Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs

Chapter 08
Scheduling Resources and Costs

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand on resources is known as resource
A. Shiting
!. "ectiveness
C. #anipulating
D. Resource smoothing
". Allocation

$. % resources are not ade&uate to meet peak demands' the resulting reschedule is termed
A. Resource-constrained scheduling
!. (ime-constrained scheduling
C. #andatory leveling
D. )ro*ect resource ad*ustment
". Allocation

+. ,hich o the ollowing is a potential conse&uence o ailing to schedule limited resources-
A. Costly activity delays
!. Costly pro*ect delays
C. Diiculty in taking &uick corrective action
D. !oth A and ! are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

.. ,hen developing a new sotware package' the sotware must /e designed' the code must /e
written' and the code must /e tested. (his is an e0ample o a 111111 constraint.
A. )hysical
!. (echnical
C. Resource
D. Schedule
". (ime

8-1
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
2. ,hich o the ollowing is not one o the types o pro*ect constraints-
A. )hysical
!. (echnical
C. Resource
D. (ime
". All o these are types o pro*ect constraints

3. Sam the pro*ect engineer has /een scheduled to run the product system test at the same time
he is to /uild a marketing prototype. (his is an e0ample o a 111111 constraint.
A. )hysical
!. (echnical
C. Resource
D. Scheduling
". (ime

4. Susan is to conduct environmental testing /ut the cham/er cannot hold all the e&uipment
that she wants to test. (his is an e0ample o a 111111111 constraint.
A. )hysical
!. (echnical
C. Resource
D. Scheduling
". (ime

8. All o the ollowing are kinds o resource constraints e0cept
A. #aterials
!. )eople
C. "&uipment
D. %normation
". All o the a/ove are resource constraints

8-$
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
5. Sam is trying to order the concrete needed to continue his pro*ect. 6owever' the supplier
won7t /e a/le to deliver it until ne0t week. (his is an e0ample o a 1111111 constraint.
A. ,orking capital
!. )eople
C. "&uipment
D. %normation
". #aterials

10. A special truck that 8eorge needs on his pro*ect has /een scheduled on another pro*ect.
(his is a 111111 constraint.
A. ,orking capital
!. )eople
C. "&uipment
D. %normation
". #aterials

11. #ost o the scheduling methods availa/le today re&uire the pro*ect manager to classiy the
pro*ect as either 1111111 constrained or 111111 constrained.
A. (ime' &uality
!. 9uality' resource
C. Cost' time
D. 9uality' cost
". (ime' resource

1$. Regina7s /oss has told her that her pro*ect is very important. % the critical path is delayed'
she will /e given whatever she needs to get it /ack on schedule. 6er pro*ect is 11111111
constrained.
A. (ime
!. 9uality
C. Cost
D. )erormance
". Resource

8-+
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
1+. %n reviewing the status o her pro*ect with top management' Shirley was told that there
only were two programmers that she could use or her pro*ect. 6er pro*ect is 1111111111
constrained.
A. (ime
!. 9uality
C. Cost
D. )erormance
". Resource

1.. All resource leveling techni&ues involve
A. Delaying noncritical activities
!. Delaying critical activities
C. :sing negative slack
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

12. Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on resource
A. Demands
!. %ncreases
C. Assumptions
D. :tili;ation
". All are correct

13. (he most widely used approach to apply heuristics' which have /een ound to consistently
minimi;e pro*ect delay over a large variety o pro*ects is the
A. )arallel method
!. Resource method
C. #aterials
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

8-.
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
14. Resource leveling can provide
A. <ower peak demand
!. Reduced resource need over the lie o the pro*ect
C. Reduced luctuations in resource demand
D. !oth A and ! are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

18. =an is trying to reallocate resources in a time-constrained pro*ect to create smoother
resource utili;ation with a low level o risk. She should move to activities with the
A. Smallest duration
!. <east slack
C. #ost slack
D. <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost

15. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect' which o the ollowing is most likely to /e changed-
A. (he completion date
!. (he /udget
C. )ro*ect &uality
D. !oth A and ! are e&ually likely
". A' !' and C are all e&ually likely

$0. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect' the irst priority in assigning resources is usually given
to activities with the
A. Smallest duration
!. <east slack
C. #ost slack
D. <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost

8-2
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$1. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect the second priority in assigning resources is usually
given to activities with the
A. Smallest duration
!. <east slack
C. #ost slack
D. <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost

$$. (he word 6euristics means
A. Resource constraints
!. >le0i/ility
C. (he critical path changed
D. )arallel activities /ecome se&uential
". Rule o thum/

$+. Splitting an activity creates the ollowing situation?
A. #ore people working on the same activity
!. (here are possi/le startup and shutdown costs
C. A resource may /e moved rom one activity to another and then /ack
D. !oth ! and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

$.. (he :.S. >orest Service @snapshot rom practice@ illustrated the importance o
A. (ime constraints
!. Resource constraints
C. Cost constraints
D. !oth ! and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

8-3
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$2. #ore common pro/lems associated with managing multipro*ect resources include all o
the ollowing e0cept
A. %neicient resource utili;ation
!. Delays in one pro*ect cause delays in other pro*ects
C. Reducing @downtime@ created /y lack o tasks to perorm
D. Resource /ottlenecks
". All o these are common pro/lems

$3. ,hen a company will reduce the num/er o pro*ects they have to manage internally to
only core pro*ects and send noncritical pro*ects to contractors and consulting irms this is
called
A. Autsourcing
!. Redistri/ution o pro*ects
C. )ro*ect allocation
D. (ask sharing
". !oth ! and D are correct

