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Cng ngh truy nhp trong NGN

TRNG I HC GIAO THNG VN TI KHOA IN - IN T B MN K THUT VIN THNG ------------

TI LIU THAM KHO

CC CNG NGH TRUY NHP

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Locality

H NI - 2012

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MC LC
MC LC ....................................................................................................................... ii DANH MC HNH V.....................................................................................................i DANH MC BNG BIU ............................................................................................ iii T VIT TT .................................................................................................................iv PHN I: GII THIU CHUNG ....................................................................................... 1 Chng 1: Pht trin ca mng vin thng v phng thc truy truy nhp ....................... 1 1.1 Cc th h mng truy nhp v mng vin thng tng ng ..................................... 1 1.1.1 Mng NGN v cc cng ngh truy nhp ........................................................... 1 1.1.2 Nhng giai on pht trin ca mng truy nhp ................................................ 2 1.2 Cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn ............................................................................... 5 1.3 Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn ................................................................................. 5 1.4 Nhng cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn cnh tranh................................................... 5 1.4.1 Cng ngh PLC ................................................................................................ 5 1.4.2 Cng ngh CM (CATV) ................................................................................... 7 1.5 So snh v nh gi cc cng ngh truy nhp ..........Error! Bookmark not defined. PHN II: CNG NGH TRUY NHP HU TUYN .................................................... 9 Chng 2: H cng ngh xDSL ........................................................................................ 9 2.1 Cng ngh trong h xDSL ...................................................................................... 9 2.2 Kin trc h thng ................................................................................................. 13 2.2.1 Thit b nh cung cp dch v kt ni ............................................................. 14 2.2.2 Pha khch hng ............................................................................................. 14 2.2.3 Mch vng thu bao ....................................................................................... 14 2.3 ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+ ..................................................................................... 15 2.3.1 ADSL ............................................................................................................. 15 2.3.1.1 K thut iu ch ..................................................................................... 15 2.3.1.2 K thut truyn dn song cng ................................................................ 16 2.3.1.3 Nguyn l thu pht .................................................................................. 19 2.3.2 ADSL2 ........................................................................................................... 20 2.3.2.1 Gii thiu chung ...................................................................................... 20 2.3.2.2 Cc tnh nng lin quan n ng dng ..................................................... 21 2.3.2.3 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMS-TC ...................................................... 21 2.3.2.4 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMD ........................................................... 22 2.3.3 ADSL2+ ......................................................................................................... 23 2.3.3.1 Gii thiu chung ...................................................................................... 23 2.3.3.2 M rng bng tn .................................................................................... 24 2.3.3.3 Ghp t tc cao hn...................................................................... 25 2.3.3.4 Mt s tnh nng khc ca ADSL2+ ........................................................ 26 2.4 HDSL, HDSL2,SHDSL, HDSL4 .......................................................................... 27 2.4.1 HDSL ............................................................................................................. 27 2.4.1.1 HDSL nguyn bn ................................................................................... 27 2.4.1.2 Kh nng v ng dng HDSL .................................................................. 27 2.4.1.3 Truyn dn HDSL ................................................................................... 28
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2.4.2 HDSL th h th hai (HDSL2) ....................................................................... 28 2.4.3 SHDSL........................................................................................................... 29 2.4.4 HDSL4 ........................................................................................................... 29 2.5 VDSL v VDSL2 .................................................................................................. 29 2.5.1 VDSL ............................................................................................................. 29 2.5.2 VDSL2 ........................................................................................................... 31 2.6 Tnh hnh trin khai ti Vitnam ............................................................................ 32 Chng 3: Cng ngh truy nhp quang .......................................................................... 33 3.1 Cc mng PON ..................................................................................................... 33 3.2 APON ................................................................................................................... 36 3.2.1 Cu hnh tham chiu ....................................................................................... 36 3.2.1.1 OLT ........................................................................................................ 37 3.2.1.2 ONU........................................................................................................ 38 3.2.1.3 ODN........................................................................................................ 39 3.2.2 Cc c t cho APON ..................................................................................... 40 3.2.3 Cu trc phn lp APON ................................................................................ 41 3.2.3.1 Lp vt l ................................................................................................ 42 3.2.3.2 Lp hi t truyn dn TC ........................................................................ 42 3.3 EPON ................................................................................................................... 42 3.3.1 Kin trc EPON ............................................................................................. 42 3.3.2 M hnh ngn xp EPON................................................................................ 43 3.3.3 Giao thc EPON. ........................................................................................... 44 3.3.4 Bo mt trong EPON ...................................................................................... 44 3.3.5 Nhng bc pht trin tip theo ..................................................................... 45 3.4 Metro Ethernet ...................................................................................................... 46 3.4.1 Li ch khi dng dch v Ethernet ................................................................... 46 3.4.1.1 Tnh d s dng ....................................................................................... 46 3.4.1.2 Hiu qu v chi ph .................................................................................. 46 3.4.1.3 Tnh linh hot .......................................................................................... 47 3.4.2 M hnh dch v Ethernet ............................................................................... 47 3.4.2.1 Kt ni Ethernet o .................................................................................. 47 3.4.2.2 Khun kh nh ngha dch v Ethernet. .................................................. 48 3.4.3 Cc thuc tnh dch v Ethernet ...................................................................... 50 3.4.3.1 Ghp dch v ........................................................................................... 50 3.4.3.2 Gp nhm................................................................................................ 50 3.4.3.3 c tnh bng thng................................................................................. 50 3.4.3.4 Thng s hiu nng ................................................................................. 51 3.4.3.5 Vn an ninh mng (Network security) ................................................. 51 3.4.4 Tnh hnh trin khai ........................................................................................ 51 3.4.5 Nhng cng ngh c s dng ..................................................................... 54 3.4.5.1 Truyn ti Metro Ethernet qua SONET/SDH ........................................... 54 3.4.5.2 RPR ......................................................................................................... 54 PHN III: CNG NGH TRUY NHP V TUYN .................................................... 56 Chng 4: Cc mng truy nhp khng dy bng rng ..................................................... 57 4.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................... 57
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4.2 Pht trin ca truy nhp v tuyn hi t n 4G ................................................... 58 4.2.1 H thng thng tin di ng 2G v nn tn g CDMA ........................................ 59 4.2.1.1 GSM ........................................................................................................ 59 4.2.1.2 IS-95 ....................................................................................................... 60 4.2.1.3 GPRS ...................................................................................................... 61 4.2.2 H thng 3G ................................................................................................... 61 4.2.2.1 IMT-2000 ................................................................................................ 61 4.2.2.2 GPP2 & cdma2000 .................................................................................. 62 4.2.3 WLAN ........................................................................................................... 63 4.2.4 Wimax ........................................................................................................... 64 4.2.5 H thng 4G ................................................................................................... 65 4.3 So snh nh gi cc cng ngh ............................................................................ 65 Chng 5: Truy nhp qua v tinh .................................................................................... 67 5.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................... 67 5.2 H thng VSAT .................................................................................................... 69 Chng 6: WLAN v WI-FI ........................................................................................... 70 6.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................... 70 6.2 Kin trc WLAN................................................................................................... 70 6.2.1 Cu hnh mng WLAN ................................................................................... 70 6.2.1.1 Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp ................................................................ 71 6.2.1.2 Cu hnh mng WLAN c s................................................................... 71 6.2.1.3 Kin trc y ca WLAN ................................................................... 72 6.2.2 M hnh tham chiu c bn IEEE 802.11 ...................................................... 73 6.3 Chun cng ngh................................................................................................... 74 6.4 H thng thit b ................................................................................................... 77 6.4.1 Cc card giao din mng v tuyn .................................................................. 77 6.4.2 Cc im truy nhp v tuyn .......................................................................... 77 6.4.3 Cu ni v tuyn t xa.................................................................................... 78 6.5 Bo mt................................................................................................................. 79 6.5.1 Tp dch v ID (SSID) ................................................................................... 79 6.5.2 Giao thc bo mt tng ng hu tuyn (WEP) ......................................... 80 6.5.3 Lc a ch MAC ............................................................................................ 81 6.6 Tnh hnh trin khai ti Vitnam ............................................................................ 82 7.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................... 83 7.1.1 Lch s Wimax ............................................................................................... 83 7.1.2 Khi nim Wimax .......................................................................................... 84 7.1.3 Bng tn ......................................................................................................... 84 7.2 Kin trc Wimax ................................................................................................... 85 7.2.1 Cu hnh mng ............................................................................................... 85 7.2.1.1 Cu hnh mng im- a im (PMP) ...................................................... 85 7.2.1.2 Cu hnh mt li MESH ........................................................................ 85 7.2.2 M hnh phn lp ........................................................................................... 86 7.3 Chun cng ngh................................................................................................... 87 7.3.1 Chun 802.16-2001 ........................................................................................ 88 7.3.2 Chun 802.16a-2003 ...................................................................................... 89
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7.3.3 Chun 802.16c-2002 ...................................................................................... 89 7.3.4 Chun 802.16d-2004 ...................................................................................... 89 7.3.5 Chun 802.16e-2005 ...................................................................................... 90 7.4 Mt s c im k thut ca Wimax ................................................................... 90 7.4.1 Lp vt l ....................................................................................................... 90 7.4.1.1 Khi nim OFDM .................................................................................... 91 7.4.1.2 OFDMA cho lp vt l v tuyn MAN -OFDMA .................................... 92 7.4.1.3 SOFDMA theo t l (S-OFDMA)............................................................ 92 7.4.1.4 Knh con ha........................................................................................... 93 7.4.2 Lp MAC ....................................................................................................... 94 7.5 H thng thit b ................................................................................................... 96 7.6 Bo mt............................................................................................................... 100 7.7 Tnh hnh trin khai ti Vitnam .......................................................................... 100

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DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1.1: Mng th h sau v cc cng ngh truy nhp ..................................................... 2 Hnh 1.2: S ra i ca cc dng thit b truy nhp. .......................................................... 3 Hnh 1.3: Thit b DLC th h 3. ....................................................................................... 4 Hnh 1.4: Thit b truy nhp IP cho mng th h sau. ........................................................ 5 Hnh 2.1: Lch s pht trin ca cc cng ngh trong h xDSL ......................................... 9 Hnh 2.2: B cung cp mch vng thu bao s xDSL...................................................... 13 Hnh 2.3: Cu trc h thng ADSL. ................................................................................ 14 Hnh 2.4: ADSL s dng v khng s dng k thut trit ting vng .............................. 16 Hnh 2.5: Phn chia bng tn ca k thut FDM .............................................................. 17 Hnh 2.6: Phn chia bng tn ca k thut EC ................................................................. 18 Hnh 2.7 Phn tch tn hiu ln, xung bng phng php kh ting vng ..................... 18 Hnh 2.8 : S khi thu v pht ADSL ......................................................................... 19 Hnh 2.9: Tc s liu ng xung ca ADSL2+ so vi ADSL2 ............................... 25 Hnh 2.10: Ghp hai ng ADSL2+.............................................................................. 26 Hnh 2.11: Kh nng cung cp dch v ca k thut VDSL ............................................. 30 Hnh 2.12: Tnh hnh trin khai xDSL ti Vit nam ca VNPT ....................................... 32 Hnh 3.1: S logic h thng mng PON ..................................................................... 34 Hnh 3.2: Cu hnh chung ca mt mng PON ................................................................ 36 Hnh 3.3: Cu hnh tham chiu APON ............................................................................ 36 Hnh 3.4: Cc khi chc nng trong OLT ....................................................................... 37 Hnh 3.5: Cc khi chc nng trong ONU ...................................................................... 38 Hnh 3.6: Cu hnh vt l ca ODN ................................................................................ 40 Hnh 3.7: Cu trc phn lp mng APON ....................................................................... 41 Hnh 3.8: Ngn xp EPON. ............................................................................................. 44 Hnh 3.9 Mng MAN th nghip ti thnh ph H Ch Minh ......................................... 51 Hnh 3.10 Mng MAN ti Ninh Bnh .............................................................................. 53 Hnh 4.1 : Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn .................................................................. 57 Hnh 4.2: Xu hng hi t ca cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn ......................................... 58 Hnh 4.3: Mc lch s ca truy nhp v tuyn ................................................................. 59 Hnh 4.4: S pht trin ln 4G t cc cng ngh WAN ................................................... 59 Hnh 4.5: H thng IMT 2000 ......................................................................................... 61 Hnh 4.6 : Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn cnh tranh ................................................ 66 Hnh 5.1 in thoi di ng Iridium ............................................................................... 68 Hnh 6.1 Qu trnh pht trin WLAN. ............................................................................. 70 Hnh 6.2: Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp. ...................................................................... 71 Hnh 6.3 Cu hnh mng WLAN c s. .......................................................................... 72 Hnh 6.4: Cu hnh WLAN dng b lp. ........................................................................ 72 Hnh 6.5: Kin trc WLAN y . ................................................................................ 73 Hnh 6.8: M hnh tham chiu c bn IEEE 802.11. ...................................................... 74 Hnh 6.6: M hnh tham chiu. ....................................................................................... 76 Hnh 6.9: im truy nhp AP.......................................................................................... 78 Hnh 6.10: Cu ni v tuyn. .......................................................................................... 79
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Hnh 7.1: Cu hnh im-a im (PMP) ........................................................................ 85 Hnh 7.2: Cu hnh mt li MESH ................................................................................ 86 Hnh 7.3: Cc phn lp giao thc Wimax cho hai lp cui cng ..................................... 87 Hnh 7.4: V tr ca chun IEEE 802.16 trong cu trc chun IEEE 802 ......................... 88 Hnh 7.5: Qu trnh truyn dn........................................................................................ 90 Hnh 7.6: OFDM vi 9 sng mang con ........................................................................... 92 Hnh 7.7: n nh khe thi gian trong OFDM ................................................................. 94 Hnh 7.8: Phn lp MAC v cc chc nng .................................................................... 95

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DANH MC BNG BIU


Bng 2.1: Cc cng ngh trong h xDSL. ....................................................................... 11 Bng 2.2: Tc khong cch cc loi VDSL ................................................................ 30 Bng 7.1: Cc tham s ca SOFDMA ............................................................................. 93 Bng 7.2: Thng hiu ca cc nh cung cp thit b Wimax ......................................... 96

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T VIT TT
T VIT TT ADC AAA AAS ACK ADSL AES AK AMC ANSI APON ARQ ASN ATM ATM ATP AWGN BE BER B-ISDN BPSK BR B-RAS BS BSN BTC BW NGHA TING ANH Analog-to-Digital Converter Authentication, authorization and Account Adaptive Antenna System Acknowledgment Asymmetric Digital Subcriber Line Advance Ecryption Standard Authorization Key Adaptive Modulation and Coding American National Standards Institute ATM Passive Optical Network Automatic Retransmission Request Access Service Network Asynchronuos Transfer Mode Asynchronous Transfer Mode Access Termination Point Additive White Gauussian Noise Best Effort Bit Error Ratio B-Inergrated Service Digital Network Binary Phase shift Keying Bandwidth Request BroadBand Remote Access Server Base Station Block Sequence Number Block Turbo Code Bandwidth NGHA TING VIT Bin i s tng t Nhn thc, cp php v lp ti khon H thng anten thch ng Xc nhn ng dy thu bao s bt i xng Chun mt m nng cao Kha nhn thc iu ch v m ha thch ng Vin Quc Gia M Mng quang th ng truyn dn khng ng b Yu cu truyn li t ng Mng dch v truy nhp Phng thc truyn dn khng ng b Phng thc truyn khng ng b im tham chiu u cui truy nhp Nhiu Gauss trng cng Dch v n lc tt nht T s tn hiu trn nhiu Mng s cc dch v tch hp bng rng Kha chuyn pha nh phn Yu cu bng thng My ch truy nhp bng rng t xa Trm gc S th t khi M Turbo khi Bng thng
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BWA C/I CA CAP CBC CC CCI CCK CDMA CDMA CID CO CP CPE CPE CPS CRC CS CSMA CSN CTC DAMA DCD DCF DES DFE DFS DFT DHCP DL DLFP DMT DSA DSC

Broadband Wireless Access Carrier to Interference Ratio Collision Avoidance Carrierless Amplitude and Phase modulation Cipher Block Chaining Confirmation Code Co-Channel Interference Complementary Coded Keying Code Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple Access Connection Identifier Central Office Cyclic Prefix Customer Premises Equipment Customer Premises Equipment Common Part Sublayer Cyclic Redundancy Check Convergence Sublayer Carrier Sense Multiple Access Connection Service Network Concatenated Turbo Code Demand Assigned Multiple Access Downlink Channel Descriptor Distributed Control Function Data Encryption Standard Decision Feedback Equalization Dynamic Frequence Selecton Discrete Fourier Transform Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Downlink Downlink Frame Preamble Discrete Multiple Tone Modulation Dynamic Services Addition Dynamic Services Change

Truy nhp khng dy bng rng T s tn hiu/ nhiu Trnh xung t iu ch bin pha khng sng mang Chui khi m ha M xc nhn Nhiu knh lin kt Kha m ha b sung a truy nhp phn chia theo m a truy nhp phn chia theo m Nhn dng kt ni Trung tm chuyn mch Tin t tun hon Thit b truyn thng c nhn Thit b truyn thng c nhn Lp con phn chung Kim tra d vng tun hon Lp con hi t a truy nhp cm nhn sng mang Mng dch v kt ni M Turbo xon a truy nhp n nh theo nhu cu Miu t knh ng xung Chc nng iu khin phn tn Chun mt m ha d liu Phn on hi tip quyt nh La chn tn s ng Bin i Fourier ri rc Giao thc cu hnh Host ng ng xung Tin t khung ng xung iu ch a tn ri rc B sung cc dch v ng Chuyn i cc dch v ng

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DSL DSLAM EAP EC ECB EDCA EDGE EKS ETSI ETSI EV-DO Ex FBSS FCH FDD FDD FDM FEC FEC FEXT FFT FFT FSAN FSH FTTC/B FTTCab FTTEx FTTH GMS GPC GPRS

Digital Subcriber Line DSL Access Module Extensible Authentication Protocol Encryption Control Electronic Code Book Enhanced Distributed Control Access Enhanced Data Rates Encryption Key Sequence European Technical Standards Institute European Telecommunications Standards Institute Enhanced Version- Data Only Exchange Fast Base Station Switch Frame Control Header Frequency Division Duplexing Frequence Division Duplex Frequence Division Mutiplexing Forward Error Correction Forward Error Crrection Far-End Crosstalk Fast Fourier Transform Fast Fourier Transform Full Service Access Network Fragmentation Subheader Fiber To The Curb/Building Fiber To The Cabinet Fiber To The Exchage Fiber To The Home Global System for communication Grant Per Connection Generalized Packet Radio Service

ng dy thu bao s Khi truy nhp DSL Giao thc nhn thc m rng iu khin mt m ha Sch m in t Truy nhp iu khin phn tn nng cao Cc tc d liu c nng cp Chui kha mt m Vin Chun k thut Chu u Vin cc chun vin thng Chu u Ch d liu-phin bn nng cao Tng i Chuyn mch trm gc nhanh Tiu iu khin khung Song cng phn chia theo tn s Song cng phn chia theo tn s Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s Sa li trc Hiu chnh li trc Xuyn m u xa Bin i Fourier nhanh Chuyn i Fourier nhanh T chc iu hnh mng truy nhp dch vu y Tiu con phn on Cp quang ti khu vc/cao c Cp quang n t phn phi Cp quang ti tng i Cp quang ti nh H thng truyn thng di ng ton cu Cp pht trn mi trm gc Dch v v tuyn gi chung

Mobile

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GPSS GSM HARQ HCS HFC HHO HSDPA HSUPA HT IDFT IEEE IFFT IMT IP IP ISDN ISI ISM ISP KEK LAN LMDS LOS LPF LSB MAC MAN MDHO MIMO MIP

Grant Per Subscriber Station Global System For Mobile Communicatons Hybrid Automatic Retransmission Request Header Check Sequence Hybrid Fiber Coaxial Hard HandOver High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Uplink Packet Access Header Type Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Inverse Fast Fourier Transform International Mobile T elecommunications Internet Protocol Internet Protocol Integrated Services Digital Network Inter-Symbol Interference Industrial Scientific and Medical Internet Service Provider Key Encryption Key Local Area Network Line Of Sight Low Pass Filter Least Significant Bit Medium Access Control Metropolitan Area Network Marco Diversity Handover Multiple Input Multiple Output Mobile Internet Protocol

Cp pht trn mi trm thu bao H thng ton cu cho truyn thng di ng Yu cu truyn li t ng kt hp Th t kim tra tiu Mng lai cp quang cp ng trc Chuyn giao cng Truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao Loi tiu Bin i ngc Fourier ri rc Vin cc k s in v in t Bin i fourier ngc nhanh Vin thng di ng quc t Giao thc Internet Giao thc lin mng Mng s a dch v Nhiu gia cc Symbol Cng nghip khoa hc v ha hc Nh cung cp dch v Internet Kha mt m kha Mng vng cc b Phn phi dch v ni ht Tm nhn thng B lc thng thp Bt t ngha nht iu khin truy nhp phng tin Mng vng thnh th Chuyn giao a dng bng Marco Nhiu u vo nhiu u ra Giao thc Internet di ng

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MISO MMDS MPLS MRC MS MSB NACK NAP NEXT NGN NLOS NTE OFDM OFDMA OLT ONU PAN PCF PDA PDU PHS PKM PLMN PLOAM PMD PMP PMS PN PON POTS PPP PS

Multiple Input Single Output Multi Protocol Label Switching Maximum Ratio Combining Mobile Station Most Significant Bit Non-ACK Network Access Provider Near-End Crosstalk Next Generation Network Non Line Of Sight Network Termination Equipment Orthogonal Frequence Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequence Division Multiple Access Optical Line Terminal Optical Network Unit Personal Area Network Point Control Function Personal Digital Assistant Protocol Data Unit Payload Header Suppression Privacy Key Management Public Land Mobile Network cng Physical Layer Operation Management Physical Medium Dependent Point to Multipoint Physical Medium Specific Packet Number Passive Optical Network Plain Old Teliphone Service Point to Point Protocol Physical Slot and

Nhiu u vo mt u ra Phn phi dch v a knh a im Giao thc chuyn mch nhn n gin Kt hp t s cc i Trm di ng Bt ngha nht Khng xc nhn Nh cung cp truy nhp mng Xuyn m u gn Mng k tip Khng tm nhn thng Thit b u cui mng Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao u cui ng dy quang n v mng quang Mng c nhn Chc nng iu khin im H tr c nhn dng k thut s n v d liu giao thc Nn tiu ti trng Qun l kha bo mt Mng di ng mt t cng Qun l v hot ng ca tng vt l Mi trng vt l ph thuc im-a im c tnh mi trng vt l S gi Mng quang th ng Dch v truyn thng Giao thc im-im Khe vt l

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PSCN PSD PSH PSTN PTP QAM QPSK RAN REQ RFI RLC RS RTG Rx SA SAID SAP SDH SDU SHA SN SNR SOFDMA SOHO SONET SS SSCS STC STM TC TDD

Packet Switched Core Network Power Spectral Density Packing Subheader Public Switch Telephone Network Point to Point Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadratura Phase Shift Keying Region Area Netwwork Request Radio Frequency Interference Radio Link Controller Reed-Solomon Receive Transition Gap Receiver Security Association Security Association Identifier Service Access Point Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Data Unit Secure Hash Algorithm Service Node Signal to Noise Ratio Scalable Orthogonal Frequence Division Multiple Access Small Office Home Office Synchronous Optical Network Subscriber Station Specify ServicesConvergence Sublayer Space Time Code Synchronuos Transfer Mode Transmission Convergence Time Division Duplex theo thi gian

Mng li chuyn mch gi Mt ph cng sut Tiu con gi Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng im-im iu ch bin cu phng Kha chuyn pha cu phng Mng vng a phng Yu cu Nhiu tn s v tuyn B iu khin lin kt v tuyn M Reed-Solomon Khong trng chuyn giao u thu u thu Kt hp bo mt Nhn dng kt hp bo mt im truy nhp dch v H thng phn cp k thut s ng b n v d liu dch v Thut ton xo trn bo mt Node dch v T s tn hiu trn nhiu Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao theo t l Vn phng gia nh vn phng nh Chun xc nh truyn thng trn cp quang Trm thu bao Lp con hi t cc dch v ring M khng gian thi gian Trng chuyn mch ng b Lp hi t truyn dn Song cng phn chia

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TDM TDMA TDMA TE TEK TFTP TLS TLV Tx UCD UGS UL UMTS UMTS UTRA UNI UTRAN VoIP VTU VTU-O VTU-R WAN WDM WEP Wi-Fi WLAN WMAN WME

Time Division Multiplexing theo thi gian Time Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiplexing Access Termination Equipment Traffic Encryption Key Trivial File Transfer Protocol Transport Layer Security Type/Length/Value Transmiter Uplink Channel Descriptor Unsolicited Grant Service Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS terrestrial Radio Access User Network Interface UMTS terrestrial Radio Access Network Voice Over IP VDSL Transmission Unit VDSL Transmission Unit CO VDSL Transmission Unit Remote Wide Area Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wired Equivalent Privacy Wireless Fidelity Wireless LAN Wireless MAN Wi-Fi Mutlimedia Extensions

Ghp knh phn chia a truy nhp phn chia theo m a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian Thit b u cui Kha mt m lu lng Giao thc truyn tp thng thng Bo mt lp truyn ti Loi/ di/ Gi tr u pht Miu t knh ng ln Dch v cp pht khng kt hp ng ln H thng vin thng di ng ton cu Truy nhp v tuyn trn mt t Giao din ngi dng mng Mng truy nhp v tuyn trn mt t UMTS Thoi qua IP Khi truyn dn VDSL Khi truyn dn VDSL pha tng i Khi truyn dn VDSL pha thu bao xa Network mng din rng Ghp knh a bc sng Bo mt ng lng hu tuyn Mng LAN khng dy Mng MAN khng dy Nhng m rng a phng tin Wi-Fi

WPA

Wi-Fi Protected Access

Truy nhp c bo v Wi-Fi

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xDSL XOR

Digital Subcriber Line Exclusive-OR

H cng ngh DSL Hm cng modul

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PHN I: GII THIU CHUNG Chng 1: Pht trin ca mng vin thng v phng thc truy truy nhp
1.1 Cc th h mng truy nhp v mng vin thng tng ng
1.1.1 Mng NGN v cc cng ngh truy nhp

nh ngha NGN Mng vin thng th h mi c nhiu cch gi khc nhau nh Mng a dch v, Mng hi t, Mng phn phi hay mng nhiu lp. Cho ti nay cc t chc v cc nh cung cp thit b vin thng trn th gii rt quan tm n NGN nhng vn cha c mt nh ngha r rng. Do vy ta ch c th tm nh ngha NGN nh sau: NGN l mng c h tng thng tin duy nht da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, trin khai cc dch v mt cch a dng v nhanh chng, l s hi t gia thoi v d liu, gia c nh v di ng. c im NGN NGN c 4 c im chnh: Nn tng l h thng m. NGN l do mng dch v thc y nhng cc dch v trn NGN phi c lp vi mng li. NGN l mng chuyn mch gi da trn mt giao thc thng nht. L mng c dung lng ngy cng tng, c tnh thch ng ngy cng tng v c dung lng p ng nhu cu. Trong NGN giao thc IP thc t tr thnh giao thc ng dng vn nng c p dng lm c s cho mng a dch v. Hin ti mc d vn cn gp nhiu kh khn so vi mng chuyn mch knh v kh nng h tr lu lng thoi v cung cp cht lng dch v m bo cho s liu, nhng vi tc thay i nhanh chng nhiu cng ngh mi ang c p dng s sm khc phc iu ny trong tng lai gn. Cc cng ngh truy nhp v mng NGN Nh trong hnh 1.1 kt ni ngi dng vo mng NGN ngi ta c th s dng mt cng ngh hoc c th kt hp mt vi cng ngh khc nhau to ra hng lot nhng phng thc kt ni khc nhau. Nhng cng ngh kt ni hin nay ang c s dng ph bin bao gm : V tuyn (GSM, 3G, 4G, WLAN, WMAN) Hu tuyn xDSL, PON, CATV, PLC

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Hnh 1.1: Mng th h sau v cc cng ngh truy nhp Tuy nhin, t c cu trc nh mong mun trn hnh 1.1 th mng truy nhp ni ring v mng vin thng ni chung phi tri qua nhng giai on qu vi nhiu trng thi khc nhau tng ng vi nhng xut pht im (mng truyn s liu, thoi truyn thng PSTN, mng di ng, mng di ng ni ht) v gii php s dng khc nhau. Chng ta c th tng kt li (nhn t hng pht trin t mng PSTN) nhng th h ca mng truy nhp nh trong mc sau.
1.1.2 Nhng giai on pht trin ca mng truy nhp

Hnh 1.2 cho chng ta thy tin trnh pht trin ca cc thit b truy nhp trong mng Vin Thng. Dng thit b h tr dch v bng rng u tin v c tch hp pha thu bao l DLC th h 3 hay NDLC ra i vo nhng nm cui th k 20. Thit b ny c nhiu im tng ng vi ATM DSLAM do cng s dng mt cng ngh v kin trc tng t nhau ( hiu thm v DLC xem ph lc A). NDLC th u ni v phi hp hot ng vi nhau to thnh mt mng ATM din rng thng nht, chuyn mch gi vi bng thng tng i ln cho php cung cp cc dch v d liu mt cch tng i mm do (Hnh 1.3). c tnh ca dng thit b ny nh sau: Cung cp gii php truy nhp bng rng tm thi qua mng li ATM. S dng cng ngh xDSL truy nhp d liu tc cao. Chun V5.x giao din vi mng PSTN. Kt ni ATM vi mng ng trc hay qua mng IP. H tr cc dch v thoi/fax, ISDN v d liu bng rng.
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Truy nhp IP

Cui thp k 90

NGDLC

Gia thp k 90

V5 DLC

Nm 1970

1-2G DLC

Nm 1890

Cp ng

Hnh 1.2: S ra i ca cc dng thit b truy nhp. Tuy nhin dng thit b ny c mt s nhc im sau: Bng thng v dung lng hn ch. Nt c chai trong vng ring truy nhp nu phn ln cc thu bao u s dng dch v xDSL v nt c chai trong mng li ATM. Kh m rng dung lng. Kin trc phc tp, qua nhiu lp (Ip qua ATM qua SDH/DSL). Gi thnh v chi ph tng i cao. Sau DLC th h 3 l dng thit b truy nhp IP hay IP-DSLAM. y l dng thu bao truy nhp tin tin nht hi t nhiu cng ngh nn tng trong mng th h sau NGN. Dng thit b ny chy trn nn tng mng IP, IP-AN vi nhng c im sau: Bng thng/ Dung lng hu nh khng hn ch (Trn thc t hu nh khng tc nghn vi bng thng trong khong 1-10Gbps). Truy nhp bng rng IP. D dng m rng v tch hp vi mng NGN (Trn nn mng chuyn mch mm). Cung cp tt c cc dch v qua mt mng Ip duy nht mc d h thng ny vn h tr cc u cui tng t truyn thng. Thit b ny phi hp hot ng vi mng IP qua media gateway. Gi thnh tnh cho tng thu bao v chi ph vn hnh mng thp. Kin trc n gin( IP over SDH)

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PSTN DLC EX EX DLC

ATM

B-RAS

Cp quang Trung k Cp ng MDF IP

Hnh 1.3: Thit b DLC th h 3. Trong giai on qu hin nay, vic u t vo mng truy nhp mang li hiu qu v mt kinh t v k thut th ngoi gii php ko thm cp ng n khu vc thu bao cn c cch s dng cc thit b truy nhp, quang ha mng truy nhp v tn dng ti a nhng cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn, hn na ph hp vi xu th tt yu l tin t mng PSTN ln mng NGN khi m mng ni ht cha sn sng h tr cc thit b truy nhp IP tin tin nht th cn phi c dng thit b truy nhp p ng tt c cc yu cu sau: H tr cc giao din PSTN truyn thng, cc u cui analog. C kh nng cung cp cc dch v bng rng v cc dch v mi khc. H tr bo hiu V5.x v c th kt ni ti cc tng i ni ht ang s dng (Tc l lm vic nh l thit b DLC). D dng nng cp, tch hp khi chuyn sang mng NGN. m bo thi gian trin khai v chi ph pht thin thu bao khng qu cao.

