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Cambridge English

First
First Certificate in English (FCE)
CEFR Level B2
SpecificationsandSamplePapers
forexaminationsfromJanuary2015
Ready for success in the real world
Examcontentandoverview
Paper/timing Testcontent Testfocus
1
READING AND  
USE OF ENGLISH
1hr15mins
Part 1 Amodifiedclozetestcontainingeightgaps
followedbyeightmultiple-choicequestions.
Candidatesareexpectedtobeableto:demonstrate
theabilitytoapplytheirknowledgeandcontrolofthe
languagesystembycompletinganumberoftasks
attextandsentencelevel;demonstrateavariety
ofreadingskillsincludingunderstandingofspecific
information,textorganisationfeatures,implication,
attitudeandtextstructure.
Part 2 Amodifiedclozetestcontainingeightgaps.
Part 3 Atextcontainingeightgaps.Eachgap
correspondstoaword.Thestemsofthemissing
wordsaregivenbesidethetextandmustbe
changedtoformthemissingword.
Part 4 Sixseparatequestions,eachwithalead-in
sentenceandagappedsecondsentencetobe
completedintwotofivewords,oneofwhichisa
given‘key’word.
Part 5 Atextfollowedbysix4-optionmultiple-choice
questions.
Part 6 Atextfromwhichsixsentenceshavebeen
removedandplacedinjumbledorder,together
withanadditionalsentence,afterthetext.
Part 7 Atextorseveralshorttexts,precededby
10 multiple-matchingquestions.
2
WRITING
1hr20mins
Part 1 Onecompulsoryquestion. Candidatesaregiveninputintheformofanessay
titletorespondto,alongwithaccompanyingnotesto
guidetheirwriting.
Part 2 Candidateschooseonetaskfromachoiceof
threequestions.
Candidatesareexpectedtobeabletowritenon-
specialisedtexttypessuchasanarticle,aninformal
letteroremail,arevieworareport.
3
LISTENING
Approx.40mins
Part 1 Aseriesofeightshort,unrelatedextractsfrom
monologuesorexchangesbetweeninteracting
speakers.Thereisonemultiple-choicequestion
perextract.
Candidatesareexpectedtobeabletoshow
understandingoffeeling,attitude,detail,opinion,
purpose,agreement,gist,function,topic,specific
information,etc.
Part 2 Amonologuewithasentencecompletiontask
whichhastenquestions.
Part 3 Fiveshort,relatedmonologues,withfive
multiple-matchingquestions.Therearethree
distractors.
Part 4 Anintervieworanexchangebetweentwo
speakerswithsevenmultiple-choicequestions.
4
SPEAKING
14mins
Part 1 Aconversationbetweentheinterlocutorand
eachcandidate(spokenquestions).
Candidatesareexpectedtobeabletorespondto
questionsandtointeractinconversationalEnglish.
Part 2 Anindividual‘longturn’foreachcandidate,
followedbyaresponsefromthesecond
candidate(visualandwrittenstimuliwithspoken
instructions).
Part 3 Atwo-wayconversationbetweenthecandidates
(writtenstimuli,withspokeninstructions).
Part 4 AdiscussionontopicsrelatedtoPart3(spoken
questions).
1 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
CONTENTS
Contents
Introduction 2
The purpose of the revision project 2
The process of the project 2
Key changes – at a glance 2
About Cambridge English Language Assessment 2
The world’s most valuable range of English qualifications 3
Key features of Cambridge English exams 3
Proven quality 3
Cambridge English: First – an overview 3
Who is the exam for? 3
Who recognises the exam? 3
What level is the exam? 4
Exam content and processing 4
Factors affecting the design of the examination 4
A thorough test of all areas of language ability 4
International English 4
Marks and results 4
Exam support 5
Support for teachers 5
Support for candidates 6
Reading and Use of English  7
General description 7
Structure and tasks 7
Sample paper 8
Answer key 14
Writing  15
General description 15
Structure and tasks 15
Task types in the Writing paper 16
Sample paper 17
Assessment of Writing 18
Sample scripts with examiner comments 22
Listening  25
General description 25
Structure and tasks 25
Sample paper 26
Answer key 34
Speaking  35
General description 35
Structure and tasks 35
Sample paper 36
Assessment of Speaking 39
Preface
Thisbookletcontainsspecificationsandsamplepapersforthe
revisedCambridge English: Firstexamination,alsoknownasFirst
Certificate in English (FCE).Therevisedversionoftheexamwillbe
introducedforthefirsttimeinJanuary2015.
Furtherinformationontheexaminationwillbeissuedinthe
form of:
• acomprehensiveCambridge English: FirstHandbook for Teachers
containinganadditionalsetofsamplepapers
• anextensiveprogrammeofwebinars,seminarsand
conferencepresentations.
Ifyouneedanyfurthercopiesofthisbooklet,pleaseemail
marketingresources@cambridgeenglish.org
2 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
languageandskillscoverageasthecurrentexam.Inaddition,
newtasksandtestingfocuseshavebeenintroducedinthe
WritingandSpeakingpapers.
AboutCambridgeEnglish
LanguageAssessment
Cambridge English: FirstisdevelopedbyCambridgeEnglishLanguage
Assessment,partoftheUniversityofCambridge.
WeareoneofthreemajorexamboardswhichformtheCambridge
AssessmentGroup(CambridgeAssessment).Morethan8million
CambridgeAssessmentexamsaretakeninover160countries
aroundtheworldeveryyear.
Cambridge International
Examinations
The world’s largest provider of
international education programmes
and qualifications for 5 to 19 year olds
Cambridge Assessment: the trading name for the
University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES)
Cambridge English Language
Assessment
Provider of the world’s most
valuable range of qualifications for
learners and teachers of English
OCR: Oxford Cambridge and RSA
Examinations
One of the UK’s leading providers
of qualifications
Departments of the University
Departments (exam boards)
One of the oldest universities in the world
and one of the largest in the United Kingdom
Introduction
Cambridge English: Firstwasoriginallyoferedin1939.Numerous
updates,withthelastin2008,haveallowedtheexaminationtokeep
pacewithchangesinlanguageteachingandtesting.
Thisbookletgivesinformationontheoutcomeofthelatest
revision ofCambridge English: First.Changeswillbeintroducedfrom
January2015.
Thepurposeoftherevisionproject
ThepurposeoftheprojectwastoreviseCambridge English: Firstin
ordertoensurethatitcontinuestomeettheneedsofcandidates,
teachers,centresandotherusersintermsofcontentandlength.
Theaimsweretoensuretheupdatedexamination:
• issuitableforuseforfurthereducationstudypurposes
• issuitableforuseforhighereducationfoundationorpathway
courses
• issuitableforuseforworkorcareerenhancementpurposes
• retainsappropriateandspecifictestingfocusesforeachpaper
• isthoroughlyvalidatedandreflectsthemostup-to-date
methodologicalapproachtocommunicativelanguagetesting
• ismoreuser-friendlyintermsofitslength.
Theoutcomeisasfollows,andistheresultofextensiveresearch,
consultationwithusers,andtriallingofexammaterial.
Theprocessoftheproject
Theprojecthasincludedthefollowingmainstages:
1. Datacollection,e.g.marketinformationincludingquestionnaires
senttoteachersandCentreExamsManagers;informationon
candidatescollectedonCandidateInformationSheets.
2. Thedevelopmentofexaminationspecifications,includingthe
developmentofthetestconstruct,testcontentandthedefinition
ofthetestfocuses;thedevelopment,production,editingand
triallingofdrafttasktypesandmaterials;andresearchintothe
validityandreliabilityofthematerialandassessmentprocedures.
3. Theproductionofexaminationsupportmaterials,including
publicspecifications,andtrainingmaterialsforwritersof
examinationmaterialsandexaminers.
Throughouttheproject,wehavegatheredfeedbackonour
proposalsfortheexaminationbyholdingconsultationmeetingswith
stakeholders.Duringtrialling,teachersandstudentswereaskedto
completequestionnairesontrialmaterials.
Keychanges–ataglance
ThesearethekeychangestotheCambridge English: Firstexamination
thatwillbeintroducedinJanuary2015.
• Cambridge English: Firstwillhavefourpapersinsteadoffive.
ReadingandUseofEnglishhavebeencombinedintoasingle
paperassessinglanguageknowledgeandreadingskills,andall
ofthetasksinthecurrentpapershavebeenretainedinmodified
formatsinthenewReadingandUseofEnglishpaper.
• ThenewCambridge English: Firstexamwillbeshorterthanthe
previousexaminationbyapproximately30minutes.However,
carefulexamdesignmeansthatCambridge English: Firststill
assessesatexactlythesamehighlevel,andretainsallofthe
INTRODUCTION
3 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
Validity–areourexamsanauthentictestofreal-lifeEnglish?
Reliability–doourexamsbehaveconsistentlyandfairly?
Impact–doesourassessmenthaveapositiveefectonteaching
andlearning?
Practicality–doesourassessmentmeetlearners’needswithin
availableresources?
Quality–howweplan,deliverandcheckthatweprovide
excellenceinallofthesefields.
Howthesequalitiesarebroughttogetherisoutlinedinour
publicationPrinciples of Good Practice,whichcanbedownloadedfree
fromwww.cambridgeenglish.org/principles
CambridgeEnglish:First–
an overview
Cambridge English: Firstisaqualificationatupper-intermediate
levelthatisofciallyrecognisedbyuniversities,employersand
governmentsaroundtheworld.Regularupdatinghasallowedthe
examinationtokeeppacewithchangesinlanguageteachingand
testingwhileensuringtheexamremainsreliable,relevantanduser
friendlyforcandidates.ThelastmajorrevisionofCambridge English:
Firsttookplacein2008.
CandidatescanchoosetotakeCambridge English: First aseithera
paper-basedoracomputer-basedexam.
Whoistheexamfor?
Cambridge English: First isaimedatlearnerswhowantto:
• startworkinginanEnglish-speakingenvironment
• studyatanupper-intermediatelevel,suchasfoundationor
pathwaycourses
• liveindependentlyinanEnglish-speakingcountry.
Whorecognisestheexam?
• Cambridge English: Firstisatrulyinternationalexam,recognised
bythousandsofindustrial,administrativeandservice-based
employersasaqualificationinupper-intermediateEnglish.
Overall,CambridgeEnglishexamsarerecognisedby13,500
institutionsandemployers.
• Itisalsoacceptedbyawiderangeofeducationalinstitutionsfor
studypurposes.
• TheexamhasbeenaccreditedbyOfqual,thestatutory
regulatoryauthorityforexternalqualificationsinEnglandandits
counterpartsinWalesandNorthernIreland.
• TheUKBorderAgencyacceptsCambridge English: Firstas
meetingthelanguagerequirementsforTier1,2,4andspouseor
partnervisaapplications*.
*AllinformationaccurateasofJanuary2013.Checkthelatest
requirementsatwww.ukba.homeofce.gov.uk
Formoreinformationaboutrecognition,goto
www.cambridgeenglish.org/recognition
Theworld’smostvaluablerangeofEnglish
qualifications
CambridgeEnglishLanguageAssessmentoferstheworld’sleading
rangeofqualificationsforlearnersandteachersofEnglish.Globally,
over4millionpeopletakeourexamseachyear.
Weoferassessmentsacrossthefullspectrumoflanguageability.
Weprovideexaminationsforgeneralcommunication,forprofessional
andacademicpurposes,andalsospecialistlegalandfinancialEnglish
qualifications.Allofourexamsarealignedtotheprinciplesand
approachoftheCommonEuropeanFrameworkofReferencefor
Languages(CEFR).
TofindoutmoreaboutCambridgeEnglishexamsandtheCEFR,goto
www.cambridgeenglish.org/cefr
Inadditiontoourownprogrammesofworld-leadingresearch,we
workcloselywithprofessionalbodies,industryprofessionalsand
governmentstoensurethatourexamsremainfairandrelevantto
candidatesofallbackgroundsandtoawiderangeofstakeholders.
KeyfeaturesofCambridgeEnglishexams
CambridgeEnglishexams:
• arebasedonrealistictasksandsituationssothatpreparingfor
theirexamgiveslearnersreal-lifelanguageskills
• accuratelyandconsistentlytestallfourlanguageskills–reading,
writing,listeningandspeaking–aswellasknowledgeoflanguage
structureanditsuse
• encouragepositivelearningexperiences,andseektoachievea
positiveimpactonteachingwhereverpossible
• areasfairaspossibletoallcandidates,whatevertheirnational,
ethnicandlinguisticbackground,genderordisability.
Provenquality
Ourcommitmenttoprovidingexamsofthehighestpossiblequalityis
underpinnedbyanextensiveprogrammeofresearchandevaluation,
andbycontinuousmonitoringofthemarkingandgradingofall
CambridgeEnglishexams.Ofparticularimportancearetherigorous
procedureswhichareusedintheproductionandpretestingof
questionpapers.
Alloursystemsandprocessesfordesigning,developingand
deliveringexamsandassessmentservicesarecertifiedasmeeting
theinternationallyrecognisedISO9001:2008standardforquality
managementandaredesignedaroundfiveessentialprinciples:
ABOUT CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT
4 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
Theupdatedexaminationhasincorporatedtheinsightsprovidedby
thisinformationandaimstoprovide:
• coverageofcandidates’needsandinterests
• coverageoflanguageabilitiesunderlyingtheseneedsand
interestsinreading,controloflanguagesystems(grammarand
vocabulary),writing,listeningandspeaking
• reliableassessmentacrossawiderangeoftestingfocuses
• positiveeducationalimpact
• easeofadministration
• amoreuser-friendlyexperienceforcandidates.
Athoroughtestofallareasoflanguageability
Therearefourpapers:ReadingandUseofEnglish,Writing,Listening
andSpeaking.TheReadingandUseofEnglishpapercarries40%of
themarks,whileWriting,Listening,andSpeakingeachcarry20%
ofthemarks.Detailedinformationoneachtestandsamplepapers
followlaterinthisbooklet,buttheoverallfocusofeachtestisas
follows:
Reading and Use of English: 1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates need to be able to understand texts from publications such as fiction and
non-fiction books, journals, newspapers and magazines.
Writing: 1 hour 20 minutes
Candidates have to show that they can produce two diferent pieces of writing:
a compulsory task in Part 1, and one from a choice of three in Part 2.
Listening: 40 minutes (approximately)
Candidates need to show they can understand the meaning of a range of spoken material,
including lectures, radio broadcasts, speeches and talks.
Speaking: 14 minutes
Candidates take the Speaking test with another candidate or in a group of three, and are
tested on their ability to take part in diferent types of interaction: with the examiner, with
the other candidate and by themselves.
Eachofthesefourtestcomponentsprovidesauniquecontributionto
aprofileofoverallcommunicativelanguageabilitythatdefineswhata
candidatecandoatthislevel.
InternationalEnglish
Englishisusedinawiderangeofinternationalcontexts.Toreflect
this,candidates’responsestotasksinCambridgeEnglishexamsare
acceptableinallvarietiesandaccentsofEnglish,providedtheydo
notinterferewithcommunication.Materialsusedfeaturearangeof
accentsandtextsfromEnglish-speakingcountries,includingtheUK,
NorthAmericaandAustralia.USandotherversionsofspellingare
acceptedifusedconsistently.
Marksandresults
Cambridge English: Firstgivesdetailed,meaningfulresults.All
candidatesreceiveaStatementofResults.Candidateswhose
performancerangesbetweenCEFRLevelsB1andC1willalsoreceive
acertificate.
StatementofResults
TheStatementofResultsoutlines:
• thecandidate’sresult;thisresultisbasedonthetotalscoregained
bythecandidateinallfourpapers
Whatlevelistheexam?
Cambridge English: FirstistargetedatLevelB2ontheCEFRscale.
LevelB2isrequiredineverydaywrittenandspokensituations
andachievingacertificateatthislevelprovesthatacandidateis
becomingskilledinEnglish.
WhatcancandidatesdoatLevelB2?
TheAssociationofLanguageTestersinEurope(ALTE)hascarried
outresearchtodeterminewhatlanguagelearnerscantypicallydoat
eachCEFRlevel.IthasdescribedtheseabilitiesinaseriesofCanDo
statementsusingexamplestakenfromreal-lifesituations.
CambridgeEnglishLanguageAssessment,asoneofthefounding
membersofALTE,usesthisframeworkasawayofensuringits
examsreflectreal-lifelanguageskills.
ExamplesofCanDostatementsatLevelB2
Typical
abilities
Reading and Writing Listening and Speaking
Overall
general
ability
CAN scan texts for relevant information.
CAN make notes while someone is
talking, or write a letter including
non-standard requests.
CAN follow a talk on a familiar
topic.
CAN keep up a conversation on a
fairly wide range of topics.
Social &
Tourist
CAN read the media for information
quickly and with good understanding.
CAN express opinions and give reasons.
CAN ask for clarification and
further information, and is likely
to understand the answer.
CAN keep up a conversation on a
fairly wide range of topics.
Work CAN understand the general meaning of
non-routine letters and understand most
of the content.
CAN write a simple report of a factual
nature and begin to evaluate, advise, etc.
CAN ask for factual information
and understand the answer.
CAN express own opinion, and
express arguments to a limited
extent.
Study CAN make simple notes that are of
reasonable use for essay or revision
purposes, capturing the most important
points.
CAN present arguments, using a limited
range of expression (vocabulary,
grammatical structures).
CAN answer predictable or
factual questions.
CAN check that all instructions
are understood.
Examcontentandprocessing
Cambridge English: FirstisarigorousandthoroughtestofEnglishat
LevelB2.Itcoversallfourlanguageskills–reading,writing,listening
andspeakingandincludesafifthelementfocusingonthecandidate’s
understandingofthestructureofthelanguage.PreparingforCambridge
English: Firsthelpscandidatesdeveloptheskillstheyneedtouse
Englishtocommunicateefectivelyinavarietyofpracticalcontexts.
Factorsafectingthedesignoftheexamination
AnalysisofCambridge English: Firstcandidateinformationdataand
marketsurveyquestionnairesshowedconsistentagreementon
administrativeaspectsoftheexaminationandhowtherevised
examinationcouldbestreflectcandidates’needsandinterests.
CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST – AN OVERVIEW
5 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
Examsupport
OfcialCambridgeEnglishexampreparationmaterials
Tosupportteachersandhelplearnerspreparefortheirexams,
CambridgeEnglishLanguageAssessmentandCambridgeUniversity
Presshavedevelopedarangeofofcialsupportmaterialsincluding
coursebooksandpracticetests.Theseofcialmaterialsareavailable
inbothprintanddigitalformats.
www.cambridgeenglish.org/prepare-and-practise
Supportforteachers
Teachingsupportwebsite
Thiswebsiteprovidesaninvaluable,user-friendly,freeresourceforall
teacherspreparingforourexams.Itincludes:
Generalinformation–handbookforteachers,samplepapers,
examreports
Detailedinformation–format,timing,numberofquestions,task
types,markschemeofeachpaper
Adviceforteachers–developingstudents’skillsandpreparing
themfortheexam
Downloadablelessons–alessonforeverypartofeverypaper
Teachingqualifications–thewholerangeofCambridgeEnglish
TeachingQualifications
Seminarsandwebinars–awiderangeofexam-specificseminars
andliveandrecordedwebinarsfornewandexperienced
teachers.
www.teachers.cambridgeenglish.org
CambridgeEnglishTeacherforprofessionaldevelopment
DevelopedbyCambridgeUniversityPressandCambridgeEnglish
LanguageAssessment,CambridgeEnglishTeacherprovides
opportunitiesforEnglishteacherstoengageincontinuing
professionaldevelopmentthroughonlinecourses,sharebestpractice
andnetworkwithotherELTprofessionalsworldwide.Includesthe
How to teach Cambridge English: Firstcourse.
FormoreinformationonhowtobecomeaCambridgeEnglish
Teacher,visitwww.cambridgeenglishteacher.org
• agraphicaldisplayofthecandidate’sperformanceineachskill
(shownagainstthescaleExceptional–Good–Borderline–Weak)
• astandardisedscoreoutof100whichallowscandidatestosee
exactlyhowtheyperformed.
Certificates
Wehavemadeenhancementstothewaywereporttheresultsof
ourexamsbecausewebelieveitisimportanttorecognise
candidates’achievements.
C2
C1
B2
B1
A2
A1
The Common European
Framework of Reference
C
Proficient
user
B
Independent
user
A
Basic user
Cambridge English:
First
Grade B
Grade C
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade A
Level B1
Ready for
success in the
real world
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 CambridgeEnglish:First–LevelC1
ExceptionalcandidatessometimesshowabilitybeyondB2level.Ifa
candidateachievesagradeAintheirexam,theywillreceivethe First
Certificate in EnglishstatingthattheydemonstratedabilityatLevelC1.
CambridgeEnglish:First–LevelB2
IfacandidateachievesgradeBorCintheirexam,theywillbe
awardedthe First Certificate in EnglishatLevelB2.
LevelB1Certificate
Ifacandidate’sperformanceisbelowLevelB2,butfallswithinLevel
B1,theywillreceiveaCambridgeEnglishcertificatestatingthatthey
demonstratedabilityatB1level.
Specialcircumstances
CambridgeEnglishexamsaredesignedtobefairtoalltesttakers.
Thiscommitmenttofairnesscovers:
• Specialarrangements
Theseareavailableforcandidateswithapermanentorlong-term
disability.ConsulttheCambridgeEnglishLanguageAssessment
CentreExamsManager(CEM)inyourareaformoredetailsas
soonasyoubecomeawareofacandidatewhomayneedspecial
arrangements.
• Specialconsideration
Wewillgivespecialconsiderationtocandidatesafected
byadversecircumstancessuchasillnessorbereavement
immediatelybeforeorduringanexam.Applicationsforspecial
considerationmustbemadethroughthecentrenolaterthan
10 workingdaysaftertheexamdate.
• Malpractice 
Wewillinvestigateallcaseswherecandidatesaresuspectedof
copying,collusionorbreakingtheexamregulationsinsomeother
way.Resultsmaybewithheldwhiletheyarebeinginvestigated,
orbecausewehavefoundaninfringementofregulations.Centres
arenotifiedifacandidate’sresultsarebeinginvestigated.
EXAM CONTENT AND PROCESSING
6 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
Supportforcandidates
HowtoprepareforCambridgeEnglish:First(FCE)
TohelpcandidatesfeelreallypreparedforCambridge English: First,
thereisarangeofexampreparationresourcesandservicesonour
website,including:
• ofcialCambridgeEnglishexampreparationmaterialsincluding
OnlineSpeakingPractice
• tipsandFAQsforeachexampaper:ReadingandUseofEnglish,
Writing,Listening,andSpeaking
• samplepapers
• Informationforcandidatesleaflet/PDF.
www.cambridgeenglish.org/first
Facebook
StudentscanalsojoinouractiveFacebookcommunitytogettipson
Englishlanguagelearningandtakepartinfunandtopicalquizzes.
www.facebook.com/CambridgeEnglish
Furtherinformation
Contactyourlocalauthorisedexamcentre,orCambridgeEnglish
LanguageAssessmentdirect(usingthecontactdetailsontheback
coverofthisbooklet)for:
• copiesoftheregulations
• detailsofentryprocedure
• examdates
• currentfees
• moreinformationaboutCambridge English: Firstandother
CambridgeEnglishexams.
Examsessions
Cambridge English: Firstisavailableasapaper-basedor
computer-basedtest.Candidatesmustbeenteredthrough
anauthorisedexamcentre.Findyournearestcentreat
www.cambridgeenglish.org/centres
EXAM SUPPORT
7 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS

Reading and Use of English paper
Structureandtasks(cont.)
PART 3
TASK TYPE  Wordformation
FOCUS  Themainfocusisonvocabulary,inparticular
theuseofafxation,internalchangesand
compoundinginwordformation.
FORMAT  Atextcontainingeightgaps.Eachgap
correspondstoaword.Thestemofthe
missingwordisgivenbesidethetextand
mustbechangedtoformthemissingword.
NO. OF QS  8
PART 4
TASK TYPE  Keywordtransformation
FOCUS  Thefocusisongrammar,vocabularyand
collocation.
FORMAT  Sixseparateitems,eachwithalead-in
sentenceandagappedsecondsentencetobe
completedintwotofivewords,oneofwhich
isagiven‘key’word.
NO. OF QS  6
PART 5
TASK TYPE  Multiplechoice
FOCUS  Detail,opinion,attitude,tone,purpose,main
idea,gist,meaningfromcontext,implication,
textorganisationfeatures(exemplification,
reference).
FORMAT  Atextfollowedbysix4-option
multiple-choicequestions.
NO. OF QS  6
PART 6
TASK TYPE  Gappedtext
FOCUS  Cohesion,coherence,textstructure.
FORMAT Atextfromwhichsentenceshavebeen
removedandplacedinjumbledorderafterthe
text.Candidatesmustdecidefromwhichpart
ofthetextthesentenceshavebeenremoved.
NO. OF QS  6
PART 7
TASK TYPE  Multiplematching
FOCUS  Detail,opinion,specificinformation,
implication.
FORMAT  Atextorseveralshorttexts,precededby
multiple-matchingquestions.Candidates
mustmatchaprompttoelementsinthetext.
NO. OF QS  10
Structureandtasks
PART 1
TASK TYPE  Multiple-choicecloze
FOCUS  Themainfocusisonvocabulary,e.g.idioms,
collocations,fixedphrases,complementation,
phrasalverbs,semanticprecision.
FORMAT  Amodifiedclozetestcontainingeightgaps.
Thereare4-optionmultiple-choiceitemsfor
eachgap.
NO. OF QS  8
PART 2
TASK TYPE  Opencloze
FOCUS  Themainfocusisonawarenessandcontrolof
grammarwithsomefocusonvocabulary.
FORMAT  Amodifiedclozetestcontainingeightgaps.
NO. OF QS  8
Generaldescription
FORMAT  Thepapercontainssevenparts.
ForParts1to4,thetestcontains
textswithaccompanyinggrammar
andvocabularytasks,and
separateitemswithagrammar
andvocabularyfocus.ForParts5
to7,thetestcontainsarangeof
textsandaccompanyingreading
comprehensiontasks.
TIMING  1hour15minutes
NO. OF PARTS 7
NO. OF QUESTIONS 52
TASK TYPES Multiple-choicecloze,open
cloze,wordformation,keyword
transformation,multiplechoice,
gappedtext,multiplematching.
WORD COUNT  2,200–2,500
MARKS  Parts1–3–eachcorrectanswer
receives1mark;Part4–eachcorrect
answerreceivesupto2marks.
ForParts5–6,eachcorrectanswer
receives2marks;forPart7,each
correctanswerreceives1mark.
8 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
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READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
9 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
5

