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MC LC

1.3.1..............................................................................................................
1.3.2. EPON.................................................................................- 10 1.3.3. WDM-PON........................................................................- 10 1.3.4. Nhn xt............................................................................- 11 1.1. Kt lun.....................................................................................- 13 -

CHNG 2. CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG GPON - 15 2.1. Gii thiu chung........................................................................- 15 2.2. Tnh hnh chun ha GPON.......................................................- 15 2.3. Kin trc GPON........................................................................- 17 2.4. Thng s k thut......................................................................- 23 2.5. K thut truy nhp v phng thc ghp knh.......................- 24 2.5.1. K thut truy nhp............................................................- 24 2.5.2. Phng thc ghp knh....................................................- 25 2.6. Phng thc ng gi d liu..................................................- 26 2.7. nh c v phn nh bng tn ng:.......................................- 27 2.8. Bo mt v m ha sa li.......................................................- 32 2.9. Kh nng cung cp bng thng.................................................- 33 2.10. Kh nng cung cp dch v.....................................................- 34 - 211 Mt
s vn cn quan tm trong tnh ton thit k mng GPON.....- 36 2.12. Kt lun..................................................................................- 37 CHNG 3. TRIN KHAI GPON TRN MNG VIN THNG H NI - 39 3.1. Hin trng mng truy nhp bng rng ca Vin thng HN....- 39 3.2. Mc ch xy dng mng GPON:............................................- 43 3.3. Kho st nhu cu s dng cc dch v mng cp quang ca khch hng
trn a bn TP H ni:...........................................................................- 45 3.3.1. Nhu cu dch v vin thng ca cc c quan ng, Chnh ph - 45 3.3.2. Nhu cu dch v vin thng ca khi cc doanh nghip, t chc, gio
dc o to ...................................................................................... - 46 3.3.3. Nhu cu ca ni b Vin thng H ni...........................- 47 3.4. Xy dng cu trc mng GPON Vin thng H ni:..............- 48 3.4.1. Nguyn tc xy dng mng:............................................- 48 3.4.2. Xy dng mng cho VNPT H ni:.................................- 52 -

3.5. xut dch v trin khai trn mng GPON VTHN:.............- 66 3.5.1. Dch v IPTV:...................................................................- 66 3.5.2. Dch v truy nhp Internet tc cao.............................- 66 3.5.3. Dch v kt ni VPN:.......................................................- 67 3.5.4. Dch v kt ni mng im - a im:...........................- 67 -

CHNG 4. KT LUN V HNG NGHIN CU TIP THEO - 68 4.1. Kt lun.....................................................................................- 68 4.2. Hng nghin cu tip theo.....................................................- 69 TI LIU THAM KHO................................................................- 70 PH LC 1: Tng hp thit b GPON nm 2009-2010 ca Vin thng H ni
(H ni c).....................................................................................................
PH LC 2: Tng hp thit b GPON nm 2009-2010 ca Vin thng H ni
(KV H Ty c)..............................................................................................
DANH MC CC HNH V, BNG S LIU 7
Hnh 1-1: M hnh mng quang th ng.........................................- 7 Hnh 1-2: Cc kiu kin trc ca PON.............................................- 8 Hnh 2-1: Kin trc mng GPON....................................................- 17 Hnh 2-2: Cc khi chc nng ca OLT..........................................- 19 Hnh 2-3: Cc khi chc nng ca ONU........................................- 20 Hnh 2-4: Cc b ghp 8x8 c to ra t cc b ghp 2x2..........- 21 Hnh 2-5: Cu trc c bn mng cp quang thu bao....................- 22 Hnh 2-6: TDMA GPON..................................................................- 25 Hnh 2-7: GPON Ranging pha 1.......................................................- 28 Hnh 2-8: GPON Ranging pha 2.......................................................- 29 Hnh 2-9: Bo co v phn b bng thng trong GPON..................- 31 Hnh 2-10: Th tc cp pht bng thng trong GPON...................- 32 Hnh 3-1: Cu trc mng MAN-E ca Vin thng H ni............- 41 Bng 3-2: Bng ch s bng thng..................................................- 55 Bng 3-3: Tnh ton bng thng chi tit cho mng GPON Vin thng H ni - 56 Bng 3-4: Danh sch cc trm OLT - GPON..................................- 58 Bng 3-5: S lng thit b ti khu vc H Ni (c)...................- 61 Bng 3-6: S lng thit b ti khu vc H Ty (c)....................- 62 Hnh 3-7: Cu trc mng FTTx- GPON ca Vin thng H ni...- 64 -