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PSTN POTS/PSTN My T IP Gateway

IP hay MPLS xDSL Gateway truy nhp

Chuyn mch mm

IP hay MPLS switch-router

Hnh 1.4: Thit b truy nhp IP cho mng th h sau.

1.2 Cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn


Hin nay trn th trng nhng nh khai thc vi c s h tng khc nhau a ra nhng dch v truy nhp da trn cng ngh khc nhau : Dial up, xDSL, ISDN da trn cp ng xon CM trn mng cp truyn hnh CATV PLC trn mng cp in lc Truy nhp quang trn CATV, PLC Tuy nhin xt v tnh kinh t cng nh s n nh v gii php k thut h cng ngh xDSL vn l gii php hp l trong vng 5 nm ti.

1.3 Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn


Vi s xut hin ca Wimax, cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn cho thy s hi t mt cch r rng, v mng truy nhp v tuyn s tin ti cung cp dch v kt ni c tc cao hn, v s c s tha hip gia tnh di ng v tc (QoS)

1.4 Nhng cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn cnh tranh


1.4.1 Cng ngh PLC

Vic s dng mng li phn phi in cho mc ch truyn thng c bit n t nhng nm u ca th k 20. Bng cch s dng phng thc iu ch kho bt tt (turn on-turn off carrier) cc h thng PLC u tin c s dng cho vic truyn thng ni b nhm thc hin nhim v iu khin v o c t xa. Nhng cc h thng ny tc truyn tin rt thp. Ngy nay vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca cng ngh, c bit l cng ngh sn xut vi mch tch hp cho tng ng dng c bit ASIC
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(Application Specific Integrated Circiut) cho php PLC c nhng bc pht trin nhy vt v tr thnh mt trong nhng cng ngh truy nhp bng rng, tc cao y ha hn. Trong mt vi nm gn y cng ngh PLC ang pht trin mnh m do nhng nguyn nhn sau: Nhu cu truy nhp Internet bng thng rng ang bng n. Trong khi cc cng ngh truy nhp bng thng rng khc v cc l do khc nhau cha p ng c. Mng li in h th sn c khp ni, di tn trn ng dy in cha c s dng ht. i vi cc nh khai thc vin thng mi vic xy dng mng truy nhp cung cp dch v trc tip ti khch hng i hi chi ph ln v tn nhiu thi gian, cng sc . Trong thc t cc hot ng chun ho h thng truyn thng tc cao PLC ang c tin hnh rt nhiu quc gia, hng lot h thng PLC tc cao v ang c cn nhc thnh sn phm thng mi. Ti mi h gia nh, c rt nhiu thit b s liu v thit b in s dng cc cm in, do khng cn phi bn ci nhiu v kh nng truyn thng a nng bng vic s dng cc cm in gia cc thit b in v s liu. Khng ging nh cc h thng LAN hng ngoi hoc v tuyn, cc thit b u cui PLC c n nh kt ni cao thm ch khi cp in c chn trong tng nh. Hn na, mt u im i vi vi mng gia nh l PLC cung cp kh nng kt ni ti mng truy nhp, y l mt tnh nng hp dn ca PLC khi n tha mn cc nhu cu v tc s liu. Thng thng, mng truy nhp ni ht hay on kt ni cui cng n thu bao l phn chi ph tn km nht cho mt h thng truyn thng. Do nhng c im hp dn nu trn, PLC nhn c s quan tm ht sc c bit ca cc nc Chu u, Bc M, Nht v gn y l mt s nc Chu khc. Chu u, trong nhng nm gn y c kh nhiu cuc th nghim mng truy nhp v mng gia nh s dng cng ngh PLC. Trong nm 1999, ETSI cng t ra mt d n mang tn EP PLT (ETSI Project Powerline Telecommunication) pht trin cc tiu chun v cc c t k thut cho h thng PLC. Thng 3 nm 2000, ti Thu S, din n PLC c thit lp nhm mc tiu lin kt cc thnh vin quan tm n cng ngh PLC bao gm 51 thnh vin ti 17 quc gia v 3 lc a. Ti Bc M, lin minh cng nghip Bc M thit lp mt t chc c tn l HomePlug nhm thc hin mc tiu cung cp mt din n to ra cc c t m cho pht trin h thng PLC cho cc sn phm v mng truy nhp tc cao, mng gia nh s dng cng ngh PLC. Hai lnh vc ng dng hin nay ca PLC l truy nhp ni ht (last- mile access) v kt ni mng trong nh (in- house

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networking). Cc dch v ca PLC c th c cung cp m bo lun sn sng ti mi in v khng cn thi cng cp bao gm: Truy nhp Internet bng thng rng (ti 45Mbs hoc hn ), cc kt ni ny lun online. Dch v thoi v fax. Kt ni LAN trong nh (in-house LAN) cho cc my PC v my in. Cc dch v bng hp khc ( house automation, health care.. .). Cn c vo dung lng cung cp v cu hnh s dng m ta c th phn loi cng ngh PLC. Xt bng tn s dng, ti Nht, bng tn khng cn ng k cho PLC t 10-450 Khz trong khi ti Chu u l t 10 -148.5 Khz (CENELEC: European Committee for Electronic Technical Standarzation). Cc h thng PLC vn hnh di tn ny s c xem nh l cc h thng PLC bng hp.Gn y nhiu quc gia trong c Nht bt u cn nhc n vic m rng di tn hot ng cho PLC ln ti 30 Mhz. Ti Chu u, ETSI xc nh k hoch phn b bng tn t 1,6 Mhz n 10 Mhz c n nh dnh ring cho truy nhp ni ht, di tn t 10 Mhz n 30 Mhz c u tin dnh cho ng dng mng gia nh (in-house), nhng h thng nh vy c th c coi l cc h thng bng rng. Ti Vit nam EVN th nghip thnh cng PLC ti tr s Trn Nguyn Hn, nhng kh nng trin khai trn din rng vn cn ng. Nu xt theo cu hnh x dng chng ta c th c nhng cu hnh PLC nh: Cu hnh Fiber-LV (Low Voltage) Cu hnh MV&LV (Medium Voltage & Low Voltage) Cu hnh MV & Wireless Cu hnh FTTH (Fiber to the Home) Do bn cht s khai ca ng cp in khng phi l truyn dn tn hiu thng tin cho nn khng c mt s m bo hiu nng no khi thc hin truyn thng trn cp in nhn t quan im truyn dn tn hiu. Vn ln nht ca PLC l chng nhiu (do cc ngun in hoc ngoi in) v suy hao trn ng dy, cng nh tm kim s chp nhn ca th trng. V vy, PLC c th gp phi cc c tnh c bit ca knh truyn dn s dng cp in, nh l cc c tnh tr khng thay i theo thi gian v rt thp ca ng dy in, rt nhiu nhn t gy ra cc dng tp m tn hiu.
1.4.2 Cng ngh CM (CATV)

L cng ngh cho php truy xut thng tin tc cao n cc server t xa nh Internet server hay VoD server qua mng truyn hnh cp (Cp ng trc) vi tc thay i ph thuc vo h thng modem cp, kin trc mng cp ng trc v lu lng trn modem.
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Tc theo chiu xung c th ln n 27Mbps, tuy nhin y l dung lng tng cng ca mi ngi chia ra do cu trc mng dng nhnh, thng th dung lng ca mt thu bao ch t 1-3Mbps. chiu ln c th t c 10Mbps nhng thng l 1-2,5 Mbps u im ca modem cp l tn dng c mng truyn hnh cp sn c nn gim chi ph, cc linh kin tn s cao cn thit cho hot ng ca modem cp tr nn rt r v c bn i tr. Nhng cng do lm vic tn s cao v c n 90% cp i trong nh m cc cp ny thng c lp t vi v, cu th nn d gy nhiu cho tiviv cc thit b khc, gii php y l cn phi i li dy nh. Hn na do vic s dng chung cc knh ng ln nn d gy tc nghn. Cc nh khai thc mng cp ng trc ang tin hnh ci tin h tng mng cp bng cch a thm mng cp quang vo mng cp ng trc thay truyn dn tng t bng truyn dn s c gi l mng lai ghp HFC: Mng HFC cung cp gn 100 knh truyn dn tc cao (6 MHz) cho mi knh phn phi cc lung video tng t, s, d liu ti ngi s dng v c th m rng cc dch v bng rng nh modem cp. Tuy nhin do ng truyn HFC l chung nn bng thngkh dng cho mi knh khi c nhiu ngi s dng khng cao bng DSL.

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PHN II: CNG NGH TRUY NHP HU TUYN Chng 2: H cng ngh xDSL
2.1 Cng ngh trong h xDSL
Nh cp chng 1, xDSL l h cng ngh ng dy thu bao s gm nhiu cng ngh c tc , khong cch truyn dn khc nhau v c ng dng vo cc dch v khc nhau, vi x thay cho cc k t : A, H, V, I, S, Lch s pht trin ca cc cng ngh trong h c th hin trong hnh 2.1 .

Hnh 2.1: Lch s pht trin ca cc cng ngh trong h xDSL C th phn loi xDSL theo c tnh truyn dn gia hai chiu ln v xung nh sau (Bng 2.1 tng kt c im ca mt s cng ngh trong h ):

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Truyn dn hai chiu i xng gm: HDSL/HDSL2, SHDSL c chun ho v nhng phin bn khc nh: SDSL, IDSL Truyn dn hai chiu khng i xng gm ADSL/ADSL. Lite (G.Lite), ADSL2, ADSL2+ c chun ho v mt s tn gi khc cha c chun ho nh: RADSL, UADSL, CDSL. Cng ngh VDSL, VDSL2 cung cp c dch v truyn dn i xng v khng i xng. HDSL/HDSL 2 (High data rate DSL): Cng ngh ng dy thu bao s truyn tc d liu cao HDSL s dng 2 i dy ng trong mi i dy s dng ho n ton sng cng cung cp dch v T1 (1,544 Mb/s), 2 hoc 3 i dy cung cp dch v E1 (2,048 Mb/s) SDSL (Single pair DSL): Cng ngh DSL mt i dy truyn i xng tc 784 kb/s trn mt i dy, ghp knh thoi v s liu trn cng mt ng dy, s dng m 2B1Q. Cng ngh ny cha c cc tiu chun thng nht nn khng c ph bin cho cc dch v tc cao. SDSL ch c ng dng trong vic truy cp trang Web, ti nhng tp d liu v thoi ng thi vi tc 128 Kb/s vi khong cch nh hn 6,7 Km v tc ti a l 1024 Kb/s trong khong 3,5 Km. SHDSL: L cng ngh kt hp ca HDSL 2 v SDSL vi tc thay i t 192kbps n 2,134 Mbps, khong cch tng ng vi tc ti a l 2km. Trong thc t, n c th cu hnh dng 2 i dy cung cp tc t 384kbps n 4,264Mbps. ADSL (Asymmetric DSL), ADSL2, ADSL2+: Cng ngh DSL khng i xng c pht trin t khi xut hin cc nhu cu truy nhp Internet tc cao, cc dch v trc tuyn, video theo yu cu...vo u nhng nm 90. ADSL cung cp tc truyn dn khng i xng ln ti 8 Mb/s lung xung v 16- 640 Kb/s lung ln vi khong cch truyn dn 5km v gim i khi tc ln cao. u im ni bt ca ADSL l cho php khch hng s dng ng thi mt ng dy thoi cho c 2 dch v: thoi v s liu. Mt dng ADSL mi gi l ADSL Lite hay ADSL khng s dng b lc xut hin t u nm 1998 ch yu cho ng dng truy cp Internet tc cao, k thut ny khng i hi b lc pha thu bao nn gi thnh thit b v chi ph lp t gim i tuy nhin tc lung xung ch cn 1,5 Mb/s. ADSL2 thm nhng ci tin v iu ch v m ha lm tng hiu qu s dng bng thng. ADSL2+ m rng bng tn cho chiu xung ti 2.2 Mhz. ReachDSL l cng ngh DSL i xng p ng nhu cu ca thu bao v ng dy DSL tc cao cc khong cch xa. b sung cho cng ngh ADSL tiu chun (DMT hay G.lite), cc sn phm ReachDSL cung cp tc d liu t 128 kbps n 1 Mbps v c thit k lm vic vi iu kin ng dy v i dy trong nh d di hn. Mt trong cc li ch ca ReachDSL l khng cn phi lp t cc b tch dch v thoi n thun POTS. iu ny cho php khch hng hon ton c th t lp t cc b
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microfilter.Khc vi cc h thng ADSL c di vng thu bao gii hn trong khong 6 Km k t tng i, cc h thng ReachDSL m rng dch v n hn 6 500 m v hin nay c cc ng dy vt qu 10 Km. VDSL (Very high data rate DSL): Cng ngh DSL tc d liu rt cao l cng ngh ph hp cho kin trc mng truy nhp s dng cp quang ti cm dn c. VDSL truyn tc d liu cao qua cc ng dy ng xon i khong cch ngn. Tc lung xung ti a t ti 52 Mb/s trong chiu di 300 m. Vi tc lung xung thp 1,5 Mb/s th chiu di cp t ti 3,6 km. Tc lung ln trong ch khng i xng l 1,6- 2,3 Mb/s. Bng 2.1: Cc cng ngh trong h xDSL. Cng ngh Tc Khong cch truyn dn 5km S i dy 1 i ng dng

IDSL

144 Kb/s i xng 1,544Mb/s i xng 2,048Mb/s i xng 1,544Mb/s i xng 2,048Mb/s i xng 768kb/s i xng 1,544Mb/s hoc 2,048Mb/s mt chiu

Truyn thoi v s liu

HDSL

3,6 km 4,5 km

2 i 3 i

Cp lumgT1/E1 truy xut WAN. LAN, truy xut server

HDSL2

3,6 km 4,5 km

1 i

SDSL

7 km 3 km 1 i

Nh HDSL nhng thm phn truy xut i xng

7 km SHDSL 5.6Mbps ln/xung 7 Mbps xung, 800 kbps ln 3 km 5km (tc cng cao th 1, 2 i 1 i Kt ni server Truy xut Internet, video on demand, interactive multimedia, truy xut LAN t xa

ADSL

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khong cch cng ngn ) 5km (tc cng 8 Mb/s xung, 1 cao th Mbps ln khong cch cng ngn )

ADSL2

nhiu i dy

Truy xut Internet, video on demand, interactive multimedia, truy xut LAN t xa

ADSL2+

5km (tc cng nhiu Truy xut Internet, video on 24 Mbps xung 1 cao th i demand, interactive multimedia, Mbps ln khong dy(ti truy xut LAN t xa cch cng 32 i) ngn ) 5km (tc cng Reach Truy xut Internet, video on cao th Extend demand, interactive multimedia, khong e truy xut LAN t xa cch cng ngn ) 300 m 1,5 km (tu ) tc

ADSL2RE

8 Mbps down 1 Mbps up 26 Mb/s i xng

VDSL

1352 Mb/s lung xung 1,5-2,3 Mb/s lung ln

1 i

Nh ADSL nhng thm HDTV(truyn hnh tc cao)

(tu tc ) Vi mt h cc k thut DSL khc nhau, vic p dng chng sao cho ph hp v c hiu qu cao l mt vn cn xem xt. Mi loi k thut c nhng tnh nng, c th v im mnh, im yu ring. Trong h xDSL th cc cng ngh bt i xng nh ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+ l nhng cng ngh c s dng nhiu nht, ph bin nht trn th gii. Nhn xt nh gi v c im ca xDSL:

VDSL2

100Mbps ln/xung G.993.2

300 m 1,5 km 1 i

Nh ADSL nhng thm HDTV(truyn hnh tc cao)

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Xy dng tnh mm do mc cn thit h tr cho cc ng dng. Tnh mm do th hin y l: Kh nng h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v, kh nng m rng pht trin t mt vi thu bao ti hng ngn thu bao, kh nng qun l tin cy mng im - im trong vic h tr nhng ng. Cho php mng ca nh cung cp dch v NPS v ngi s dng dch v tn dng mt s c tnh ca cu trc c s h tng hin nay nh nhng giao thc lp 2, 3 ging nh Frame Relay, ATM v IP v tin cy nhng dch v mng. xDSL c th trin khai nhng dch v c da trn cc gi tin hoc t bo ging nh Frame Relay, IP hoc ATM hay trn nhng dch v knh ng b bit. xDSL p ng c yu cu i hi thi gian thc, tc cao Kh nng xDSL ngy cng phong ph vi rt nhiu cc phin bn mi nh ADSL2, HDSL2 Qua nhng kt qu nghin cu, cc nh cung cp dch v tha nhn rng h cng ngh xDSL khng phi l th h tng lai ca mng truy nhp m ch l gii php hin ti ca truy nhp mng.

2.2 Kin trc h thng


H thng xDSL bao gm nhng thit b pha nh cung cp dch v, nhng thit b khch hng, nhng thit b ny c ni vi nhau thng qua mch vng ng dy thu bao. Hnh 2.2 th hin kin trc chung ca mt h thng s dng xDSL, hnh 2.3 th hin chi tit nhng thit b trong mt h thng ADSL thng dng
Server truy nhap Internet

CO

PSTN
Thue bao 1

Server truy nhap Intranet Server truyen hnh theo yeu cau Server thong tin quang cao

POTS 1 TCP/IP Router Nut truy nhap ADSL 1 M U X ADSL n Thue bao n ADSL n ADSL 1

ATM Switch

PSTN

Hnh 2.2: B cung cp mch vng thu bao s xDSL

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Cng ngh truy nhp trong NGN

2.2.1 Thit b nh cung cp dch v kt ni

Gm c cc b chia c lp t ni cc mch vng thu bao kt cui trn gi phi dy chnh MDF, u ra c hai i dy. i th nht kt ni ti mng chuyn mch thoi cung cp dch v thoi truyn thng. i dy th hai kt ni ti khi kt cui ADSL trung tm (ATU-C). truyn dn hiu qu, cc khi ATU-C c kt hp vi chc nng ghp knh to nn b ghp knh truy nhp DSL (DSLAM) trong tng i trung tm v c kt ni ti mng cc nh cung cp dch v thng qua mng bng rng ATM hoc IP.
2.2.2 Pha khch hng

Bao gm cc b chia c lp t ni cc mch vng thu bao kt cui, u ra kt ni ti khi kt cui ADSL u xa (ATU-R) ti u cui khch hng s dng ADSL v mt u ti u cui khch hng s dng thoi.
2.2.3 Mch vng thu bao

L mt i dy ng xon i ni cm thu bao v tng i trung tm. Tuy nhin, h thng ADSL c th trin khai c trn thc t, th ta phi xem xt c s tng thch ph ca cc dch v ADSL trn mch vng thu bao v n nh hng su sc ti cht lng dch v ADSL.
Mng bng rng

Chuyn mch ATM/IP ADSL . B chia

DSLAM
ATU-C

MDF

M c h B v n g t h u b o

chia

ATUR

POTS/ISDN

Cc ng khng phi xDSL

PSTN

Chuyn mch CO

Hnh 2.3: Cu trc h thng ADSL. a


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Cng ngh truy nhp trong NGN

2.3 ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+


ADSL (Asymmetric DSL) Cng ngh DSL khng i xng c pht trin t khi xut hin cc nhu cu truy nhp Internet tc cao, cc dch v trc tuyn, video theo yu cu...vo u nhng nm 90. ADSL cung cp tc truyn dn khng i xng ln ti 8 Mb/s lung xung v 16- 640 Kb/s lung ln vi khong cch truyn dn 5km v gim i khi tc ln cao. u im ni bt ca ADSL l cho php khch hng s dng ng thi mt ng dy thoi cho c 2 dch v: thoi v s liu. Mt dng ADSL mi gi l ADSL Lite hay ADSL khng s dng b lc xut hin t u nm 1998 ch yu cho ng dng truy cp Internet tc cao, k thut ny khng i hi b lc pha thu bao nn gi thnh thit b v chi ph lp t gim i tuy nhin tc lung xung ch cn 1,5 Mb/s. ADSL2 thm nhng ci tin v iu ch v m ha lm tng hiu qu s dng bng thng. ADSL2+ m rng bng tn cho chiu xung ti 2.2 Mhz.
2.3.1 ADSL

ng dy thu bao s bt i xng ADSL l k thut truyn dn mch vng ni ht ng thi truyn ti trn cng mt i dy cc dch v sau: Tc bit thu (v pha thu bao) ln ti gn 9 Mbit/s. Tc bit pht (v pha mng) ln ti 1 Mbit/s. Dch v in thoi truyn thng POTS. H thng truyn dn c thit k hot ng trn cp ng xon i, nhiu c dy hn hp. K thut truyn ti ADSL c xy dng da trn iu kin khng c cun gia cm v c mt vi trng hp hn ch ca nhnh r c chp nhn. Nhng p dng cng ngh tin tin nng cao tc truyn dn, c th cung cp cho thu bao dch v bng rng mt chiu nh HDTV, dch v s liu tc trung bnh kiu trao i v dch v in thoi thng thng.
2.3.1.1 K thut iu ch

Hin c 3 k thut iu ch c s dng l QAM, CAP v DMT, k thut DMT (Discrete Multi- Tone Modulation) c s dng rng ri. iu ch DMT l k thut iu ch a sng mang. DMT chia ph tn s thnh cc chu k k hiu. Mi chu k k hiu c th mang mt s lng bt nht nh. Ph t 26 kHz n 1,1 MHz c chia thnh cc knh 4 kHz v DMT m ho v iu ch to thnh cc knh ph 4 kHz. Cc bt trong mi knh ph c iu ch bng k thut QAM v t trong cc sng mang, hnh 2.4.

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Bng tn ng ln
0-4 kHz 25 kHz 200 kHz

Bng tn ng xung
~1,1 MHz

Bng tn ng ln
0-4 kHz 25 kHz 200 kHz

Bng tn ng xung
~1,1 MHz

Hnh 2.4: ADSL s dng v khng s dng k thut trit ting vng i vi bt k loi m ng truyn no s dng mt i dy cho vic truyn song cng u phi chia bng tn hot ng thnh bng tn t tng i ti thu bao v bng tn t thu bao ti tng i (n gin l k thut ghp knh theo tn s FDM) hoc phi s dng k thut xo ting vng. Tuy nhin, trong k thut ADSL c FDM v k thut xo ting vng c th s dng kt hp ng thi iu ny l do s khng i xng ca bng tn ADSL, cc di tn c th gi chng ln nhau nhng khng trng kht vo nhau. y l c th ring ca ADSL so vi cc k thut DSL khc. K thut xo ting vng c mt s yu im l b nh hng ln bi tc ng ca xuyn m u gn (NEXT); khi u thu c th nhn tn hiu c truyn sang t h thng bn cnh. Cc h thng bn cnh y c th l cc i dy khc hoc thm ch l ngay b pht ca h thng. Nu b thu b qua ton b di tn s m u gn pht th FDM s trnh c xuyn m u gn. Tt nhin iu ny ng ngha vi vic ct b mt lng bng tn hiu dng ca hng kia. Nh vy, s dng k thut xo ting vng s lm cho hiu sut bng tn cao hn nhng chi ph cho n li phc tp v nhy cm. K thut xo ting vng c th s dng i vi tn s thp nht nn t hiu qu cao hn. Trong trng hp dng mt ng truyn ng thi cho c hai hng trn cng mt di tn s cn phi kim sot ting vng. Mt cch kim sot ting vng l chia tn s thnh hai bng tn cho ng t tng i ti thu bao v ngc li.
2.3.1.2 K thut truyn dn song cng

C 3 k thut truyn dn song cng trn i dy ng l: phn chia theo tn s (FDM), phn chia theo thi gian (TDM) v trit ting vng (EC). ADSL thng thc hin k thut FDM v EC. K thut ghp knh theo tn s.

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Cng ngh truy nhp trong NGN

Signal Power

256 channels

Channel Spacing 4.3125 kHz

2 5

13 8

Frequency [kHz] Downstream Data

1 104

Upstream Data

Hnh 2.5: Phn chia bng tn ca k thut FDM K thut ny cho php di tn pht tch khi di tn thu trnh t xuyn m v c di tn bo v gia chng. Phng php ny c u im sau: Trit tiu c NEXT v hai di tn s cch nhau bng bng tn bo v. Khng cn s ng b gia pht v thu. c pht trin t lu nn t c s chn mui cng ngh. Tuy nhin vn cn tn ti mt s nhc im: Khng s dng hiu qu bng thng v lung ln v xung 2 di tn khc bit nhau v cn c di tn bo v. Tc lung xung di tn cao nn b gim nhanh chng khi c ly truyn dn tng do suy hao min tn s cao nhanh. Vn xy ra hin tng NEXT mc d trng hp l tng cc b cp u cng loi nhng vn c cc h thng DSL khc nhau hot ng trong cng b cp . K thut trit ting vng EC K thut ny s dng mt knh duy nht cho c pht v thu nn ph tn hiu ca chng trm ln nhau v tn ti ting vng ca tn hiu pht ln trong tn hiu thu nn cn mt b kh ting vng ti pha thu.

