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=>~=F?y|M=>&|S2&N~m}>4
z6> |m:=?ND~|mN}F&y|Bm&yy~Zk = k +=}&Nr}r~m&:2 FyE{!|-}~~ND=|/~m}>=M~mF
m&yy~S}?>&Qm}FS=\y~~y|/}yg Wy|N @=>&|mFyy~MF=M=|m~m=E~mF ~lM|/}~~N:=|/~m}>4&sN=m
}&=|/}F~|-F~=|SWy=|mB=>!~m |m~g~m&B+=E}6=>=}@~E}&=|/E~m&N=>}@2>|/}+}y=
=F/}&~mF}mFyy~y=yF ~=|- |m=?N4SmB}=|/~m=%~~m N?=F ~m&N ~m}y=WF|/=y|/~m}N
}WF|/+}&N4
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&-F=F&NF=M|m>/=y|jF|m= }}~ =  ?|m>mm=y|j2yy&|-l&N}~l/F=F=NM|m>b~w
= |Q~: d 2=~mF}s/=F&N~ 2 jd }6S}& NyNw}>F}y ~m}>m2~N?=Fm=B|myy|/|mN=
}F |m +y~|/}lF=F&N M- }>&|m&y}~m~mF}l-F=F&N 6jmm~mF ~M~m&>&|/}~m
F|m= }}~m}N |mQN
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Input
0

Output
0

1-p

p
p

1
1-p

}>&|/ c  }F |m d 2y~|/}F=&N6  d M
8%!>}%~m-l{ ~S}S~m&Q+F|mN/mk}>=|j~m&Q?=|/}~m}>&?=|/4}=w=== W&y& y|m|m=|
F|m= }}~ =MBF~m}>w=  @=|mg~mF=:>&}~}l-F=&=NE2~m&-F=F&N =yF ~
~md &|m=c }}~ =#y|m|m=|=|   =F   
k @>?FQ~m}&>N &=~  =Mw}~y|m|m=|/l>F~l=\}~y
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!# $   & %W ('
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| *)+ 5 % 86|/= }}~ =\&y|/|m=|-5 / 6 %78  / d N>F
N2F ~m}>D}N=m}y|~&y/ |m=#~m&Nr=3| 7  2
*)  %A %  > N9 9=Fr=|
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~|m+FFN:N/F=}m  |/}~ /FNm+}&
S~mF ~y=&y~N~m}F>
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>&B}~Sy|m|m=|/jF&|/}&~m&B~|/=Fm}mm}>4lN=BM|/}~B=+F|mNm/}>4SF}/}F~m}>=; @
=#~m&F|m= n }}~ c =#Fy~N~m}&~mF}l/}&>g}~y|m|/=<| vl=yF ~g~m&&y~N~m}>F|m= }}~ =|
  =~ ?>Fm}Fy|=~mF ~M |-}~ w}~My==W2}FN:2w-F=F&N
d >F~m}> c
6|/= }}~ =&y~N~m}&(>&/ }~Ey|m|m=|/}m==>&}~Ey|m|m=|/N6|/= }}~ (=Zy|m|m=|
&y~N~m}> 5
-  = >#& %4
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N-F=F}m ?S=}&B2&N=F=~mFy|y|m|/=|=|m|mN~m}&+&Nsy=w&~m}6N=m}= - F ~sy|
|m=|?=|m|mN~m}>wN/=F}mq=FF}~ms~Q  }~2&S=|-Fy%&~s=~mF=Z}&N%~m}Z~m&2y ~m}> 
=~m&gy|m|/>&y>F}~y2F}-y=wWS=|m|/N~N4ssN=gM|/}~j=+F|mN/m}>=|~m&jF|m= }}~
=n 4y|m|m=c |?=sQF~m}>=@ AEjF:=yF ~~m&MF|m= }}~ Q=Wy|m|m=|=B|   =F   
=~ =FF}~m}>F=}~my==WB=~y|mNv
E~m&Z/=F&N &~S=j>&w=j~m&y|m}M>FE>F
yd |m|m=|S}Ec ?=|/r 0  "C}~m--&+~Ny==|m|mN~~mF ~y
>F~m}>

6 |m= }}~ =6B=|S=|/y|m|m=| 1   0 2   0  /4  0  =<  0    0     l=|*)