$4. ,hich o the ollowing is not one o the more common pro/lems associated with
scheduling multipro*ect resources-
A. Averall schedule slippage
!. %neicient resource utili;ation
C. Resource /ottlenecks
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

$8. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect the third priority in assigning resources is usually given
to activities with the
A. Smallest duration
!. <east slack
C. #ost slack
D. <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost

8-4
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$5. %n the !otanical 8arden e0ample' which o the ollowing was used to solve the resource
pro/lem-
A. Resource allocation
!. Smoothing resource demand
C. (he parallel method
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

+0. )ro*ect /udgets are developed /y time-phasing which o the ollowing-
A. Resource schedules
!. ,ork packages
C. (he network diagram
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct

+1. A pro*ect /udget report is showing our pro*ect as spending B+2'000 against a /udgeted
amount o B.0'000. ,hich o the ollowing is true-
A. ,e are spending less than we should or the pro*ect
!. ,e are doing a good *o/ managing the pro*ect
C. ,e should check to see i all the /ills have /een paid
D. !oth A and ! are correct
". ,e can7t /e sure how the pro*ect is going


Fill in the Blank Questions

+$. Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand and' thus' increase resource
utili;ation is called 1111111 leveling.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

++. ACnD 11111111 constraint addresses the se&uence in which pro*ect activities must occur.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

8-8
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
+.. 6aving one person responsi/le or perorming several activities' all due at the same time'
is an e0ample o aCnD 11111111 constraint.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

+2. (rying to renovate a ship compartment that is too small or more than one person is an
e0ample o aCnD 11111111 constraint.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

+3. A shortage o programmers to write sotware is an e0ample o aCnD 11111111 type o
resource constraint.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

+4. (he shortage o computer chips to produce a circuit /oard is an e0ample o aCnD 11111111
type o resource constraint.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

+8. % three copiers are needed to produce a inal report on time and only two are availa/le'
the pro*ect is acing aCnD 11111111 type o resource constraint.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

+5. 6ector wants to /ring on another programmer to work on the pro*ect /ut the company
does not have anyone who has the needed skills. 6ector7s pro*ect is acing aCnD 11111111
constraint.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

.0. %n order that the new product is on the shel or the Christmas /uying season' the
development o the new product would /e classiied as aCnD 11111111 constrained pro*ect.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

8-5
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
.1. !eth has two engineers assigned to her pro*ect and cannot get any more even i it means
slipping the due date on her pro*ect. She is managing aCnD 11111111 constrained pro*ect.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

.$. All leveling techni&ues delay noncritical activities /y using 11111111 to reduce peak
demand.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

.+. Scheduling activities in a constrained pro*ect typically has 11111111 as the top heuristic
rule.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

... (he 11111111 is the most widely used approach to apply heuristic rules to scheduling
activities in a constrained pro*ect.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

.2. ,hen using the 11111111 scheduling techni&ue' the work in an activity is interrupted to
work on another activity and is then resumed at a later point in time.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

.3. %n scheduling resource-constrained pro*ects' 111111111 are typically used rather than
optimum mathematical solutions.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

.4. %n scheduling terms' 11111111 constrained means that pro*ect duration is i0ed and
resources are le0i/le.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

8-10
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
.8. %n scheduling terms' 11111111 constrained means that a speciic resource is i0ed and the
duration o the pro*ect is le0i/le.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

.5. Start-up and shutdown costs are ma*or considerations when using the 1111111111111111
scheduling techni&ue.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

20. (o deal with pro/lems related to having several concurrent pro*ects' companies are
creating 11111111 to oversee the scheduling o resources across multiple pro*ects.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

21. #any companies are using 11111111 rom contractors and consultants as a means o
dealing with the peaks and valleys o resource allocation among pro*ects.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

2$. (he 11111111111111 is the most widely used approach to apply heuristics in resource-
constrained pro*ects.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

2+. (he a/ility to more eiciently manage the e//s and lows o pro*ect work is one o the
ma*or driving orces /ehind 111111111111 today.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

2.. ,ithout a time-phased 1111111111 good pro*ect schedule and cost control are
impossi/le.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111

8-11
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
22. A pro*ect cost /aseline is also called 1111111111.
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111


True / False Questions

23. (he se&uence o C1D pour oundation' C$D /uild rame' and C+D cover roo is a type o
physical constraint.
(rue >alse

24. (oo many parallel activities or one individual are an e0ample o a resource constraint.
(rue >alse

28. A pro*ect that is not resource-constrained is time-constrained.
(rue >alse

25. Resource leveling is only used on pro*ects which are resource-constrained.
(rue >alse

30. Resource !ottlenecks are one o the three more common pro/lems encountered in
managing multipro*ect resource schedules.
(rue >alse

31. (he ina/ility to get more than two earth movers on a construction site at the same time is
an e0ample o a physical constraint.
(rue >alse

8-1$
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
3$. (he most o/vious and important kind o resource constraint is a lack o materials.
(rue >alse

3+. 6aving too ew programmers and too many engineers is an e0ample o a people resource
constraint.
(rue >alse

3.. % a pro*ect needs one earth-mover si0 months rom now and the organi;ation has our
such machines' there is no e&uipment resource constraint.
(rue >alse

32. A lack o readily availa/le engineers is a technical constraint.
(rue >alse

33. All pro*ects are usually either time-constrained or resource-constrained.
(rue >alse

34. (o determine i a pro*ect is time-constrained or resource-constrained you would consult
the pro*ect priority matri0.
(rue >alse

38. Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on the optimal utili;ation o resources.
(rue >alse

35. All leveling techni&ues delay noncritical activities /y using positive slack to smooth out
the resource re&uirements.
(rue >alse

8-1+
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
40. Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on resource utili;ation.
(rue >alse

