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Chng 2

H THNG THNG TIN QUANG COHERENCE


2.1 Gii thiu chng
Trong chng ny ta s tm hiu v k thut tch sng quang Coherence vi nhng
ni dung ch yu sau:
Tm hiu mt cch tng quan v h thng quang Coherence
Cc k thut iu ch c bn c s dng trong h thng quang Coherence
Nguyn l c bn ca tch sng Coherence
Hai kiu tch sng Coherence c bn l: homodyne (tn s trung tn bng
khng) v heterodyne (tn s trung tn khc khng)
Cc yu t nh hng ti nhy ca my thu quang Coherence
So snh u v nhc ca h thng quang s dng tch sng Coherence vi
h thng quang s dng k thut IMDD
2.2 Tng quan v h thng thng tin quang coherence
2.2.1 Khi nim v thng tin quang coherence
H thng thng tin quang coherence l mt h thng thng tin c xy dng trn
nn tng ca tch sng coherence. Nu nh trong h thng IM/DD s dng phng
php tch sng trc tip- tn hiu quang c chuyn i trc tip thnh tn hiu
in c gii iu ch th trong h thng coherence, tn hiu quang nhn c
s kt hp vi tn hiu quang c to ra bi b dao ng ni ti my thu, sau tn
hiu quang tng hp ny c chuyn thnh tn hiu in.
Trong tch sng coherence, tn hiu c iu ch phc tp, thng tin khng ch
c iu ch bin nh tch sng trc tip m cn c iu ch pha hoc tn
s, ta c th biu din nh sau:
E
S
(t) = A
S
(t) exp[i(
S
t +
S
)] (2.1)
Vi
S
v
S
l tn s sng mang ca tn hiu v pha c lp vi thi gian, A
S
(t) l
thnh phn bin ca tn hiu. Tn hiu quang nhn c sau kt hp vi tn
hiu dao ng ni ti my thu c th c trnh by nh sau:
E
LO
(t) = A
LO
(t) exp[i(
LO
t +
LO
)](2.2)
Vi A
LO
(t),
LO,

LO
ln lt l bin , tn s sng mang v pha ca LO.
My thu cohrence l tng hot ng trong vng bc sng 1,3 n 1,6 cn
nng lng ch t 1020 photon/bit, c th t BER=10
-9
v l loi tch sng cho
u im ln nht trong h thng tc cao hot ng trong vng bc sng di.
nhy ca my thu quang coherence hn loi tch sng trc tip khong 1020 dB
[8] nn my thu coherence cho php :
Tng khong cch trm lp.
Tng tc truyn dn m khng cn gim khong cch trm lp.
Tng qu cng sut b vo suy dao do tch ghp, u ni.
Ci thin nhy cho my thu.
2.2.2 Cu trc c bn ca h thng thng tin quang coherence
Hnh 2.1 m t cu trc c bn ca h thng thng tin quang coherence. S ny
cho thy s khc bit chnh gia n vi h thng IMDD l phn tch sng s dng
b dao ng ni.

Hnh 2.1 S tng qut ca h thng thng tin quang coherence
Khi tn s tn hiu nhn c bng vi tn s ca tn hiu dao ng ni th my thu
hot ng ch homodyne, tn hiu c ti to l tn hiu nm trong vng BB.
Ngc li, khi tn s ca hai tn hiu khc nhau th my thu hot ng ch
heterodyne, tn hiu ti to lc ny nm trong vng IF.
2.3 Cc k thut iu ch quang coherent
2.3.1 K thut iu ch ASK
iu ch kha dch bin ASK (Ampitude Shift Keying): Sng iu bin c to
ra bng cch thay i bin sng mang theo bin bng gc tn hiu.
Phng php ny vi cc bit 0 v 1 lm thay i bin ca tn hiu sng mang,
trong tc truyn tn hiu ASK b gii hn bi cc c tnh ca mi trng.
Gi s in trng ca tn hiu quang c dng nh sau:

()

() ,

()- (2.3). Khi iu ch ASK, pha v tn s c gi nguyn, ch c thnh phn


bin thay i,

() i vi bit 1,

() i vi bit 0. Dng sng ca


tn hiu ASK c biu din trong hnh 2.2.

