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B CHUYN I TNG T - S SIGMA-DELTA: QU TRNH RI RC HA V TO HNH NHIU LNG T SIGMA-DELTA ADC: OVERSAMPLING AND QUANTIZATION NOISE SHAPING
TS. TRN SINH BIN Khoa in - in t TB, Trng HHH Tm tt: Bi bo xem xt nguyn l hot ng v bn cht nhng qu trnh chnh bin i tn hiu trong cc b chuyn i tng t s (C TTS) th h cui mang tn gi Sigma-Delta ADC (C TTS Sigma-Delta). Abstract: The paper overviews the design concepts and the background of key signal conversion processes in last generation integrating ADCs named -ADCs.

1. t vn Trn th gi i vo thp ni n 1980 - 1990 trong lnh vc C TTS chnh xc cao xut hin s thay i th h. Trong thc t C TTS Sigma-Delta () [1, 2, 3] thay th cc b C TTS tch phn vi hai nhp, ba nhp v tch phn nhiu nhp. Cc nh sn xut hng u trn th nh: Analog Devices Inc., Texas Instruments Inc., National Semiconductor Inc., TelCom Semiconductor Inc., Intersil Inc. ... a ra cc b C TTS vi nhiu chc nng khc nhau. Trong nc hin nay cha c cng trnh nghin cu lin quan n l thuyt v phng php xy dng b C TTS . Thiu s hiu r v cu trc bn trong ca chng th kh c th ni v kh nng gp phn pht trin hng quan trng ny, thm tr ngay c vic s dng thnh tho nhng sn phm mi trong vi c thit k ng dng c th. V vy mc ch ca bi bo l nghin cu cu trc, phn tch nguyn l hot ng v a ra cc cng thc m t qu trnh chuyn i tn hi u b C TTS nhm gp phn cho cc nghin cu v ng dng n. 2. Gii thiu chung v b C TTS B C TTS c ng dng rng ri bi cc c trng trong k thut o lng ca chng. Hin nay phn gii ln nht ca b C TTS t c l 24 bit. phn gii cao v c tch hp b khuych i s b vi h s khuych i lp trnh c cho php ng dng cc b C TTS trong vic s ha trc tip cc tn hiu in p nh trong cc h thng thng tin o lng v i u khin vi cc loi cm bin khc nhau. V d nh tn hiu t cc b cm bin kiu cp nhit in, nhit in tr, tenz... Theo ch s v phn gi i th ngoi b C TTS ra khng c b C TTS no c th t c. Ngoi ra, b C TTS khng i hi kht khe chnh xc v n nh ca cc phn t tng t s dng trong chng nn cho php sn xut theo cng ngh vi mch s. S pht trin ca b C TTS khng ch theo hng nng cao chnh xc m cn theo hng gim thi gian chuyn i. V vy cc b C TTS dn dn thay th nhng loi C TTS khc t nhng lnh vc ng dng m cch y khng lu thng s dng cc b C TTS loi tch phn. Trong [1] gi i thiu s tng quan " chnh xc - s tc ng nhanh" v l nh vc ng dng ca cc loi C TTS khc nhau. C s khi nim v b C TTS c xut ti phng th nghi m Bell trong thp ni n 50, khi xy dng h thng s truyn d liu vi vic s dng phng php iu ch Delta. Vo cui nhng nm 60 cu trc b iu ch c gii thiu. Tuy nhin do c s dng b lc s bn trong chng nn vi c ch to thc t b C TTS trong mt vi mch ch c thc hin vo cui thp nin 80, khi cc b x l tn hiu (DSP) v cc vi mch s tr nn ph bin. C s khi nim thc hin b C TTS bao gm qu trnh siu ri rc ha (oversampling), to hnh nhi u (noise shaping) lng t, lc s v gi m tn s ly mu (decimation). Nhng cng on ny c s dng khng ch trong vic xy dng b C TTS m cn trong b chuyn i s - tng t (C STT ). Hai loi ny c gi chung vi t n gi cc b chuyn i d liu ( Data Converters). B iu ch c tnh cht c bit: cho php hon i gia phn gii theo bin v thi gian bin i mt cch d dng ty theo yu Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Hng hi
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cu ca bi ton t ra. Vic s dng b iu ch vi tn s cao cho php loi b bt li vo ca C TTS b lc c c tnh bin - tn s dc v khng cn n b lc "khc phc hiu ng xp chng ph" (antialiasing filter). Cn vic ng dng gii iu ch vi tn s cao cng l m gim yu cu i vi b lc san phng li ra ca b C STT. B lc s li ra ca b iu ch lm nhi m v san phng tn hiu li ra, lm gim nhiu lng t v thnh phn cc sng hi bc cao, loi tr nhiu vo vng di tn s tn hi u c ch trong qu trnh ly mu vi tn s ly mu (tn s Shannon-Nyquist). 3. S chc nng b C TTS S cu trc b C TTS c th hin trn hnh v s 1. Trn hnh v s dng mt s k hiu sau: G my pht xung vi tn s fT v bin UG, T trig, OA khuch i thut ton, INT mch tch phn, DF - b lc s, NGUN b to ngun U0, ADC1 b C TTS c phn gii thp (trn hnh v l b C TTS 1 bit), DAC b C STT c phn gi i thp (trn hnh v l b C STT 1 bit), -MODULATOR b iu ch . B C TTS hot ng nh sau: khi in p li ra UINT ca mch tch phn ln hn ngng 0 s dn n vic o cc tnh in p U0 trong b DAC v c ng b bi xung nhp t my pht xung G. Tn hi u ra ca b iu ch MODULATOR c a vo b lc s DF. Qu trnh ny c minh ha trong [2] l gi m tn s ly mu (decimation) v c thc hin bi b lc s DF. Tn hi u in p vo ux(t) v sau khong thi gian TTB = t2 t1 th kt qu qu trnh bin i s c tnh. Nhim v ca b lc s DF l gi m ng k sai s phng php lng t sinh ra bi hiu in p li ra ca mch tch phn thi im t2 v t1: UINT = UINT(t2) UINT(t1) 0. Nh vy b C TTS gm 2 phn chnh [3]: phn th nht l b iu ch -MODULATOR hot ng ng b bi xung nhp t my pht xung G vi tn s fT tng i ln; phn th hai l b lc s DF v tn hiu ra ca b DF cng chnh l tn hiu ra ca b C TTS . B lc s DF c trong thnh phn ca b C TTS lm phc tp s mch, tuy nhi n vi cng ngh vi mch ngy nay th vic thc hi n b lc s DF khng cn kh khn (c th lp trnh trn vi x l hoc trn chip PLA ma trn logic lp trnh). 4. Qu trnh ri rc ha hiu r vic hnh thnh nhiu lng t ta xem xt 3 trng hp: b C TTS thng thng vi cc gi tr tc thi; b C TTS thng thng vi siu ri rc ha (oversampling) v C TTS .
Hnh 2. S ph thuc i lng ra ca C STT (hnh 2a), sai s lng t ca b C TTS (hnh 2b) v mt xc sut phn b sai s lng t (hnh 2c)

