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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

Chng 6
H THNG THNG TIN VIBA V V TINH
6.1. Truyn sng viba
6.1.1. Bng tn viba
Ph viba thng c xc nh l nng lng in t c tn s khong t 1 GHz
n 1000 GHz, nhng trc y cng bao gm c nhng tn s thp hn. Nhng ng
dng viba ph bin nht khong 1 n 40 GHz. Khong bng tn viba c xc nh
theo bng sau

Bng tn viba
K hiu Di tn
Bng L 1 n 2 GHz
Bng S 2 n 4 GHz
Bng C 4 n 8 GHz
Bng X 8 n 12.4 GHz
Bng Ku 12.4 n 18 GHz
Bng K 18 n 26.5 GHz
Bng Ka 26.5 n 40 GHz
Bng Q 30 n 50 GHz
Bng U 40 n 60 GHz
Bng V 50 n 75 GHz
Bng E 60 n 90 GHz
Bng W 75 n 110 GHz
Bng F 90 n 140 GHz
Bng D 110 n 170 GHz

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

12
Bng trn theo cch dng ca Hi v tuyn in Anh (Radio Society of Great
Britain, RSGB). i lc ngi ta k hiu di tn s cc cao (UHF) thp hn bng L l
bng P.
6.1.2. C ly truyn sng
Sng truyn thng c c ly b hn ch bi cong tri t . Do bn knh tri t r =
6,37.106 m . Gi h1 [m] v h2 [m] l 2 cao an ten th c ly thng tin ti a cho tuyn
vi ba l d [Km]
1 2
3, 57( )[ ] d h h = + Km
S khc x khng kh v bn knh gi tng ca tri t
Trong kh quyn chit sut khc x i vi sng cao tn gim dn theo cao, nn
n c tc dng un cong tia sng v pha mt t, lm tng c ly truyn.
d dng tnh c ly truyn, ta coi nh sng cao tn truyn thng , bn knh ca tri
t tng ln l R = 4.R/3 = 8500 Km, th


6.1.3. Tn x trn chng ngi vt -
Vng Fresnel
1 2
4, 12( )[ ] d h h = + Km


Hnh 6.1. Vng Fresnel


Gi s tia sng 1 truyn thng t A n B , c AB
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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

12
Gi s tia sng 2 truyn t A n B , theo ng gp khc AXB vi X l chng
ngi vt phn x sng
Nu AXB AB = (2n-1)./2 , th 2 sng n B nghch pha nhau , lm bin suy
gim ng k
Tp hp tt c cc im X ni trn to thnh cc mt elip trn xoay
Khi AB >> , bn knh Fresnel ca mt elip trn xoay u tin (n=1) s l


1
.
2
A B r l =

Ta gi
E: cao hiu chnh do cong mt t
O: cao chng ngi vt
F: bn knh fresnel
An ten cn c cao H = F + E + O


Hnh 6.2. Cc yu t nh hng n cao anten






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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
6.1.4. Hin tng Fading

Hnh 6.3. Sng pht ra t 1 ngun nhng theo nhiu ng khc nhau
Fading l hin tng ti ni thu nhn c ng thi 2 hay nhiu sng cng n 1
lc, cc sng ny xut pht cng 1 ngun nhng i theo nhiu ng khc nhau
Tu thuc vo hiu cc ng i m hiu pha ca chng cng khc nhau
Nu hiu pha = 2n. th cng chng tng cng nhau
Nu hiu pha = (2n+1). th cng chng trit tiu nhau
Hin tng Fading gy ra s thu chp chn, gy gin on thng tin trong mt thi
gian ngn, trong k thut truyn hnh , to ra hin tng bng ma
khc phc Fading , ngi ta s dng phn tp tn s hay phn tp khng gian

Hnh 6.4. Phn tp tn s




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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

Hnh 6.5. Phn tp khng gian
6.1.4. Anten
Sng mang v tuyn c tnh nh hng hng rt cao nh cc an ten nh hng.
Sng viba mt t thng s dng an ten parabol phn x . B mt anten l dng
parabol trn xoay, tiu c chnh l ngun pht sng , thng l anten loa . Lc ny sng
cu ti anten loa s bin thnh sng phng
li G ca an ten c tnh



l hiu sut bc x, xp x 0,5
2
4
. . G A
p
h
l
=
l bc sng
A l b mt bc x ca an ten, thng gc vi hng pht
Vic la chn kiu an ten ph thuc vo
li cn thit b vo suy hao , sao cho li chung mc chp nhn
c
Hng tnh ca anten
Tn s sng mang ang s dng
Gi thnh v khng gian d tnh
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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh


Hnh 6.6. Anten v b mt bc x ca anten
6.2. Khi nim v h thng viba


Hnh 6.7. M hnh 1 tuyn viba (Microwave link)
Kt ni viba (Microwave link) l h thng thng tin gia 2 im c nh bng sng
v tuyn c hng tnh cao nh cc an ten nh hng
C 2 dng viba : viba tng t v viba s
Nu ng truyn xa hoc gp chng ngi vt , ngi ta s dng cc trm chuyn
tip (Repeater ) ch thu nhn tn hiu , khuch i , ri ti pht li
Trong thc t , ngi ta s dng ch vi di tn viba m thi
Vng tn s thp c bng thng hp s dng cho cc h thng nh

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
Vng tn s cao > 12 GHz suy hao tng do ma
Vic thit lp h thng viba cn xt cc iu kin sau
Ghp k sinh ca an tentrn cng 1 gi
Tng tc gia cc chm viba gn nhau can nhiu ln nhau
chn lc my thu
Kh nng xoay phn cc ca sng cc knh ln cn nhau
Kh nng s dng ti u di tn ca sng mang
6.2.1. Viba s