Hnh 3-8: Cu trc mng FTTx-GPON khu vc inh Tin Hong


CC THUT NG VIT TT
Ch vit
tt
ADM

Ting Anh

- 65 -

Ting Vit

Add Drop Multiplexer

B ghp knh xen r

ATM

ATM Passive Optical Network


Asynchronous Tranfer Mode

Mng quang th ng dng


ATM
Ch truyn ti khng ng

AUI

Attchment Unit Interface

b
Cp ni vi thit b

BER

Bit Error Rate

T l bit li

Capex

Capital Expenditrure

Chi ph u t ban u

APON

CDM
CE
CIR
CO
CRC
CSMA/CD

Code Division Multiplexing


Customer Equipment
Constant Information Rate
Central Office
Cyclic Redundancy Check

Ghp knh theo m


Thit b khch hng
Tc thng tin tt nht
Tng i trung tm
Kim tra vng d

Carrier sense Multiple access


collision
detect
Destination
Address

a truy nhp cm nhn sng


mang/tch
a ch chxung t

Data Communications
Equipment
Digital Crossconect

Thit b thng tin s liu


Si tn sc phang

DLC

Dispersion Flattened single


Mode
Digital Loop Carrier

DSL

Digital Subcriber Loop

Vng thu bao s

DSSM

Dispersion Shifted Single


Mode
Data Terminal Equipment

Si tn sc dch chuyn
Ghp bc sng vi mt cao

E-LAN

Dense Wavelength Division


Multiplexing
Ethernet Local Area Network

E-Line

Ethernet Line

ng Ethernet

EMS

Element Management System

Phn t qun l h thng

DA
DCE
DCS
DFSM

DTE
DWDM

B ni cho s
Sng mang vng s

Thit b u cui s liu


Mng LAN Ethernet

EPON
EVC

Ethernet Passive Optical


Network
Ethernet Virtual Connection

FCS

Frame Check Sequence

FDM
FSAN

Frequency Division
Multiplexing
Full Service Access Network

FTTB

Fiber to the Building

FTTC

Fiber to the Curb

FTTH

Fiber to the Home

HFC
IFG

Hybrid Fiber Coax Television


System
Inter Frame Gap

IP

Internet Protocol

IPG

Inter Packet Gap

ISO
LAN

International Organization for


Standardization
Local
Area Network

LLC

Logical Link Control

LMDS
LTE

Local MultiPoint Disttribution


System
Line Terminal Equipment

MAC

Medium Access Control

MAN

Metro Area Network

MAU

Media Access Unit

MDI

Medium Dependent Interface

MEF

Metro Ethernet Forum

MEN

Metro Ethernet Network

MIB

Management Information
Base
Medium Independent

MII

Mng quang th ng dng Ethernet


Kt ni o Ethernet Dy bit kim
tra khung Ghp knh theo tn s
Tp dch v mng truy nhp
Cp quang ni n to nh
Cp quang ni n cm dn c

Cp quang ni tn nh
H thng phn phi tn hiu
truyn hnh lai ghp cp
quang-cp ng trc
Khong cch gia hai khung
lin k Giao thc Internet
Khong cch hai gi lin k
T chc tiu chun quc t
Mng ni b
iu khin lin kt logic
H thng phn b a im
cc b
Thit b kt cui ng dy
iu khin truy nhp mi
trng
Mng din rng
Khi truy nhp mi trng
Giao din c lp mi trng
Din n v Ethernet trong
mng din rng
Mng din rng dng
Ethernet C s thng tin
qun l
Giao din ph thuc mi
trng

Interface
MMDS
Multi Channel Multi Point distribution System
H thng phn b a knh, a im
MPCP
MultiPoint Control Protocol
Giao thc iu khin a im
MPLS
Multi Protocol Label Switching
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
NIC
Network Interface cards
Card giao din mng
NLP
Normal Link Pulse
Xung bo hiu lin kt bnh thng
OLT
Optical Line Terminal
Thit b kt cui ng quang
ONU
Optical Network Terminal
Thit b kt cui mng quang
PCS
Physical Coding Sublayer
Lp con m ho vt l
PDU
Protocol Data Units
n v s liu giao thc
PMA
Physical Layer Attachment
Truy nhp lp vt l
PMD
Physical Medium Dependent
Ph thuc mi trng vt l
PON
Passive Optical Network
Mng quang th ng
PVC
Permanent virtual Circuit
Mch o bn c nh
SA
Source Address.
a ch ngun
SFD