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Ting vng gm t hp hai loi: ting vng u gn v u xa. Mc ch ca b trit ting vng l trit ting vng u gn cn tn hiu u xa nh hng khng ng k nn c th b qua.
Mc truyn

POTS Bo v

Ln

Xung

Tn s

Hnh 2.6: Phn chia bng tn ca k thut EC

Nh vy, k thut ny cho php hai modem s dng ton b bng thng c sn trn c hai hng.
Pht (ln) Tn hiu hng ln Thu (ln)

ADF

Hybrid Ting vng (Echo)

Hybrid

ADF

Thu (xung)

Pht (xung)

Tn hiu hng xung

Hnh 2.7 Phn tch tn hiu ln, xung bng phng php kh ting vng Khi tn hiu truyn qua mch sai ng (hybrid), mt phn tn hiu vng li u thu do mch hybrid khng hon ho. B lc s p ng ADF c s dng c chc nng to ra mt bn sao ca tn hiu vng v ting vng b trit hon ton bng cch tr bn sao ny vi tn hiu vng thc t

u im:
Tn dng hiu qu bng thng v ph hai hng trm ln nhau. Ci thin ng k tc truyn nht l khi c ly di v tn hiu hng xung c s dng bng tn thp l vng m suy hao nh hn. Nhc im:
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Khng loi b c NEXT do c nhiu h thng khc nhau lm vic trong cng b cp m b trit ting vng khng th loi b c xuyn m t chng. Vic ch to nhng b lc s thch ng rt phc tp nht l khi lm vic vi tn s cao. V vy, cc modem ADSL hin nay vn s dng kiu FDM khi yu cu tc cao cha gay gt lm.
2.3.1.3 Nguyn l thu pht

Data CRC
EOC

Tr Tr n

B t o khung AOC
AOC
Bit ch ch th

CRC

Tr Tr n

M ha an xen Sp xp RS v m ha M ha ch ch m RS i m

I D F T

Th Thm Tin t v ng

D/A

CRC Gi Gii tr n B gi gii khung CRC Gi Gii tr n

Gi Gii m

Gi Gii an xen

Gi Gii m

Gi Gii m gi gii s p xp

F D Q

D F T

Tch TDQ tin t v ng ADC+ fillter

Hnh 2.8 : S khi thu v pht ADSL Khi to khung: Nhn cc knh d liu, EOC, AOC v cc bt ch th ri to khung v siu khung theo tc tho thun sau qu trnh khi to. S liu trn ng truyn dn ADSL c b tr thnh cu trc siu khung. CRC: To 8 bt kim tra li v t trong khung th nht ca mi siu khung. Trong mt lung, CRC s kim tra tt c cc bt chuyn qua tr cc byte FEC, CRC ca siu khung trc v khung ng b. CRC gip pht hin c bao nhiu siu khung sau khi thu xut hin mt li khng th sa c bng FEC. Khi trn (Ngu nhin ho): Thc hin trn lung nhanh v lung chm mt cch c lp nhm mc ch trnh cc cc bt ging nhau xut hin lin tip. Ti u thu qu trnh din ra ngc li vi cng qui lut. Khi FEC: Thm bt d vo phn d liu nhm sa mt s bt b li sau b gii iu ch pha thu ( y s dng m Reed Solomon).
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Khi an xen: Ch tn ti trong lung xen, phn tn li cm ti cc t m khc nhau sao cho s byte b li lin tip nm trong kh nng sa li ca loi m . Tt nhin, lc ny thng tin s b tr hn so vi khng an xen. Sp xp tone: L qu trnh tch mt s bt nht nh ri gn vo mt tone nht nh. Sau qu trnh khi to, s lng bt gn cho mi tone c quyt nh (c gi tr t 0 n 15 bt). D liu t hai ngun nhanh, chm c a vo sp xp tone trc kh i a n b m ho DMT. M ho: Sau khi sp xp tone, mi bin phi thc hin m ho cc bt ny. Ngoi ra, khi m ho cn c chc nng iu chnh li knh (Cng sut) cho tng bin nh bng gi tr bit/tone v li bin. Khi IDFT: Sau khi sp xp tonev m ho s to ra mt s phc. Nh vy, s c nhiu nht l 256 s phc. Khi IDFT s chuyn cc s phc trong min tn s ny sang tn hiu trong min thi gian. Khi thm tin t vng: to ra knh gi tun hon gip qu trnh cn bng trong min tn s pha thu thun li hn. Khi bin i s-tng t DAC v lc dng: Chuyn i cc mc tn hiu sang mc in p v pha khc nhau trn ng truyn. B lc gii hn tn hiu pht trong bng thng ca ADSL ..
2.3.2 ADSL2 2.3.2.1 Gii thiu chung

ADSL2 l th th hai ca ADSL c chun ho trong ITU G.992.3 v G992.4 da trn chun ca th h th nht ITU G.992.1 v G.992.2. Tuy nhin ADSL2 c nhiu ci tin so vi ADSL th h th nht. Nh nhng ci tin nu trn m ADSL2 ci thin ng k v tc v khong cch so vi ADSL. Vi ADSL2 c th t c tc ng xung trn 8Mbps v ng ln ti 800Kbps trn mt i dy in thoi. So vi ADSL, ADSL2 tng tc ng xung khong t 50 n 196Kbps v tng tc ng ln khong t 32 n 64Kbps. Mt khc, vi cng tc s liu nh ADSL, ADSL2 tng khong cch so vi ADSL t 500 n 1000feet (khong t 150 n 300m). Hnh 3.29 m t mt v d v tc v khong cch ADSL2 so vi ADSL th h th nht. Trn ng y in thoi c cng di so vi ADSL th ADSL2 c tc s liu tng khong 50Kbps. Vi cng tc nh ADSL, ADSL2 t c khong cch tng khong 600feet (khong 180m) so vi ADSL, iu ny lm tng vng ph khong 6%. C c kt qu ny l do ADSL2 ci thin hiu qu iu ch, gim tiu khung, t c li m ho cao hn, ci thin trng thi khi to v tng cng thut ton x l tn hiu... So vi ADSL, ADSL2 b xung mt s tnh nng mi, l nhng tnh nng

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lin quan n Cc tnh nng lin quan n ng dng, cc tnh nng lin quan n PMSTC v cc tnh nng lin quan n PMD.
2.3.2.2 Cc tnh nng lin quan n ng dng

H tr ng dng ch hon ton s ADSL a ra mt ch tu chn cho php truyn s liu ADSL trn bng tn thoi do tng thm 256Kbps cho tc d liu ng ln. Ch ny l la chn hp dn i vi cc doanh nghip s dng dch v thoi v s liu trn cc ng dy ring bit bi v nh ch ny m cc doanh nghip t c cc dch v vi tc ng ln cao hn. H tr ng dng thoi trn bng tn ADSL C ba phng thc c bn truyn lu lng thoi trn ng dy cp ng s dng bng tn DSL l: Thoi qua ch truyn dn cn ng b (VoATM), thoi qua giao thc internet (VoIP) v thoi phn knh trn DSL (CVoDSL). Phng thc VoATM, thc hin vic sp xp thoi c s ho v thng tin bo hiu vo cc t bo ATM, cc t bo ny c truyn trn ng dy in thoi v truyn qua mng n kt ni ring o ATM. Tng t phng thc th hai, VoIP cng sp xp thoi c s ho v th ng tin bo hiu vo cc gi IP v truyn chng trn ng dy in thoi cng vi s liu khc. Cn phng thc CVoDSL, l mt ci tin ca cng ngh ng dy thu bao s. Phng thc ny truyn lu lng thoi TDM mt cch trong sut qua bng tn DSL. CVoDSL l duy nht gia cc gii php thoi qua DSL trong n truyn thoi trong lp vt l, cho php truyn cc knh thoi trn bng tn DSL trong khi vn duy tr c POTS v truy nhp Internet tc cao. y l mt phng thc n gin, linh hot, hiu qu v mt chi ph cho php thit b th h sau c chc nng thoi. H tr chc nng ghp ngc ATM (IMA) trong ATM TPS-TC: Tc s liu ti khch hng c th tng ng k bng cch ghp nhiu ng in thoi cng nhau. thc hin vic ghp, chun ADSL2 h tr chc nng ghp ngc ATM (IMA) c trin khai cho cu trc ATM truyn thng. Thng qua IMA, ADSL2 c th ghp hai hoc nhiu i dy ng trong mt tuyn ADSL. Kt qu l t c tc ng xung linh hot hn c th l : 20 Mbps trn 2 i gh p, 30 Mbps trn 3 i ghp, 40 Mbps trn 4 i ghp.
2.3.2.3 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMS-TC

Vic phn khung linh hot hn, h tr ti 4 khung mang, 4 ng:


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S liu c truyn khc nhau c th c tp hp vo cc cu trc khc nhau khi chng truyn qua chc nng PMS-TC pht. Nhm cu trc ny c gi l cu trc khung. Gim tiu khung H thng ADSL2 gim tiu khung bng cch s dng khung vi cc tiu ca khung c th lp trnh c. Do , khng nh trong chun ADSL th h th nht s bit tiu trn khung l c nh v chim 32Kbps ca ti s liu thc t, trong chun. ADSL2 s bit tiu chun trong khung c th lp trnh c chim t 4 n 32Kbp. Trong cc h thng ADSL th h th nht, trn cc ng dy in thoi c tc s liu thp (v d 128Kbps) th 32Kbps (hoc 25% tc s liu tng) c cung cp pht c nh cho thng tin tiu . Trong cc h thng ADSL2, tc s liu tiu c th gim xung cn 4Kbps, do cung cp thm 28Kbps cho ti s liu.
2.3.2.4 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMD

Chun on Vic xc nh nguyn nhn ca nhng vn pht sinh trong qu trnh cung cp dch v ADSL cho khch hng l mt tr ngi rt ln trong tin trnh pht trin ca ADSL. khc phc vn ny, b thu pht ADSL2 c tng cng kh nng chun on. Kh nng chun on cung cp cc cng c gii quyt nhng vng mc trong v sau khi to, gim st trong khi cung cp dch v v nng cao nng lc. chun on v gii quyt cc vn gp phi th cc b thu pht ADSL2 cung cp kh nng thc hin o tp m ng dy, suy gim mch vng v t s tn hiu trn tp m (SNR) ti hai u ng dy. Kt qu ca nhng php o ny c tp hp li bng cch s dng ch kim tra chun on c bit ngay c khi cht lng ng dy l qu ti c th hon thnh kt ni ADSL. Ngoi ra, ADSL2 bao gm kh nng gim st hiu nng thi gian thc, kh nng ny cung cp thng tin v cht lng ng dy v iu kin tp m ti hai u ng dy. Thng tin ny c x l bi phn mn gim st cht lng kt ni ADSL v trnh xy ra cc li dch v trong tng lai. Thng tin ny cng c s dng quyt nh xem mt khch hng c th c cung cp cc dch v c tc s liu cao hn hay khng. Thch ng tc Cc ng dy in thoi c bn vi nhau trong b cp nhiu i cha 25 hoc nhiu hn cc i dy xon. Kt qu l tn hiu in t mt i gy ra t trng trn cc i gn k trong b cp. Hin tng ny c gi l xuyn m v c th cn tr c tnh tc s liu ADSL. Kt qu l nhng thay i ca cc mc xuyn m c th lm
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t kt ni trong ADSL. Xuyn m ch l mt nguyn nhn gy t kt ni trn h thng ADSL. Cc nguyn nhn khc c th l do nhiu sng v tuyn AM, nhng thay i v nhit v nc trong b cp. ADSL2 gi quyt vn ny bng cch thch ng lin tc tc s liu theo thi gian thc. Ci tin ny, c gi l thch ng tc lin tc (SRA), cho php h thng ADSL2 thay i tc ca kt ni trong khi cung cp dch v m khng lm ngt dch v hoc gy li bit. ADSL2 pht hin ra nhng thay i trong iu kin knh (v d, mt trm v tuyn AM ni ht ngng pht vo bui ti) v thch ng tc s liu vi iu kin mi trong sut vi ngi s dng. Khi to nhanh Khi to b thu pht ADSL c yu cu cho kt ni gia ATU-C v ATU-R thit lp mt tuyn thng tin gia chng. ADSL th h th nht ch h tr ch khi to thng thng. Tuy nhin ADSL2 h tr c hai ch : ch khi to thng thng v ch khi to nhanh. Th tc khi to thng thng mt khong t 10 ti 15 giy trong khi th tc khi to nhanh ch mt khong t 2 ti 3 giy. C c iu ny l do th tc khi to nhanh da vo vic lu tr v s dng li cc tham s truyn dn t khi to thng thng trc nh gim ng k thi gian iu khin. Ci thin v mt cng sut: Cc b thu pht ADSL th h th nht hot ng ch cng sut ln nht sut ngy m ngay c khi khng c s dng. p ng vn ny, chun ADSL2 a ra ch qun l cng sut gip gim cng sut tiu th trong khi vn duy tr chc nng lun lun kt ni ca ADSL cho ngi s dng. Nhng ch ny bao gm: ch cng sut L2 v ch cng sut L3. Ch cng sut L2 cho php tit kim ng k cng sut ti khi thu pht ADSL trm trung tm (ATU-C) bng cch vo v ra ch cng sut thp mt cch nhanh chng da trn lu lng Internet chy trn kt ni ADSL. Ch cng sut L2 l mt trong nhng ci tin quan trng nht ca chun ADSL2. Khi ti xung cc file d liu ln th ADSL2 hot ng ch cng sut ln nht (c gi l ch cng sut L0) cc i tc ti xung. Khi lu lng Internet gim, v d nh khi ngi s dng ang c mt trang vn bn di, th cc h thng ADSL2 c th chuyn sang ch cng sut thp L2, trong ch ny tc s liu gim ng k v gim cng sut tiu th.
2.3.3 ADSL2+ 2.3.3.1 Gii thiu chung

Cng ngh ADSL2+ l thnh vin mi nht trong h cc chun ADSL. ADSL2+ c chun ho trong ITU G.992.5 vo thng 5 nm 2003. C th coi ADSL2+ l ADSL
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th h th ba hoc l phin bn delta ca ADSL th h th hai (ADSL2). Cng ging nh ADSL2, ADSL2+ s dng i dy ng xon truyn ng thi thoi v s liu tc cao gia kt cui mng (ATU-C) v kt cui khch hng (ATU-R). Tuy nhin bng tn ca ADSL2+ c khc so vi bng tn ca ADSL2. Trong khi ADSL2 s dng bng tn t 0-1,1Mhz th ADSL2+ s dng bng tn t 0-2,2Mhz. Cng ging nh ADSL2, ADSL2+ dnh bng tn c s truyn thoi, bng tn thp truyn s liu ng ln v bng tn cao truyn s liu ng xung. Tuy nhin, bng tn ng xung ca ADSL2+ gp i so vi bng tn ng xung ca ADSL2, do ADSL2+ tng ng k tc s liu trn ng dy in thoi c khong cch ngn hn 9Kilofeet (khong 3 km) Nh c tnh nng mi thm vo m ADSL2+ c th t c tc s liu ng xung ti 25Mbps. Trn ng dy in thoi c khong cch 3Kilfeet (khong gn 1 km) tc s liu ng xung c th t c 24Mbps v c th t c 20Mbps trn ng dy c khong cch 5Kilfeet (khong 1.5 km). ADSL2+ l ADSL2 vi bng tn m rng n c chun ho da trn chun ca ADSL2. Do , ADSL2+ mang y cc c tnh ca ADSL2. Tuy nhin, ADSL2+ cn c thm mt s tnh nng mi nhm p ng tc s liu cao hn trn mch vng c khong cch ngn hn. Mt s tnh nng mi c thm vo nh: m rng bng tn, ghp t tc cao hn v mt s tnh nng khc ca ADSL2+.
2.3.3.2 M rng bng tn

Trong khi hai thnh vin trong h cc chun ADSL2 l G.992.3(G.dmt.bis) v G.992.4(G.lite.bis) s dng bng tn ng xung ti 1,1Mhz v 552Mhz tng ng th ADSL2+ s dng bng tn ng xung ti 2.208Mhz tng ng vi 512 sng mang ph (Hnh 3.30). Nh vy bng tn ca ADSL2+ tng gp i so vi bng tn ng xung ca ADSL2 cn bng tn ng ln ca ADSL2+ khng thay i so vi ADSL2 Nh ci tin c bit ny m tc s liu ng xung ca ADSL2+ tng gp i so vi ADSL2 trn ng dy in thoi c khong cch di 4Kilofeet v cao hn nhiu so vi ADSL2 trn ng dy in thoi c khong cch t 4 n 8Kilofeet. Tuy nhin vi ng dy in thoi c khong cch ln hn 8Kilofeet th tc s liu ng xung ca ADSL2+ tng t nh ADSL2 (Hnh 2.9).

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Hnh 2.9: Tc s liu ng xung ca ADSL2+ so vi ADSL2 Vi mc ch gim xuyn m th ADSL2+ cung cp kh nng ch s dng cc tn s nm trong khong t 1.1Mhz ti 2.2Mhz bng cch che cc tn s thp hn 1.1Mhz. iu ny c bit hu dng khi cc dch v ADSL t trm trung tm (CO) v t kt cui u xa (RT) cng nm trn mt cp ti nh khch hng. Trong iu kin ny, nh cung cp dch v c th trin khai dch v ADSL2 vi bng tn ng xung t 0.14Mhz ti 1.1Mhz cho khch hng cch xa trm trung tm (CO) vi yu cu tc s liu khng thc s cao cn cc khch hng cch xa trm trung tm (CO) nhng gn trm kt cui u xa (RT) vi yu cu tc s liu cao th c th s dng dch v ADSL2+ vi bng tn ng xung t 1.1Mhz ti 2.2Mhz. Bng cch ny c th loi b hu ht xuyn m gia cc dch v v m bo c tc ng dy t trm trung tm.
2.3.3.3 Ghp t tc cao hn

K thut ghp nhiu ng dy in thoi nhm mc ch t tc s liu cao hn v ci thin khong cch l k thut mi ca h cng ngh ADSL2. Cng ging nh ADSL2, vic ghp ADSL2+ cng thc hin ghp nhiu ng ADSL2+. Tuy nhin, ADSL2+, vic ghp t c tc s liu cao hn rt nhiu so vi ADSL2. Nh ch ra trn Hnh 3.33, bng cch ghp hai ng ADSL2+ c th cung cp cho khch hng tc s liu ln n 44Mbps trn ng dy c khong cch ngn hn 5Kilofeet (khong 1.5km). Trn cc ng dy in thoi c khong cch xa hn, vic ghp hai ng ADSL2+ c th h tr c tc 8Mbps vi khong cch trn 12Kilofeet (khong 3.6km).

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DATA RATE (MBPS)

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

Bonded ADSL2+
ADSL2+ ADSL

1 2

4 5

7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15

LOOP LENGTH (KFT) Hnh 2.10: Ghp hai ng ADSL2+ Vic ghp nhiu i dy in thoi trong ADSL2+ c mt s c im nh sau: Vic ghp h tr kh nng t ng gii phng v khi phc cc i dy m khng vn s can thip ca con ngi. Mt khc, vic ghp c th c thc hin t ng bng phn mm. Vic ghp h tr cc tc s liu khc nhau (vi t l 4/1) gia cc i dy. iu ny rt c ngha trong trng hp cc ng dy ng c dung lng thp hn cc ng dy khc th khng cn thit phi gim tc s liu trn cc ng dy c dung lng cao hn. C th ghp ti 32 i dy. Cc cng (port) trn card ng dy ADSL2+ c ghp mt cch ngu nhin. Ngha l vic ghp c thc hin bng cch kt hp bt k cng no v vic ghp rt mm do. Chun ghp ATM c s dng trn bt k lp vt l no. Ngoi ADSL2+, n c th c s dng cho cc dch v DSL khc.
2.3.3.4 Mt s tnh nng khc ca ADSL2+

Ngoi cc tnh nng mi c trnh by trn, ADSL2+ cn c thm mt s tnh nng mi nh sau: ADSL2+ c kh nng h tr ti 3 t m (Reed-Solomontrene) k hiu, trong khi ADSL2 ch c th h tr ti a 2 t m (Reed-Solomontrene) trn k hiu. Gi tr ny c quy nh khc nhau trong chun ITU G.992.3 v G.992.5. C th l G.992.3 quy nh s khung ghp s liu trn k t v s t m FEC trn k hiu cc i l 2. Trong khi , G.992.5 quy nh s khung ghp s liu trn k hiu v s t m trn k hiu cc i l 3. Di s iu khin ca ngi vn hnh thng qua CO-MIB, vic iu khin ph ng xung vi PSD pht cc i ti im tham chiu U-C trn sng mang ph cho php vic cu hnh theo yu cu ca tng vng (v d, Bc
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M, Chu u hoc Nht Bn) v cu hnh theo cc mi trng trin khai (v d, trm trung tm (CO) hoc trm u xa (RT)). Vic nh dng ph ng xung trong thi gian showtime (dng PSD pht trong bng thng l khng phng) ci thin linh hot ca PSD pht ng xung.

2.4 HDSL, HDSL2,SHDSL, HDSL4


2.4.1 HDSL 2.4.1.1 HDSL nguyn bn

Khi nim ban u v HDSL (ng dy thu bao s tc cao) xut hin vo nm 1986 phng th nghim AT&T Bell v Bellcore. Cc thit k thit b thu pht HDSL thc cht l thit k ISDN c bn mc cao hn. H thng HDSL mu xut hin nm 1989. Thit b HDSL u tin c Bell Canada a vo hot ng vo nm 1992 do cng ty Tellabs Operation Inc sn xut. Nm 1997 trn th gii c khong 450000 ng dy HDSL ang hot ng trong c khong 250000 ng dy HDSL Bc M. Mi nm c hn 150000 ng dy HDSL c lp t. Thng 10 nm 1998, ITU thng qua khuyn ngh G.991.1 cho HDSL th h th nht, tiu chun ny da trn tiu chun ETSI TM-03036. ITU bt u nghin cu xy dng khuyn ngh HDSL th h th 2 (HDSL2) gi l G.991.2. HDSL c a dng hn T1 truyn thng l bi v HDSL cung cp cc c tnh chun on (bao gm o SNR) v HDSL gy xuyn m t hn cc h thng truyn dn khc do tn hiu truyn c hn ch trong bng tn hp hn T1 truyn thng.
2.4.1.2 Kh nng v ng dng HDSL

HDSL truyn ti hai hng 1,544Mbit/s hoc 2,048 Mbit/s trn ng dy in thoi di n 3,7 km (12 kft) vi dy 0,5 mm (24 AWG) i dy xon khng c b lp trung gian v c th tng chiu di ln gp i vi 1 b lp trung gian. Hn 95% ng dy HDSL khng c b lp. HDSL l phng thc truyn dn tin cy cho tt c cc vng phc v vi t l li bt l 10-9 n 10-10. H thng HDSL DS1 (1,544 Mb/s) s dng hai i dy, mi i dy truyn 768 kbit/s ti hiu dng (784 kbit/s tnh) trn mi hng. Do thut ng song cng c s dng m t h thng truyn dn HDSL. H thng HDSL E1 (2048 kbit/s) c th la chn s dng hai hoc 3 i dy, mi i dy s dng hon ton song cng. HDSL 2,048 Mbit/s 3 i dy s dng b thu pht rt ging b thu pht h thng 1,544 Mbit/s. Mch vng HDSL 2,048 Mbit/s c th c mch r nhng khng c cun cn bng. Mc d ban u HDSL c m t l cng ngh cn lp, nhng cc b lp HDSL vn thng c s dng trn ng dy HDSL khng b lp c chiu di t 2,75 km n 3,7 km (9 n 12 kft). i vi dy 24 AWG, c th t c 7,3 km khi s dng mt b lp v 11 km (36 kft) khi dng 2 b lp. di thc s c th thp hn nhng ni
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khng th t c b lp chnh xc v tr trung gian. Ban u h thng HDSL hai b lp c cp ngun bng cch, b lp th nht c cp qua ng dy t CO, b lp th hai c cp ngun t pha thu bao. Vic cp ngun t pha thu bao c hn ch v qun l v bo dng. Do ngun tiu th t cc b thu pht ngy nay l nh nn ngi ta c th cp ngun cho c hai b lp t ngun ca CO.
2.4.1.3 Truyn dn HDSL

C mt vi gii php c la chn cho h thng HDSL nguyn thu: song cng n, n cng kp v song cng kp. Song cng n ch cn s dng mt i dy v mt cp thit b thu pht mi u ca ng dy. Hai hng truyn dn c th c tch bit bng ghp knh theo tn s (FDM) hoc bng truyn dn hn hp trit ting vng. Tuy nhin, truyn ton b ti trn hu ht cc mch vng u da trn cng ngh u nhng nm 90. Hn na di thng ln cn phi quan tm n tng thch ph vi cc h thng truyn dn khc. H thng HDSL 1,544 Mbit/s i dy n (i khi gi gi l SDSL) pht trin vo u nhng nm 90 c di mch vng t hn 6 kft trn i dy 26 AWG; do c khong ngn ny hn ch rt ln kh nng s dng ca n. Ch vi k thut tin tin xut hin vo cui nm 90 th truyn dn 1,544 Mbit/s n song cng mi tr thnh hin thc. HDSL2, m t phn 2.4.4, p dng truyn dn song cng n. Truyn dn n cng kp s dng hai i dy, vi mt i dy truyn ton b ti theo mt hng v i dy th hai truyn ton b ti theo hng ngc li. Phng php ny rt n gin tch tn hiu hai hng khc nhau ca truyn dn. Khai thc T1 truyn thng s dng truyn dn n cng kp. Truyn dn n cng kp c nhc im truyn tn hiu c bng tn ln do c suy hao ln v xuyn m tn s cao. Do c xuyn m cc tn hiu truyn trn hai i dy khng hon ton tch bit. Do cc thit b thu pht n cng kp c th n gin hn nhng hot ng km hn song cng kp. Truyn dn song cng kp ci tin di mch vng v tng thch ph bng cch gi mt na thng tin trn mi i dy. HDSL gim bng tn ca tn hiu truyn bng cch s dng truyn dn ECH truyn hai hng cng mt bng tn. Nng lng tn hiu truyn ca HDSL song cng kp gim dn i vi tn s ln hn 196 kHz. Kt qu l tn hiu xuyn m v suy hao gim. Mt u im khc ca truyn dn song cng kp l s dng mt i dy c th d dng cung cp h thng truyn dn na tc .
2.4.2 HDSL th h th hai (HDSL2)

Tiu chun cho cng ngh HDSL th h th hai xut hin vo nm 1995 c tc bit v di mch vng ging nh HDSL th h th nht ch khc l s dng mt i dy thay v hai i dy. Gim s lng i dy l rt quan trng bi v rt nhiu LECs thiu cc i dy d mt s vng. HDSL2 c k thut m ho cao v iu ch phc tp hn.
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La chn k cng tn s pht v thu cho HDSL2 chng li xuyn m. Cc phin bn mi ca HDSL mn nhiu tng t ADSL. Phin bn tng thch tc dng nh xut hin. Ngi ta ang xem xt t bng tn s cho HDSL ln trn bng tn thoi tng t hoc trn ISDN c bn. Thut ng SDSL (DSL i xng hay DSL i dy n) cng c s dng m t cc phin bn sau ca HDSL.
2.4.3 SHDSL

SHDSL l cng ngh kt hp ca HDSL 2 v SDSL vi tc thay i t 192kbps n 2,134 Mbps, khong cch tng ng vi tc ti a l 2km. Trong thc t, n c th cu hnh dng 2 i dy cung cp tc t 384kbps n 4,264Mbps.
2.4.4 HDSL4

S dng 4 i dy truyn tc nh trong HDSL2 do vy n c th gim bng tn s dng, ko di c ly truyn dn, gim s lng trm lp, do vy n c th t c c li l 11kf thay v 9 kf nh HDSL2, ng thi n cng lm gim tc ng nhin n cc h thng khc.