Hnh 1. S chc nng (hnh 2a) v gin thi gian lm vic (2b) ca b C TTS .

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B C TTS vi cc gi tr tc thi: C TTS m trc tip (flash), C TTS xp x li n ti p (C TTS so snh tng bit mt), C TTS tch phn theo hai sn. S ph thuc i lng ra ca C STT c th hin trn hnh 2a, trong x l tn hiu vo, N l i lng ra. xc nh sai s lng t [1, 4] gi s code ra ca b C TTS a ti li vo ca b C STT l tng v c th hin trn hnh 2a ng c trng mi lin h gia i lng li vo ca b C TTS x v i lng li ra ca b C STT y t l vi code N. Tt c gi tr ca i lng li vo, ngoi tr nhng gi tr trng vi cc mc cho php, bin i thnh i lng li ra vi sai s lng t theo mc. Sai s ny bng hiu y x (v theo s thay i ca i lng x) nm trong khong q/2 n q/2, trong q l bc lng t (ng nt m trn hnh 2b). Trong trng hp xu nht, sai s lng t ln nht c th t ti gi tr q (ng nt chm gch trn hnh 2b). Sai s ny thng thng c gi l nhi u lng t (i vi b C TTS th lun c gi l nhiu lng t). Trn hnh 2c l mt xc sut phn b sai s lng t, gi thit l c hm phn b u v phng sai c tnh theo cng thc:
q/ 2

D() M (2 )

q / 2

2 p()d

1 q2 2 d / 2 q q 12

q/2

(1)

