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Stress and Health

BY: SONIA REAL, ELIZABETH CORONA AND TIMA MUSTAFA

Stress The physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors. Stressors Specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the persons well being. (Peer Pressures, Presentations, getting married, death of close family or friend etc.) Chronic Stressor - A source of stress that occurs continuously or repeatedly. Health Psychology The subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and the maintenance of health.

Environmental psychology Study of environmental effects on behavior and health.


Perceived Control Events are more stressful when you have no control and no way to deal with it.

General Adaptation Syndrome A 3 stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered. (Alarm reaction, resistance and exhaustion) Fight or flight An emergency and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action.

Immune system A complex response system that protects the body from bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances. Lymphocytes White blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection.

Type A Behavior The tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings.

PTSD A disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind. Burnout A state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation. Stress and Heart Disease Stress-activated arousal raises blood pressure and keeps it up.

Psychological Reactions
Primary Appraisal

The interpretation of a stimulus as stressful or not stressful. Determining if you can handle the stressor or not, having

Secondary Appraisal

control over the event.

Stress Management: Dealing With It

Mind Management: Stressful events are magnified in the mind. Repressive Coping: Avoiding situation that are reminder of the stress and maintain positive view point. Rational Coping: facing the stressor & working to overcome it.

Ex: fear of public speaking


Three steps of Rational Coping:


----Acceptance= to realize that the stress is real and cannot be wished away.

----Exposure= thinking about the stressor & even seeking it out.


----Understanding= working to find the meaning of the stressor.

Reframing: finding a new creative way to think about stressor that reduces it threat.

The Psychology of Illness: Disorders

Psychosomatic Illness: an interaction between mind & body that can produce illness. Exposure ways in which mind (psyche) can influence body(soma) & vice versa.

SOMATOFORM: THE PATIENT DISPLAYS PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS NOT FULLY EXPLAINED BY A GENERAL MEDICAL CONDITION.

HYPOCHONDRIASIS: A PERSON IS PREOCCUPIED WITH MINOR SYMPTOMS & DEVELOPS AN EXAGGERATED BELIEF THAT THE SYMPTOMS SIGNIFY A LIFE THREATENING ILLNESS.

Sick Role

Is a socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness. Exempt from normal activities The sick person is not responsible for their condition The sick person should try to get well

Rights
o o

Obligations
o

o
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Seek treatment
Main goal is to recover

Malingering
o o

People who fake sickness for some kind of gain. Or to get out of doing something Some do it to attract attention and sympathy

Examples Financial compensation, avoiding school, work or military service


How well the doctor listens and validates what the patient is saying. The doctor needs to understand the patients physical as well as psychological state. Make sure the patient follows prescription orders.

Patient practitioner interaction


o

Optimism

o o o

Optimistic people maintain a positive outlook, when theyre sick.


Optimists dont give up as easy as pessimists helps a person avoid negative emotions such as anxiety and depression. More likely to take their medicines, and recover faster

Stress Hardiness

People with hardiness can handle the challenges life throws at them better than others. Instead of giving up they see these challenges as opportunities.

Self-Regulation

putting off immediate gratification for longer term gains.

o
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Behaving in a way that will help make you the kind of person you would prefer to be.
It is more effective when it focuses, on what to do rather than what not to do. To control behavior successfully, we need to exercise self control on activities most harmful to health. Avoiding sexual risks
o Sexual risk takers have an illusion of unique vulnerability. This is the belief that they are less likely to suffer from a problem than others.

Eating wisely
o Studies show that dieting doesnt always work because the process of conscious self- regulation can be easily undermined by stress.

Not smoking
o The urge of smoking decreases and smokers are less likely to relapse the longer they been away from nicotine.