Hnh 2.2 Dng sng tn hiu ASK
Khc vi h thng quang s dng k thut IMDD, h thng quang s dng k thut
coherence lung bit quang ca h thng c to thnh bng cch s dng k thut
iu ch ngoi thay v c iu ch trc tip bng laser bn dn hoc led. S khc
bit ny l do trong h thng coherence, p ng b tch sng quang ph thuc vo
pha ca tn hiu thu c trong khi h thng IMDD th khng c s thay i
khng mong mun . gi pha

khng thay i th h thng coherence cn s


dng laser bn dn hot ng lin tc ti mt dng c nh v dng b iu ch
ngoi Mach-Zender.
2.3.2 K thut iu ch PSK
iu ch dch pha PSK (Phase Shift Key) l mt dng iu ch thng thy trong
h thng thng tin quang coherence.Trong iu ch PSK, chui bit quang c to
thnh bng cch iu ch pha

, bin A
S
v tn s

c gi nguyn. Tn
hiu iu ch PSK nh phn c biu din nh sau:

()

() ,

()- (2.4)
Vi () i vi bit 1 v () i vi bit 0 tng ng vi cc trng hp
pha ca tn hiu bng v 0. Dng sng ca tn hiu iu ch PSK c th hin
trong hnh 2.3.

Hnh 2.3 Tn hiu iu ch PSK
i vi iu ch PSK, pha ca sng mang quang cn c gi c nh thng tin
c mang trn c ly ra mt cch chnh xc ti my thu. lm c iu
ny th rng ng ca laser pht v laser dao ng ni phi t mt tiu chun
nghim ngt. iu ch DPSK l dng iu ch m thng tin c m ha theo s
chnh lch v pha gia hai bit k cn. Chng hn, nu

biu din pha ca


bit th k v k-1 th lch pha

s thay i l hoc 0 ph thuc


vo bit th k l 1 hoc 0. u im ca DPSK l tn hiu pht i c th c gii
iu ch thnh cng cho n khi pha ca sng mang duy tr n nh trong khong
thi gian hai bit.
2.3.3 K thut iu ch FSK
iu ch dch tn s FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) l k thut iu ch m thng
tin c m ha bng cch dch tn s sng mang. Vi tn hiu nh phn, tn s gc

nhn hai gi tr

ph thuc vo bit truyn i l 0 hay 1.


dch tn s

c gi l lch tn s. Nh vy dch tn s gia bit 0 v


1l . Tn hiu iu ch FSK c biu din nh sau:

()

,(

- (2.5)
Bng thng ca tn hiu FSK xp x vi B l tc bit v vic la chn
dch tn s ph thuc vo bng thng hin c. Nu gi l lch nh
nh th

c gi l h s iu ch tn s. Khi th iu ch FSK
c gi l MSK vi ph c nn cht nn rt thch hp vi h thng tc cao.
Khi th dng iu ch ny c gi l CPFSK hay cn gi l iu
ch lch tn hp vi dng ph c nn rt cht. Khi th c coi l iu
ch FSK lch tn rng, ph ca n chia lm hai phn tp trung xung quanh (

) v (

).

Hnh 2.4 Tn hiu iu ch PSK
2.4 Cc nguyn l c bn ca tch sng coherence
2.4.1 Tch sng coherence

Hnh 2.5 Cu hnh cu my thu Coherence
Hnh 2.5 M t cu hnh ca my thu coherence. tng c bn ca tch sng
coherence l trn phn in trng ca tn hiu quang c iu ch vi tn hiu
quang c to ra bi b dao ng ni. Tn hiu quang nhn c ti my thu v tn
hiu quang c to ra bi b dao ng ni c dng nh trong biu thc (2.1) v
(2.2).
S tch sng cn bng thng c s dng cho my thu coherence nn
thnh phn mt chiu v ti u ha dng photodiode. Mc ch ca vic s dng b
ghp 3dB l dch pha mt trong hai tn hiu, hoc l tn hiu thu c, hoc l tn
hiu ca b dao ng ni. Khi hai tn hiu c cng phn cc, in trng ti hai
photodiode trn c biu din nh sau:

)

(2.6)

)

(2.7)
Khi ng ra ca hai photodiode c dng nh sau:

() [ {

() (

}]

()

()

()

()}] (2.8)

() [ {

() (

}]

()

()

()

()}] (2.9)
Vi ms c ngha l trung bnh bnh phng theo tn s quang, Re c ngha l
ly phn thc,

l tn s trung tn (IF) vi

l
pha ca tn hiu c truyn i v pha ca tn hiu to ra bi b dao ng ni. R l
h s chuyn i quang in, c cho bi cng thc sau:

(2.10)
Vi e l in tch, l hiu sut lng t ca photodiode. Ng ra ca tch sng cn
bng c biu din nh sau:
()

()

()

()

()

()

()+ (2.11)

lun l hng s v

() ch bao gm nhiu pha.