Hnh 6.8. M hnh mng viba
H thng viba c th c s dng lm:
Cc ng trung k s ni gia cc tng i s
Cc ng truyn dn ni gia tng i chnh n cc tng i v tinh
Cc ng truyn dn ni cc thu bao vi cc tng i chnh
Mt trm viba s bao gm 2 khi chnh:
Khi thu pht v tuyn (Transceiver)
Khi tch ghp knh (Multiplex v Demultiplex)
Khi thu pht v tuyn (Transceiver) bao gm cc phn x l bng tn gc (
chuyn m (line-code ) iu ch v gii iu ch , chuyn i tn s

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh


Hnh 6.9. S khi thu pht v tuyn

Hnh 6.10.ch li ca FEC

Nu u vo Multiplex PDH bao gm thoi 2Wire , 4Wire , d liu, th u ra l
lung s cp thp E1 ( Nu theo chun chu u).
Nu u vo Multiplex bao gm cc lung s cp thp , th u ra l lung s cp
cao .
Thoi trong Multiplex c th m ho dng
Xung m (PCM)

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
Xung m vi sai(DPCM)
Xung m vi sai t thch nghi(ADM).

6.2.2. Phn loi VIBA s
Ph thuc vo tc bt ca tn hiu PCM cn truyn , cc thit b v tuyn phi
c thit k ph hp c kh nng truyn dn tn hiu , c th phn loi nh sau:
+ Viba s bng hp ( tc thp): c dng truyn cc lung s c tc
2Mbit/s,v 8 Mbit/s tng ng dung lng knh thoi l 30 v 120 knh. Tn s sng v
tuyn thng thng (0,4 1,5)GHz
+ Viba s bng trung bnh ( tc trung bnh): c dng truyn cc tn hiu c
tc ( 8 34)Mbit/s tng ng dung lng knh thoi l 120 n 480 knh. Tn s sng
v tuyn thng thng (26)GHz.
+ Viba s bng rng ( tc cao): c dng truyn cc tnh hiu c tc ( 34
140)Mbit/s tng ng dung lng knh thoi l 480 n 1920 knh. Tn s sng v
tuyn thng thng 4,6,8,12GHz.
6.2.3. So snh VIBA s vi VIBA tng t
Viba tng t
Viba tng t c bng tn gc Base Band dng tng t
u vo v u ra Multiplex l cc tn hiu dng tng t
Mt s u im h thng viba s
Viba s c bng tn gc Base Band dng s
Nh s dng cc b lp ti to li lung s liu (repeater ) trn ng truyn nn
trnh c nhiu tch lu trong h thng s. vic ti sinh ny c th c tin hnh
tc bit cao nht ca bng tn gc m khng cn a xung tc bt ban u,
Nh tnh chng nhiu tt , cc h thng viba s c th hot ng tt vi t s C/N
(sng mang /nhiu ) va phi ( C/N > 30dB, theo khuyn ngh ca CCIR). iu
ny cho php s dng li tn s bng phng php phn cc trc giao, tng ph
hiu dng v dung lng knh.
Cng mt lng truyn dn , cng sut pht cn thit nh hn so vi h thng
tng t , gim chi ph thit b, tng tin cy, tit kim ngun . ngoi ra cng
sut pht nh t gy nhiu cho cc h thng khc.
Mt s khuyt im h thng viba s
Khi p dng h thng truyn dn s, ph tn tn hiu thoi rng hn so vi h
thng tng t.

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
Khi cc thng s ng truyn dn nh tr s BER , S/N thay i khng t gi tr
cho php th thng tin s gin on, khc vi h thng tng t thng tin vn tn
ti nhng rt km
3, H thng ny d b nh hng bi mo phi tuyn do cc c tnh bo ho, do
linh kin bn dn gy nn, c tnh ny khng xy ra cho h thng tng t FM
Cc vn trn c khc phc nh p dng cc tin b khoa hc k thut mi
nh iu ch s nhiu mc dng thit b d phng v s dng cc mch bo v.

6.3. Cc c tnh k thut
6.3.1 Cc m ng truyn ( line-code )
Cc tn hiu nh phn t thit b ghp knh c bin i thnh cc m truyn dn
gim li tn hiu trong qu trnh truyn.
t c iu cc m truyn dn phi tho mn yu cu sau:
Phi phi hp c tnh ph ca tn hiu vi c tnh ca knh truyn.
D dng tch xung ng b v ti sinh tn hiu
Gim thnh phn mt chiu ca tn hiu xung mc 0
Gim cc thnh phn tn s thp gim xuyn m v kch thc cc b phn
v cc linh kin trong mch. Tn hiu nh phn n cc c thnh phn mt
chiu, c cha nng lng ln trong ph tn thp v vy khng thch hp cho
vic truyn dn .
Trong thc t ngi ta s dng cc m lng cc chng hn nh m truyn dn
HDB3( m nh phn mt cao c cc i ba s 0 lin tip), CMI.
M HDBn ( high density binary with maximum of 3 consecutive zero)
M HDBn l m lng cc c mt cao c cc i n s 0 , y l loi m ci
tin ca m AMI thc hin vic thay th N+1 s 0 lin tip bng N+1 xung nhp cha 1
xung phm lut V v xung phm lut ny s li bt th N+1 ca cc m s 0 lin tc.
Vi loi m HDBn ny th dng HDB3 thng s dng trong h thng truyn
thng tin viba s.
M HDB3:
M HDB3 l m lng cc mt cao c cc i 3 s 0 lin tip.
Qui tc m ho
o Mc logic 1 dc m ho dng lng cc
o Mc logic 1 dc m ho dng 0