Start of Frame Delimiter


Ranh gii bt u khung
SME
Station Management Entity
Thc th qun l trm
SMF
Single Mode Fiber
Si quang n mode
SSM
Standard Single Mode
Si n mode chun
TCP
Transport Control Protocol
Giao thc iu khin truyn ti
TDM
Time Division Multiplexing
Ghp knh theo thi gian
UNI
User Network Interface
Giao din mng-ngi dng
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Cp trn xon i
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network
Mng LAN o
VPN
Virtual Private Network
Mng ring o
WAN
Wide Area Network
Mng din rng
WDM
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Ghp knh theo bc sng

LI NI U
VNPT hin l nh cung cp dch v vin thng hng u vi h
tng mng li rng khp c nc v cung cp nhiu loi dch v
vin thng. Mng truy nhp bng rng hin ti ca VNPT ch y u
da trn h tng mng truy nhp cp ng s dng cng ngh xDSL,
v c bn mi ch p ng cho cc dch v truy nhp tc di 2
Mbit/s. S pht trin ca cc khu vc kinh t nh: khu cng nghip,
khu cng ngh cao, khu thng mi, chung c cao cp, ... cng v i s
pht trin ngy cng ln mnh ca cc t chc kinh t nh: ngn hng,
kho bc, cng ty, ... to ra nhu cu rt ln trong vic s dng cc
dch v tin ch tch hp thoi, hnh nh v d liu. Bn cnh , cc
dch v ng dng trn Internet ngy cng phong ph v pht trin vi
tc nhanh chng nh cc dch v mua bn trc tuyn, ngn hng,
cc dch v o to t xa, game trc tuyn, c bit nhu cu v
cc loi dch v gia tng tch hp thoi, hnh nh v d li u ang ngy
cng tng. S pht trin ca cc loi hnh dch v mi, i hi h t ng
mng truy nhp phi p ng cc yu cu v bng thng rng, t c
truy nhp cao. Cng ngh truy nhp cp ng in hnh nh xDSL
c trin khai rng ri, tuy nhin nhng hn ch v c ly v tc
khng p ng c yu cu dch v. V vy nghin cu tri n khai
cc gii php truy nhp quang l vn cp thit hin nay nhm xy
dng h tng mng truy nhp p ng cung cp cc dch v bng rng
cht lng cao. Qua cng t ra nhng vn cn gii quy t cp
bch i vi mng truy nhp ca VNPT. Do vy, nghin cu trin khai
gii php truy nhp mi nhm chim lnh th trng dch v mi l rt
cn thit i vi VNPT.
Cng ngh truy nhp quang th ng GPON c ITU chun
ha, hin nay l mt trong nhng cng ngh c u tin la chn cho

trin khai mng truy nhp ti nhiu nc trn th gii. GPON l cng
ngh hng ti cung cp dch v mng y , tch hp thoi, hnh
nh v s liu vi bng thng ln tc cao. Do v y GPON s l
cng ngh truy nhp la chn trin khai hin ti v tng lai.
GPON chnh l gii php ph hp nht i vi h t ng m ng hi n
ti ca VNPT v ngy 23/7/2008, VNPT c quyt nh s 2039/QVT v/v Trin khai mng truy nhp quang th ng (GPON).
Lun vn Nghin cu trin khai cng ngh GPON trn mng Vi n
thng H ni nhm mc ch tm hiu nhng c im k thut c
bn ca cng ngh GPON, qua xut cu hnh mng GPON ca
Vin thng H ni. Lun vn thc hin gm 04 chng:
Chng 1 trnh by tng quan v mng PON v gii thiu v cc h
thng PON hin ang c trin khai.
Chng 2 trnh by tng quan v cng ngh GPON, trong nghin
cu cc vn v cu trc khung, nh c v phn nh bng tn ng
l cc vn trng tm. Chng 3 l cc xut v m hnh t chc
mng GPON cho VNPT H ni.
Cui cng l phn kt lun v hng nghin cu tip theo ca lun
vn.
CHNG 1. TNG QUAN V MNG QUANG TH NG
(PON)