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_
_
_
_
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.



READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
L
i
l
i
a
c
e
a
e
10 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
7

T
u
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n

o
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2
8

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2
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2
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.


READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
11 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
9

T
u
r
n

o
v
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3
1

Ì
n

t
h
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f
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p
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p
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b
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?





A

Ì
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c
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b
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d
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a
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.


B

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C

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a
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.


D

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a
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n
.




3
2

W
h
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t

d
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s

C
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b
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h
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f
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?





A

H
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h
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f
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.


B

H
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C

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D

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w
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f
f

f
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r
.




3
3

C
a
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t
l
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e
m
p
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h
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b
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A

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a
b
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.


B

f
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c
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a
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w
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.


C

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c
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3
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READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
12 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
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3
7





.


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3
8







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3
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.



4
0






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4
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4
2






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H
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p

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.




READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
13 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
1
3

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5
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READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
14 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
Answerkey
Q Part One
1 B
2 C
3 B
4 D
5 C
6 A
7 D
8 B
Q Part Two
9 where
10 so
11 myself
12 in
13 which/that
14 out/on/at
15 from
16 any
Q Part Three
17 producer
18 illness(es)
19 efective
20 scientists
21 addition
22 pressure
23 disadvantage
24 spicy
Q Part Four
25 agoodIDEA|togo
26 talented|THAThe/she
27 IFhe/sheknew|what/
the
28 spent/took/was|aLONG
time
29 are/isSAID|tobeORit
isSAID|are/is
30 not|CALLofORyou/we
didn’t/didnotCALLof
Q Part Five
31 C
32 D
33 C
34 A
35 D
36 C
Q Part Six
37 D
38 G
39 F
40 A
41 E
42 C
Q Part Seven
43 A
44 D
45 B
46 D
47 B
48 A
49 C
50 B
51 C
52 D
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH | ANSWER KEY
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
15 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS

Writing paper
Generaldescription
FORMAT Thepapercontainstwoparts.
TIMING 1hour20minutes
NO. OF PARTS 2
NO. OF QUESTIONS Candidatesarerequiredtocomplete
twotasks:acompulsorytaskin
Part 1andonetaskfromachoiceof
threeinPart2.
TASK TYPES Arangefromthefollowing:article;
email/letter;essay;report;review.
MARKS Eachquestiononthispapercarries
equalmarks.
Structureandtasks
PART 1
TASK TYPE 
AND FOCUS
Writinganessaygivingopinionandproviding
reasonsfortheopinion.
FORMAT Candidatesarerequiredtowriteanessay
givingtheiropinionontheessaytitleusingthe
ideasgivenandprovidinganideaoftheirown.
Theessaytitlewillbeonasubjectofgeneral
interestwithnorequirementofspecialised
knowledge.
LENGTH 140–190words
PART 2
TASK TYPE 
AND FOCUS
Writingonefromanumberofpossibletext
typesbasedonacontextualisedwritingtask.
FORMAT Candidateshaveachoiceoftask.Inquestions
2–4,thetasksprovidecandidateswithaclear
context,topic,purposeandtargetreaderfor
theirwriting.Theoutputtexttypesare:
• article
• email/letter
• report
• review.
LENGTH 140–190words
16 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
TasktypesintheWritingpaper
Thediferenttasktypesareintendedtoprovideframeworksforcandidatessothattheycanputtogetheranddeveloptheirideasonatopicwitha
purposeforwritingandatargetreaderinmind.Theseindicationsofreadershipandpurposearenotcomprehensive,butareintendedtoprovide
someguidanceaboutthediferenttasktypes.
AN ARTICLEisusuallywrittenforanEnglish-languagemagazineornewsletter,andthereaderisassumedtohavesimilarintereststothewriter.
Themainpurposeistointerestandengagethereader,sothereshouldbesomeopinionorcomment.
AN EMAIL/A LETTER iswritteninresponsetothesituationoutlinedinthequestion.LettersandemailsintheCambridge English: FirstWriting
paperwillrequirearesponsewhichisconsistentlyappropriateinregisterandtoneforthespecifiedtargetreader.Candidatescanexpecttobe
askedtowritelettersoremailsto,forexample,anEnglish-speakingfriendorcolleague,apotentialemployer,acollegeprincipaloramagazine
editor.
AN ESSAY isalwayswrittenfortheteacher.Itshouldanswerthequestiongivenbyaddressingbothcontentpointsandprovidinganewcontent
pointofthewriter’sown.Theessayshouldbewellorganised,withanintroductionandanappropriateconclusionandshouldbewritteninan
appropriateregisterandtone.
A REPORTisusuallywrittenforasuperior(e.g.ateacher)orapeergroup(e.g.membersofanEnglishclub).Candidatesareexpectedtogive
somefactualinformationandmakesuggestionsorrecommendations.A reportshouldbeclearlyorganisedandmayincludeheadings.
A REVIEWisusuallywrittenforanEnglish-languagemagazine,newspaperorwebsite.Themainpurposeistodescribeandexpressapersonal
opinionaboutsomethingwhichthewriterhasexperienced(e.g.afilm,aholiday,aproduct,awebsiteetc.)andtogivethereaderaclear
impressionofwhattheitemdiscussedislike.Descriptionandexplanationarekeyfunctionsforthistask,andareviewwillnormallyincludea
recommendationtothereader.
Foralltasktypes,questionsareconstructedtoenablecandidatestodisplaytheirEnglishlanguageproficiencyatCEFRB2level;candidatesshould
takespecialcaretoreadeverypartofeachquestion,andnottoomitanyrequireddevelopmentofthetopic.
WRITING
17 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
3