2.5 VDSL v VDSL2


2.5.1 VDSL

L mt cng ngh trong h xDSL VDSL (Very high data rate DSL) cung cp cc ng thu bao s vi tc rt cao. Cng nh cc dch v khc trong h xDSL nh ADSL, HDSL, SDSL k thut VDSL c s dng cung cp cc dch v bng rng nh cc knh tivi, truy nhp d liu vi tc rt cao hi ngh qua video, video ng, truyn t hp d liu v tn hiu video trn cng mt ng dy cho cc thu bao dn c v kinh doanh trong lc cha lp t c mng cp quang n tn nh thu bao. Hnh 2.11 m t cc kh nng cung cp dch v ca k thut VDSL. K thut VDSL s dng phng thc truyn dn ging nh ADSL nhng k thut VDSL c kh nng cung cp s liu vi tc rt cao gn gp 10 ln tc truyn dn ca ADSL , Hnh 2.11. Tc truyn dn ca VDSL lung xung t ti 52 Mb/s trong chiu di khong 300m, v lung xung t tc thp 1,5 Mb/s vi chiu di cp 3,6km. Tc lung ln trong ch khng i xng (l phng thc m tc truyn dn t pha tng i ti thu bao bng tc truyn dn t thu bao ti tng i) l 1,6 2,3 Mb/s. Tc lung trong ch i xng l 26 Mbps. Phng thc truyn dn khng i xng rt ph hp cung cp dch v tc cao t pha tng i ti thu bao nn rt hay c s dng trong k thut VDSL. Trong VDSL c hai knh s liu u hot ng tn s cao hn tn s s dng cho thoi v ISDL nn cho php cung cp cc dch v VDSL bn cnh cc dch v ang tn ti.
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Khi cn tng tc lung xung hoc ch i xng th h thng VDSL s dng k thut trit ting vng. Cng ngh VDSL c ng dng trong truy cp dch v bng rng nh dch v Internet tc cao, cc chng trnh Video theo yu cu. Ngoi vic c kh nng cung cp tc cao hn nhiu so vi tc truyn dn ca k thut ADSL k thut VDSL cn yu cu khong ng nh hn k thut ADSL nn k thut truyn dn ca VDSL khng phc tp bng k thut truyn dn ADSL. Mc d c nhiu u im nh vy nhng k thut ny vn cha c s dng rng ri l v cha la chn c c ch iu ch, bng tn, phng php ghp knh thch hp. Hn na, mt s chipset ca modem s dng k thut VDSL vn cn t nn k thut ny cha c s dng nhiu trong thc t. Tuy nhin y l mt k thut ha hn trong mt vi nm tip theo. Mng vng VDSL Cp ng STM Chuyn mch gi ATM ATM Ton b ATM Hnh 2.11: Kh nng cung cp dch v ca k thut VDSL Trong ngha l bc m tin ti mng truy nhp quang (APON, BPON, GPON), VDSL c s dng trong cc mch vng ni ht truyn tn hiu t khi mng quang ONU ti cc thu bao. Bng 2.2 m t tc v khong cch t ONU ti thu bao. Bng 2.2: Tc khong cch cc loi VDSL Tc thu (Mbit/s) 52 26 26 13 13 Tc pht (Mbit/s) 6,4 3,2 26 13 26
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Dch Cp quang v

ONU

VDSL

H U B

TE

STM Chuyn mch gi

Khong cch (met) 1000- 300 2500- 800 1000- 300 1800- 600 3750- 1200

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2.5.2 VDSL2

L cng ngh mi nht trong h xDSL n c th cung cp tc ln ti 250Mbps, n c thit k cung cp kt ni cho cc dnh v voice, video, data, HDTV v game tng tc. VDSL2 c miu t trong chun G993.2, n l s m rng ca chun G993.1 dnh cho VDSL, n cung cp cc tc bt bt i xng, i xng (song cng) ln ti 250Mbps vi bng tn s dng ln ti 30MHz. VDSL2 s gim tc rt nhanh t 250Mbps ti ngun n 100Mbps ti khong cch 500m, 50Mbps ti khong cch c 1km, sau vi c ly t 1,6km th tc ca n nh l ADSL2+. VDSL2 deteriorates quickly from a theoretical maximum of 250 Mbit/s at 'source' to 100 Mbit/s at 0.5 km (1640 ft) and 50 Mbit/s at 1 km (3280 ft), but degrades at a much slower rate from there, and still outperforms VDSL. Starting from 1.6 km (1 mile) its performance is equal to ADSL2+. VDSL2 cng cho php h tr tc lung xung t 1 n 4Mbps trong khong cch t 4 n 5km, do vy n khng ging nh VDSL n c th c s dng cho c nhng c li trung bnh.

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2.6 Tnh hnh trin khai ti Vitnam

Qung Ninh
Hi Dng
Hng Yn

B Hi Phng

Pha 1+

B H Ni

Pha 1
Pha 2

Ngh An

Tng s thu bao n thng 2nm 2006 l 96392

Hu

Nng

xDSL

Pha 3 64/64
k Lk Lm ng
Bnh Dng ng Nai

Khnh Ha

B Ra - Vng Tu

An Giang
Kin Giang

B Tp. HCM

Cn Th

Pha 1+

Hnh 2.12: Tnh hnh trin khai xDSL ti Vit nam ca VNPT xDSL c ng dng n l trong cc lnh vc Vit nam ngay t nhng ngy u ra i, nhng mi n nm 2002 VNPT bt u th nghim trin khai trn din rng vi hai h thng s dng IP-DSLAM v ATM-DSLAM. Chi tit v tng bc trin khai c th hin trn hnh v 2.12

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Chng 3: Cng ngh truy nhp quang


3.1 Cc mng PON
Ta c th phn mng truy nhp quang thnh h thng tch cc v th ng ph thuc vo cc c tnh ca thit b i hi gia trm trung tm v nh ca thu bao. Hu ht cc mng vin thng ngy nay u da trn cc thit b Active components tm gi l cc thit b tch cc, ti tng i ca nh cung cp dch v ln thit b u cui ca khch hng cng nh cc trm lp, cc thit b chuyn tip v mt s cc thit b khc trn ng truyn. Tch cc c ngha l cc thit b ny cn phi cung cp ngun cho mt s thnh phn, thng l b x l, cc chp nh Vi Passive Optical Networks mng quang th ng tt c cc thnh phn tch cc gia tng i CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo l cc thit b quang th ng, iu hng cc lu lng trn mng da trn vic phn tch nng lng ca cc bc sng quang hc ti cc im u cui trn ng truyn. Vic thay th cc thit b tch cc s tit kim chi ph cho cc nh cung cp dch v v h khng cn cn n nng lng v cc thit b ch ng trn ng truyn na. Cc b ghp / tch th ng ch lm cc cng vic n thun nh cho i qua hoc chn n h sng li V th, khng cn nng lng hay cc ng tc x l tn hiu no v t , gn nh ko di v hn thi gian trung bnh gia hai ln li MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures), gim chi ph bo tr tng th cho cc nh cung cp dch v. Mt h thng mng PON bao gm cc thit b kt cui knh quang (OLT Optical line terminators) t ti CO v b cc n v mng quang (ONU Optical network Unit) c t ti nh ngi s dng. Gia chng l h thng mng quang (ODN Optical distribution network) bao gm cp quang, cc thit b ghp / tch th ng (Xem Hnh 3.1) Cng ngh truy nhp quang c th c nhn nhn theo mc cp quang ha mng truy nhp vi khi nim v kin trc mng FTTx theo kiu cu hnh sao, bao gm h cc kin trc sau: Cp quang ti tn Office FTTO. Cp quang ti tn khu dn c FTTC. Cp quang ti tn khu cng s FTTB. Cp quang ti tn h gia nh FTTH.

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Hnh 3.1: S logic h thng mng PON Ngoi ra, nh trn hnh 3.2, cn c vo vic phn tch thng tin ca ngi dng ta c th c cc mng PON nh: WDMA PON, tuy nhin do gi c ca gii php ny t cho nn cha l mt gii php cho mng truy nhp ti mc cng ngh hin nay. C mt vi gii php ci tin nh l WRPON (gii php ny s dng mt AWG thay v mt b hp tch quang da trn bc sng), mc d vy gi c cng khng phi l r. TDMA PON s dng gn cc khe thi gian cho cc thu bao khc nhau v s dng hai bc sng cho lung ln v lung xung. TDMA PON c bit n ban u l APON v sau c thay th bi tn l BPON nm 2001. Nm 1997 FSAN xut ln ITU-T v sau mt thi gian ITU-T cng b b chun lin quan n BPON c th l : G983.1 : Nm 1998, trnh by v lp vt l ca h thng APON/BPON. G983.2: Nm 1999, c tnh ca giao din iu khin v qun l ONT G983.3: Ph chun nm 2001, c tnh m rng cung cp nhng dch v thng qua phn b bc sng. G983.4 : Thng qua nm 2001, m t nhng c ch cn thit h tr phn b bng tn ng trong cc ONT ca cng mt mng PON.
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G983.5: Thng qua nm 2002, xc nh nhng c ch chuyn mch bo v cho BPON G983.6: Thng qua nm 2002, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nng chuyn mch ti ONT G983.7: Thng qua nm 2001, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nm DBA ti ONT. G983.8: Thng qua nm 2003, xc nh nhng m rng cho giao din iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng dch v m rng ti ONT. Sau vt qua ngng tc 622Mbps ca BPON v tng tnh hiu qu ca BPON cho nhng lu lng s liu, nm 2001 FSAN a ra GPON s dng GFP (Generic Framing Procedure), cho php hot ng ch khung thay i v t bo ATM. Nm 2003- 2004, da trn nhng xut ca FSAN, ITU-T a ra h thng chun v GPON (G984.1, G984.2 v G984.3), chi tit v chun ny c th tham kho a chun ITU-T nm 2004, vi nhng c im c bn sau: G984.1: m t nhng c tnh chung ca h thng GPON nh l kin trc, tc bit, bo v v bo mt G984.2: Xc nh nhng thng s ca GPON ti tc ln l (155Mbps, 622Mbps, 1,5Gbps, 2, 5GBps ), xung l (1,5Gbps v 2,5Gbps) G984.3 : M t nhng c tnh v khung hi t truyn dn ca GPON; bn tin, phng php xc nh khong, hot ng, gim st, nhng chc nng bo dng, v bo mt. Vi mt hng pht trin khc, khi m Ethernet pht trin rng khp, mng quang th ng da trn Ethernet EPON hnh thnh nm 2001, ng gi d liu trong khung Ethernet theo chun IEEE 802.3, s dng m ng 8b/10b hot ng vi tc 1G s dng MAC ca 802.3. Sau nay nhng phin bn tip theo cho php EPON hot ng nhng tc cao hn na.

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Hnh 3.2: Cu hnh chung ca mt mng PON

3.2 APON
3.2.1 Cu hnh tham chiu
Q3 Chc nng qun l h thng mng truy nhp

ONU

R/S

S/R

SNI ODN UNI AF ONU


IFPON IFPON

OLT

Node dch

Hnh 3.3: Cu hnh tham chiu APON H thng bao gm OLT, ONU, cp quang s dng cu hnh PON trong c mt b chia quang th ng. Cc ONU chia s chung dung lng ca mt si quang, khi s

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dng b chia, vn ta cn c bit quan tm l s bo mt. ng ln, cn phi s dng giao thc mt phng thc a truy nhp. Mng phn phi quang ODN cung cp 1 hoc nhiu hn cc ng dn quang t OLT n mt hoc nhiu hn cc ONU. Mi ng dn quang c nh ngha gia im tham chiu S v R trong 1 ca s bc sng nht nh. Hai hng truyn dn trong ODN c nh ngha nh sau: ng xung cho tn hiu t OLT n ONU ng ln cho tn hiu t ONU n OLT Giao din ti hai im tham chiu S, R (c gi chung l IF PON) h tr tt c cc thnh phn giao thc cn thit cho php truyn dn gia OLT v ONU. ONU c th c mt chc nng thch ng AF cho truyn dn ng dy thu bao s DSL qua cp ng n nh thu bao. OAN c qun l thng qua giao din qun tr Q3.
3.2.1.1 OLT

OLT c chc nng qun l tt c cc hot ng ca APON. ONU v OLT cung cp cc dch v truyn dn mt cch trong sut gia UNI v SNI thng qua PON. OLT c kt ni n mng chuyn mch thng qua cc giao din chun V5.x, VB5.x, NNTs. OLT bao gm 3 phn: chc nng cng dch v, giao din ODN, phn ghp cc VP. Mng li

Giao din ODN . . . Giao din ODN


Cp ngun

Phn li MUX

Phn dch v SPF . . . SPF . . .

OAM

Hnh 3.4: Cc khi chc nng trong OLT Chc nng cng dch v SPF Chc nng ny ng vai tr giao tip vi node dch v. Chc nng cng dch v thc hin chn t bo ATM vo ti trng SDH ng ln, v tch t bo ATM t ti trng SDH ng xung. Chc nng ny phi c d phng, do chuyn mch bo v l cn thit.
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MUX. MUX cung cp kt ni VP gia chc nng cng dch v SPF v giao din ODN. Cc VP khc nhau c gn vo cc dch v khc nhau ti IF PON. Cc thng tin khc nh bo hiu, OAM c trao i nh cc VC trong VP. Giao din ODN u cui ng dy PON x l chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN chn cc t bo ATM vo ti trng PON ng xung v tch cc t bo ATM t ti trng ng ln.
3.2.1.2 ONU

ONU gm giao din ODN, cng ngi dng, chc nng ghp knh/phn knh truyn dn, dch v & khch hng, v cp ngun.
Phn li

Phn dch v Khch hng UPF . . . UPF


Cp ngun

MUX

Giao din
ODN

. ODN . .

Phn chung

OAM

Hnh 3.5: Cc khi chc nng trong ONU Giao din ODN Giao din ODN x l cc qu trnh chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN trch cc t bo ATM t ti trng PON ng xung v chn cc t bo ATM vo ti trng ng ln trn c s ng b t s nh thi khung ng xung. Ghp knh Ch cc t bo ATM c hiu lc mi c th i qua b phn ghp knh do nhiu VP c th chia s bng thng ng ln mt cch hiu qu. Chc nng cng ngi dng UPF Chc nng cng ngi dng tng thch cc yu cu UNI ring bit. OAN c th h tr mt s cc truy nhp v cc UNI khc nhau. Cc UNU ny yu cu cc chc nng

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ring bit ph thuc vo cc c t giao din c lin quan. Tch cc t bo ATM ng xung v chn cc t bo ATM ng ln. Cp ngun Vic cp ngun cho ONU c th c thc hin c lp
3.2.1.3 ODN

ODN cung cp phng tin truyn dn quang cho kt ni vt l gia OLT v ONU. Cc ODN ring l c th c kt hp v m rng nh cc b khuch i quang. Thnh phn quang th ng ODN bao gm cc thnh phn quang th ng: Cp v si quang n mode Connector quang Thit b r nhnh quang th ng B suy hao quang th ng Mi hn Giao din quang Hnh 3.5 ch ra cu hnh tham chiu mc vt l thng thng ca ODN Nu ODN cn thm cc connector quang hoc cc thit b quang th ng th chng s c t gia S v R, suy hao ca chng s c tnh n trong cc php tnh suy hao. ODN cung cp ng quang gia OLT v ONU, mi ng quang c nh ngha l khong gia cc im tham chiu ti mt ca s bc sng nht nh. Cc giao din quang trong hnh 5 l: Oru, Ord Giao din quang ti im tham chiu S/R gia ONU v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng. Olu, Old Giao din quang ti im tham chiu R/S gia OLT v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng.

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R/S

R/S

ONU1 Oru , Ord . . .


R/S

ODN

OLT

ONUn Oru , Ord Hnh 3.6: Cu hnh vt l ca ODN


3.2.2 Cc c t cho APON

Olu , Old

APON l s kt hp gia phng thc truyn ti khng ng b ATM vi mng truy nhp quang th ng PON. Mng APON s dng cng ngh ATM l giao thc truyn tin. Cng ngh ATM cung cp s mm do theo khi nim trong sut dch v v phn b bng tn,ngoi ra cn c nhng tnh nng rt hu ch cho hot ng khai thc v bo dng cc kt ni t u cui n u cui nh gim c chi ph hot ng ca mng. Cc u im ca ATM c kt hp vi mi trng truyn dn l si quang vi ti nguyn bng tn dng nh l v hn to ra mt mng truy nhp bng rng c bit ti nh l BPON (Broadband PON-mng PON bng rng). Nh mi h thng khc, APON cng c chia thnh cc lp, lp con vi cc nhim v c th. Cc lp ny thuc mt trong hai mt bng. Mt l mt bng d liu c nhim v phn phi lu lng n v i t cc thit b u cui, trong trng hp ny l cc cng ti OLT v ONU. Hai l mt bng iu khin, hay mt bng OAM hay h thng h tr hot ng (OSS), thc hin cc chc nng vn hnh, iu khin, qun l. Nhng chc nng ny c tnh cht khng lin tc, v d nh l cc chc nng OAM: khi to, khi phc li, bo co trng thi, vi trng hp mng quang c cc chc nng ring bit nh iu chnh cng sut laser. Trong bi vit, ta s lit k thng tin iu khin cha trong cc trng tiu , tiu con, hay cc phn thng tin mo u trc lu lng ngi dng. Ta phi hiu rng, thng tin tiu thuc v 1 lp s khng c nhn thy bi cc lp trn ti c pha gi v pha nhn. Ta miu t cu trc ng php cc bn tin bng cch lit k tng bit, tng byte trong format bn tin. Thc t, ch cn xem bn tin ca mt lp ni g, nghe g ta c th hon ton bit chc nng ca giao thc lp .

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Hot ng ca APON cng s c cp n qua bi vit thng qua vic m t qu trnh trao i bn tin gia cc thc th ngang hng theo thi gian, vic trao i cc lnh v cc p ng gia cc lp lin k theo chiu dc trong ngn xp giao thc.
3.2.3 Cu trc phn lp APON

M hnh phn lp mng ATM gm c lp mi trng truyn dn v lp ng, lp mi trng truyn dn phn chia thnh lp mi trng vt l v lp hi t truyn dn. Trong mng ATM-PON lp ng tng ng vi lp ng o ca lp ATM Lp di cng l lp phng tin vt l thc hin giao tip vi phn quang ca mng (hay chnh l mng phn phi quang ODN). Lp ny thc hin cc chc nng: chuyn i in-quang, nhn/truyn cc tn hiu n/i phng tin vt l ti mt trong ba bc sng quang (1310, 1490, 1550nm), kt ni vi si quang ca ODN. Cu trc ca lp tun theo tp cc tham s quang in c chun ha. Lp ng Lp Mi trng truyn dn Lp hi t truyn dn Lp con Thch ng Chuyn i t bo ATM v cc khung d liu ngi dng Lp thch ng ca B-ISDN -Xp xp -Cp pht khe t bo Lp con truyn dn -Cp pht bng tn PON -Bo mt v an ton -ng chnh khung -ng b cm(Burst) -ng b bit/byte -Tng thch E/O -Ghp bc sng -Kt ni si quang

Lp vt l

Hnh 3.7: Cu trc phn lp mng APON Gia lp phng tin vt l v lp ng (giao in m qua t bo ATM c phn phi ti lp khch hng) l lp hi t truyn dn TC (tng ng vi lp 2 trong m hnh OSI). Lp TC c phn chia thnh lp con truyn dn PON v lp con thch ng nm trn, tng ng vi lp con hi t truyn dn ca m hnh B-ISDN. Lp con thch ng c chun ha da trn chun ATM trn c s cp ng truyn thng [ITU I.732]. Chc nng ca lp ny l chuyn i gia khung 125s mc ngi dng (n v d liu giao thc PDU) v t bo ATM.

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3.2.3.1 Lp vt l

Lp ny khng ging nh cc lp trn l cc thnh phn phn cng ch khng phi l phn mm. Phn cng ny c nh ngha bi cc chun [G.983.1 & G.983.3] v tun theo cc tham s sau: Tc bit: 155.52 hoc 622.08Mb/s ng xung v 155.52Mb/s ng ln Bc sng: 1260 n 1360nm ng ln, 1480 n 1580nm ng xung Dng lu lng: s c hai hng, h tr tng t ng xung T l chia cng sut quang: ln n 32, con s ny b gii hn bi suy hao ODN
3.2.3.2 Lp hi t truyn dn TC

Lp con truyn dn PON ca lp hi t truyn dn Lp con truyn dn TS hon ton lm vic vi t bo. Theo hng v, lp ny nhn cc t bo t tn hiu in do lp phng tin vt l a n, ng b ti mc bit v byte, gii hn t bo v khung c xc nh, mo u c tch v x l, chuyn cc lung t bo ln lp cao hn tip theo. Theo hng i, qu trnh x l din ra ngc li. Trong lp ny, giao thc sp xp c s dng m bo rng cc t bo n t cc ONU khc nhau khng chng lp ln nhau. Hai chc nng quan trng khc m chng ta s tho lun sau l gn bng tn ng (DBA) v mt m Lp con thch ng ca lp hi t truyn dn y l lp trong c s chuyn i din ra gia t bo ATM v PDU (c th l: SONET/SDH, xDSL, cc PDU da trn khung 125s [ITU I.732] ca cc cng ty in thoi). Lp ny khng cung cp giao din vi cc lu lng trn c s gi nh Ethernet hay IP. cung cp nhng giao din ny ta phi c 1 phn mm chuyn i thm vo, phn ny khng trong phm vi chun.

3.3 EPON
3.3.1 Kin trc EPON

Kin trc IEEE 802 cho rng tt c mi trm truyn thng trong tng phn ca mt mng LAN u c kt ni ti mt thit b dng chung. Trong mt thit b dng chung, tt c cc trm u c coi nh thuc v mt phm vi truy nhp n, y phn ln cc trm c th pht tn hiu mt thi gian v tt c cc trm khc c th nhn tn hiu trong ton b khong thi gian . Nhng vng a truy nhp c th c ni lin vi nhau bng mt thit b c gi l bridge. Nhng bridge la chn chuyn tip nhng gi tin to ra mt cu trc ca mng LAN bao gm ton b cc vng truy nhp. Vic la chn chuyn tip s ngn chn vic truyn dn mt gi tin trong nhng vng m khng cha bt c mt trm ch ca
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gi tin ny. Cu ni ca nhiu LAN uc s dng m rng cung cp kh nng qun l c lp ca nhng vng truy nhp, tng s trm hoc phm vi vt l ca mt mng xa hn gii hn ca nhng phn LAN ring bit, v ci thin s lng u vo. Trong mt trng hp xa, mt vng truy nhp c th bao gm mt trm. Tiu biu l nhiu vng trm n c kt ni bng lin kt im - im (P2P) ti mt bridge, cu hnh ca mt LAN chuyn mch. Da vo khi nim vng truy nhp, nhng bridge khng bao gi chuyn tip mt khung tr li cng li vo ca n. Trong trng hp vng truy nhp bao gm nhiu trm, n c cho rng ton b cc trm kt ni ti cng ging nhau trn bridge c th lin lc vi mt trm khc khng thng qua bridge. Trong trung hp LAN chuyn mch, khng th c s d dng tip nhn trong vng truy nhp ca ni gi, v khng c khung no c chuyn tip tr li. C mt vn cn quan tm trong phng thc hot ng bridge ny l: Ngi dng kt ni ti nhng ONU khc trong cng mt PON khng th thuc cng LAN v khng c kh nng lin lc vi mt ngi dng khc lp 2 (lp lin kt d liu). Nguyn nhn l phng tin PON khng cho php cc ONU lin lc theo mt hng khc, bi tnh nh hng ca nhng b tch/ghp th ng. OLT ch c mt cng n kt ni ti tt c cc ONU, v mt bridge c t vo trong OLT s khng bao gi chuyn tip mt khung d liu tr li cng m n i vo. Nhim v trong IEEE 802.3ah, vn ny t ra mt cu hi v EPON tun theo kin trc IEEE 802, c bit vi cu ni P802.1D. Trong EPON c nhng cu hnh nh sau : M hnh cu hnh im im (P2PE). M hnh chia s phng tin (SME) M hnh kt hp P2PE v SME. Gii php cui cng
3.3.2 M hnh ngn xp EPON

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Hnh 3.8: Ngn xp EPON. Ngn xp ca EPON c mt s thay i ln so vi Ethernet 802.3 ban u bi v nhng nhng chun cu hnh ca cc PON. ln xut bn trc ca chun 802.3 s dng cu hnh im - im (P2P) m y cc mng PON yu cu cu hnh im - a im (P2MP). Ngn xp EPON mi vi mt s thch ng cho P2MP c ch ra hnh 3.8. y c b sung lp iu khin MAC a im.
3.3.3 Giao thc EPON.

x l cc yu cu v lu lng trong lung ln, EPON s dng giao thc iu khin a im MPCP. y l giao thc da trn vic truyn cc khung, da trn vic truyn cc bn tin iu khin lp MAC 64 byte. Cc bn tin ny kt hp vi lu lng ng xung cung cp vic truyn dn ty cho cc khung Ethernet 802.3. Cc chc nng ca MPCP l : Yu cu v phn b bng tn Tha thun cc tham s Qun l v nh thi lung xung t cc ONU trnh ng Sp xp v ti u ha cc khe thi gian lung xung gim st tr T ng khi phc v ng k cc ONU

3.3.4 Bo mt trong EPON

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Cc k thut PON rt hn ch trong vic chng nghe ln v chng n cp cc dch v , nhng ngh v c cu bo mt trong tiu chun 802.3ah khng c c nhng h tr cn thit, thay vo l cc tiu chun v c cu bo mt trong 802.1ae. Do cc tiu chun ny khng hon thnh vo ng lc cc tiu chun v EPON ra i nn hu ht cc mng EPON c trin khai trn th gii hin nay u s dng mt c ch bo mt duy nht. Trong vi trng hp, cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng ln a ra c ch bo mt ring ca mnh, c ch ny khng nhng p ng c cc yu cu k thut cn thit m cn c th c coi l mi trng gim st ni ht. V d, h thng mt m ha thng tin AES khng c k hoch bo mt khi c ng dng ti Trung Quc v cc nh cung cp EPON phi s dng phng php xo trn do cng ty vin thng Trung Quc cung cp bo mt cho ng xung. C cu mt m ha ca EPON c da trn thut ton mt m ha tin tin AES (Advance Encryption Standard) do vin k thut v tiu chun ca Hoa K xut bn [FIPS197]. AES cho php s dng cc t kha 128 bit, 192 bit hay 256 bit. Cu trc khung Ethernet bao gm c phn m u v IPG khng b thay i ph hp vi cc tiu chun ca IEEE v trnh nhng b sung sau ny ca tiu chun IEEE 802.3. m bo tnh c nhn cao, phng php ny mt m ha ton b mt khung Ethernet, bao gm c phn header Ethernet v trng FCS. Cc bn tin OAM v MPCP cng c mt m ha.
3.3.5 Nhng bc pht trin tip theo

Nhng tim nng ca EPON l g? Cu hi ny c tr li bi nhm lm vic IEEE 802.3 vo thng 3 nm 2006 khi h thnh cng trong vic nghin cu t c cu hnh EPON 10 Gb/s. EPON 10 Gb/s l mt bc tin mi trong vic tng dung lng, n h tr hiu qu cho vic truyn tn hiu truyn hnh cht lng cao v nhu cu h tr mng ng trc v tuyn th h k tip. Nghin cu ca IEEE 802.3 v EPON 10 Gb/s tp trung vo nh ngha mt lp vt l im a im mi, duy tr lp MAC, iu khin MAC v tt c cc lp bn trn khng b thay i theo phm vi rng nht c th. iu ny c ngha l cc sng mang vn c kin trc nh c v c tng thch vi h thng qun l mng (NMS), cc hot ng ca lp PON, qun l v h thng OAM... Nhm nghin cu EPON 10 Gb/s t ra nhng mc tiu cho c truyn dn trn ng dy i xng v bt i xng. H thng i xng s hot ng tc 10 Gb/s c lung ln v lung xung. H thng bt i xng s dng lung xung 10 Gb/s v lung ln 1 Gb/s, a s ging nh cc tiu chun sn c ca IEEE 802.3ah cho lung ln.

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im nhn mnh ca cu trc i xng l hot ng truyn dn theo ch cm tc 10 Gb/s. M ha ng dy 64b/66b c dng trong lp vt l Ethernet 10 Gb/s l cn thit FEC. EPON 10 Gb/s c nh gi l c tnh hiu qu kinh t cao, n cung cp bng thng ln hn mng CATV s dng DOSIS 3.0. y chnh l nguyn nhn ch yu lm cho EPON 10 Gb/s l mt cng ngh c kh nng thay th cho cc mng CATV th h tip theo. N cng cho php thay i mt cch t bin bng thng d liu sn c cho cc thu bao m khng cn vic ngi qun l ng dy thay i cch phn phi video sn c.