1.1. M u

Mng vin thng thng c cu thnh bi ba mng chnh:


mng ng trc, mng pha khch hng v mng truy nh p. Trong
nhng nm gn y, mng ng trc c nhng bc pht trin nh y
vt do s xut hin ca cc cng ngh mi, nh cng ngh ghp knh
theo bc sng (WDM). Cng trong khong thi gian ny, mng ni

ht (LAN) cng c ci tin v nng cp t tc 10 Mb/s ln


100 Mb/s, v n 1 Gb/s. Thm ch, cc s n ph m Ethernet 10 Gb/s
cng bt u xut hin trn th trng. iu ny dn n mt
s chnh lch rt ln v bng thng gia mt bn l mng LAN tc
cao v mng ng trc v mt bn l mng truy nhp tc
thp, m chng ta vn thng gi l nt c chai (bottleneck) trong
mng vin thng. Vic bng n lu lng Internet trong thi gian va
qua cng lm trm trng thm cc vn ca mng truy nhp tc
thp. Cc bo co thng k cho thy lu lng d liu tng 100%
mi nm k t nm 1990. Thm ch, s kt hp gia cc yu t kinh
t v cng ngh to ra nhng thi im m tc pht trin t
ti 1000% trong mt nm (vo nhng nm 1995 v 1996). Xu hng
ny vn s cn tip tc trong tng lai, tc l cng ngy s cng c
nhiu ngi s dng trc tuyn v nhng ngi s dng trc
tuyn th thi gian trc tuyn s cng nhiu hn, do vy nhu cu v
bng thng li cng tng ln. Cc nghin cu th trng cho th y rng,
sau khi nng cp ln cng ngh bng rng, thi gian trc tuy n c a
ngi s dng tng ln 35% so vi trc khi nng c p. L u l ng
thoi cng tng ln, nhng vi tc thp hn nhiu, khong 8% mi
nm. Theo hu ht cc bo co phn tch, lu lng ca d liu hin
nay vt tri hn rt nhiu so vi lu lng thoi. Cng ngy s
cng c nhiu dch v v cc ng dng mi c trin khai khi bng
thng dnh cho ngi s dng tng ln. ng trc tnh hnh , mt
s cng ngh mi c a ra nhm p ng nhng i hi v
bng tn.

Hin ti, cc nh cung cp dch v trin khai cung cp dch v


Internet bng cng ngh ng dy thu bao s DSL. DSL s dng i
dy ging nh dy in thoi, v yu cu phi c mt modem DSL
t ti thu bao v DSLAM t ti tng i. Tc d li u c a DSL
nm trong khong t 128 Kb/s n 1,5 Mb/s. Mc d tc ca n
tng ng k so vi modem tng t, nhng kh c th c coi l
bng rng do khng cung cp c cc dch v video, thoi, d liu
cho cc thu bao xa. Khong cch t tng i n theo bao ch trong
phm vi 5,5 km. Ta c th tng khong cch ny bng gii php trin
khai thm nhiu DSLAM n gn thu bao, nhng y l mt gii
php khng hiu qu do chi ph qu cao.
Mt gii php khc c a ra l s dng cp modem. Cc cng
ty cp TV cung cp cc dch v Internet bng cch trin khai cc dch
v tch hp d liu trn mng cp ng trc, m ban u c thit
k truyn dn tn hiu video tng t. V d, mng HFC s c si
quang ni t cc u dn hay cc hub n cc nt quang, v t cc nt
quang s phn chia n cc thu bao thng qua cp ng trc, b lp
v cc b ghp/tch. Tuy nhin, m hnh kin trc ny c nhc im
l thng lng hiu dng ca cc nt quang khng qu 36 Mb/s, v vy
tc thng rt thp vo nhng gi cao im.
Nh vy, chng ta thy rng c cng ngh DSL v cp modem u
khng p ng c nhng yu cu v bng thng cho mng truy
nhp. Hu ht cc nh cng ngh mng hin nay u ang tin ti
mt cng ngh mi, tp trung ch yu vo truyn ti d li u, c
bit l d liu IP. Trong bi cnh , cng ngh PON s l mt gii
php ti u cho mng truy nhp bng rng. Ngi ta trng i mng