2.4.2 My thu Heterodyne
Tch sng Heterodyne lin quan ti trng hp |

, vi

l bng thng
iu ch ca sng mang quang c xc nh bi tc k t. Trong trng hp
ny, biu thc (2.11) ch ra trng in ca tn hiu quang c h tn xung di IF
v c biu din nh hnh 2.6.

Hnh 2.6 Ph ca a) tn hiu quang v b) tn hiu c h tn IF
Pha ca tn hiu c cho bi

()

(), vi

l pha ca tn hiu
iu ch,

l pha nhiu. Ng ra ca my thu c cho bi


()

()

()

()+ (2.12)
T biu thc (2.12) bin phc trn exp(j

) c biu din nh sau:

()

()

()

()+ (2.13)

() l tng nhiu pha c xc nh nh cng thc sau:

()

()

() (2.14)
2.4.3 My thu Homodyne
Tch sng Homodyne lin quan ti trng hp

. Dng quang t my thu


homodyne c biu din nh sau:

()

()

()+ (2.15)
Biu thc (2.15) ch ra my thu homodyne o lch pha gia tn hiu nhn c
v tn hiu c to bi b dao ng ni nh hnh 2.7. gii m tn hiu LO cho
ng, pha ca b dao ng ni phi bm theo pha ca tn hiu

() , iu
ny c thc hin nh vng kha pha quang (OPLL). Tuy nhin trong thc t,
vic thc hin vng khng n gin, lm tng tnh phc tp v cu hnh ca my
thu homodyne. Thm vo , biu thc 2.15 ch ra ch c thnh phn cng pha vi
tn hiu dao ng ni c tch sng cn thnh phn vung pha th khng. Do vy,
my thu homodyne khng th tch ton b thng tin trn bin phc ca tn hiu.

Hnh 2.7 Gin pha ca tn hiu thu c v tn hiu to ra bi b dao ng ni
tch sng c thnh phn tn hiu vung pha v cng pha vi b dao ng ni, ti
my thu homodyne, ta dch pha b dao ng ni 90
0
bng cch s dng b ghp 90
0

nh hnh 2.8 a). Gin pha ca tn hiu thu c v dao ng ni LO trong trng
hp ny c biu din nh hnh 2.8 b).


Hnh 2.8 a) S tch sng Homodyne vung pha vi PD cn bng
b) Gin pha ca tn hiu thu c v dao ng ni trong trng hp s dng
tch sng Coherence vung pha vi PD cn bng
Khi s dng b ghp 90
0
, chng ta c th thu c bn tn hiu E
1
, E
2
, E
3
, E
4

t hai
ng vo E
S
v E
LO
nh sau:

) (2.16)

) (2.17)

) (2.18)

) (2.19)
Dng quang ng ra t cc cp PD cn bng c cho bi cng thc sau:

()

()

()

()

()+ (2.20)

()

()

()

()

()+ (2.21)
T biu thc (2.20) v (2.21), chng ta c th khi phc bin phc nh sau:

()

()

()

*(

()

())+ (2.22)
Biu thc (2.22) ch ra trng in ca tn hiu n c h tn xung di bng
gc. Nh hnh 2.9, ph ca tn hiu nm trong di bng gc bao gm c thnh phn
tn s dng v m, cha c thnh phn cng pha v vung pha vi nhau. Ngc
li, trong tch sng n s dng mt cp PD ch o thnh phn cng pha vi tn
hiu dao ng ni, tn hiu bng gc ch tn ti trong phn tn s dng. Ni tm
li, tch sng homodyne n s dng mt PD cn bng v homodyne vung pha c
th ging nhau trong vic khi phc tn hiu phc quang nh c th hin trong
biu thc (2.13) v (2.22). Tuy nhin, my thu homodyne vung pha ti to ra tn
hiu nm trong di bng gc th tt hn loi ti to tn hiu trong min trung tn