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WRITING
WRITING | SAMPLE PAPER
18 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
WRITING | ASSESSMENT
AssessmentofWriting
Examinersandmarking
WritingExaminers(WEs)undergoarigorousprocessoftrainingand
certificationbeforetheyareinvitedtomark.Onceaccepted,theyare
supervisedbyTeamLeaders(TLs)whoareinturnledbyaPrincipal
Examiner(PE),whoguidesandmonitorsthemarkingprocess.
WEsmarkcandidateresponsesinasecureonlinemarking
environment.Thesoftwarerandomlyallocatescandidateresponses
toensurethatindividualexaminersdonotreceiveaconcentrationof
goodorweakresponses,orofanyonelanguagegroup.Thesoftware
alsoallowsforexaminers’markingtobemonitoredforqualityand
consistency.Duringthemarkingperiod,thePEandTLsareable
toviewtheirteam’sprogressandtoofersupportandadvice,as
required.
Assessmentscales
Examinersmarktasksusingassessmentscalesthatweredeveloped
withexplicitreferencetotheCommonEuropeanFrameworkof
ReferenceforLanguages(CEFR).Thescales,whichareusedacross
thespectrumofourGeneralEnglish,AcademicandProfessional
EnglishandBusinessEnglishWritingtests,consistoffoursubscales:
Content,CommunicativeAchievement,Organisation,andLanguage:
• Contentfocusesonhowwellthecandidatehasfulfilledthetask,
inotherwordsiftheyhavedonewhattheywereaskedtodo.
• CommunicativeAchievement focusesonhowappropriatethe
writingisforthetaskandwhetherthecandidatehasusedthe
appropriateregister.
• Organisation focusesonthewaythecandidateputstogetherthe
pieceofwriting,inotherwordsifitislogicalandordered.
• Languagefocusesonvocabularyandgrammar.Thisincludesthe
rangeoflanguageaswellashowaccurateitis.
Responsesaremarkedoneachsubscalefrom0to5.
Whenmarkingthetasks,examinerstakeintoaccountlengthof
responsesandvarietiesofEnglish:
• Guidelinesonlengthareprovidedforeachtask;responses
whicharetooshortmaynothaveanadequaterangeoflanguage
andmaynotprovidealltheinformationthatisrequired,while
responseswhicharetoolongmaycontainirrelevantcontentand
haveanegativeefectonthereader.Thesemayafectcandidates’
marksontherelevantsubscales.
• CandidatesareexpectedtouseaparticularvarietyofEnglish
withsomedegreeofconsistencyinareassuchasspelling,and
not,forexample,switchfromusingaBritishspellingofawordto
anAmericanspellingofthesameword.
19 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
WRITING | ASSESSMENT
ThesubscaleContentiscommontoalllevels:
Content
5 All content is relevant to the task.
Target reader is fully informed.
3 Minor irrelevances and/or omissions may be present.
Target reader is on the whole informed.
1 Irrelevances and misinterpretation of task may be present.
Target reader is minimally informed.
0 Content is totally irrelevant.
Target reader is not informed.
Theremainingthreesubscales(CommunicativeAchievement,
Organisation,andLanguage)havedescriptorsspecifictoeach
CEFR level:
CEFR
level
Communicative Achievement Organisation Language
Demonstratescompletecommandofthe
conventionsofthecommunicativetask.
Communicatescomplexideasinanefective
andconvincingway,holdingthetarget
reader’sattentionwithease,fulfillingall
communicativepurposes.
Textisorganisedimpressivelyand
coherentlyusingawiderangeof
cohesivedevicesandorganisational
patternswithcompleteflexibility.
Usesawiderangeofvocabulary,including
lesscommonlexis,withfluency,precision,
sophistication,andstyle.
Useofgrammarissophisticated,fullycontrolled
andcompletelynatural.
Anyinaccuraciesoccuronlyasslips.
C2 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
taskwithsufcientflexibilityto
communicatecomplexideasinanefective
way,holdingthetargetreader’sattention
withease,fulfillingallcommunicative
purposes.
Textisawell-organised,coherent
whole,usingavarietyofcohesive
devicesandorganisationalpatterns
withflexibility.
Usesarangeofvocabulary,includingless
commonlexis,efectivelyandprecisely.
Usesawiderangeofsimpleandcomplex
grammaticalformswithfullcontrol,flexibility
andsophistication.
Errors,ifpresent,arerelatedtolesscommon
wordsandstructures,oroccurasslips.
C1 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
taskefectivelytoholdthetargetreader’s
attentionandcommunicatestraightforward
andcomplexideas,asappropriate.
Textiswell-organisedandcoherent,
usingavarietyofcohesivedevicesand
organisationalpatternstogenerally
goodefect.
Usesarangeofvocabulary,includingless
commonlexis,appropriately.
Usesarangeofsimpleandcomplexgrammatical
formswithcontrolandflexibility.
Occasionalerrorsmaybepresentbutdonot
impedecommunication.
B2 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
tasktoholdthetargetreader’sattentionand
communicatestraightforwardideas.
Textisgenerallywell-organisedand
coherent,usingavarietyoflinking
wordsandcohesivedevices.
Usesarangeofeverydayvocabulary
appropriately,withoccasionalinappropriateuse
oflesscommonlexis.
Usesarangeofsimpleandsomecomplex
grammaticalformswithagooddegreeofcontrol.
Errorsdonotimpedecommunication.
B1 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
taskingenerallyappropriatewaysto
communicatestraightforwardideas.
Textisconnectedandcoherent,using
basiclinkingwordsandalimited
numberofcohesivedevices.
Useseverydayvocabularygenerally
appropriately,whileoccasionallyoverusing
certainlexis.
Usessimplegrammaticalformswithagood
degreeofcontrol.
Whileerrorsarenoticeable,meaningcanstillbe
determined.
A2 Producestextthatcommunicatessimple
ideasinsimpleways.
Textisconnectedusingbasic,high-
frequencylinkingwords.
Usesbasicvocabularyreasonablyappropriately.
Usessimplegrammaticalformswithsome
degreeofcontrol.
Errorsmayimpedemeaningattimes.
20 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
WRITING | ASSESSMENT
Cambridge English: FirstWritingExaminersusethefollowingassessmentscale,extractedfromtheoneonthepreviouspage:
B2 Content Communicative Achievement Organisation Language
5 Allcontentisrelevanttothe
task.
Targetreaderisfullyinformed.
Usestheconventionsof
thecommunicativetask
efectivelytoholdthetarget
reader’sattentionand
communicatestraightforward
andcomplexideas,as
appropriate.
Textiswell-organisedand
coherent,usingavariety
ofcohesivedevicesand
organisationalpatternsto
generallygoodefect.
Usesarangeofvocabulary,including
lesscommonlexis,appropriately.
Usesarangeofsimpleandcomplex
grammaticalformswithcontroland
flexibility.
Occasionalerrorsmaybepresentbutdo
notimpedecommunication.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Minorirrelevancesand/or
omissionsmaybepresent.
Targetreaderisonthewhole
informed.
Usestheconventionsof
thecommunicativetask
toholdthetargetreader’s
attentionandcommunicate
straightforwardideas.
Textisgenerallywell-
organisedandcoherent,using
avarietyoflinkingwordsand
cohesivedevices.
Usesarangeofeverydayvocabulary
appropriately,withoccasional
inappropriateuseoflesscommonlexis.
Usesarangeofsimpleandsome
complexgrammaticalformswithagood
degreeofcontrol.
Errorsdonotimpedecommunication.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Irrelevancesand
misinterpretationoftaskmay
bepresent.
Targetreaderisminimally
informed.
Usestheconventionsof
thecommunicativetaskin
generallyappropriatewaysto
communicatestraightforward
ideas.
Textisconnectedand
coherent,usingbasiclinking
wordsandalimitednumber
ofcohesivedevices.
Useseverydayvocabularygenerally
appropriately,whileoccasionally
overusingcertainlexis.
Usessimplegrammaticalformswitha
gooddegreeofcontrol.
Whileerrorsarenoticeable,meaningcan
stillbedetermined.
0 Contentistotallyirrelevant.
Targetreaderisnotinformed.
Performance below Band 1.
21 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
WRITING | GLOSSARY OF TERMS
5. LANGUAGE
Vocabulary Basic vocabulary refers to vocabulary used for survival purposes,
for simple transactions, and the like.
Everyday vocabulary refers to vocabulary that comes up in
common situations of a non-technical nature in the relevant
domain.
Less common lexis refers to vocabulary items that appear less
often in the relevant domain. These items often help to express
ideas more succinctly and precisely.
Appropriacy of
vocabulary
Appropriacy of vocabulary: the use of words and phrases that
fit the context of the given task. For example, in I’m very sensible
to noise, the word sensible is inappropriate as the word should
be sensitive. Another example would be Today’s big snow makes
getting around the city difcult. The phrase getting around is well
suited to this situation. However, big snow is inappropriate as big
and snow are not used together. Heavy snow would be appropriate.
Grammatical
forms
Simple grammatical forms: words, phrases, basic tenses and
simple clauses.
Complex grammatical forms: longer and more complex items, e.g.
noun clauses, relative and adverb clauses, subordination, passive
forms, infinitives, verb patterns, modal forms and tense contrasts.
Grammatical
control
Grammatical control: the ability to consistently use grammar
accurately and appropriately to convey intended meaning.
Where language specifications are provided at lower levels (as in
Cambridge English: Key (KET) and Cambridge English: Preliminary
(PET)), candidates may have control of only the simplest exponents
of the listed forms.
Range Range: the variety of words and grammatical forms a candidate
uses. At higher levels, candidates will make increasing use
of a greater variety of words, fixed phrases, collocations and
grammatical forms.
Overuse Overuse refers to those cases where candidates repeatedly use the
same word because they do not have the resources to use another
term or phrase the same idea in another way. Some words may
unavoidably appear often as a result of being the topic of the task;
that is not covered by the term overuse here.
Errors and slips Errors are systematic mistakes. Slips are mistakes that are non-
systematic, i.e. the candidate has learned the vocabulary item or
grammatical structure, but just happened to make a mistake in this
instance. In a candidate’s response, where most other examples of
a lexical/grammatical point are accurate, a mistake on that point
would most likely be a slip.
Impede
communication
Impede communication means getting in the way of meaning.
Meaning can still be determined indicates that some efort is
required from the reader to determine meaning.
Writingassessment
Glossaryofterms
1. GENERAL
Generally Generally is a qualifier meaning not in every way or instance. Thus,
‘generally appropriately’ refers to performance that is not as good
as ‘appropriately’.
Flexibility Flexible and flexibly refer to the ability to adapt – whether
language, organisational devices, or task conventions – rather than
using the same form over and over, thus evidencing better control
and a wider repertoire of the resource. Flexibility allows a candidate
to better achieve communicative goals.
2. CONTENT
Relevant Relevant means related or relatable to required content points and/
or task requirements.
Target reader The target reader is the hypothetical reader set up in the task, e.g. a
magazine’s readership, your English teacher.
Informed The target reader is informed if content points and/or task
requirements are addressed and appropriately developed. Some
content points do not require much development (e.g. “state what
is x”) while others require it (“describe”, “explain”).
3. COMMUNICATIVE ACHIEVEMENT
Conventions
of the
communicative
task
Conventions of the communicative task include such things
as genre, format, register, and function. For example, a personal
letter should not be written as a formal report, should be laid out
accordingly, and use the right tone for the communicative purpose.
Holding the
target reader’s
attention
Holding the target reader’s attention is used in the positive sense
and refers to the quality of a text that allows a reader to derive
meaning and not be distracted. It does not refer to texts that force
a reader to read closely because they are difcult to follow or make
sense of.
Communicative
purpose
Communicative purpose refers to the communicative
requirements as set out in the task, e.g. make a complaint, suggest
alternatives.
Straightforward
and complex
ideas
Straightforward ideas are those which relate to relatively limited
subject matter, usually concrete in nature, and which require simpler
rhetorical devices to communicate. Complex ideas are those which
are of a more abstract nature, or which cover a wider subject area,
requiring more rhetorical resources to bring together and express.
4. ORGANISATION
Linking words,
cohesive
devices, and
organisational
patterns
Linking words are cohesive devices, but are separated here to refer
to higher-frequency vocabulary which provide explicit linkage. They
can range from basic high frequency items (such as “and”, “but”) to
basic and phrasal items (such as “because”, “first of all”, “finally”).
Cohesive devices refers to more sophisticated linking words and
phrases (e.g. “moreover”, “it may appear”, “as a result”), as well
as grammatical devices such as the use of reference pronouns,
substitution (e.g. There are two women in the picture. The one on
the right . . .), ellipsis (e.g. The first car he owned was a convertible,
the second a family car.), or repetition.
Organisational patterns refers to less-explicit ways of achieving
connection at the between sentence level and beyond, e.g.
arranging sentences in climactic order, the use of parallelism, using
a rhetorical question to set up a new paragraph.
22 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 4 Allcontentisrelevanttothetask.However,thetargetreaderisonthewholeinformed,ratherthanbeingfullyinformed.
Bothnumberedpoints(transport;riversandseas)arereferredtowithsomediscussionoftheproblemscaused,harmful
exhaust;factorieswhichpour of their waste to pondswithsomelimitedmentionofsolutions.
Notangible3rdaspectofenvironmentaldamageisdiscussed.
Whilethewriterdoesconcludewithastrongstatementofopinion,every person can and must;thereaderisnotfully
informedonthesolutionsproposed:Doing a little steps for protection our environment every day we will be able to save our
Earth.
Communicative 
Achievement
3 Theessayiswritteninaconsistentlyneutralregisterandtheformatisappropriateforthecommunicativetask,using
moreformallanguagetointroducetheideaswithinthetext,To begin with; First of all; It’s a fact of common knowledge.
Thereisaclearessaystructurewithanopeningstatement,topicparagraphsandaconclusionwhichsumsupthe
writer’spointofview.
Straightforwardideasarecommunicatedtothetargetreaderbutwhenmorecomplexideasareattemptedtheseare
sometimesnotassuccessful,Obviously that cleaning manufacturing water helps to avoid extinction of ocean residents.
Organisation 3 Thetextisgenerallywell-organisedandcoherentusingavarietyoflinkingwordsandcohesivedevices,particularlyto
introducetheideasthroughoutthetext,To begin with; In addition to this; Needless to say; Apart from this.
Theessayisclearlyorganisedintoparagraphs,whicheachdealwithoneidea.Occasionallythefollowupexamplesare
notasclearlyconnectedastheycouldbe.Forexample,theydiscusshowfactoriespollutepondwaterandthenofera
solutionwhichwouldhelpocean residents.
Language 3 Thereisarangeofeverydayvocabularyusedappropriatelywithsomeattempttousemoresophisticatedlexis,a global
ecocatastrophe; atmosphere; common knowledge; factories and plants; inclined to believe; must contribute to solving.
Thereisarangeofsimpleandsomemorecomplexgrammaticalformsused,andalthoughthereareerrors,thesedonot
impedecommunication,a huge damage; people can’t imagine their living without cars; one of disadvantage; in not less danger
situation.
Question1
CandidateA
WRITING | QUESTION 1
To begin with pollution and damage to the environment is the most serious and difficult problem for countries
of all over the world. Scientists of different countries predict a global ecocatastrophe if people won’t change
their attitude to our planet.
First of all a huge damage to the environment brings a transport. People can’t imagine their living without
cars, buses, trains, ships and planes. But it’s an open secret that one of disadvantage of these accustomed
things is harmful exhaust. Needless to say that use of environment friendly engines helps us to save
atmosphere from pollution.
In addition to this our rivers and seas are in not less danger situation. It’s a fact of common knowledge that
numerous factories and plants pour off their waste to ponds. Obviously that cleaning manufacturing water
helps to avoid extinction of ocean residents.
Apart from this I’m inclined to believe that every person can and must contribute to solving this important
problem. Doing a little steps for protection our environment every day we will be able to save our Earth. And
it’s a task of each of us.
23 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 3 Allcontentisrelevanttothetaskbutthetargetreaderisonthewholeinformedratherthanfullyinformedasthecentral
questionastowhetherornottheproblemscanbesolvedhasnotreallybeenaddressed.
Thecandidatediscussestheenvironmentalimpactoftransportandthecleanlinessofriversandprovidesonesuggested
solutionfortheproblemoftransport,They don’t go anywhere by car one day a month.Thewriter’sopinionisclearinI think
it could be very good if we had a tradition like that.
Nosolutionsarediscussedforriversandseasandnothirdaspectofenvironmentaldamageisprovided.
Communicative 
Achievement
3 Theconventionsofessaywritingareused;thereisanopeningstatementandadevelopmentofthesubjectmatter,with
aconclusionattheend.
Theregisterissuitablyneutralforthemostpart,althoughtheuseofacolloquialyeahisnotconsistentwiththerestof
theessay.Theessayiswrittenforthemostpartinanobjectiveway,butthereisuseofpersonal,subjectiveexamples,
Once I saw the river; I can’t make a sigh,whichlessentheimpactofthebiggerproblems.
Thetargetreader’sattentionisheldandstraightforwardideasarecommunicated.
Organisation 3 Thetextisgenerallywell-organisedandcoherent.Itisseparatedintoparagraphsandthepunctuationisgenerallyused
efectively,althoughtherearesomelongsentences,And because of that we have problems with atmospeer, air in my city
and in all Russia is really dirty and sometimes I can’t make a sigh because it smells around me and of course around that cars on
the road.
Thereisavarietyoflinkingwords,because; and; So; because of thatandsomecohesivedevicessuchasreferencing
pronouns,relativeclausesandrhetoricalquestionstoconnecttheideaswithinthetext.
Language 3 Thereisarangeofeverydayvocabularyusedappropriately,andalthoughthereareerrors,theydonotimpede
communication:atmospeer; bycicle; sigh.
Thereisarangeofsimpleandsomemorecomplexgrammaticalforms:pastandpresentverbsformsareusedwitha
gooddegreeofcontrol.
Question1
CandidateB
WRITING | QUESTION 1
I think that my country has problems with pollution to the environment like all other countries. This problem
is normal for Russia. We have big problems with transport because there are too much cars in our country.
And because of that we have problems with atmospeer, air in my city and in all Russia is really dirty and
sometimes I can’t make a sigh because it smells around me and of course around that cars on the road. I’ve
heard about tradition of one country. They don’t go anywhere by car one day a month or a year, they just use
bycicle or their feet. I think it could be very good if we had a tradition like that.
So, what about the rivers and the seas? Yeah, there are some really good and clean rivers and seas where you
can go, but there are not many of them. Once I saw the river OB in my city, it was about two years ago but I
stil remember that in some places it was not blue, it was green or purple I didn’t really understand because it
had different colours.
I don’t know what should we do. Maybe we should just open our eyes and look what we did. But Russian people
don’t care about the world around them many people care only about themselves an that’s all.
So, the best idea is look around and try to do something good for our planet and for us and our children.
24 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Allcontentisrelevanttothetaskandthetargetreaderisfullyinformed.
Transportisdiscussedwithsuggestionsofhowusingdiferentformsoftransportwouldhelptheenvironment,Investing
on electrical transport would benefit the environment a lot.Thecandidatethenevaluatesthesuggestion:It’s difcult to
achieve this. . .
Waterpollutionisdescribedandasolutionisofered,A really strict law should be applied to fine these factories.Thewriter’s
opinionisclearinthechoiceofmodalshould.
Athirdaspect(wastereduction)isintroducedinthefinalparagraphwithasuggestionabouthowtoachievethis,If, when
possible, we bought larger packs of food...Thewriter’sopinionisexpressedclearly:We also can do a lot!
Communicative 
Achievement
5 Theconventionsoftheessayformatareusedefectivelytoholdthetargetreader’sattention.
Thereisanintroductoryparagraphwhichoutlinestheissuesingeneralterms,andtheconcludingparagraphsumsupin
moreconcreteterms,whatwe,thereaderscandotohelp.
Theregisterisconsistentlyappropriateandthesubjectmatterisdealtwithinanobjectivemanner,forexampleInvesting
on electrical transport; If a country decided.
Straightforwardandcomplexideasarecommunicated:It’s difcult to achieve this because petrol companies will fight against
these actions.
Organisation 4 Theessayiswell-organisedandcoherentusingavarietyofcohesivedevices.
Theparagraphsareintroducedinavarietyofways,usinggrammaticalstructuresratherthanobviouslinkers,If we
surf the web; If a country decided; Investing on; We also have to; But what about.Morecouldbedonetolinkacrossthe
paragraphs,tomakethemlessindependent,buttheoverallefectisofacohesivetext.
Language 5 Thereisawiderangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexisusedappropriately,environmental catastrophes; highly
polluted; exotic food; highly toxic substances; minimizing their poisoning efects; change their policy.
Thereisarangeofsimpleandcomplexgrammaticalformsusedwithagooddegreeofcontrolandflexibilitytoconvey
certainideassuccinctly,forexample,This is a natural consequence of the struggle between development and environment; we
all want exotic food and technological items from all over the world, so we have to pay the price.
Thereareminimalerrorswhichdonotimpedecommunication.
Question1
CandidateC
WRITING | QUESTION 1
DEVELOPMENT VS ENVIRONMENT
If we surf the web looking for pollution and environmental catastrophes, we will find out that every country in
the world suffers them. This is a natural consequence of the struggle between development and environment.
If a country decided to live isolated from the rest of the world, living on what it can naturally grow and
produce, it surely wouldn’t be highly polluted. But we all want exotic food and technological items from all over
the world, so we have to pay the price.
Investing on electrical transport would benefit the environment a lot. Even more if this electricity came from
a natural source of energy like wind, rivers and solar boards. It’s difficult to achieve this because petrol
companies will fight against these actions.
We also have to take care of our rivers and seas. We all have heard about factories throwing highly toxic
substances to rivers, without minimizing their poisoning effects. A really strict law should be applied to fine
these factories and make them change their policy.
But what about ourselves? We also can do a lot! If, when possible, we bought larger packs of food, we would be
producing less rubbish. And this is only an example!
25 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS

Listening paper
Generaldescription
FORMAT  Thepapercontainsfourparts.Each
partcontainsarecordedtextortexts
andcorrespondingcomprehension
tasks.Eachpartisheardtwice.
TIMING  Approximately40minutes
NO. OF PARTS  4
NO. OF QUESTIONS  30
TASK TYPES  Multiplechoice,sentence
completion,multiplematching.
TEXT TYPES  Monologues:answerphonemessages,
radiobroadcastsandfeatures,news,
publicannouncements,storiesand
anecdotes,lecturesandtalks.
Interacting speakers:conversations,
interviews,discussions,radioplays.
ANSWER FORMAT  Candidatesareadvisedtowritetheir
answersinthespacesprovidedon
thequestionpaperwhilelistening.
Therewillbe5minutesattheendof
thetesttocopytheanswersontoa
separateanswersheet.Candidates
indicatetheiranswersbyshading
thecorrectlozengesorwritingthe
requiredwordorwordsincapital
lettersinaboxontheanswersheet.
RECORDING 
INFORMATION
Theinstructionsforeachtaskare
giveninthequestionpaper,and
arealsoheardontherecording.
Theseinstructionsincludethe
announcementofpausesofspecified
lengths,duringwhichcandidates
canfamiliarisethemselveswiththe
taskand,forsomeitems,predict
someofthethingstheyarelikely
tohear.Avarietyofvoicesand
stylesofdeliveryareheardineach
Listeningpapertoreflectthevarious
contextspresentedintherecordings,
asappropriatetotheinternational
contextsofthetesttakers.
MARKS  Eachcorrectanswerreceives1mark.
Structureandtasks
PART 1
TASK TYPE  Multiplechoice
FOCUS  Thefocusisongenre,identifyingspeaker
feeling,attitude,opinion,purpose,agreement
betweenspeakers,gistanddetail.
FORMAT Eightshort,unrelatedextractsof
approximately30secondseach,fromaseries
ofeithermonologuesorexchangesbetween
interactingspeakers.Thereisonemultiple
choicequestionperextract,eachwiththree
options.
NO. OF QS  8
PART 2
TASK TYPE  Sentencecompletion
FOCUS  Thefocusisonidentifyingdetail,specific
informationandstatedopinion.
FORMAT  Amonologuelasting3–4minutes.Candidates
arerequiredtocompletethesentenceswith
informationheardontherecording.
NO. OF QS 10
PART 3
TASK TYPE  Multiplematching
FOCUS  Thefocusisonidentifyingattitude,opinion,
gist,purpose,feeling,mainpointsanddetail.
FORMAT  Fiveshort,relatedmonologuesof
approximately30secondseach.Therearefive
questionswhichrequiretheselectionofthe
correctoptionfromalistofeight.
NO. OF QS  5
PART 4
TASK TYPE  Multiplechoice
FOCUS  Thefocusisonidentifyingopinion,attitude,
detail,gist,mainideaandspecificinformation.
FORMAT  Anintervieworanexchangebetweentwo
speakerslasting3–4minutes.Thereareseven
3-optionmultiple-choicequestions.
NO. OF QS  7
26 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS

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g



2

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.




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3

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4

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s


LISTENING
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
27 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER

5



T
u
r
n

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_
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1
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,

w
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A
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(
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)








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(
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,

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A
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(
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)









a
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(
1
8
)








a
b
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p
e
n
t

s
t
u
d
y
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n
g

t
h
e

b
e
a
r
s
.

LISTENING
28 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS

6

P
a
r
t

4

Y
o
u

w
i
l
l

h
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R
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R
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F
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2
4



3
0
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a
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w
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(
A
,

B

o
r

C
)
.


_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
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_
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_
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_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_


2
4

W
h
a
t

d
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s

R
a
c
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l

s
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a
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j
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t
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?








A

I
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m
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m
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e

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m
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s
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s
.




B

I
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g
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g

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a
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.




C

I
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m
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k

s
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d
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s
.








2
5

W
h
a
t

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s

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h
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m
o
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t

c
o
m
m
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n

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f
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t
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y

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b
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g

a
n

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t
i
s
t

s

w
o
r
k
?








A

T
h
e

s
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b
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c
t

m
a
t
t
e
r

i
s

u
n
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e
.




B

I
t

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s

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o
f

a

h
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g
h

e
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o
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g
h

q
u
a
l
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t
y
.




C

T
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a
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y

m
a
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r

d
o
e
s
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l
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k
e

i
t
.








2
6

W
h
e
n

c
a
n

p
h
o
n
e

c
a
l
l
s

f
r
o
m

a
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t
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b
e

d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t

f
o
r

R
a
c
h
e
l
?








A

w
h
e
n

t
h
e
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r

w
o
r
k

d
o
e
s
n

t

s
e
l
l




B

w
h
e
n

t
h
e
y

d
o
n

t

r
e
c
e
i
v
e

p
a
y
m
e
n
t
s




C

w
h
e
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t
h
e
i
r

w
o
r
k

i
s

n
o
t

a
c
c
e
p
t
e
d








2
7

W
h
y

d
o
e
s

R
a
c
h
e
l

i
n
c
l
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d
e

a

c
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t
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y

i
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t
h
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c
a
t
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l
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e
?








A

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g
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i
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a
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.




B

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p
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p
a
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o
v
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r

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h
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p
h
o
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e
.




C

I
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t
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l
l
s

p
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o
p
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w
h
a
t

e
x
p
e
r
t
s

t
h
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k

o
f

t
h
e

w
o
r
k
.