PON s gii quyt c cc vn tc nghn bng thng ca mng


truy nhp trong kin trc mng vin thng, gia mt bn l cc nh
cung cp dch v CO, cc im kt cui, cc im truy nhp v mt
bn l cc cng ty c cung cp dch v, hay mt khu vc tp trung
cc thu bao.
Mng quang th ng c th nh ngha mt cch ngn gn nh
sau: Mng quang th ng (PON) l mt mng quang khng c cc
phn t in hay cc thit b quang in t.
Nh vy vi khi nim ny, mng PON s khng cha bt k m t
phn t tch cc no m cn phi c s chuyn i in - quang. Thay
vo , PON s ch bao gm: si quang, cc b chia, b kt h p, b
ghp nh hng, thu knh, b lc,... iu ny gip cho PON c mt
s u im nh: khng cn ngun in cung cp nn khng b nh
hng bi li ngun, c tin cy cao v khng cn ph i b o d ng
do tn hiu khng b suy hao nhiu nh i vi cc phn t tch cc.
Mng PON ngoi vic gii quyt cc vn v bng thng, n
cn c u im l chi ph lp t thp do n tn dng c nh ng s i
quang trong mng c t trc. PON cng d dng v thun tin
trong vic ghp thm cc ONU theo yu cu ca cc d ch v , trong khi
vic thit lp thm cc nt trong mng tch cc kh ph c t p do
vic cp ngun ti mi nt mng, v trong mi nt mng u cn c
cc b pht li.
PON c th hot ng v ch khng i xng. Chng hn, mt
mng PON c th truyn dn theo lung OC-12 (622 Mbits/s) ng
xung v truy nhp theo lung OC-3 (155 Mbits/s) ng ln. Mt
mng khng i xng nh vy s gip cho chi ph ca cc ONU gim
i rt nhiu, do ch phi s dng cc b thu pht gi thnh thp hn..

PON cn c kh nng chng li cao (cao hn SONET/SDH). Do cc nt


ca mng PON nm bn ngoi mng, nn tn hao nng lng trn cc nt
ny khng gy nh hng g n cc nt khc. Kh nng mt nt m t nng
lng m khng lm ngt mng l rt quan trng i vi mng truy nhp,
do cc nh cung cp khng th m bo c nng lng d phng cho t t
c cc u cui xa.
Vi nhng l do nh trn, cng ngh PON c th c coi l mt gii
php hng u cho mng truy nhp. PON cng cho php tng thch vi cc
giao din SONET/SDH v c th c s dng nh mt vng thu quang
thay th cho cc tuyn truyn dn ngn trong mng th hay mch vng
SONET/SDH ng trc.
1.2. Kin trc ca PON

Cc phn t th ng ca PON u nm trong mng phn b quang


(hay cn gi l mng ngoi vi) bao gm cc phn t nh si quang, cc b
tch/ghp quang th ng, cc u ni v cc mi hn quang. Cc phn t
tch cc nh OLT v cc ONU u nm u cui ca PON. Tn hiu
trong PON c th c phn ra v truyn i theo nhiu si quang hoc
c kt hp li v truyn trn mt si quang thng qua b ghp quang,
ph thuc vo tn hiu l i theo hng ln hay hng xung ca PON.
PON thng c trin khai trn si quang n mode, vi cu hnh cy l
ph bin. PON cng c th c trin khai theo cu hnh vng ring cho cc
khu thng mi hoc theo cu hnh bus khi trin khai trong cc khu trng
s,... M hnh mng quang th ng vi cc phn t ca n c biu din
nh trong Hnh 1-1: M hnh mng quang th ng.

Thoi, d liu,

rNTT I 1'

Cng t thng mi

Hnh 1-1: M hnh mng quang th ng


V mt logic, PON c s dng nh mng truy nhp kt ni im - a
im, vi mt CO phc v cho nhiu thu bao. C mt s cu hnh k t
ni im-a im ph hp cho mng truy nhp nh cu hnh cy, cy v
nhnh, vng ring, hoc bus nh trong Hnh 1-2: Cc kiu kin trc ca
PON.
Bng cch s dng cc b ghp 1:2 v b chia quang 1:N, PON c th
trin khai theo bt c cu hnh no trong cc cu hnh trn. Ngoi ra, PON
cn c th thu gn li thnh cc vng ring kp, hay hnh cy, hay mt nhnh
ca cy. Tt c cc tuyn truyn dn trong PON u c thc hin gia
OLT
v ONU. OLT nm CO v kt ni mng truy nhp quang vi mng th
(MAN) hay mng din rng (WAN), c bit n nh l nhng mng
ng
trc. ONU nm ti v tr u cui ngi s dng(FTTH hay FTTB hoc
FTTC).

3^3

ONU5
(c) Kin trc vng ring (s dng b ghp 2x2)

Hnh 1-2: Cc kiu kin trc ca PON.