41. Scheduling resource-constrained pro*ects ocuses on completing the pro*ect as soon as
possi/le under the given constraints.
(rue >alse

4$. 6euristics are used in resource-constrained pro*ects to develop the optimal schedule.
(rue >alse

4+. (he top priority in using heuristics to allocate scare resources is those activities with the
smallest duration.
(rue >alse

4.. (he critical path in a resource-constrained schedule can /e a group o dis*ointed'
unconnected activities.
(rue >alse

42. Splitting is a scheduling techni&ue used to get a /etter schedule or /etter resource
utili;ation.
(rue >alse

43. ,ithout a time-phased /udget good pro*ect schedule and cost control are impossi/le.
(rue >alse

44. #any companies are using outsourcing as a means or dealing with their resource
allocation pro/lems associated with managing multipro*ect resources.
(rue >alse

8-1.
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs

Short Answer Questions

48. %dentiy and /riely descri/e the three types o pro*ect constraints.




45. ,hat is the dierence in pro*ect goals when using resource leveling on time-constrained
pro*ects and using it on resource-constrained pro*ects-




80. %dentiy the potential impacts o pro*ect constraints.




81. %dentiy and give an e0ample o the three types o resource constraints.




8-12
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
8$. %dentiy and /riely descri/e the two classiications o scheduling pro/lems.




8+. ,hat are the disadvantages o resource leveling-




8.. ,hy would a pro*ect manager use heuristics rather than a mathematical solution to level
resources-




82. ,hat are the three most common heuristics Cin order o priorityD used to allocate resources
to pro*ect activities-




8-13
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
83. Descri/e the parallel method or applying heuristics to the allocation o pro*ect resources.




84. ,hy should pro*ect managers /e cautious a/out using the splitting scheduling techni&ue-




88. %dentiy and /riely discuss the three more common pro/lems encountered in managing
multipro*ect resource schedules.




85. %dentiy and /riely descri/e the potential impacts o resource-constrained scheduling.




8-14
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
50. % your pro*ect has spent B20'000 versus a /udget o B.2'000 and it is a week ahead o
schedule' is it a certainty that your pro*ect is doing well-




8-18
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
Chapter 08 Scheduling Resources and Costs Answer Eey


Multiple Choice Questions

1. Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand on resources is known as resource
A. Shiting
!. "ectiveness
C. #anipulating
D Resource smoothing
". Allocation
% resources are ade&uate /ut the demand varies widely over the lie o the pro*ect' it may /e
desira/le to even out resource demand /y delaying noncritical activities Cusing slackD to lower
peak demand and' thus' increase resource utili;ation. (his process is called resource
smoothing.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

$. % resources are not ade&uate to meet peak demands' the resulting reschedule is termed
A Resource-constrained scheduling
!. (ime-constrained scheduling
C. #andatory leveling
D. )ro*ect resource ad*ustment
". Allocation
% resources are not ade&uate to meet peak demands' the late start o some activities must /e
delayed' and the duration o the pro*ect may /e increased. (his process is called resource-
constrained scheduling.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

8-15
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
+. ,hich o the ollowing is a potential conse&uence o ailing to schedule limited resources-
A. Costly activity delays
!. Costly pro*ect delays
C. Diiculty in taking &uick corrective action
D. !oth A and ! are correct
! A' !' and C are all correct
(he conse&uences o ailing to schedule limited resources are a costly activity and pro*ect
delays usually maniest themselves midway in the pro*ect when &uick corrective action is
diicult.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

.. ,hen developing a new sotware package' the sotware must /e designed' the code must /e
written' and the code must /e tested. (his is an e0ample o a 111111 constraint.
A. )hysical
B (echnical
C. Resource
D. Schedule
". (ime
A network or a new sotware pro*ect could place the activities in the network' as a se&uence
o C1D design' C$D code' and C+D test. %n other words' you cannot logically perorm activity $
until 1 is completed' and so on. (he pro*ect network depicts technical constraints.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

8-$0
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
2. ,hich o the ollowing is not one o the types o pro*ect constraints-
A. )hysical
!. (echnical
C. Resource
D (ime
". All o these are types o pro*ect constraints
% resources are not ade&uate to meet peak demands' the late start o some activities must /e
delayed' and the duration o the pro*ect may /e increased. (he a/sence or shortage o
resources can drastically alter technical constraints. %n rare situations' physical actors cause
activities that would normally occur in parallel to /e constrained /y contractual or
environmental conditions.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

3. Sam the pro*ect engineer has /een scheduled to run the product system test at the same time
he is to /uild a marketing prototype. (his is an e0ample o a 111111 constraint.
A. )hysical
!. (echnical
C Resource
D. Scheduling
". (ime
% one person must perorm all activities' the resource constraint re&uires the activities /e
perormed in se&uence or series.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

8-$1
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
4. Susan is to conduct environmental testing /ut the cham/er cannot hold all the e&uipment
that she wants to test. (his is an e0ample o a 111111111 constraint.
A )hysical
!. (echnical
C. Resource
D. Scheduling
". (ime
Since space allows only one person to work at one time' all tasks have to /e perormed
se&uentially this is a physical constraint.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Com%ter 'emonstration of Resorce(Constrained Schedling
Level: "asy

8. All o the ollowing are kinds o resource constraints e0cept
A. #aterials
!. )eople
C. "&uipment
D %normation
". All o the a/ove are resource constraints
See list on pages $22-$24.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