2
8

W
h
a
t

d
o
e
s

R
a
c
h
e
l

s
a
y

a
b
o
u
t

a
d
m
i
n
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s
t
r
a
t
i
v
e

w
o
r
k
?








A

S
h
e

i
s

a
b
l
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t
o

l
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a
v
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a

l
o
t

o
f

i
t

t
o

o
t
h
e
r
s
.




B

S
h
e

w
o
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d

l
i
k
e

t
o

h
a
v
e

a
n

a
s
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

t
o

h
e
l
p

w
i
t
h

i
t
.




C

S
h
e

f
i
n
d
s

i
t

h
a
r
d

t
o

g
e
t

i
t

a
l
l

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
e
d
.





7




2
9

W
h
a
t

i
s

R
a
c
h
e
l

s

r
o
l
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
e
r
v
i
c
e

t
h
e

g
a
l
l
e
r
y

o
f
f
e
r
s

t
o

l
a
r
g
e

c
o
m
p
a
n
i
e
s
?








A

m
a
k
i
n
g

i
n
i
t
i
a
l

c
o
n
t
a
c
t
s




B

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
i
n
g

t
o

e
n
q
u
i
r
i
e
s




C

p
r
o
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t
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a

c
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t
a
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t
y
p
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a
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t








3
0

W
h
a
t

d
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s

R
a
c
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l

f
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n
d

m
o
s
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j
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a
b
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a
b
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t

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r

j
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b
?








A

m
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t
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i
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t
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r
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s
t
i
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p
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o
p
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B

t
h
e

f
a
c
t

t
h
a
t

i
t

s

u
n
p
r
e
d
i
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t
a
b
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e




C

b
e
i
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g

c
l
o
s
e

t
o

w
o
r
k
s

o
f

a
r
t




LISTENING
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
29 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
Script
Cambridge English First Certificate in English: Listening
SAMPLE TEST.
I am going to give you the instructions for this test.
I shall introduce each part of the test and give you time to look at the
questions.
At the start of each piece you will hear this sound:

***

You will hear each piece twice.
Remember, while you are listening, write your answers on the
question paper. You will have five minutes at the end of the test to
copy your answers onto the separate answer sheet.
There will now be a pause. Please ask any questions now, because
you must not speak during the test.
PAUSE5SECONDS
Now open your question paper and look at Part One.
PAUSE5SECONDS
You will hear people talking in eight diferent situations. For
Questions 1–8, choose the answer (A, B or C).
Question 1
You hear a message on a telephone answering machine.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

Male, 30s
Ohhiit’sme,John.Sorrytomissyou–youmust’vealready
leftforwork.Look,Iwonderedifyouwantedtocomeaway
fortheweekend.There’llbeabout10ofusincludingsomeone
calledSamBrentwhosayshewasatcollegewithyou–and
heremembersthatyouwerebrilliantatrockandroll!They’ve
decidedit’llbeonOctober9,FridaynighttillSunday.Anyway,
I’llputthedetailsinthepost.Iknowyou’rebusyatthemoment,
sodon’tfeelyouhavetocome,butjustletmeknowonewayor
theotherwhenyoucan.Talktoyousoon.Bye.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
Question 2
You hear two people talking about a water-sports centre.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

Woman: Sohowdidyoulikethenewsportscentre?
  Man: Well,there’sawidechoiceofthingstodo. . .It’sjustthat
theiradvertisementssaid‘somethingtosuitallthefamily’.Iwish
they’dhadwatergamesfortheunderfives.Therewasnothing
LISTENING
reallysuitableforthem.Butyoucanlearntowindsurforsail,and
youhavethefreedomtogoanywhereinthelake. . .
  Woman: Isn’tthatabitdangerous?
  Man: Notreally.Nobody’sallowedinthewaterwithoutalife-
jacket,andarescueboatisonhandallthetime.
  Woman: Soundsgreat.
  Man: Itwas.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
Question 3
You hear a professional tennis player talking about her career.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

  Int: Areyoueverannoyedbyinterviewers?
  Star: Well,I’moftenaskedaboutthefinancialsideofthings.
Idon’tmind,butIcanhonestlysay,formanytournaments,I
don’tevenknowwhattheprizemoneyis.Ijustfocusonplaying
tomyfullpotential.Theymustfindthatanswerdisappointing!
No,theonesIhaveaproblemwitharethosewhoassumeit’s
allaboutpartyingandgossip.Iwishthey’daskaboutthereal
lifestyle;practisingdayin,dayout,andgettingfromtournament
totournament.Iprobablydoaroundahundredlong-haulflights
ayear.Itsoundsexciting,butitwipesyououtandactuallyruins
yoursociallife!
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
Question 4
You hear a poet talking about his work.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

I’vebeenslowlywritingmoreandmorepoemsforkidsoverthe
lastfewyears.Talkingtoyoungpeopleinschools,whichI’ve
beendoingforsometimenow,reinforcesmybeliefthatthey
needandwantthesamerangeofsubjectsthatolderpeopledo
–relationships,work,family,etc.Oftenit’ssomethingthatonly
emergesaftermypoemsarefinished,butquiteafewofthem
inmynewcollectionwerefirstthoughtofaspoemsforadults,
untilIrealisedthattheymightworkjustaswell,orbetter,for
kids.ButIhopeit’sabookthatadultswillenjoytoo.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

30 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
Question 5
You hear two people talking about a programme they saw on TV.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

  W: DidyouwatchthatprogrammeabouttheGobiDesertlast
night?Ithoughtit’dbereallyinterestingbecauseit’sapartof
theworldIknowverylittleabout.
  M: Thephotographywasbrilliant,wasn’tit?
  W: Yes,youcouldreallyfeelhowharshthelifewasthere.
  M: Overwhelminglygrey,Ithought.It’dbehardtofeelcheerful
livinginthatlandscape.
  W: Itwasabitshortonfactsthough,wasn’tit?
  M: Idon’tthinkitwasthatkindofprogramme.Theyjustwanted
youtobeamazedatthefantasticlandscape.Iguessthat’swhy
therewasn’tmuchcommentary.
  W: You’reright.Ihadn’tthoughtofthat.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
Question 6
You hear two people talking about an ice-hockey game they’ve just
seen.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

  M: Soyourfirstliveice-hockeygame.Gladyoucame?
  F: Well,Iwouldn’thavemisseditfortheworld,butitwasso
cold–Ihadnoideathatitwouldbelikethat.IwishI’dbrought
mythickercoat!
  M: That’snormal!Atleastitwasareallyexcitinggame–our
teamwasdoingmuchbetterthanusual.
  F: Well,perhapsthataccountsforthenoise!Iknewitwouldbe
loud,butitwasincredible.
  M:Whatdoyouexpect?Wehavetosupportthem!
  F: WellIcansayI’vedoneit–justdon’texpecttoseemehere
nextweek. . . !
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
Question 7
You overhear two friends talking about a restaurant.
LISTENING
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

  M: Icanseewhypeoplereallyratetheplace.
  F: Yeah.Theyreallyknowhowtobringouttheflavoursinthe
differentdishes.Theyalsoputalotofthoughtintocombining
unusualingredients.Andasarestaurantit’snottoostuffyand
formal.It’sgotareallylivelyfeelaboutit.
  M: Perhapsalittletoolively.Itwasquitehardtoheareach
otherabovethedin.I’mnotsureit’dbetheplacetocomefora
romanticdinner.Greatfoodthough,andsovisuallyappealingon
theplate.
  F:They’vemadealotofeffortwiththat.Itreallyaddstothe
experience,doesn’tit?
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
Question 8
You hear a man talking on the radio.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

Asaresultofheavysnow,therehasbeenmajordisruptionto
railservicesthismorning.Anumberofbreakdownshavebeen
reportedinthewest,withpeoplestrandedonsometrains.In
thisregionblizzardconditionsaremakingdrivingconditions
hazardous.Aseverelyrestrictedtrainservicewillbeoperating
withinthenextfewhoursintothecapitalanddelaysare
expectedonalllinesinthesouthofthecountry.Inthenorth,
thereissomesnow,butserviceshavebeenabletocontinue,
withonlyafewcancellationsreported.
PAUSE2SECONDS

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE2SECONDS
That is the end of Part One.
Now turn to Part Two.
PAUSE5SECONDS
You will hear a woman called Angela Thomas, who works for a
wildlife organisation, talking about the spectacled bear. For questions
9–18, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
You now have forty-five seconds to look at Part Two.
PAUSE45SECONDS

***

Thanksforinvitingmetonight.Asyouknow,mymaininterest
isinconservationandI’mluckyenoughtoworkwithlotsof
differentorganisationslookingafteranimalsbothincaptivity
31 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
andinthewild.I’dbeenfascinatedbyallkindsofbearsfora
longtimebeforeIstartedworkinginthisfield.Butitwasthe
spectacledbearthatreallyattractedme–somepeoplefindit
appealingbecauseofitssizeandshape,andit’slesswell-known
thanothertypesofbear,butformeIthoughtitwassuchagreat
name!Itcomesfromthepatchesofyellowishfuraroundthe
bear’seyeswhichgrowinasortofcircleshape,likeglasses,
althoughthesegoldenmarkingsvarygreatlyfromonebearto
anotherandmaynotbelimitedtotheeyes–theycanextendas
farasthebear’scheeksorevenchest.
I’dliketoexplainwhatweknowaboutthisbear,andwhyIfind
itsofascinating.It’stheonlysurvivorofatypeofbearthatonce
rangedacrossAmericaduringthelastIceAge.Wethoughtthat
itwasonlyfoundincertainplacesinVenezuelaandChile,butI
wasthrilledtoreadsomereportsthatsuggesteditmightalsobe
livinginnorthernpartsofArgentinaandeasternPanama.
It’squitedifficulttofindspectacledbearsinthewildbecause
theyarequiteshyanimals,andtendtoliveinawidevariety
ofhabitats,whichcanrangefromdrycoastaldesertstohigh
mountainareasabove4000meters.Theyaremostcommonly
foundinforests,though.Beingsuchtimidanimalstheytend
tocomeoutatnight,whichisanotherthingthatmakesthem
difficulttosee,though,likeme,youmaybesurprisedtolearn
thattheydon’tsleepallthroughthewinterasmanyothertypes
ofbeardo.
We’renotsureabouttheactualnumberofspectacledbearsthat
remaininthewild,butit’sbeenestimatedthatthereareonly
about2400stillaround.Thebearsareendangerednotsomuch
becausetheyarehuntedbyotheranimals,butwhatIfindreally
sadisthefactthathumansdestroytheirhabitat.Spectacled
bearsarequitesmallcomparedwithotherbears,andofcourse
theydohaveotherenemies–thesemostlyincludemountain
lionsandjaguars–buttheyremainasmallerthreat.
Thebearsareprimarilyvegetarian,andtheirnormaldietistree
barkandberries.Onrareoccasionsthoughtheyeathoney,
whichIthoughtwasjustsomethinginchildren’sbooks.Iwas
interestedtofindthattheyareincrediblygoodclimbers,and
onethingIfoundreallyfunnyisthatthey’vebeenknowntosit
upatreefordays–theymakeaplatform–why?–Icouldn’t
guess,butthey’rewaitingforfruittoripensotheycaneatit!It’s
quitesurprisingthatalthoughtheyrarelyeatmeattheyhave
extremelystrongjawsandwide,flatteeth.Veryoccasionally
theydoeatmeat–somethinglikebirdsorinsectsthoughthey
likesmallmicebestiftheycangetthem!
We’rereallytryingtomakepeoplemoreawareofthebears,and
we’vemadeatelevisionseriesaboutoneman’seffortstomake
peopleunderstandthedangersfacingtheanimals.Hespenta
longtimeinPerustudyingthem,andhaspublishedaveryfunny
diaryofhistimethere.Ihopeeveryonewillreadit,andsupport
oureffortstohelpthesefascinatingcreatures!
Soarethereanyquestions?
PAUSE10SECONDS
Now you will hear Part Two again.