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
o Nu c 4 s 0 lin tip th m ho 000V hay B00V , sao cho s bit B nm
gia 2 bit V l l


Hnh 6.11. Dng sng HDB3 dng cho lung s E1, E2 , E3

M CMI ( code mark inversion)
M CMI l m o du m, y chnh l loi NRZ 2 mc.
Quy tc m ho:
o Mc logic 0 c m ho thnh cc sng vung dng m dng nhng
mi mc ch chim 1 khong thi gian T/2
o Mc logic 1 c m ho thnh cc sng vung dng dng hoc m m
nhng mi mc ch chim 1 khong thi gian T theo lut lun phin.
M CMI c ITU-T khuyn ngh s dng tc bt 140Mbps theo tiu chun
chu u. (Khuyn ngh G-703)
Theo khuyn ngh G703 v cc giao tip ca CCITT cho chi tit tr khng , loi i
dy dn mc tn hiu dng khung, ti khung phn b cng nh m truyn dn nhng
tc bt khc nhau dung cho h chu u.


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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

13
6.3.2. iu ch viba s
Xc sut bit thu b li ph thuc vo nhiu v phng php iu ch
Ngi ta s dng bng thng BW va truyn s liu .
Nu BW qu nh s gy mo tn hiu sau khi gii iu ch
Nu BW qu ln s lng ph v gy can nhiu gia cc knh viba
Ngi ta thng thng s dng iu ch PSK v:
BW thp hn FSK
Xc sut nhn tin sai l thp hn ( Vi cng t s S/N)
D dng nng ln mPSK (m = 2,4,8, cc knh tc < 140 Mbps)
Cc knh tc >= 140 Mbps s dng QAM ( m=16)


Hnh 6.12. Thng s BER ca cc dng iu ch pha (QPSK)

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

13





7






Hnh 6.13. QAM ( m=16)

6.3.3. Cc m hnh d phng thng gp


Hnh 6.14. D phng khi v tuyn

Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

Hnh 6.15. D phng sng v tuyn bng phn tp tn s
2 my pht, pht 2 tn s khc nhau . 2 my thu , thu 2 tn s khc nhau



Hnh 6.16. D phng sng v tuyn bng phn tp khng gian
2 my pht, pht 1 tn s ging nhau . 2 my thu , thu 1 tn s ging nhau

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

6.4. H thng thng tin v tinh
6.4.1. c loi qu o

C

Hnh 6.21. Cc loi qu o
a s cc v tinh thng c phn nhm da theo qu o ca chng. Cc v
tinh thng c xp loi da theo cao ca chng.
Qu o Tri t tm thp (LEO-Low Earth Orbit: 200 n 1200 km bn trn
b mt Tri t) s dng cho chp nh kh tng, thng tin di ng
Qu o Tri t tm trung (ICO hay MEO-Medium Earth Orbit: 1200 n 35
286 km) , s dng cho GPS
Qu o a tnh (GSO / GEO-Geostationary Earth Orbit 35 786 km trn b
mt Tri t)
Qu o Tri t tm cao ( HEO-Highly Elliptical Orbit: trn 35 786 km)

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

6.4.2 Cc c im ca thng tin v tinh.
tinh so vi cc phng tin thng tin khc l :
p.
Vng ph sng rng.
n nh, cht lng v kh nng cao v thng tin bng rng.
C th ng dng cho thng tin di ng.
Hiu qu kinh t cao trong thng tin c ly ln, c bit trong thng tin lin lc
a.
Sng v tuyn in pht i t mt v tinh qu o v tinh a tnh c th bao
ph 1/3 ton b b mt tri t.
Nhc im. Tng s chiu di ca ng ln v xung thng tin v tinh l trn
70.000 Km, sng phi i mt khong 1/4 giy gy ra mt thi gian tr ng k.
6.4.3 a truy nhp ca thng tin v tinh.
K thut s dng mt v tinh chung cho nhiu trm mt t v vic tng hiu qu
s dng ca n ti cc i c gi l a truy nhp.
a truy nhp l phng php dng mt b pht p trn v tinh chung cho nhiu
trm mt t.
a truy nhp c th phn chia ra nhiu dng
Phn chia a truy cp theo FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA
Trong FDMA (a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s) , cc trm mt t ring pht
cc sng mang vi tn s khc nhau nhng cc bng tn bo v thch hp sao cho cc t
s sng mang ny khng chn
T
m mang ca chng nm trong khe
thi gian
Tru

kh

CD mt phng php a truy nhp trong mi trm mt t pht
i mt n mt
m bt c bit (code) quy nh cho mi trm mt t trc khi pht tn hiu iu ch.
Cc u im chnh ca thng tin v
C kh nng a truy nh
i
n
g ln ln nhau.
DMA ( a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian ) sng mang pht i t mi trm
t t cn phi c iu khin chnh xc sao cho sng
c phn phi trc bng cch
yn tn hiu mt cch gin on
D phng mt thi gian bo v gia cc sng mang pht gin on sao cho chng
ng chng ln ln nhau.
Do phi c mt trm chun, pht i mt tn hiu chun.
MA (SSMA) l
t s mang nh nhau nhng sng mang ny trc c iu ch bng