8-$$
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
5. Sam is trying to order the concrete needed to continue his pro*ect. 6owever' the supplier
won7t /e a/le to deliver it until ne0t week. (his is an e0ample o a 1111111 constraint.
A. ,orking capital
!. )eople
C. "&uipment
D. %normation
! #aterials
#aterial availa/ility and shortages have /een /lamed or the delay o many pro*ects. ,hen it
is known that a lack o availa/ility o materials is important and pro/a/le' materials should /e
included in the pro*ect network plan and schedule.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Reflective #hin$ing
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: &edim

10. A special truck that 8eorge needs on his pro*ect has /een scheduled on another pro*ect.
(his is a 111111 constraint.
A. ,orking capital
!. )eople
C "&uipment
D. %normation
". #aterials
"&uipment is usually presented /y type' si;e' and &uantity. %n some cases e&uipment can /e
interchanged to improve schedules' /ut this is not typical. "&uipment is oten overlooked as a
constraint. (he most common oversight is to assume the resource pool is more than ade&uate
or the pro*ect.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: &edim

8-$+
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
11. #ost o the scheduling methods availa/le today re&uire the pro*ect manager to classiy the
pro*ect as either 1111111 constrained or 111111 constrained.
A. (ime' &uality
!. 9uality' resource
C. Cost' time
D. 9uality' cost
! (ime' resource
#ost o the scheduling methods availa/le today re&uire the pro*ect manager to classiy the
pro*ect as either time constrained or resource constrained.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

1$. Regina7s /oss has told her that her pro*ect is very important. % the critical path is delayed'
she will /e given whatever she needs to get it /ack on schedule. 6er pro*ect is 11111111
constrained.
A (ime
!. 9uality
C. Cost
D. )erormance
". Resource
A time-constrained pro*ect is one that must /e completed /y an imposed date. % re&uired'
resources can /e added to ensure the pro*ect is completed /y a speciic date. Although time is
the critical actor' resource usage should /e no more than is necessary and suicient.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

8-$.
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
1+. %n reviewing the status o her pro*ect with top management' Shirley was told that there
only were two programmers that she could use or her pro*ect. 6er pro*ect is 1111111111
constrained.
A. (ime
!. 9uality
C. Cost
D. )erormance
! Resource
A resource-constrained pro*ect is one that assumes the level o resources availa/le cannot /e
e0ceeded. % the resources are inade&uate' it will /e accepta/le to delay the pro*ect' /ut as
little as possi/le.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

1.. All resource leveling techni&ues involve
A Delaying noncritical activities
!. Delaying critical activities
C. :sing negative slack
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct
All leveling techni&ues delay noncritical activities /y using positive slack to reduce peak
demand and ill in the valleys or the resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

8-$2
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
12. Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on resource
A. Demands
!. %ncreases
C. Assumptions
D :tili;ation
". All are correct
Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on resource utili;ation.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

13. (he most widely used approach to apply heuristics' which have /een ound to consistently
minimi;e pro*ect delay over a large variety o pro*ects is the
A )arallel method
!. Resource method
C. #aterials
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct
(he parallel method is the most widely used approach to apply heuristics' which have /een
ound to consistently minimi;e pro*ect delay over a large variety o pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

8-$3
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
14. Resource leveling can provide
A. <ower peak demand
!. Reduced resource need over the lie o the pro*ect
C. Reduced luctuations in resource demand
D. !oth A and ! are correct
! A' !' and C are all correct
)ractitioners have attacked the utili;ation pro/lem using resource leveling techni&ues that
/alance or smooth demand or a resource. !asically' all leveling techni&ues delay noncritical
activities /y using positive slack to reduce peak demand and ill in the valleys or the
resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

18. =an is trying to reallocate resources in a time-constrained pro*ect to create smoother
resource utili;ation with a low level o risk. She should move to activities with the
A. Smallest duration
!. <east slack
C #ost slack
D. <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost
(he rationale is those activities with the most slack pose the least risk.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: 'ifficlt

8-$4
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
15. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect' which o the ollowing is most likely to /e changed-
A (he completion date
!. (he /udget
C. )ro*ect &uality
D. !oth A and ! are e&ually likely
". A' !' and C are all e&ually likely
#anagers who ail to schedule resources usually encounter a scheduling risk when it is too
late to work around pro/lems' resulting in a pro*ect delay.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

$0. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect' the irst priority in assigning resources is usually given
to activities with the
A. Smallest duration
B <east slack
C. #ost slack
D. <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost
(he irst activity placed in the schedule would /e the activity with the least slack Crule 1D.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

8-$8
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$1. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect the second priority in assigning resources is usually
given to activities with the
A Smallest duration
!. <east slack
C. #ost slack
D. <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost
% all activities have the same slack' the ne0t rule would /e invoked Crule $D' and the activity
with the smallest duration would /e placed in the schedule irst.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

$$. (he word 6euristics means
A. Resource constraints
!. >le0i/ility
C. (he critical path changed
D. )arallel activities /ecome se&uential
! Rule o thum/

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

8-$5
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$+. Splitting an activity creates the ollowing situation?
A. #ore people working on the same activity
!. (here are possi/le startup and shutdown costs
C. A resource may /e moved rom one activity to another and then /ack
D !oth ! and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct
A planner splits the continuous work included in an activity /y interrupting the work and
sending the resource to another activity or a period o time and then having the resource
resume work on the original activity. Splitting can /e a useul tool i the work involved does
not include large start-up or shutdown costsFor e0ample' moving e&uipment rom one
activity location to another. (he most common error is to interrupt @people work'@ where
there are high conceptual start-up and shutdown costs.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: S%litting Activities
Level: &edim