A86|m= }}~ =&y|m|m=| 0 s|m= }}~ =}~ly|m|m=|-5 5% 8   %7
-   - =|Q g+2
=%=2W=FE=|M g+ 2)6 %=====
8lW>}
~m- i FN=~ j~mF ~=>QNg=|~m&6y|/|m=|=|m|mN~mf }>Qy  }}~ g}
~|m+FFN}gF|/y2}>
 |m~6}#}F|mN=m}Fj=F&}F~m=FZ~|-=Fm}/m}>y| y~y62= ~6~mF?Wy|N2y=Z~m&ly|m|m=|
k=|m|m&N+}~m}>SF ~N-F>=FF}}m~m }>FmF>~m}?SB}}
~m~cN6}>:~m&N~|/=~mFFm}&Z}m~mmF}> B~ +~{N ~F~mlmN}?AFN{
~~m~m~FQS~N|/F=Zm>FM}m/}}>>~ 
+~N }@y|m|/=|S=|m|mN~m}>}MF=~MN=N4&~ C
 { ~~mg}FNEFN}~}MN=N4 i |m
~:y}&N|/N=NF|m= }}~ =y|m|m=|j}~mEy|/|m=|j=|/|mN~m}>y=v =Z&v~m&F } y|mNQ=
({ ~~mS2=}&Z+~N_~=|m|/N~M>&}~y|m|/=|N\6>y==mZg|mNmF~m=# |m~m8%
=d Fr8- c
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= ~~m&ZF|m=d  }}~ E=y|m|m=|/}v |m~8%j=F(8-@#=>F
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@} |/~
8 *) * %  8   % 
-   B=?=~N N&y|m= C
**)y ?2= ~~ ry=mN g+ 
=FD g+ 2sEyE=|Z g+ 26 *) C%   =F C
*)+ +y  lyN |-y |m|m=|
=|m|mN~m}>mN=NN&y|m=:=F mF~m}N?}~mNy=N~m&>&>E}lFmNM ({ ~~m=|mN&y|m== &~y
&Nj2= ~s~m&S g+ 22~m&N *) @  +   = C
*) A@ :=  &~mF}m&6~mF ~
y=Nv~m&>&>m2~N=|m|mN~mSy|m|m=|-y}~y=&=~=|/|mN~S~ ~m}w}~mmN F==~mF=w=~N
=|mgN&y|/=~mF=EF>y|/|m=|M=|m|mNk ~m}FZm2~NS =|M=>&|M}F=|/ ~m}>42~m&>y~F>F|m
}g>}=NWN=|  2 =&=~g+N~m}&:~m&F>&|mB|m> =>4F~mF~g=%~N
>}=Q>y~Wy|m=|/=F>&|m 
*)
5%
*)5

10

probability of error time energy per word

10

No eror correction

10

10

With error correction

10

Boundary between error correction is better or not

10

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
0.25
0.3
p (probability of crossover)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

2 9jW>}
~m~=~m=# FF}W> | n }&+F}&S~N/F}
i F?}\>F/}&y|mN=|g>BFF}y ~m}>Bm2~N
Wy~ ?yN>F~y|Q8?M?=i FE}>:WyNw2&N &y g~mF ~M>FFN~ml~m &N~ Fy2}Nl}
~ S}~NE=}|=FWy|My = &y F==F&S}&~mw=\ ?S=MmF} }>&|mQ2
Power spectrum of line code

Frequency responce of cable


1

0
4/To

3/To

2/To

1/To

1/To

2/To

3/To

4/To

n}>&|m c #y|WN~|/=&Nm}~ = h }W> |


}&s+&=>=jm&S}&|/~@2F%=F&S}&~m4 }>&|m c |mN
FNF|/NW>F=#~m&Q/=F&N
8%! EW>}
~m-j{ F ~B}~m&J+}F }~|/ ~~mF ~y=W~|/=F/}~~NS}~m&>&~F}~=|m~m}>!2
~md F}y c}@Q>m}&y|l~m&Q=F&}&~m=\~m&}&g2FQ=l~m&|/~M2F=F&S}&~m 
>|m>F ~m}>F >F|mNyl}~}N=(~y~m ~  8 mF>F Wr
 ?S=M~m&N 8 =y '  ) l~m&N
J&}BF_|/ ~Q} y
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?gj=}Fy|-M&>}Zy=W FF|/N&} ~N
=Fmm}=&>}m}~m  =}~mF&=s+ 
>~  q >-{ F ~Q}g~m&}~gy|m|m=||/ ~=|~mF>F}y ~m}>!+~N7S}~m!}  W>}
~
~m&|mN/&>&y~N~=|l=FN
}F|m= lF ~mQ}~m>  =|?=>&|?F=F2Fy|-}y=&|mNm~y>=>wy=Fm
d FF|/N&}c ~m}> )   4 "# !1 F&~l=mNN=== )  j+F|mNm/}>4
>F~m}>

