsport
across it, but the king, detennined not to delay,
described his eagernoss thus : " Whilo we &re
looking for troats and raft's, birth is bringing us
to old age and old age is bringing us to desth.
Free from doubt, I have renounced the world for
tho sako of the Three Jewels
;
by their supernatural
power may this water be to rne unlike w&ter "
(.HO,S. XXIX, 172. etc.). Il edi tati ng on the
Buddha's virtues hc and his retinue dashed a,cross
without even rsotting ihe horses' hoofs. The river
w&s crossed as extraordinarily by the queen when
she herst:lf went on the same road with her retinue
of char i ot s ( DhpA. I f , 119
- 20,
124) .
D. ' I . L r .
ARAVAI,A (var. Araval a, Arav[da), a nAga ki ng of
Kashmir who opposed the introduct,ion of Buddhism
in his region of Aravdladaha, by Majjhantika thera
who had been deputed for t'he purpose by Moggali-
putta tbpra at, the end of the Third Cc'uncil.
Majjhantika is crsdited with having hovered in the ( i bi d. I 58, n. 3) .
ARAVAI.,ADAEA
7l
ARCITANAIUA
air in order to ehow himself to the n6,gas. On
triog informed of this, their king came out and
evokod terror-striking agencies (eerthquakes,
hail,
thunder, lightning, eto.) to sta,nd in the thera,s
w&y. But tho latter wan not disturbed by tbem.
On the contrary, ho mcceedsd in winning over the
king to whom ho preached the word of the Buddho,
With 84,000 of hie followers the ruler accoptod
Buddhism in the end. The thera exhorted. the
Ling
in this wis€ : " Elencoforth let no anger arieo
as of old; work no more harm to the hanrest, for
living beings lovo thoir happinoss; chorieh lovo for
boings, let men live in happiness
"
(Mha. trsl. xii,
22). Those worde were
trreculiariy
apposite, as the
king
had had a hatrit of destroying
harvosts by
mearxs of hail-stoms. The Mrlla-Sarvadivedin
vorsion of tho atory is presonzod in the Chineee
Vinaya. It wee translatod into Fronch by Jean
Przyluslti; au English r€ndering
has boon given
by J. Ph. Vogel. (Cp. VdnA. I, 64 ff.; Mho. xii
7
J. N. and P. N. Ganhar, Eud.d,hi,srh in Koahmir atd
Lildekh, 24, etc.; J. Ph. Yogei, Itdian Berpz.rltt.
Lor e, 232 t r .
;
JAt . l 9l 4, pp. O+- 7, 7+- 7, 596 f f . ) .
D. T. D.
ARAVAI.ADAHA, the lake in whioh Arav6fa, tho
nfrga-king, lived. S€o ARAVALA.
ARBITRATIOI{, eetding o disputo in the Sarigha.
SEE SANGE.AKAMMA.
ARBUIIA NIRAYA, one of the subdivisione in a
eystcm of nireyas (holls) found in Buddhist coBmo.
logy, ea,me n Abbtd,o in the Peli. As in t}rs UMna
oomrnontary (140), it is rcferrsd to in the lWolfit:ywt-
p&i (entry 4929) snd the Dlnrnuanpgralw (tZZl
as a oold holl. Tbe Dlwrmaoaqngraha (loc. ;it.)
grves also a different rendoring of the.nsrno ag
Aecada- The Aaad.drniu,nka (f,
4 f.) and tho
Ddagdaadd,nn (67 f.) say thot when the Buddlrae
emile, tho four-colourod raye which emanare from
their lips roech Arbuda and ths rost of these eight
helle, cooling them or warming thsm accoiding to
their neod. The Udona Varga (viii, vorse E) also
ment,rons this hell. Seo aleo ABBUDA NIIiAYA.
B. J.
ARCHAEOLOCY, being closely linked with the
hisgqry
of Buddhism in various countries ae iell
as with tho deveiopmont of art seon in diffsrent
forms of srchitecturo and sculpture, recoverod
by oxcavation and othor rnerrrg, will be dealt
witb usdsr tbe uernos of the countrim whors such
rsmains havo been discovered"
ARCIHSAMUDnAilUKEAVECAPRATIIPA,
a Te.
th6,gata, whoee nemo occura between Samanta-
jff
dnacarydvilnrnba and Dharmavimdaanirghoserija
in & list of Tathdgatas who. were propitioted
@tAgia)
by tho Sdkya-girl, Gopd,, in her previoue
birbhs (GWu.422.201.
ARCIKETU, nannedf a forrnsr Buddha (Lal. t7l.l0l.
ARCIUAEEI{DRA, a bodhissttvs vhoe€ name
ooours in s list of future TathEgatas (W5.449.f
6).