$.. (he :.S. >orest Service @snapshot rom practice@ illustrated the importance o
A. (ime constraints
!. Resource constraints
C. Cost constraints
D !oth ! and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct
%t is important to remem/er that' i resources are truly limited and activity time estimates are
accurate' the resource-constrained schedule will materiali;e as the pro*ect is implementedF
not the time-constrained scheduleG (hereore' ailure to schedule limited resources can lead to
serious pro/lems or a pro*ect manager. (he /eneit o creating this schedule /eore the
pro*ect /egins leaves time or considering reasona/le alternatives.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Benefits of Schedling Resorces
Level: &edim

8-+0
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$2. #ore common pro/lems associated with managing multipro*ect resources include all o
the ollowing e0cept
A. %neicient resource utili;ation
!. Delays in one pro*ect cause delays in other pro*ects
C Reducing @downtime@ created /y lack o tasks to perorm
D. Resource /ottlenecks
". All o these are common pro/lems
See <ist on page $4.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: &edim

$3. ,hen a company will reduce the num/er o pro*ects they have to manage internally to
only core pro*ects and send noncritical pro*ects to contractors and consulting irms this is
called
A Autsourcing
!. Redistri/ution o pro*ects
C. )ro*ect allocation
D. (ask sharing
". !oth ! and D are correct
#any companies are using outsourcing as a means or dealing with their resource allocation
pro/lems. %n some cases' a company will reduce the num/er o pro*ects they have to manage
internally to only core pro*ects and outsource noncritical pro*ects to contractors and
consulting irms. %n other cases' speciic segments o pro*ects are outsourced to overcome
resource deiciencies and scheduling pro/lems.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: "asy

8-+1
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$4. ,hich o the ollowing is not one o the more common pro/lems associated with
scheduling multipro*ect resources-
A. Averall schedule slippage
!. %neicient resource utili;ation
C. Resource /ottlenecks
D. !oth A and C are correct
! A' !' and C are all correct
See <ist on )age $4..

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: "asy

$8. %n a resource-constrained pro*ect the third priority in assigning resources is usually given
to activities with the
A. Smallest duration
!. <east slack
C. #ost slack
D <owest identiication num/er
". 6ighest cost
%n very rare cases' when all eligi/le activities have the same slack and the same duration' the
tie is /roken /y the lowest activity identiication num/er Crule +D' since each activity has a
uni&ue %D num/er.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

8-+$
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
$5. %n the !otanical 8arden e0ample' which o the ollowing was used to solve the resource
pro/lem-
A. Resource allocation
B Smoothing resource demand
C. (he parallel method
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct
(he !otanical 8arden pro*ect schedule reached the three goals o smoothing? (he peak o
demand or the resource was reduced' resources over the lie o the pro*ect have /een reduced'
the luctuations in resource demand were minimi;ed.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

+0. )ro*ect /udgets are developed /y time-phasing which o the ollowing-
A. Resource schedules
B ,ork packages
C. (he network diagram
D. !oth A and C are correct
". A' !' and C are all correct
:sing your pro*ect schedule' you can time-phase work packages and assign them to their
respective scheduled activities to develop a /udget schedule over the lie o your pro*ect.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: )sing the Resorce Schedle to 'evelo% a !roject Cost Baseline
Level: &edim

8-++
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
+1. A pro*ect /udget report is showing our pro*ect as spending B+2'000 against a /udgeted
amount o B.0'000. ,hich o the ollowing is true-
A. ,e are spending less than we should or the pro*ect
!. ,e are doing a good *o/ managing the pro*ect
C. ,e should check to see i all the /ills have /een paid
D. !oth A and ! are correct
! ,e can7t /e sure how the pro*ect is going
(here is no way to /e certain how much o the physical work has /een accomplished.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: )sing the Resorce Schedle to 'evelo% a !roject Cost Baseline
Level: &edim


Fill in the Blank Questions

+$. Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand and' thus' increase resource
utili;ation is called 1111111 leveling.
resource
)ractitioners have attacked the utili;ation pro/lem using resource leveling techni&ues that
/alance or smooth demand or a resource. !asically' all leveling techni&ues delay noncritical
activities /y using positive slack to reduce peak demand and ill in the valleys or the
resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

8-+.
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
++. ACnD 11111111 constraint addresses the se&uence in which pro*ect activities must occur.
technical or logic
(he start and se&uence o activities has /een /ased solely on technical or logical
considerations. >or e0ample' a pro*ect network or raming a house might show three
activities in a se&uence? C1D pour oundation' C$D /uild rame' and C+D cover roo.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

+.. 6aving one person responsi/le or perorming several activities' all due at the same time'
is an e0ample o aCnD 11111111 constraint.
resource
% one person must perorm all activities' the resource constraint re&uires the activities /e
perormed in se&uence or series.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

+2. (rying to renovate a ship compartment that is too small or more than one person is an
e0ample o aCnD 11111111 constraint.
ph"sical
%n rare situations' physical actors cause activities that would normally occur in parallel to /e
constrained /y contractual or environmental conditions. >or e0ample' in theory the renovation
o a sail/oat compartment might involve our to ive tasks that can /e done independently.
6owever' since space allows only one person to work at one time' all tasks have to /e
perormed se&uentially.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

8-+2
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
+3. A shortage o programmers to write sotware is an e0ample o aCnD 11111111 type o
resource constraint.
people
(his is the most o/vious and important pro*ect resource. 6uman resources are usually
classiied /y the skills they /ring to the pro*ectFor e0ample' programmer' mechanical
engineer' welder' inspector' marketing director' supervisor. %n rare cases some skills are
interchangea/le' /ut usually with a loss o productivity. (he many diering skills o human
resources add to the comple0ity o scheduling pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