Phn b bin nhiu theo di gi tr tn hiu vo l ng c trng quan trng, tuy nhin lm r bn cht ca qu trnh siu ri rc ha (oversampling), ta xem xt phn b bin nhiu theo di tn s. Trn hnh 3a l m hnh b C TTS c qu trnh ri rc v lng t ha gip ta hiu r v c tnh phn b nhiu lng t theo tn s. Khi xung l m hnh b C TTS khng c nhiu lng t. li vo c tn hiu x(t) v nhiu (t) vi gi thit l nhiu trng (c ngha l mt ph cng sut S(t) khng i v tri di trong khong t 0 n ). Trn hnh 3b l mt ph cng sut nhiu trng S(t) trc qu trnh ri rc ha trong khong t 0 n 7fS/2, trong fS tn s ly mu (tn s ri rc ha). Theo l thuyt v phn tch ph, cng sut nhiu S(t) c tnh:
f gh

Hnh 3. M hnh b C TTS c qu trnh ri rc v lng t ha (hnh 3a), mt ph cng sut nhiu trng trc (hnh 4b) v sau (hnh 3c) qu trnh ri rc ha

P0 f gh

S ( f )df ,
0

(2)

trong fgh gii hn gii tn s. Nu nh trong gii tn s t 0 n fgh tp trung ton b ph S(t) th cng sut ph tnh theo cng thc (1) v (2) l nh nhau. Trn hnh 3c ch r mt ph nhiu sau qu trnh ri rc ha gim ng k so vi trc qu trnh ri rc ha trong di tn s t 0 n fS /2. Theo l thuyt, mt ph nhiu ny s tin ti 0 v gi tr ph ban u l hu hn v sau qu trnh ri rc ha s tri di t fS/2 n . Nh vy c th cho rng cng sut nhiu lng t tp trung ch yu trong khong di tn t 0 n fS/2 (xem hnh 4a - mt ph nhiu lng t b C TTS m trc tip). Theo nh l ly mu (Shannon-Nyquist) ta c th chn gii hn tn s ly mu fgh l n hn hoc bng 2 ln gii hn tn s tn hiu fTH v khi

Hnh 4. Mt ph nhiu lng t b C TTS m trc tip (hnh 4a); siu ri rc ha v lc s, khng to hnh nhiu lng t (hnh 4b); c to hnh nhiu lng t, siu ri rc ha v lc s (hnh 4c).

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ton b cng sut nhiu lng t s tp trung trong di tn t 0 n fTH. li vo b C TTS a tn hiu x(t ) X m sin 2ft , trong f tn s v bin Xm bng 1/2 di chuyn i ca b C TTS. Cng sut tn hiu c tnh theo cng thc: (3) T cng thc (1) v cng thc (3) ta tnh c t s tn hiu / nhiu SNR (Signal Noise Ratio):
2 SNR 10 lg(6 X m / q2 )

2 Px X m /2

10 lg(3 2 2 N / 2) 6,02 N 1,76 dB,


trong bc lng t q 2 X m / 2 5. To hnh nhiu lng t
N

(4)

Trn hnh 4b l mt ph nhiu lng t b C TTS vi siu ri rc ha v lc s, khng to hnh nhiu (noise shaping) lng t. Tn s ri rc ha gp k ln v bng kfS , trong fS tn s ly mu theo nh l ly mu Shannon-Nyquist nhc n trn, k - h s siu ri rc ha. V tng cng sut nhiu khng i, nn khi s dng b lc th cng sut nhiu trong di tn s tn hiu gim i k ln v t s tn hiu / nhiu:

SNR 6,02 N 1,76 10 lg k dB.

(5)

Nh vy khi tn s ly mu tng l n gp 2 ln th t s tn hiu / nhiu tng thm 3,01 dB. Trn hnh 4c l b C TTS bao gm qu trnh siu ri rc ha, lc s v to hnh nhiu (noise shaping). To hnh nhiu lng t khng ch cho php a phn ln cng sut nhiu lng t ra ngoi di tn s c ch, m cn lm gim phn cng sut nhiu cn l i trong vng tn s c ch. So snh ph nhiu trn hnh 4b v hnh 4c nh n thy kt qu ca to hnh nhiu lng t phn b cng sut nhiu thay i. gip cho vic hiu r hn, ta xem xt m hnh phi tuyn b iu ch 1 bit bc mt (hnh 5a). Bc ca b iu ch xc nh bi bc ca b lc tng t AF. phn Trn hnh 5a, b lc AF l b tch l tng vi hm truyn

S AF ( p)