3.4 Metro Ethernet


3.4.1 Li ch khi dng dch v Ethernet

Nhiu nh cung cp dch v cung cp dch v Metro Ethernet. Mt s nh cung cp m rng dch v Ethernet vut xa phm vi mng ni th (MAN) v vun n phm vi mng din rng (WAN). Hng ngn thu bao c s dng dch v Ethernet v s lng thu bao ang tng ln mt cch nhanh chng. Nhng thu bao ny b thu ht bi nhng li ch ca dch v Ethernet em li, bao gm: Tnh d s dng. Hiu qu v chi ph (cost effectiveness). Linh hot.
3.4.1.1 Tnh d s dng

Dch v Ethernet da trn mt giao din Ethernet (Ethernet interface) chun, ph bin dng rng ri trong cc h thng mng cc b (LAN). Hu nh tt c cc thit b v my ch trong LAN u kt ni dng Ethernet, v vy vic s dng Ethernet kt ni vi nhau s n gin ha qu trnh hot ng v cc chc nng qun tr, qun l v cung cp(OAM &P).
3.4.1.2 Hiu qu v chi ph

Dch v Ethernet lm gim chi ph u t (CAPEX-capital expense) v chi ph vn hnh (OPEX-operation expense): Mt l, do s ph bin ca Ethernet trong hu ht tt c cc sn phm mng nn giao din Ethernet c chi ph khng t. Hai l, t tn km hn nhng dch v cnh tranh khc do gi thnh thit b thp, chi ph qun tr v vn hnh thp hn. Ba l, nhiu nh cung cp dch v Ethernet cho php nhng thu bao tng thm bng thng mt cch kh mm do.. iu ny cho php thu bao thm bng thng khi cn thit v h ch tr cho nhng g h cn.

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3.4.1.3 Tnh linh hot

Dch v Ethernet cho php nhng thu bao thit lp mng ca h theo nhng cch hoc l phc tp hn hoc l khng th thc hin vi cc dch v truyn thng khc. V d: mt cng ty thu mt giao tip Ethernet n c th kt ni nhiu mng v tr khc nhau thnh lp mt Intranet VPN ca h, kt ni nhng i tc kinh doanh thnh Extranet VPN hoc kt ni Internet tc cao n ISP. Vi dch v Ethenet, cc thu bao cng c th thm vo hoc thay i bng thng trong vi pht thay v trong vi ngy ngy hoc thm ch vi tun khi s dng nhng dch v mng truy nhp khc (Frame relay, ATM,). Ngoi ra, nhng thay i ny khng i hi thu bao phi mua thit b mi hay ISP c cn b k thut n kim tra, h tr ti ch.
3.4.2 M hnh dch v Ethernet

Tt c cc dch v Ethernet s c mt vi thuc tnh chung, nhng dch v khc nhau s khc nhau v mt s cc thuc tnh. Dch v Ethernet c cung cp bi mng Metro Ethernet Network (MEN) ca nh cung cp. Thit b khch hng CE (Customer Equipment) gn vo mng MEN qua giao tip ngi s dng-mng UNI (User-Network Interface) s dng chun giao din Ethernet chun vi tc 10Mbit/s, 100Mbit/s, 1Gbit/s hoc 10Gbit/s. C th c nhiu UNIs kt ni n MEN t mt v tr. Nhng dch v c xc nh theo quan im ca thu bao. Nhng dch v ny dng cc cng ngh truyn dn hay cc giao thc MEN khc nhau nh SONET, DWDM, MPLS, GFP, Tuy nhin, di gc thu bao, kt ni mng v pha thu bao ca giao din UNI l Ethernet.
3.4.2.1 Kt ni Ethernet o

Mt thuc tnh c bn ca dch v Ethernet l kt ni Ethernet o (EVC -Ethernet Virtual Connection). EVC c nh ngha bi MEF l mt s kt hp ca hai hay nhiu UNIs trong UNI l mt giao din Ethernet, l im ranh gii gia thit b khch hng v mng MEN ca nh cung cp dch v. Ni mt cch n gin, EVC thc hin 2 chc nng: Kt ni hai hay nhiu v tr thu bao (chnh xc l UNIs), cho php truyn cc frame Ethernet gia chng. Ngn chn d liu truyn gia nhng v tr thu bao (UNI) khng cng EVC tng t. Kh nng ny cho php EVC cung cp tnh ring t v s bo mt tng t Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) ca Frame Relay hay ATM. Hai quy tc c bn sau chi phi, iu khin vic truyn cc Ethernet frame trn EVC. Th nht, cc Ethernet frame i vo MEN khng bao gi c quay tr li UNI m n xut pht. Th hai, cc a ch MAC ca trong Ethernet frame gi nguyn khng
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thay i t ngun n ch. Ngc li vi mng nh tuyn (routed network), cc tiu (header) Ethernet frame b thay i khi qua router. Da trn nhng c im ny, EVC c th c s dng xy dng mng ring o lp 2 (Layer 2 Virtual Private Network-VPN). MEF nh ngha 2 kiu ca EVCs. im-im(Point-to-point). a im - im (Multipoint-to-Multipoint). EVC c th c dng xy dng mng ring o lp 2 (Layer 2 Virtual Private Network-VPN). Ngoi nhng im chung ny, dch v Ethernet c th thay i vi nhiu cch khc nhau. Phn ny tho lun v nhng dng khc nhau ca dch v Ethernet v mt vi c im quan trng phn bit chng t nhng dch v khc.
3.4.2.2 Khun kh nh ngha dch v Ethernet.

gip nhng thu bao c th hiu r hn s khc nhau trong cc Dch v Ethernet, MEF pht trin cc Khun kh nh ngha dch v Ethernet. Mc tiu ca h thng ny l: nh ngha v t tn cho cc kiu dch v Ethernet. nh ngha nhng thuc tnh (attribute) v cc thng s ca thuc tnh (attribut parameters) c dng nh ngha mt dch v Ethernet ring bit. Hin ti MEF v ang xc nh (v cha thnh chun) hai kiu dch v Ethernet: Kiu Ethernet Line (E-Line) Service dch v im-im (point-to-point) Kiu LAN (E-LAN) Service dch v a im - a im (multipoint-tomultipoint) nh r mt cch hon ton v dch v Ethernet, nh cung cp phi xc nh kiu dch v v UNI; cc thuc tnh ca dch v EVC kt hp vi kiu dch v . Cc thuc tnh ny c th c tp hp li theo nhng dng sau: Giao din vt l (Ethernet Physical Interface). Thng s lu lng (Traffic Parameters) Thng s v hiu nng (Performance Parameters). Lp dch v (Class of Service). Service Frame Delivery H tr cc th VLAN (VLAN Tag Support) Ghp dch v (Service Multiplexing). Gp nhm (Bundling). Lc bo mt (Sercurity Filters). Kiu dch v Ethernet Line
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Kiu Ethernet Line (E-Line Service) cung cp kt ni Ethernet o im-im gia 2 UNIs. Dng n gin nht, dch v E-Line c th cung cp bng thng i xng cho d liu gi nhn trn hai hng khng c cc m bo tc gia hai UNI 10 Mbps.. Dng phc tp hn, dch v E-line c th cung cp CIR (Commited Information Rate) v thuc tnh v tr, jitter, Ghp dch v (service multiplexing) cho php kt hp nhiu EVC trn mt cng vt l UNI duy nht. Mt dch v E-Line c th cung cp point-to-point EVCs gia UNIs tng t nh vic s dng Frame Relay PVCs ni lin cc site vi nhau. Mt dch v E-Line cng cung cp vic kt ni point-to-point gia UNIs tng t vi mt dch v thu knh ring TDM. Dch v E-Line cng c mt vi c im c bn nh Frame Delay, Fram Jitter v Frame Loss ti thiu v khng c ghp dch v (Service Multiplexing), tc l yu cu giao din vt l UNI ring bit cho mi EVC Tm li, mt E-Line Service c th c dng xy dng nhng dch v tng t nh Frame Relay hay thu knh ring (private leased line). Tuy nhin, bng thng Ethernet v vic kt ni th tt hn nhiu Mt E-Line Service c th c dng xy dng cc dch v tng t nh Frame Relay hay knh thu ring (private leased line). Kiu dch v Ethernet LAN Kiu dch v Ethernet LAN (E-LAN) cung cp kt ni a im, tc l n c th kt ni 2 hoc hn nhiu UNIs. D liu ca thu bao c gi t mt UNI c th c nhn ti mt hoc nhiu d liu ca UNIs khc. Mi site (UNI) c kt ni vi mt multipoint EVC. Khi nhng site mi (UNIs) c thm vo, chng s c lin kt vi multipoint EVC nu trn do vy nn n gin ha vic cung cp v kch hot (activation) dch v. Theo quan im ca thu bao, dch v E LAN lm cho MEN trng ging mt mng LAN o. Dch v E-LAN Service c th cung cp mt CIR (Committed Information Rate), kt hp CBS (Committed Burst Size), EIR (Excess Information Rate) vi EBS (Excess Burst Size) v tr, jitter, v tn tht khung (frame lost). E-LAN Service vi cu hnh point-to-point E-LAN service c th c s dng lin kt ch vi 2 UNIs (sites). Trong khi iu ny c th xy ra tng t mt E-Line Service, c nhiu s khc bit kh quan trng. Vi dch v E-LAN, khi mt UNI (site) mi c thm vo, mt EVC mi phi c thit lp lin kt UNI mi vi mt trong nhng UNIs hin thi.

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Vi dch v E-LAN, khi UNI mi cn c thm vo ta khng cn thm EVC mi m n gin ch thm UNI mi vo EVC a im c. V th, E -LAN Service i hi ch mt EVC hon tt vic kt ni multi-site. Ni chung, dch v E-LAN c th kt ni nhiu a im vi nhau, t phc tp hn vic s dng nhng cng ngh nh Frame Relay hoc ATM. Tm li, MEF nh ngha hai kiu dch v chnh E-Line v E-LAN, tuy nhin cc hng, t chc tham gia MEF c cch s dng tn cho hai lai dch v ny khc nhau. V d nh Cisco a ra cc dch v Ethernet Relay Service (ERS) v Ethernet Wire Service (EWS) cho loi E-Line; Ethernet Relay Multipoint Service (ERMS) v Ethernet Multipoint Service (EMS) cho loi E-LAN
3.4.3 Cc thuc tnh dch v Ethernet 3.4.3.1 Ghp dch v

Ghp dch v cho php nhiu UNI thuc v cc EVC khc nhau. UNI nh vy gi l UNI c ghp dch v (service multiplexed UNI). Khi UNI ch thuc mt EVC th UNI ny gi l UNI khng ghp dch v (non - multiplexed UNI). Li ch ca ghp knh dch v cho php ch cn mt cng giao din UNI c th h tr nhiu kt ni EVC. iu ny lm gim chi ph thm cng UNI v d dng trong vic qun tr. VLAN c cu hnh ti cng thit b khc hng CE kt ni vi UNI c gi l CE- VLAN. Nh vy, ti mi UNI c mt nh x (mapping) gia CE -VLAN v EVC. iu ny gn ging nh nh x gia DLCI v PVC trong Frame Relay.
3.4.3.2 Gp nhm

Trong cu trc frame ca 802.1Q th c mt trng 12 bit l VLAN tag. Nhu vy c ti a l 4096 VLAN cho mt min lp 2. Vi tnh nng gp nhm, c nhiu hn mt CE-VLAN c nh x vo mt EVC ti UNI. Khi tt c VLAN u c nh x vo mt EVC th EVC c thuc tnh gp nhm tt c trong mt.
3.4.3.3 c tnh bng thng

MEF ng ngha c tnh bng thng c ng dng UNI hay cho mt EVC. c tnh bng thng l mt gii hn m khung Ethernet c th xuyn qua UNI. C th c c tnh bng thng ring r cho nhng khung vo bn trong MEN v cho nhng khung i ra khi MEN. Thng s CIR cho mt Frame Relay PVC l mt vd ca c tnh bng thng.

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3.4.3.4 Thng s hiu nng

Cc thng s ny nh hng n cht lng dch v m thu bao cm nhn c. Thng s hiu nng c nh gi qua cc thng s sau: kh dng tr khung trt khung T l tn tht khung

3.4.3.5 Vn an ninh mng (Network security)

Mng Metro Ethernet cung cp mng ring o lp 2 (layer 2 VPN) nn nhng vn an ninh tn ti ti lp 2 ny nh: T chi dch v (DoS: Denial of Service), trn ngp MAC (MAC flooding) gi mo a ch MAC (MAC spoofing) cn c bit quan tm.
3.4.4 Tnh hnh trin khai

Hin nay VNPT c chu trng v trin khai th nghip mng MAN s dng Metro Ethernet ti nhng tnh thnh ln trong c nc. Trn hnh di y m t cu hnh th nghim ti thnh ph H Ch Minh v Ninh Bnh.

Hnh 3.9 Mng MAN th nghip ti thnh ph H Ch Minh Vi cu hnh ca Ninh Bnh nh hnh v di nhng thit b s cn c trang b s c lit k s lc nh trong bng di y.
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Trang b mi 24 node MSAN vi tng dung lng 97300 POTS (thoi), 13224 ports ADSL2+, 164 ports SHDSL ti cc trung tm huyn, th x v cc khu vc dn c tp trung lu lng cao. Trang b mi 24 trm CES (Carrier Ethernet Switch) vi 109 port FE, 84 port GE v 23 port 10GE. Bng 3.7 S liu cc loi cng trn thit b MSAN v CES STT a im 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Thoi Ninh Bnh 17.190 Ninh Tin 1.522 Tn Thnh 4.421 Hoa L 2.916 Gin 4.638 Gia Vin 3.715 Lin Sn 896 Nho Quan 4.260 Ra 1.953 Yn Sn 1.626 Cu Vn 4.254 Tam ip 10.633 n Du 4.440 Quang Sn 1.655 Ninh Sn 3.784 Khnh Ph 2.459 Yn Khnh 2.320 Qui Hu 3.676 Kim Sn 7.225 Lai Thnh 1.566 Ch Bt 4.162 Yn M 4.331 Thanh Sn 2.762 Khnh Thu 896 Tng 97.300 MSAN ADSL2+ SHDSL 1.473 35 456 4 774 12 966 5 498 6 633 8 171 0 906 8 240 3 204 3 405 3 1.137 10 429 9 222 7 918 4 231 3 705 9 279 3 927 10 222 3 198 3 588 8 486 5 156 3 13.224 164 FE 11 4 3 7 7 7 1 7 3 2 4 8 3 4 4 3 7 3 7 1 3 7 2 1 109 CES GE 6 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 84 10GE 3 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23

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Hnh 3.10 Mng MAN ti Ninh Bnh

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3.4.5 Nhng cng ngh c s dng

Nh chng ta c th thy trn m hnh trin khai nhng cng ngh c th c s dng dng l : Truyn ti Ethernet qua SDH, EOS RPR EPON vi cng ngh c th l GE MPLS v GMPLS

3.4.5.1 Truyn ti Metro Ethernet qua SONET/SDH

Khi nim truyn d liu qua mng SONET/SDH l c cu truyn ti lu lng cung cp mt s chc nng v cc giao din nhm mc ch tng hiu qu ca vic truyn d liu qua mng SONET/SDH. Mc tiu quan trng nht m cc hng cng ngh ni trn cn phi thc hin c l phi hp h tr ln nhau thc hin chc nng ci t ch nh bng thng cho cc dch v mt cch hiu qu m khng nh hng ti lu lng ang c truyn qua mng SONET/SDH hin ti. iu ny c ngha l mng s m bo c chc nng h tr truyn ti lu lng dch v ca mng hin c v trin khai cc loi hnh dch v mi. Thm vo EOS cn cung cp chc nng m bo cht lng dch v QoS vi mc chp nhn no cho cc loi dch v mi, mm do v linh hot trong vic h tr truyn ti lu lng truyn ti bi cc giao thc khc nhau qua mng. C cu ca truyn d liu qua mng SONET/SDH bao gm 3 giao thc chnh: Th tc ng khung tng qut GFR (Generic Framing Procedure), k thut lin kt chui o VCAT (Virtual Concatenation) v c cu iu chnh dung lng ng thng LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme). C 3 giao thc ny c ITU -T chun ho ln lt bi cc tiu chun G7041/Y.1303, G.704, G.7042/Y.1305. Giao thc GFR cung cp th tc ng gi khung d liu cho cc dng lu lng khc nhau (Ethernet, IP/PPP, RPR..) vo cc phng tin truyn dn TDM nh l SONET/SDH hoc cc h thng truyn ti quang OTN (Optical Transport Network). Giao thc VCAT cung cp cc th tc ci t bng thng cho knh kt ni mm do hn so vi nhng th tc p dng trong h thng truyn dn TDM trc . Giao thc LCAS cung cp th tc bo hiu u cui ti u cui thc hin chc nng iu chnh ng dung lng bng thng cho cc kt ni khi s dng VCAT trong kt ni SONET/SDH.
3.4.5.2 RPR

Thng 12 nm 2000, IEEE thnh lp mt nhm nghin cu v cng ngh mng vng gi phc hi (IEEE 802.17) nhm a ra cc tiu chun cho giao thc RP R. Cng ngh RPR c s dng truyn ti cc gi s liu trn mng vng tc hng Gigabit/s.
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Gii php ny s dng cc Router kt ni cp quang vi cng ngh mi RPR h tr IP hoc thm ch MPLS p ng tt c cc dch v khc nhau. RPR l cng ngh ch o cho mng th th h mi ang c cc hng vin thng ln tp trung pht trin (50 nh sn xut thit b v chip - Cisco, Nortel, Siemens, Redstone, ). Cng ngh ny kt hp tnh u vit ca phng thc bo v ng nh cng ngh SDH cho php kh nng hi phc tuyn cc nhanh mc 50 ms. Cng vi kh nng nh a ch kt ni theo a ch (dng a ch MAC) v phn loi lu lng cho cht lng dch v nh cng ngh Ethernet lp 1. RPR tha k hai c trng quan trng ca mng SONET/SDH. C th kt ni theo cu hnh RING. C th khi phc ng truyn nhanh khi ng cp quang b t <50ms. Ngoi ra, RPR cn c cc u im chnh: a dng phn lp dch v (CoS). S linh hot ca lp vt l: RPR c th tng thch vi cc tiu chun lp vt l ca Ethernet, SONET v DWDM. Cho php chuyn ti lu lng theo phng thc qung b . C kh nng m rng quy m mng cao. iu chnh bng thng gia cc ngi s dng (Fairness) v iu khin s tc nghn lu lng trong mng. RPR s dng vng song hng gm hai si quang truyn ngc chiu nhau, c hai vng ng thi c s dng truyn d liu v iu khin. RPR cho php nh cung ng gim chi ph thit b phn cng cng nh thi gian gim st mng. Trong RPR khng c khi nim khe thi gian, ton b bng thng c n nh cho lu lng. Bng c ch tnh kh nng mng v d bo yu cu lu lng, RPR ghp thng k v phn phi cng bng bng thng cho cc node trn vng trnh tc nghn c th mang li li ch hn nhiu so vi vng SDH/SONET da trn ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian. RPR l giao thc lp MAC vn hnh lp 2 ca m hnh OSI, n khng nhn bit lp 1 nn c lp vi truyn dn nn c th lm vic vi WDM, SDH hay truyn dn da trn Ethernet (s dng GBIC Gigabit Interface Converter) ngoi ra, RPR i t thit b a lp n dch v mng thng minh lp 3 nh MPLS, MPLS kt hp thit b ra mng IP lp 3 vi thit b lp 2 nh ATM, Frame relay. S kt hp tin cy v kh nng phc hi ca RPR vi u im qun l lu lng v kh nng m rng ca MPLS VPN v MPLS TE c xem l gii php xy dng MAN trn th gii hin nay.

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PHN III: CNG NGH TRUY NHP V TUYN

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Chng 4: Cc mng truy nhp khng dy bng rng


4.1 Gii thiu chung
Chng ta c th nhn nhn truy nhp v tuyn theo quan im ca IEEE theo hnh 4.1 di y:

PAN
Mng vng c nhn Bluetooth 802.15

LAN
Mng vng ni ht 802.11b 802.11g 802.11a HiperLAN2

MAN
Mng vng trung tm 802.11 802.16 MMDS LMDS

WAN
Mng vng rng 2.5G/3G GSM/GPRS CDMA/1x/3x 4G

Tc s liu thp Khong cch ngn Notebook/PC n th.b/ My in/Bn phm/.thoi

Tc s liu cao hn Tc s liu cao hn Tc s liu thp hn

K/c trung bnh My tnh-My tnh v ti Internet 2 n 54+ Mbps

K/c trung bnh di hn Khong cch di hn Truy nhp n km Cc my cm tay & cui cng, c nh 22+ Mbps th.b PDA n Internet 10 n 384 Kbps n 1Gbps

< 1 Mbps

Hnh 4.1 : Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn Theo cn c vo vng bao ph h thng thit b chng ta c cc mng din hp PAN vi nhng v d cng ngh nh Bluetooth, Wireless USB. Cc mng din ni ht vi in hnh l cng ngh WLAN vi nhng chun cho lp vt l 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g. Tip theo l cc mng din rng hn vi nhng ci tin ca chun 801.11, nhng mng truy nhp v tuyn a knh a im, a knh a im ni ht (MMDS v LMDS) vi xut pht im l dng qung b tn hiu truyn hnh. Cui cng l mng din rng vi cc th h ca in thoi t bo v cng thm vo h thng truy nhp s dng v tinh. Sau y chng ta s xem xt hng pht trin ca tng nhnh cng ngh mt, chng ta s lm sng t mt thc t rng cc h thng truy nhp v tuyn ang hi t li th h th 4 4G

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4.2 Pht trin ca truy nhp v tuyn hi t n 4G


Nh chng ta cp n t trn, tin ti th h th 4 mng truy nhp v tuyn s hi t li t hai hng, Hnh 4.2:
1G (~95) Analog 2G (96~01) Digital 3G(02~04) Multimedia 4G (05~)

Analog Cellular Digital Cellular

Voice & Video Mobility Centric

IMT-2000 (UMTS) Wireless Multimedia (IP Based Voice/Video)


Outdoor 5.15-5.35GHz 2550Mbps Indoor 60-65GHz 155-622Mbps

Wired LAN

IEEE802.11b Wireless LAN

HiperLAN2 IEEE802.11a Bluetooth

High Speed Data / Stationary Centric

Hnh 4.2: Xu hng hi t ca cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn Hng 1: t pha cc h thng c nhn, ni ht, thnh ph (vi nhng i din in hnh WLAN v Wimax) Hng 2: t pha cc h thng din rng (vi cc i din l GSM, IMT2000, WCDMA) Trn hnh 4.2 m t r hai xu hng pht trin ny, hnh 4.3 nhng xu hng c miu t vi nhng mc thi gian c th.

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Capacity / Throughput

4G Mobile Communications Network Evolution


IMT-2000 Roadmap
OFDM-based Nomadic System
WLAN 3G Interworking

Mobile Grid Network/ Ubiquitous OFDM-based Network New Mobile Access

cdma2000 1x EV-DO

HSDPA Enhancement

4G Network

HSDPA cdma2000 1x EV-DV cdma2000 1x EV-DV Enhancement


Harmonization

W-CDMA cdma2000 1x
2002 2003

2004

2005

2006 2007 2008 2010 2013

Peak Data Rate

2015

Hnh 4.3: Mc lch s ca truy nhp v tuyn


4.2.1 H thng thng tin di ng 2G v nn tng CDMA 4.2.1.1 GSM
IS-136/CDPD IS-136+(PRS)

EDGE/ IS-136HS HSDPA W-CDMA


Cdma2000 1x EV

GSM

HSCSD/GPRS

PDC

Mobile Multimedia - Integrated Packet Data

IS-95A

IS-95B

cdma2000(1x)

7-28.8 kbps

57-115 kbps

0.144 ~2 Mbps

~ 10 Mbps

~ 100 Mbps /1Gbps

2nd Generation (~ 1998)

2.5th Generation (~2000~)

3rd Generation (2002~)

4th Generation (~2010~)

Hnh 4.4: S pht trin ln 4G t cc cng ngh WAN Trong nhng nm u ca thp k 1980, hi ngh vin thng v bu in chu u (CEPT) a ra nhm di ng c bit (Group Special Mobile) vi mc tiu l pht trin chun Pan-European cho thng tin t bo s. D n ny c tn l GSM v h thng thc
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hin cc chun tng ng, h thng ton cu cho thng tin di ng, cng c vit tt l GSM. T n nay, cc mng GSM, k c mng GSM theo khi nim gc hoc cc pht trin ca n, pht trin rng khp trn th gii v c coi l k hoch thnh cng. Cc h thng GSM hot ng di tn khong 900 MHz (GSM-900), 1.8 GHz (gsm1800), hoc 1.9GHz (GSM-1900). GSM-900 l mng t bo GSM gc p ng cc vng rng ln (macro cell) v hot ng vi cc u cui ngun ln. GSM s dng TDMA vi tc d liu thp c trn di 10kbps.
4.2.1.2 IS-95

Vo cui nhng nm 1980 v u nhng nm 1990, QUALCOMM, Inc. ca San Diego a ra a truy nhp phn chia theo m, CDMA. Cc th nghim v vic ch to mng thnh cng a TIA v EIA chp nhn h thng QUALCOMM nh chun tm thi ca h, "TIA/EIA/IS-95 - chun tng thch gia trm gc -trm di ng cho h thng di ng tri ph bng rng hai ch ". Cc c im k thut ca TIA/EIA/IS-95 c thit lp h thng hot ng hai ch c bn (tng t v s), c hai ch trong cng di tn. Kh nng hot ng hai ch thun tin cho vic chuyn tip t mi trng tng t sang mi trng s. Mc d tng thch, cc h thng s v tng t kh khc nhau. TIA/EIA/IS-95 h tr k thut tri ph lin tc trc tip vi cc knh kp bng thng 1.25 MHz. Vic hai h thng s v tng t cng tn ti tc l cc trm di ng hai ch c th t v nhn cc cuc gi t bt c h thng no v ngc li, tt c cc h thng c th t v nhn cc cuc gi t bt c trm di ng no. Cc hot ng ngc li nh miu t trn yu cu mt s ch . Mt trm di ng c th khi to mt cuc gi vi h thng CDMA v trong khi cuc gi vn ang trong qu trnh x l, n c th chuyn sang h thng tng t, nu c yu cu. Mt s i mi c a vo h thng CDMA so vi cc h thng t bo ban u. Chuyn giao mm chnh l mt im mi ngoi ra cn c nhng s i mi khc c a ra trng h thng CDMA nh l vic s dng cc b thu h thng nh v ton cu (GPS) ti cc trm gc. Cc h thng CDMA ban u c s dng vi cc c tnh k thut TIA/EIA/IS-95. Cc c tnh k thut ca version A c pht trin ln TIA/EIA/IS-94B, trong cc c tnh mi c lin quan ti truyn d liu tc cao hn, cc thut ton chuyn giao mm, cc k thut iu khin nng lng. Tn cdmaOne c s dng xc nh hot ng vi cng ngh CDMA vi k thut khc.

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4.2.1.3 GPRS

h tr mt cch hiu qu mt vi loi lu lng to ra bi nhiu loi ng dng, mng tng hp phi cung cp c cc dch v d liu gi. Vi mc tiu y, ba cng ngh d liu, c a vo cc h thng v tuyn, xut hin mt xen nhau s dng cho cc ng dng gi trong cc mng v tuyn: Dch v v tuyn gi chung (GPRS), TIA/EIA/IS-95B, v d liu tc cao (HDR). Vic a ra GPRS trong mng v tuyn di ng cho php ci thin kh nng ca h thng GSM sn c, mt s ci thin chnh l : S dng c hai loi dch v chuyn mch knh v dch v chuyn mch gi. S dng ti nguyn v tuyn tt hn. Tnh cc da trn dung lng.
4.2.2 H thng 3G 4.2.2.1 IMT-2000

Khi nim h thng di ng th h th 3 (3G) c a ra bi IMT-2000. V ct li, mt h thng 3G phi cung cp: Cc dch v a phng tin, trong cc hot ng ch knh v gi. Cc lnh vc ngi s dng nh t nhn, cng cng, thng mi, dn c, v cc lnh vc khc. Cc mng da trn mt t v v tinh. Thit b b ti c nhn, thit b trn xe c, v bt c u cui c bit khc.