***

REPEATINSERT
PAUSE5SECONDS
That is the end of Part Two.
Now turn to Part Three.
PAUSE5SECONDS
You will hear five short extracts in which people are talking about
their visit to a city. For questions 19–23, choose from the list (A–H)
what each speaker liked most about the city they visited. Use the
letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need
to use.
You now have thirty seconds to look at Part Three.
PAUSE30SECONDS

***

Speaker One
PAUSE2SECONDS
Wespentadayexploringtheshopsandmarketsinthecity,
andboughtsomesouvenirs.Thenwewantedtoseesomeof
theareaoutsidethecity,anddiscovereditwaseasytogetto
loadsofplacesbytrain,includingthemountains,wherewewere
toldthereweregreathostels.Youcandobushwalksoutthere
andapparentlythesceneryisstunning.Butitcanbedangerous
–wewerewarnedtohavetherightgearandtellotherpeople
whereweweregoing.Sowedecidedtogiveitamiss.Anyway,
weweren’tshortofthingstodointhecity!Wewerespoiltfor
choice.
PAUSE3SECONDS
Speaker Two
PAUSE2SECONDS
Wewereprettytiredwhenwefirstarrivedsowewereglad
justtorelax.We’dbookedlateandIhavetosaythattheroom
wasn’tthebestI’vestayedin.Butwehadaviewofthelake,
whichwasarealtreat–wewerereallyimpressedbytheforests
andmountainsaroundthecity.Wemadegooduseofthe
swimmingpool,thoughweweretoolazytogotothefamous
markets.Wedidn’ttakeadvantageofalltheshowseither.Lots
ofpeopletoldushowgoodtheyweresothatwasapity.And
thetheatresthemselvesweresupposedtobeimpressive.
PAUSE3SECONDS
Speaker Three
PAUSE2SECONDS
Oneofmymainambitionswastoseeinsidethebigconcerthall
–andinfactwemanagedtogetintoaconcertthere,whichwas
prettyspecial.Theacousticswereamazing!Thecitywasdivided
byariver,andgettingroundhaditsproblems,especiallyaswe
didn’treallyunderstandthecityplan.Thebestwaywasthe
ferries–Iwasreallyimpressedthattheywerealwaysontime
LISTENING
32 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
andprovidedgoodviewsinthecity.Thetramsweregoodtoo,
andthelocalcommutersseemedhappytochattousandgive
usideasforthebestthingstodoandsee.Wedidn’thavetime
todoeverything,though.
PAUSE3SECONDS
Speaker Four
PAUSE2SECONDS
Beforewewentwecouldn’tdecidewheretostay–somany
peoplerecommendeddifferentplaces,andthereseemedtobe
loadsofdifferentandunusualpossibilities,likeoldtraditional
farmsconvertedintoguesthouses–sowedecidedtomove
aroundandtrysomethingdifferenteverycoupleofnights.That
workedoutreallywell,andtheywereallexcellent.Although
we’dbeentoldthatgettingroundonthebuseswaseasyand
cheapinthecity,wedecidedtorentacarsothatwecouldget
outintothecountryside–wedidn’twanttomissoutonthe
viewsdrivingalongbytheocean.
PAUSE3SECONDS
Speaker Five
PAUSE2SECONDS
Eventhoughwehadacityplanwegotlostseveraltimes–
especiallyintheoldtownwherethebuildingswerequitesimilar
–thoughIknowsomepeoplesaygettinglostisthebestwayto
gettoknowacity!Wewerenevershortofhelp,though–some
peoplewereevenpreparedtowalkwithustoshowustheway.
ThatwassomethingI’llalwaysremember!Ourhotelwasall
rightwithoutbeingspectacular,anditwasalongwalkintothe
eveningshows–wetookataximosttimes.Therewasloadsto
doeveryday,though,andwecertainlyweren’tbored.
PAUSE10SECONDS
Now you will hear Part Three again.

***

TAPEREPEAT
PAUSE5SECONDS
That is the end of Part Three.
Now turn to Part Four.
PAUSE5SECONDS
You will hear part of a radio interview with a woman called Rachel
Reed, who works in a commercial art gallery, a shop which sells
works of art. For questions 24-30, choose the best answer, A, B or C.
You now have one minute to look at Part Four.
PAUSE1MINUTE

***

  Int Thiseveninginourseries‘CareerswithaDifference’our
guestisRachelReedwhoworksforasmallcommercialart
gallery.Rachelwelcome.
  RR Hello.
  Int Rachel,whatexactlydoyoudo?
  RR Well,there’stwogreatthingsaboutworkingforareally
smallcompany.Firstly,yougettodoabitofeverything.The
otheristhatyoucanpracticallyinventyourjobtitle.Mineis
marketingmanager–althoughIdoalotofotherthingstoo,it
doesdescribethemajorityofwhatIdo.
  Int So,tellusaboutyourday.
  RR Well,itallstartswiththehugepileofpostweget.We
oftengetartistssendinginphotographsoftheirworktoseeif
we’dbeinterestedinexhibitingit.Ilearnedveryearlyonhow
todifferentiatebetweenthe‘possibles’andthosewhichare
unsuitable.
  Int Buthowdoyoutell?
  RR Itmightbethestyle,orsometimesthesubjectmatterisjust
notgoingtolookrightinourgallery,butmoreoftenthannot,it’s
justthatthey’renotoftherequiredstandard.The‘possibles’I
passontothegallerymanagerwhomakesthefinaldecision.
  Int Soyouhavequitealotofcontactwithartists?
  RR Yes.SometimesIspendnearlyalldayonthephone
andaboutfiftypercentofthetimeit’sartists.Isendletters
explainingwhywecan’tshowtheirwork–someofthemphone
uptoargueaboutit–Ifindthosecallsveryhardtodealwith.
Artistswedoexhibitalsophonetofindoutifwe’vemanaged
tosellanythingand,ifwehave,whenthemoneywillbecoming
through.Idon’tmindthosesomuch.Mostothercallsarefrom
clients.Wehaveanewartistexhibitinghereeverytwotofour
weeksandbeforetheshowtakesplace,wesendoutacatalogue
totheclientsonourdatabase.
  Int Obviouslythecatalogue’sillustrated?
  RR Ohyes,andassoonasthecataloguegoesout,westart
gettingphonecallsbecausepeopleseesomethingtheylikeand
wanttoreserveit.Sometimestheyevenbuythingsoverthe
phone.Thecataloguealsocontainsacommentaryaboutthe
artist,whichIhavetowriteandresearch.Itrytofindoutwhat
hasinfluencedthem,wheretheylearnedtopaint,whatthe
subjectmatterrepresents,thatsortofthing,butItrytoavoid
quotingfrompositivereviewsoftheirwork;it’snotmeanttobe
advertisingassuch.
  Int Soyourjobisnotalladministrative?
  RR Comparedtoatypicaloffice,thatsideofit’squiteminimal,
that’swhyIcancopewithoutanassistant.Therearesystems
inplacetodealwithroutinejobs.Forinstance,Idon’thaveto
sendoutthecatalogues–thecompanywhichprintsthemalso
printstheenvelopesandpoststhem.Anothercompanytakes
careofthefoodanddrinkswhenwehavetheopeningofanew
exhibition.
  Int Andareyouinvolvedinotheraspectsofthebusiness?
  RR Yes.Thecompanyalsooffersaconsultancyserviceforlarge
companiesthatwanttodisplayworksofartintheiroffices.
LISTENING
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
33 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
LISTENING
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
Iphoneroundcompanies,explainwhatwedoand,ifthey’re
interested,makeanappointmentforthegallerymanagertogo
andseethem.It’sinteresting,thecompaniestendtogomuch
moreformodernorabstractartthanpeoplecomingtothe
gallery.
  Int Andthebestpartofthejobforyou?
  RR Thereallyrewardingthingformeisthatyouneverknowhow
adayisgoingtogo.Somedaysit’llbereallyquiet,otherdays
it’sreallybusyandyoudon’tknowwhatyou’regoingtohaveto
copewith.Andthere’stheaddedbonusofworkingwithreally
nicepeopleandofcourseIhavethepleasureofspendingmy
dayssurroundedbybeautifulworksofart,soIcan’tcomplain.
  Int ThankyouRachel,andnowwe’llmoveonto...
PAUSE10SECONDS
Now you will hear Part Four again.

***

REPEATINSERT
PAUSE5SECONDS
That is the end of Part Four.
There will now be a pause of five minutes for you to copy your
answers onto the separate answer sheet. Be sure to follow the
numbering of all the questions. I shall remind you when there is one
minute left, so that you are sure to finish in time.
PAUSE4MINUTES
You have one more minute left.
PAUSE1MINUTE
That is the end of the test. Please stop now. Your supervisor will now
collect all the question papers and answer sheets.
34 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
Answerkey
Q Part One
1 B
2 B
3 A
4 C
5 C
6 A
7 A
8 A
Q Part Two
9 (great)name
10 chest
11 northern/thenorth
12 forests
13 (the)winter
14 humanbeings/human(s)
15 berries
16 platform
17 (small/little)mice
18 (funny)diary
Q Part Three
19 G
20 B
21 A
22 H
23 F
Q Part Four
24 C
25 B
26 C
27 A
28 A
29 A
30 B
LISTENING | ANSWER KEY
LISTENING
InPart2,bracketedwords/lettersdonothavetoappearintheanswer.
35 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS

Speaking paper
Generaldescription
FORMAT  TheSpeakingtestcontainsfour
parts.
TIMING  14minutes
NO. OF PARTS  4
INTERACTION 
PATTERN
Twocandidatesandtwoexaminers.
Oneexamineractsasboth
interlocutorandassessorand
managestheinteractioneitherby
askingquestionsorprovidingcues
forcandidates.Theotheractsas
assessoranddoesnotjoininthe
conversation.
TASK TYPES  Shortexchangeswiththe
interlocutorandwiththeother
candidate;a1-minuteindividual‘long
turn’;a collaborativetaskinvolving
thetwocandidates;adiscussion.
MARKS  Candidatesareassessedontheir
performancethroughout.
Structureandtasks
PART 1
TASK TYPE 
AND FORMAT
Aconversationbetweentheinterlocutorand
eachcandidate(spokenquestions).
FOCUS  Thefocusisongeneralinteractionaland
sociallanguage.
TIMING  2minutes
PART 2
TASK TYPE 
AND FORMAT
Anindividual‘longturn’byeachcandidate,
witharesponsefromthesecondcandidate.
Inturn,thecandidatesaregivenapairof
photographstotalkabout.
FOCUS  Thefocusisonorganisingalargerunit
ofdiscourse,comparing,describingand
expressingopinions.
TIMING  A1-minute‘longturn’foreachcandidate,
plusa30-secondresponsefromthesecond
candidate.ThetotaltimeforPart2is
4 minutes.
PART 3
TASK TYPE 
AND FORMAT
Atwo-wayconversationbetweenthe
candidates.Thecandidatesaregivenspoken
instructionswithwrittenstimuli,whichare
usedindiscussionanddecision-making
tasks.
FOCUS  Thefocusisonsustaininganinteraction,
exchangingideas,expressingandjustifying
opinions,agreeingand/ordisagreeing,
suggesting,speculating,evaluating,reaching
adecisionthroughnegotiation,etc.
TIMING  A2-minutediscussionfollowedbya
1-minutedecision-makingtask.Thetotal
timeforPart3is4minutes.
PART 4
TASK TYPE 
AND FORMAT
Adiscussionontopicsrelatedtothe
collaborativetask(spokenquestions).
FOCUS  Thefocusisonexpressingandjustifying
opinions,agreeingand/ordisagreeingand
speculating.
TIMING  4minutes
36 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
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SPEAKING
SPEAKING | SAMPLE PAPER
37 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS



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SPEAKING
SPEAKING | SAMPLE PAPER
38 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS

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SPEAKING
SPEAKING | SAMPLE PAPER
39 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
SPEAKING | ASSESSMENT
AssessmentofSpeaking
Examinersandmarking
ThequalityassuranceofSpeakingExaminers(SEs)ismanaged
byTeamLeaders(TLs).TLsensureallexaminerssuccessfully
completeexaminertrainingandregularcertificationofprocedure
andassessmentbeforetheyexamine.TLsareinturnresponsible
toaProfessionalSupportLeader(PSL)whoistheprofessional
representativeofCambridgeEnglishLanguageAssessmentforthe
Speakingtestsinagivencountryorregion.
Annualexaminercertificationinvolvesattendanceataface-to-face
meetingtofocusonanddiscussassessmentandprocedure,followed
bythemarkingofsamplespeakingtestsinanonlineenvironment.
Examinersmustcompletestandardisationofassessmentforall
relevantlevelseachyearandareregularlymonitoredduringlive
testingsessions.
Assessmentscales
Throughoutthetestcandidatesareassessedontheirownindividual
performanceandnotinrelationtoeachother.Theyareawarded
marksbytwoexaminers:theassessorandtheinterlocutor.The
assessorawardsmarksbyapplyingperformancedescriptorsfromthe
AnalyticalAssessmentscalesforthefollowingcriteria:
– GrammarandVocabulary
– DiscourseManagement
– Pronunciation
– InteractiveCommunication
TheinterlocutorawardsamarkforGlobalAchievementusingthe
GlobalAchievementscale.
AssessmentforCambridge English: Firstisbasedonperformance
acrossallpartsofthetest,andisachievedbyapplyingtherelevant
descriptorsintheassessmentscales.Theassessmentscalesfor
Cambridge English: First(shownonpage40)areextractedfromthe
overallSpeakingscalesonpage41.
40 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
SPEAKING | ASSESSMENT
B2 Grammar and Vocabulary Discourse Management Pronunciation Interactive Communication
5 Showsagooddegreeofcontrol
ofarangeofsimpleandsome
complexgrammaticalforms.
Usesarangeofappropriate
vocabularytogiveandexchange
viewsonawiderangeoffamiliar
topics.
Producesextendedstretches
oflanguagewithverylittle
hesitation.
Contributionsarerelevantand
thereisaclearorganisationof
ideas.
Usesarangeofcohesivedevices
anddiscoursemarkers.
Isintelligible.
Intonationisappropriate.
Sentenceandwordstressis
accuratelyplaced.
Individualsoundsarearticulated
clearly.
Initiatesandresponds
appropriately,linking
contributionstothoseof
otherspeakers.
Maintainsanddevelopsthe
interactionandnegotiates
towardsanoutcome.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Showsagooddegreeofcontrol
ofsimplegrammaticalforms,
andattemptssomecomplex
grammaticalforms.
Usesarangeofappropriate
vocabularytogiveandexchange
viewsonarangeoffamiliartopics.
Producesextendedstretchesof
languagedespitesomehesitation.
Contributionsarerelevantand
thereisverylittlerepetition.
Usesarangeofcohesivedevices.
Isintelligible.
Intonationisgenerally
appropriate.
Sentenceandwordstressis
generallyaccuratelyplaced.
Individualsoundsaregenerally
articulatedclearly.
Initiatesandresponds
appropriately.
Maintainsanddevelopsthe
interactionandnegotiates
towardsanoutcomewith
verylittlesupport.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Showsagooddegreeofcontrolof
simplegrammaticalforms.
Usesarangeofappropriate
vocabularywhentalkingabout
everydaysituations.
Producesresponseswhichare
extendedbeyondshortphrases,
despitehesitation.
Contributionsaremostlyrelevant,
despitesomerepetition.
Usesbasiccohesivedevices.
Ismostlyintelligible,andhas
somecontrolofphonological
featuresatbothutteranceand
wordlevels.
Initiatesandresponds
appropriately.
Keepstheinteractiongoing
withverylittleprompting
andsupport.
0 Performance below Band 1.
B2 Global Achievement
5 Handles communication on a range of familiar topics, with very little
hesitation.
Uses accurate and appropriate linguistic resources to express ideas and
produce extended discourse that is generally coherent.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Handles communication on familiar topics, despite some hesitation.
Organises extended discourse but occasionally produces utterances that lack
coherence, and some inaccuracies and inappropriate usage occur.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Handles communication in everyday situations, despite hesitation.
Constructs longer utterances but is not able to use complex language except
in well-rehearsed utterances.
0 Performance below Band 1.
Cambridge English: FirstSpeakingExaminersuseamoredetailedversionofthefollowingassessmentscales,extractedfromtheoverallSpeaking
scalesonpage41:
41 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
SPEAKING | ASSESSMENT
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C
1


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M
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G
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r

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V
o
c
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B
2


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s
.



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B
1


S
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A
2


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M
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.
A
1


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U
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R
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q
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p
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r
t
.
OverallSpeakingscales
42 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
SPEAKING | GLOSSARY OF TERMS
2. GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY (cont.)
Grammatical
forms
Simple grammatical forms: words, phrases, basic tenses and
simple clauses.
Complex grammatical forms: longer and more complex
utterances, e.g. noun clauses, relative and adverb clauses,
subordination, passive forms, infinitives, verb patterns, modal forms
and tense contrasts.
Range Range: the variety of words and grammatical forms a candidate
uses. At higher levels, candidates will make increasing use
of a greater variety of words, fixed phrases, collocations and
grammatical forms.
3. DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT
Coherence and
cohesion
Coherence and cohesion are difcult to separate in discourse.
Broadly speaking, coherence refers to a clear and logical stretch of
speech which can be easily followed by a listener. Cohesion refers
to a stretch of speech which is unified and structurally organised.
Coherence and cohesion can be achieved in a variety of ways,
including with the use of cohesive devices, related vocabulary,
grammar and discourse markers.
Cohesive devices: words or phrases which indicate relationships
between utterances, e.g. addition (and, in addition, moreover);
consequence (so, therefore, as a result); order of information (first,
second, next, finally).
At higher levels, candidates should be able to provide cohesion not
just with basic cohesive devices (e.g. and, but, or, then, finally) but
also with more sophisticated devices (e.g. therefore, moreover, as a
result, in addition, however, on the other hand).
Related vocabulary: the use of several items from the same lexical
set, e.g. train, station, platform, carriage; or study, learn, revise.
Grammatical devices: essentially the use of reference pronouns
(e.g. it, this, one) and articles (e.g. There are two women in the
picture. The one on the right . . .).
Discourse markers: words or phrases which are primarily used in
spoken language to add meaning to the interaction, e.g. you know,
you see, actually, basically, I mean, well, anyway, like.
Extent/extended
stretches of
language
Extent/extended stretches of language: the amount of language
produced by a candidate which should be appropriate to the task.
Long turn tasks require longer stretches of language, whereas tasks
which involve discussion or answering questions could require
shorter and extended responses.
Relevance Relevance: a contribution that is related to the task and not about
something completely diferent.
Repetition Repetition: repeating the same idea instead of introducing new
ideas to develop the topic.
Speakingassessment
Glossaryofterms
1. GENERAL
Conveying basic
meaning
Conveying basic meaning: the ability of candidates to get their
message across to their listeners, despite possible inaccuracies in
the structure and/or delivery of the message.
Situations and
topics
Everyday situations: situations that candidates come across in
their everyday lives, e.g. having a meal, asking for information,
shopping, going out with friends or family, travelling to school or
work, taking part in leisure activities. A Cambridge English: Key
(KET) task that requires candidates to exchange details about a
store’s opening hours exemplifies an everyday situation.
Familiar topics: topics about which candidates can be expected to
have some knowledge or personal experience. Cambridge English:
First (FCE) tasks that require candidates to talk about what people
like to do on holiday, or what it is like to do diferent jobs, exemplify
familiar topics.
Unfamiliar topics: topics which candidates would not be expected
to have much personal experience of. Cambridge English: Advanced
(CAE) tasks that require candidates to speculate about whether
people in the world today only care about themselves, or the
kinds of problems that having a lot of money can cause, exemplify
unfamiliar topics.
Abstract topics: topics which include ideas rather than concrete
situations or events. Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) tasks
that require candidates to discuss how far the development of our
civilisation has been afected by chance discoveries or events, or the
impact of writing on society, exemplify abstract topics.
Utterance Utterance: people generally write in sentences and they speak in
utterances. An utterance may be as short as a word or phrase, or a
longer stretch of language.
2. GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY (cont.)
Appropriacy of
vocabulary
Appropriacy of vocabulary: the use of words and phrases that fit
the context of the given task. For example, in the utterance I’m very
sensible to noise, the word sensible is inappropriate as the word
should be sensitive. Another example would be Today’s big snow
makes getting around the city difcult. The phrase getting around is
well suited to this situation. However, big snow is inappropriate as
big and snow are not used together. Heavy snow would be
appropriate.
Flexibility Flexibility: the ability of candidates to adapt the language they
use in order to give emphasis, to diferentiate according to the
context, and to eliminate ambiguity. Examples of this would be
reformulating and paraphrasing ideas.
Grammatical
control
Grammatical control: the ability to consistently use grammar
accurately and appropriately to convey intended meaning.
Where language specifications are provided at lower levels (as in
Cambridge English: Key (KET) and Cambridge English: Preliminary
(PET)), candidates may have control of only the simplest exponents
of the listed forms.
Attempts at control: sporadic and inconsistent use of accurate
and appropriate grammatical forms. For example, the inconsistent
use of one form in terms of structure or meaning, the production of
one part of a complex form incorrectly or the use of some complex
forms correctly and some incorrectly.
Spoken language often involves false starts, incomplete utterances,
ellipsis and reformulation. Where communication is achieved, such
features are not penalised.
43 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: FIRST SPECIFICATIONS AND SAMPLE PAPERS
SPEAKING | GLOSSARY OF TERMS
4. PRONUNCIATION
Intelligible Intelligible: a contribution which can generally be understood
by a non-EFL/ESOL specialist, even if the speaker has a strong or
unfamiliar accent.
Phonological
features
Phonological features include the pronunciation of individual
sounds, word and sentence stress and intonation.
Individual sounds are:
• Pronounced vowels, e.g. the // in cat or the // in bed
• Diphthongs, when two vowels are rolled together to produce one
sound, e.g. the // in host or the // in hate
• Consonants, e.g. the // in cut or the // in fish.
Stress: the emphasis laid on a syllable or word. Words of two or
more syllables have one syllable which stands out from the rest
because it is pronounced more loudly and clearly, and is longer
than the others, e.g. imPORtant. Word stress can also distinguish
between words, e.g. proTEST vs PROtest. In sentences, stress
can be used to indicate important meaning, e.g. WHY is that one
important? versus Why is THAT one important?
Intonation: The way the voice rises and falls, e.g. to convey the
speaker’s mood, to support meaning or to indicate new information.
5. INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION
Development of
the interaction
Development of the interaction: actively developing the
conversation, e.g. by saying more than the minimum in response to
the written or visual stimulus, or to something the other candidate/
interlocutor has said, or by proactively involving the other candidate
with a suggestion or question about further developing the topic
(e.g. What about bringing a camera for the holiday? or Why’s that?).
Initiating and
Responding
Initiating: starting a new turn by introducing a new idea or a new
development of the current topic.
Responding: replying or reacting to what the other candidate or the
interlocutor has said.
Prompting and
Supporting
Prompting: instances when the interlocutor repeats, or uses a
backup prompt or gesture in order to get the candidate to respond
or make a further contribution.
Supporting: instances when one candidate helps another
candidate, e.g. by providing a word they are looking for during a
discussion activity, or helping them develop an idea.
Turn and Simple
exchange
Turn: everything a person says before someone else speaks.
Simple exchange: a brief interaction which typically involves two
turns in the form of an initiation and a response, e.g. question-
answer, suggestion-agreement.
9 781908 791139
ISBN 978-1-908791-13-9
Cambridge English
Language Assessment
1 Hills Road
Cambridge
CB1 2EU
United Kingdom
www.cambridgeenglish.org/help
www.cambridgeenglish.org
Cambridge English: First, also known as First Certificate in English
(FCE), is at Level B2 of the Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages (CEFR) published by the Council of Europe.
Cambridge English: First has been accredited by Ofqual, the statutory
regulatory authority for external qualifications in England and its
counterparts in Wales and Northern Ireland; for more information,
see www.ofqual.gov.uk
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