Hnh 2.9 Ph ca a) tn hiu quang v b) tn hiu bng gc c tch sng
homodyne. Tch sng theo kiu s dng mt cp PD n th ch ti to c phn
thc ca bin phc quang, trong khi , tch sng theo kiu vung pha khi
phc c ton b tn hiu phc gm c phn tn s dng v m
2.4.4 Vng kha pha trong my thu quang coherence
S c bn ca my thu coherence s dng vng kha pha c th hin trong
hnh 2.10. My thu trong s s dng k thut sng mang dn ng (pilot
carrier) s dng cho tch sng quang homodyne PSK. Sng mang ny c to ra
t iu ch pha nh hn 180
0
s c t hp vi tn hiu nhn c coupler nh
hng DC 3dB sau c tch sng bng b PD cn bng. Tn hiu ng ra ca b
khuch i vi sai s lm chnh lch pha c s dng kha pha b dao ng ni
di s iu khin bi b VCO sau khi i qua b lc vng. Vic s dng sng
mang vi bt k cng sut no cho qua trnh kha pha cng lm gim nhy ca
my thu. Hn na, cng sut ca tn hiu cn thit d pha ca sng mang vo
c xc nh chnh xc ph thuc vo nhiu pha ca laser ngun v laser ca b
dao ng ni c t hp cng nh bng thng ca PLL. Do , bng thng ca
vng ti u s cho li pha nh nht v c th lm tng cht lng ca b thu quang
homodyne.
B thu Homodyne s dng vng kha pha Costas p dng cho tn hiu PSK c
minh ha trong hnh 2.11. Tn hiu nhn c v tn hiu dao ng ni c t hp
ti b Optical Hybrid sao cho hai tn hiu ny lch pha nhau 90
0
hai ng ra b
tch sng quang.

Hnh 2.11 B thu vng kha pha quang Costas
Ng ra ca hai b tch sng quang s c khuch i, ri nhn vi nhau b
Mixer v pha ca sng mang s c xc nh b lc thng thp. Tn hiu iu
khin c lc v c s dng iu chnh tn s ca b dao ng ni theo nh
cch ca vng kha pha quang sng mang dn ng.
2.5 Cc yu t nh hng n nhy my thu
2.5.1 Nhiu pha
Nhiu pha l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng lm gim nhy my thu trong
h thng thng tin quang, thng lin quan n b pht quang v b dao ng ni.
T biu thc (2.11) , ta thy s thay i v pha gia tn hiu ti v tn hiu ca b
dao ng ni s dn n s thay i v dng ng ra, phn nh bn cht kt hp
ca tch sng coherence, t lm gim h s SNR. Do c pha ca tn hiu ti
v b dao ng ni cn phi c gi n nh trnh suy gim nhy. Do cc
h thng quang coherence cn phi s dng cc laser bn dn n mode c rng
ph hp v bc sng c th iu chnh c phi hp tn s sng mang

vi
tn s b dao ng ni

sao cho to ra tn hiu trung tn IF c tn s ng yu


cu.
2.5.2 Nhiu cng
Nhiu cng thng khng c xt ti trong tch sng trc tip nhng i vi
trng hp my thu coherence, n l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn lm gim
nhy my thu.
Vic s dng b thu cn bng vi hai b tch sng quang c coi l mt gii php
lm gim nhiu cng . S b thu cn bng c m t nh trong hnh 2.12.

Hnh 2.12 S my thu coherence cn bng
Coupler 2x2 l loi ghp 2dB, n trn tn hiu ti vi tn hiu ca b dao ng ni.
Ng ra ca b coupler c r nhnh ti hai b tch sng khc nhau, to hai dng
I
p
(+) v I
p
(-) trn hai nhnh tng ng:

()

) (2.23)

()