ITU
Synchronous CDMA
Cdma2000 (TIA) - DS-CDMA - MC-CDMA CDMA I (TTA)

OHG
cdma2000

ITU-R TG8/1 (99.11)


IMT-2000 CDMA MC (IMT-MC)

IMT-2000 CDMA DS (IMT-DS)

Asynchronous CDMA
W-CDMA (ETSI) W-CDMA (JPN) W-CDMA (USA) CDMA II (TTA) TD-CDMA (ETSI) TD-SCDMA (CHN)

W-CDMA
IMT-2000 TDD CDMA (IMT-TC)

TD-CDMA

IMT-2000 TDMA Single-Carrier (IMT-SC) IMT-2000 FDMA/TDMA (IMT-FT)

TDMA Method UWC-136 (USA)

Hnh 4.5: H thng IMT 2000 Cc c tnh xc nh ca IMT-2000 bao gm: Mc tng ng cao trong cc thit k trn ton th gii.
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Tnh tng thch ca cc dch v trong IMT-2000 v cc mng c nh. Cht lng cao u cui nh c s dng rng ri. Kh nng ca cc ng dng a phng tin v di rng ca cc dch v v cc u cui IMT-2000 c th c thc hin nh mng c lp hoc nh mt phn tch hp ca cc mng c nh. Cc h thng 3G cung cp kh nng modul ho v c hai mt dung lng v chc nng. Tri ngc vi QoS c nh trong h thng v tuyn 1G v 2G (c xc nh nh s c gng tt nht), cc h thng 3G cung cp QoS mm do. Cc ng dng ca n v ngi s dng c th c n nh mt QoS mc nh vi cc iu chnh sao cho thch hp vi QoS mong mun. Cc ti nguyn khi c phn phi tu theo hng lot cc tham s nh cc hin trng QoS cn c bi s thu bao in thoi, ti h thng, cc iu kin truyn, loi lu lng (ci ny tu thuc vo ng dng), v cc yu t khc. Tm li, cc mc tiu chnh ca cc mng 3G nh sau: S chp nhn ton cu v tp cc chun nng ct cho giao din v tuyn. Thc y roaming ton cu. H tr hiu qu di rng cc dch v d liu bao gm c a phng tin. Trn thc t, cc h thng 3G c trin khai vi hai mc ch chnh: h tr cc dch v d liu gi vi tc v cht lng nh cc mng c nh. Cung cp truy nhp internet.
4.2.2.2 GPP2 & cdma2000

Giao din v tuyn a sng mng IMT -2000 CDMA c nhc n vi cdma2000. N l giao din v tuyn tri ph bng rng c thit k t c cc yu cu ca h thng v tuyn 3G cng nh cc yu cu ca s pht trin ca cc chun h 2G TIA/EIA-95-B. cdma2000 cung cp kh nng tng thch ngc li vi TIA/EIA-95B. Kh nng tng thch ngc cho php c s h tng ca cdma2000 h tr cc trm di ng TIA/EIA-95-B v cho php cc trm di ng cdma2000 hot ng c vi cc h thng TIA/EIA-95-B. cdma2000 xut ra kh nng tng thch ngc vi cdmaOne cung cp vic chuyn giao mm t cc mng 2G ln 3G. Mt kha cnh quan trng ca kh nng tng thch ngc l kh nng h tr vic bao ph cc mng cdma2000 v cdmaOne vi cng ph. cdma2000 thc hin cc yu cu truyn dn bng rng theo hai cch khc nhau. Vic truyn dn ln c th s dng hoc k thut tri ph trc tip hoc k thut a sng mang. Vic thc hin MC i vi ng ln ca cdma2000 to iu kin thun li cho thit k chng lp cdmaOne v cdma2000. Trong vic thc hin MC, h thng cdma2000 Nx1.25 Mhz (vi N=1,3,6,9, hoc 12) c th chng lp N sng mang lin tc ca
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cdmaOne, vi N l s tc phn tn SR . SR 2 c dng ch 1X v SR 3 ch 3X, l hai k thut c nh ngha trong cc chun cdma2000. Cdma2000 cng h tr vic s dng li cc chun dch v c ca cdmaOne, nh cc dch v lin quan n thoi, cc dch v d liu, cc dch v tin nhn,Vic chuyn giao y cc cuc gi d liu v thoi t mt h thng ti mt h thng khc l c im rt hay c h tr bi cdmaOne v cdma2000. Kh nng thc hin chuyn giao mm gia h thng cdmaOne v cdma200 cho php cc nh hot ng xy dng dn dn cc mng cdma2000 khi c nhu cu tng cng dch v v thm dung lng.
4.2.3 WLAN

Cng ngh hu tuyn Ethernet c gii thiu vo nm 1970, vi tc 10 Mbps, hn hn tc ca cc cng ngh khng dy khc hin c thi im . Vo nm 1985 FCC cho php pht trin cho thng mi h thng WLAN s dng bng tn ISM. Bng tn ISM rt hp dn cc i l cung cp khi khng cn phi c s cp php ca FCC hot ng trong bng tn ny. Mng v tuyn bng rng u tin, WLAN c xy dng trn c s h cc chun IEEE 802.11. Chun IEEE 802.11 u tin c pht hnh vo 1997, chim 83.5MHz bng thng trong bng tn 2.4GHz khng cp php. N s dng iu ch PSK vi tri ph nhy tn FHSS v tri ph chui trc tip DSSS. Tc d liu ln n 2Mbps c h tr vi CSMA/CA, s dng cho truy nhp ngu nhin. Chun u tin c m rng vo 1999 to ra chun 802.11b, hot ng trong cng bng tn nhng ch s dng DSSS. Cung cp tc knh truyn cc i ln n 11Mbps vi tc d liu ngi dng cc i khong 1.6Mbps. Phm vi truyn dn t ti 150m. Kin trc mng trong 802.11b l hnh sao hoc ngang cp, mc d c tnh ngang cp khng c s dng in hnh. Chun ny c trin khai v s dng rng ri vi cc nh sn xut thit b tch hp cc card 802.11b vo cc my tnh xch tay. Chun 802.11a c hon thnh vo 1999 nh mt s m rng ca 802.11b ci thin tc d liu ca 802.11b. Chun 802.11a chim 300MHz ph trong bng NII 5GHz. Thc t, 300MHz ph c phn chia thnh ba bng con 100MHz. Mt bng thp t 5.15-5.25GHz, mt bng gia t 5.25-5.35GHz, mt bng trn t 5.725-5.825GHz. Mi knh chim 20MHz, ngoi tr cc phn cui ca bng gia v bng thp l 30MHz. C ba mc cng sut pht cc i c ch ra l 40mW cho bng thp, 200mW cho bng gia v 800mW cho bng cao. Nhng gii hn ny nhm m ch rng bng thp hu nh ch ph hp cho cc ng dng trong nh, bng gia cho ngoi tri v trong nh cn bng cao cho ngoi tri. iu ch v m ha t l bin i c s dng cho mi knh. Cc loi iu ch bin i qua BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM v 64QAM v cc t l m ha xon bin i qua 1/2, 2/3 v 3/4. iu ny dn n tc d liu cc i mi knh l 54MHz. Vi cc h thng trong nh, sng mang 5GHz kt hp vi gii hn cng sut trong bng thp
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gim phm vi ca 802.11a so vi 802.11b v cng kh hn tn hiu xuyn qua cc bc tng v cc vt cn khc. Chun 802.11a s dng a truy nhp OFDM thay v FHSS v DSSS. Chun 802.11g c hon thnh vo 2003, kt hp u im ca 802.11a v 802.11b vi tc d liu ln n 54Mbps trong bng tn 2.5GHz cho phm vi ln hn. Chun ny tip tc tng thch vi 802.11b v th cc im truy nhp 802.11g s lm vic vi cc b thch ng mng v tuyn 802.11a. Tuy nhin, 802.11g s dng OFDM, lc iu ch v m ha ca 802.11a. C cc im truy nhp v cc Card LAN u ph hp vi c ba chun trnh khng tng thch. H chun 802.11a/b/g c xem nh l Wi Fi, cho tin cy v tuyn.
4.2.4 Wimax

Wimax l kh nng khai thc lin mng ton cu i vi truy nhp vi ba. Wimax l mt cng ngh khng dy da trn chun 802.16 cung cp cc kt ni bng rng thng lng cao qua khong cch xa. Cng ngh Wimax bao gm cc sng vi ba truyn d liu khng dy. Wimax c dng cho mt s ng dng nh kt ni bng rng u cui, cc hotspot v cc kt ni tc cao cho cc khch hng kinh doanh. N cung cp kt ni mng vng thnh th khng dy MAN vi tc ln ti 70Mbps v cc trm gc Wimax trung bnh c th bao ph t 5 n 10km. Cc chun c nh v di ng u c s dng trong c bng tn cp php v khng cp php. Tuy nhin min tn s cho chun c nh l 2-11GHz trong khi chun di ng l di 6GHz. IEEE 802.16 nh ngha cc lp vt l khc nhau: Wireless MAN-SC layer Wireless MAN-SCa layer WirelessMAN-OFDM Layer WirelessMAN-OFDMA Layer Wireless HUMAN Nhng lp vt l c nh ngha chi tit bao gm 5 loi trong hin nay s dng ch yu loi th 3 v th t. Hai loi ny da ch yu trn nguyn l OFDM v OFDMA Cc c tnh chnh ca lp vt l ny bao gm: H tr TDD v FDD TDMA UL TDM DL iu ch khi thch ng v m ha FEC cho c ng UL v DL

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Truyn theo khung ci thin s cn bng (mt chiu) v thc hin c lng knh qua NLOS v m rng mi trng tr tri ph. K hiu c ng thnh gi. M ha son FEC s dng m Reed Solomon v chn Pragmatic TCM FEC s dng ty chn BTC v CTC Khng s dng FEC ty chn s dng ARQ iu khin li. Ty chn tnh phn tp chuyn tip STC. Ngoi tr cc yu cu khc, qu trnh truyn tin tng t cho c hng ng ln UL v ng xung DL. Lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDM da trn iu ch OFDM c thit k hot ng cho ng truyn trong phm vi khng truyn thng NLOS trong di tn t 2 -11 GHz. H tr song cng TDD, FDD. Lp vt l v tuyn MAN -OFDMA: da trn k thut iu ch OFDMA c thit k hot ng i vi ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS trong di tn 2-11 GHz. Trong di tn c cp php, hai phng php song cng c s dng l FDD v TDD, FDD SSs c th l bn song cng (H-FDD). Trong di tn khng cp php, s dng phng php song cng TDD.
4.2.5 H thng 4G

Ngay c trc khi cc mng 3G c khai trng v a vo s dng hon ton, nhiu nhm nghin cu khc nhau xem xt n dng tip theo ca cng ngh t bo, hay cn gi l 4G. Cho n by gi cha c nh dng chung cho 4G, nhng mng th h mi c th l da trn IP, cung cp tc d liu ln ti 100 Mbps v h tr kh nng di dng ton cu. Mt l trnh hng ti mng ny l s hi t ca cc cng ngh nh t bo 3G v Wireless LANs (WLANs).

4.3 So snh nh gi cc cng ngh


Qua nhng phn trnh by trn th khi m h thng 4G cha a vo khai thc trn din rng th mi vng hot ng vn cn c s cnh tranh gia nhng cng ngh n t nhng hng pht trin khc nhau (xem hnh 4.6) l CDMA 2000, WCDMA (GSM), l CDMA v Wimax, v WLAN v Wimax. C nhiu kin khi Wimax mi ra i vi u vit v tc v c li bao ph c th nh bi nhng i th khc, tuy nhin vn qun l khai thc dch v v bo mt li cn tr n trin khai trn din rng vut ra khi phm vi ng dng cho truy nhp s liu ni ht.

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2001

2002

2003

2004

2010 ?

2G
8 ~ 64kbps 144kbps CDMA2000 (1X) GPRS

3G
384kbps ~ 2Mbps CDMA2000 (1X EV-DO) WCDMA WLAN
54M(5GHz)

4G
~ 100Mbps CDMA2000 (1X EV-DV)

IS-95A/B

4G

GSM

WLAN
2M(2.4GHz)

WLAN
11M(2.4GHz)

Wimax

STC a anten

Knh MIMO

iu ch a sng mang

X l khng gian thi gian STP


Hnh 4.6 : Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn cnh tranh

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Chng 5: Truy nhp qua v tinh


5.1 Gii thiu chung
Mt knh v tinh truyn thng trc tip c th d dng hot ng tc d liu 23 Mbps. Tuy nhin, tc ph bin nht l khong 400 kbps (dch v Direct PC). Cc h thng hin nay s dng cc qu o a tnh (GEO:Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) cao 22500 dm (khong mt phn mt phn mi khong cch t qu t n mt trng). Khong cch ln ny lm tng thi gian tr ca dch v hai chiu tc cc dch v tng tc. Tuy nhin, cc h thng v tinh nhn to th h mi nh h thng v tinh nhn to Iridium v h thng v tinh nhn to Teledesic s dng cc qu o thp hn nhin LEO (Low Earth Orbit) c thi gian tr nh nht v tiu th nng lng my pht nh hn. Mt vn ln ca cc nh cung cp dch v qua h thng thng tin v tinh l gi c. u im ln nht v c bit ca cc h thng GEO l tm ph sng rng. V tinh nhn to lm cho vng ph sng tr nn ln nht. Thng tin v tinh hon ton khng ph thuc vo iu kin a l nh thung lng, ni non, bin c,...Thng tin v tinh ph v khng b nh hng bi khong cch. Mt v tinh nhn to phc v cc im cch xa nhau hng ngn cy s cng ging vi khi phc v cho hai nh hng xm. iu ny vn ng khi no cc a im phc v ca h thng thng tin v tinh vn cn nm trong tm ph sng ca n. Mt khc h thng thng tin v tinh cng c nhng nhc im trm trng v mt k thut ca n. Cc dch v da vo thng tin c th b my bay che khut v d nhin cng c th b cc v tinh c qu o thp hn che khut. nh sng mt tri cng c th tc ng ln tn hiu v tn hiu c th b mt mt thi gian khi mt tri i qua sau cc v tinh trong cc ngy ng ch v h ch. Mt vi hiu ng mt tri lm cho bu kh quyn phng ln v cc v tinh c qu o thp phi chuyn ng u n trnh khi b kh quyn li ko. Tui th ca mt v tinh c xc nh bi lng nhin liu n mang theo. Tc ng nh ca trng trng phi c cn bng bng vic t nh k tn la. Khi nhin liu cn kit th v tinh nhn to tr nn v dng. Tr ngi cui cng ca cc h thng thng tin v tinh l s c mt ca qu nhiu v tinh cng gy ra rc ri. Cc v tr v tinh thun li ca cc v tinh GEO c chim gi t nhiu nm qua. Tnh hnh cng s xy ra tng t i vi cc v tinh LEO. D nhin, vic chia nhau di thng hn ch gia lng ngi s dng khng l s tr thnh mt bi ton nan gii. C mt vi h thng LEO nh:

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Iridium c 66 v tnh c mc ch ca h thng v tinh nhn to Iridium l dng cho h thng in thoi di ng cu hnh s dng c th hin trn hnh 5.1 Teledesic cng gi l Internet trn tri (Internet in the sky) li ch ch nhm vo dch v truy xut Internet bao gm 288 v tinh nhn to ca Teledesic c gi thnh xp x 9 t dollar. Globalstar, mt cng ty con ca hng Loral and Qualcomm c h thng 48 v tinh vi gi thnh 2,6 t dollar vi mc ch chnh l dng cho cc ng dng d liu truyn thng, in thoi v fax. Skybridge d kin s phng 64 v tinh vi gi thnh tng cng l 3,5 t dollar.

Hnh 5.1 in thoi di ng Iridium Mt s h thng GEO nh : H thng Direct PC ca Hughes Communications vn l mng truy nhp Internet qua v tinh ln nht hin nay (Hnh 5.2). Tc truy xut Internet theo chiu downstream t 200 kbps n 400 kbps s c m rng bng h thng GEO d kin Hughes Spaceway gm 8 v tinh nhn to hot ng tc 6 Mbps vi gi thnh tng cng l 3 t dollar. H thng Expressway gm 14 v tinh nhn to c gi thnh 4 t dollar cho php truy xut theo chiu downstream ln n 1,5 Mbps.

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Hnh 5.2: Nguyn l hot ng ca DirectPC

5.2 H thng VSAT


VSAT xut pht t ng knh ca a parabol m n s dng n c c t 0.5m n 2.5 m. Mt mng VSAT bao gm mt trm mt t v tinh v nhng kt cui VSAT. Thng thng VSAT cung cp kt ni vi tc l 56Kbps, c th t c tc ca lung T1 hoc E1. VSAT cng c th cung cp thng tin mang tnh thi gian thc trong mt khong thi gian ngn. C 3 l do ngi ta s dng VSAT l: Kinh t Thit lp mng ring Cung cp kt ni cht lng trong khi iu kin xung quan khng m bo Chi tit hn v nhng thng s k thut ca VSAT c th tham khao thm ti liu [2].

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Chng 6: WLAN v WI-FI


6.1 Gii thiu chung
Lch s pht trin WLAN c th tm tt thnh ba th h nh sau : Th h u : hot ng ti bng tn 900-928 Mhz (bng ISM), vi tc nh hn 860 kbps. Do hn hp v bng tn (nhiu ng dng v tuyn khc cng chy trn bng tn ny) nn cc cng ngh giai on ny khng pht trin c. Th h th hai: hot ng ti bng 2,4 Ghz 2,483 Ghz, tc t 2 Mbps, s dng k thut tri ph v ghp knh nhng cng b hn ch bng tn. Th h th ba: hot ng ti cc bng tn 2,4 Ghz (s dng cc phng php iu ch phc tp hn) t tc 11 Mbps, 5 Ghz v 17 Ghz, tc ln ti 54 Mbps.

Speed Network Radio

860 Kbps c quyn Proprietary 900 MHz

1 &1 2& Mbps 2 Mbps

11 Mbps Theo tiu chun

2.4 GHz

2.4 GHz
IEEE 802.11 c ph chun

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

Hnh 6.1 Qu trnh pht trin WLAN. Cc t chc tiu chun ln nh IEEE v ETSI lin tc a ra v cp nht cc tiu chun cho WLAN 802.11, HiperLAN ca mnh. Mc chng nhn Wi-Fi l cung cp cho cc khch hng s m bo rng cc sn phm mang logo ny s hot ng cng vi nhau. C c thnh vin nhm WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance) bao gm s lng ngy cng tng cc nh sn xut WLAN hng u trong c cc h thng ca Cisco. Wi-Fi tr nn ng ngha vi cng ngh v tuyn 802.11 trong nhiu bi bo lin quan n ch ny. Tuy nhin, Wi-Fi khng phi l mt tiu chun cng ngh, n ch m bo v kh nng hot ng tng tc gia cc nh sn xut thnh vin. Ni cch khc, ngi s dng c th c phn cng tun theo 802.11 m vn khng c coi l Wi Fi.

6.2 Kin trc WLAN


6.2.1 Cu hnh mng WLAN

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Ty vo ng dng c th Wlan c th c nhng cu hnh nh : Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp Cu hnh mng WLAN c s, c th dng thm trm lp Kin trc y ca WLAN
6.2.1.1 Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp

V c bn, hai my tnh c trang b thm card adapter v tuyn c th hnh thnh mt mng c lp khi chng trong di tn ca nhau. Vi cc h iu hnh dng ang c s dng rng ri nh Windows 95, Windows NT c th ci t cu hnh mng ny mt cch d dng. y l cu hnh mng ngang cp hay cn gi l mng ad hoc. Cc mng hnh thnh theo nhu cu nh vy khng cn thit phi qun l hay thit lp cu hnh t trc. Nt di ng c th truy cp vo cc ti nguyn ca cc my khc m khng phi qua mt my ch trung tm. Cu hnh mng c lp c m t nh hnh 6.2.
Trm di ng

Server

Trm di ng

Trm di ng

Hnh 6.2: Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp.


6.2.1.2 Cu hnh mng WLAN c s

Mt im truy nhp c th m rng khong cch gia hai WLAN c lp khi n hot ng nh mt b lp lm tng hai ln c ly gia cc nt di ng. Cc im truy nhp AP s gn vi mng ng trc hu tuyn v giao tip vi cc thit b di ng trong vng ph sng ca mt . AP ng vai tr iu khin cell v iu khin lu lng ti mng (hnh 6.3). Trong cu hnh WLAN c s, cc thit b di ng khng giao tip trc tip vi nhau m giao tip vi cc im truy nhp.
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v tuyn LAN ng trc

im truy nhp AP

Cc trm di ng

Hnh 6.3 Cu hnh mng WLAN c s. Nh vy, cu hnh WLAN c s s bao gm cc nt di ng c ni vo mng hu tuyn, chuyn dch t thng tin v tuyn sang thng tin hu tuyn thng qua mt im truy nhp. im truy nhp AP c th l trm gc (i vi c s h tng hu tuyn) hoc cu v tuyn i vi c s h tng v tuyn. Cc b lp c th c s dng tng khong cch vng ph sng trong trng hp kt ni n mng ng trc kh thc hin. Vic ny yu cu chng ln 50% ca AP trn mng ng trc v b lp. Tc d liu s gim do thi gian thu v pht li(hnh 6.4).
v tuyn c trm lp

Knh 1 LAN ng trc Knh 1


im truy nhp AP

Cc trm di ng

Hnh 6.4: Cu hnh WLAN dng b lp.


6.2.1.3 Kin trc y ca WLAN

Mng WLAN c kin trc y nh hnh v sau:


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Hnh 6.5: Kin trc WLAN y . Trong mng WLAN cu hnh y cc thit b tp trung lu lng v m bo tnh ring t bo mt cho thu bao s liu khi kt ni vo mng c b xu ng thm vo.
6.2.2 M hnh tham chiu c bn IEEE 802.11

Nh ch ra trong hnh 6.6, chun IEEE 802.11 cha nhng khuyn ngh lin quan n hai lp cui trong m hnh OSI., trong lp vt l ca IEEE 802.11 c phn chia thnh 2 phn lp: Phn lp ph thuc mi trng vt l PMD lin quan ti cc c trng ca mi trng v tuyn (cc loi lp vt l DSSS, FHSS, DFIR) v xc nh phng php thu v pht d liu qua mi trng (v d iu ch v m ho). Phn lp th tc hi t lp vt l PLCP xc nh phng php chuyn i n v d liu giao thc MPDU thnh cc gi ph hp vi phn lp PMD. N cng thc hin cm ng sng mang (truy nhp knh) cho phn lp MAC. Phn lp MAC xc nh mt c ch truy nhp c bn (da trn CSMA) cho cc nt di ng truy nhp vo mi trng v tuyn. N c th thc hin c phn tch ri v m ho cc gi d liu. Qun l lp vt l PHY lin quan ti thch ng cc trng thi knh khc nhau v duy tr c s thng tin qun l lp PHY. Qun l phn lp MAC lin quan ti cc vn ng b, qun l ngun, ghp v tch. Ngoi ra n duy tr MIB ca phn lp MAC. Cui cng qun l trm xc nh cc lp qun l PHY v MAC tng tc vi nhau nh th no. Trong m hnh tham chiu kin trc IEEE 802.11 hnh 2.6, hu ht cc lp vt l bao gm ba thc th chc nng: chc nng ph thuc mi trng vt l PMD, PLCL v chc nng qun l lp. Dch v lp vt l c cung cp cho thc th MAC ti cc STA thng qua im truy nhp dch v SAP gi l PHY-SAP. B cc hm nguyn thu cng
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c nh ngha m t giao din gia phn lp giao thc hi t lp vt l PLCP v phn lp PMD, gi l PMD-SAP.
MAC_SAP

Data Link Layer Physical Layer

MAC sublayer

Thc th qun l phn lp MAC MLME_PLME_SAP

MLME_SAP Thc th qun l trm

PHY_SAP
PLCL Sublayer

PMD_SAP

Thc th qun l phn lp PHY

PLME_SAP

PMD Sublayer

Hnh 6.8: M hnh tham chiu c bn IEEE 802.11.

6.3 Chun cng ngh


Nm 1990, Hip hi cc k s in v in t IEEE thnh lp mt t chc pht trin tiu chun cho WLAN hot ng tc 1 v 2 Mbps. Nm 1992, Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u thnh lp mt hip hi xy dng tiu chun WLAN tc cao hot ng tc khong 20 Mbps. T n nay hai t chc ny lin tc a ra cc phin bn mi ca cc tiu chun cho WLAN. Tiu chun ang thng dng nht hin nay l IEEE 802.11b. Cc tiu chun WLAN 802.11 b nh hng rt nhiu ca cc thit b WLAN ang c trn th trng. Do mc d cng vic tiu chun tin hnh trong mt thi gian di hon thin (do s lng nhiu nh sn xut thit b khc nhau) nhng n vn l tiu chun ph thng nht. Hin nay c rt nhiu tiu chun p dng cho WLAN, bng sau s tm tt cc chun WLAN hin ang ph bin trn th gii. Bng 2.1 Tm tt cc tiu chun WLAN trn th gii Chun IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11a Tn s 900 MHz 2,4 GHz 900 MHz 5 GHz Tc 300 Kbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps Ghp knh FHSS DSSS FHSS OFDM Ghi ch

c s dng ph bin nht Mi hn, nhanh hn, dng tn s cao hn 74

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IEEE 802.11e IEEE 802.11g IEEE 802.11h IEEE 802.11i IEEE/ETSI 802.11j ETSI HiperLAN ETSI HiperLAN 2 SIG Bluetooth HomeRF OpenAir LAN hng ngoi

5 GHz UNII 2,4 GHz ISM

54 Mbps 54 Mbps

5 GHz UNII

54 Mbps

OFDM DSSS FHSS OFDM OFDM OFDM GMSK GMSK FHSS FHSS FHSS

Nhanh v tng thch vi 802.11b

5,15-5,3 GHz 17,1-17,3 GHz 2,4 GHz 2,4 GHz 350 000 GHz

23,5 Mbps 54 Mbps 1 Mbps 10 Mbps 1,6 Mbps 4 Mbps

Dng cho Voice/ Video Dng cho mng c nhn (PAN) QoS, mt m tt Ch dng trong mt phng, khng nh hng ti sc kho

Tiu chun WLAN IEEE 802.11 c a ra bi hip hi LMSC 802 ca IEEE. Tiu chun c pht trin qua su phin bn d tho v phin bn cui cng c thng qua ngy 26/06/1997. Tiu chun cho php nhiu nh cung cp thit b pht trin cc thit b kt ni LAN trn phm vi ton cu i vi bng tn cng nghip, khoa hc, y t 2,4 GHz. Vic tiu chun ho vn ang c tip tc t c chng ch tiu chun ISO/IEC v tiu chun IEEE. Nm 1997 IEEE chp nhn tiu chun u tin cho WLAN-IEEE Std 802.111997. Tiu chun ny c sa cha v b xung vo nm 1999. IEEE Std 802.11 -1997 xc nh MAC, cc giao thc qun l MAC v cc dch v, v ba lp vt l . Ba lp vt l bao gm PHY bng tn c s hng ngoi, mt PHY v tuyn tri ph chui trc tip DSSS trong bng 2.4 GHz v mt PHY tri ph nhy tn FHSS trong bng 2,4 GHz. Tt c 3 lp vt l m t hai hot ng tc 1 v 2 Mbps. Hin nay nhm nghin cu IEEE 802.11 ang pht trin hai lp PHY mi. Th nht IEEE 802.11a nghin cu ghp knh min tn s trc giao OFDM trong bng tn UNII vn chuyn d liu ln ti 54 Mbps. Th hai l tiu chun IEEE 802.11b ang nghin cu m rng PHY DSSS trong bng 2,4 GHz truyn d liu vi tc ti 11 Mbps.