For dsteils me MAYADEYI
ARCIUAI{T (f), narne of a legondsry oakravbrtin
who becnnro tbe father of Dipeikrra (M.hor. l,
r 93. r 4) .
AROIf,AIIT (2), name of a prcviorrs inoa,l!&tior
of $akyamuni (Iat.f f
g.I6).
ABCIllETRInEtpefI,aame of a ydrpa (M.httynl.
s37l ) .
ARCIRUAIpAIAOITRA, a Tarhigeta whoae
n&rrro occurs betwoon Retnacendradhvaje
and
R^etnigraprabhateje, in e list of Tethdgrtas vho
were propiti*tad. (dragita,) by tne Sekya-girl, Gop6,
in hor previous births (GWe.422.t8).
ABCI8OAXDRA, a bodhiesttva whoee nlrns oqorrre
in a list of future Tathdgatas
@We.
44$.1; the
fret edition resdE thir name *long with tho proooding
ooe a,nd thus givee ths name as Kundr6riyirci6,
oendro,-8tr[8. a. v. Kun{e6riyErci&nadra);
For
detsils eoe MAVADEVI.
ARCIiIRI, nerno of e forner Buddhe
@ofr.25g.8).
ARCIiJilAI{T, na,me of o Buddha (Sd&p. O.g};
and also of ao encientr kingr
a pnovious inoarnetion
of Amiti.yus, and fatherof Pu4yerar{m'i (RW.36.18),
ARCI$UANT, a bodhisattva whos6 na,rno occure in
a list of futuro Tathdgathel
l@ry&.
Uz,lll. For
details soe MAyADEVI-
ARCI$HATI, n&rro of the fourth bodhisattva
bhflmi (DbLg. 6.8
;
Mhvgur. 889
;
Dlwytg. M;
Bbh. 34r. 2).
ARCITAT{AIA, e bodhissttva whoee naul6 ocsurs
in a list of futuro Tathfuatae (Gry&, 4J'1.6. EdgsrtoD
suggoeta the reading Arcitamanr, BIfg. s.e.
Arcitan^eme). For details s€s MAyADnvI.
ARDIIAsATIKA.PRAJ fi A-P A RAIWIT A 72 ARGUMENTATION
A RDH ASATIKA-P RAJfi ' A-P ARA IVIITA, the
Prajfr5,pd,ramitf in fift5z stanzas,
'
an abrirlged
version of the teachings of Pra,1fi,a'pdrarnitcl, Sil'tras.
SCE PRAJNAPARAMITA SI-I' IRA.
ARDRAVALIKA, n&me of i I ni ga ki ttg gi vcn
i n t he l l uhdr ndui l r t
( RHS. \ .
AnnneveL[IPRATIR[IPA, a former Br]ddha,
mentioned in & iist of former Bucidhas under
rrhom Sakyr,m,*i whi l e i n the' ni nth bhumi acqui red
mer i t
( Mhuu. f , 14I 1.
ARGHA{I CEO-GA, a transl ati on i n Ti betan
from a Sanskrit text. See ARGILA,VIDI{I.
ARGHAVIDEI, the ti tl e of a Sanskri t text, the
Tibetan translation of which occru-s in the ligyud-
hgrel (tantr& cornmentary) section of the
'feng;'111
rrnder the title Argha,lr,i cho-ga (Peki;rg Ed. Tib.
Tri p., eci . D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 66, No. 2767). The
eol ophon has the ti tl e Arghahi . cho-ga afi dn-pa
bsd,us-pa (Arghaa'idhis6,ra"sanzlc.sepa according to
Cord,i er,II, p. 156. No. l ). T.he authorshi p of the
work is credited to Snari-byed zla-ba (Bhdnucandra)
and'the translation rs attribrrted to Varendra-pa
and Prajfldkirti.
The text, which begins with a sair"rtation to
Sri Vajrasattva, conta,ins & detailed clescription
of the method of rnaking respect,ful offeringb
(argha), The kinds of offerings enumerated at the
outset are &s follows : monasteries, stdpas, pain-
ti ngs on cl oth, hol 5,- scri ptures, i rnages, hal l s ,Jf
worship, ponds, water-channels, springs, forrntains,
pleasant vaileys, thickets and pleasure grov€s.
The ritual connected with the offering of an
d,rd,ma
(monastery) is fi.rst set out"
'Ihis
includeg
sever&l offerings to tre made by the worshipping
priests in front of a mandala, practice of medita-
ti ons nncl the reci tati onof magi c formul as (mantra).
I'lre first mantra citeci is as follows : Om mtttstile
sad,hi. Om mohani sud,hd. Om dattq,tni s,;d.ltd. After
reciting this twenty-one times, the worshipper,
attired in clean clothes and decked with ornaments,
i s enj oi neci to sl eep i n the l i on' s posture wi th
face turned eastwards, on & mat rvilh tho pillow
placed to the south. Then at dasrr he is said to see
in iris dreams the fiice of the Buddlia, r;tiipas,
offerings, monks, nuns etc. Ttie mantra,
also said to have the power of averting e','il dreams
is called tlna rmi-lam ston-pali snag.s (lit. the mantrir
that shotps dleams, ? Skt. suap.,t,tstJcakamantra).