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

c nhiu tn hiu iu ch c a vo mt
ph

t phng php a truy nhp trong


cc bp sng an ten chm hp c chuyn t hng ny sang hng khc, hay c
nhiu
li ti cc v tr khc nhau
loi a truy nhp ny, ngay c khi
b t p, th trm mt t thu c th tch tn hiu cn thu t cc tn hiu khc bng
cch s dng mt m bit c bit, thc hin c gii iu ch.
SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access) l m
bp sng theo cc hng khc nhau
V c bn, cc sng mang c ti s dng

Hnh 6.22. FDMA (a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s)














a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian )

Hnh 6.23. TDMA (

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh


Hnh 6.24. CDMA ( a truy nhp phn chia theo m )



Hnh 6.25. SDMA ( Space Division Multiple Access)
vi bp sng c th xoay c





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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

Phn chia a truy cp theo phn phi knh
Nu xt a truy nhp theo quan im phn phi knh th c th c chia ra a
truy nhp phn phi trc (c nh) v a truy nhp phn phi theo yu cu (linh hot )
a truy nhp phn phi trc (FAMA Fixed Assiggned Multiple Access ) cc
knh v tinh c phn b c nh cho cc trm mt t khc nhau, bt chp c hay
khng c cc cuc gi pht i.
a truy nhp phn phi theo yu cu (DAMA Demand Assiggned Multiple
Access ): l phng php truy nhp trong cc knh v tinh c sp xp li mi khi c
yu cu thit lp knh a ra t cc trm mt t lin quan.
a truy nhp phn phi theo yu cu cho php s dng hiu qu dung lng knh
ca v tinh, c bit khi nhiu trm mt t c dung lng knh nh s dng chung mt
b pht p.

Hnh 6.26. TDMA kiu phn phi trc (FAMA )
V TDMA kiu phn phi theo yu cu (DAMA )

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

g mang








Hnh 6.27. MCPC ( Multiple Channel Per Carrier )
6.4.4 Truyn sng trong thng tin v tinh
Tn s lm vic ca thng tin v tinh
Phn chia a truy cp theo s knh trn 1 sn
Nu xt theo quan im ghp knh th c th c chia ra SCPC v MCPC
SCPC ( Single Channel Per Carrier )
MCPC ( Multiple Channel Per Carrier ) Cc tn hiu c ghp knh trc khi
iu ch sng mang








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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

inh
in v tinh cn phi xuyn qua tng in ly
v kh y
v b c s
h .


Hnh 6.28. M hnh thng tin v t

Sng v tuyn in s dng trong thng t
qu n bao quanh tri t, nhng sng v tuyn in vi cc tn s cao b hp th
c uy hao khc trong kh quyn, c bit trong ma.
K ong tn s b suy hao nh l 1 n 10 Ghz c gi l ca s tn s


Hnh 6.29. ca s tn s
Khong tn s s dng nhiu hn hin nay trong thng tin v tinh l bng C c tn
s 4 Ghz n 6Ghz. ( B = 500 MHz)
Bng Ku t 11 Ghz n 14 Ghz b hp th ln trong ma nhng cng c s
dng thng xuyn, do thiu cc bng tn.
s dng hiu qu tn s, c th tin hnh cc bin php sau y :
Gii hn s v tinh phng.
S dng li cng mt tn s bng cch dng phn cc vung gc.
Chiu x vng phc v bng nhiu bp sng im t v tinh v s dng ti a
tn s ging nhau vi s phn cch thch hp cc bp sng ny.
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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
Tng s bit truy s nhiu mc,
nhiu pha.
Ph
ng trong thng tin v tinh:
ng phn cc thng c th c to ra bng cch dn cc tn hiu t mt ng dn
sng ch nht n mt anten loa.
Ngi ta chia ra 2 loi phn cc thng l phn cc ng v phn cc ngang


n trong mt Hz bng cch s dng iu ch
n cc sng.
Hng phn cc l hng dao ng ca in trng.
C hai loi phn cc sng v tuyn in c s d
sng phn cc thng v sng phn cc trn.
S

Hnh 6.30. anten loa
Sng phn cc trn l sng trong khi truyn lan, phn cc ca n quay trn. C th
t i sng ny bng cch kt hp hai sng phn cc thng c phn cc vung gc
vi nhau v gc lch pha l 90
thng
thng
ch ghp cc
sng p
d. T u.


o ra lo
Sng phn cc trn l phn cc phi hay tri ph thuc vo s khc pha gia sng
phn cc thng l sm pha hay chm pha
Yu cu hot ng i vi anten thng tin v tinh.
a. H s tng ch cao v hiu sut cao.
b. Hng tnh cao v bp sng ph nh: chng khng can nhiu vo h
tin khc (v tinh v mt t).
c. c tnh phn cc tt: s dng tn s mt cch hiu qu bng c
hn cc ngang v ng .
p m thp. Cn gim tp m bo m c cc t s G/T yu c

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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
Ph
bol, c s cp t ti tiu im.
p nht. N c dng
y g lng thp.
c quy m trung bnh.
nten c b phn fi, gng phn x ph c t v tr lch mt t so vi
hng trc ca gng phn x cc b phn fi v gng phn x nh khng chn
ng i ca sng. Do bp sng ph c ci thin rt ln so vi anten cassegrain,
dn n h s tng ch ln hn.

n loi Anten
a. Anten para
y l loi anten c cu trc n gin nht v gi thnh th
ch u cc trm ch thu ( khng pht) v cc trm nh dun
b. Anten cassegrain.
L loi anten c thm mt gng phn x ph vo gng phn x chnh, h s tng
ch ca anten c nng cao v c tnh bp ph cng c ci thin cht t. Anten c
s dng cho cc trm bnh thng,
c. Anten lch ( b).
A



Hnh 6.31. Anten v bp sng


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Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

max


2 2
D.f/c)
2
= .(D/)
2

2
g = c/f (c: vn tc nh sng, f: tn s)

m ca anten (mt phn x)(m)


3dB
= . / D [rad]
= 57.3
-0,5
. / D [degrees]
Khi ta s dng anten cng ln, tn s cng cao th li ca anten cng ln v
rng bp sng cng hp.
Vi mt anten cho trc ( D khng i ), tnh nh hng ca n s cng ln khi ta
s dng tn s cng cao.
Khi tn s s dng f khng i, tnh nh hng ca anten s cng cao khi ta s
dng anten cng ln.