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Tiu chun IEEE 802.11 xc nh kt ni v tuyn i vi cc nt c nh, cc thit b cm tay v thit b di ng trong mt vng a l nht nh. c bit n xc nh mt giao din gia trm v tuyn v mt im truy nhp cng nh gia cc trm v tuyn vi nhau. Cng ging nh cc tiu chun IEEE 802.x khc, tiu chun IEEE 802.11 xc nh PHY v MAC. Tuy nhin lp MAC 802.11 cng thc hin cc chc nng m thng lin quan ti cc giao thc lp cao hn (v d nh phn on, khi phc li, qun l di ng v tiu th ngun). Cc chc nng b xung ny cho php lp MAC giu cc c trng ca lp vt l v tuyn i vi cc lp trn. Hnh sau cho thy r v tr ca tiu chun 802.11 trong m hnh tham chiu kt ni cc h thng m :

M hnh tham chiu OSI Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer
Hnh 6.6: M hnh tham chiu. V c bn lp MAC l chng trnh ti b x l, n qun l v duy tr lin lc gia card giao tip mng NIC v AP qua vic sp xp truy cp n cc knh v tuyn c chia s. Mc tiu ca lp MAC l cung cp cc chc nng: sp xp a ch, pht v kim tra cc khung kim sot cho mi trng c chia s ca lp vt l. MAC c nhim v iu chnh vic s dng mi trng v tuyn v vic ny c thc hin thng qua c chd truy nhp knh, chia cc ti nguyn chnh gia cc nt, knh v tuyn. Lp vt l PHY l giao tip trung gian gia MAC v thit b v tuyn, c nhim v chuyn v nhn khung d liu qua vic chia s thit b v tuyn. PHY cung cp 3 chc nng. Th nht l cung cp vic trao i khung gia MAC v PHY qua s iu khin cc giao thc hi t lp vt l PLCP, l lp con gia MAC v lp ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD. Th hai, PHY s dng tn hiu v k thut tri ph truyn cc khung d liu
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H thng iu hnh mng

TCP IP Logical Link Control(LLC) 802.2 Medium Access Control (MAC)

802.11

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trn thit b trung gian vi s iu khin ca PMD. Th ba, PHY cung cp vic cm ng mi trng cho lp MAC. Nu cn c vo phn lp trong m hnh nh trong hnh 6.6 ta c cc chun trong h 802.11 c b tr nh trong hnh v sau:

Higher Layers

820.11c 820.11f 820.11d 820.11e 820.11h 820.11i 820.11a 820.11b 820.11g

MAC

PHY

Hnh 6.7: Cc chun trong h 802.11.

6.4 H thng thit b


6.4.1 Cc card giao din mng v tuyn

Ging nh cc card bin i thch ng card giao din v tuyn trao i thng tin vi h thng iu hnh mng thng qua mt b iu khin chuyn dng, qua cho php cc ng dng s dng mng v tuyn truyn d liu. Tuy nhin n khc vi card bin i thch ng l khng cn bt k dy cp no ni chng vi mng v cho php t li cc nt mng m khng cn thay i cp mng hoc thay i cc kt ni ti cc hub.
6.4.2 Cc im truy nhp v tuyn

Cc vng ph sng c to ra xung quanh cc im truy nhp, cc vng ny lin kt gia cc nt di ng v c s h tng hu tuyn. N lm cho WLAN bin thnh mt phn m rng ca mng hu tuyn. V cc im truy nhp cho php m rng cc vng ph sng nn cc WLAN rt n nh v cc im truy nhp b xung c th trin khai trong c to nh hay mt khun vin trng i hc to ra cc vng truy nhp v tuyn rng ln (hnh 1.2). Ngoi chc nng trao i thng tin vi cc mng khng dy m cn lc lu lng v thc hin cc chc nng cu ni tiu chun. Do bng thng bng thng ghp i khng i xng gia thng tin v tuyn v hu tuyn nn cn mt im truy nhp c b m thch hp v cc ti nguyn c a b nh. Cc b m cng ch yu dng
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lu cc gi d liu im truy nhp khi mt nt di ng c gng di chuyn khi vng ph sng hoc khi mt nt di ng hot ng ch cng sut thp.

LAN ng trc AP

Cc trm di ng

Hnh 6.9: im truy nhp AP. Cc im truy nhp trao i vi nhau qua mng hu tuyn qun l cc nt di ng. V cc im truy nhp c kt ni vi mng hu tuyn nn mi nt di ng s truy nhp vo cc ti nguyn ca my ch cng nh cc nt di ng khc. Mi im truy cp c th phc v nhiu nt di ng, s lng c th ph thuc vo s lng v bn cht ca truyn dn. Nhiu ng dng thc t bao gm mt im truy nhp n v 15-50 nt di ng Mt im truy nhp khng cn iu khin truy nhp t nhiu nt di ng (c ngha l n c th hot ng vi mt giao thc truy nhp ngu nhin phn tn nh l CSMA). Tuy nhin mt giao thc a truy nhp tp trung c iu khin bi mt im truy nhp s c nhiu thun li. Cc la chn giao din mng hu tuyn chung ti im truy nhp gm c 10 base2, 10 baseT, modem cp v modem ADSL, ISDN. Mt s card giao din mng v tuyn c th s dng kt hp vi cc im truy nhp v tuyn.
6.4.3 Cu ni v tuyn t xa

Cc cu v tuyn t xa tng t nh cc im truy nhp tr trng hp chng c s dng cho cc knh bn ngoi. Ph thuc vo khong cch v vng m c th cn ti cc anten ngoi. Cc cu ny c thit k kt ni cc mng vi nhau, c bit trong
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cc to nh v xa khong 32km. Chng cung cp mt la chn nhanh chng v r tin so vi lp t cp hoc ng in thoi thu ring, v thng c s dng khi cc kt ni truyn thng khng kh thi (v d qua cc sng, vng a hnh, cc khu vc ring, ng cao tc, minh ho trong hnh 1.3). Khc vi cc lin kt cp v cc mch in thoi chuyn dng cc cu v tuyn c th lc lu lng v m bo rng cc mng c kt ni khng mt cc lu lng cn thit.

Site

Locality

Hnh 6.10: Cu ni v tuyn.

6.5 Bo mt
Khng ging nh cc h thng hu tuyn c bo v vt l, cc mng v tuyn khng c nh trong mt phm vi. Chng c di chuyn ra xa khong mt 1000 bc chn ngoi ranh gii ca v tr gc vi mt laptop v mt anten thu. Nhng iu ny lm cho mng WLAN rt d b xm phm v kh khn trong bo mt. 802.11 c ba phong thc c bn bo mt cho WLAN l : SSID, WEP v MAC address filtering.
6.5.1 Tp dch v ID (SSID)

SID l mt chui c s dng nh ngha mt vng ph bin xung quanh cc im truy nhp nhn (APs). S khc nhau gia cc SSID trn cc AP c th cho php chng chp cc mng v tuyn. SSID l mt tng v mt mt khu gc m khng c n cc my tnh (my khch ) khng th kt ni mng. Tuy nhin, yu cu ny c th d dng b gt qua mt bn bi v cc AP qung b SSID nhiu ln trong mt giy v bt k cng c phn tch 802.11 no nh l Airmagnet, NetStumbler, hay Wildpackets Airopeek c th c s dng c n. Bi v nhng ngi s dng thng nh cu hnh cc my khch, iu ny lm cho cc mt khu c bit rng ri.
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Nhng ngi s dng c nn thay i SSID ca h khng? Tt nhin, mc d SSID khng b sung bt k lp bo mt no, n nn c thay i khi cc gi tr mc nh v rng n lm cho nhng ngi khc khng th ngu nhin s dng mng ca ngi s dng hp php.
6.5.2 Giao thc bo mt tng ng hu tuyn (WEP)

Tiu chun 802.11 nh ngha mt phng thc mt m ho v nhn thc gi l WEP (giao thc bo mt tng ng hu tuyn) gim nh nhng lo lng v bo mt. Ni chung, nhn thc c s dng bo v chng li nhng truy nhp tri php ti mng, trong khi mt m ho c s dng nh bi nhng ngi nghe trm khi c gng thc hin gii mt m bt gi c. 802.11 s dng WEP cho c mt m ho v nhn thc. C bn tu chn sn c khi s dng WEP: Khng s dng WEP S dng WEP ch mt m ha. S dng WEP ch nhn thc. S dng WEP nhn thc v m ho.

Mt m ha WEP da trn thut ton RC4, thut ton ny s dng mt kho 40 bit cng vi mt vec t khi to (IV) ngu nhin 24 bit m ha vic truyn dn d liu v tuyn. Nu c php, cng mt kho WEP phi c s dng trn tt c cc my khch v cc AP cho cc truyn thng. ngn chn truy nhp tri php, WEP cng nh ngha mt giao thc nhn thc. C hai dng nhn thc c nh ngha bi 802.11 l : Nhn thc h thng m v Nhn thc kho dng chung. Nhn thc h thng m cho php bt k my khch 802.11b kt hp vi AP v b qua qu trnh nhn thc. Khng din ra nhn thc my khch hoc mt m ho d liu. N c th c s dng cho truy nhp WLAN cng cng, truy nhp WLAN cng cng c th tm thy trong cc ca hng cafe, sn bay, cc khc sn, cc trung tm hi ngh, v cc nhng ni gp g tng t khc. y, tnh cng cng c yu cu cho s dng mng. Mng m nhn thc ngi s dng da trn tn mt khu ngi s dng trn mt trang Web ng nhp an ton. khp kn cc mng, ch ny c th c s dng khi cc phng thc nhn thc khc c cung cp. Trong vic s dng nhn thc kho dng chung, AP gi mt challenge phrase ti mt radio khch yu cu nhn thc. Radio khch m ha challenge phrase da vo kho
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dng chung v tr n v cho AP. Nu AP gii m thnh cng n tr v bn tin challenge gc, n chng t rng my khch c kho ring chnh xc. Khi my khch c to mt kt ni mng. i vi ngi quan st ngu nhin, dng nh thy rng qu trnh nhn thc kho dng chung l an ton hn qu trnh nhn thc kho m. Tuy nhin, c challenge phrase (c gi trong mt vn bn khng m ho) v challenge l sn c, mt hacker c th tm thy kho WEP. V th khng phi nhn thc h thng m m cng khng phi nhn thc kha ring l an ton. Bi v tiu chun 802.11 da vo cc dch v qun l kho ngoi phn phi cc kho b mt ti mi trm v khng chi r cc dch v phn phi kho, hu ht cc my khch 802.11 truy nhp cc Card v cc AP da trn phn phi kho nhn cng. iu ny ngha l cc kho gi nguyn khng thay i tr khi nh qun l thay i chng. Nhng kh khn do trng thi khng thay i ca cc kho v qu trnh qun l kho nhn cng cng nh vic thay i cc kho trn mi trm trong mt mng ln c th tiu tn rt nhiu thi gian. Hn na, do tnh di ng vn c ca dn s v khng c mt phng php hp l qun l tc v ny, nh qun l mng c th phi chu p lc rt ln hon thnh vic ny trong mt khung thi gian hp l. Mt lo lng khc l sc mnh ca WEP v rng n ch cung cp bn kho mt m tnh dng chung. iu ny ngha l bn kho mt m ha l ging nhau cho tt c cc my v cc AP ti mi thi im mt my khch truy nhp vo mng. Vi thi gian, s gn gi (trng thi v thi gian v khng gian), v cc cng c dowload t Web, cc hackers c th xc nh kho mt m s dng v gii m d liu. T vic WEP c th b b gy, ngi s dng c nn s dng WEP khng? nu ngi s dng khng c ci g khc, th vn nn dng WEP v n s gy kh khn hn cho cc Hacker c kh nng .
6.5.3 Lc a ch MAC

Ngoi hai c ch bo mt c bn m 802.11 cung cp, nhiu cng ty trin khai lc a chi MAC trong cc sn phm ca h. C ch ny l khng hon ho. B lc a ch MAC bao gm cc a ch MAC ca cc Card giao din mng v tuyn (NIC), c th kt hp vi AP cho bt k. Mt s nh cung cp cung cp cc cng c t ng qu trnh nhp v cp nht; mt khc, y l mt x l nhn cng hon ton. Mt b lc MAC cng khng khng bo mt mnh bi v n d dng tm ra cc a ch MAC tt vi mt Niffer (tn chng trnh phn tch mng), khi bng vic s
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dng cc driver Linux sn c trn Internet cho hu ht cc Card truy nhp my khch 802.11, ngi s dng c th xc nh cu hnh a ch MAC sniffed vo trong Card v ginh quyn truy nhp ti mng. Mc d khng bo mt hon ho, lc a ch MAC c tc dng lm cho ai kh khn hn khi ginh quyn truy nhp mng. C hai phng thc khc cp bi Wi-Fi, s dng cc kho phin v mt h thng VPN, c th trin khai c cho bo mt Wi-Fi. m hiu c mc bo mt bao nhiu l cn thit cho mt ng dng thc t, iu quan trng l phi hiu cc mi e do v cc tn cng c th xy ra.

6.6 Tnh hnh trin khai ti Vitnam


chun b cho Seagame 22, VDC trin khai dch v WiFi hng loi, sau khi WiFi tr nn ph bin ti Vitnam th vic s dng n nh l mt kt ni linh ng cho mng ni ht c s dng rng ri. Chi tit v m hnh trin khai rng ri ca VDC c th tham kho ti liu [14].

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Chng 7: Wimax
7.1 Gii thiu chung
Chng ta bit n cc cng ngh truy cp Internet ph bin hin nay nh quay s qua Modem thoi, hay cc ng thu knh ring, hoc s dng cc h thng v tuyn nh in thoi di ng hay mng Wi-Fi. Mi phng php truy nhp c c im ring. i vi Modem thoi th tc qu thp, ADSL th tc c th ln ti 8Mbps nhng cn c ng kt ni ring th gi thnh t m gp nhiu kh khn trong qu trnh trin khai i vi nhng khu vc c a hnh phc tp. H thng thng tin in thoi di ng hin nay cung cp tc 9.6Kbps thp so vi nhu cu ca ngi s dng, ngay c vi cc mng th h sau GSM nh GPRS (2.5G) cho php truy cp tc ln ti 171.2Kb/s hay EDGE khong 300-400Kb/s cng cha th p ng nhu cu ngy cng tng khi s dng cc dch v Internet. H thng in thoi di ng tip theo 3G th tc truy cp Internet cng khng vt qua 2Mb/s. Vi Wi-Fi (chnh l mng LAN khng dy) ch c th p dng cho cc my tnh trao i thng tin vi khong cch ngn. Vi thc t nh vy, Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) ra i nhm cung cp mt phng tin truy nhp Internet khng dy tng hp c th thay th cho ADSL v Wi -Fi. H thng Wimax c kh nng cung cp ng truyn vi tc ln ti 70Mbps v vi bn knh ph sng ca mt trm anten pht BS ln ti 50Km. M hnh ph sng ca mng Wimax tng t nh mng in thoi t bo. Bn cnh , Wimax cng hot ng mm do nh Wi-Fi khi truy cp mng. Mi khi mt my tnh mun truy cp mng n s t ng kt ni ti trm anten Wimax gn nht.
7.1.1 Lch s Wimax

Nhm cng tc IEEE 802.16 l nhm u tin chu trch nhim pht trin chun 802.16 bao gm giao din v tuyn cho truy nhp khng dy bng rng. Hot ng ca nhm khi u trong mt cuc hp vo 08/1998. Ban u nhm tp trung vo vic pht trin cc chun v giao din v tuyn cho bng tn 10-60GHz. Sau d n sa i dn n vic tn thnh chun IEEE 802.16a tp trung vo bng tn 2 -11GHz. Cc chi tit k thut giao din v tuyn 802.16a c ph chun cui cng vo 01/2003. ETSI to ra chun MAN khng dy cho bng tn 2-11GHz vo 10/2003 cn c gi l HiperMAN. Chun HiperMAN v c bn l theo s hng dn 802.16. Chun HiperMAN cung cp vic truyn thng cho mng khng dy trong cc bng tn 2 11GHz Chu u. Nhm lm vic HiperMAN tn dng lc iu ch OFDM FFT 256 im. l mt trong nhng lc iu ch c nh ngha trong chun IEEE 802.16a. Wimax Forum gi vai tr lin minh tng t nh s lin minh Wi-Fi trong WLAN, h tr pht trin cc sn phm MAN v tuyn da trn cc chun ca Vin nghin cu ca cc k s in v in t (IEEE) v vin nghin cu cc chun vin thng Chu u (ETSI). Wimax Forum tin rng mt chun chung cho truy nhp v tuyn bng rng (BWA) s lm gim chi ph thit b v thc y vic ci thin hiu nng. Bn cnh , cc nh khai thc BWA s khng b rng buc vi mt nh cung cp thit b duy nht do cc trm gc (BS) s tng thch vi thit b truyn thng c nhn CPE ca nhiu nh
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cung cp. Wimax Forum ban u tp trung vo truyn thng c nh cho di tn 10 66GHz, vic m rng quy m ln bt u vo 01/2003 v chuyn sang c lnh vc di ng. Wimax da trn c s tng thch ton cu c kt hp bi cc chun IEEE 802.16-2004 v IEEE 802.16e ca IEEE v ETSI HiperMAN ca ETSI. Trong IEEE 802.16-2004 cho c nh v IEEE 802.16e cho d liu di ng tc cao.
7.1.2 Khi nim Wimax

Wimax l kh nng khai thc lin mng ton cu i vi truy nhp vi ba (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) Wimax l mt cng ngh khng dy da trn chun 802.16 cung cp cc kt ni bng rng thng lng cao qua khong cch xa. Cng ngh Wimax bao gm cc sng vi ba truyn d liu khng dy. Wimax c dng cho mt s ng dng nh kt ni bng rng u cui, cc hotspot v cc kt ni tc cao cho cc khch hng kinh doanh. N cung cp kt ni mng vng thnh th khng dy MAN vi tc ln ti 70Mbps v cc trm gc Wimax trung bnh c th bao ph t 5 n 10km. Cc chun c nh v di ng u c s dng trong c bng tn cp php v khng cp php. Tuy nhin min tn s cho chun c nh l 2-11GHz trong khi chun di ng l di 6GHz. Wimax h tr c tm nhn thng LOS phm vi ln n 50km v tm nhn khng thng NLOS khong t 6-10km cho thit b truyn thng c nhn CPE c nh. Tc d liu nh cho chun c nh s h tr ln n 70Mbps mi thu bao, trong ph 20MHz nhng tc d liu tiu chun s hn 20-30Mbps. Cc ng dng di ng s cng c h tr tc d liu nh 30Mbps mi thu bao trong ph 10MHz, tc tiu chun 3-5Mbps. Cc trm gc s h tr 280Mbps p ng nhu cu ca hng ngn ngi s dng cng mt lc.
7.1.3 Bng tn

IEEE 802.16-2004 da trn k thut OFDM v c thit k cho cc hot ng trong cc bng tn 2-11GHz h tr cc lc iu ch thch ng v m ha. y l mt gii php khng dy cho truy nhp Internet bng rng c nh, cung cp s tng tc, gii php phn loi sng mang cho cc thit b u cui. N c th c dng trong cc bng tn c cp php v khng cp php. Cc bng tn c cp php 2.3GHz (2.3-2.4) 2.5GHz (2.5-2.7) 3.5GHz (3.4-3.7) Cc bng tn khng cp php 3.5GHz(3.65-3.70) 5.8GHz (5.725-5.85) IEEE 802.16e hot ng trong bng tn khng cp php 2.3GHz, 2.5GHz v 3.5GHz.
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7.2 Kin trc Wimax


7.2.1 Cu hnh mng

Cng ngh Wimax h tr mng PMP v mt dng ca cu hnh mng phn tn l mng li MESH.
7.2.1.1 Cu hnh mng im - a im (PMP)

PMP l mt mng truy nhp vi mt hoc nhiu BS c cng sut ln v nhiu SS nh hn. Ngi dng c th ngay lp tc truy nhp mng ch sau khi lp t thit b ngi dng. SS c th s dng cc anten tnh hng n cc BS, cc BS c th c nhiu anten c hng tc dng theo mi hng hay mt cung. Vi cu hnh ny trm gc BS l im trung tm cho cc trm thu bao SS. hng DL c th l qung b, a im hay n im. Kt ni ca mt SS n BS c c trng qua nhn dng kt ni CID.

Hnh 7.1: Cu hnh im-a im (PMP)


7.2.1.2 Cu hnh mt li MESH

Vi cu hnh ny SS c th lin lc trc tip vi nhau. Trm gc Mesh BS kt ni vi mt mng bn ngoi mng MESH Mt s im phn bit Neighbor: Kt ni trc tip n mt node mng Neighborhood: Tt c cc neighbor khc Extended neighborhood: Tt c cc neighbor t neighborhood Kiu MESH khc PMP l trong kiu PMP cc SS ch lin h vi BS v tt c lu lng i qua BS trong khi trong kiu MESH tt c cc node c th lin lc vi mi node khc mt cch trc tip hoc bng nh tuyn nhiu bc thng qua cc SS khc.

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Mt h thng vi truy nhp n mt kt ni backhaul c gi l Mesh BS, trong khi cc h thng cn li c gi l Mesh SS. D cho MESH c mt h thng c gi l Mesh BS, h thng ny cng phi phi hp qung b vi cc node khc.

Hnh 7.2: Cu hnh mt li MESH Backhaul l cc anten im-im c dng kt ni cc BS c nh v qua khong cch xa. Mt mng MESH c th s dng hai loi lp lch qung b. Vi kiu lp lch phn tn, cc h thng trong phm vi 2 bc ca mi cell khc nhau chia s cch lp lch v hp tc m bo trnh xung t v chp nhn ti nguyn. MESH lp lch tp trung da vo Mesh BS tp hp cc yu cu ti nguyn t cc Mesh SS trong mt di bt k v phn phi cc yu cu ny vi kh nng c th. Kh nng ny c chia s vi cc Mesh SS khc m d liu ca ngi dng c chuyn tip thng qua cc Mesh SS trao i vi Mesh BS. Trong kiu MESH, phn loi QoS c thc hin trn nn tng tng gi hn l c kt hp vi cc lin kt nh trong kiu PMP. Do ch c mt lin kt gia gia hai node Mesh lin lc vi nhau.
7.2.2 M hnh phn lp

Hnh 7.3 miu t phn lp giao thc Wimax cho hai lp cui cng trong m hnh OSI:

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CS SAP Service specific Convergence Sublayer (CS) MAC SAP MAC MAC Common Part Sublayer (MAC CPS)

Privacy Sublayer

PHY SAP PHY Physical Layer (PHY)

Hnh 7.3: Cc phn lp giao thc Wimax cho hai lp cui cng

7.3 Chun cng ngh


Chun IEEE 802.16 c t lp vt l (PHY) v lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC) i vi truy nhp bng rng trong mt mng khu vc th (MAN). Chun IEEE 802.16 in y cc l hng gia lp lin kt logic IEEE 802.2 v giao din v tuyn. Cng vi kh nng ca bridging theo chun IEEE 802.1, cc chun ny v cc k thut truy nhp lp cao hn ca chng c th c s dng to ra mt mng hn lon (routable). Hnh 7.4 minh ha v tr ca chun 802.16 trong cu trc cc chun IEEE 802. Trong khi chun 802.16 ch c t mt lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC), n tri qua hng lot s sa i. S sa i ny thm vo s c t vi lp vt l khc nhau, nh v tr ph tn mi, c di tn cho php v di tn khng cho php cng xut hin. ngn cn s ln xn, mt bn tm tt ngn gn ca nhiu s m rng v phm vi di tn khc nhau ca cc chun c th hin di y.

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802.10TM SECURITY

802.2TM LOGICALLINK 802.2TM OVERVIEW & ARCHITECTURE 802.1TM MANAGEMENT 802.1TM BRIDGING 802.3TM
MEDIUM ACCESS

802.4TM
MEDIUM ACCESS

802.5TM
MEDIUM ACCESS

802.6TM
MEDIUM ACCESS

802.11TM
MEDIUM ACCESS

802.15TM
MEDIUM ACCESS

802.16TM
MEDIUM ACCESS

DATA LINK LAYER

802.3 PHYSICAL

802.4 PHYSICAL

802.5 PHYSICAL

802.6 PHYSICAL

802.11 PHYSICAL

802.15 PHYSICAL

802.16 PHYSICAL

PHYSICAL LAYER

Hnh 7.4: V tr ca chun IEEE 802.16 trong cu trc chun IEEE 802
7.3.1 Chun 802.16-2001

Chun IEEE 802.16-2001 c t s chun ha cc lp MAC v PHY dnh cho vic cung cp truy nhp v tuyn bng rng c nh trong cc kt ni im-im, im-a im. Vi k thut iu ch sng mang n trong di tn 10 -66GHz, 802.16-2001 cung cp s h tr cho c truyn song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD) v song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD). cc phn lp con, IEEE802.16-2001 xc nh lp MAC c bn phc v cho tt c cc s thay i ca cc chun. Trong khi 802.11 da vo CSMA/CA quyt nh khi cc node trong mng c chp nhn truyn, lp MAC ca IEEE 802.162001 s dng ton b cc m hnh khc nhau iu khin truyn dn. Thi gian truyn dn, gia cc khong thi gian truyn dn v thi gian iu ch c gn bi mt trm gc (BS) v chia s vi ton b cc node trong mng trong khun dng ca bn pht qung b ng ln hoc ng xung. Bng lc thi gian truyn, s khuy ng cc node n c th trnh c. Cc thu bao ch cn nghe cc trm gc nhiu hn cc node khc trong mng v tuyn cc b WLAN. Ngoi ra, thut ton lp danh mc n nh khi cc thu xy ra vn qu ti hoc cc vn lin quan ti qu ti. Trm thu bao c th m phn phn di thng c cp trong mt cm ti mt cm c bn, vi iu kin qu trnh lp danh mc mm do. Cc k thut iu ch bao gm QPSK, QAM-16 v QAM-64. Cc k thut ny c th thay i t khung ti khung v t SS ti SS ph thuc vo tnh trng ca s kt ni. K thut iu ch v k thut t sa li hng v pha trc (FEC) mm do trong cc iu kin ng truyn c th cho php mng thch ng nhanh vi cc iu kin thi tit, nh ma tnh, vv. Cc thng s truyn dn ban u c iu chnh qua mt qu trnh tng tc gi l Initial Ranging. Qu trnh ny, BS cung cp nng lng, iu ch v nh thi thng tin phn hi ti SS cng c ch dn trn mt ongoing c bn (ng ti SS). Thc hin c song cng ca knh ng ln v ng xung, s dng k thut TDD hoc FDD. Quan trng hn na, IEEE 802.16-2001 kt hp cht ch cc tnh nng cung cp QoS khc nhau xung ti lp vt l. H tr QoS xung quanh vic xy dng khi nim cc lung dch v c nhn ra p ng yu cu ca ngi dng m c gi l
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Service Flow ID. Lung dch v c c trng bi cc tham s QoS ca chng, n c th c s dng nh r cc tham s nh gc tr ti a, jitter ph hp. Lung dch v c th bt u BS hoc SS theo mt hng duy nht. cc lp cao hn, phi c phc v cng vi lung dch v m bo QoS t u cui ti u cui v d nh DiffServ. Nhm l vic IEEE 802.16 cng gii thiu vi c im bo mt. Bo mt trong IEEE 802.16 ch yu trong phn lp con phn ring. Mc tiu ca phn lp con phn ring l cung cp s bo mt dc theo cc kt ni v tuyn trong mng. hon thnh iu ny, thc hin m ha d liu gia BS v SS. ngn chn k trm dch v, SS c th s dng X.509 kim sot cc SS. K c xc nhn l cc kha (key) v a ch lp MAC ca cc SS cng cng. Chi tit c th ca phn lp con phn ring s c tho lun trong phn sau.
7.3.2 Chun 802.16a-2003

IEEE 802.16a l mt phin bn sa i t chun c bn, c thng qua bi chun bng rng IEEE trong 1/2003. Quan trng hn, chun IEEE 802.16a m rng thm s h tr trong bng tn cho php 2-11GHz, n m ra nhiu th trng cng ngh tim nng. S hot ng theo ng truyn NLOS tr thnh hin thc khi hot ng trong di tn 2 -11 GHz, m rng vng a l ca mng. S truyn dn a ng c th tr thnh mt s cn tr. Chun IEEE 802-16a bao gm c vic c t lp PHY v tng lp MAC ph hp vi s truyn dn a ng v vic gim bt cc giao din. Cc c trng c thm vo cho php cc k thut qun l cng sut tin tin v ma trn anten thch ng. Ngoi ra la chn OFDM nh l mt s la chn iu ch sng mang n. cung cp mt c cu cho vic gim cc giao din khi m xut hin nhiu mng, chun IEEE 802.16a thm vo phng php iu ch OFDMA la chn trong phm vi di tn 2 11GHz hin c. Vi nhiu yu t yu cu cc c tnh ca phn lp con phn ring vn bo mt c ci thin. Cc c tnh ring c s dng chng minh chc chn ngi gi cc bn tin MAC. IEEE 802.16 thm vo s h tr ty chn cho cc mng hnh li (Mesh), ni m lu lng c th nh tuyn t trm thu bao ti trm thu bao. l mt s thay i t m hnh im-a im (PMP), ni m lu lng ch c cho php gia BS v SS. IEEE 802.16 thm vo s c t lp MAC ph hp lm cho lc truyn dn ca SS l mt phn ca li (Mesh), nhng n khng hin r ti SS.
7.3.3 Chun 802.16c-2002

Thng 12/2002, u ban cc tiu chun IEEE ph chun b sung chun IEEE 802.16c. S b sung ny hiu chnh mt vi li v s mu thun trong chun c bn, m t chi tit h thng trong di tn 10-60 GHz.
7.3.4 Chun 802.16d-2004

IEEE 802.16-2001, 802.16a v 802.16c c tch hp trong chun IEEE 802.162004 c chng nhn trong 24/6/2004 v c cng b vo thng 12/2004. Phin bn ny bt u c pht trin nh vic c t mt h thng di ci tn IEEE 802.16-REVd nhng cng b nh l mt s ti bn thnh cng ca cc chun c bn IEEE
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802.16. IEEE 802.16-2004 l mt phin bn c chun ha s dng cho vic chng nhn Wimax.
7.3.5 Chun 802.16e-2005

Chun IEEE 802.16e-2005 c chng nhn vo cui thng 12/2005. IEEE 802.16e thm vo tnh di ng cho cc chun hin ti, s dng SOFDMA thay cho OFDM trong chun IEEE 802.16d. IEEE 802.16e cho php chuyn giao tn hiu tc cao cn thit cho truyn thng vi nhng ngi dng di chuyn tc ca phng tin giao thng.