ONU5
(d) Kin trc hnh cy vi mt
trung k tha(s dng b chia
2:N)
Trong cc cu hnh trn, cu hnh cy 1:N nh Hnh 1-2: Cc ki u ki n trc
ca PON.^
(a) , hay cu hnh cy v phn nhnh Hnh 1-2: Cc kiu kin trc ca
PON.
(b)
Kinr
trc bus
(b) c s dng ph bin nht. y l nhng c
m do, ph
(suhnh
dng btmghp
1:2)
hp
vi nhu cu pht trin ca thu bao, cng nh nh ng i hi ngy cng tng
v bng thng.
1.3. Cc h thng PON ang c trin khai
1.3.1. APON/BPON

T nm 1995, 7 nh khai thc mng hng u th gii l p nn nhm


FSAN (Full Service Access Network) vi mc tiu l thng nht cc tiu ch
cho mng truy nhp bng rng. Hin nay cc thnh vin ca FSAN tng
ln n trn 40 trong c nhiu hng sn xut v cung cp thit b vi n
thng ln trn th gii.

Cc thnh vin ca FSAN pht trin mt tiu ch cho mng truy nhp
PON s dng cng ngh ATM v giao thc lp 2 ca n. H th ng ny
c gi l APON (vit tt ca ATM PON). Ci tn APON sau c
thay th bng BPON vi din t PON bng rng. H th ng BPON c
kh nng cung cp nhiu dch v bng rng nh Ethernet, Video, ng
ring o (VPL), knh thu ring, v.v... Nm 1997 nhm FSAN a cc
xut ch tiu BPON ln ITU-T thng qua chnh th c. T , cc tiu
chun ITU G.983.X cho mng BPON ln lt c thng qua
H thng BPON h tr tc khng i xng 155 Mbps h ng ln v
622 Mbps hng xung hoc tc i xng 622 Mbps. Cc h thng
BPON c s dng nhiu nhiu ni, tp trung Bc M, Nht B n
v mt phn Chu u.
1.3.2. GPON

Do c tnh cu trc ca BPON kh c th nng cp ln t c cao h n


622 Mbps v mng PON trn c s nn ATM khng ti u i vi lu
lng IP, nhm FSAN pht trin mt h thng mng PON mi t nm 2001
vi tc 1Gbps h tr c lu lng ATM v IP. Da trn cc khuyn ngh
ca FSAN, t nm 2003-2004, ITU-T chun ha mt lot cc tiu chu n
cho mng PON Gigabit (GPON) bao gm G.984.1,G.984.2 v G.984.3.
Chun GPON hin nay c nh ngha da trn cc giao thc c bn
ca chun SONET/SDH ITU. Cc giao thc ca n kh n gin v i hi
rt t th tc. Chnh v th m hiu sut bng thng ca GPON t ti hn
90%.
Cc u im ca GPON : Cung cp dch v b ba: h tr cc dch v m
thanh, d liu v video truyn theo nh dng gc ca n. Rt nhiu cc
dch v Ethernet nh QoS, VLAN, IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)
v RSTP (Rapid SpanningTree Protocol)cng c h tr. Hiu sut v tc
ng truyn cao nht: GPON h tr tc bt cao nht t trc ti nay

vi tc hng xung/ hng ln tng ng 2,488/1,244 Gbit/s.


GPON cung cp rng bng ln cha tng c t trc ti nay v l cng
ngh ti u cho cc ng dng ca FTTH v FTTB.
Hin nay cng nh trong tng lai GPON l cng ngh ph hp cho
vic truyn thng Ethernet/IP vi vic h tr truyn ting ni v video qua
PON bng vic s dng giao thc SONET/SDH
1.3.3. EPON

Nm 2001, IEEE thnh lp mt nhm nghin cu Ethernet in the First


Mile (EFM) vi mc tiu m rng cng ngh Ethernet hin ti sang mng
truy nhp vng, hng ti cc mng cc mng n nh thu bao hoc cc
doanh nghip vi yu cu vn gi cc tnh cht ca Ethernet truy n th ng.
Ethernet PON c bt u nghin cu trong thi gian gian ny.
Ethernet PON (EPON) l mng trn c s PON mang lu lng d li u
gi trong cc khung Ethernet c chun ha theo IEEE 802.3. S dng m
ng truyn 8b/10B v hot ng vi tc 1Gbps.
1.3.4. WDM-PON