Other magical formulas to be prouor:lced in the
cortrrse of making this offering are: Om bhu
khatrt : lt'ftrn lant, ht1m.; Om ntedini rajr't. bli,at;a
ua.i rohancl l ti t l tt1m, at, t,ho rcri tu,t,i on of n-hi ch tl re
gol den-compl eri onetl goddess of the earth i s sai d to
a,ppear. revt-' al i ng one l -ral f of i rer body. dcckcd i n
ornaments a,nrl hol ,l i ng n, bej ev' ei l ed rva,ter-fl ask
in hcr harrcl;
(,tm.
saruatatlt&qa,ta sttlelita
na'mdmi bho,gatantem d,=eh ltitm bunr, hoh pratlcclta
kunmtlTfi,jalim nd,th,a ho a formula to be c,hani,ed
while rnaking .rn offcring of flowers, and Ona gha gha
ghataya ghrltaya sarxa !2
t duhkham pltc{. Icilaya
ktlaya sarxapd,pcm hfi,m, Iru1n ht1rn aa,jralci.Iaya
aaj r arlhar o aj fi,d pay ati kdy au d,kci,tta,"* aj r u,ki,Iay a hfi,m
phat, a charrn for averting all obstacles. At the
end of the deiscription of the rites for offering a
monastery, i t i s staterl that the proceduro for the
offering of strlpas and of halls of worship is the
same. Yariation-. in detail regarding the other
offerings are set out in the rest of the text. The
fbllowing mantra to be chanted while making an
offering of holy scriptures ma_v be noted. {)ry
dhi. . . . . mati bi,jaye saraa ajfi,dnapataldpaim-
raTro haqt, aud,hti.
R. II.
ARGUMENTATION (takl ca), the sci ence of l ogi e.
is not highly esteerned in the sayings attributed
to the I]uddha, wirich is no dorrbt clur: to tho
fact that reasoning often leads to hair-splitting
sophistry. The Buddha speaks of his teaching as
bei ng' boyond argumentnti on' (a.takkd,uacara :
-D. I, l 2
;
,9. f, 136
;
M. I. 487), i .e., unattai nabl e
by mero reasoning" Realisation of the truth ie
a,ttainable only through insight (zipassanal inta
t,he nature of all components as being impermanent,
unsatisfactory and without substanee-
On sevpral occasions the Ruddha refused to tre
'dlawn
into an arglrmen.b and preferred a <luestion
to rema,in
'rndecided
(auyakotul. Sometirnes lre
explained his silence as a refu*qal to take sides
with eit,her onponent. his being the middle path
between eternalism a,nd annihilationism.
Argumeutation, ho.wever, is far from absent
i n the Buddhi st tt:xts, and espeei al l s the l atcr
r.vorks lilie Kathduatthu and Milindo,pafi,ha, are
ful l of stri ki ng, though rrot al ways convi nei ng,
exampl es.
Logic without argtrmentation, howel'er, is one
of the strong poi nts of Buddhi sm whi eh does not
rely on faith in rcvealed. dop;mas. For example,
the Four Noble
'Iruths
contain a mastorpiece of
deduction from the unir-ersal problem of conflict
(dukkha) to i ts causal condi ti ons (sartud,atl a)
AREANT l n AREAT.SANGHAVARDHANA-
and their solution (nirod,hn). But when argumen-
tation bocomes & means for furthering wrong
ideas (takkaaadShana)
it is also rightl5r callcd a
jungle
of sophistry (taklca-gahanq, : J. I, 97).
II. G. A. v. Z.
ARHANT, the person who, a,ccording to various
schools of Ilinaydna Buddhism, has attained the
fourth and final stage ofspiritual progress under the
guidanco of a, Buddha or his Teachins. See
ARAHANT.
ARHAT. See ARAHANT.
ARHAT-SAi tCnevnnDHANA. n&me of a monk
who lived in the monastery of Bru-fla in Tibet.
Seo ARHAT.SANGHAVARDHANA.VYAKA-
RANA.
ARHAT-SAi cXevenDHANA-VYAKARAI.{A,
tho
reeonstructed Sanskrit title of a Tibetan text,
the Dgra-bcont-pa-dge-hd,z,,n hphel-gyi lun.bstan-pa
included in the Gtam-yig (Parikathd, and Lekha)
eection of the Tengyur (Peking Ed. Tib. Trip., ed.
D. T. Suzuki , Vol . 129, )So. SOSS;. The author,
Dge-hdun