6.4.5 Tnh ton ng truyn v tinh
M hnh thng tin v tinh
T : Transmitter (Trm pht)
S : Satellite (V tinh)
R : Receiver (Trm thu)
U : Uplink (Tuyn ln)
D : Downlink (Tuyn xung)
li ca anten G
G
max
= (4/ )A
eff
= .4 (f/c) .A = .(
( Do A = D /4, A
eff
= .A )
G
max
: li cc i hng bc x ca anten
[m] : Bc sn
A
eff
[ m
2
] : Din tch m hiu dng
: Hiu sut ca Antenn (55 n 75%)
D [m] : ng knh
rng bp sng 3dB (na cng sut) c tnh theo
3dB


3dB
l gc gia 2 hng m li gim cn mt na so vi hng cc i.

-0,5
148
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh


C i m v
Vi d l kho v an
t
RP ca v tinh ti 1 v tr c th trn mt t thng qua s
Hnh 6.32. MCPC ( Multiple Channel
c kh ni cng sut pht v thu tn hiu
ng cch gia anten ph t ten thu
EIRP (Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng) c trng cho kh nng ph
ti anten
EIRP = P
A
= P
T
.G
T
= [(Cng sut pht) * ( li ca anten)] [W]
Ngi ta xc nh EI
vng ph sng v tinh footprint

Hnh 6.33. Vng ph sng v tinh footprint

149
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

Cng sut tn hiu thu c P
R
bi anten c li G
R

l
P
R
= ( P
A
/ L
fs
) G
R
= ( P
T
.G
T
/ L
fs
) G
R

y L
fs
suy hao khng gian t do ( Free Space Loss)
L
fs
= (4 d / )
2

G/T [dB/
0
K] c trng cho nhy ca h thng thu ti v tr anten
T tr s nhit tp m ti u vo my thu qui i t cng sut tp m
V d cho T = 100
0
K , G = 60 dB th G/T = 60-20 = 40 [dB/
0
K]
( Do T = 100
0
K 20 dB = 10 lg T )
Khi thit k nng lng ng truyn ta cng cn ch n cc suy hao v cc
ngun tp m, nhiu khc tuyn, nhiu cng tuyn
Suy hao
ng...) : L
A

L
fTX
; L
fRX

Suy hao do mt phi hp phn cc.
Cc ngu
Tp m kh quyn nh oxy, nit
Tp m tri t
Tp m giao thoa. N sinh ra do s
thng tin v tinh vi cc trm
Tp m mt tri
Suy hao trong kh quyn (ma, my, tuyt, b
Suy hao do feeder ca thit b pht v thu :
Suy hao do t anten pht v thu b lch : L
T
; L
R

n tp m ni thu
Cc ngun tp m bn ngoi h thng gy ra nhit tp m ca anten T
A
gm
Tp m v tr
, hi nc, ma , sng m...
giao thoa sng in t ca trm mt t
vi ba trn mt t.

Hnh 6.34. Noise-sun xy ra khi trm mt t, v tinh, mt tri thng hng

Cc ngun tp m bn trong h thng
150
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh
Ngun tp m do suy hao trn dy feeder


s nhit tp m ti u vo
my thu nh sau
]
c tnh bng K
0
-13
W
p m tng ng ca h thng M
1
v M
2



Nhit tp m tng ng ca h thng M1 v M2

Tng qut nhi ng ng ca h thng gm n thnh phn
T
Ta nhn ng khuch i, nn tc
ng ca t i.
Nu nh h s khuch i ca tng u l ln, th tp m xy ra ti tng th hai
v cc tng khuch i tip theo c th b qua. V vy khi cn phi gim tp m trong
my thu xung nh hn. Trong h thng thng tin v tinh, ta phi s dng tng khuch
i u tin c h s khuch i cao v c tp m thp ( LNA ).

Ngun tp m do bn trong my thu
Cng sut cc ngun tp m ny c th qui i ra mt tr

Cng sut tp m N t l thun vi nhit T
Cng sut tp m N = k.T.B [W]
-23 0
k : Hng s Boltzmans = 1.38*10 [J/ K
0
T : Nhit tp m
B : rng bng tn 3 dB ca thit b [Hz]
V d cho T = 300
0
K , B = 40 MHz th N = 1,66*1
Nhit t
T
e
= T
e1
+ T
e2
/ G
1


Hnh 6.35.
t tp m t
e = T
e1
+ T
e2
/ G
1
+ . . . + T
en
/ (G
1
G
2
. . . G
n-1
)
thy : v tn hiu tr nn ln hn khi i qua mi t
p m ti mi tng li nh
151
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh


thng anten thu
A sky
+ T
ground

R
T
R
= T
LNA
+ T
MX
/ G
LNA
+ T
IF
/ G
LNA
G
MX


hau :
V tinh thng tinh khc trm mt t
Trm mt t khc v tinh thng tin
Tuyn vi ba mt t v tinh thng tin