Cng ngh mng quang th ng s dng ghp knh phn chia theo
bc sng Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network
(WDM PON) l th h k tip ca mng truy nhp quang v cho bng
thng ln nht. TDMPON (bao gm BPON, GPON v GEPON) s d ng cc
b chia cng sut quang th ng, hng xung l qung b v ONU nh n
d liu ca mnh thng qua nhn a ch nhng, hng ln s dng ghp
knh trong min thi gian. WDMPON s dng cc b ghp sng WDM th
ng, hng xung mi ONU nhn d liu trn mt bc sng, h ng ln
cc bc sng khc nhau c ghp thng qua b ghp sng WDM ti
ONU. Do s dng mt bc sng cho mi ONU nn WDMPON c tnh bo
mt v tnh mm do tt hn. Cng ngh WDMPON s l s la chn ca

tng lai v l bc pht trin k tip cho cc cng ngh mng truy nh p
quang PON.
1.3.5. Nhn xt

Vo gia nhng nm 90 ca th k ny, cng ngh APON (ATM - PON)


c p dng truyn ti d liu v ting ni. Chm h n mt cht l
BPON, n s dng cu trc chuyn i ATM cc ng bin m ng. Tuy
nhin hin nay mng APON/BPON khng c quan tm pht trin do ch
h tr dch v ATM v tc truy nhp thp hn nhiu so vi cc cng
ngh hin hu khc nh GPON hay EPON.
Cc nghin cu hin nay ang tp trung vo GPON v EPON/GEPON v
y l cc cng ngh mi ha hn s c trin khai rng ri trong mng
truy nhp bng rng do cc c im vt tri ca chng so vi cc cng
ngh khc.
Trong khi GEPON ch cung cp tc truyn l 1,25 Gbit/s th GPON
li cho php t ti tc 2.448 Gbit/s. V th m ch, khi cng ngy cc nh
cung cp dch v cng c tit kim chi ph bng vic tn d ng t i a bng
thng th c v nh GEPON ang dn tr thnh m t s l a ch n khng
c nh gi cao. Vi hiu sut t 50% - 70%, bng thng c a GEPON b
gii hn trong khong 600Mbps n 900Mbps, trong khi GPON vi vi c
tn dng bng thng ti a n c th cho php cc nh cung c p d ch v
phn phi vi bng thng ln n 2300 Mbps.
Trong mt nghin cu in hnh, h thng mng GPON ca Flexlight c
th t ti hiu sut mng 93%, iu c ngha l ch c 7% r ng
bng tn c s dng cho vic quy nh cc th tc ca giao th c truy n
thng. Hiu sut ln, rng bng tn ln, GPON ha hn mang l i nhi u
li nhun cho cc nh cung cp dch v. Trong khi APON, BPON, hay
EPON li tn kh nhiu bng thng cho vic quy nh cc th tc truy n

thng. Chnh v th m hiu sut bng thng gi m i ng k . C th l


APON v BPON cn 70% v EPON cn 50%.
c chun ho theo ITU - T G.984, GPON cho php cung cp
ng truyn vi cc nh dng gc nh IP v TDM, y thc s l mt
gii php cng ngh PON t hiu qu kinh t c th s dng cho c cc
dch v gia nh cng nh l cho cc doanh nghip. Vi nhng c tnh h
tr cao nht v rng bng tiu dng c nng t 10 MHz ln 100 MHz
cho truyn d liu Internet, p ng c cc yu cu cho nhiu dng IPTV
(Internet Protocol Television),v c th h tr truyn thng c SDTV (Standard
Definition Television)v HDTV (High Definition TeleVision), GPON thc s

c nh gi l kinh t hn EPON.
Mt khc trong khi tiu chun IEEE 803.2ah ch h tr 2 l p ODN : l p
A v lp B th ITU-GT.984.2 GPON GPM h tr c lp C, l p cp cao h n.
Lp C cho php mng PON m rng c ly ti 20 Km, cung cp cho s
lng ln ngi dng cui, t ti 64 thm ch 128 ONU/ONT.
Bn cnh trong khi EPON ch h tr duy nht mt tc truyn dn i
xng 1,25/1,25 Gbps. ITU- T G.984.2 GPON GPM linh hot v bin i
c hn nhiu hn, cho php cc tc hng xung 1,25 v 2,5 Gbps,
hng ln cho php 155 Mbps, 622 Mbps hay 1,25 v 2,5 Gbps. C hai cng
ngh u nhm ti th trng truy nhp, bao gm cc ng dng Fiber-ToThe- Home v Fiber-To-The Building/Curb vi c trng l tc truy nhp
khng i xng gia hng ln v hng xung. Thm ch vi s pht
trin ca cc ng dng d liu th cng khng c nhu cu n 1,25 Gbps
trong hng ln. Trong khi GPON cho php cc nh cung cp dch v
thit lp nhng tc kt ni theo nhu cu thc t, EPON khng thc hin
c iu ny. Mc d y khng l mt vn ln v chi ph i vi kt
ni tc