+4. (he shortage o computer chips to produce a circuit /oard is an e0ample o aCnD 11111111
type o resource constraint.
#aterials
#aterial availa/ility and shortages have /een /lamed or the delay o many pro*ects. ,hen it
is known that a lack o availa/ility o materials is important and pro/a/le' materials should /e
included in the pro*ect network plan and schedule.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

+8. % three copiers are needed to produce a inal report on time and only two are availa/le'
the pro*ect is acing aCnD 11111111 type o resource constraint.
e$uip#ent
(he most common oversight is to assume the resource pool is more than ade&uate or the
pro*ect.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

8-+3
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
+5. 6ector wants to /ring on another programmer to work on the pro*ect /ut the company
does not have anyone who has the needed skills. 6ector7s pro*ect is acing aCnD 11111111
constraint.
people t"pe o% resource
(his is the most o/vious and important pro*ect resource. 6uman resources are usually
classiied /y the skills they /ring to the pro*ectFor e0ample' programmer' mechanical
engineer' welder' inspector' marketing director' supervisor. %n rare cases some skills are
interchangea/le' /ut usually with a loss o productivity. (he many diering skills o human
resources add to the comple0ity o scheduling pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

.0. %n order that the new product is on the shel or the Christmas /uying season' the
development o the new product would /e classiied as aCnD 11111111 constrained pro*ect.
ti#e
A time-constrained pro*ect is one that must /e completed /y an imposed date. % re&uired'
resources can /e added to ensure the pro*ect is completed /y a speciic date. Although time is
the critical actor' resource usage should /e no more than is necessary and suicient.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

.1. !eth has two engineers assigned to her pro*ect and cannot get any more even i it means
slipping the due date on her pro*ect. She is managing aCnD 11111111 constrained pro*ect.
resource
A resource-constrained pro*ect is one that assumes the level o resources availa/le cannot /e
e0ceeded. % the resources are inade&uate' it will /e accepta/le to delay the pro*ect' /ut as
little as possi/le.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

8-+4
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
.$. All leveling techni&ues delay noncritical activities /y using 11111111 to reduce peak
demand.
positi&e slack
All leveling techni&ues delay noncritical activities /y using positive slack to reduce peak
demand and ill in the valleys or the resources.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

.+. Scheduling activities in a constrained pro*ect typically has 11111111 as the top heuristic
rule.
#ini#u# slack
See list on )age $30.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

... (he 11111111 is the most widely used approach to apply heuristic rules to scheduling
activities in a constrained pro*ect.
parallel #ethod
(he parallel method is the most widely used approach to apply heuristics' which have /een
ound to consistently minimi;e pro*ect delay over a large variety o pro*ects.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

8-+8
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
.2. ,hen using the 11111111 scheduling techni&ue' the work in an activity is interrupted to
work on another activity and is then resumed at a later point in time.
splitting or #ultitasking
A planner splits the continuous work included in an activity /y interrupting the work and
sending the resource to another activity or a period o time and then having the resource
resume work on the original activity.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: S%litting Activities
Level: &edim

.3. %n scheduling resource-constrained pro*ects' 111111111 are typically used rather than
optimum mathematical solutions.
heuristics
A ew researchers have demonstrated optimum mathematical solutions to the resource
allocation pro/lem /ut only or small networks and very ew resource types. (he massive data
re&uirements or larger pro/lems make pure mathematical solutions Ce.g.' linear
programmingD impractical. An alternative approach to the pro/lem has /een the use o
heuristics Crules o thum/D to solve large com/inatorial pro/lems.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

.4. %n scheduling terms' 11111111 constrained means that pro*ect duration is i0ed and
resources are le0i/le.
ti#e
%n scheduling terms' time constrained means time Cpro*ect durationD is i0ed and resources are
le0i/le.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

8-+5
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
.8. %n scheduling terms' 11111111 constrained means that a speciic resource is i0ed and the
duration o the pro*ect is le0i/le.
resource
%n scheduling terms' constrained means resources are i0ed and time is le0i/le.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

.5. Start-up and shutdown costs are ma*or considerations when using the 1111111111111111
scheduling techni&ue.
splitting/#ultitasking
(he most common error is to interrupt @people work'@ where there are high conceptual start-
up and shutdown costs.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: S%litting Activities
Level: "asy

20. (o deal with pro/lems related to having several concurrent pro*ects' companies are
creating 11111111 to oversee the scheduling o resources across multiple pro*ects.
pro'ect o%%ices or pro'ect depart#ents
#ore and more companies create pro*ect oices or departments to oversee the scheduling o
resources across multiple pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: "asy

8-.0
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
21. #any companies are using 11111111 rom contractors and consultants as a means o
dealing with the peaks and valleys o resource allocation among pro*ects.
outsourcing
#any companies are using outsourcing as a means or dealing with their resource allocation
pro/lems. %n some cases' a company will reduce the num/er o pro*ects they have to manage
internally to only core pro*ects and outsource noncritical pro*ects to contractors and
consulting irms. %n other cases' speciic segments o pro*ects are outsourced to overcome
resource deiciencies and scheduling pro/lems.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: "asy

2$. (he 11111111111111 is the most widely used approach to apply heuristics in resource-
constrained pro*ects.
parallel #ethod
(he parallel method is the most widely used approach to apply heuristics' which have /een
ound to consistently minimi;e pro*ect delay over a large variety o pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

2+. (he a/ility to more eiciently manage the e//s and lows o pro*ect work is one o the
ma*or driving orces /ehind 111111111111 today.
outsourcing
(he a/ility to more eiciently manage the e//s and lows o pro*ect work is one o the ma*or
driving orces /ehind outsourcing today.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: &edim