*)6
)  =% $'( & 
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)  = N  C( = &y ' 1 /
*)5
 ( F8 >
n =~ cd >y=F* ) }F~N=E= )  J )  W & % )  = W-
8! W>}
~m-@6>wF}/=y|mN~mF ~s~m&|/ ~S~m ~6=>|/N=/}~mF}W> | n  }&=~6N&>&>=|
=>&|g F}y ~m}>4=F&Ny}FN~:FQF=}~mF&2F ~m}>r8W }~mN}>
~Sy=N
)  =| |mF-6{ ~}s~m&S&y}&=|/ ~m}>~|/=Fm}mm}>Z|/ ~g}~y|-s=4}~m> !8jmmF=
Wd   &2cNM &=~S/F=&=~m&=FF}&~m4
d >}FB~m}>~m }g  m/FNF=:y=NN>&W  +QW>\y=!~|/=y|Qw}~mys  +* =
&y|m ! _vm}F * >- d Fy }F=|/ ~m}>!~|/=Fmy||/ ~w}y\4 F>  FN:W 
=Nv+~N_~y |m|/:Z~m}NM=|m}&=|/ ~m}>w}~mE/==FF}&~m4

First Null Bandwidth

1MHz

1MHz

8 CBW>}
~m-s{ ~M}Wg~m&+QW>Wy|m|m=||/ ~=|~m&Q  |mEW 2}&}=>vFg=>~m =
y=Ny~ yNr=F N8 >~=|~mF?N~Q=F N >~=|~m&F}>FN~y=N-  {F ~
?>FS~m&}~sy|m|/=||/ ~g}4?j>m}&y|~mF ~?FB}F=|/ ~m}>}s|mN=y|/N}4m2W>Fy|m|m=|
+d yy&|/>  c
n >AF~m>}>& | /F=F=N4 f y=N4Z}B=>~yFy=NBC}gNB=>~yFmB?&yN:~F}+}&BNB=>~~ C
N2F=y=N$ N& F=F $ & N 9C
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*)5
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N 9C=
N=9:
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>F~m}>
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=|ly|/|m=|MWy|m=|/=F= n  =M
|/ ~&~Mm&Wy|/}=|y|m|/=|MWy|m=|-=F=

2 9W>}
~m~=~m=6>&yN~m=4. > y== 0   > 0 \>  == 0  2N>-
8%! W>}%~m\{ F ~?/&>FS~m&gm=}&}
~y|mJ=}=|/&y|?~Wy|mN~m|mN>~|/F~Wm6|m>
md =N:c J=&N> 
d >}F~m}>~m& J&}BF|/N
&Nv} ==?S=~m&N!}} m=}&|mN2&NFv}j>== ?=
> g>== ?==FEm=}&}
~y|m =    A9  
N
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~m-g6>?>FD}=w~~=|mEm=NDJ=&NZ}>&~y|}~mD d kmk / |/=~y|/
C} ~ J/==| C }~? -@F ~Q?>FrW~m&=y|/ =2F=%~m}N ~m}>F>}  ?S_=

2d
~NS&c =>&yN }:=|/&y|M~~=|m mN>FFl=m}>= 
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| Z m}F:F CE}~  *   N=26~m&N 
1
1
* %( N= % 3  ===}E  . y  !"Q %@ Z
=| mN:|mN=|/F}F 8m~=|/}&
-=>(m=E+>?y=y|m #N ?!=+| mN s=>(&yN
~~=|m=B  # ===+>B8m=N--4=F C  }~8=>~22~  w}~-~=|/ =&yN&N
2 N=/2W>Mm}=>L C  }~w? rsj|mNmF~yl F|mN&} ~N=M ===D2
~NyQ
}=
2~NS?~=|/ =B=Q}M&yN&N4
8! >}%~m- k =>v?>F}=Q~w|mN=/m=B2F=
~m}N ~m}>&>}Qy=N}~m N~m +FF ~m}>
}~mE~y/}y+ Z=>~yF ~??>F:Wg~m&m=}&B|mN
FNF}@=/mFg~mF ~M~mF
md =Wl=yc |/>=F}F&>}mM}yy|m(  ?S}%~ ch m}>=&WN B =&S}F~N==W %$S}~mFM=|-F+
>=|F ~m}r> =~m&l=|/BF+&    & /* ')( 1+/+-. , i Fd J=} l2FQWy|/N= 0$6  >~mN $ 
>~my 1 == ?==F:~m |m=y
~ 2  ===2
1
.   &Q $ 1  1
1
.  ===& 8 & >> 1 ==  C9C9C( C ?
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8 BW>}
~m- d }F  m=N}gg}~y&&AF-E=&Z=>FyN:~F}w=|/&y|~~=|m
N>Fl=m}>F= 
d >F~m}> c
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N d E2Fy|g=?m=Nj~mF ~&yNg~EZ~=|mN!}
 # >9  == d =NN =|N=-w/==
g&yNM}~y2B~=~m=m~=|/ =j}~y|/=42
~N
} >9  ==    C := C  
~NN=|S C : }=2
~NN
! W>}%~mS?> |m C}~S?  =F }v~y|/j=sm=}&|/ ~Ny4F ~m:~=|/ =|/N
F}|m 
N
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}|mNlF}>Fy|/=}F|/ ~=&N |/  ~m}Nl=|m=F=FEy=NE~mF>&>}~lFk N
g}~?Wy|lm==+m}j~mFg/=}FQ|mN
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~y|/=l}NNd%~m ~m}>4  d+n ! |mN2F}|mm}y|+~NE\F~QF}>&y|m=}&:|/ ~wy=
&=~MW&N/}|/ = =|F}>  NE&=~MWZ=22E=~m}>4