) (2.24)
Khi s dng s trn, ta thu c hai ci li sau:
Th nht, nhiu cng gn nh c loi b.
Th hai, tt c cng sut ca tn hiu ti v dao ng ni c s dng mt
cch hiu qu
2.5.3 Tn sc trong si quang
Tn sc trong si quang khng ch nh hng ti tc bit trong h thng IMDD
m cn ti h thng coherence. Nguyn nhn l do h thng coherence cn s dng
cc laser bn dn hot ng ch n mode dc vi rng ph hp. Hin
tng chirp tn s c th trnh bng cch s dng cc b iu ch ngoi, hn na
c th b tn sc ca si quang thng qua k thut cn bng in trong min IF.
2.6 So snh gia h thng quang s dng iu ch cng tch sng trc tip
(IMDD) vi h thng quang Coherence
H thng truyn dn quang Coherence c ba u im ni bt so vi h thng quang
s dng k thut IMDD nh sau:
Th nht, hn ch c nhiu bn thu c, thm ch khi cng sut tn hiu
thu c nh, chng ta ch cn tng cng sut b dao ng ni l c c kt
qu mong mun.
Th hai, khi s dng cng ngh Coherence th ta c th s dng c ba kiu
iu ch l cng , pha v tn s trong khi h thng IMDD ch cho php
iu ch cng .
Th ba, vi k thut tch sng Coherence vic chn lc tn s mt cch
chnh xc c th t c bng cch s dng b lc tch sng quang
chuyn tn hiu in sang quang. iu ny cho php ghp cc sng mang
ph gn nhau, to iu kin khai thc ti a nng lc ca k thut SCM.
Th t, k thut tch sng Coherence ci thin c h s tn hiu trn nhiu
SNR dn ti nng cao nhy my thu cao hn so vi trng hp IMDD,
cho php ko di c ly truyn dn ln hng trm kilomet.
T u im th nht, i vi h thng IMDD khi tng cng sut pht dn n tng
nh hng ca nhiu bn cng nh cc hiu ng phi tuyn khc trong si quang.
Ngc li trong trng hp s dng Coherence, ta khng cn phi tng cng sut
pht truyn i xa m ch cn tng cng sut ca b dao ng ni ti my thu
m bo gi tr SNR ph hp. Do , h thng quang Coherence thch hp hn vi
h thng quang c khong cch truyn dn ln.
u im th hai cho php s dng linh hot cc phng php iu ch sao cho ph
hp vi iu kin thc tin. iu ny c ngha l h thng truyn dn quang khng
b ph thuc vo phng php iu ch, c th iu ch c nhiu loi tn hiu m
vn m bo c yu t cht lng.
u im th ba ca h thng Coherence r rng tng kh nng truyn dn ca h
thng truyn dn, ti u ha bng thng knh truyn, c kh nng p ng c
nhu cu truyn dn ngy cng cao.
Tuy nhin, h thng quang Coherence cng c nhiu im km hn so vi h thng
s dng k thut IMDD, c th nh sau:
Tn s ca b dao ng ni v tn hiu n cn phi qua b iu khin phn
cc to ra tn s trung tn c yu cu, trong khi , h thng IMDD ch
quan tm ti tn s ca laser iu ch quang c ph hp vi photodiode c
s dng hay khng.
Trng thi phn cc ca LO v tn hiu phi ging nhau hon ton ti
photodiode.
rng ng ca LO v ngun quang phi thch hp vi kiu iu ch
c s dng, trong khi i vi h thng IMDD, rng ngun quang ch
c xc nh ch yu li tn sc si quang.
2.7 Kt lun chng
T nhng g tm hiu trong chng 2 ta rt ra c nhng kt lun quan trng
sau:
Trong h thng thng tin quang Coherence, ta c th s dng cc k thut
iu ch s c bn nh ASK, FSK, PSK.
Tch sng Coherence c hai k thut chnh l homodyne v heterodyne.
Homodyne l loi mang li nhy thu tt hn tuy nhin vic gi cho pha
ca tn hiu n v b dao ng ni bng nhau mt cch tuyt i l khng
th trong thc t. Trong khi tch sng heterodyne ph hp hn vi cc
ng dng thc t nhng n phi chp nhn nhy thu nh hn 3dB so vi
trng hp homodyne.
Tch sng Coherence gp phi mt s vn nh hng n nhy nh
nhiu cng , nhiu pha, tn sc trong si quang gim nh hng
ca cc yu t , ta cn phi gi c nh pha ca tn hiu ti v dao ng
ni, s dng b tch sng cn bng, p dng cc phng php b tn sc
Tch sng Coherence mang li nhiu li th hn so vi tch IMDD nh
nhy cao hn, d dng khuch i tn hiu bng vic tng cng sut b dao
ng ni, s dng hiu qu hn trong trng hp SCM.