Hnh 6.36. Nhit tp m tng ng c a h
i vi anten ca trm mt t (tuyn xung) T = T
Nhit tp m ca my thu : T

Hnh 6.37. Nhit tp m tng ng ca my thu
Nhiu khc tuyn
C bn cch , trong cc tuyn thng tin c th nhiu vi n
152
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

Tuyn vi ba mt t trm mt t
Nhiu ln nht xy ra gia tuyn vi ba mt t v trm mt t.
Nhiu t tuyn vi ba mt t n h thng v tinh l khng ng k.
.38. Nhiu khc tuyn
N
Nhiu cng tuyn do thc hin k thut dng li tn s s dng hiu qu ph tn
Hai phng php thng c thc hin s dng li tn s l phn cch bp sng
v phn cc kp.
Tp m nhiu knh ln cn . khi thnh phn knh ln cn c cng phn cc vi tuyn
v tinh
yn




Hnh 6
hiu cng tuyn

Hnh 6.39. Nhiu cng tu
153
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

6.4.6. S k
huch i cng sut

Hnh 6.41. Codec v Modem - Chi tit


B UP/DOWN CONVERTER ( Bng C ) c t gia MODEM v LNA hoc
HPA, c nhim v i tn t trung tn IF (70 MHz) thnh tn s RF ( 6GHz) i vi
tuyn ln hay i tn t tn g tn IF (70 MHz) i vi
n xung ( i tn 2 ln )
hi trm mt t
Bao gm phn giao tip, m ho, Modem, chuyn i tn s , k
HPA phn pht hoc khuch i tp m thp LNA phn thu

Hnh 6.40. Codec v Modem

s RF ( 4GHz) thnh tn s trun


tuy


154
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh


Hnh 6.42. B chuyn i tn s


H
Tp m iu bin tng h (xuyn iu ch) trn HPA trong v tinh , sinh ra khi b
pht
l bo ha.
mo do iu bin tng h nh hn gi tr cho php, b khuch i phi lm
vic mc thp hn im bo ha.
nh 6.43. B khuch i cng sut HPA

p ca n khuch i ng thi nhiu sng mang. Cc c tnh phi tuyn vo ra ca
b pht p l nguyn nhn sinh ra tp m iu bin tng h.
Khi mc vo vt qu mt gi tr no , th mc ra ca b khuch i HPA khng
tng na. Hin tng ny gi

155
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

15
Mc cng sut chnh lch c gi l li u vo (back-off).

Hnh 6.4 t HPA
6.4.6. S khi ca trm lp v tinh


4. c tnh b khuch i cng su

Hnh 6.45. V tinh Thaicom 3



6
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

BPF LNA
LO
B dao
ng ni
TWTA BPF
Tn
hiu t
tuyn
ln
B
lc
thng
thp
B
khuch
i tp
m thp
B
lc
thng
thp
B chuyn
i xung
Tuyn
xung
Anten
thu
6GHz
B khuch
i cng
sut n
sng chy
Anten
pht
4GHz
ng ca mt b pht p (trn v tinh)
.4.7. Gii thiu cc h thng v tinh ton cu
Cc dch v v tinh :
DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) Dch v pht thanh trc tip qua v tinh M, s
dng v tinh a tnh
VSAT ( Very Small Aperture Terminal) vi ng knh an ten < 2,4 m , s dng
trong hng khng , ngn hng
MSAT (Mobile Satellite Service) Dch v v tinh di ng , s dng trong lin lc
xe c, tu thuyn , my bay
Radarsat V tinh thm him t xa cc ngun ti nguyn ca tri t , s dng trong
v bn , theo di nhim du , qun l rng
GPS
Microsat s dng trong thng tin lin lc c nhn do Motorola pht trin
Hnh 6.46. S khi chc n

6
157
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

158
6.5.
B
H thng nh v ton cu (Global Positioning System - GPS) l h thng xc nh
v tr da t
H thng GPS (Global positioning system) gm c 24 v tinh phn phi thnh 6
v cao 12 nghn dm cch mt t.
nh, hai vng qu o trong khong thi
gian g ny chuyn ng vi vn tc 7 nghn dm mt gi.
cch th s tnh c to ca v tr .
o
php m bt k quc tch.

tnh n , d tnh s bt u hot ng nm 2010
6.5. H thng v tinh nh v ton cu GPS
1. Gii thiu h thng v tinh nh v ton cu GPS
Mt s thng tin v cc v tinh GPS (cn gi l NAVSTAR, tn gi chnh thc ca
Quc phng M cho GPS):
V tinh GPS u tin c phng nm 1978.
Hon chnh y 24 v tinh vo nm 1994.
Mi v tinh c lm hot ng ti a l 10 nm.
V tinh GPS c trng lng khong 1500 kg v di khong 17 b (5 m) vi cc
tm nng lng Mt Tri m (c rng 7 m).
Cng sut pht bng hoc di 50 watts.
rn v tr ca cc v tinh

nhm bay theo 6 qu o hnh trn quanh tri t
( Khong 20 200 km. ) Chng chuyn ng n
n 24 gi. Cc v tinh
Trong cng mt thi im, mt v tr trn mt t nu xc nh c khong
n ba v tinh (ti thiu)
GPS c thit k v qun l bi B quc phng M, nhng chnh ph M ch
i ngi s dng n min ph,
Cc nc trong Lin minh chu u ang xy dng H thng nh v Galileo, c
ng ging nh GPS ca Hoa K