8-.1
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
2.. ,ithout a time-phased 1111111111 good pro*ect schedule and cost control are
impossi/le.
(udget
(hese systems do not measure how much work was accomplished or the money spentG
6ence' without time-phasing cost to match your pro*ect schedule' it is impossi/le to have
relia/le inormation or control purposes.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: )sing the Resorce Schedle to 'evelo% a !roject Cost Baseline
Level: &edim

22. A pro*ect cost /aseline is also called 1111111111.
planned &alue )*+,
(he outcome o these /udget allocations is the pro*ect cost /aseline Calso called planned value
F)HD' which is used to determine cost and schedule variances as the pro*ect is implemented.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: )sing the Resorce Schedle to 'evelo% a !roject Cost Baseline
Level: &edim


True / False Questions

23. (he se&uence o C1D pour oundation' C$D /uild rame' and C+D cover roo is a type o
physical constraint.
FA-S!
(he start and se&uence o activities has /een /ased solely on technical or logical
considerations. >or e0ample' a pro*ect network or raming a house might show three
activities in a se&uence? C1D pour oundation' C$D /uild rame' and C+D cover roo.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

8-.$
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
24. (oo many parallel activities or one individual are an e0ample o a resource constraint.
TR.!
% one person must perorm all activities' the resource constraint re&uires the activities /e
perormed in se&uence or series.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

28. A pro*ect that is not resource-constrained is time-constrained.
TR.!
%n scheduling terms' time constrained means time Cpro*ect durationD is i0ed and resources are
le0i/le' where constrained means resources are i0ed and time is le0i/le.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

25. Resource leveling is only used on pro*ects which are resource-constrained.
FA-S!
)ractitioners have attacked the utili;ation pro/lem using resource leveling techni&ues that
/alance or smooth demand or a resource. !asically' all leveling techni&ues delay noncritical
activities /y using positive slack to reduce peak demand and ill in the valleys or the
resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

8-.+
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
30. Resource !ottlenecks are one o the three more common pro/lems encountered in
managing multipro*ect resource schedules.
TR.!
See list on )age $4..

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: &edim

31. (he ina/ility to get more than two earth movers on a construction site at the same time is
an e0ample o a physical constraint.
TR.!
%n rare situations' physical actors cause activities that would normally occur in parallel to /e
constrained /y contractual or environmental conditions.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: &edim

3$. (he most o/vious and important kind o resource constraint is a lack o materials.
FA-S!
)eople are the most o/vious and important pro*ect resource.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: "asy

8-..
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
3+. 6aving too ew programmers and too many engineers is an e0ample o a people resource
constraint.
TR.!
>inding people with certain diering skills adds to the comple0ity o scheduling pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: &edim

3.. % a pro*ect needs one earth-mover si0 months rom now and the organi;ation has our
such machines' there is no e&uipment resource constraint.
FA-S!
(he most common oversight is to assume the resource pool is more than ade&uate or the
pro*ect. >or e0ample' i a pro*ect needs one earth-moving tractor si0 months rom now and the
organi;ation owns our' it is common to assume the resource will not delay the pending
pro*ect. 6owever' when the earthmoving tractor is due on-site in si0 months' all our
machines in the pool might /e occupied on other pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: &edim

32. A lack o readily availa/le engineers is a technical constraint.
FA-S!
,hen the num/er o people andIor e&uipment is not ade&uate to meet peak demand
re&uirements and it is impossi/le to o/tain more' the pro*ect manager aces a resource-
constrained pro/lem.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

8-.2
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
33. All pro*ects are usually either time-constrained or resource-constrained.
TR.!
#ost o the scheduling methods availa/le today re&uire the pro*ect manager to classiy the
pro*ect as either time constrained or resource constrained.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: "asy

34. (o determine i a pro*ect is time-constrained or resource-constrained you would consult
the pro*ect priority matri0.
TR.!
)ro*ect managers need to consult their priority matri0 to determine which case its their
pro*ect.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

38. Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on the optimal utili;ation o resources.
TR.!
A time-constrained pro*ect is one that must /e completed /y an imposed date. % re&uired'
resources can /e added to ensure the pro*ect is completed /y a speciic date. Although time is
the critical actor' resource usage should /e no more than is necessary and suicient.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Reflective #hin$ing
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

8-.3
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
35. All leveling techni&ues delay noncritical activities /y using positive slack to smooth out
the resource re&uirements.
TR.!
All leveling techni&ues delay noncritical activities /y using positive slack to reduce peak
demand and ill in the valleys or the resources.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

40. Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on resource utili;ation.
FA-S!
Scheduling time-constrained pro*ects ocuses on resource utili;ation.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

41. Scheduling resource-constrained pro*ects ocuses on completing the pro*ect as soon as
possi/le under the given constraints.
TR.!
,hen the num/er o people andIor e&uipment is not ade&uate to meet peak demand
re&uirements and it is impossi/le to o/tain more' the pro*ect manager aces a resource-
constrained pro/lem. Something has to give. (he trick is to prioriti;e and allocate resources to
minimi;e pro*ect delay without e0ceeding the resource limit or altering the technical network
relationships.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: 'ifficlt

8-.4
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
4$. 6euristics are used in resource-constrained pro*ects to develop the optimal schedule.
FA-S!
6euristics do not always yield an optimal schedule' /ut they are very capa/le o yielding a
@good@ schedule or very comple0 networks with many types o resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

4+. (he top priority in using heuristics to allocate scare resources is those activities with the
smallest duration.
FA-S!
6euristics allocate resources to activities to minimi;e pro*ect delayJ that is' heuristics
prioriti;e which activities are allocated resources and which activities are delayed when
resources are not ade&uate.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: "asy

4.. (he critical path in a resource-constrained schedule can /e a group o dis*ointed'
unconnected activities.
TR.!
(he traditional critical path concept o se&uential activities rom the start to the end o the
pro*ect is no longer meaningul. (he resource constraints can /reak the se&uence and leave
the network with a set o dis*ointed critical activities.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Com%ter 'emonstration of Resorce(Constrained Schedling
Level: &edim

8-.8
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
42. Splitting is a scheduling techni&ue used to get a /etter schedule or /etter resource
utili;ation.
TR.!
Splitting tasks is a scheduling techni&ue used to get a /etter pro*ect schedule andIor to
increase resource utili;ation.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: S%litting Activities
Level: "asy

43. ,ithout a time-phased /udget good pro*ect schedule and cost control are impossi/le.
TR.!