1 , trong - hng s thi p

gian ca b tch phn. Nu thnh phn nhiu (t) v tn Hnh 5. M hnh phi tuyn ( hnh 5a) v m hnh hi u li ra y(t) khng tng quan vi tn hiu tuyn tnh (hnh 5b) b iu ch n gin nht. li vo x(t) th c th s dng m hnh tuyn tnh trn hnh 5b phn tch v xc nh c tnh nhiu lng t li ra ca b iu ch . Trong mt s cng trnh [5, 6] ch ra rng m hnh tuyn tnh cho kt qu kho st s thay i ca h thng v gn vi m hnh thc nghim khi tng bc ca b lc AF v tng s mc ca b lng t (ln hn hoc bng 4 bit). iu ny gi i thch bng s gim li n h tnh ca nhiu lng t v tn hi u vo khi tng bc ca b iu ch v mc ca b lng t. M hnh trn hnh 5b ph hp vi h thng thc nu m bo c s khng ph thuc tnh nhiu lng t (t) v tn hiu x(t) (khng c s nh hng ln nhau). Vi mc nh gii thch (lm r) ngha ca to hnh nhi u (noise shaping) lng t, ta cho rng nhiu c dng nhiu trng. Theo l thuyt iu khin t ng, trong trng hp ny ta c hm truyn bi tc ng ca tn hiu x(p):

S x ( p)

S AF ( p ) 1 1 S AF ( p ) 1 p

(6)

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V hm truyn bi tc ng ca nhiu lng t (t):

S ( p)

1 1 S AF ( p)
1

p 1 p

(7)

Thay p = j ta nhn c c tnh bin -pha:

S x ( j ) S ( j )

1 2 2 1 2 2

(8)

(9)

T cng thc (8) nhn thy khi tin ti 0, h s truyn tn hiu c ch tin ti 1; t cng thc (9) nhn thy khi tin ti 0, h s truyn ca nhiu tin ti 0. Khi tn s tng, h s truyn tn hiu c ch tin ti 0 v h s truyn ca nhiu tin ti 1. Tm li, b iu ch l b lc tn s thp i vi tn hiu c ch v l b lc tn s cao i vi nhiu. Nh qu trnh siu ri rc ha v b lc tng t AF trong b iu ch , phn ln cng sut nhiu b a ra ngoi gii hn gii tn s c ch. y chnh l mu cht ca qu trnh to hnh nhiu lng t (c th hin trn hnh 4c). 6. Kt lun T cc kt qu nghin cu trn ta c th a ra mt s kt lun sau: Trn c s nghin cu, phn tch s chc nng b C TTS bi bo i su nghin cu qu trnh chuyn i tn hi u trong khu "ri rc ha" (sampling) v "siu ri rc ha" (oversampling) v a ra cng thc (5) biu din s ph thuc t s tn hiu / nhi u SNR bi h s "siu ri rc ha" k. Nh cu trc c bi t ca b i u ch (trong thnh phn c b lc tng t AF) m n c kh nng va l b lc tn s thp i vi tn hiu c ch v ng thi l b lc tn s cao i vi nhiu. Qu trnh to hnh nhiu (noise shaping) l ng t c kh nng a phn ln cng sut nhiu lng t ra ngoi di tn s c ch v ng thi lm gim phn cng sut nhiu cn l i trong vng tn s c ch. iu ny c th hin trong cng thc (8) v (9). Trong cu trc ca b C TTS gm 2 phn chnh l b iu ch v b lc s DF nn n cho php hon i gia phn gii theo bin v thi gian bi n i mt cch mm do, d dng bng cch thay i rng ca s ca b l c s thng qua lp trnh ty theo yu cu ca bi ton c th. Vi tnh nng ca b C TTS c nghin cu trn, phm vi ng dng ca b C TTS rt rng ri: trong cc h thng o lng v iu khin trong cng nghip, trong vi c s ha trc tip cc tn hiu in p nh t cc loi cm bin khc nhau, trong k thut m thanh s, truyn hnh svi yu cu chnh xc cao ca cc b C TTS. TI LIU THAM KHO: [1]. Kester W., Which ADC Architecture is Right for Your Application?, Analog Dialogue, 2005. [2]. Candy J. C., Decimation for Sigma Delta Modulation, IEEE Trans. Commun., 1984. [3]. Ed. by St. R. Norsworthy, R. Schreier, G. C. Temes, Delta-Sigma Data Converters: Theory, Design and Simulation, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996. [4]. . ., .., - : , .: , 1981. [5]. Gray R. M., Quantization Noise Spectra, IEEE Trans. on In-formation Theory, 1990. [6].Candy J. C., Benjamin O. J., The Structure of Quantization Noise from Sigma-Delta Modulation, IEEE Trans. Com-mun., 1981. Ngi phn bin: TS. Lu Kim Thnh

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