Hnh 6.47. s 24 v tinh GPS

H thng dn ng truyn thng da trn cc trm pht tn hiu
h thng LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) dng cho hng hi
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

tion) dng cho qun i M
istance Measuring
ho cc mc ch qun s, nhng t nm 1980 chnh ph
M cho php s m bo tn ti lin tc v chnh
xc. C cho dn ng dn s
g c xy dng) ngay t u
t m nh v dn s.
TACAN (TACtical Air Naviga
VOR/DME VHF (Omnidirectional Range/D
Equipment) dng cho hng khng dn dng.
GPS ban u ch dnh c
dng dn s. Chng khng a ra s
hng khng tho mn c nhng yu cu an ton
H thng dn ng v tinh chu u Galileo (an
c tiu p ng cc yu cu nghim ngt ca dn ng v

Hnh 6.48. nh v my bay qua 4 v tinh GPS
6.5.2.
V bn cht my thu GPS so snh thi gian tn hiu c pht i t v tinh vi thi
gian nhn c chng. Sai lch v thi gian cho bit my thu GPS cch v tinh bao xa.
Ri vi nhiu qung cch o c ti nhiu v tinh my thu c th tnh c v tr ca
ngi dng v hin th ln bn in t ca my.
My thu GPS phi kho c vi tn hiu ca t nht ba v tinh tnh ra v tr hai
chiu (kinh , v ) v theo di c chuyn ng. Vi bn hay nhiu hn s v tinh
trong tm nhn th my thu c th tnh c v tr ba chiu (kinh , v v cao).
Mt khi v tr ngi dng tnh c th my thu GPS c th tnh cc thng tin
khc, nh tc , hng chu ng hnh trnh, qung cch
i im n, v nhiu th khc n

S hot ng ca GPS
Cc v tinh GPS bay vng quanh Tri t hai ln trong mt ngy theo mt qu
o rt chnh xc v pht tn hiu c thng tin xung Tri t. Cc my thu GPS nhn
thng tin ny v tnh c v tr ca ngi dng.
yn ng, bm st di chuyn, kho
a t
159
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

Hnh 6.49. my thu GPS

6.5.4. Tn hiu GPS
Cc v tinh GPS pht hai tn hiu di tn s L1 v L2. (d i tn L tri rng t 0,39
ti 1,55 GHz). GPS dn s dng tn s L1 575,42 MHz.
Tn hiu GPS hin, d liu thin
M gi ngu nhin n gin ch l m nh danh xc nh c v tinh no l
trong n
u l ct li pht hin ra v tr.
xc trung bnh trong vng 15 mt.
Cc my thu mi hn vi kh nng WAAS (H Tng Vng Rng, Wide Area
Augmentation System) c th tng chnh xc trung bnh ti di 3 mt.

cha ba mu thng tin khc nhau m gi ngu n


vn v d liu lch.
pht thng tin no. C th nhn s hiu ca cc qu v tinh trn trang v tinh ca my thu
Garmin bit n nhn c tn hiu ca v tinh no.
D liu thin vn cho my thu GPS bit v tinh u trn qu o mi thi im
gy. Mi v tinh pht d liu thin vn ch ra thng tin qu o cho v tinh v
mi v tinh khc trong h thng.
D liu lch c pht u n bi mi v tinh, cha thng tin quan trng v trng
thi ca v tinh, ngy gi hin ti. Phn ny ca tn hi

6.5.5. chnh xc ca GPS
Tnh trng nht nh ca kh quyn v cc ngun gy sai s khc c th nh hng
ti chnh xc ca my thu GPS.
Cc my thu GPS c chnh

160
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

161
GPS vi sai (Differential GPS, DGPS) sa li cc tn hiu GPS c chnh xc
trong khong 3 n 5 mt.
Cc yu t nh hng ti chnh xc GPS
Tn hiu v tinh b chm i khi xuyn qua tng kh quyn.
Tn hiu i nhiu ng do tn hiu phn x trc khi ti my thu.
Li my thu ng h c trong my thu khng chnh xc nh ng h nguyn t
trn cc v tinh GPS.
Li qu o do v tinh thng bo v tr khng chnh xc.
S lng v tinh nhn thy Cng nhiu v tinh c my thu GPS nhn thy th
cng chnh xc.
Nh cao tng, a hnh, nhiu lon in t, gy li nh v
Phn b v tinh l tng c rng vi nhau. Phn b xu
xy ra khi cc v tinh cm
S gim c ch tm tn hiu v tinh L s lm gim tn hiu c do s p t
hng M, nhm chng li vic i th qun s dng tn hiu GPS

iu ny l tim n hn ch an ton cho dn ng v nh v dn s.

l khi cc v tinh v tr g
thnh nhm.
ca B Quc p
chnh xc cao. Chnh ph M ngng vic ny t thng 5 nm 2000, lm tng
ng k chnh xc ca my thu GPS dn s.
Tuy nhin bin php ny hon ton c th c s dng li trong nhng iu kin
c th. Chnh
6.6. H thng mobile ton cu (MSAT)