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: )sing the Resorce Schedle to 'evelo% a !roject Cost Baseline
Level: "asy

44. #any companies are using outsourcing as a means or dealing with their resource
allocation pro/lems associated with managing multipro*ect resources.
TR.!
Companies may hire temporary workers to e0pedite certain activities that are alling /ehind
schedule or contract pro*ect work during peak periods when there are insuicient internal
resources to meet the demands o all pro*ects.

AACSB: Reflective #hin$ing
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: "asy


Short Answer Questions

8-.5
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
48. %dentiy and /riely descri/e the three types o pro*ect constraints.
1. (echnical ClogicDJ the se&uence that activities must /e perormed' $. resourceJ the a/sence
o re&uired people' materials' e&uipment' or working capital' and +. physicalJ limitations
/ased on space or environmental limits.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Overview of the Resorce Schedling !roblem and #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: &edim

45. ,hat is the dierence in pro*ect goals when using resource leveling on time-constrained
pro*ects and using it on resource-constrained pro*ects-
%n time-constrained pro*ects the goal is to smooth out the peaks and valleys and thus improve
the utili;ation. %n resource-constrained pro*ects the goal is to achieve the shortest pro*ect
duration given a limited supply o resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Com%ter 'emonstration of Resorce(Constrained Schedling
Level: 'ifficlt

80. %dentiy the potential impacts o pro*ect constraints.
1. reduction in slack on the pro*ect network' $. decrease in le0i/ility' +. possi/le decrease in
parallel activities' and .. increase in the likelihood o delaying the pro*ect.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

8-20
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
81. %dentiy and give an e0ample o the three types o resource constraints.
1. )eopleJ /y skill classiication Cengineer' programmer' salespersonD' $. materialsJ paint' data'
parts' and +. e&uipmentJ computers' earth-movers' oice space.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: #y%es of Resorce Constraints
Level: &edim

8$. %dentiy and /riely descri/e the two classiications o scheduling pro/lems.
1. time-constrainedJ the end date is i0ed and needed resources are availa/le' $. resource-
constrainedJ the resources are i0ed and the end date is le0i/le.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Classification of a Schedling !roblem
Level: &edim

8+. ,hat are the disadvantages o resource leveling-
1. loss o le0i/ility' $. increased risk o pro*ect delay' +. more critical or near critical
activities.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: 'ifficlt

8-21
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
8.. ,hy would a pro*ect manager use heuristics rather than a mathematical solution to level
resources-
#athematical models work on small networks and a small num/er o resources. <arger
pro*ects have massive data re&uirements. 6euristics tend to yield a good solution without the
heavy /urden imposed /y math models.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: 'ifficlt

82. ,hat are the three most common heuristics Cin order o priorityD used to allocate resources
to pro*ect activities-
1. minimum slackJ start with activities with the least amount o slack' $. smallest durationJ i
two activities have the same slack select the one with the smallest duration' and +. lowest
activity identiication num/er' i slack and duration are the same select the earliest activity.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: &edim

83. Descri/e the parallel method or applying heuristics to the allocation o pro*ect resources.
(he irst priority is to allocate resources to the activity with the least amount o slack' usually
an activity on the critical path. % more than one activity has the same amount o slack then
selects the activity with the smallest duration. % more than one activity has the same slack and
the same duration then select the activity that occurs the earliest.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Resorce Allocation &ethods
Level: 'ifficlt

8-2$
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
84. ,hy should pro*ect managers /e cautious a/out using the splitting scheduling techni&ue-
(he splitting techni&ue is where an activity is interrupted and the resources are applied to
another activity. (he potential pro/lems are in the addition o shutdown and startup costs
which are added as one moves rom activity to activity prior to completing the original
activity.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: S%litting Activities
Level: &edim

88. %dentiy and /riely discuss the three more common pro/lems encountered in managing
multipro*ect resource schedules.
1. overall schedule slippage' $. ineicient resource utili;ation' and +. resource /ottlenecks.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: &lti%roject Resorce Schedles
Level: 'ifficlt

85. %dentiy and /riely descri/e the potential impacts o resource-constrained scheduling.
1. reduced slack reduces le0i/ility' $. increased num/er o critical and near-critical activities'
+. increase comple0ity due to resource constrains added to technical constraints' .. the critical
path may /ecome a set o dis*ointed critical activities' and 2. ormerly critical activities may
now /ecome non-critical.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Knowledge
Learning Objective: Com%ter 'emonstration of Resorce(Constrained Schedling
Level: 'ifficlt

8-2+
Chapter 08 - Scheduling Resources and Costs
50. % your pro*ect has spent B20'000 versus a /udget o B.2'000 and it is a week ahead o
schedule' is it a certainty that your pro*ect is doing well-
Kot necessarily. Lou need more inormation to draw that conclusion.

AACSB: Analytic
Bloom's: Com%rehension
Learning Objective: )sing the Resorce Schedle to 'evelo% a !roject Cost Baseline
Level: 'ifficlt

8-2.

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