&n W>}
~m~=~m= k ~N==4m2F |mM==?F=>/}&lF=>=/&} }>&|ml&2=|s> |
}&2F}&&
f(t)

To/2

To/2

}>&|mg c j? =  ?>m}&g
 >J  A 8 7 ; 8
8%!dZW>}
~m-c l=y ~ >&|/}y|M~|/=F=|/_=#~m&F  m 
>|m>F ~m}> >&|/}y|M~|/=F=|/_|m=Wy|m~m}Ny&}~M}N=mw~y~mF ~
 )  m

 ) 
 8>   A 8 m   b A 8
 ) 
 2) %  m 0 2)  0  m j ;8  ! =) A8N
&y|/ .   A8>F~mF ~
 ) 

;8
 ! =) %  N ;8N 0  ! =)  0  N A8N
jF}~M}>}=N} }>&|/ 6>?y|mQ&=~=m=N~&|-NA~mF}y k } Fm~l~m&A=>4
yBW>n }%~m h m}& >&|/}y|~|/==|- =~mFS=%N=jF~mFSW?y|lWN~|/F &NFm}~ =
W> | c }&2&w)  =|Q=F %  =|%-F=|MN2F}F|/= g>&|/Q}~m> 
 ?j}%~ 6>:
 ) 

# %W ; 8  -)  %  8>)   1 0 8 1   '    - !  8N 0 & %4  8> !  8y  1 2) % !  8N 

&y|/  -N) 6} >&|/}y|~|/=F=|/q=4FMN=|s}~  8=) } >&|-}y|s~|/==|- =4F
Fd N=|Mc }~l+=F  8&   ;8
d >}F~m}>( -Nm %  8=m-F~m&N  -) %  8>)-&~m&N  )?|mNFFNM~
 ) 

# %W A 8   - )   1
C

0.7

0.6
Sum of sincs
0.5
Shifted 0.5/To left
Shifted 0.5/To left

Magnitude

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2
4

}>F|m* c   ! =)% 8 = f y~/F}~N-&   ! =)





Normalized Frequency (1/To)

0 8 =

}>
~ d F}~N-F=EmF_=#~m&N~ &

)
; 8   )  1
 ) ;8  =)%  N A8N 0  =) 0  N ;8y 1
!
A8 
!

8!dyW>}
~mc - >F>F:=y~m/v~m& d& =}&N
~m}~m&F|-~M
=F&}&~m 
>F~m}>
 )
/ - A8>  ) 1 +=F -s}s>}=N} }>&|m5
2 d ~m& -}6>}=NWN |/> }>&|/
}~M}&=~MF |/E~F:F|/m~2F=&}&~m+  ;8


0.45

0.4
G(f)
0.35

maginitude

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
4

1
0
1
Frequency normalized 1/To

}>&|/  c  ) 

8W>}%~m k =>> |mg> | n  }&+F}FQ~N/F}2&==  >/}&MM}~m~mF ~?=


m2F |mSF=
F ~?}>
~6W~m&S>/m}M=FJ=
~m =Nl=F}m=& =%~m =N?=F/}&QF=  >m}&
d F=&}:c ~y|/=@=&}&~m
W?y|M>&~m/}&=\F|/~l2FW=&}&~m%y~m 
>F~m}>
SZ=> y= yE|m> }>&|m C
~m&:F|/~Z
s=F&}F~m=S>/}&:Fm n  }B=|mN ~y|
1

0.9

0.8
Sinc(x)

0.7

Magnitude

0.6

0.5

0.4

G(f)

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
4

1
0
1
Frequencies normalized by 1/To

}>&|/C c ?> |-}>:=  )-=F> | n }~mEm2F |mF=


~mF=:m2F |mjFd+m n  F~? |mNZF&y|~mF  )s ~y|l~m&S|/~
FF=FF}&~m}N/s~mF=
m2F |mZF SF}/WB?=
~N}>+~NNWNy=FmZ}6=>~y|g~m&m}>=
~}~mMF|/~M2F=FF}&~m42~m&Q/}>F=4&2NM&=~
>~2BF/W?y|NF=}=>2F ~
~mF}/}>F= 4~m&y|/}@WZNmF}~=|/~m}>~&N}>
W=|/}&:m}>F=y i F>y=!W&Nm}|/ B}
~m&+WNF=\}F|mN=/}&Z=F&S}&~m4