Hnh 6.50. Lin kt MSAT vi h thng thng tin di ng

Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

nh th , t lin.
khu vc mt thp nh hng khng
, h
thnh h
th
(Chnh n hiu truyn thng v phn x . Do c th c hin tng
fad
sng . p s dng li ph tn , ti 2 bp sng cch nhau t nht 1 bp
sn
CD A
cu
Cc d
v thng tin di ng c tm ph
rng h
m rng tm ph
p cc ng truyn d liu 2 chiu gia cc
u cui c nh v di ng
H thng thng tin di ng Mobile mt t thng thng ch phc v hiu qu
khu vc mt cao nh th
H thng v tinh di ng phc v hiu qu
ng hi , vng su
MSAT c th lin kt vi h thng thng tin di ng t bo mt t
ng thng tin lin lc ton th gii
Trong MSAT , anten c li nh 3 6 dB ( ng hng) hay 10 14 dB
c hng ) thu c t
ing
MSAT bng L c bng thng hp ( 14MHz) s dng an ten v tinh nhiu bp
Trong cho ph
g
Hai k thut a truy cp trn bng L/Ku ph hp mng MSAT l FDMA v
M , v TDMA cn nhiu cng sut ngun cho u cui.
Phng thc SCPC DAMA (Single Channel Per Carrier) : Khi c cuc gi yu
v tinh s cp 1 cp tn s sng mang phc v cho knh
ch v trn MSAT
MRTS ( Mobile Radio Trunking Service) dch
n rt nhiu so vi dch v thng tin di ng t bo
IMRS( Interconnected Mobile Radio Service ) dch v thng tin di ng lin kt
vi cc mng in thoi cng cng PSTN
MDS ( Mobile Data Service) cung c
162
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

VIT TT

Yu cu lp li t ng
BER
B lc thng thp
BPSK
Base Transceiver System H thng thu pht gc
CBC
Management System khch hng
CSC
yn i s - tng t
DPSK
ng
Trm mt t
FAMA
phn chia tn s
FDMA
FM
rbit Qu o a tnh
GMR Geo Mobile Radio V tuyn di ng a tnh
GOCC Glopal Operational Control Center Trung tmiu khin mt t
GPRS General Packet Radio System H thng v tuyn gi chung
GPS Global Positioning System H thng nh v ton cu
GSC Gateway Station Controller Biukhintrm cng chnh
GSM Global System For Mobile H thng thng tin di ng
Communication ton cu
GTS Ground Transceiver Subsystem H thngconthu pht mt t
GWS Gateway Subsystem H thng con cng chnh
HDTV High Definition Televition Truyn hnh phn gii cao
HEO Highly Elliptical Orbit Qu o elip tm cao
HPA High Power Amplifier Khuych i cng sut cao
IF Inter-Requency Trung tn
IOL Inter Orbit Link Tuyn kt ni gia cc
h thng vi nhau

THUT NG
ACI Adjacent Channel Interence Nhiu knh ln cn
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
bit error rate T l li bit
BPF Band Pass Filter
Binary Phase Shift Keying Kho dch pha nh phn
BSC Base Station Controller B iu khin trm gc
BTS
Cipher Block Chaining Chui khi k s
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo m
CIMS Customer Information H thng qun l thng tin
Common Signaling Channel Knh bo hiu chung
DAC Digital To Analog Converter B chu
Differential Phase Sift Keying Kho dch pha vi phn
EIRP Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Cng sut bc x ng
Power hng tng
ES Earth Station
Fixed Assigned Multiple Access a truy nhp gn c nh
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing Ghp knh
Frequency Division Multiple a truy nhp phn chia
Access theo tn s
FH Frequency Hopping Nhy tn
Frequency Modulation iu tn
GEO Geostationary O
163
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

ISDN Intergated Services Digital Mng s lin kt a dch v
Network
c
g quc t
m thp
p
in
MSC chding
ng
o ph
PC
ngtin v tinhc nhn
PN
pha
i chuyn mch
n v tinh

SDMA

SOTF Start Of Transmit Frame t


ISL Inter System Link Tuyn kt ni gia c
h thng vi nhau
ITU International Telecommunication Lin minh vin thn
Union
LEO Low Earth Orbit Qu o mt t t
LNA Low Noise Amolifier B khuych i tp m th
LO Local Oscillator B dao ng ni
MCT Mobile Communication Terminal Thit b u cui truyn t
di ng
MEO Medium Earth Orbit Qu o mt t tm trung
Mobile Switching Center Trungtmchuynm
NCC Network Control Center Trung tm iu khin m
NGEO Non-Geo V tinh khng a tnh
PAL Phase Alternation By Line a theo dng
PAM Pulse Amplitude Modulation iu ch bin xung
Pseudorandom Code M gi ngu nhin
PSCN Personal Satellite Communications Mngth
Network
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network Mng di ng mt t
cng cng
Pseudo Noise Code M gi tp m
PSK Phase Shift Keying Kho dch
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Mngintho
Network cng cng
QoS Quality Of Service Cht lng dch v
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Kho dch pha cu phng
RF Radio Frequency Tn s v tuyn
SCC Satellite control center Trung tm iu khi
SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier Mt knh truyn n trn
mt sng mang
Space Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia
theo khng gian
SL Satellite V tinh
SNMC Service Provider Network Trung tm qun l mng cung
Management Center cp dch v
SOCC Satellite Operational Control Trung tm iu khin
Center hot ng v tinh
SORF Start Of Received Frame Khi u ca khung thu
Khi u khung ph
164
Chng 6: H thng thng tin viba v v tinh

SSMA Spread ri ph
-Tch Satellite Traffic Channel Knh lu lng v tinh
heo
TWTA Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier Khuych i n sng chy

SSB Single Sideband n bin
Spectrum Multiple Access a truy nhp t
S
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia t
thi gian
TVRO Televition Receiver Only Trm mt t thu
UHF Ultra-High Frequency Tn s cc cao
UW Unique Word T duy nht
VHF Very High Frequency Tn s rt cao
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal u cui c m rt nh
165