7.4 Mt s c im k thut ca Wimax


7.4.1 Lp vt l
Cc k hiu burst framed Bust Framing

Bit ngun

Bit ngu nhin Ngu nhin ha

K hiu QAM nh x I FEC v QAM

Cc k hiu duplex framed Duplex Framing

I Q

Tx Filtering Tx Filtering

iu ch QAM

iu khin cng sut

Hnh 7.5: Qu trnh truyn dn IEEE 802.16 nh ngha cc lp vt l khc nhau: Wireless MAN-SC layer Wireless MAN-SCa layer WirelessMAN-OFDM Layer WirelessMAN-OFDMA Layer Wireless HUMAN

Cc lp vt l ny s dng cc k thut iu ch m ha khc nhau nhng qu trnh truyn dn ca chng bao gi cng gm cc bc sau theo hnh 7. 5. D liu ban u c ngu nhin ha, m ha FEC v c nh x thnh cc k hiu QAM. Cc k hiu QAM c sp sp trong cc khung trong mt cm (burts) bn tin. Cc cm k hiu ny s c ghp trong mt khung song cng. Cc thnh phn k hiu I v Q s c chn trong cc b lc dng xung, c iu ch cu phng ti mt tn s sng mang, v thc hin iu khin bin v cng sut c cng sut u ra ph hp truyn i. Wireless MAN-SC layer: da trn cng ngh sng mang n c thit k cho ng truyn hot ng trong tm nhn thng LOS trong di tn s cao t 10-66GHz. H tr song cng TDD, FDD.
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Lp vt l v tuyn MAN-Csa: da trn cng ngh sng mang n v c thit k cho ng truyn NLOS trong bng tn 2-11 GHz. H tr song cng TDD, FDD. Cc c tnh trong lp vt l ny bao gm: H tr TDD v FDD TDMA UL TDM DL iu ch khi thch ng v m ha FEC cho c ng UL v DL Truyn theo khung ci thin s cn bng (mt chiu) v thc hin c lng knh qua NLOS v m rng mi trng tr tri ph. K hiu c ng thnh gi. M ha son FEC s dng m Reed Solomon v chn Pragmatic TCM FEC s dng ty chn BTC v CTC Khng s dng FEC ty chn s dng ARQ iu khin li. Ty chn tnh phn tp chuyn tip STC. Ngoi tr cc yu cu khc, qu trnh truyn tin tng t cho c hng ng ln UL v ng xung DL.

Lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDM da trn iu ch OFDM c thit k hot ng cho ng truyn trong phm vi khng truyn thng NLOS trong di tn t 2-11 GHz. H tr song cng TDD, FDD. Lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDMA: da trn k thut iu ch OFDMA c thit k hot ng i vi ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS trong di tn 2-11 GHz. Trong di tn c cp php, hai phng php song cng c s dng l FDD v TDD, FDD SSs c th l bn song cng (H-FDD). Trong di tn khng cp php, s dng phng php song cng TDD. Lp vt l v tuyn HUMAN: Tn s knh trung tm theo cng thc: Knh tn s trung tm (MHz) = 5000 + 5 . nch (n= 0 - 199) rng knh l 5 MHz, di tn cng tc l 5-6 GHz. Wimax Forum quyt nh rng cc mt phng kim tra tnh tng tc u tin v cc chng nhn cui cng s h tr FFT OFDM PHY 256 im (chung gia IEEE 802.16-2004 v ETSI HiperMAN) vi Wimax c nh v OFDMA, SOFDMA i vi Wimax di ng.
7.4.1.1 Khi nim OFDM

OFDM l mt k thut hp dn s dng cho cc h thng truyn thng s liu tc cao. N c pht trin t 2 k thut quan trng l ghp knh phn chia theo tn s (FDM) v truyn thng a sng mang. OFDM thm c im trc giao vo FDM a sng mang. Trc giao ngha l khng gy ra nhiu ln nhau. Trong OFDM cc sng mang con c thit k trc giao. iu ny cho php cc sng mang con chng ln nhau v tit kim bng tn. Do , OFDM t c c tc d liu cao v hiu sut tri ph cao. gii iu ch tn hiu, cn mt chuyn i Fourier ri rc (DFT).
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9 sng mang con

Tn s Hnh 7.6: OFDM vi 9 sng mang con


7.4.1.2 OFDMA cho lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDMA

Nh ta bit OFDM c th h tr vic truyn mt ngi dng hoc truy nhp nhiu ngi dng. Khi OFDM c kt hp vi TDMA (a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian) chng ta c OFDM-TDMA. Khi OFDM kt hp vi FDMA th to ra OFDMA (a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao). K thut a truy nhp OFDM -TDMA n nh cc khe thi gian cho mi ngi dng. Trong mt khe thi gian, tt c cc sng mang con c dnh ring nh v cho mt ngi dng. OFDMA cho php nhiu ngi dng truy nhp cc sng mang con cng mt lc. mi n v thi gian, tt c cc ngi dng c th truy nhp. Vic n nh cc sng mang con cho mt ngi dng c th thay i mi n v thi gian.
7.4.1.3 SOFDMA theo t l (S-OFDMA)

y l mt c im b xung cho IEEE 802.16e h tr chuyn giao d dng. Trong OFDM-TDMA v OFDMA, s lng sng mang con thng c gi bng nhau vi ph c sn. S sng mang con khng thay i dn n khng gian sng mang con thay i trong cc h thng khc nhau. iu ny lm cho vic chuyn giao gia cc h thng gp kh khn. Ngoi ra, mi h thng cn mt thit k ring v chi ph cao. OFDMA theo t l (-SOFDMA) gii quyt cc vn ny bng cch gi cho khng gian sng mang con khng thay i. Ni cch khc, s sng mang con c th tng hoc gim vi nhng thay i trong mt bng tn cho trc. V d, nu mt bng tn 5MHz c chia thnh 512 sng mang con, mt bng tn 10MHz s c chia thnh 1024 sng mang con. Bi v khng gian sng mang con l gi nguyn trong S-OFDMA nn mt my di ng c th chuyn giao gia cc h thng mt cch sun s. Ngoi ra, vi khng gian sng mang con khng thay i, mt thit k l ph hp cho nhiu h thng v c th ti s dng. Chi ph cho thit k v sn phm s thp hn. IEEEE 802.16e-2005 kiu MAN-OFDMA v tuyn da trn c s ni dung ca OFDMA theo t l (SOFDMA). SOFDMA h tr mt phm vi rng bng tn tp trung linh ng vo nhu cu cho vic cp pht a dng ph v cc yu cu s dng mi. Tnh quy m c h tr bng cch hiu chnh kch c FFT trong khi c nh khng gian tn s sng mang con 10.94kHz. Do n v ti nguyn l bng tn sng mang con v
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khong thi gian symbol l c nh, nn tc ng n lp cao hn l ti thiu khi cng t l bng tn. Bng 7.1: Cc tham s ca SOFDMA Cc tham s Bng tn knh truyn h thng (MHz) Tn s ly mu ( MHz) Kch c FFT (NFFT) S knh con Khng gian tn s sng mang con Thi gian symbol hu ch (Tb=1/f) Thi gian bo v (Tg=Tb/8) Khong thi gian symbol OFDMA (Tg+Tb) S lng symbol OFDMA (khung 5ms) Cc gi tr 1.25 5 1.4 5.6 128 512 2 8 10.94kHz 91.4 micro giy 11.4 micro giy 102.9 micro giy 48 10 11.2 1024 16 20 22.4 2048 32

S-OFDMA cho php cc kch c FFT nh hn ci thin hiu sut cho cc knh truyn vi bng thng thp hn, c th gim kch c FFT nhng gi nguyn khng gian sng mang con l hng s c lp vi bng thng khi bng thng gim hon ton. S-OFDMA mang li mt thun li hn OFDMA. N t l kch c ca chuyn i Fourier nhanh vi bng tn knh gi cho khng gian sng mang khng i qua cc bng tn knh khc nhau. Khng gian sng mang khng i lm cho hiu sut dng ph cao hn trong cc knh rng v gim chi ph trong cc knh hp.
7.4.1.4 Knh con ha

a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDMA) cho php mt s cc sng mang con c gn cho cc ngi dng khc nhau. V d, sng mang con 1, 3 v 7 c th c gn cho ngi dng 1 v sng mang con 2, 5 v 9 cho ngi dng 2. Cc nhm sng mang con ny c xem nh cc knh con. Knh con ha nh ngha cc knh con m c th cp pht cho cc thu bao khc nhau ty thuc vo iu kin knh truyn v cc yu cu d liu khc. iu ny mang li cho cc nh khai thc tnh mm do cao hn trong qun l bng tn v cng sut pht ng thi s dng ti nguyn hiu qu hn. V d trong cng mt khe thi gian m cng sut pht ln hn c th c cp pht cho ngi dng vi iu kin knh truyn km thun li hn, trong khi cng sut thp hn cho cc ngi dng trong cc v tr tt hn. Ci thin bao ph trong cc ta nh c th t c bng cch cp pht cng sut cao hn cho cc knh con c n nh cho cc thit b ngi dng bn trong. Knh con ha trong ng ln mang li s ci thin hiu nng, khi cng sut pht t thit b ngi dng c nhiu hn ch. Trong OFDM, cc thit b ngi dng pht s dng ton b khng gian sng mang. OFDMA h tr a truy nhp, cho php cc thit b ngi dng pht ch qua mt knh con c cp pht cho chng. Trong OFDMA vi 2048 sng mang v 32 knh con, nu ch mt knh con c cp pht cho mt thit b, tt
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c cng sut pht s c tp trung trong 1/32 ph c sn v c th mang li khuch i cao. a truy nhp tr nn thun li khi s dng cc knh rng. OFDMA khai thc tnh a dng tn s ca knh truyn a ng bng cch m ha v an xen thng tin qua cc sng mang con trc khi truyn. iu ch OFDMA c th c thc hin vi chuyn i Fourier ngc nhanh vi hiu sut cao, iu ny cho php s lng ln sng mang con (ln ti 2048) vi phc tp thp. Trong mt h thng OFDMA, ti nguyn l c sn trong min thi gian bi cc symbol OFDMA v trong min tn s bi cc sng mang con. Cc ti nguyn tn s v thi gian c th c sp xp trong mt knh con cung cp n cc ngi dng c th. OFDMA l mt lc ghp knh/a truy nhp m cung cp thao tc ghp knh cc lung d liu t nhiu ngi dng ln cc knh con ng xung v a truy nhp bi cc knh con ng ln. Trong OFDM cc thit b ngi dng c n nh cc khe thi gian cho truyn dn, nhng ch mt thit b ngi dng c th pht trong mt khe thi gian. Ngi dng 1

Cc sng mang

Ngi dng 2

Ngi dng 3

Symbol FFT

Thi gian Hnh 7.7: n nh khe thi gian trong OFDM

Ngi dng 4

Trong OFDMA mi knh con cho php nhiu ngi dng c th pht cng mt thi im qua cc knh con c cp pht cho chng.
7.4.2 Lp MAC

Lp MAC l hng kt ni bao gm ba phn lp con. Lp con hi t dch v ring (SSCS) cung cp mi s bin i hay nh x d liu mng ngoi, nhn d liu mng ngoi qua im truy nhp dch v CS SAP, cc MAC SDU (n v d liu dch v) c nhn bi lp con phn chung MAC CPS thng qua MAC SAP. Bao gm vic phn loi cc SDU mng ngoi v kt hp chng vi nhn dng lung dch v MAC thch hp (SFID) v nhn dng kt ni (CID). N c th cng bao gm cc chc nng nh nn tiu ti trng (PHS). Nhiu chi tit k thut CS c cung cp cho giao din vi nhiu loi giao thc. nh dng bn trong ca ti trng CS l duy
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nht vi mi CS, v cc MAC CPS khng yu cu hiu dc nh dng ca n hay phn tch bt k thng tin no t ti trng CS. MAC CPS cung cp cc chc nng MAC chnh ca vic truy nhp h thng, cp pht rng di tn, thit lp v duy tr kt ni. N nhn d liu t nhiu CS thng qua MAC SAP, phn loi thnh cc kt ni MAC c th. QoS c p dng cho vic truyn v lp lch d liu thng qua lp PHY s dng 4 loi dch v c bn.
Quy m chun ha

CS SAP Lp con hi t dch v c bit (MAC SSCS) MAC SAP

Thc th qun l Lp con hi t dch v c bit SSCS

Lp con phn chung MAC (MAC CPS) Lp con bo mt (MAC SS)


PHY SAP

Thc th qun l Lp con phn chung MAC Lp con bo mt

PHY

Lp vt l (PHY)

Thc th qun l PHY


Mt bng qun l

mt bng d liu/ iu khin

Hnh 7.8: Phn lp MAC v cc chc nng C hai loi kt ni l cc kt ni qun l v kt ni truyn ti d liu. Cc kt ni qun l c ba loi: c bn, s cp v th cp. Mt kt ni c bn c to ra cho mi MS khi n gia nhp vo mng. Kt ni s cp cng c to ra cho mi MS thi im vo mng nhng uc dng cho cc bn tin qun l dung sai tr. Loi kt ni qun l th ba, loi th cp c dng cho cc bn tin qun l IP tm lc (nh DHCP, SNMP, TFP). Cc kt ni truyn ti d liu c th c cung cp hoc c thit lp theo yu cu. Chng c dng cho cc lung lu lng ngi dng. n im hoc a im c th c dng cho truyn dn.

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H thng qun l mng

MAC

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7.5 H thng thit b


Wimax l mt cng ngh mi ra i hot ng da theo chun IEEE 802.16. Mng Wimax c nhiu tnh nng u vit hn cc mng trc . Ngoi kh nng cung cp a dch v n cn c th cung cp cc kt ni bng rng ty theo nhu cu s dng ca khch hng. Cc thit b sn xut theo chun th va mi c chng nhn, p ng nhu cu xy dng mng ca cc nh cung cp. Thit b da trn chun IEEE 802.16 -2004 c chng nhn vo 4/2005 cho php mng Wimax c th cung cp cc dch v c nh nh VoIP, Internet bng thng rng.Mc d c sn xut theo chun c nh nhng cc thit b ny c th d dng c nng cp bng phn mm theo chun 802.16e cung cp cc dch v cho khch hng m ang di chuyn. Mi y thi, Intel sn xut thnh cng chip da theo chun IEEE 802.16e v vo 8/2006 cc thit b Wimax da trn chun IEEE 802.16e c chng nhn, lm tng thm kh nng dng di ng cho khch hng. Mng da trn cc thit b ny c th cung cp cc dch v c tnh di ng cao, bng thng rng. Hin nay, nn cng nghip sn xut thit b cho Wimax ang c pht trin rt mnh m bi chnh nhng hng sn xut, cung ng cc thit b v tuyn in t hng u th gii. Thng hiu ca nhng hng cho trong bng 7.2 di y. Bng 7.2: Thng hiu ca cc nh cung cp thit b Wimax Vendor Adaptix AirSpan AS4020 ASWipLL, AS4030 AS MAX OEM Alvarion WalkAIR, eMGW Multiservice Proprietary Wimax2004 Wimax802.16e Motion 2100 AS.MAX road map Evolium Wimax base station Motion WiBRO

Alcatel

Alvarion Aperto Networks Arraycom Axcera Axxcelera

BreezeAccess BreezeMAX BreezeMAX Breeze2000 road map PacketWave PacketMAX PacketMAX iBurst

AB Access

ExcelAir 70

ExcelMAX (3.5) 96

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Vendor

Multiservice Proprietary

Wimax2004 AB Max (5.8)

Wimax802.16e

WiBRO

Cambridge Broadband Ericsson Flarion/Qualcomm Harris IPWireless Motorola

VectaSTAR

VectaMAX OEM Airspan Road map

ClearBurst MB

MOTOwi4 Canopy products

MOTOwi4 UltraLite products RipWave MX

Navini NextNet Nortel PointRed Technologies Proxim Wireless Redline Expedience Road map with Airspan MicroRed Tsunami AN100 TeraMAX RedMAX

Road map LG/Nortel LG/Nortel joint joint venture venture

Tsunami MP.16

Samsung

Siemens

WayMAX
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RAS bs, CPEchips Road map in existing terminals WayMAX

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Vendor

Multiservice Proprietary

Wimax2004 @vantage

Wimax802.16e Family road map

WiBRO

Soma

SoftAir System Angel (named changed to Symmetry ONE) Access 5830 and FOX Symmetry ONE

Road map

SR Telecom

AirStar

Symmetry MX

Trango Broadband UTStarcom

Vyyo

V251,Wireless Modem, V3000 wireless hub LMS Family Space time processing technology Ultima 3, AWE, Libra families ZXBWA-3E Libra MX ZiMax Road map

WaveRider/ WaveWireless Wavion

WiLAN ZTE

Cc nh cung cp thit b cho Wimax c th chia lm hai loi, l cc nh cung cp thit b Wimax c nh sau tin ti cung cp c thit b Wimax di ng v cc nh cung cp thit b cho Wimax nhng ch hng ti th trng Wimax di ng. Cc nh cung cp cc thit b Wimax m nhm ti cc thit b trng di ng ngay t u l: Adaptix Inc.; Alcatel; Nokia Corp.; Nortel Networks Ltd;
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LG Electronics Inc.; Motorola Inc.; Navini Networks Inc.; Ericsson AB.

Posdata Co. Ltd; Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd; Lucent Technologies Inc.;

Cc nh cung cp thit b Wimax nhm ti th trng Wimax c nh sau chuyn hng sang cung cp cho th trng Wimax di ng l: Airspan Networks Inc.; Alvarion Ltd; Aperto Networks; Cambridge Broadband Ltd; Navini Networks Inc.; Proxim Corp.; Redline Communications Inc.; Siemens AG; SR Telecom Inc.; Wi-LAN Inc.; ZTE Corp.

C rt nhiu hng ln tham gia sn xut cc chip v thit b cho Wimax, l cc hng ni ting nh: Altera Corp.; Beceem Communications Inc.; Fujitsu Ltd.; Intel Corp.; Sequans Communications; TeleCIS Wireless Inc.; Wavesat Wireless Inc.; Xilinx Inc.

Cc hng ny mi cung cp c chip phc v cho vic sn xut cc thit b Wimax c nh, cn chip cho thit b Wimax di ng th mi ch a ra gii thiu, sn phm c sn xut theo chun ny cn rt hn ch. Chnh v th m trn th trng hin nay a s vn l cc thit b Wimax c nh. phc v cho tnh di ng, cc thit b c sn xut theo chun c nh c th c nng cp bng phn mm hot ng c trong mng di ng. cng l mt tnh nng c tch hp trong chip c nh khi chun 802.16e c chng nhn. Chi tit hn v thng tin cc thit b tham kho thm ti liu [15] Sn phm thit b cho Wimax hu ht u hot ng trong cc di tn s cng tc thuc di tn thp (2-11 GHz) tng ng vi hai lp 256 OFDM PHY v 2048 OFDMA PHY. Cc nhng thit b hot ng trong c di tn thp ny nhng cng c mt s thit b ca mt vi hng c phn chia ra theo tn s sng mang, theo mt di tn cng tc nht nh. c th thy r cc thit b trong mng Wimax, chng ta c th xem cu trc mng c th ca mt hng sau. Nh hnh 3.1 trn ta c th thy, mt mng bt buc phi c cc BS v CPE, ngoi ra n cn c cc bachaul v cc giao thc qun l mng hay cc b ghp lung lu lng.

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Hnh 3.1: Kin trc h thng AS.MAX ca hngAirSpan

7.6 Bo mt
Cng ging nh mi trng v tuyn khc, Wimax cng chu mt p lc v bo mt rt ln, do cc m hnh kinh doanh cha r rng nn nhng bin php bo mt y t pha cc nh qun tr mng cha c cp n, tuy nhin bn thn Wimax cng c nhng bin php bo mt ring. Lp con bo mt MAC 802.16 (lp con phn ring MAC) tp trung vo cc chc nng bo mt gn lin vi cc khung lp MAC. C th xem lp con ny gm hai giao thc thnh phn: Giao thc ng gi: Giao thc ny nh ngha tp cc b mt m h tr vic mt m gi d liu gia BS v SS. Cc b ny cha thng tin v mt m ha d liu v cc thut ton nhn thc, v cc qui tc p dng cc thut ton ny vo ti trng MAC PDU. Giao thc qun l kha: Giao thc ny thuc v vic qun l v phn phi vt liu kha t BS n SS. Giao thc c la chn y l giao thc qun l kha bo mt (PKM) c pht trin trong cc modem cp DOCSIS-compliant. Chi tip v nhng bin php bo mt ny c th tham kho thm ti liu [10]

7.7 Tnh hnh trin khai ti Vitnam


u nm 2006, th tng chnh ph cho php cc tng cng ty vin thng Vit Nam: Tng cng ty vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT), Tng cng ty truyn thng a phng tin (VTC), cng ty c phn vin thng FPT Telecom, tng cng ty vin thng qun i Viettel trin khai cc dch v Wimax.
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Hin nay, tp on bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT) v mt s doanh nghip khc ang trong giai on tch cc trin khai th nghim cng ngh Wimax ti H Ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh, Nng, Bc Ninh v Lo Cai. VDC hp tc cng Intel kho st mt bng v lp t thit b ti Lo Cai cho h thng Fixed Wimax, h thng th nghim bao gm mt trm pht sng BTS v modem khng dy ti 20 trm u cui tip nhn dch v c phn b nhiu a phng. L cng b giai on th nghim chnh thc c t chc vo thng 10/2006. Hai dch v c th nghim l Internet bng thng rng v in thoi VoIP. V pha FPT Telecom, lnh o doanh nghip ny cho bit, FPT s cung cp c hai dng Mobile Wimax v Fixed Wimax cc di tn 2,3 GHz v 3.3 GHz. Hin nay, FPT ang trong giai on la chn thit b, th nghim k thut v nghin cu cc d n tin th nghim. V pha Viettel Internet cho bit h s th nghim Mobile Wimax bi v Fixed c th nghim thnh cng nhiu nc. Bn nh cung cp Vit Nam hin ti (VNPT, FPT, VTC v Viettel) ch ang c cp php th nghim dch v Wimax c nh, trn tn s 3.3GHz n 3.4GHz. D kin, trong nm 2007, B BCVT s cp php cung cp dch v Wimax di ng. Wimax di ng mi l trin vng ln nht ca Wimax. Vi cng ngh ny, ngi dng u cui c th c s dng Internet tc cao ln n 1Mbps, ti bt k ni no trong vng ph sng bn knh rng nhiu km. Thit b u cui ca dch v Wimax di ng c th l cc card PCMCIA, USB, hoc c tch hp sn vo trong con chip my tnh (kiu nh cng ngh Centrino ca Intel). Hin nay, ti Vit Nam ang tin hnh d n th im Fixed Wimax 802.16 - 2004 Rev.d vi tn s 3,3 GHz - 3,4 GHz ti Lo Cai do cng ty in ton v truyn s liu (VDC) hp tc cng C quan hp tc pht trin quc t Hoa K ti Vit Nam (USAID). Nhng ng dng cng ngh v tuyn bng rng th h mi s c cung cp th im trong 6 thng (t thng 7 n thng 12), trong s dng mt trm pht chnh v khong 20 trm kt ni dn dng. C 18 a im ti Lo Cai c la chn tham gia th nghim gm 6 trng hc, mt s c s y t, im bu in vn ho x, y ban x, doanh nghip va v nh v mt gia nh nng dn cha tng tip xc vi cng ngh hin i. Cc dch v c a vo th nghim l thoi v Internet tc cao. D n c tng chi ph khong 500.000 - 600.000 USD, trong USAID h tr 250.000 USD. Theo nh cung cp dch v, cc chng trnh khc cng ang trong giai on lp k hoch s dng v tinh kt ni, m rng Wimax n nhng vng xa kh n bng ng b. S hp tc ny l mt phn ca chng trnh bng thng rng chu (Asian Broadband Campaign - ABC) ca Intel. Hng s cung cp kin thc su rng v bng thng rng v tuyn, cng ngh silicon v cc dch v cng ngh cho cc chnh ph, nhng nh qun l thng tin lin lc, cc c quan thuc lnh vc gio dc, y t v nng nghip cng nh nhng nh cung cp vin thng nhm gip chun b v thc hin th
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nghim cng ngh Wimax. So vi cng ngh hu tuyn th mng v tuyn c chi ph thp v xy dng nhanh hn, do nhng nh cung cp dch v c th linh ng hn trong vic mang n cho cc cng ng thiu dch v ny mt nn kinh t tri thc hin i ton cu vi mc chi ph va phi. Vic th nghim c tin hnh trn hai lnh vc. Truy nhp Internet tc cao da trn mng Wimax v ng dng gi in thoi qua giao thc IP. C th v phng n th nghim cng nh kt qu th nghim c th tham kho thm ti liu [10]

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TI LIU THAM KHO


[1]. Albert Azzam v Niel Ransom, Broad band Access Technologies, McGrawHill,1999. [2]. Roger L. Freeman, Fundamentals of Telecommunications, Second Edition , John

Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2005. [3]. Thomas Starr, Massimo Sorbara, John M. Cioffi, Peter J. Silverman, DSL

Advances, Prentice Hall , 2002. [4]. Philip Golden, Herv Dedieu, Krista Jacobsen, Fundamentals of DSL Technology,

Taylor & Francis Group, 2006. [5]. Nguyn Vit Hng, Cng ngh ADSL, Bi ging TTTBCVT 1, nm 2004, 2005,

2006. [6]. Shlomo Ovadia, Broadband Cable TV Access Networks: from technologies to

applications, Prentice Hall, 2001. [7]. Halid Hrasnica Abdelfatteh Haidine Ralf Lehnert, Broadband Powerline

Communications Networks, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004. [8]. Savo G. Glisic, Advanced Wireless Networks 4G Technologies, John Wiley and

Sons, Jun.2006. [9]. David Tse, Pramod Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication,

Cambridge University Press, 2005. [10]. Nguyn Vit Hng, Cng ngh truy nhp bng rng Wimax, Bi ging Trung Tm o To Bu chnh Vin thng I, thng 10 nm 2006. [11]. Chinlon Lin, Broadband Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home Systems Technologies and Deployment Strategies, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006. [12]. Thomas Hardjono, Lakshminath R. Dondeti, Security in Wireless LANs and MANs, Artechouse, 2004. [13]. Glen Kramer,Ethernet Passive Optical Networks, Mc Graw Hill, 2005.

[14]. V Tr Trung, Trin khai v ng dng WLAN, n tt nghip- Hc vin CNBCVT, 2005.
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[15]. T Tin Quang, Wimax v ng dung, ti SVNCKH, Hc vin CNBCVT, 2006 [16]. Nguyn Thy ip, Cng ngh Wimax, n tt nghip i hc, Hc vin CNBCVT, 2006. [17]. Nguyn Qu S, Nguyn Vit Cng, K thut mng v cung cp dch v ADSL, Ti liu ging dy, Hc vin CNBCVT, thng 4 nm 2003.

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