cao, tuy nhin h tr 1.25 Gbps hng ln, i hi phi cung c p


laser DFP u cui v it thc quang APD t ti trung tm m ng quang
CO.
T nhng so snh trn c th thy rng GPON thch hp hn so v i
EPON trong vic lp t cc h thng mng cung cp cc kh nng d
phng cn thit h tr cho O&M, kh nng tng thch cng nh l b o
mt. y l nhng iu kin cn thit iu hnh mt mng kch c ln.
1.4. Kt lun

PON l mng truy nhp c nhiu u im trin khai cc dch v


bng rng (thoi, d liu, video) gia cc khi kt cui ng dy xa
(ONUs) v kt cui mng (OLT). Khng nh mng quang tch c c AON,
chng hn nh mng SONET/SDH, cn cc b chuyn i quang in ti
mi nt, mng quang th ng PON s dng cc b ghp v chia quang th
ng phn b lu lng quang. Mt mng PON c th tp trung l u
lng t 64 ONU n mt OLT c t tng i ni ht (CO) theo kin
trc hnh cy, bus, hoc vng ring chng li.
Ging nh mng SONET/SDH, PON l cng ngh truyn ti ca lp
mt. T trc n nay, hu ht cc vng ring quang trong mng vin thng
u s dng cc thit b truyn dn SONET/SDH. Cc vng ring ny u
s dng cc b pht li ti mi nt, vi khong cch gia cc nt c
ti u ho cho mng ng trc hay mng th, tuy nhin, y khng ph i
l s la chn tt nht cho mng truy nhp ni ht. Mng PON ngoi vi c
gii quyt cc vn v bng thng, n cn c u im l chi ph lp t
thp do n tn dng c nhng si quang trong mng c t trc. PON
cng d dng v thun tin trong vic ghp thm cc ONU theo yu c u c a
cc dch v, trong khi vic thit lp thm cc nt trong mng tch cc kh

phc tp do vic cp ngun ti mi nt mng, v trong mi nt m ng u


cn c cc b pht li.
Khng ging nh trong mng tch cc SONET/SDH, PON c th hot
ng v ch khng i xng. Chng hn, mt mng PON c th truyn
dn theo lung OC-12 (622 Mbits/s) ng xung v truy nh p theo
lung OC-3 (155 Mbits/s) ng ln. Mt mng khng i xng nh v y
s gip cho chi ph ca cc ONU gim i rt nhiu, do ch ph i s d ng cc
b thu pht gi thnh thp hn. Cn i vi mng SONET/SDH l i xng,
do trong vng ring OC-12, tt c cc card ni vi cc ADM u phi c
giao din OC-12.
Ngoi ra, mt gc no PON cn c kh nng ch ng l i cao h n
SONET/SDH. Do cc nt ca mng PON nm bn ngoi mng, nn tn
hao nng lng trn cc nt ny khng gy nh hng g n cc nt khc.
iu ny l khng th i vi mng SONET/SDH, do qu trnh pht l i
mi nt mng. Kh nng mt nt mt nng lng m khng lm ngt m ng
l rt quan trng i vi mng truy nhp, do cc nh cung cp khng th
m bo c nng lng d phng cho tt c cc u cui xa.
Vi nhng l do nh trn, cng ngh PON c coi l mt gii php y
ha hn gii quyt vn tc nghn bng thng trong mng truy nhp,
cho php trin khai cc dch v bng rng v c tnh tng tc. Trong thi
gian ngn trc mt, ng dng ca cng ngh PON c th l nh cung cp
cho cc cng ty in thoi, mng cp TV, v cho cc nh cung cp dch v
mng v tuyn. Vi vic a ra mt gii php vi gi thnh h, bng tn
cao, c kh nng chng li, cng ngh PON s l gii php tt nht cho
mng th h sau, cng nh cho mng truy nhp bng rng.